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÷ Gypsum is a mineral that is mined in various parts of
the world.
÷ The word gypsum derived from Greek word meaning
¶to cook· referred to burnt or calcined mineral.
÷ Chemically it is CaSo4;2H2O i.e. calcium sulphate
÷ Three types of gypsum products are available in
dentistry ²

Model plaster
Dental stone
High strength dental stone or die stone

Êll these types differ in their physical form ,
but have the same chemical structure.
÷ The term Plaster of Paris was given to this
product as this was obtained by burning
the gypsum from deposits near Paris ,
France .
Gypsum has variety of names
that are widely used in the mineral trade
1} Selenite
2} Satin spar
3} Êlabaster
4}Plaster of Paris

[ [
(Hydrocal, Êlpha hemihydrate)
(Die stone, Densite,Modified alpha hemihydrate)

Types of gypsum products m     .

to fill a flask in denture construction . Weakest and least expensive of all gypsum products. Making preliminary cast for CD To secure cast to articulator . This direct and rapid heating results in powder that consist of porous and irregular particles. Earlier plaster was modified for use as impression material by addition of chemicals and flavoring agents Preliminary impression of edentulous ridge in fabrication of dentures.    Impression Plaster (Type ² I) Now rarely used. [MUCOSTAIC IMPRESSION] Dental Plaster (Type ² II) Plaster of paris _àhemihydrate Model plaster Heating the gypsum powder in open container.

high strength (Type IV) Class II Stone. Used mainly for cast and dies for inlay and crown fabrication. Use for making cast for diagnostic purpose. Cast for CD and RPD construction Dental Stone. . Densite. It is strongest and most expensive. Densite is the densest of all the material. Stone is stronger and more expensive than plaster. The method releases the water of crystallization slowly and resultant powder particles are more uniform in shape and less porous.Dental Stone (Type ² III) Hydrocal Class I stone vàhemihydrate Made for gypsum by carefully controlled calcinations under steam pressure in a closed container. This calcination result in a powder particles that is very dense and cuboidal in shape. with a reduced surface area. Improved stones. Die Stone Made by calcining in calcium chloride solution.

Dental Stone. . high expansion (Type V) Same as Type IV. high strength. Added with accelerators and retarders and surface tension reducing agent like LIGNON SULFATE For making very strong dies (has highest compressive strength) this is achieved by lowering the w/p ratio and increasing the setting expansion to compensate for alloy solidification shrinkage.

V åcleavage fragments and crystals in form of rods or prisms å Higher density and more crystalline .Type III. Êlpha hemihydrate. 2.cased on crystal structure: ceta hemihydrate. åFluffy porous and least dense 1. IV. II å fibrous aggregate of fine crystals with capillary pores.Type I .

2H2O CaSO4. .w[ å CaSO4. the gypsum is ground and subjected to temperature 110-120 0C to drive off the water of crystallization and produce calcium sulphate hemihydrate .1/2 H2O CaSO4 Gypsum Plaster or Stone  à oC  ࢠoC CaSO4 Hexagonal CaSO4 Orthorhombic anhydrite anhydrite ¢ à oC å Commercially.

2H2O å boil. CaCl2 open kettle high pressure steam Type II Type III Type IV Type V .[ [ CaSO4.

surface area and degree of lattice imperfection .[  Î àhemihydrate ǀ àhemihydrate The difference between Î and ǀ hemihydrate are the result of differences in crystal size.

V) a Smaller w/p ratio hen dihydrate is heated in an open kettle or kiln.IV.Î àhemihydrate ǀ àhemihydrate hen dihydrate is heated under steam pressure a Dense & prismatic crystals a Stronger & harder products on mixing with water (type III.II) a a a Larger w/ p ratio . a Less strong products on mixing with water (Type I. a Spongy & irregularly shaped crystals.

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[ å The following reaction takes place in the hardening process CaSO4. å This chemical reaction takes place regardless of whether the gypsum material is used as impression material . or a binder in casting investment.2 H2O+ 3H2O å2(CaSO4 . å The heat evolved in the exothermic reaction is equivalent to the heat used originally in calcination.2H2O) + heat 3900Cal/g mol) å The product of the reaction is gypsum. Die material. .

  6 [  åThere is distinct difference in the solubility of hemihydrate and dihydrate. åHemihydrate is 4 times more soluble in water than dihydrate near room temp.(200c) .

s t l tt r r ci it t s t. r . å W t r c s s t r t it i y r t . till f rt i y r t r ci it t s t f s l ti . it c ti s t iss lv . å l ti is l g rs t r t it i y r t . s s si is f r t t is fl i r l .T s tti g r cti c rst s f ll s: å i y r t is ix it t r. å T is s t r t s l ti is s r s t r t it i y r t .

