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A student project on 2-D lid driven cavity problem

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Approximating It As a 2-D Lid Driven Cavity

Shakeel Ahmed

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Institute of Space Technology

Islamabad, Pakistan

shakeel6787@gmail.com

large pressure oscillations. Many oscillations suppression

techniques have been applied with varying degrees of success in

the past. However, the understanding of why the pressure

oscillations exists or how the suppression methods work have not

been investigated as thoroughly. Advances in CFD permits

modelling of the bay environment to be performed and to reveal

details about the flow which is difficult to obtain from

experiments. In this paper, pressure distribution along the walls

of a new subsonic bomber aircraft has been analyzed in detail by

approximating the problem with a 2-D lid driven cavity flow.

Artificial Compressibility method was applied on Incompressible

Navier Stokes Equation to study the behavior of flow inside the

weapons bay. The code developed for this approach is first

validated for the well-known benchmark problem of

Computational Fluid Dynamics i.e. the 2-D lid driven cavity. The

problem was analyzed for a range of of Reynolds number and

grid independent studies was also performed. Results obtained

from the developed code match well with the benchmark results.

Finally the problem in hand of weapons bay pressure distribution

along the walls was solved with the validated algorithm. Results

obtained for the weapons bay have been discussed in detail while

identifying the location of maximum and minimum pressure

zones. Finally a recommendation is also made for optimally

placing the loads in the weapons bay.

Index Terms Artificial Compressibility, CFD, Weapons Bay,

2-D Lid Driven Cavity.

I. INTRODUCTION

Over the years aircrafts have been developed with varying

methods of weapon carriage. It has been shown that external

weapons carriage may contribute as much as 30% of the total

drag of an air vehicle and in addition, substantially increase the

radar signature of the aircraft. Motivated by these

considerations, efforts to improve aircraft and stealth

technology have led to the desire to stow weapons in an

internal cavity-type bay. Unfortunately flight experience with

aircraft equipped with internal weapons bay has shown that

high speed flow over an open bay can produce a turbulent

environment within the bay that can damage the weapon(s) or

aircraft structure. Excessive structural vibrations may occur if

the acoustic frequency matches the characteristic structural

to define this environment and means to improve or suppress

the aero-acoustic energy of the turbulent flow. In this paper,

pressure distribution along the walls of a new subsonic bomber

aircraft has been analyzed in detail. Due to the similar nature of

the weapons bay with an inverted 2-D lid driven cavity

problem, the problem in hand has been approximated by a 2-D

lid driven cavity flow. The solution to the incompressible

Navier Stokes Equations were found for the problem using the

Artificial Compressibility method. The code developed has

been tested for the well-known benchmark problem of

Computational Fluid Dynamics i.e. the 2-D lid driven cavity

and the results obtained have been compared with the results

by Ghia, Ghia and Shin. After validation of the developed

algorithm, it has been applied to solve the actual problem in

hand of finding the pressure distribution along the walls of the

internal weapons bay of a new bomber aircraft.

II. NUMERICAL METHODOLOGY

A. Governing Equations

The incompressible Navier Stokes Equations are the

governing equations to study the motion of fluids. The

equation for a 2-D case is given as below: u/t = -u2/x - uv/y - p/x + 1/Re(2u/x2 + 2v/y2) (1)

v/t = -v2/y - uv/x - p/y + 1/Re(2u/x2 + 2v/y2) (2)

u/x + v/y = 0

(3)

Artificial Compressibility methods, developed by A.

Chorin, provide a mechanism to march in pseudo-time towards

the divergence free velocity field such that the mass and

momentum are converved in the pseudo steady state. The

principle of this method lies in the introduction of an artificial

compressibility into the equations of motion in such a way that

the final results do not depend on this introduced factor. The

modified continuity equation after introduction of the artificial

compressibility factor is given as below: p/t + 1/(u/x + v/y) = 0

(4)

parameter. It is equal to the inverse of square of speed of sound

a. The introduction of this factor and the p/t term in the

continuity equation has simplified the incompressibile Navier

Stokes equations to get the required values of pressure, the u

and v components of velocity. The final non-dimensionalized

incompressible Navier Stokes equations in pseudo-transient

forms are re-written as below: u/t = 1/Re(2u/x2 + 2v/y2) - u2/x - uv/y - p/x (5)

v/t = 1/Re(2u/x2 + 2v/y2) - v2/y - uv/x - p/y (6)

p/t + a2(u/x + v/y) = 0

(7)

