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DIVERSITÉ ET IDENTITÉ

CULTURELLE
EN EUROPE
TOME 11/1

Editura Muzeul Literaturii Române
Bucureşti, 2014

Publicaţie semestrială editată de:
Muzeul Naţional al Literaturii Române
Director fondator:
Prof. univ. dr. Petre Gheorghe Bârlea, U.O.C.
Colegiul de redacţie:
Acad. Marius Sala, Vicepreşedinte al Academiei Române
Prof. univ. dr. Libuše Valentová, Universitatea „Carol al IV-lea”
Praga, Republica Cehă
Prof. univ. dr. Lucian Chişu, Institutul „George Călinescu” al
Academiei Române; Muzeul Naţional al Literaturii
Române, Bucureşti
Conf. univ. dr. Roxana-Magdalena Bârlea, Academia de Studii
Economice, Bucureşti
Prof. univ. dr. Cécile Vilvandre de Sousa, Universidad „CastillaLa Mancha”, Ciudad Real, Spania
Prof. univ. dr. Emmanuelle Danblon, Université Libre de
Bruxelles – Université d’Europe
Secretariat de redacţie:
Constantin-Georgel Stoica
Angela Stănescu
Ioana Raicu
Tehnoredactare şi design:
Constantin-Georgel Stoica
Mihai Cuciureanu
Adresa redacţiei:
Bulevardul Dacia, nr. 12, Bucureşti, CP 010402, Romania
http://www.mnlr.ro/ro-dice.html

Scientific Board:

ANGELESCU, Silviu, Universitatea din Bucureşti, Departamentul de Studii Culturale, Prof. univ.dr.
BUNACIU, Otniel Ioan, Universitatea din Bucureşti, Decan, Prof. univ. dr.
BUSUIOC, Monica, Institutul de Lingvistică Bucureşti, Cercetător st. pr.
CHIRCU,Adrian,UniversitateaBabeş-BolyaiCluj-Napoca,DepartamentuldeLimbaRomânăşiLingvisticăGenerală,Lectoruniv.dr.
CHIVU, Gheorghe, Universitatea din Bucureşti, Academia Română, Prof. univ. dr., Membru al Academiei Română
CODLEANU, Mioara, Universitatea „Ovidius” Constanţa, Conf. univ. dr.
CONSTANTINESCU,Mihaela,UniversitateadinBucureşti,DepartamentuldeStudiiCulturale-Director,Prof.univ.dr.
COSTA,Ioana,UniversitateadinBucureşti,FacultateadeLimbiStrăine,DepartamentuldeLimbiClasice,Prof.univ.,Cercetătorst.pr.
COŞEREANU, Valentin, Centrul Naţional de Studii „Mihai Eminescu” Ipoteşti, Dr. Cercetător st. pr.
CRISTESCU, Ioan, Muzeul Naţional al Literaturii Române, Bucureşti, Cercetător st. pr.
DANCĂ, Wilhelm, Universitatea din Bucureşti, Facultatea de Teologie Catolică, Prof. univ.dr., Decan.
DASCĂLU, Crişu, Academia Română, Filiala „Titu Maiorescu” Timişoara, Prof. univ.dr., Director.
DINU, Mihai, Universitatea din Bucureşti, Facultatea de Litere, Prof. univ. dr.
DULCIU, Dan, Societatea „Mihai Eminescu” Bucureşti, Traducător, Curator.
FLOREA, Silvia, Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” Sibiu, Departamentul de Limbi Moderne, Conf. univ. dr.
INKOVA, Olga, Université de Genève,Département de Langues Méditerranéennes, Slaves et Orientales, Prof. univ. dr., Directeur.
IOANA, Nicolae, Universitatea Dunărea de Jos Galaţ, Decan, Prof. univ. dr.
ISPAS, Sabina, Institutul de Etnografie şi Folclor Bucureşti, Academia Română, Director, Membru al Academiei Române.
LOÏC, Nicolas, Université Libre de Bruxelles, GRAL-Dr., Cercetător.
MANZOTTI, Emilio, Université de Genève, Département de Langues Romanes, Prof. univ. dr., Directeur.
MITU, Mihaela, Universitatea din Piteşti, Conf. univ. dr.
MOROIANU, Cristian, Universiatatea din Bucureşti, Facultatea de Litere, Conf. univ. dr., Prodecan.
NAŠINEC, Jiri, Universitatea „Carol IV” Praga, Departamentul Antropologie şi Studii Culturale, Prof. univ. dr.
NĂDRAG, Lavinia, Universitatea „Ovidius” Constanţa, Departamentul de Limbi Moderne, Prof. univ. dr., Director.
NICOLAE, Florentina, Universitatea „Ovidius” Constanţa, Conf. univ. dr.
PANEA, Nicolae, Universitatea din Craiova, Decan, Prof., univ. dr.
PETRESCU, Victor, Redactor revista „Litere”, Dr.
RESTOUEIX, Jean-Philippe, Consiliul Europei, Bruxelles, Şef scţie,TODI, Aida-Universitatea „Ovidius” Constanţa, Conf. univ. dr.
TOMESCU, Emilia Domniţa, Institutulde LingvisticăBucureşti,Universitatea „PetrolşiGaze”dinPloieşti,Cercetătorst.pr.,Prof. univ.dr.
VASILOIU, Ioana, Muzeul Naţional al Literaturii Române, Bucureşti, Cercetător.
WALD,Lucia,UniversitateadinBucureşti,FacultateadeLimbiStrăine,DepartamentuldeLimbiClasice,Prof.univ.dr.

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României
Diversité et identité culturelle en Europe/Diversitate şi
identitate culturală în Europa / Editor: Petre Gheorghe Bârlea
ISSN: 2067 - 0931
An XI, nr. 1 – Bucureşti: Editura Muzeul Literaturii Române - 2014.
151 p.
008(4+498)(063)

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the ‘order of the Universe’. and the ‘Spheres of the World’: the tradition of the conceptualization of ‘globalization’ in the discourse of philosophy/7 Fabiola KADI Poésie et religion. culture and MOOCs/53 Angela STĂNESCU Collocation-centred approaches to teaching and learning English vocabulary/67 Edlira XEGA The implementation of syllabi for the study of English in conformity with the Common European Framework of Reference /73 CONFLUENCES Adrian CHIRCU La relation entre les adverbes et les vocabulaires fondamental et représentatif de la langue roumaine/95 5 . Peter J. WELLS. Diana FLOREA The web is the limit: language. leurs rapports et leurs particularités dans la vie de l’homme/33 Silvia FLOREA.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe SOMMAIRE FONDEMENTS DU DIALOGUE CULTUREL Fee-Alexandra HAASE ‘Cosmos’.

Ana Maria PANŢU The etymologic structure of Romanian mythonyms (I) /105 Eva ÇËRAVA (KANE). Robert STRATOBERDHA La communication interculturelle et la négociation de l’identité des Albanais/ 133 Ramona Elena STANCIU The modern evolution of Tîrgovişte Town’s cultural life (1878-1914)/ 147 6 . Bulgarian and Greek languages)/125 CONVERGENCES ET DIVERGENCES IDENTITAIRES Gjergji PENDAVINJI. Anyla SARAÇI The phraseology of “head” in relation with Balkan mentality (contrastive analysis of the phraseology of Albanian.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Petre Gheorghe BÂRLEA.

Discourse Studies 'Public Sphere' . while the economic and political proponents of ‘globalization’ describe and use ‘globalization’ as a process they are performing. But before the emergence of ‘globalization’ the previous conceptualizations of the ‘world’ in philosophy have had a different function than in contemporary political and economic thinking of the discourse of ‘globalization’. We will show that recently European philosophers have joint this concept of the ‘sphere’ with the idea of ‘globalization’. ‘universe’. Keywords: History of Globalization . 7 .Cultural History of Globalization. AND THE ‘SPHERES OF THE WORLD’: THE TRADITION OF THE CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ‘GLOBALIZATION’ IN THE DISCOURSE OF PHILOSOPHY” Fee-Alexandra HAASE University of Nizwa f.haase1@gmx. THE ‘ORDER OF THE UNIVERSE’.Conceptualization . We trace this path of the ‘sphere’ in the Western philosophy and the status the concepts of ‘world’.Global Discourse .Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe FONDEMENTS DU DIALOGUE CULTUREL „‘COSMOS’.History of European Philosophy .de Abstract: Philosophy has until present time a stable usage of the term and concept of the ‘sphere’ as a part of the representation of the world around us. For the philosopher it established the reality. and ‘sphere’ had for the worldview of philosophers in the history of the Western culture. which surrounds the human. Even the contemporary philosophers using ‘globalization’ refer to this complex discourse.

the ‘spheres’ were considered even still in Christian thinking as the separated parts of the 8 . ‘Universe’. The relationship between both. On other words expressed: The philosophers’ ‘world’ is a conceptual term and in some regard a metaphorical placeholder for the representation of the surrounding environment. so philosophy is interested in the origin and order of the world in the sense of the surrounding reality. and ‘Cosmos’ vs. it is only distinguishable from the human as the area the human operates in and experiences as different from himself or herself. But also the evolutionary and social development of the world around us from a historical perspective as described by Marx concerns philosophers. and ‘cosmos’ as the framing markers of their thinking mind. As such. Introduction: The Discourse of Philosophy of the ‘World’: A Distinction of the Concepts ‘World’. ‘human’ and ‘world’. and the reality around us are also topics of philosophy inquiring the world around us. ‘World’. and ‘sphere’ are used in philosophical writings as the concepts. and the separation of the human ‘I’ or ‘Ego’ and the surrounding world . which refer to the reality the human is located in. language. the Human Being Many aspects of philosophy concern the world around us. So the early Greek philosophers have used the term ‘cosmos’ for the universe in an ordered way as a whole. It seems like the philosophers used since antiquity used the concepts of ‘word’.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe 1. ‘universe’. The question of the representation of the world in our language and the interaction of mind. ‘universe’. this reality is often the counterpoint to the human experienced by the person as the otherness of the world. and the conditions of the reception of the ‘world’ in the mind of the human are discussed in philosophical discourses. asks about the conditions of this reality and the perception of it. which we perceive through our senses and arrange in our mind. which aimed at the most abstract and commonly acceptable concepts humans are able to think about.

Cosmos in Collins English Dictionary (2003) means the world or universe considered as an ordered system. or purple. pink. and order. In logic the ‘universe of discourse’ is a class. orderly. Every argument or statement made in that universe applies to all entities of the universe. which brings a virtually endless number of arguments. and ‘universe’. until the scholars in Renaissance started with their inquiry of the world using the natural sciences and distancing themselves from the religious answers. which can be derives from it. which can be traced back to the earliest Greek philosophy and cosmological writings. ‘the world’. harmonious system. of New World composite plants having open clusters of flowers with red or yellow disks and wide rays of white. harmonious whole. an order and harmony. an ordered. harmonious system. ‘Cosmos’ means according to the The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000) the universe regarded as an orderly. In formal logic the argument is defined by this ‘universe of discourse’. ‘form’. The word ‘cosmos’ is known since 1150–1200 and derived from Middle English and Greek kósmos for ‘order’. which surrounded the earth. harmony. and any of a genus. The ‘universe of discourse’ or ‘domain of discourse’ is in logic a class containing all the entities referred to in a discourse or an argument. But the idea of the areas of the world around us was still formulated after the paradigm change of the sciences gave up the ideas of the layers or spheres of the world. any ordered system. Cosmos. and harmony and order as distinct from chaos. harmonious whole.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe world. a complete. Volkmer uses the term ‘global public sphere’: “The strategy of 9 . In contemporary research literature regarding philosophy the concept ‘sphere’ is used. ‘arrangement’. Habermas as social philosopher of pragmatism made the ‘public sphere’ as the place of structural transformation in social theory and epistemology famous. According to Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary (2010) ‘cosmos’ means the world or universe regarded as an orderly.

” A sphere is a three-dimensional geometrical perfectly round form. or globalization are marked by discursive struggles over their social and cultural impacts. The English word ‘sphere’ derived from Greek σφαίρα and Latin sphaera for ‘ball’ and ‘globe’.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe international communication theory. the emergence of capitalism. democratization. It was idea of a 'world society' as a universe of nature and reasoning. Inglis (1998) published Spheres of Philosophical Inquiry and the Historiography of Medieval Philosophy. Volkmer (2013) wrote that “it can be argued. to detect the specifics of this communication space for different world regions . relevances of the global public sphere. created by the media and conveying the image of a shrinking world.” Fiss and Hirsch (2005: 30) stated that “how major events are constructed in public discourse continues to be a topic of interest across disciplines. Particularly large-scale transformations such as industrialization. The Greek word σφαίρα for ‘ball’ occurred in the Odysee 10 . a global arena for public debate during the Enlightenment which has inaugurated modernity. should be to develop a methodology for the understanding of 'particular' interpretations. and the outcome of these struggles may facilitate or impede the transformations’ widespread acceptance. since Francis Bacon distinguished between different world concepts ‘globus terrestris’. Robertson (2009) published under the title Spheres of Reason his New Essays in the Philosophy of Normativity. since Aristotle defined the 'world state'. Postmodern thinkers replaced 'reasoning' by 'simulation' and Hegel's term of ‘World Spirit’ (‘Weltgeist’) by an idea of 'instant' truth. A Contribution to the History of Earlier Greek Philosophy described the concept of the ‘sphere’ of ancient scholars. meanings. that fantasies and ‘ideas’ of the ‘world’ as a somehow common place have existed since Plato described in his dialogue Timaeus the history of the world by the affiliation of the four elements to each other. and ‘globus intellectualis’.” Brendel (1997) in Symbolism of the Sphere.in times of peace and times of crisis.

and academic commentators who employed the term as late as the 1970s 11 . Whereto is Annexed a Refutation of this Proposition. Sloterdijk makes the extension as the ‘globe’ in connection with the concept of ‘globalization’. Since antiquity in logic the ‘universe of discourse’ or ‘domain of discourse is a class containing all the entities referred to in a discourse or an argument. The ‘world’ was since oldest Greek philosophers practiced philosophy a philosophical concept. Scott) In philosophy the concept of the ‘public sphere’ was introduced by Habermas. In other words expressed: the argument is defined by this ‘universe of discourse’. and Geography.100) in the expression σφαίρε παίζειν ‘play at ball’. From the perspective of philosophy. ‘globalization’ has in the field of philosophy less place to be an important field of studies. Actually. applies to all entities of the universe. Every argument or statement. It was believed that the spheres revolve around the earth carrying the heavenly bodies. Aristotle used the word in his Metaphysics (1073b18). the term ‘globalization’ was subject to critical commentaries since it raised in the 70s of the last century. How much this concept touched the natural sciences and the humanities at the same time can be seen in the writing A Letter to a Friend Wherein is Plainly Shewn that it is Impossible to Understand the Classick Authors. (Liddell. without Knowing the Globe. As the hollow sphere or globe it was used in the ancient physics since the time of Anaximander.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe (6. According to the Pythagoreans the spheres were arranged after the intervals of the musical scale. It can be treated by philosophers like any other subject within the methodology of philosophy. Schneewind (2002: 169-178) discussed globalization in the history of philosophy. Scheuerman (2013) wrote on ‘globalization’ in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: “The term globalization has only become commonplace in the last two decades. Sphere. which is made in that universe. or the Modern Philosophy. Cartesius est Materialiter Atheus was published in Dublin on the 6th of December 1711.

Hegel in his Aesthetics (Lectures on Aesthetics.” Hegel in Science of Logic also speaks about the ‘spiritual sphere’ with an ‘infinitely manifold content that is communicable’. which resides in ‘the sphere of the universal world-views’: 12 . The earliest philosophers used this terminology. Aristotle in his Politics (book 4. Volume 2. the ‘universe’ and the ‘spheres’ within them. since they were in the position of being universal scholars. Belief and Pure Insight) Hegel states that “the spiritual condition of self-estrangement exists in the sphere of culture as a fact. b. intellectual discourse has been replete with allusions to phenomena strikingly akin to those that have garnered the attention of recent theorists of globalization. which are ‘constituents’. The System of the Individual Arts) wrote as introduction to this part about art. which did not separate the different fields of their studies. ‘sphere of action’. The in Free Concrete Mind: Spirit in the section The Spirit in Self-Estrangement (I. The usage of globalization for the area of culture can be traced back to Hegel’s work The Phenomenology of Mind. and the long history of the conceptual usage of terminology of the semantic field of the ‘cosmos’.” The raising interest in ‘globalization’ from the perspective of the philosophy of the 20th and 21st century cannot be seen in another way than the co-incidence of this buzzword of the economic and trade organizations. however. section 1300b) writes that a ‘difference among judicial courts’ rests upon ‘three determinants’. 2.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe accurately recognized the novelty of doing so. At least since the advent of industrial capitalism. Part III. and ‘mode of appointment’. Belief and Pure Insight (1). 1. The World in German Philosophy of the 19th Century Plato’s Politics can be considered the first philosopher who used for politics the term ‘sphere of action’. which promote ‘globalization’.

But experience teaches me that. I cannot know how far it extends. this was the mental framework for the rise of the democracy in Europe during the 19th century. Therefore. Consequently it is only through this existent. Hegel also employed the terms in order to distinguish between the private and public area. Transcendental Doctrine of Method (§ II. to know determinately. Kant (1787) in Critique of Pure Reason in II. and thus I know the limits of my actual knowledge of the earth at any given time. Kant used the expression ‘sphere of a concept’ as a metaphoric term for the extension of a concept. 13 . in accordance with principles a priori.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe “This realization of the Ideal amounted only to the still purely inner production of art within the sphere of the universal world-views into which it was elaborated. but not the limits of all possible geography. for instance. from the magnitude of a degree. For only in virtue of this final configuration is the work of art genuinely concrete. and that its surface is spherical. singular. I always see before me a space in which I can proceed farther. thirdly. we still have to survey this sphere in which the work of art is actualized in the element of the sensuous. and perfect.” Hegel used for the traditional separations of areas the concept ‘sphere’. as it appears to my senses. how far soever I go. But it is implicit in the very conception of beauty that it shall make itself objective externally as a work of art presented to immediate vision. an individual at once real. at this time. I am able even from a small part of it. The Discipline of Pure Reason in Respect of its Polemical Employment) described the earth: “If I represent the earth. But if I have got so far as to know that the earth is a sphere. that beauty really explicitly becomes beauty and the Ideal. as a flat surface with a circular horizon. to sense and sensuous imagination. which is appropriate to itself.