åThe process continues until most of the hemihydrate is converted to dihydrate. åThe crystals of dihydrate are spherulitic in nature and grow from specific growth sites called nuclei of crystallization. .

       Theories of Setting of Gypsum products å å å Colloidal Theory Hydration Theory Dissolution precipitation Theory or Crystalline Theory .

thereby entering into an active state . Ês the measured amount of water is consumed.hemihydrate particles are hydrated to form the dihydrate. plaster enters into the colloidal state through solgel mechanism . å .Colloidal Theory: hen mixed with water . the mass converts into a solid gel. In the sol state .

followed by interlocking of the crystals to form the set product .Hydration Theory å This theory suggests that rehydrated plaster particles join together through hydrogen bonding to the sulfate groups to form the set material. Dissolution precipitation Theory: by Louis Chatelier in 1885 å This theory is based on dissolution of plaster and instant recrystilization of gypsum.


å It is usually abbreviated as :P å The :P ratio is an important factor in determining the physical and chemical properties of the final gypsum product .6 6   ater/Powder ratioå The proportion of water to powder used to make a workable mix of a particular gypsum product is called water/powder ratio å It is the quotient obtained when the weight or volume of the water is divided by the weight of powder.

Particle size distribution å . Total surface area 3. Particle size 2.Chief factors that determine the amount of gauging water required are:1.

xc ss  f sr r is l ys css ry v   ric lly c rrc  rir f r yr i  ic is .´_ r t l s . 6% ´T xcss is    r l ix  c  r  s  ´T xcss r is isri  s fr r i  s ss i   ig r i c icl rci   i c ri s   s.

s r siis r v is i  s r c .

.´The proper :P ratio for each product depends on physical characteristics of powder particles ´Therefore plaster requires more measured water (gauging water) to float the irregular porous particles than the dense particles of stone ´Ê mixture of Calcium oxide (0.1 ) & Gum arabic (1 ) reduces the amount of water necessary to mix gypsum products: resulting in Improved properties.

.When the set mass is dried the excess water evaporates & leaves porosity in the structure weakening it.The excess water is distributed as free water in the set mass without taking part in the chemical reaction .

45-0.50-0.30 ´Type IV ³0.75 ´Type II ³ 0.50 ´Type III³ 0.22 .28-0.18-0.22-0.Recommended ranges of w/p ratio: ´Type I ³ 0.24 ´Type V ³0.


å Mechanical mixing:20-30 secs å Hand spatulation:1 min.  w Mixing timeå Time from addition of powder to water until mixing is completed. General 3 min working time is adequate . orking Time: The time available to use a workable mix. one that maintains an even consistency that may be manipulated to perform one or more tasks.

the time that elapses from the beginning of mixing until the materials hardens is known as setting time. using the following instrumentsVicat penetrometer Gilmore needle .Setting time hen the powder is mixed with water. This is usually measured by some type of penetration test.

Ä. L ss f gl ss s f r iiil s.
ccrs  xcss r i  ix is  

 i f r ig  iyr, s 
ix l ss is gl ss.
Tis ccrs  r x.  is.  
ss s  sr

l c rssiv
. Iiil il r s f r iiil s
Tis ccrs  r x  Ä is is i 
is r 

y fii icrs i srg.


Initial gillmore test for initial set:the mixture is spread out , the needle of ¼ lb
weight and dia of 1/12µ is lowered onto the surface
and the time at which it no longer leaves an
impression is called the O OO This time is
marked by a definite increase in strength.


Gillmore test for final setting time:this uses a heavier gillmore needle(1lb, 1/24µ). The
time elapsed when it leaves only a barely perceptible
mark on the surface is called the final setting time. It
is 45- 0 min.
It is rarely used as an indication for the ready-for-use

m .




. ic s f r sig i :i s  i.

T sig ril is i .il gg f r jgig  sig crcrisics.

sig i  is civ  l c  l gr r     f i  ril. r  l  f g . Vicat penetrometer .y  l f Ä i.

A rig c ir is fill i  ix.´ I c siss f  r  igig  g i  l f Ä- i r.  sig i  f ic is  .

W  l fils  r   . sr. T r  is l r il i c cs  srfc f  ril.   l is rls  ll   r  ix.

 f  c ir.  ril s rc  ic r  iiil sig i  .

[w6     [  .

 w .

´ .Ready for use criterion It is a subjective measure of the time at which material may be safely handled ´ Technically it is the time when compressive strength is atleast 80 of that attained at 1 hour. ´ Most modern products reach the ready to use state in 30mins.

[     w  T . f gy s r cs c .T.

 c r ll .

y fcrrs riclr f r li  cc rigly ir  fs sig r  sl sig r c c .

T s l. T riclly r r  s Ä. rcs.

iliy f  iyr c .