In order to solve the equations (5), (6) and (7) to get the

values of pressure, u and v components of velocity, the

equations were discretized using 2nd order Forward Euler

Methods (Forward in Time and Center in Space). All three

equations obtained after discretization are given below: -

(8)

(9)

C. Grid Independence Study

Grid independence study was carried out by using different

grid sizes for Reynolds number of 100. In order to compare

the values of u component and v component of velocity for

varrying grid sizes, the values of u component along the

vertical centerline at five equally spaced points were noted and

similarly the v component along the horizontal centerline at

five equally spaced points were noted. The values of u

component and v component are compared for different grid

sizes in table 1 and table 2 respectively.

TABLE I. U-VELOCITY COMPARISON FOR VARIOUS GRID SIZES

(10)

Where equation (8) will give the u component of velocity,

equation (9) will give the v component of vecolity and equation

(10) will give the pressure. Next the method and the code

developed is validated by performing validation runs as

explained in coming paragraphs.

B. Plot of Velocity Components

In order to validate the results, the u velocity distribution

along the vertical centre line and v-velocity distribution along

the horizontal centre line were plotted for Re=100 on a 81x 81

uniform grid with a tolerance limit of 10-4. The plots obtained

were compared with available results in literature and were

found to be in complete harmony with them. The plots are

shown in figure 1 and figure 2.

Grid Size

U Component of Velocity

(0.5, 0)

(0.5, 0.25)

(0.5, 0.5)

(0.5, 0.75)

(0.5, 1)

21 x 21

-0.1259

-0.1802

0.0721

41 x 41

-0.1494

-0.2031

0.0503

61 x 61

-0.1481

-0.2078

0.0384

81 x 81

-0.1443

-0.2053

0.0393

101 x 101

-0.1442

-0.2071

0.0351

Grid Size

V Component of Velocity

(0, 0.5)

(0.25, 0.5)

(0.5, 0.5)

(0.75, 0.5)

(1, 0.5)

21 x 21

0.1292

0.0217

-0.1965

41 x 41

0.1606

0.0291

-0.2268

61 x 61

0.1645

0.0526

-0.2157

81 x 81

0.1697

0.0497

-0.2272

101 x 101

0.1702

0.0610

-0.2263

It is clear from the comparison tables that the values are not

changing much after a certain grid sizes, i.e. the results for the

grid sizes are same for higher number of grid sizes.

D. Contour Plots

The horizontal and vertical velocity contours, spanwise

vorticity contours and velocity vector plots are shown in the

figures below: -

forming the center of the cavity, whereas two small secondary

vortices are also visible at the bottom right and bottom left

cornors of the cavity. Velocity vectors are also in complete

agreement with the predicted results.

E. CPU Time vs Grid Size

CPU time vs grid size was studied for Reynolds number of

100 with a tolerence of 10-4 for the grid sizes used in the grid

independence study was also carried out. The CPU time

increases with increasing grid sizes.

Fig. 3. u-Velocity Contours

Fig. 4. v-Velocity Contours

It is clear from the velocity contours that u-component of

velocity is maximum at the top where the bourdary is also

moving with the flow, whereas, at the center of the cavity it is

having the negative maximum component. Similarly, the vcomponent of velocity is pointing downwards at the right

cornor of the cavity and pointing upward in the left cornor of

the cavity which are in complete harmony with the predicted

results. Contours of spanwise vorticity and velocity vector

plots are also given in figure 5 and figure 6 respectively.

Similarly CPU time vs tolerance was also studies for

Reynolds number of 100 on a grid size of 81 x 81 with

varrying tolerence limits. The CPU time increases

exponentially with decreasing the tolerance limit. A semi-log

plot of CPU time vs tolerance is shown in figure 8.