I yet have knowledge of its limits and extent. settle everywhere. The Idea Subordinated To The Principle Of Sufficient Reason: The Object Of 14 . The World As Idea. Hegel and Schopenhauer use the concept ‘world’ in this context.” Marx described that new technologies “provided the necessary infrastructure for a cosmopolitan future socialist civilization. In the Capital (Volume II. and establish connections everywhere. I. while simultaneously functioning in the present as indispensable organizational tools for a working class destined to undertake a revolution no less oblivious to traditional territorial divisions than the system of capitalist exploitation it hoped to dismantle.” The archetypical usage of the spherical concept of financial globalization we find in the work of Marx. and although I am ignorant of the objects which this surface may contain. Marx used in his economic manuscripts of the Capital (Vol. concepts like ‘Weltgeist’ (‘world spirit’) and ‘Weltseele’ (‘world soul’) emerged in the second half of the 19 th century in the German philosophy. in 1848 formulated the first theoretical explanation of the sense of territorial compression that so fascinated his contemporaries. Scheuermann (2013) in the article Globalization of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy wrote on Marx’ contribution to ‘globalization’: “Another German émigré. Schopenhauer in The World As Will And Idea in First Book. the imperatives of capitalist production inevitably drove the bourgeoisie to “nestle everywhere.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe the diameter and through it the total superficial area of the earth. First Aspect.” Prior the Marx’ historical materialism. the socialist theorist Karl Marx. Chapter 1) The Circuit of Money Capital Marx deals with the changes in form (or metamorphoses) of capital in the ‘sphere of circulation’. The world as an idea and the will of the human was the opus magnum of Schopenhauer and is an important work for the relationship between the mind and the reality of the human. Chapter Six) the expression ‘sphere of circulation’. In Marx's account.

This ‘truth’ Schopenhauer traced back to the wise men of India as “appearing indeed as the fundamental tenet of the Vedânta philosophy ascribed to Vyasa”. he has attained to philosophical wisdom. is the phantom of a dream.” The statement ‘The world is idea’ Schopenhauer traces back as a ‘truth’ involved in the skeptical reflections from which Descartes started. that the world which surrounds him is there only as idea. only in relation to something else.. which is himself. but only an eye that sees a sun. Concepts form a distinct class of ideas. though man alone can bring it into reflective and abstract consciousness. which Berkeley distinctly enunciated. a hand that feels an earth.e. If he really does this. and Kant's missed to respect as a ‘principle’. the consciousness. existing only in the mind of man. “The world is my idea:”—this is a truth which holds good for everything that lives and knows. A reality which is neither of these two. and entirely different from the ideas of perception which 15 . Schopenhauer wrote: “For as the world is in one aspect entirely idea. and its acceptance is an ignis fatuus in philosophy.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Experience And Science formulated that the world is the idea of the mind. when saying: “§ 1. It then becomes clear and certain to him that what he knows is not a sun and an earth. i. so in another it is entirely will.” Schopenhauer wrote about concepts: “§ 9. but an object in itself (into which the thing in itself has unfortunately dwindled in the hands of Kant).

For if we look entirely away from the true world as idea. Such effects are language. it is also the “in-itself” of the particular thing and of the individual that knows it. which consists of ideas of perception. there remains nothing but the world as will. properly speaking. the adequate objectivity of will. it is one and the same in the object 16 . As will. Speech. not perceived. or that they should be brought before the eyes or the imagination like objects of perception. if by experience is meant the real external world. and only the effects which men accomplish through them are properly objects of experience. is obviously nothing more than a very complete telegraph. They can only be thought. in it subject and object are no longer to be distinguished. We can therefore never attain to a sensuous and. be absurd to demand that they should be verified in experience. It would. are not to be distinguished. and all that results from these.” In the third book Schopenhauer describes the states of the world as ‘idea’ and as ‘will’: “When the Platonic Idea appears. as things in themselves. the true world as idea. evident knowledge of their nature. which objectify it incompletely. arises only when the subject and object reciprocally fill and penetrate each other completely. which communicates arbitrary signs with the greatest rapidity and the finest distinctions of difference. but only to a knowledge which is abstract and discursive. which fully objectifies it. and in the same way the knowing and the known individuals. outside the idea and all its forms. The will is the “in-itself” of the Platonic Idea. preconceived and planned action and science. as an object of outer experience.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe we have considered up till now. therefore. for the Platonic Idea.

and everything else remain the same. and of being oneself the correlative of the Idea.12 For the totality of facts determines both what is the case. The world is everything that is the case.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe contemplated and in the individual. in the capacity for knowing. 1. according to our explanation.063 The total reality is the world. and thus no longer an individual. 17 .” The mental place for the production of ideas is the genius: “§ 37. consists. 1.21 Any one can either be the case or not be the case. 1. independently of the principle of sufficient reason. then. 2013) writes in his Tractatus LogicoPhilosophicus: 1. and by these being all the facts. and also all that is not the case. not individual things.2 The world divides into facts.11 The world is determined by the facts. who soars aloft in this contemplation. 1.13 The facts in logical space are the world. Wittgenstein defines the ‘total reality’ as ‘world’: 2. but the Ideas of such things. Genius. but the pure subject of knowledge. and becomes conscious of himself as pure subject. 1. 1.1 The world is the totality of facts.” Ludwig Wittgenstein (1921. not of things. which have their existence only in their relations.

023 The proposition determines reality to this extent. for example. Wittgenstein’s statement that the proposition can produce a ‘world’ indicates that the mind is also able to produce a ‘world’ of its concepts: 4.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe For Wittgenstein the representation through depiction of the world is possible via the ‘logical picture’: 2. (On the other hand.S. 18 .) 2. the discourse is a functional format of thinking and not a literary genre. It must therefore be completely described by the proposition. 1. The ‘Universe of Discourse’ in the U. As the description of an object describes it by its external properties so propositions describe reality by its internal properties. A proposition is the description of a fact. and therefore one can actually see in the proposition all the logical features possessed by reality if it is true. As such. not every picture is spatial. But the main functions of the discourse are the communication of mental contents in a formal way. The proposition constructs a world with the help of a logical scaffolding. that one only needs to say “Yes” or “No” to it to make it agree with reality.182 Every picture is also a logical picture. One can draw conclusions from a false proposition. Of course we can distinguish the discourse of the philosophers as a unit and a distinct literary feature.19 The logical picture can depict the world. American Philosophy of Peirce and Marcuse The discourse is the philosophical form of a dissertation both orally or in a written form.

represents the general object of that attention. that it is iconized by the Phemic Sheet. So.. which cannot be adequately described. X. 2013) also describes the origin of the term ‘university of discourse’: “.S. 1906). MS 493.561n1. 2013) wrote: in 'The Bedrock beneath Pragmaticism' ". which is itself directed to the Universe of Discourse.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe The Greek word διάλεξις means ‘discourse’ and ‘argument’. More as a communicative linguistic form the word διάλεκτος for ‘discourse’ and ‘conversation’ and διαλάλησις for ‘talking’ and ‘discourse’ were used. In every proposition the circumstances of its enunciation show that it refers to some collection of individuals or of possibilities. on the principle that logicians call "the Nota notae" that the sign of anything. the Phemic Sheet. The action of having a discourse was described by the verb λογέω. Universe (in logic) of discourse. in representing the field of attention. but can only be indicated as something familiar to both speaker 19 . c. denotes that Universe. the Universe of Discourse. CP 4. n.. Moreover." ('The Bedrock beneath Pragmaticism'. The usage of the expression ‘universe of discourse’ is a relative new concept of the early 20th century logic of the U. since it more immediately represents a field of Thought.the Phemic Sheet iconizes the Universe of Discourse." that is are independently side by side in the collection of experiences to which the deliverer and interpreter of a set of symbols have agreed to refer and to consider.. &c. is itself a sign of the very same X. Pierce (2013) gives the following definition of the ‘universe of discourse’: "The universe of discourse is the aggregate of the individual objects which "exist. Pierce (Universe 1902. of a proposition. In the formal language of rhetoric λογία and λαλιά were formats of discourse. it [is because it must be understood] as being directed to that Universe." ('The Principles of Logical Graphics.) Pierce (1906. or Mental Experience. and considered as a sign.. American logician Pierce.d.

as abstractions. 2013) Pierce explains with the example of the class of people introduced to the Eleusian mysteries that every one of them. The term was introduced by De Morgan in 1846 (Cambridge Philosophical Transactions. For it will then alone be one thing to say that an object wants some character common to all men and another to say that it possesses every character common to all non-men. but in general there is such an index in the environment common to speaker and auditor. This De Morgan has not remarked. At one time it may be the physical universe of sense (1) [Note (Commens): This refers to the previous item in the DPP]. at another a range of possibilities. In 1882 O. whenever marks are considered substantively. There is besides a universe of marks or characters. at another it may be the imaginary "world" of some play or novel. Only instead of giving three qualities it gives four. C. 1902) In Minute Logic (1902. experienced the feeling of awe and participates in this ‘universe of discourse’: 20 . 380) but De Morgan never showed that he fully comprehended it. that for the purposes of logic it makes no difference whether the universe be wide or narrow. The idea of a limited logical universe was adopted by Boole and has been employed by all subsequent exact logicians. It does not seem to be absolutely necessary in all cases that there should be an index proper outside the symbolic terms of the proposition to show what it is that is referred to. but what he has remarked has likewise its importance. even though the forms of language do not show it. DPP 2 / CP 2." ('Universe (2)'. namely. there comes to be a material difference between an affirmative and a negative proposition. but no people of another class. that is. Thus only. viii.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe and auditor. a point made by ancient writers. for the assertion may be that an object wants some character common to all non-men.536. Mitchell extended the theory of the logical universe by the introduction of the idea of 'dimension'. as they commonly are in ordinary speech.

I wish my description of what is true or false. “which is deprived of the mediations which are the stages of the process of cognition and cognitive evaluation. at the mention of a certain name. as long as we keep to what is distinctly posited and its positive implications. 1902). while beyond that point there is vagueness and generality. So. that to which the truth or falsity is limited may be called the universe of discourse." ('Multitude and Number'. but this experience is of something imaginary. This is true. c.” Such a language produces a discourse. The concepts which comprehend the 21 . to apply to what is not only true or false generally. not universally.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe ". This remark will be fully illustrated in the sequel. It is therefore true that every person initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries always experiences a sentiment of awe. For example.172.. Whatever may be the limitations previously imposed." ('Minute Logic'. we find individual distinction existing so far as the work of imagination has carried it. CP 4. but also to what is true or false under conditions already assumed. but only under the limitations already understood before this is said.351.. 1897) Marcuse in One-Dimensional Man in the chapter The Closing of the Universe of Discourse wrote that the ‘language of total administration’ mediates between the masters and their dependents. which we can use to describe the state of ‘globalization’: "When the universe of discourse relates to a common experience. every person initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries invariably experiences a feeling of awe. since it concerns the aspect of the imagination as a field of experience. The next statement of Pierce is interesting. but when we pass to mere possibilities. “Its publicity agents shape the universe of communication in which the one-dimensional behaviour expresses itself. the individuals merge together. a situation. as when we discuss the world of Shakespeare's creation in the play of Hamlet. we find discrete elements. CP 6. in the discussion of the consequences of a mathematical hypothesis.

22 . These terms are generally understood so that their mere appearance produces a response (linguistic or operational) adequate to the pragmatic context in which they are spoken. vital needs and wants. visible nature. or rather the concept tends to be absorbed by the word. essence and existence. language tends to express and promote the immediate identification of reason and fact. words and concepts tend to coincide. the thing and its function. governs the speech or the writing. truth and established truth.” Marcuse depicts a state of power. any language contains innumerable terms which do not require development of their meaning. The word becomes cliché and. which as an absolute power destroys the values of the discourse. as cliché. the communication thus precludes genuine development of meaning. and the word is expected to have no other response than the publicized and standardized behaviour (reaction). As assemblage of cliché the language is dead and formal serving as the framework of a totalitarian discourse. Without these mediations.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe facts and thereby transcend the facts are losing their authentic linguistic representation. such as the terms designating the objects and implements of daily life.” Marcuse described here the impact of a functionalized language. “In this behavioral universe. when ‘functionalization of language’ helps to ‘repel non-conformist elements’ from the structure and movement of speech. The former has no other content than that designated by the word in the publicized and standardized usage. This state Marcuse marks as the end of the ‘universe of discourse’. To be sure.

Citizens behave as a public body when they confer in an unrestricted fashion-that is. and Nancy In Minima Moralia Theodor Adorno 1951 criticized that ‘What philosophy once called life. Man now reaches overnight.” In the encyclopedia article The Public Sphere. Heidegger not only described the “abolition of distance” as a constitutive feature of our contemporary condition. A portion of the public sphere comes into being in every conversation in which private individuals assemble to form a public body. 23 .” (Heidegger 1950. places which formerly took weeks and months of travel” (Heidegger 1950. but he linked recent shifts in spatial experience to no less fundamental alterations in the temporality of human activity: “All distances in time and space are shrinking. Habermas described the communicative situation of the 20 th and the 21st century with the distinction between the public and the private sphere across his writings. Sloterdijk. with the guarantee of freedom of assembly and association and the freedom to 2. nor like members of a constitutional order subject to the legal constraints of a state bureaucracy. by places. Habermas published 2006 Religion in the Public Sphere. Access is guaranteed to all citizens. which appeared 1964 written by Habermas (1974: 49) in New German Critique the concept of the ‘public sphere’ is explained as follows: “We mean first of all a realm of our social life in which something approaching public opinion can be formed. has turned into the sphere of the private and then merely of consumption’.' They then behave neither like business or professional people transacting private affairs. 165).Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe The ‘World’ in European Philosophy of the 21 st Century: Habermas. Scheuermann (2013) in the article Globalization of the Stanford Encyclopedy of Philosophy wrote on Heidegger’s contribution to ‘globalization’: “But it was probably the German philosopher Martin Heidegger who most clearly anticipated contemporary debates about globalization. 165).

for instance the princely seal. and the European Court of Justice have intervened most profoundly in the everyday lives of European citizens over the decades. Nearly 50 years later. as a rational reorganization of social and political power under the mutual control of rival organizations committed to the public sphere in their internal structure as well as in their relations with the state and each other. which promote ‘globalization’ consider it a positive process. even though these institutions are the least subject to democratic controls. it was not coincidental that during that period symbols of sovereignty. But while Habermans sees this process of transformation as a problematic state. an idea which calls for a rationalization of power through the medium of public discussion among private individuals. Nevertheless. It could only be realized today. in his lecture Democracy. in 2013. the Commission.” (1964: 55) The ‘transformation’ is the usual term in the discourse of the proponents of the ‘globalization’ for the changes that ‘globalization’ brings in several parts of the world. “The idea of the public sphere.” The lack of relations and representation of the ‘formation of the will and opinion’ of citizens of the democracy of Europe and the policies made by European institutions is the 24 . were deemed ‘public’. preserved in the social welfare state mass democracy. threatens to disintegrate with the structural transformation of the public sphere itself. on an altered basis.” Habermas lets the concept of the ‘public sphere’ begin with the European Renaissance stating that “there is no indication European society of the high middle ages possessed a public sphere as a unique realm distinct from the private sphere.” (1964: 54) Habermas in his article stated that the end of the ‘civil society’ with its ‘social welfare state’ will starts with the ‘structural transformation’ of the ‘public sphere itself’. the organizations. Solidarity and the European Crisis Habermas on the 26th of April 2013 at the Catholic University of Leuven said that “the European Central Bank.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe express and publish their opinions-about matters of general interest.

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe critical point Habermas mentioned: “Thus. The Weltinnenraum (‘world interior’) of this sphere and age is the result from the contraction of the world by money (‘capital’). Kugel. on the other. ‘Spheres’ are for Sloterdijk ‘spaces of coexistence’. to the present day there remains a gulf at the European level between the citizens’ opinion. (2005: 14) The globe is a philosophical concept (Globus. which began with the Greek culture and after this stage a ‘electronic globalization’. Sloterdijk argued that the current concept of globalization lacks a historical perspective. which was published 1998. albeit in each country for different and rather polarizing reasons.” According to Habermas ironically that “what unite the European citizens today are the Eurosceptical mindsets that have become more pronounced in all of the member countries during the crisis.” As solution Habermas presents here the concepts of ‘Sittlichkeit’ (‘morality’) and ‘solidarity’. Sloterdijk wrote the trilogy Spheres. Sloterdijk developed an account of globalization with the historical and philosophical consequences of the earth considered to be as a globe and ‘globalization’ as the last phase in a process staring first with the circumnavigation of the earth. 1999. In the last phase of globalization the world system as a capitalist system determines the conditions of life. and 2004.and willformation. The original book in German was published in 2005 with the title Im Weltinnenraum des Kapitals (2005) as ‘a philosophical theory of globalization’. and the policies actually adopted to solve the pressing problems. on the one hand. 25 . Sloterdijk presents a philosophy of space in the Sphären-trilogy of ‘terrestrial globalization’. sphaira) resulting from ‘terrestrial globalization’ (2005: 37) Terrestrial globalization is the process of material expansion. After the ‘terrestrial globalization’ a ‘cosmic-Uranian’ or ‘morphological globalization’ followed. which Sloterdijk calls ‘world history in a philosophical sense’ (2005: 28).

in other words globalization. According to the third sense: the creation of the world or globalization. and that perhaps this difficulty makes it almost ‘untranslatable’. According to the first sense: between the creation of the world or globalization.” In the author's Prefatory Note to the French Language Edition Nancy (2007: 29) writes that ‘the creation of the world or globalization’ as a conjunction must be “understood simultaneously and alternatively in its disjunctive. Note on the Untranslatable Mondialisation (2007: 23) Nancy writes that “it is not without paradox that in many languages the French term mondialisation is quite difficult to translate. Nancy (2007: 31) writes here regarding ‘urbi et orbi’ that “this formulation drawn from papal benediction has come to mean ‘everywhere and anywhere’ in ordinary language.” Nancy (2007: 23) writes that “the French language has used the word mondialisation since the middle of the twentieth century.” Nancy (2007: 32) writes that the ‘urbalization’ is the process. or conjunctive senses.” Nancy also describes related concepts. Nancy’s La Creation du Monde ou la Mondalisation was translated as The Creation of the World or ‘Globalization’. one or the other indifferently. substitutive. while it tends to cover the entire orb of the 26 . which seems to me slightly before the term globalization appeared in English. leads us to a similar result (which remains to be determined). According to the second sense: the creation of the world.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe In the work of the philosopher Nancy the philosophical concept ‘world’ is a main theme besides Le Sens du Monde the book La Creation du Monde ou la Mondalisation focuses of this topic. the former must be understood as the latter. when “the city spreads and extends all the way to the point where. one must choose. In Urbi et Orbi Rome is presented as the paradigm for the concept of ‘urbanization’. The expression of the process of ‘world-becoming’ (‘mondanisation’) was used by Nancy (2007: 44) In the author’s Prefatory Note to the English Language Edition. since one implies the exclusion of the other.

and in this movement it disappears as what was supposed to orient the course of this world.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe planet. these terms are conceptual and not historical. which attaches to the word specific meanings. The criticism of this procedure would be the accusation of historical revisionism. Nancy takes the linguistic sophistical approach. These terms are a framework set up to imitate the discourse. In the end. In the case of Sloterdijks’s terms.” Nancy (2007: 33) writes that “the world has lost its capacity to ‘form a world’ (‘faire monde): it seems only to have gained that capacity of proliferating. where he interprets things as items of ‘globalization’. everything takes place as if the world affected and permeated itself with a death drive that soon would have nothing else to destroy than the world itself. Nancy analyses this concept. On the contrary.” Nancy distinguishes ‘globalisation’ (‘globalization’) and ‘mondialisation’ (‘world-forming’). While Sloterdijk extends the concept ‘globalization’ in the historical dimension as a process and thus contributed to historical understanding of this concept. and.” Nancy (2007: 33) writes that “the West has come to encompass the word. which derive like the terms of ‘globalization’ from a constructed and inorganic background. one cannot say that any other configuration of the world or any other philosophy of the universal and of reason have challenged that course. Nancy provides a philosophical reflection of the phenomenon of globalization. which. to the extent of its means. the ‘un-world’ (immonde). and whatever one may think of retrospective illusions. For all that. which is supporting 27 . it the setting of absolute terms. Sloterdik sets up a discourse. until now. up until now. it loses its properties as a city. has never in history impacted the totality of the orb to such an extent. But what Sloterdijk here does. the terms are bound to a discourse. those properties that would allow it to be distinguished from a ‘country’. the approach of Sloterdijk is a historical analysis and interpretation of the history of humanity under the aspect of ‘globalization’. of course with them.