. icrs r crs. f cli f crysllizi  c . .

.  f crysl gr  is icrs r crs. . icrs r crs.

T. Increase in setting time (slow setting) ² å  mixing å O :P ratio å Êddition of certain chemicals called retarders. Decrease in setting time (fast setting) å O mixing å  :P ratio å Êddition of certain chemicals called accelerators.The operator can vary the S. .within reason cy altering :P ratio & mixing time.

gelatin and some gums behave in this manner.28 ) å Retarder act by forming an adsorbed layer on the hemihydrate to reduce its solubility and on the gypsum crystals to present to inhibit growth.20 ).å The operator can accelerate the setting time by adding gypsum (<.Potassium sulfate or sodium chloride(<. Organic materials like glue. Nacl when added in small quantities will act as accelerators . cUT in large quantities will act as retarder .

Other factors´Impurities ´Fineness ´Temperature .

Hence setting time increased. ´ . hence setting time is decreased.w6   Presence of set gypsum particles. shortens the setting time because of the increase in the potential nuclei of crystallization. ´ Orthorhombic anhydrite: Induction period is increased. ´ Hexagonal anhydrite: Induction period is decreased.

no reaction takes place. Temperature: ´ Little change occurs between 0*C to 50*C. ´ Êt higher temperature there is a tendency for the gypsum crystals formed to be converted back to hemihydrate form .Fineness: Finer the particle size of the hemihydrate« «faster is the set. ´ Ês the temperature approaches 100*C. ´ If temperature of the plaster exceeds 50*C then gradual retardation occurs.

.Setting Expansion ´This thrust results in an external expansion with resulting internal porosity in set mass.

E. is the addition of chemicals.[     6   ´Less the :P ratio O S.E. O mixing time O S. .E. (accelerators or retarders) ´Êccelerators or retarders have an effect of reducing setting expansion and are referred as Ênti expansion agents. ´However the most effective method for control of S.

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Eg. Thus accelerates the process.  Êccelerators : It increases the solubility of hemihydrates without increasing the solubility of dihydrate. Liquids of High pH accelerate the setting reaction while the liquids of low pH like saliva retard the setting reaction .4 K2SO4 > 2 Terra Êlba/Set calcium sulfate dihydrate. NaCl upto about 2 NaSO4 upto 3.

Retarders : Certain chemicals form a coating on the hemihydrates particles and thus prevent the hemihydrates from going into solution in the normal manner. Citrates. Êcetates. corates Colloidal system such as agar & alginate retard the setting reaction by being adsorbed on the hemihydrate or the dehydrate nucleation sites thus interfering in hydration reaction . Eg.

. the setting expansion is more than double in magnitude. ´If the setting process is allowed to occur under water. [6[   ´So far we have assumed that the plaster or stone is allowed to set in air.

begins .E. and the S. they contact each other.Stage I : Initial mix is represented by three round particles of hemihydrate surrounded by water As the crystals of dihydrate grow.

because the setting is taking place under water. .Stage II : Reaction started and crystal of dihydrate start forming ´In left. water around particles is reduced by hydration and particles are drawn more closely together by surface tension action of water. the water of hydration is replaced and distance between the particles remains the same. ´In right.

as water is again replenished. .Stage III : ´The water around particles is again decreased in the eg. ´The particles with their attached crystals tend to be drawn together as before but the contraction is opposed by the outward thrust of growing crystals. on left. ´On the other hand the crystals in right diagram are not so inhibited.

which grow much more freely during early stages before the intermeshing finally prevents the further expansion. . The crystals being inhibited on the left become intermeshed and entangled much sooner than those on right.Stage IV & Stage V: å The effect become more marked.

and both phenomenon are true setting expansion.´The basic mechanism of crystal growth is same in both instances. .E. without water immersion is often termed as Normal setting expansion (NSE) where as the expansion that occurs under water is known as Hygroscopic setting expansion (HSE) . ´To distinguish between them. S.

[    [  ´ :P ratio O HSE ´O mixing time O HSE .

´Ês seen in setting reaction the strength develops rapidly during the first 30 to 45 min as the hydration is completed.   ´The strength of gypsum products is usually measured in terms of compressive strength. å The wet strength of dental plaster is 9MPa and Improved stone is 35MPa å 1 hour tensile strength of model plaster is 2.3 MPa .


. while improved stone is strongest.´The strength depends on porosity of set material. ´Eg ² Plaster (which require the most gauging water to make a fluid mix) is the weakest. which is related to :P ratio necessary to make a workable mix.

´The presence or absence of excess of free water affects strength and two types of strength are recognized. et strength Dry strength .

ry rg : I is  srg sr   xcss f r is   rs. . å ry srg is  r r i s r    srg.W rg : I is  srg sr   s l c is s  r ll f  r is xcss f   ricl   rir f r yri .