Flow quality was studied with three different Reynolds

number (100, 400 and 1000) for a grid size of 81 x 81 and a

tolerance limit of 10-4. The contours of spanwise vorticity for

all the three different Renolds number are shown in figure 9,

10 and 11.

Results obtained for various parameters including contours of

u-component of velocity, v-component of velocity, spanwise

vorticity, vector plots are discussed in subsequent paragraphs.

A. Horizontal Velocity Contours

Horizontal velocity contours for the weapons bay is shown

in the figure below: -

Comparing the flow quality for the three different

Reynolds number, it is clear that the flow characteristics are

more prominent in the contour for Re =1000. Although all the

figures are showing one primary vortex however, as the

Reynolds number is increasing the primary vortices are getting

more refined in the center, and the secondary vortices at the

bottom right and bottom left cornors are also getting more

prominent.

maximum along the bottom of the weapons bay where the

boundary is moving along the flow. Minimum horizontal

velocity is somewhere near the center of the bay. At the

minimum horizontal velocity the negative sign of the velocity

suggests that it is actually moving in opposite direction to the

flow along the moving boundry.

B. Vertical Velocity Contours

Vertical velocity contours for the weapons bay is shown in

the figure below: -

Renolds Number

Minimum U velocity

Coordinates

100

-0.24380

(0.6375, 0.4875)

400

-0.3137

(0.6502, 0.4012)

1000

-0.3272

(0.675, 0.3875)

III. RESULTS

The numerical scheme used and the code developed has

been validated by the comparisons and studies explained in the

numerical methodology section. The actual problem in hand

i.e. to study the pressure distribution along the walls of the

intenal weapons bay was analyzed with the validated numerical

code. The only difference between the 2-D lid driven cavity

problem analyzed before and the weapons bay is that the

moving wall is now along the bottom of the cavity instead of

the top as studied before and also the horizontal length of the

weapons bay under consideration is four times as compared to

the cavity used for validation of the code. The necessary

changes in the boundary conditions and the cavity size has

been made to get the results for the weapons bay. The analysis

of the weapons bay has been run with Reynolds number of

The red colours towards the right bottom cornor of the

weapons bay suggests that the flow is moving upwards at that

location and the flow at the bottom left cornor is showing a

downward direction. This is an indication that the flow inside

the weapons bay is rotating in a conter clockwise direction.

This rotation of the flow will in turn form vortices and

turbulence inside the bay which will effect the location of

weapons deployment.

C. Vorticity Contours

Vorticity contours inside the weapons bay is shown in the

figure below: -

IV. DISCUSSION

Contours of the vorticity in figure 14 suggests a strong

primary vortice in the center and two small secondary vortices

at the top right and top left cornor of the bay.

D. Pressure Distribution Contours

Pressure contours inside the weapons bay is shown in the

figure below: -

It is clear from the pressure distribution shown in figure 15

that the maximum pressure is near the right bottom cornor of

the bay and roughly nearly uniform pressure distribution is

seen in the rest of the bay. Therefore, it may be concluded that

the weapons may be deployed in the center and towards the

forward boundary of the weapons bay avoiding the maximum

pressure zones.

E. Velocity Vector Plot

The velocity vector plot for the weapons bay under

examination is shown in the figure below: -

The velocity vector shown in figure 16 also suggests the

same location of the primary vortice at near the center of the

weapons bay. So the location of weapons bay suggested in

previous paragraph is also supported by the velocity vector

plot.

is Artificial Compressibility. The developed code was given a

series of validation run on the famous benchmark problem of

CFD i.e. 2-D lid driven cavity problem. Figure 1 and 2 shows

the u-component and v-component of velocity for the 2-D lid

driven cavity which were compared with the results available

in literature. Figure 3, 4 and 5 are the u-Before you begin to

format your paper, first write and save the content as a separate

text file. Keep your text and graphic files separate until after

the text has been formatted and styled. Do not u-velocity, vvelocity and vorticity contours. These figures suggests the

presence of a strong primary vortice in the center and two

secondary vortices at the bottom right and left cornors of the

cavity. CPU run times againts different grid sizes and tolerance

limtis are plotted in figures no 7 and 8 respectively. Finally the

validation run was performed for Renolds number of 100, 400

and 1000 as shown in figures no 9, 10 and 11 respectively.