As a noun for a process this word claims that the ‘globalization’ is a permanent process. but also the formalized language of business communication. which set borders.S. but a traditional U.” Formal languages like the languages of computer languages. We have seen that Marcuse demonstrated that the ‘functional language’ leads to the end of the discourse. Like all the followers of the Eleusian Mysteries as a class of humans among all humans are the ones. a person from another culture who visits McDonalds for the first time will consider the restaurant as a contribution to the ‘globalization’ of his/her country. does not associate with McDonalds idea of globalization. This experience is not a real and physical experience. we can see 28 . Here now the discourse applies to all entities of the class that they belong to the ‘world’ as expressed in the literal meaning of ‘globalization’. but the experience of the world around them as ‘global’. American brand and a local tradition. Conclusions: The Results of the ‘Universe of Discourse’ of ‘Globalization’ for the ‘World’ We can consider ‘globalization’ to be part of an argument. Marcuse also stated that this “functional language is a radically anti-historical language: operational rationality has little room and little use for historical reason. and of ‘globalization’ allow the consumer only to participate in the discourse. in the case of the globalization the class of people involved in it participate in the experience of the ‘global’. since its authoritarian form builds up structures.S. In order to illustrate the difference we can give the following example: While someone without the idea of ‘globalization’ living in the U. which participate in the feeling of awe. which Sloterdijk depicts. when the concepts and terms of this language are accepted and used. 3. How regulative such a language operates.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe the idea of ‘globalization’ and actually supports the power construction of the contemporary promoting organizations of ‘globalization’ as positive and evolutionary developed from a historical background. of administration.

Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary. which destroys the organic and historical language with words of historical of paths tracing back to democracy. These terms are invented and created in order to build a discourse around them.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe in the case of Sloterdijk’s conceptualization of the ‘globalization’ as historical principle. October 23. This state we can see as pars pro toto in the conceptualization of ‘globalization’ of Sloterdijk. The Free Dictionary.philosophy-dictionary. The problem is that formal languages are logically correct. Kant Dictionary. Collins English Dictionary. 29 . religion.<http://www. “Cosmos”. But these terms lack any historical documentation. 2000. Complete and Unabridged. This phenomenon is known as the problem of the fallacies. Edition 2010. 2013. 2013. where a term is not a historically grown term. The Free Dictionary. <http://www. May 23. “Cosmos”. but an invented term. October 23. the discourse cannot be traced back to the history and the discourse of it loses the relation to the past of traditional and cultural background.com/cosmos>. but de facto not in any case acceptable as truth.com/cosmos>. and other organic social structures and with this process the representations of political and cultural developments.thefreedictionary. which extend the discourse of ‘globalization’.com/cosmos>.org/SPHERE_OF_A_CONCEPT>. Works Cited “Cosmos”. Philosophy Dictionary. but the actual discourse about ‘globalization’ shows a similar usage of absolute terminology.thefreedictionary. 4. At the point. <http://www. The Free Dictionary. 2013. which a language through wrong reasoning can produce. <http://www. 2003. 2013. The language the philosopher used becomes formal and consists of neologisms. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.thefreedictionary. October 23. “Sphere of a Concept”.

October 23. June 23. 2013. Symbolism of the Sphere. Jürgen.helsinki.1 (2006): 1–25. New York: Harper and Brothers. October 23. 2013. AUTENRIETH.. A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges. “The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article”. Leiden: Brill.1891. Paul M. The Commens Pierce Dictionary. Unversity os Southern California. University of Leuven. Otto J.usc. Jürgen. Georg. Tufts University. HIRSCH.perseus. <http://www. 2013. American Sociological Review 70 (2005): 29–52.” European Journal of Philosophy 14. USC Research Computing Facility.pdf>. “The Discourse of Globalization. 1977. 2013. New German Critique 3 (1974): 49-55.edu /hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999. Lecture delivered by Professor Jürgen Habermas on 26 April 2013 in Leuven”. <http://www. Mats Bergman and Sami Paavola. Sara Lennox and Frank Lennox. BRENDEL. 2013. A Contribution to the History of Earlier Greek Philosophy. 2013. JSTOR.14680378. 2006. <http://wwwbcf. Jürgen.fi/science/commens /terms/universedisc. FISS. HABERMAS. Framing and Sensemaking of an Emerging Concept”. DOI: 10..04..1111/j.tufts.00241. “Democracy. October 23. October 23. HABERMAS. 2005. Peirce's Terminology in His Own Words.0073%3Aentry%3Ds fai%3Dra&highlight=ball>.kuleuven.x.html>. “Religion in the Public Sphere. Perseus Project. Solidarity and the European Crisis. <http://www.2006. Tr. 30 . Peer C.be/communicatie/evenementen/evenementen/j urgen-habermas/democracy-solidarity-and-the-european-crisis>.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe “Universe of Discourse”. HABERMAS. Ed.edu/~fiss/Fiss%20and%20Hirsch%20ASR%202005.

org/reference /subject/ethics/kant/reason/ch04.<http://links.2 (2002): 169-178.edu/entries/globalization/>.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28197423%290 %3A3%3C49%3ATPSAEA%3E2.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe 2013. Perseus Project. 2013.org/ reference/archive/hegel/works/ph/phc2b1b. ROBERTSON.Leiden: Brill. B. 2007. The Creation of the World or ‘Globalization’. LIDDELL.marxists. 2013.. Scott. 2013.edu/hopper /text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999. John. October 22.org/reference/archive/marcuse/works/onedimensional-man/ch04.jstor. Stanford University. 2013. Critique of Pure Reason. SCHNEEWIND.0057%3Aentry%3Dsfai%3 Dra%5E&highlight=ball>. Henry GEORGE. Immanual. ”Globalization and the History of Philosophy. J. INGLIS. Herbert. October 23. 2009. NANCY. 2002. <http://www.perseus. 2013. Marxists Internet Archive.tufts. New Essays in the Philosophy of Normativity.htm>. 31 . Phenomenology of Mind. <http://www. 2013. Oxford: Oxford University Press. October 23.marxists. MARCUSE. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. October 1. A Greek-English Lexicon. <http://plato. Jean Luc.marxists. “Globalization. <http://www. June 23. 2013. Albany: State University of New York Press. Spheres of Reason. KANT. <http://www. Robert.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.” Journal of the History of Ideas 66. William. 2013. Oxford: Clarendon Press.htm>.04. Herbert Marcuse Archive. One-Dimensional Man. Tufts University. 2013. SCHEUERMAN. 1940. Marxists Archive. 1998. Spheres of Philosophical Inquiry and the Historiography of Medieval Philosophy.0.CO%3B2-Z>. . Simon.stanford.htm>. HEGEL. 2013. Marxists Archive.

2013. 2013. Ingrid. Cambridge: Polity Press. October 23. C. B. 32 . Ogden Project Gutenberg. The World As Will And Idea.html>.gutenberg.html>. K. International Communication Theory in Transition: Parameters of the New Global Public Sphere. WITTGENSTEIN. <http://www. Im Weltinnenraum des Kapitals. SLOTERDIJK. R. Tr. 2013. May 23.pdf>. 2005. Tr. HOBAN. Kemp. 2013.M.mit. May 23.edu/comm-forum/papers/volkmer. Arthur.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe SCHOPENHAUER. 2013. 1 of 3. Peter.org/files/5740/5740-pdf. Für eine Philosophische Theorie der Globalisierung. Vol.: Suhrkamp. 2013. VOLKMER. Haldane and J.gutenberg. Project Gutenberg.org/files/38427/38427-h/38427-h. Peter. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. <http://web. For a Philosophical Theory of Globalization. MIT Communications Forum. 2013. Frankfurt a. Wieland. Ludwig. <http://www. Im Weltinnenraum des Kapitals. SLOTERDIJK. In the World Interior of Capital.

and to highlight its incontestable aesthetic values. notre société rejette la poésie comme elle quitte la spiritualité.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe POÉSIE ET RELIGION. l’informatique etc. beaucoup d’œuvres poétiques sont publiées. la radio. creation. and the sacred. Dans son livre Anthologie de la poésie mystique contemporaine. la poésie est un 33 .S. It is time to leave behind the prejudices that characterize our modern era in terms of poetry with religious themes. la littérature et surtout la poésie. 1. because poets of all times have been inspired by the sacred as any other topic. due to this stable coexistence even though has been objected over the centuries. Et pourtant. It is a delicate issue which deserves to be treated anyway. religious. On constate une diminution du nombre de lecteurs de poésie. peu sont ceux en effet qui veulent entrer dans le monde mystérieux de la parole poétique. Korça fabiola_muco@yahoo. sont menacées par le cinéma. De nos jours. We think that this relationship should not be left in limbo. Jean-Luc Maxence cite le poète suisse. Peu nombreux sont ceux qui la goûtent comme si elle n’avait plus rien à nous dire. L’omniprésence de la poésie La littérature est en évolution constante.fr Abstract: This paper aims to study the permanent connection that exists between literature and especially poetry. Son statut change jour après jour sous l’influence de différents facteurs. Noli. LEURS RAPPORTS ET LEURS PARTICULARITÉS DANS LA VIE DE L’HOMME Fabiola KADI Université F. Dans son capharnaüm sonore. human. Gustave Roud: « Croyez-moi. la télévision. inspiration. Keywords: poetry.

des individus. Car sans la poésie nous ne pouvons découvrir ni connaître vraiment le monde où nous nous sommes éveillés à la vie.» 1 La poésie a toujours été présente à toutes les époques de l’humanité. Et pourtant. Est-ce que la poésie a quelque chose à nous dire aujourd’hui qui peut être essentiel? L’expérience de la poésie est avant tout une aventure spirituelle. des chants.-L.flsh. D’après Georges Jean.fr/ditl/Fahey/POSIEPoetry_n. Et pourtant. la rime est plus importante que le contenu de la poésie elle-même. dans l’absence ou l’abondance. elle est toujours liée à l’âme humaine.unilim. que ce soit dans le bonheur ou le malheur. Maxence. même si avec le passage du temps. De la naissance jusqu’à la mort. Ce genre fût le domaine de prédilection de l’humanité dans les moments heureux et tristes. 1999. 34 .Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe présent merveilleux qui nous est offert à tous. grands et petits. que chacun sente dès son plus jeune âge que ce trésor lui appartient ou qu’il peut devenir sien. dans les pleurs et les jeux. la plupart desquels sont de vrais poèmes. et surtout chez les enfants. il importe. elle est « la mémoire des peuples qui n’ont pas l’écriture ».html . l’homme des sociétés traditionnelles a toujours été accompagné par des hymnes. des prières. On dit souvent que la poésie est née dans ses formes orales et écrites comme une manière de mémoriser les événements de la vie humaine. ou des groupes sociaux. voyez-vous. p. http://www. il semble qu’aujourd’hui elle se réduit à un simple sujet scolaire dans lequel.2 La poésie parle de l’expérience humaine. on oublie l’émerveillement de l’âge enfantin 1 2 J. mais beaucoup ne s’en rendent pas compte. En chaque homme. 13. il y a un poète. C’est grâce à elle que nous allons d’émerveillement en émerveillement: elle nous ouvre les yeux et le cœur.

à apprendre des choses nouvelles. absence. s’adressant à la sensibilité.fr/entretiens/yves-bonnefoy-la-poesie-c-est-ce-qui-reprend-a-lareligion-son-bien-30-12-2011-2157_111. 89-90. de délivrer le Je profond des modes d’être du moi. mais le voyage a été celui d’un imprudent. comme la musique. mais on est entré sans vergogne pour se balader dans un désert aride. à la partie ‘irréelle’ de notre vie. Liée intrinsèquement à la réalité humaine. « En quittant le large monde de notre enfance. l’amour pour la patrie). stérile de l’étonnement et de la compréhension. Rimbaud prétendait apporter un changement dans sa vie à travers l’écriture poétique. etc. Pour Mallarmé. Bonnefoy lance l’idée de la profondeur de la poésie en la considérant comme une recherche. 4 35 . Par la poésie. a besoin de s’exprimer ouvertement. en prétendant qu’on a poussé l’horizon de nos limites et on n’a rien vu. l’amitié. le poète touche une très grande variété de sentiments (l’amour. La recherche est compréhensible et l’éloignement est légitime.php. perte. et surtout le poète. 1999. »3 – déclare l’écrivain et l’apologiste chrétien Ravi Zacharias. »4. deuil. au lyrisme individuel et collectif. la religion. non seulement on s’est égaré de la terre des féeries.. d’énergie créatrice de notre existence en tant qu’humains. Ce genre littéraire n’est pas une simple expression artistique.lemondedesreligions. de liberté. R. La poésie élargit notre part de rêve. mort. la famille. c’est ce qui l’aide à s’épanouir. d’avoir une perception plus claire de ce qui l’entoure. « l’écriture devient le matériau d’une réflexion dont l’intention est de clarifier ce que nous sommes. http://www.. le monde ressemble plus à un 3 Traduit à partir de la traduction albanaise. D’après Yves Bonnefoy. la poésie est une jouissance. Zacharias. L’homme. L’enfant contemple avec curiosité tout ce qui l’entoure et c’est ce qui l’aide à avancer dans la vie.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe qui est un des éléments essentiels dans la vie d’un homme. il prend la forme d’une consolation devant les épreuves les plus dures de la vie: déception. p.

Dans la poésie. comme moi-même. 1965. de la Pléiade. à travers sa création. « La Catastrophe d’Igitur ».5 La poésie est une peinture du monde réel auquel elle s’approche en mettant en évidence ses mystères. Le poète a la capacité. Claudel. n’es-tu pas. ou de s’éloigner à travers la transfiguration.Les pieds ici. est: «Qu’est-ce que cela veut dire?». p. étant le seul qui puisse exprimer la réalité profonde. Flambeau dans ce monde âpre et vil. de décider de rêver. Hugo. de vivre ailleurs. 8 V. Hugo. 7 Ch. idée exprimée par Hugo: « .. 510-511. Les rayons et les ombres.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe texte qu’à un spectacle. elle transforme le monde à travers l’imagination.. les yeux ailleurs »6 et Baudelaire qui écrit « Cette vie est un hôpital où chaque malade est possédé du désir de changer de lit. le poète se sépare des autres mortels. mais elle est aussi une magie. le lecteur peut discerner le beau et quitter la laideur de la réalité qui l’entoure. Bibl. Et femme. c’est-à-dire problème. Œuvres en prose. c’est-à-dire exil? »8 Artisan de la langue. 36 . 1861. 1840. et la question qu’il se pose devant ce texte. avec les paroles et les images. même devant cette laideur. Ame. Il invite souvent le lecteur à se retrouver dans la poésie et l’appelle à s’unir à lui pour transformer la réalité: « Toi. Les fleurs du mal. 5 P. indépendamment de la réalité où il vit. Le spleen de Paris. »7 Le poète peut prendre la décision de décrire la réalité dans son éclat ou sa laideur en donnant la possibilité au lecteur de se rapprocher de cette réalité. Les contemplations. Baudelaire.1865. 6 V. Gallimard.

les analyser et les décrire.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe 2. a défini le langage commun comme un moyen pour échanger des informations. La poésie est un art linguistique et en même temps c’est une expérimentation de la langue. qui n’ont pas de lien avec les 9 G. L’homme politique et l’écrivain français Georges Pompidou. on peut – nous l’avons tous fait au collège – analyser un poème. La poésie prend des formes diverses au cours des siècles. la langue est avant tout utile et nous aide à clarifier les idées et les sentiments en écrivant ou en parlant. étudier sa composition. on ne cesse d’essayer de la décrire. rythme. comme une monnaie d’échange dans les entretiens de la vie quotidienne liée aux besoins de la vie. Qu’est-ce que l’âme? On peut constater chez un homme toutes les manifestations de la vie. pour échanger des idées ou des informations quotidiennes. D’après cette définition. La poésie. on doit mettre en face de lui ce qui n’est pas poésie. dans différents pays. 1961. vocabulaire. Pompidou. encore moins une définition. Mais définir ce qui n’est pas poésie. p.»9 Roman Jakobson comme d’autres auteurs. elle reçoit tous les visages possibles qui sont parfois contradictoires. Tout cela est à la poésie ce qu’un cœur qui bat est à l’âme. non une explication. Mais le poète n’est pas seulement une personne qui utilise la langue comme les autres humains. le poète sent différemment des autres personnes. Une manifestation extérieure. écrit: « Qu’est-ce donc que la poésie? bien savant qui le dira. Même si aucune définition de la poésie n’est entièrement satisfaisante. Premièrement. 37 . ce n’est pas facile dans nos jours. 9. harmonie. et suivant les langues. c’est à dire qu’il a d’autres choses à exprimer. un genre difficile à définir Peut-on définir la poésie et ses formes? Si on veut expliquer ce terme. rime.