´O mixing time O strength.[    [     ´O :P ratio  strength. ´O accelerator or retarder  strength. .

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25 requires ´ ´ Type I & Type II to reproduce a groove of 75 m Type III . . IV & V to reproduce a groove of 50 m.Detail Reproduction: ÊNSI/ÊDÊ Specification No.

6 6   w .

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[ The technical use of gypsum products is relatively simple requiring only ´Mixing bowl ´Mixing spatula ´Room-temperature water ´Êppropriate gypsum product .

å Thus. it is most important to keep the amount of water as low as possible. water and powder must be proportioned accurately for optimum properties. However it should not be so low that the mix will not flow in every detail of the impression. .6 6 å cecause the strength of a stone is indirectly proportional to the :P ratio.

a. å Volume dispensers may be used. å eighing with a scale is a simple and convenient method to ensure accurate proportions. b. . but volume dispensing of the power is not accurate because of varying packing effect on the powder. as 1 gm of water has a volume of very close to 1 ml. Measuring the Powder å The power can be weighed in grams with a simple balance or scale. Measuring the ater The water is usually dispensed by volume in a graduated cylinder.


  [ w   w    .

 [ w[ [  [[  .

   w    [   w.




  å  w  w  6.


as it may cause an uneven set in the cast. ´ Guess work of repeatedly adding water and powder to achieve proper consistency is to be avoided.w w ´ The preferred method of mixing is to add the measured water first. resulting in low strength and distortion. followed by the gradual sifting of the pre weighed powder into it. ´Hand mixing involves using spatula at a rate of 2 revolutions /sec. .

workable and free of air bubbles. . ´The mix should be smooth. ´Ê minimum of air inclusion in the mixed product is desirable to prevent surface bubbles and internal defects.w ´Done in a flexible plastic or rubber bowl with a stiff bladed spatula to combine the powder and water. homogenous.


mixing is done mechanically with a vaccum mixing and investing machine. ´This provides a gypsum mix that is free of air bubbles and homogenous in consistency. ´Many other devices are available which will mix gypsum products mechanically and they are used where the application of product is critical .[[w w ´Often.

[[w w .

å The safest method is to soak the cast in saturated solution of calcium sulfate. . its linear dimension may decrease approximately 0.1 for every 20 min of such immersion.[   [ å Once the setting reaction in the cast have been completed. its dimension will be relatively constant thereafter under ordinary conditions of room temperature and humidity. If the stone cast is immersed in running water. å However it is sometimes necessary to soak gypsum cast in water.

a shrinkage occurs as the water of crystallization is removed and the dihydrate reverts to hemihydrate. å Therefore. it is not safe to store or heat a stone cast in air at temperature higher than 55oC . å However if the storage temperature is raised to o o between 90 and 100 c.å Storage of set plaster or stone at room temperature produces no significant dimensional change.

 [ 6w ´This is done with waste products or byproducts of phosphoric acid production ´The synthetic product is usually much more expensive than that made from Natural gypsum. . but when properly made its properties are equal to or exceed those of the latter.

6 [ 6w 6 .

å Orthodontist prefer a white stone or plaster for study models and may even treat the surface with soap solution for added sheen. .[ In addition to the standardized gypsum materials there are some that have been characterized for special purposes For Eg. These products have a longer working time for ease of trimming.

.´The mounting stones or plasters are used to mount the cast on articulator. but it has little working time.E. a plethora of new dental stones have appeared mostly as time savers. The mounting plaster has low strength to permit easy trimming and to separate the cast readily from articulator ´Since 1991. ´One type is ready to use in 5 min. are fast setting and have low S.

´Most recently.´Ênother product changes color to help denote when it is ready for use. the trend is to add a small amount of plastic or resin that reduces brittleness and improves the resistance to scratching during the carving of wax pattern. .

[   6w 6 .

[ .

´Thus the impressions should be disinfected using spray and immersion disinfecting techniques . via dental impressions. [ [  ´There is always a risk of cross contamination to a dental office personnel by micro-organism. including hepatitis c and HIV .

dental stone containing disinfectant may be employed. å Êlternatively. . hypochlorites and iodophores å Disinfecting solutions can be used that do not adversely affect the quality of gypsum cast. overnight ethylene oxide gas sterilization is an option.å If the impression is not disinfected it is prudent to disinfect stone cast å Usual disinfectants for stone cast include spray disinfectants. å hen patients with known cases of infection are being treated.

8th edition ´ Clinical aspects of dental materials . ´ Êpplied dental Materials. McCabe ´ .  [  Phillips Science of DENTÊL MÊTERIÊLS.10th &11th Edition ´ CRÊIG·S Dental Materials.Properties and manipulation. Marcia Gladwin. practice and cases.Theory.