After completion of validation runs, the actual problem of

weapons bay was analyzed with this validated algorithm. The

u-velocity contours of the weapons bay shown in figure 12

suggests the maximum velocity along the bottom wall and

negative component near the center of the cavity where the

primary vortice is forming as shown in figure 14. Analyzing

the different velocity and vorticity contours shown in figure 12,

13 and 14 and pressure contours shown in figure 15, we can

deduce that pressure along the rear boundary wall is maximum.

The weapons therefore can be deployed in the center of the bay

and towards the forward boundary wall. If deployment of

weapons near the rear boundary and the bottom surface then

the unwanted structural vibrations which may cause damage to

the weapons and the aircraft itself may be avoided to a

considerable extent.

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper numerical solutions were obtained for laminar

flow inside weapons bay, which was approximated as an

inverted 2-D lid driven cavity. The study has enabled us to

identify the maximum and minimum pressure locations inside

the weapons bay. The weapons are recommended to be loaded

towards the front and center of the cavity as these are the

minimum pressure zones. By placing the weapons in the

recommended locations will help in avoiding unnecessary

structural vibrations which would result in better aircraft

manuverability and agility.

The study can further be extended by modelling the

weapons inside the weapons bay and then performing the CFD

analysis of the weapons bay again. In this way a more realistic

study of the weapons and aircraft integration may be carried

out and also their effect on aircraft structural vibration may be

studied through numerical simulations.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to thank my classmate Mr. Afreen Abbas, who

helped me in understanding the code provided to us for the

final project. His support enabled me to better understand and

weapons bay pressure distribution problem.

REFERENCES

[1] Jason Handerson, Investigation of cavity flow aerodynamics

using Computational Fluid Dynamics Thesis submitted to

Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Glasgow,

August 2001.

[2] U. Ghia, K.N. Ghia, C.T. Shin, High Re solutions for

incompressible flow using the Navier Stoke equations and a

multi-grid method Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 48

issue 3, December, 1982, pp.387-411.

[3] Klaus A. Hoffmann, Steve T. Chiang, Computational Fluid

Dynamics vol. I, edition. IV, Engineering Education Systems,

Witicha, USA, August 2000.

[4] Alexandra Joel Chorin, A Numerical Method for Solving

Incompressible Viscous Flow Problems Journal of

Computational Physics, vol. 2, April 1967, pp.118-125.

[5] Charles-Henri Bruneau, Mazen Saad, The 2-D Lid Driven

Cavity Problem Re-visited Computers and Fluids, vol. 35 issue

3, 2006, pp. 326-348.

[6] W. D. McQuain, C. J. Ribbens, C. Y. Wang and L. T. Watson,

Steady Viscous Flow in a Trapezoidal Cavity Computers and

Fluids, vol. 23, 1994, pp. 613-626.

Moderate Reynolds Number Europeon Scientific Journal,

vol.9, May, 2003, pp.22-35.

[8] A. J. Chumkha, Hydromagnetic Combined Convection Flow in

a Vertical Lid Driven Cavity with Internal Heat Generation or

Absorption Num. Heat Transfer, Part A, vol. 41, 2002, pp. 529546.

[9] N. A. C. Sidik, S. M. R. Attarzadeh, An Accurate Numerical

Prediction of Solid Particle Fluid Flow in a Lid Driven Cavity

International Journal of Mechanics, vol. 5 issue 3, 2011, pp.

123-128.

[10] G. K. Batchlelor, On Steady Laminar Flow with Closed

Streamlines at Large Reynolds Number Journal of Fluid

Mechanics, vol. 1, 1956, pp. 177-190.

[11] S. Chen, A Large Eddy Based Lattice Boltzmann Model for

Turbulent Flow Simulation Applied Mathematics and

Computation, 2009, pp. 591-595.

[12] A. Jignesh, P. Thaker, B. Jyotirmay Banerjee, Numerical

Simulation of Flow in Lid-Driven Cavity Using OpenFOAM

International Conference on Current Trends in Technology,

Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, 03-08

December, 2011.

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