Peut-être parce que. ou encore avec la syntaxe de la langue quotidienne. nuance.]. « On n'écrit pas avec des idées. le rapport de la Parole à la 10 Dans une lettre à Degas. il change la signification des mots en devenant créateur. On peut conclure que définir la poésie est une démarche impossible.. les animaux. en jouant avec les mots. le lac.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe mots. c'est-à-dire. Pour le poète de nos jours. l’alphabet était une des plus grandes œuvres poétiques. des pensées ou des actes qui doivent rester en dehors du champ poétique. pour leur sonorité. parce qu’elle se situe. entre la vue et la pensée. mais pour leur pouvoir magique. Pendant l’époque classique ou romantique. nous ne pourrons pas découvrir les frontières de la poésie. la liste des thèmes poétiques était vraiment limitée. mais toutes les réalités possibles. il crée des ‘images’ et il renforce. L’efficacité de la parole poétique atteint son comble dans la magie des mots. Les thèmes traditionnels étaient plutôt liés à la nature. comme l’étymologie du mot en grec ‘poiesis’ l’indique. Pour Novalis et Mallarmé. D’après Mallarmé. »10 De cette façon. on écrit avec des mots. Dans la poésie. Aujourd’hui les poètes peuvent s’inspirer des objets aussi. “Le rapport que l’homme entretient à la poésie n’est pas horizontal [. Deuxièmement. du paysage. créer’. 38 . veut dire exercer un pouvoir considérable. A travers les mêmes mots et le même schéma linguistique. Le poète joue avec les mots en les employant non seulement pour leur valeur conceptuelle. la parole ne recouvre pas une seule réalité. de matériaux dont on n’aurait jamais imaginé qu’ils puissent devenir des sujets poétiques. la lune. il n’y a aucune partie de la nature. le poète s’approche d’Orphée et de son pouvoir pour soumettre la nature. la mer et aux sentiments. Même si on arrive à définir les formes poétiques caractéristiques des poètes d’une époque. signifiant ‘produire. comme les fleurs.. il n’y a pas de distinction. Nommer les choses et les êtres. les êtres humains. il exprime ses idées. Les poètes s’inspirent de différents sujets.

le Logos.htm. »12 Liée à la profondeur de l’âme. Cette sensation poétique nous aide à regarder la langue poétiquement. La définition de ce terme est plurivoque.perso.13 Peut. 12 39 .perso. un concept difficile à définir Le terme ‘sacré’ est une notion très difficile à définir. s’éprouve dans le sentiment. où la parole est avant tout poétique. dans son essai célèbre “Le sacré et le profane”.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe poésie est vertical.fr/cours/art6. le sacré ne se comprend pas de la même manière. Ce que la parole poétique exprime. D’un auteur à l’autre.htm. Dès le début du XX-ième siècle.fr/cours/art6. p. Elle n’est pas une simple technique. Le sacré. signe de la dimension de l’intériorité qui habite l’être humain et ne saurait le quitter un seul instant. avec le sociologue français Emile Durkheim. 14. 13 M. http://sergecar. par des méthodes et critiques avec des intentions différentes. est beaucoup plus large et plus profond que l’intellect qui l’analyse. Les gens ont toujours été bercés entre l’idée de la dualité de 11 http://sergecar.neuf. publié en 1957. au lieu de la considérer comme un simple moyen. historien des religions et philosophe roumain. elle est la Parole revenue à son expression la plus intime. écrit: « La première définition qu’on peut donner au sacré est le contraire du profane ».”11 La poésie est une création qui a sa source dans la Parole. ressemblant toujours à l’âme humaine.neuf. « La poésie n’est pas une ‘autre’ parole. la poésie ne peut pas s’expliquer. Eliade. qui la décode en éléments linguistiques. Mircea Eliade.on faire une démarcation finale du sacré et du profane? Chaque religion du monde a dans son essence la distinction entre le sacré et le profane. Le sacré a été défini de différents points de vue. ce terme demeure au centre de la définition de la religion. 3. elle exprime la Vie. même si le sacré surpasse la sphère religieuse. 1965.

Hermès exerce le rôle de l’envoyé des dieux pour apporter des messages aux Grecs. Il a créé le monde en nommant les choses: “Dieu appela la lumière jour. les dieux décident de communiquer avec les gens pour leur donner différentes informations. Le sacré est un objet d’étude depuis des siècles même si aujourd’hui. plus il attire l’attention et éveille la curiosité. Les Grecs anciens avaient la croyance polythéiste. Historiquement dans le monde. »14 Dans notre étude. Ils craignent les dieux parce qu’ils peuvent exercer leur puissance surnaturelle contre les Grecs. et les ténèbres nuit. 40 . Il y eut un soir et il y eut un matin. un monde connu et un autre mystérieux. il semble qu’on veuille le faire disparaître. Ce fut le premier 14 http://silonrecoltecequelonseme. leur demander d’accomplir différents devoirs.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe l’univers. plus on s’oppose au sacré. et l’autre surnaturel. Tout a été créé par la parole de Dieu. à la fois individuelle et collective. dans la Genèse. la Parole de Dieu était l’acte créateur dès le début. Tirésias interprète les messages des dieux qu’Olympe envoie aux gens. De l’autre côté. de notre présence au monde. Le poète. entre un monde doublé. Mais. Ils jouent le rôle d’un intermédiaire entre les immortels et les mortels. ou sacré et ce qui est profane. 4. nous avons centré notre attention sur le deuxième aspect. Les religions sont là pour domestiquer le sacré. La religion est une élaboration sociale qui vient dans un second temps. l’un sacré et l’autre profane. le religieux. collaborateur de Dieu créateur On sait que dans l’Ancien Testament. une expérience spontanée. visible et invisible. On pourrait dire qu'elle ritualise et codifie le sacré. l'organiser. le rendre intelligible. il y a eu une séparation profonde entre ce qui est considéré comme religieux.com/2012/05/.blogspot. Dans certains cas. l’un naturel. il faut faire aussi la distinction entre les termes sacré et religieux: « Le sacré ainsi défini est un ressenti.

l’admirer. “poiètès” est celui qui crée quelque chose. dans la Bible aussi. il devient collaborateur du grand Créateur. Et si on s’appuie sur la signification de l’étymologie de la parole. 41 . Genèse 1:5. je suis tellement occupé à vous regarder que je crains d'en oublier de mourir.” Il y a d’autres poètes émerveillés de ce Dieu. Le poète est un intermédiaire. Comment le poète. est celui qui parle à la place de l’Autre. Dans son intimité. “Ainsi donc. qu’après sa conversion. il y a un seul vrai poète qui est Dieu même.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe jour. mais par l’effet d’une grâce divine. Il atteint cela à l’aide de la conception du symbole et de la théorie des correspondances. avec son œuvre réalisée en six jours. chacun d’eux n’est capable d’une belle création que dans la voie sur laquelle l’a poussé la Muse […] ” On retrouve la théorie de Platon sur l’inspiration dans les textes saints des chrétiens. dans l’acte de la création. le rôle de la Muse. en présentant ‘l’héritage des temps primitifs’ et en devenant ‘prophète de l’avenir’. Gérard de Nerval écrit: « Seul le poète peut franchir le seuil qui sépare la vie réelle d’une autre vie ». rêvant du Logos éternel. est essentiel dans la création poétique. Paul Claudel était si lié à son créateur. Quel rôle jouera le poète dans cette merveilleuse œuvre de la création? Il doit connaître cette œuvre. inventeur d’un univers avec lequel il communique à travers sa langue analogique. en tant que ce n’est pas que par un effet de l’art qu’ils disent tant et de si belles choses sur les sujets dont ils parlent […].”15 Le poète. découvrir ses secrets les plus profonds. Il y a des poètes qui présentent une vision chrétienne de l’être humain et de l’univers. exprimer son harmonie. dont le poète devient l’image. Le poète est parmi ceux qui ont les pleins droits d’entrer dans un autre monde. le poète est bercé dans le regard du Seigneur. Alors que Victor Hugo fait appel aux lecteurs 15 Bible. de Dieu. qui est présent dans l’histoire individuelle et collective. Le prophète. va-t-il écrire? Quelle sera son inspiration? D’après Platon. il déclarait: “Mon Dieu.

comme le créateur des êtres uniques. Agrippa d’Aubigné commence son livre Les Tragiques. Des temps futurs perçant les ombres. 2013. 42 .”17 Le rapport entre Dieu et le poète est vraiment surprenant. 8. Dieu est le poète des poètes qui jette un doux regard vers sa créature. D’Aubigné. par un appel solennel qu’il fait à Dieu (comme Homère fait appel à la Muse au début d’Iliade et d’Odyssée). Le poète – créateur devient l’image de Dieu – Créateur à travers sa spiritualité et le pouvoir créateur de son âme. Peuples! écoutez le poète ! Écoutez le rêveur sacré ! Dans votre nuit. il donne vie. Les Tragiques. […] Homme. p. Le poète imite Dieu dans sa création. Dieu parle à voix basse à son âme Comme aux forêts et comme aux flots. un voyant. Il participe à l’œuvre de Dieu. L’œuvre artistique la plus originale dès le commencement est ce regard poétique de Dieu vers l’être humain. il garde le souvenir du ciel. sans lui complète. Lui seul a le front éclairé. il invente quelque chose à 16 17 V. un prophète. efficace à mes vers. A. il crée. il est doux comme une femme. Mais. Le poète aussi. Il imite Dieu et comme Dieu est source du sacré. Livre VII. Il apparaît dans la Bible comme un Dieu artiste.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe afin d’écouter le poète comme un rêveur sacré qui parle à l’âme humaine et lui enseigne le message de Dieu après l’avoir reçu.16 Le poète est un mage. Hugo. Il peut entrer dans un autre monde et même s’il se trouve dans un monde matériel. dans le poiein (création) universel. le poète devient aussi source de poésie. avec ces mots: “Donne force à ma voix.

Mounier. elle influe sur l’homme et lui 18 E. mais nous voulons mettre en évidence l’importance de l’étude du religieux. Le religieux et le mythologique gréco-romain. 1968. ce qu’il fait. il peut créer pour ainsi donner une réponse au mal à travers son regard créateur. sont une partie essentielle du patrimoine culturel européen. est un don sacré et ils ont mis leurs plumes au service de la création du beau. La poésie . plus proche du langage de l’art et surtout de la poésie – du langage symbolique. Le religieux est souvent utilisé pour mettre en évidence une identité. Le poète est conscient du mal qui existe dans le monde et même s’il ne peut pas l’expliquer. il le fait comme étant choisi par Dieu pour continuer sa création. La foi est un élément qui accompagne l’homme pendant toute son histoire avec une influence dans tous les domaines de sa vie.un pont entre l’art et la foi Est-ce qu’il vaut la peine d’étudier le religieux dans la poésie? Ce n’est pas la première fois qu’on traite ce sujet. On n’est pas très audacieux si on avoue que la plupart des littératures nationales ont leurs débuts dans les croyances religieuses.. 5. La religion apporte une vision sur l’éternité à travers laquelle elle explique le monde.18 La foi ouvre un mystère. il est une constante très importante de l’identité nationale de différents pays. On dit souvent que les religions donnent la forme aux civilisations. ils ont cru que créer.. Le rapport qui existe entre l’art et la foi a été discuté pendant toute l’histoire humaine. C’est un langage spécial. p.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe travers son art. 8. 43 . car il nous donne la possibilité de mieux comprendre la littérature et le monde en général. il peut accomplir une œuvre d’amour en créant du beau. Beaucoup de poètes ont découvert un lien entre l’art et la foi. elles colorent les sociétés. une source d’inspiration permanente.

elle peut tout simplement se sentir. ou de son âme. la plus voisine des choses divines. 19 Ibidem. l’homme a toujours utilisé comme vecteur la poésie lorsqu’il a voulu parler de Dieu. Rina Lasnier affirme: « Qui nous demande l'infini de l'amour nous demande la présence de Dieu. 33. De la même manière. La religion et les valeurs traditionnelles peuvent être une inspiration pour les poètes comme tout autre thème. La foi est présentée comme la connaissance du Créateur.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe offre une liberté ‘créatrice’19. Et comme le sacré tient du mystère. Lasnier. 2003. membre de l’Académie canadienne. 2003. c’est l’un qui a eu le plus grand nombre d’interprétations. Dans la Bible se trouve le Cantique des Cantiques. 1941. 21 J. de deux amoureux. p. L’union de la foi avec le zèle poétique n’est pas une rareté chez les poètes de tous temps. 20 44 . ce qui crée de la liberté. qui se cherchent jusqu’à ce qu’ils se retrouvent. comme le sacré émerveille les croyants. une valeur de modèle esthétique et stylistique. ils ne peuvent pas se séparer. Joubert. défend l’idée que comme le sacré appartient à l’âme. la poésie a toujours été liée au sacré. capable d’apporter un renouvellement. la poésie aussi est un mystère. D’après Rina Lasnier. qui est un des plus beaux chants d’amour dans la littérature universelle. Ce livre chante l’amour du couple. On a donné à la Bible.-L. Joubert.” »21 Jean-Louis Joubert. R. la poésie fascine ses lecteurs. p. Le spirituel et la poésie marchent côte à côte. qui se rencontrent et se séparent. la poésie « est l’âme qui parle à l’âme »22. des ‘sources’ d’inspiration.-L. 22 J. » 20 Et Victor Hugo écrit: « La poésie est de toutes les choses humaines. 8. dans son livre La Poésie. elle ne s’explique pas. De toutes les livres de la Bible.

le nom de Dieu n’a été cité qu’une seule fois et on y chante l’attirance de l’homme et de la femme. Il occupe la place de tout autre être dans le monde et en ce qui concerne le mystique. Il est l’homme qui ne possède rien à part sa plume. il accueille l’Esprit créateur de Dieu et l’expérience mystique est ce 23 Bible. Cantique des Cantiques 8 :6. Donc. Le poète accepte la rencontre de la prière dans la profondeur de son être. il n’est interdit de chanter l’amour. les fleuves ne l'emporteront pas. le poète est un pèlerin envoyé par Dieu sur terre. il a le privilège. on voit que le sacré n’exclut pas la poésie. par laquelle il gagne tout. On ne doit pas être surpris du fait qu’il se trouve dans la Bible. On a donné différentes interprétations. bien au contraire. il en devient la source.7. mais il y a aussi l’interprétation littérale d’après laquelle le Cantique est un poème qui parle de deux amoureux. à la différence des autres mortels. Comment se peut-il que ces vers se trouvent dans la Sainte Ecriture? La réponse de la tradition chrétienne a toujours été positive. l’une disant que le livre est une allégorie de l’amour de Dieu pour son peuple. Le poète ressemble à Moïse qui frappe le rocher en fait sortir de l’eau courante pour irriguer les vallées. D’après Francis Jammes. un sentiment accepté et béni par Dieu. Ses flammes sont des flammes brûlantes. 45 . la passion est implacable comme l'abîme. mais très souvent.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Car l'amour est fort comme la mort. d’entendre les voix qui nous révèlent le Ciel. c'est un feu divin ! Les torrents ne peuvent éteindre l'amour.23 Dans ce livre biblique. pour trouver les traces du Paradis perdu et du Ciel retrouvé. car dans aucun endroit du Livre Saint. Il est l’homme à qui Dieu a redonné la gloire perdue dans le jardin d’Eden.

24 F. il y a un mystique. Francis Jammes déclare: « Je conclus donc à ce qu'un mystique religieux. La plupart des croyants voyaient les poètes comme une barrière pour l’avancement spirituel de l’homme. dans tout vrai poète. Les chrétiens des premiers siècles. chantres des passions humaines et même souvent des propagateurs de l’immoralité. on peut souvent trouver des œuvres de grande beauté. regardaient la culture païenne et son expression littéraire comme illégales et interdites. où on peut voir avec les yeux du cœur l’influence de l’amour qui existait dès la création. dans tout poète exprimant une pensée et un sentiment purs. il nous présente le divin et le mystère du Ciel. n'est pas nécessairement un poète. 46 . au IIième jusqu’au IV-ième siècle expriment des critiques contre les poètes. Mais la réciproque n'est point exacte. Des philosophes du temps de Saint Augustin. et j'affirmerai hardiment que. Library of Alexandria. par contre on peut appuyer l’idée que la dimension divine accompagne tous les poètes. Dans les écrits religieux. Les littératures des pays chrétiens qui ont embrassé les premiers l’Evangile. un vrai mystique. Le poète continue l’œuvre de la Création. qui se soumettent aux rêves et à l’imagination. Pourtant. le rapport entre l’art et la foi est souvent vu comme contradictoire. Le Poète Et L'Inspiration: Orné Et Gravé Par Armand Coussens. de la dégradation morale. mais la poésie littéraire dans laquelle on trouve des traces du religieux. des traditions polythéistes. Jammes.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe regard qui dépasse tout autre regard. Pendant l’histoire humaine. expriment ouvertement leur opposition contre les poètes qui sont considérés comme porteurs de paganisme. il passe à travers différentes étapes. Il ressemble ainsi aux saints qui continuent l’œuvre de la Croix. mais dans cette étude on ne va pas étudier les écrits religieux. »24 On ne peut agréer à l’idée que tous religieux soient poètes.

David. 137e année. 1993. N. on raconte que les chrétiens de Bitinie s’unissaient « à jour fixe pour chanter un hymne dialogué qu’ils adressent au Christ comme à un dieu ».Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Pourtant cela ne les a pas empêchés de connaître une partie des œuvres de la poésie latine et d’apprécier cette poésie pour ses valeurs esthétiques. Du rapprochement des formes antiques et la louange du Christ. http:/www. 26 Ibidem.” 26 David est apprécié et honoré par Hilaire de Poitiers comme le premier poète du Christ. 881-888. on a une tolérance du christianisme et une ouverture envers la culture profane. pp.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/crai_0065-0536_1993_num_137_4_15274.persee. d’autre part. mais elle a renouvelé les valeurs religieuses et les formes anciennes à travers cette poésie. Les vers que le poète Hilaire de Poitiers avait écrits comme épigraphe dans son recueil poétique au milieu du IV-ième siècle. Il y a une mutuelle sympathie. 4. Dès l’an 111. témoignent de cette ouverture de la poésie chrétienne envers les poètes: “Heureux le poète à la harpe.persee. 25 Le changement positif dans le rapport des poètes et des religieux est lié à deux facteurs principaux: d’une part. L’expression poétique de la foi chrétienne n’a pas détrôné la poésie antique.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/crai_0065-0536_1993_num_137_4_15274. les poètes non-chrétiens ont un penchant pour la poésie liturgique chrétienne. 27 http:/www. naît une nouvelle poésie latine dans laquelle on sent l’influence de l’univers religieux. 47 . In: Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. qui le premier Annonce au monde par des hymnes le Christ tout entier. dans une lettre de Pline le Jeune. 27 25 Jacques Fontaine. pour déclarer la divinité du Christ: on voit apparaître les traits caractéristiques de la poésie ancienne chrétienne. Esthétique et foi d'après la poésie latine chrétienne des premiers siècles.

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe

Ainsi, on voit la naissance d’un nouvel art poétique, qui a ses
origines dans le cœur de la foi. Dans les hymnes de Saint Ambroise de
Milan, on trouve la pensée religieuse et le zèle chrétien, la plus grande
contemplation et l’humilité des demandes quotidiennes qui apparaissent
dans son œuvre à travers une langue qui semble des fois antique et d’autres
fois biblique. Dans son œuvre il y a un mélange de l’éternel avec le
temporel, du céleste avec le terrestre, ce qui rend son œuvre acceptable par
les religieux, ainsi que par les non-religieux. Aujourd’hui, après plus de
seize siècles, son œuvre est appréciée, on en lit des parties, on les
commente, on traduit ses hymnes qui trouvent leur place dans les
environnements chrétiens et en dehors d’eux. Le rythme de l’hymne de
Saint Ambroise va servir de modèle pour la poésie liturgique médiévale.
Dans toutes ces poésies ou hymnes, on sent la présence de ce que Paul
Claudel a nommé « La Muse qui s’appelle la Grâce ». Les chrétiens du IVième siècle avaient une nouvelle attitude envers la culture antique: ils y ont
trouvé un instrument particulier d’expression et de possibilité de
transmettre leur foi.
Ainsi, la poésie chrétienne trouve son origine dans deux sources: les
traditions de la poésie latine et les nouvelles valeurs chrétiennes. La loi
divine accepte avec plaisir les ornements de la langue terrestre. Libérée des
liens religieux païens, la beauté de la parole poétique et de sa langue imagée
chante l’objet principal de la foi chrétienne: le Seigneur Christ. Les prêtres
on voulu que la liturgie soit littéraire pour donner à Dieu de beaux chants,
mais aussi pour attirer les milieux cultivés qui connaissent la valeur des
vers poétiques. Hilaire de Poitiers exprime très clairement son idée liée à
l’importance de la louange de Dieu qu’il appelle ‘l’absolu de toute beauté’.
D’après lui, on ne peut pas contempler les beautés de la nature sans penser
à la majesté et à la beauté du Créateur. La beauté des créatures nous fait
connaître Celui qui se cache derrière ce grand tableau, le Créateur même.
Peu à peu, les poètes chrétiens remplacent l’appel traditionnel de la Muse
par l’appel de l’Esprit. Souvent, leur prière « Que le Saint Esprit inspire
48

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe

mon poème », ouvre les œuvres. Le témoignage le plus vif de cette
coexistence de la foi avec l’art, dès les premiers siècles après Jésus Christ,
est un ‘poète en prose’, un homme chez lequel, la sagesse et l’inspiration
poétique et musicale vont de pair: Saint Augustin, pour qui Dieu est la
« Beauté toujours ancienne et toujours nouvelle ». Dans l’œuvre La cité de
Dieu, il exprime son admiration pour les beautés de la parole, de la poésie
et de la musique comme des cadeaux précieux que les hommes possèdent.
La langue d’après lui possède des ornements inestimables qui sont des dons
qui représentent le pouvoir de l’esprit humain, la nature qui ont comme
auteur le vrai Dieu souverain. A travers sa méditation profondément
poétique, Augustin élève sa poésie au rang d’un art spirituel. Chez Augustin
s’unissent le poète antique inspiré et l’appel biblique chrétien. Il a écrit des
prières sous la forme de poèmes qui ont une valeur esthétique
exceptionnelle. Les Confessions parlent d’une aventure spirituelle des plus
passionnantes. Ce livre est empli de la présence de Dieu, mais en même
temps c’est un livre très humain. L’esprit, à travers une très grande
inspiration, passant d’une illusion à l’autre, d’une souffrance à l’autre,
cherche dans son angoisse la seule Bonté jusqu'à ce que, après l’avoir
trouvée, il ressente la paix. D’autres esprits tournés vers Dieu, ont raconté
leur itinéraire pour arriver jusqu'à la fin, dans la présence du plus Haut.
La poésie a toujours été liée au céleste et le poète a toujours été vu
comme un être diffèrent des autres, avec des dons spéciaux qui viennent
d’en Haut. Pour dépasser la mort, pour l’affronter, l’homme a besoin de
quelque chose qui le surpasse, qui le précède ou le succède. Il y a toujours
eu une réflexion sur les liens intrinsèques entre le sacré et le poétique.
Charles Péguy et Paul Claudel au XX-ième ont écrit des prières qui
attirent le lecteur croyant et non-croyant à travers des vers pleins de beauté
et riches en images. D’après Charles Péguy, la poésie n’existe point sans le
sacré, et Paul Claudel écrit quelques années après sa conversion: « Peu à
peu, lentement et péniblement, se faisait jour dans mon cœur cette idée que
l’art et la poésie aussi sont des choses divines »28. Après une longue
28

http://www.dieumaintenant.com/conversionclaudel.html.

49

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe

période d’hésitation, Claudel comprend que le mur élevé entre l’art et la foi
doit s’écrouler. Il écrit:
« Les gens irréfléchis prétendent que les enseignements de la
religion, morale et dogme, sont un appauvrissement, une
contrariété pour l'artiste […]. Loin d'être un appauvrissement,
l'adjonction à la chose visible de la chose invisible fait plus que
de l'enrichir, elle lui donne un sens, elle la complète ».29
Il croit que le poète s’inspire de la divinité, d’une puissance qui
vient d’en Haut et il exprime cette conviction dans ses vers:
“Et moi, dit le poète, pour attraper les images et les idées,
Il me suffit de cet appât de papier blanc,
Les dieux n’y passeront point sans y laisser leurs traces
Comme les oiseaux sur la neige.”30
6. Conclusion:
La poésie contient du sacré. Ces deux éléments ont toujours eu des
relations très étroites, même si parfois il semble difficile d’accepter ce fait.
Les œuvres des poètes chrétiens des premiers siècles, à travers l’inspiration
et la forme sont un hommage offert à Dieu et une partie inséparable de la
source inépuisable de la poésie européenne. L’homme a toujours senti le
besoin du spirituel, de ce qui est en dessus de lui et le poète exprime les
aspirations de l’être humain. Oublier la poésie dans laquelle on traite le
religieux, serait une perte considérable pour l’histoire de la littérature en
général. Prétendre la séparation absolue de la poésie avec la religion c’est
ignorer la contribution des grands poètes appartenant au patrimoine
mondial dont une grande partie ont écrit des œuvres merveilleuses inspirées
de la foi et de leur monde spirituel très riche. Nous pensons qu’il faut
redécouvrir la beauté de ces œuvres au lieu de les laisser dans l’oubli par
29
30

Ibidem.
P. Claudel, 1925, Feuilles de saints, p. 113.

50

pp. 1961. ZACHARIAS Ravi. 2003. MAXENCE Jean-Luc. 1993. FONTAINE Jacques.com/2012/05/. 2013. EBook #29523. 1965. Paris: Hachette Livre BNF. La poésie. luttant tout ce qui contient du religieux. 1979. Paris: Hachette Livre BNF. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. Can man live without God?. HUGO Victor.neuf. Les contemplations. Anthologie de la poésie mystique contemporaine. La Bible Segond. Les rayons et les ombres. « A celle qui est voilée ». Genève: Société Biblique de Genève. 1968.com/conversionclaudel. JOUBERT Jean-Louis. orig. L’engagement et la foi.perso.html .: 1857). POMPIDOU Georges. LASNIER Rina. 1925. 881-888. 4.blogspot. http://silonrecoltecequelonseme. Le Poète Et L'Inspiration: Orné Et Gravé Par Armand Coussens. (Éd. Feuilles de Saints.fr/cours/art6. MOUNIER Emmanuel. 137e année. CLAUDEL Paul. HUGO Victor. In: Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.dieumaintenant. Paris: Presses de la Renaissance. A mund të jetojë njeriu pa Perëndinë. Les fleurs du mal. Paris: Gallimard. 51 . ELIADE Mircea. 2012. Paris: Librairie générale française. 1856). Éditions de la Société des écrivains canadiens.1999.htm. Esthétique et foi d'après la poésie latine chrétienne des premiers siècles. N.1840). Anthologie de la poésie française. Paris: Armand Colin. Paris: Gallimard. Library of Alexandria.1941. Le jeu de la voyagère. Ersekë: Shigjeta (Original. http://www. Bibliographie BAUDELAIRE Charles.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe des jugements subjectifs et souvent fanatiques. 2002. (Éd. JAMMES Francis. Paris: Magnard (Éd. Le sacré et le profane. 1999. 1994) http://sergecar.

flsh.fr/citations/guillaume-du-bartas.unilim.com/Religion/Actualite/La-poesie-l-ineffable-en-queted-une-parole-_NG_-2009-02-26-531642. http://www. http:/www. 52 .evene.html . Extrait de L'Uranie.fr/entretiens/yves-bonnefoy-la-poesie-cest-ce-qui-reprend-a-la-religion-son-bien-30-12-20112157_111.fr/ditl/Fahey/POSIEPoetry_n. http://www.la-croix.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/crai_00650536_1993_num_137_4_15274.lemondedesreligions.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe http://www.php.persee. http://www.

In the context of the ever growing use of technology through e-Learning and OpenCourseWare and of the new generation of tablet-toting. 2013.ro Peter J. Present day education has recently been subject to several drivers. 53 .Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe THE WEB IS THE LIMIT: LANGUAGE. at a fast pace and at a fraction of the cost of a traditional college education. languages. the university will continue to extend its reach to students around the world. In their attempt to 1 Conole. CULTURE AND MOOCS Silvia FLOREA Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu silvia. non-negotiable. peripheries. disruptive online competition space. In this context. particularly the hegemony of English and Western cultures against the rising “politics of marginality” that other languages are forced to adopt in a dominant. teaching and learning practices1. hyper-connected youth. hegemonies.ro Abstract: MOOCs remain the buzzwords of the current landscape of higher education (HE) provision. offer.ro Diana FLOREA Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu diana. Our paper aims to examine the role of language and culture in online learning.wells@bptc.florea@ulbsibiu. “To Mooc or not to Mooc” remains a question that several universities are beginning to consider against more pressing critical reflections on issues pertaining to their language and culture. WELLS Bucharest Professional Training College peter. Keywords: MOOCs. all of whom have been impacting severely on traditional university’s demand. diversity. culture. unbounded by geography and time zones.florea@ulbsibiu.

These were primarily based on interactive media. embracing multiple denominations: educational technology. 2009. These represented the first generation of MOOCs and were known as cMOOCs. 2013. 3 54 . such as lectures. informed and pedagogically effective design decisions 3. Siemens et al. networked learning. in this respect. created the first MOOC in 2008.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe expand their online offerings and make more effective use of technologies. There was no ‘right way’ throughout the course. technology-enhanced learning4. with an increasing demand for higher student numbers and greater diversity. videos and text. universities have tackled new competitive niches and business models. beginning 2011. In this context. 2007. a course that aimed to foster the availability of social and participatory media. one notices their rapid emergence as a disruptive education technology. Soon. the issues pertaining to universities’ stated aims of developing students’ skills in finding and using information effectively have gradually shifted towards developing learners’ 21st century digital literacy skills2 so as to equip them for an increasingly complex and changing societal context. known as xMOOCs. They also represent a cry for taking online education (hence MOOCs) more seriously and making more serious. and a second generation of MOOCs emerged. and more recently. 4 Conole and Oliver. 2012. variants of this course quickly started to proliferate. Harley et al. forewarning all stakeholders of further changes to come. an example of how technologies can disrupt the status quo of education. 5 Glennie. called ‘Connectivism and Connective Knowledge’. the emphasis being on personalised learning via a personal learning environment. learning technology. Conole. Looking into the relatively short history of MOOCs. MOOCs represent. heavily relying on the interaction with a distributed network of peers. with the 2 Jenkins. Open Educational Resources5.

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe emphasis on individual learning. the corporate university. online tests and digital documents as alternatives to traditional classroom instructions. typically free of charge. where students tailor their courses and credits over a period of time. rather than learning through peers. re-purposing. MOOCs respond to the challenges faced by organisations and distributed disciplines. (based on e-learning and sharing content). MOOCs are based on principles stemming from connectivist pedagogy. whereby thousands of people from around the world confluence in one unified learning experience 7. as ‘traditional’ higher education institutions have had to rethink their governance models in order to adapt to these changes and domestic reforms. the on-demand university. as more pedagogically–oriented practices. To others. Such unprecedented ‘unbundling of education delivery’ is also posing many and significant managerial challenges. government or professional practitioners. the learning hotel. 2011. Or. and feeding forward with the purpose of creating more connected and hence effective learning8. 8 Downes. They provide access to recorded lectures. re-mixing. 2010. New managerial types have been emerging. presenting thus an ideal medium for enquiries into how good practice for teaching for cultural inclusion might be applied online. MOOCs represent fully online learning and teaching spaces involving thousands of learners from around the world6. including the ‘Amazon university’. Cormier. The intense discussion around their present and future impact on higher education has spurred many definitions. which continually changes flows of collaboration and interchanges between academic scholars and corporate. including aggregation. Instead of attending a face-to-face course. 2012. To some. 7 55 . arguably said to represent a paradigm shift in the 6 Daniel. students may attend one course online.

12 Nisbett. rather “cultural-specific ventures that are grounded and provided in a specific cultural context” 10. The role of language and culture in online learning has been wellresearched11. Henderson. culture plays a significant role in instructional 9 Squires and Husmann. an ever more pressing issue with MOOCs is closely related to the complex role of language and culture in such type of online learning. pedagogical approach or change in the university management that these new teaching and learning technologies are apt to either point to or determine. as well as the umbrella university. then technologies themselves are not a culturally neutral phenomenon. 1996. 2007. If we accept that language. 11 Chen. are culturally embedded phenomena and not mere tools of communication. 2003. Hsu. Since education and instructional design are social processes. 13 Mason. 2012: 394. 10 56 . and since education occurs within culture. and since MOOCs do not take place in a glocalized space of acculturation. 2010. there is a strong desire and need to preserve cultural diversity and enhance community cohesiveness through unique cultural expression13. attitudes and modes of thinking that are difficult to separate from all learning processes 12. Masoumi & Lindström. & Caropreso. cultural diversity remains a valuable asset for addressing many of the global challenges that learning communities are nowadays facing. irrespective of the definition. which sees the university as a cooperative rather than a selfcontained entity with fragmented activities. the university becoming a “holding structure with a conglomerate of separately managed businesses”9. 2006. like culture and learning. 2012.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe development of organisational human capital. Parrish & Linder-VanBerschot. Owing to deeply rooted cultural values. However. In response to the threat of loss of cultural identity in the face of globalization.

in our view.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe planning and design. Indeed. Hence. the issue is worth looking into more closely. in all probability. 2003. The complication arises when separation from the educators’ own cultures and the culture of the training that they develop can no longer be made. that they will participate and work in English and. 2014. a great challenge. per se. a disclaimer for the use of the ‘neocolonialism’ term may point to our understanding (and acceptance) of the term based on the following definition: 14 Nisbett. Altbach. In other words. is represented by the educators’ cultural perspectives represented in the design decisions they make in the MOOCs and the very ways in which they streamline their students to the specific professional. it is somewhat tacitly assumed by individuals and institutions that those who participate willingly in a MOOC accept. First. however. academic and mainstream cultures which they represent. then we may as well ask ourselves: who controls knowledge?16 And for what purposes? We don’t claim to be able to provide answers to either question in what follows. harnessing knowledge transfer and information technology for higher education. Now let us look more closely into the relationship between different communities of learners and massive open online courses. 15 57 . if MOOCs are seen as some form of neocolonialism15 and if neocolonialism of today represents imperialism in its final and (perhaps its) most dangerous stage. instructional providers must be aware both of their learners’ cultures and the ways in which these cultures manifest themselves in learning environments and preferences 14. In all enthusiasm created by their potential to be a cheap way of delivering education to vast audiences. encounter (as well as be assessed against) the hegemony of North Atlantic epistemologies. 16 Ibid. attitudes and ways of interpreting and seeing the world.

since the vast majority of instructors are American. If the transmission of knowledge in education is determined by factors such as present experience. a perennial open question or merely a sign of intellectual fatigue?17 The term ‘neocolonialism’ together with its ensuing relationship with MOOCs has also been recently used by Philip G.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe The term ‘postcolonialism’. then what exactly does it mean? Does it. It certainly does not imply that the colonial era is over: that a stake has been driven through the heart of Empire that it might never again return. bolstering its higher-education hegemony” 18 Indeed. Director of the Center for International Higher Education at Boston College. historical reproduction. and teaching strategies of the American academic system. 2014. 1997:22. The ‘post’ in postcolonial remains. negotiated 17 18 Huggan. “the online courses threaten to exacerbate the worldwide influence of Western academe. it could be argued. since MOOCs’ content and culture are American oriented and based on already existing pedagogical ideas and practices. who holds that since MOOCs are largely an American-led effort. 58 . Altbach. irritatingly cryptic. it still reflects the original course and the culture embedded therein). at least insofar as MOOCs are concerned. like the ‘post’ in postmodernism. since the instruction language is English (even when the course content is translated in other languages. quite the reverse. for continuing modes of imperialist thought and action across much of the contemporary world. with most courses coming from universities in the United States or other Western countries. risk becoming an empty signifier. If it doesn't mean ‘after’ colonialism. it reflects. nonetheless. methodological approaches. it follows that no knowledge can be neutral. has arisen to account for neocolonialism. Altbach. the academic traditions.

classifies. His theoretical model for the analysis of university education based on a classification of knowledge and focusing on three ‘message systems’ 22 curricula. “(h)ow a society selects. A combination of powerful academic cultures. In other words. Bernstein argues that it is ‘a public institution central to the production and reproduction of distributive injustices’. 19 see Bernstein. then meaning-making and knowledge construction are dominant in the transmission of knowledge 19. offers little solace: Those responsible for creating. 1996:5. 2014. transmits and evaluates the educational knowledge it considers to be public. Focusing on education service. influence happens organically and without conspiracies. and the orientation of most of those creating and teaching MOOCs ensures the domination of the largely English-speaking academic systems23. Bernstein. distributes. 21 Bernstein. 1971a. undeliberate influence. and delivering MOOC courses do not seek to impose their values or methodologies on others. 1996. pedagogy. 1971:203. 1971:202. and evaluation may be well applied to MOOCs that are single-handedly conveying the Western canon. 20 59 .20 He maintains that schools are failing in a certain measure to provide the egalitarian opportunities that underpin social democratic values and principles (stipulated in the Education Reform Act of 1956) and holds that schools reproduce a culture in which the society of dominant holders of power is reproduced in its turn. Altbach’s justification on MOOCs’ organic. reflects both the distribution of power and the principles of social control” 21. 1971b. 23 Altbach. designing. 22 Bernstein. the location of the main creators and disseminators of MOOCs.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe curricula and pedagogy.

and will be reflected in the thinking and orientations of most of those planning and teaching MOOCs. the literature and articles in peer-reviewed influential journals dominate all delivery material of MOOCs. English is the dominant language of scholarly communication. hence of internationally circulated academic journals. If we consider that internet-based virtual communication typically occurs through written rather than spoken interactions. for example. natural that the dominant ideas from these centers will dominate academic discourse. and others. MOOC gatekeepers. and this will no doubt strengthen the hegemony of Western methodologies”. modes of inquiry. the language of websites. According to Altbach. 2000. most courses reflect Western traditions of knowledge. Udacity. will seek to maintain standards as they interpret them. It would be interesting to have statistics. on how much of closest interpretation of printed text can be effectively made when participants coming from various cultural backgrounds are engaged in learning situations and for that matter. how much of it is based on mutual. reciprocal understanding and how much on own cultural background. such as Coursera. such as the socio-cultural cues24 and orderliness25 typically encountered and provided by face-to-face interactions. then learners may be missing several benefits. 1999. Particularly within the social sciences and humanities paradigm. and Western philosophical assumptions. Moreover.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Western academic systems. It would be equally valuable to assess effective communication and knowledge transfer and management with learners coming from Asian and English speaking 24 25 Roald. Neither terminology nor any course instructions can be fully effective in reaching non-elite audiences except if in English. Allwood & Schroeder. under these circumstances. 60 . the Western literature canon. “it is. methodologies.

1995.”28 including “the world experience brought to the situation of discourse by the interlocutors”29. This culturally embedded discourse disparity often results in English speakers’ familiarity with the usage of a topic sentence to open discourse or anticipate critical information being presented at the start of a conversation whereas Asian speakers wait until later in discourse for important information to be made available26. etc. 29 Jaszczolt 2006:3. How is then course content assimilated? How can learning behaviour be the same? Furthermore. shows that "some" may mean either "some and not all" or "some and perhaps all". such as: presuppositions. 26 Scollon & Scollon. at yet another level. and other contextdependent implications that require pragmatic solutions 27. and it further indicates that a semantic theory can give us only a certain proportion of a general account of language understanding. to take only these two cases for the case in point. 27 61 . whereas English speakers typically open discourse with the main topic followed by supportive information. 2013:129.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe communities. social attitudes. assumptions. 28 Ibid. “The most often quoted example "Some ten cent pieces are rejected by this vending machine". implicit purposes. that Asian speakers use sentences in which the main point is postponed until enough background information is known for making correct connections and inferences. Florea. knowing that communication processes are different in their cultures. The gap that remains to be bridged between a semantic theory and a complete theory of linguistic communication must account for the hints. It is known for example. that are effectively communicated by the use of language. developments in linguistics (semantics in particular) have isolated intractable phenomena.

a confrontational. S. in the US. J. J.. whereas to Asian students. characterized by a clearly provided context of conversation and more task-focused responses. in the German culture. compared to American students’ absence of such symbolic indicators. showing a potential for inhibiting the emergence of a local academic culture and content. Likewise.. appropriate meaning30. Hsu and Caropreso even “The use of emoticons by Taiwanese students. especially given communication context-specific differences. 2003. and receivers of message (and hence course content) are solely responsible for deducing the entire. whereas American culture is considered a midcontext culture. the culture-specific determinants of online learning environment and the performance of learning communities are far more complex than this and often times intractable. it generally occurs on a position of equality. E. argumentative style in a teacher–student interaction is often considered to be necessary so as to lend more interest and spark to informal conversations.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Across a larger cultural spectrum.”31 However. 62 ..L. interactions of this type are hardly ever acceptable. The literature indicates that Eastern language cultures use “high-context communication”. C. cross-cultural learning takes more processing time for effective communication. and/or of courses tailored particularly for national audiences. 2006:27. English-as-aforeign-language challenges may often contribute to different learning behaviours. “Efficiency is a critical criterion for judging job performance in American society but not in Asian society. Hsu. Chen. According to Chen. may reflect the goal of Taiwanese to compensate for high-context communication typical of eastern cultures. even teacher-student interaction may be reflective of different norms and values. This may explain why Taiwanese 30 31 Porter & Samovar. & Caropreso. For example.

when Cousera and edX (two major MOOC platforms) partnered up with Chinese universities to offer their courses online.”32 Paradoxically. whereas Americans thought the delay of participation to be a weakness of this crosscultural activity. Our argument here is centered on the need to think beyond the (marginalizing) politics of marginality and to focus on education produced solely in the articulation and legitimation of cultural differences. for example. new ethnicities and urban youth culture at several macro levels of education practices and social organization. It will be interesting to see in the near future. in the process. however new and different forms of collective representation through different languages in different learning communities may be the solution for a better functionality and wider adoption of MOOCs within the paradigm of language. culture. discourse analysis. while having a rich potential to reach non-elite audiences. The future development of virtual ethnography would perhaps allow for better collection and analysis of data reflecting more on richness of communication between and across cultures. The rationale is that such unifying-under-one-language spaces will allow for elaborating communal strategies of selfhood apt to hinder new signs of 32 Ibid. if not between and across dominant nations. how will MOOCs and their “foreign ideas” impact the Chinese ideology and socialism. 63 . given the breakthrough that these online courses have made in China in 2013. Bonding educational discourse may help explain matters pertaining to sociolinguistics. identity.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe students considered American students to be aggressive. making it more difficult for alternative voices to be heard. MOOCs seems to strengthen in fact the currently dominant academic culture. Cultural hybridity forms have already been identified as forms of cognitive dissonance and social marginalization.

BERNSTEIN. Cosin et al (eds). ALTBACH. 1996. “Open Schools. “On the Classification and Framing of Educational Knowledge”. J. “MOOCs as Neocolonialism: Who Controls Knowledge?”. 47-69. Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory. Or MOOCing it. (4). however it remains to be seen whether in the online competition space the rising hegemony stakes of English and Western cultures will come to be globally accepted at all costs. B. 1971b..” in Intercultural Communication.. BERNSTEIN. London: Taylor and Francis. and CAROPRESO. Open Society?”. April 17. School and Society: a Sociological Reader. Critique. BERNSTEIN. S. 2000. in The Chronicle of Higher Education. J..Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe identity.. and blur whatever becomes a complex social construct in the production of self and other perceptions. . 2(1). P. J.. London: Collier MacMillan. Pedagogy.1971a. 2014. R. MOOCs may turn out to represent a unifying voice. making all education more accessible and less expensive. in B. Research. As the degree of diversity will proportionally increase. Massachusetts: MIT Press. CHEN.and SCHROEDER. 66-69. Knowledge and Control: New Directions for the Sociology of Education. ”Rivers and people become crooked by following the lines of least resistance” may be just another way of putting it. R. B. B. Cambridge. 17-35.. C.L. E. HSU.. 2014. in MFD Young (ed). 64 . Bibliography ALLWOOD. in International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning. “Cross-Cultural Collaborative Online Learning: When the West Meets the East. 2006. “Intercultural Communication in a Virtual Environment..

HENDERSON. in Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. in Journal of Interactive Media in Education. M.. 15 de diciembre de 2013. K. in Links & Letters 4. 2013. in Educational Technology Research and Development.. Mahwah. Nr. “The Academic Setting: Aspects of Pragmatic Competence and Transfer in Inter-Cultural Communication”. JASZCZOLT. HARLEY.G. P.). London: Routledge Falmer. “The Neocolonialism of Postcolonialism: A Cautionary Note”.. S. in RED. HUGGAN. “Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century.. 1997. R. CONOLE. 2007. H.. ed. Mit Pr. DANIEL. 85-104. von Heusinger. and OLIVER. Commonwealth of Learning/UNESCO. Open Educational Resources and Change in Higher Education: Reflections from Practice. Katarzyna M. G.. 2007. p. J.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe CONOLE. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. GLENNIE. Contemporary Perspectives in ELearning Research: Themes. 2009. 2012. “Making Sense of MOOCs: Musings in a Maze of Myth. pp. “Internationalizing Education”.129-132. 11-12. Número 39. Paradox and Possibility”. Portner & C. Sibiu. Moore (Ed. G. 583-591). Maienborn. “Instructional Design of Interactive Multimedia: A Cultural Critique”. Revista de Educación a Distancia. in M. in Transilvania. 1996. J. 44(4). 1997 19-24. 2006. G. Methods and Impact on Practice... JENKINS.. MASON. Vancouver. Handbook of Distance Education (2nd ed. 2012. “Defaults in Semantics and Pragmatics”. L. 65 . FLOREA... 3.. 2013. “MOOCs as Disruptive Technologies: Strategies for Enhancing the Learner Experience and Quality of MOOCs”. K. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. et Al.

NISBETT. 2002. S. in Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. SCOLLON. pages 27–41. Issue 1. 2012. New York: Free Press. 2. Volume 28. D. in Intercultural Communication. PORTER.And Why. Intercultural communication: A Discourse Approach. E. MA: Blackwell Publishers. No 2... 66 .“Intercultural Communication.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe MASOUMI. H.. SAMOVAR.). R. PARRISH. Cambridge. W. February 2012. R. 2003. B.. 2010. A.. R. ROALD. SCOLLON. 1995.”Quality in E-Learning: A Framework for Promoting and Assuring Quality in Virtual Institutions”. the Print Medium and the Ideal of Two Way Symmetry in Interaction”. The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently. L. “Cultural Dimensions of Learning: Addressing the Challenges of Multicultural Instruction”. LINDER-VanBERSCHOT. in the International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. (Eds. Jennifer A. CA: Wadsworth.. Intercultural Communication (10th Ed..).. Belmont. Vol 11.E.. 1999. Patrick. LINDSTROM.

The author presents a range of collocation-centred teaching techniques and learning strategies. patterns. intensive classroom practice and 67 . PhD Valahia University of Târgovişte angelastanescu@yahoo. for that matter – is largely conditioned by acquiring a sound knowledge of collocation patterns. which is one of the most difficult areas of language learning at all levels. as well as adequate collocation practice activities. especially of collocation. What they need is awareness-raising exercises. While native speakers collocate naturally and automatically. practice activities Introduction Foreign students’ ability to speak and write English both accurately and fluently is related to a large extent to their mastery of vocabulary. From beginner to proficiency level. which set them thinking about correct collocations when they do reading or listening activities or when they look up words in the dictionary. which constitute the basis of lexical proficiency and appropriacy. appropriacy. nonnative speakers have to learn and practice word association systematically before they are able to sense what sounds right and what does not. Most language mistakes arise from the wrong association between words.com Abstract: The present article is based on the assumption that vocabulary acquisition and proficiency in English – or any other language. Key-words: Vocabulary. collocation. i.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe COLLOCATION-CENTRED APPROACHES TO TEACHING AND LEARNING ENGLISH VOCABULARY Angela STĂNESCU.e. collocation should constitute the primary focus of any vocabulary development programme. collocation. meant at raising awareness of word association or and at building sound collocation habits.

Knowing a word in a foreign language means knowing how and when to use it and which words it associates with. Collocation errors are sometimes caused by interference from their own language (first language interference).g. make a photo. take. they need sustained exposure to collocation. put a question. but at phrase level. apart from the inherent differences in meaning. encouraging students to use adequate strategies for recording or storing vocabulary. Of course. In other words. Some useful strategies and activities are suggested below. That is why collocation exposure and practice are at a premium. Keeping record of the vocabulary they learn is useful so long as it focuses on collocations rather than on isolated 68 . recording and checking collocations Good monolingual dictionaries always provide examples of word collocations. e.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe extensive reading (outside the classroom). when students collocate according to the rules of their mother tongue. these synonyms also appear in different contexts and collocate with particular words. Collocation learning and practice activities From the earliest stages of language learning. together with the various elements they collocate with. They can be asked to look up and take notes of Verb + Noun collocations with frequently used verbs such as do. since. and the teacher should give students plenty of opportunities for practice. make. etc. Student should be warned to pay attention to word combination. and never record words in isolations. students of English should be made aware that new lexical items are not to be learnt in isolation. give an exam. get. It is useful to point out to our students that the lists of ‘synonyms’ often given in a bilingual dictionary or language thesaurus should not be taken at face value. collocation-focused practice activities. a) Using dictionaries for learning. such learning habits can only be derived from good teaching – contextualised presentation techniques.

utter disappointment  Adjective/past participle + preposition: fond of. broaden a. tighten d. heavy traffic. hard-earned. light a fire. in jumbled order. Thus students should be trained to pay attention to the most frequent collocation patterns:  Subject noun + verb: The earth revolves round the sun. sympathise with Reading for collocation As reading represents the main form of exposure to collocation. b) Matching items The two halves of different collocation patterns are put in two separate columns. a screw 2 2. work hard  Verb + preposition: insist on. object to. approve of. Students have to match the corresponding items. Students will be asked to scan the text and take out any new collocations corresponding to the patterns presented above. delighted at. texts used in classroom reading activities can also be exploited for collocation learning or reinforcement. deeply hurt  Adverb + verb: sincerely hope. concerned about  Adverb + past participle (used attributively): smartly/badly/fashionably dressed. the blow 69 . strike a match  Adjective + noun: light sleeper. your hair 3 3. straighten c. your mind 4 4.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe items. fully understand. Thus. honestly believe.: 1 1. fully understood. heavy smoker. cry bitterly.g. eat heartily. keen on.  Verb + object noun: take a photo. interested in. E. reading specifically for collocation can be an extremely productive vocabulary development technique. absolutely love  Verb + adverb: enjoy thoroughly. soften b. In addition. as a follow-up exercise. students should also be encouraged to pay attention to collocations and even pause to write them down when reading outside the classroom.

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe A variation can be used particularly for collocations with DO and MAKE. by supplying subject. / The result was an extreme disappointment....g... The exercise can be also done as a dictation. d) Collocation error correction Students have to correct collocation errors in sentences where the key element requiring a different collocation is underlined: E. E. The key words used as cues can be nouns which are part of verb phrase collocation model cases. 39). / I think we are all . Odd man out This exercise.. heavy strong A DISH mild light weak c) Collocation gap-fill The exercise consists of a set of gapped sentences focused on different collocation patterns.. most commonly a noun. The students are given a list of noun phrases to be put under the right heading. adjective..: The crime was done last night.. e) Sentence building (from given outline and key word) The students are required to build a sentence round a given word. verb.: SUBJECT VERB ADJECTIVE NOUN INVESTIGATION RESEARCH INQUIRY 70 PREPOSITION OBJECT . with students writing the nouns they hear under the DO or MAKE headings. is suggested by Gairns and Redman (1992.: She . agreement. involving crossing out the wrong items of a number of given choices......g. a thick layer of jam on her toast. E.. preposition and object where applicable...g.

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe f) Matching idioms and definitions Idioms represent fixed collocation patterns formed round a key verb or noun. The students are given the elements to be paired up in separate lists of jumbled items. The students are given a set of sentences containing idioms and a list of definitions to be matched. head. The students have to decide on the associative possibilities of each item by marking the intersection point between items as a positive collocation match (Rudska et al.g.: You’re going to fail the exam if you don’t pull your socks up.g. body. Teaching and learning idioms can be organised round topic based vocabulary – clothes idioms.. E. shoulders h) Collocation grids This is basically another matching exercise configured as a table containing a column of items with roughly similar meanings but different collocations and a row of items they can collocate with. ends. bits. E. 38). woman man child dog bird flower weather view village beautiful + + + + + + + + lovely + + + + + + pretty + + + + + + charming + + + + attractive + + + good-looking + + + handsome + + 71 . past participle AND past participle. soul. odds AND breakfast.: sick. tired. bed. (make an effort) g) Matching pairs The exercise is focused on symmetrical collocations of the type: noun AND noun. buried. etc. parts of the body idioms. dead. in Gairns and Redman 1992. adjective AND adjective. pieces.

Cassel. 1992. has a close friend of a different nationality. REDMAN. Michael J. 1991. 1991 UNDERHILL. leisure activities (Gairns and Redman. have a heavy smoker in their family. 168). who does/makes things? The question prompts in the survey chart will include items such as the shopping/the beds/the cooking/most of the decisions/the ironing/the most money/a mess and the answer prompts can be a man/a woman/either/you/your mother/father/brother/sister/wife. 72 . English Language Book Society (ELBS).g. Vocabulary. REDMAN. The main question is ‘In your house. Peter. light sleeper. e. WATCYN-JONES. has had a serious illness. Cambridge University Press. GAIRNS. Making Sense of Vocabulary. Heinemann Educational Books. Oxford University Press. RINVOLUCRI.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe i) Find someone who The activity begins with a matching exercise. WALLACE. do) The questionnaire should consist of an answer sheet with questions on problematic collocations. Test Your Vocabulary (Vol. close friend. holidays and travel.1980. with two separate lists of items to be matched so as to obtain adjective + noun collocations. MARIO. 1. Bibliography: DIGBY and MYERS.. Cambridge University Press. 1979. heavy smoker. the students move round the class to find someone who: is a light sleeper. Use Your Dictionary. Stuart. After checking the correct combinations. Oxford University Press. 1989. Penguin. j) Questionnaires (make vs. Similar questionnaires can be devised in order to revise relevant vocabulary and collocations on such topics as personality traits. etc. Stuart. MORGAN. Teaching Vocabulary. such as make or do combinations. 1986. A Way with Words. Ruth. Adrian. Working with Words: A guide to teaching and learning vocabulary.4).

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SYLLABI FOR THE STUDY OF ENGLISH IN CONFORMITY WITH THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE Edlira XEGA University of Korça. questionnaire 1. Key words: Syllabus. responsive. 2006 p. of the ways in which it is put into practice and of the extent to which syllabi constitute a point of reference for both teachers and learners as regards English language acquisition.com Abstract: This article highlights the need for teacher development syllabi to strike a balance between theory and practice. language acquisition. There is an investigation of the teachers’ role in the syllabus. Albania edixega@yahoo. to find out how different teachers in the high schools of the Korca region refer to the syllabus in their actual classroom practice and to determine the role of the syllabi and the methodology in language teaching and their effect on learning outcomes. 73 . experience and preconceptions. each teacher interprets and accommodates them to their personality. 48. representations of English teaching and learning evince a greater diversity of viewpoints. English teachers. in fact. Teachers claim that their intention is to promote an open. learner-centered and “democratic” classroom 1 Gradol. 1 In dealing with the syllabi for English. The questionnaires used in this study were meant to explore how teachers implement the syllabi in their teaching. Secondary education. Introduction As English becomes more widely used as a language for international communication. suggesting. thus creating a teaching style or plan of action which the teacher seeks to implement in the classroom. that this is the primary goal of all teacher development programs.

and about the pedagogic and social processes within a classroom. It is a teaching framework meant to facilitate learning. It only becomes a threat to pedagogy when it is regarded as an absolute rule for determining what is to be learnt rather than a mere point of reference against which outcomes can be measured. p. or the pedagogical agenda.2 To this effect. 2002.26 3 74 .Develay. The principles of syllabus design Defining the syllabus Any syllabus expresses. p. 49. certain assumptions about language. 270. Astolfi.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe learning environment. good use should be made of the syllabi designed by the Institute of Curricula and Training. the teacher is like an ingenious craftsman who contextualizes the use of his teaching tools both to the didactic principles pursued and to the conditions of his classroom practice. 3 2. 1989. offering conclusions about the extent to which the syllabi incorporate their overall goals. 4 Breen 1984. p. In this context. which interprets pedagogical acts in terms of an educative aim. part of the Ministry of Education and Sciences in Albania. Syllabus design and implementation involves a process of didactic reflection.5 The syllabus is the specification of the teaching program. The teachers’ answers show that they try to understand the context of teaching through their learners’ perspectives. 1984. about the teachers’ responsibility for using the various components of the syllabus with a view to ensuring the students’ better acquisition of the English language. about the psychological process of learning. 9. which defines a special subject for a particular group 2 Richard and Nunan. 4 The syllabus is simply a framework within which activities can be carried out. p. however indirectly. 5 Widdowson.

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe

of learners. It also sets the pedagogical objectives. But it is crucial to be
known that a syllabus is the instrument of an educational policy.6
The teacher’s task is to follow the syllabus as a course of action by
whatever methodological means seem most appropriate for the facilitation
of learning.7 This is what the Albanian high school teachers interviewed
generally agree on.
Widowson argues that the principles upon which the syllabus has
been designed should be made quite explicit so that teachers can submit
them to appraisal and application. In this way, teachers can make use of the
syllabus as a set of bearings on the planning of their own course in a lesson
sequence (an issue understood and agreed on by Albanian teachers). This
ensures the realization of aspects of language and learning which the
syllabus of its nature cannot account for.
So a syllabus is a construct whose principles teachers can use and
adapt to the circumstances of their own classes. In this explicit way, the
syllabus becomes an important element in the continuing education of
teachers, as they experiment with this variable realization in the process of
actual teaching.8
What most syllabus designers and course-book writers try to provide
is a kind of multi- syllabus, in other words an interlocking set of parameters
for any particular level or stage of study, which includes not only
grammatical and functional syllabi, but also linguistic and communication
skills. Syllabus designers thus juggle with issues of grammar, lexis,
functions, topics and tasks when putting together a teaching sequence, such
as the course-book content.9

6

Widdowson, 2008, p. 127.
Widdowson, 2008, p. 129.
8
Widdowson, 2008, p. 154.
9
Harmer, 2007, p. 369.
7

75

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe

3. The structure of the secondary education syllabus
Educators recognise that curricular innovation is an extremely complex
matter because of the need to take into account the perceptions of the key
stakeholders within specific socio-cultural contexts. Of these stakeholders,
teachers play the key role in the success or failure of a planned innovation,
since they are the executive decision makers in the actual setting in which
the intended innovation is to be realised – the classroom.10
Carless emphasizes that “teachers not only need to understand the
theoretical underpinnings of the innovation, but more importantly, how the
innovation is best applied in the classroom”. 11
Secondary Education
Secondary General Education provides the framework in for
expanding and deepening general knowledge gained during elementary
education. General secondary schools may design educational programs so
as to enable students to acquire the knowledge, skills, and abilities
necessary for their high school studies or for specific professional training.
The duration of general secondary education is three years.12
Within the high school core curriculum, foreign language study
develops in the 10th and 11th grades to three classes hours per week and in
the 12th grade to 4 classes per week.
Class
10
11
12

10

Hours per week
3 hours
3 hours
4 hours

Weeks
36
36
34

Markee, 1997.
Carless, 2001.
12
Albanian Investment, Development Agency, 2010; p. 15.
11

76

Total
108
108
136

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe

The total for foreign language instruction in secondary Education
amounts to 352 classes.
In an analytical planning, the teacher plans the distribution of
learning objectives according to specific topics, without neglecting the 70%
of the classes planned for the acquisition of new knowledge and the 30% of
general knowledge processing. 13
In the general curriculum, the foreign language course figures as a
core subject in high school, essential for the students’ instruction. In today’s
context, where social and political relations with Europe are more and more
essential in relation to Albania’s aspiration for European integration, the
main educational trend is the creation of a pluri-linguistic, multicultural
environment, in which foreign language teaching contributes not only to the
linguistic and cultural education of the learners, but has a particular impact
on the cultural exchange between our country and other countries.
However, there is a significant mismatch between the existing
educational norms in Albania and those implicit in the expected outcomes
of their usually strongly ‘nativespeakerist’, state-controlled system of
English curricula. In many parts of the world, such ‘communicationoriented’ curricula appear to have been introduced by national education
policy makers, with little thought to the demands made on English teachers
by these expected outcomes, or to the teacher educators’ capacity to
provide teachers with appropriate support.14
Learning a foreign language enables the integration of increasing
numbers of Albanian students in a multi-linguistic cultural reality. The
training of foreign language learners creates conditions for deepening their
knowledge of the cultural values of the rest of the world, alongside the
dissemination of our national values throughout the European nations.
13
14

Udhezues kurrikular, IZHA Kl 10- 12 , 2010, p.11.
Holliday, 2005.

77

These teaching hours are calculated for 60 minute-classes: B1+ level . Referring to the level reached in the ninth grade and the skill descriptors according to the Common European Framework of Reference. In total there are approximately 600 teaching hours of 60 minutes. Communication and cultural education (104classes). Teacher’s guide to CEF. or.400 hours B1-2 level . linguistic education (32) for the 12th grade15.Approximately 500-600 hours16 These guided teaching hours in the CEFR are the hours during which the learner is in a formal learning context such as the classroom. p.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe The acquisition of a foreign language helps learners in their preparation for lifelong learning and for using the foreign language in decisions which affect their progress as individuals and the progress of the community at local and national level. The total number of classes for secondary school is 352. linguistic education (23) for grades 10 and 11. it results that in Secondary Education. The Common European Framework of Reference provides guidance on the number of guided teaching hours needed to attain the aims of each CEF level. which includes levels B1+ and B2+. 12. The syllabus for each grade is divided as follows: Communication and cultural education (85 classes).Approximately 350.XII). 78 . the total number 15 16 Programet e kurrikulës bërthamë të gjimnazit (klasa X. if converted to 45 minute teaching hours. the foreign language curricula for the 10th and 12th grades aim to achieve the level B2. Gjuhe angleze. If we examine the concordance between this and the syllabi of the Institute of Curricula and Training of the Ministry of Education in Albania. there are 800 hours. 2010.Approximately 400 -450 hours B2+ level . 7. p. which the learners should attain in the four competencies attesting to the acquisition of a foreign language.

fq 48. Gjuhe angleze. Based on the philosophy and guidelines of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and of the National Curriculum of Modern Languages for Pre-university Public Education. The English language program for the 12th grade aims to achieve and implement standards for the teaching. kl. 2008. cultural and intellectual learning able to further sustain lifelong learning. The educational content of the English language course for grade 10 is meant to develop language education from the A1-B1 levels attained in elementary education to the level B1+ aimed at during the stage of upper secondary education. learning and 17 Programet e kurrikulës bërthamë të gjimnazit.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe of 45 minute teaching hours is 352.17 The English language program for grade 11 is an official document intended to achieve and implement the standards of teaching. 79 . It aims to develop the students’ critical thinking and learner independence outside the classroom. the syllabus for the 12th grade outlines all the linguistic and cross-cultural skills obtained from grade 3 to grade 9. learning and assessment of learners at the language level B1+ in accordance with the Common European Framework for Languages. The syllabus is based on the interests and characteristics of the age group and caters for the independent intellectual and socio-cultural development of the learners. highlighting the balance between the learners’ language proficiency and the communicative skills and abilities of self-expression in the English language required at the level of independent user. If they are converted into 60 minutes teaching hours there are 264 hours. The English language program for grade 10 aims to develop linguistic. It is clear that the number of classes provided by secondary education in the Albanian context is very small when compared to the standard of hours set by CEFR. encouraging different forms of individual and group-work. X.

2009. The new program of teaching English in the 12th grade aims to further increase the opportunities offered to learners to develop linguistic competences and cultural awareness. at this stage of upper secondary education. at level B1. 2010. as well as linguistic literacy and understanding of this language 19. which determines the kind of tasks. 4. to improve the communication skills in the English language.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe assessment of students at the B1. activities and processes that the 18 19 Programet e kurrikulës bërthamë të gjimnazit kl. so the learners are given practice enabling them to become independent users of the English language.XI. Programet e kurrikulës bërthamë të gjimnazit klasa XII. to the threshold level of independent user18 This program also supported the National Curriculum guidelines for Modern Language study within University Public Education.2. The relation of CEFR with the syllabus of ICT Setting the aims and objectives of language learning and teaching should be based on an appreciation of the needs of both learners and society. enabling students to go from the breakthrough level (B1+ in class 10). The 11 th grade program caters for all language skills. is aimed. fq 12.2 levels. to deepen their insight of the cultural and social dimension of English-speaking countries. Gjuhe angleze. The content of the program for English language education in the 11th grade. fq. The learning objectives of the syllabus at this stage are aimed towards the B2+ level. 80 . according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. obtained from the 3rd grade to the 10th grade. Gjuhe angleze. The program also aims to expand the students’ knowledge of linguistic and grammatical areas. following levels A1 to B1+ obtained during the 9-year educational cycle. 2.

they may specify only higher-level objectives in terms of tasks. CEFR. to specify in detail the vocabulary.20 In drawing up curricular guidelines or formulating syllabi. They are not obliged. 22 CEFR.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe learners need to carry out in order to satisfy those needs.2001.131. use textbooks and course materials (which they may or may not be in a position to analyse. 2001. evaluate. but must adjust flexibly in the light of learner responses. as well as the language competences and strategies they need to develop in order to do so. In doing so.141. though they may wish to do so. etc. themes. p.141. grammar and functional range which will enable learners to perform the tasks and approach the topics prescribed. authorities concentrate on the specification of the learning objectives. competences. They are expected to monitor the learners’ progress and find ways of recognising. 2001. p.21 Teachers are generally called upon to observe any official guidelines. devise and administer tests and prepare learners for qualification examinations. select and supplement). • to develop their ability to learn through this same diversified experience of relating 20 CEFR. It is also a matter of helping learners: • to construct their linguistic and cultural identity through integrating into it a diversified experience of otherness. analysing and overcoming their learning problems. as well as of developing their individual learning abilities 22 In this context the promotion of respect for the diversity of languages in school is significant. They have to make minute-to-minute decisions about classroom activities. They may also wish to lay down guidelines or make suggestions as to the classroom methods to be employed and the stages through which learners are expected to progress. which they can outline beforehand. p. 21 81 .

Richards. developed with a significant number of 90 teachers. The school teachers interviewed represent different age-groups and qualifications. The aims of the study The research questions that guided the study mainly focused on topical issues. but even more important is communicating them effectively. The subjects in the study This research is focused on a questionnaire survey. syllabus and learning objectives. experience and conceptions of the teachers and result in a teaching style or an action plan that the teacher needs to implement in class. following the syllabus and adjusting it to the textbooks. 134. The questionnaire was applied as the continuation of a learners’ survey. 2001. 82 . p. The study Data collection The responses presented through the questionnaire results reflect the personality. Nunan. 60 of whom belong to urban areas and 30 to rural ones. The questionnaire was used for English language teachers working in different public and non-public secondary schools located in urban and rural areas. Having the necessary knowledge and goals is very important.23 5. transmit knowledge in the classroom and the thoughts they share on teaching. The data derived from the checklist were analyzed by using descriptive statistical methods. 24 This questionnaire was developed so as to reveal the ways in which teachers interact with learners. The textbooks they use are written by both Albanian and foreign authors. the degree of satisfaction with the 23 24 CEFR. in order to detect the teachers’ opinions on the English syllabus and their practices concerning: organizing classes. Percentages for all items were obtained. p.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe to several languages and cultures. 271. 2002.

The teachers were required to complete a questionnaire that examines their actual opinions of the English syllabus. principles. So from the 90 teachers planned. The average class size for the urban area is 35-40 learners. 83 . qualitative research 25 Carless. and values relating to the truth of Albanian teaching realities and the role that the syllabi play in furthering English instruction. by considering the assumptions. 25 The field of the study The field survey was realized in the respective schools.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe textbooks. This approach enables the development of an understanding of the phenomenon from the teacher’s point of view. The classroom survey data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The qualitative analysis consists in a subjective analysis based on the teachers’ data and answers. 266. 2001. while for the rural area it is 25-30 learners. as well as the conformity of the syllabus with the CEFR standards. the application and realization of appropriate educational policies during the English language learning process in Korca and in its surrounding villages. The purpose of the questionnaire was explained to the teachers. The quantitative analysis was conducted with questionnaires handed out to teachers in order to analyze the aspects of syllabus implementation in English language teaching in different public and non-public secondary schools in urban and rural areas. As Paille points out. p. As part of the questionnaires was distributed online. the number was reduced to 78. Methodology All data analyses are presented in different graphs in percentages. not all of them were answered. The questionnaires were distributed in late April and early May 2013.

the following is to be noted. 26 The questionnaires clearly define facts or opinions that have been identified by qualitative methods. the extent to which these are followed in the syllabus. is more important than knowing a language.edu. whether the syllabus objectives are reflected in the textbooks. as seen in the percentages obtained from the analysis of the questionnaire questions.189. how the CEFR objectives are reflected in the English syllabus compiled by the Institute of Curricula and Training. http://www. being carried out through the common language. the monitoring and implementation of the syllabus. The questions are grouped into Yes/No. p. 27 84 . based on percentages or the gradual rating of the teachers’ opinions. questions assessing the language skills and objectives. 26 Paille. the extent of cultural content. 2006.uk. as well as 3-4 open questions. without technical tools.plymouth. percentages.27 There data given come from the Albanian teachers of English interviewed in secondary schools. The results are presented in graphs. by comparing the replies of teachers from different schools. 28 More. 28 Jenkins. p.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe deals directly with the opinion of the subjects in the study. whether the assessment is done according to the standards set by CEFR. specifically. 7. for a teacher.ac. Data interpretation Language awareness is essential for understanding. knowing about a language. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions. The questionnaire consists of questions aimed at offering conclusions about the teachers’ opinions on: the conformity of the syllabus with the age of the learners. Generally the questionnaire contains closed Yes/No questions. 2004. on whether the objectives of the English class can be met in large classes.

Graph 1 29 Sauvignon 2003.2%. for qualitative analysis the questions are analyzed in general and specific categories.7% of those in the urban area share the idea that the syllabus is well-adapted to the learners’ level. For data and quantitative analysis we used descriptive statistics. The development of interpretive and reflective skills offers a very practical and fruitful alternative to language teacher education. p. believe that the syllabi are insufficiently adapted to the learners’ level (Graph 1). only a small percentage of 14. it results that a high percentage of teachers from both urban and rural areas are quite satisfied with the syllabi designed by ICT (Institute of Curricula and Training) and MES (Ministry of Education and Science).Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe The replies to the questionnaire were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. 64. Comparing the results of teacher responses in urban and rural Secondary Education: 25 teachers urban area and 15 in rural area (40 total) From the responses of the high school teachers interviewed. 85 .29 a. 100% of the high school teachers in the rural area and 85.

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Graph 2b below shows that the highest percentage of teachers in the rural area believe that cultural content covers 80% of the syllabi. 42.5% of urban area teachers believe that this syllabus is 100% in conformity with the CEFR. Graph 2 The highest percentages of the teachers interviewed believe that the learners’ age is taken into the consideration when the syllabi are compiled.8% of the urban area teachers and 66.6% of the rural area teachers and by 28. The syllabus is covered to a degree of 100% by 66.5% by urban area teachers (Graph 2). Only 28. compared to the 71. A high percentage of teachers in the rural area believe that it meets 60% of the CEFR standards.6% of the rural area teachers are of the opinion that the learners’ age is taken into consideration in a proportion of 80% in designing the syllabi. 86 .5% of high school teachers in the urban area. Less than the half of the urban area teachers think that the CEFR objectives cover 80% of the syllabus.5% and 28. compared to 33. who think that culture covers between 40% and 60% of the syllabi.3% of the rural area high school teachers.

87 . 42. All the teachers present the lesson objectives to the learners (Graph 3). 2001. According to 100% of rural area teachers and 71. There is also a high percentage of urban and rural area teachers who admit that the objectives of the CEFR are displayed in the syllabus.5 % of urban area teachers. 182.8% of 30 CEFR. the objectives cannot be reached in the case of large classes. It seems difficult for them to fully achieve the lesson objectives. Graph 3 Graph 4 shows that the highest percentage of teachers in both urban and rural areas specify the learning objectives of every class.7% of the urban area teachers are of the opinion that the objectives are displayed in the textbooks.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe The highest percentage of the teachers and 85. All the rural area high school teachers assess their students on the basis of the CEFR criteria for assessment and follow the types of assessment set by CEFR30 whereas this is true about more than a half of urban area high school teachers. p.

By contrast.3 % of non-public high school teachers are of the opinion that the syllabus is highly suited to the learners’ level in the classes where they teach (Graph 5). only 33.3% of rural areas teachers. It is very interesting to see from the data presented in graph 5 that the teachers in public high schools are quite satisfied with the syllabus. Graph 4b b. A very small number of urban area teachers take into consideration the learners’ opinions about the lesson. while 14.7% of high school teachers believe that the syllabus is well-suited to the learners’ level.2% think otherwise. compared to 33. Comparing the results of teachers in public and non-public Secondary Schools in urban areas: 23 teachers from public high schools and 15 teachers from non-public Albanian schools (38 total) This concerns the degree of teacher satisfaction with the syllabus and the perceptions regarding the correlation of the syllabus with the learners’ level. 88 . Generally the syllabus is strictly followed most of the teachers. 85.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe urban area high school teachers set them at the beginning of each module. in a slightly higher percentage than the teachers in non public high schools.

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe

Graph 5
Graph 6 shows that 71.5% of public high school teachers consider
that the cultural content covers 40% of the syllabus, whereas 66.6% of nonpublic high school teachers think it covers 80% of the syllabus, even if they
work with the same textbook. 80% of public high school teachers believe
that the learners’ age is taken into consideration.
As for the CEFR objectives, 28.5% of public high school teachers
think they are reflected in the textbooks in a proportion of 40%, while
42.8% of them consider this to be of 80%. A high percentage of non-public
high school teachers express this view.
A relatively high percentage of these teachers support the view that
the syllabi of ICT are in agreement with CEFR in a proportion of 80%,
while 28.5% of non-public high school teachers believe this conformity to
be 100%. Regarding the syllabus implementation by the teachers, the
highest percentage, of 80%, is achieved in public high schools, compared to
the 42. 8% realised by non public high school teachers (Graph 6).

89

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe

Graph 6
As it is shown above, a considerable percentage of high school
teachers in both groups believe that the learners’ age is taken into
consideration in designing the syllabi. A high percentage of teachers in
both high schools are of the opinion that the CEFR objectives are
reflected in the textbooks.
66.6% of non-public high school teachers of large classes consider
that the objectives are achieved, in comparison with only 28.5% of public
high school teachers. Most of the teachers in public high schools find it
difficult to achieve their objectives in the context of large classes. The
teachers present the learning objectives to the learners and they generally
set them at the beginning of each class period.
In terms of evaluation, 100% of non-public high school teachers
practice assessment methods based on the CEFR, compared with 42.8% of
teachers in public high schools (Graph 7).

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Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe

Graph 7
100% of non-public high school teachers set objectives at the
beginning of every class and of each chapter, compared with a high
percentage of public high school teachers, who set them for every
teaching class.
In both public and private high schools, the largest percentage of
teachers would prefer to follow the program but not to strictly adhere to
it (Graph 8).

Graph 8b
91

A high percentage of these teachers believe that the age level is well-considered. consumers of other people's syllabuses. government agencies. The syllabus is conformity with the CEFR for 100% of the urban area teachers and for 80% of the rural area teachers. 92 . Both groups share the idea that the syllabus objectives are presented in the textbooks they work with. 10. though not always very strictly. 1987. The syllabus is 80% covered by a great percentage of urban area teachers and 100% by the greatest percentage of rural area teachers. p. This study has assessed the ability of Albanian teachers to make judgements which can affect decision-making concerning syllabus design. or public and non-public high schools follow to a certain extent the syllabi designed by ICT and the Ministry of Education and Sciences. Teachers in the rural area find it difficult to meet the objectives with large classes. their role is to implement the plans of applied linguists.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe 8. and so on.31 Most Albanian teachers. Age suitability is figures in the same percentage in the views of both groups of teachers. The main results of the statistics above are summarized below and reflect the present situation and opinions of high school teachers on the syllabi used in the Albanian context. some teachers feel relatively free to design the syllabi on which their teaching programmes are based. in urban and rural. In other words. the syllabus conformity with the learners’ level is higher according to rural area teachers. Conclusions Bell (1983) claims that teachers are. Widdowson. in the main. The CEFR objectives in the syllabus are represented in proportion of 80% in the opinion of a greater percentage of urban area teachers. As regards teachers in urban and rural Secondary Education. compared with a considerable percentage of urban area 31 Nunan. However.

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe learners. they are not very satisfied with the syllabus. according to the opinion of the greatest number of teachers belonging to both groups.32 References: ***. 32 Nunan. non-public high school teachers seem to regard the syllabi more positively than public high school teachers. Assessment is done in conformity with the CEFR. 93 . In the opinion of the greatest percentage of public high school teachers. Pearson Longman. The objectives are found difficult to achieve with large classes by public high school teachers. Widdowson. As for teachers in public and non-public Secondary Schools. Tirane prill 2010. Non-public high school teachers follow the CEFR to a greater extent than public high school teachers in their assessment activity. The learners’ age is duly taken into consideration in syllabus design for a high number of non-public high school teachers. Finally. The CEFR objectives are represented in the syllabus in the view of both groups of teachers. Highlighting the role of Albanian teachers in improving the syllabus quality and use in foreign language education at secondary level in the Korca region. 1987. 58.making capacities of its users. Teacher’s guide to the common European framework. the objectives are represented in textbooks. Fusha: gjuhë e huaj lënda: gjuhë angleze – Instituti i Zhvillimit te Arsimit (IZHA). The syllabus conformity to the CEFR and its implementation is considered to be of 80% by non-public high school teachers. Culture is seen to be widely represented in the English syllabus for the greatest percentage of non-public high school teachers. p. whereas non-public high school teachers consider them achievable. Programet e kurrikulës bërthamë të gjimnazit (klasa 10-12). ***. this study has managed to evaluate their views on the English syllabus. albeit in a greater percentage for non-public high school teachers. thus constituting a guide for assessing the decision.

WIDDOWSON H. A. A case study of curriculum implementation in Hong Kong.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe ***. BREEN. Teaching English as communication: A Global Perspective on World Englishes. 1987. Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press. 2007. “Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a lingua franca”. MARKEE. 1989. S. Jack C. 4th edition. D. and NUNAN.. 1984. 2004b.J.. 94 . RICHARDS. 2005. Paris. Oxford University Press. Second Language Teacher Education. Pearson Education Limited. ELT documents No.plymouth. Oxford University Press.. ***. Cambridge University Press.G. PAILLÉ Pierre.. «La didactique des sciences» Paris: PUF. HOLLIDAY. N.).N.. H.. CALLAN C.ac.. WIDDOWSON. SAUVIGNON. H. 2001. «Pertinence de la recherche qualitative ». London: Pergamon Press & British Council. Armand Colin. Cambridge University Press. English next. 2006. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). 2003. “Process syllabuses for the language classroom”. and WIDDOWSON.118.uk JENKINS Jennifer. Aspects of Language Teaching.G. 2006. Jean Pierre. Dictionnaire des méthodes qualitatives en sciences humaines. David. Udhezues kurrikular.P. GRADDOL. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. (AIDA). July 2010. Syllabus Design. NUNAN D. 2002. 1997. 1984 a. The Struggle to Teach English as an International Language. CARLESS. in Alex Mucchielli (Dir.). Tirane 2010. M.edu. http://www. Albanian Investment Development Agency. ASTOLFI. Managing curricular innovation. Explorations in Applied Linguistics 2. DEVELAY Michel. David. General English syllabus design. Instituti I Zhvillimit te Arsimit Klasa 10-12. in TESOL quarterly 40 (1) 157. in C. 1990. British Council. HARMER Jeremy.181). G. Brumfit (Ed.

utterance. current Romanian language. qui s’avère être très hétérogène et très complexe. à la fois. nous reprenons et nous développons certaines idées disséminées tout au long de notre ample 95 . Graur. Ainsi. adverbs not only facilitate communication. as parts of speech that offer. place and space. frequency. synchrony.com Abstract: The Relationship between Adverbs and the Representative and fundamental Romanian Language Vocabulary In his study. to time. 11). Sala. To a great extent. 1988. this approach is synchronic and uses data offered by two research papers that present a statistical analysis (Al. nous nous proposons de poursuivre les discussions autour de la classe adverbiale roumaine.” (Sala. important information that makes reference. Key words: Adverb. but also carry a deictic function. based on well-determined criteria. use. 0. 1954 and M. 1988) of the current Romanian language vocabulary. „[Le vocabulaire représentatif] contient les mots les plus importants de chaque langue romane. p. at the utterance level. among others. As often observed. within the Romanian fundamental and representative vocabulary framework.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe CONFLUENCES LA RELATION ENTRE LES ADVERBES ET LES VOCABULAIRES FONDAMENTAL ET REPRÉSENTATIF DE LA LANGUE ROUMAINE Adrian CHIRCU Universitatea „Babeş-Bolyai” din Cluj-Napoca adichircu@hotmail. the author intends to present the position occupied by adverbs. Dans cet article. vocabulary.

ibidem. y compris de l’adverbe roumain qui offre. 5 À ce sujet. 4 Idem. pp. nous nous attardons sur les adverbes répertoriés dans deux des ouvrages traitant sur plusieurs perspectives le vocabulaire de la langue roumaine si varié et très hétéroclite. dans laquelle nous avons illustré les particularités de l’adverbe roman.2. şi anume în faza lor actuală »4 et ne rend pas compte du critère basé sur l’ancienneté du mot dans la langue. d’insoupçonnables voies d’interprétation. jusqu’à nos jours. 0. Pour leur élaboration. surtout des points de vue étymologique et structurel. voir Al. ces linguistes ont fait appel à des critères bien délimités: l’ancienneté des mots.5 1. Vocabularul reprezentativ al limbilor romanice3 qui constituent. Graur. Cette fois-ci. 1965. car il existe un grand nombre de mots anciens qui n’ont plus de relevance de nos jours. Sala. 12. Al. Graur. Încercare asupra fondului principal lexical al limbii române 2 et de celui qui a été coordonné par Marius Sala. des points de repère pour toute analyse qualitative et/ou quantitative du vocabulaire roumain. 1 A. Il faut mentionner que la dernière investigation a concerné seulement les vocabulaires des langues romanes « în plan strict sincronic. lui aussi très composite. 3 M.1. 1988. Chircu. 0. Il s’agit de celui d’Al. malgré la dynamique lexicale des dernières années.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe monographie consacrée à l’adverbe roman1. 2008. publiée depuis peu. p. Graur. Cela nous permettra certainement de revoir l’inventaire adverbial et de (re)formuler certaines conclusions. 1954. Les inventaires des mots usuels vs. représentatifs réalisés par les deux linguistes mentionnés supra nous aident à relever le rôle et la place de l’adverbe dans la langue de tous les jours. 2 96 . assez souvent. 31-48. à cause des réalités sociales survenues au cours des siècles.

le pouvoir de dérivation ainsi que l’usage 7. le linguiste roumain identifie 50 unités. 1954. ca ‘que. afin de mieux circonscrire les faits de langue concernés. le pouvoir dérivatif ou la capacité des formes de riches familles phraséologiques6. aproape ‘près. înainte 6 7 Al. ieri ‘hier’. p. En ce qui concerne l’ouvrage d’Al. À l’aide de leurs investigations.19. 1. acolo ‘là-bas’. foarte ‘très’. M. Certaines d’entre elles ont reçu une valeur adverbiale lors du passage du latin vers les langues romanes ou en roumain. azi ‘aujourd’hui’. bine ‘bien’. Graur. apoi ‘ensuite’. Malgré leur apparent manque d’actualité. ce qui est utile à l’élaboration d’autres types d’analyse. pp. chiar ‘aussi’. cum ‘comment’. la fréquence.‘soit’. la richesse sémantique. aici ‘ici’.1. acum ‘maintenant’. pour la plupart d’origine latine.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe l’usage. la richesse sémantique. vu le fait qu’ils sont enregistrés dans d’autre langues néolatines: abia ‘à peine’. ce qui lui assure une certaine stabilité. 1988. comme’. Graur. fie. 97 . La plupart – 36 – est probablement déjà formée en latin. adins ‘exprès’. celui-ci nous fournit des renseignements précieux sur le nombre d’adverbes qui fait partie du vocabulaire fondamental du roumain.1. presque’. 2. aşa ‘ainsi’. doar ‘seulement’. 2. aiurea ‘ailleurs’. les auteurs des ouvrages mentionnés ont tenté de rendre compte de l’usage des mots roumains à travers le temps et de leur emploi dans la langue parlée. afară ‘dehors’. 21-25. les deux listes réalisées il y a quelques décennies déjà sont illustratives en ce qui concerne l’adverbe car la classe adverbiale n’est pas ouverte à des changements importants. En appliquant les critères rappelés supra. Sala et. atunci ‘alors’.

obtenues par suffixation ou par dérivation régressive (D).origine hongroise: mereu ‘tout le temps. împreună ‘ensemble’. nicăieri ‘nulle part’. iar ‘à nouveau/ de nouveau’). unde ‘où’. nous avons aussi consulté la deuxième édition. mâine ‘demain’. 3.pour le critère du pouvoir de dérivation. vre ‘certain’). jos ‘en bas’. încotro ‘où. .origine slave: ba ‘non’. îndată ‘tout de suite’.1. À ces adverbes. înăuntru ‘dedans’. nu ‘non’. ont été retenus les mots qui connaissent au moins cinq sens propres ou figurés (S). 1965. îndărăt ‘en arrière’. măcar ‘au moins’. qui date de 2009. ont été retenus les mots qui possèdent au moins trois formes dérivées. celui-ci tient compte de l’indice d’usage établi (13. 1. mai ‘plus’.56) en fonction de Frequency Dictionary of Rumanian Words10 (U). 8 M. încă ‘encore’. par où’.quant au critère de l’usage. . mais que nous détaillons infra: . 10 Alphonse Juilland et alii.1. auquel ils ont appliqué les critères antérieurement mentionnés. 1975. prea ‘trop’. Afin d’observer l’augmentation du nombre d’adverbes. d’autres sont créés en roumain (cam ‘presque’. parcă ‘on dirait que’. sus ‘en haut’.pour le critère de la richesse sémantique. Siglé DEX.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe ‘avant’. oare ‘est-ce que’. Sala. zadar ‘(en) vain’. încoace ‘de ce côté-ci’. Les auteurs de l’ouvrage représentatifs des langues romanes 8 décrivant les vocabulaires se sont servis spécialement de 9 Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române .origine inconnue: adică ‘c’est-à-dire’. 1988. 2 . doucement’. s’ajoutent d’autres dont l’origine est très diverse (5. 2. autrefois’. da ‘oui’. totuşi ‘cependant’). en respectant les informations fournies par ce dictionnaire. 9 98 . odinioară ‘jadis.

frumos ‘beau’. p. spaniolă (uzaj.1.1. sincèrement’. notamment la forme neutre de l’adjectif singulier peut acquérir valeur d’adverbe (bun ‘bon’. gros ‘gros. du point de vue USD. nom.). L’inventaire réalisé a permis de constater que les adverbes qui font partie du vocabulaire représentatif de la langue roumaine (qui compte 2581 mots) sont au nombre de 149. 1999. p. en grande quantité’.2. justement’. la remarque que fait Al. franceză. 1988. par exemple. etc. drept ‘droitement. Sala. tare ‘fort. greu ‘difficilement’. 13. Voir. puţin ‘peu’. le plus souvent. 3. curat ‘vraiment. brièvement’. Graur. urât ‘mauvais’. Néanmoins. 12 99 . adjectif. vite’. légèrement’). Sala. quelques-uns d’entre eux (69) peuvent avoir d’autres valeurs morphologiques (préposition. bogăţie semantică şi putere de derivare). les adverbes qui font partie de ce groupe sont au nombre de 12 (bun ‘bon’. Une fois la liste établie. italiană. Ces critères de sélection envisagés pour le choix des mots qui font partie de ce vocabulaire ont été différemment utilisés en fonction du degré de la standardisation (langues normalisés ou non normalisées): « română. portugheză (frecvenţă. 112: «on a toujours employé un autre moyen.12 Aucun d’entre eux n’a une valeur absolument 11 M. limpede ‘clair’) ». en fonction de la démarche d’analyse envisagée.1. M. scurt ‘bref. bogăţie semantică şi putere de derivare)[…].1. Pentru celelalte trei limbi (sardă. conjonction. fortement’. repede ‘rapidement. p. lung ‘longuement’. »11 3. celle-ci nous a amené à constater que. l’adverbe revêt. interjection. à ce propos. effectivement. 146. adaptate la limbile catalană. directement. En ce qui concerne les adjectifs-adverbes. am putut aplica numai două criterii (bogăţia semantică şi puterea de derivare). observe « [qu’]en roumain. la forme de l’adjectif au masculin singulier-neutre». occitană) […]. ce qui peut augmenter ou diminuer leur nombre. 1963. retoromană. uşor ‘facilement.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe 3.

direct ‘directement’. 100 . tellement’. la situation se présente de la manière suivante: les adverbes qui correspondent à ces critères sont presque absents 1 (înainte ‘avant. atât ‘tant. jos ‘en bas’.3. nou ‘nouveau’. unde ‘où. convenablement. comme il faut’. încet ‘doucement’.1. Concernant l’application de SD. serios ‘sérieusement’. Ceux-ci représentent 5. 3. comment’.79% de la totalité des mots inclus dans le vocabulaire représentatif et qui remplissent le critère USD (207 mots). comme ça’. nu ‘non’. rău ‘mal’. 63. auxquels s’ajoutent ceux qui n’ont pas seulement une valeur adverbiale 5 + [23] = 28: adânc ‘profondément’. cum ‘comme. serré’. Pour ce qui est du critère UD. strâns ‘solidement.98% des mots faisant partie du vocabulaire représentatif qui tient compte du critère US (468). târziu ‘tard’. mai ‘encore.4. ça suffit’. când ‘quand. assurément’). car’. precum ‘comme’. tot ‘tout’. cât ‘combien’. bine ‘bien’. si autant.1. Ils représentent 2. déjà’. 13 Dans l’ouvrage.46% des mots faisant partie du vocabulaire représentatif qui tiennent compte du critère UD (162). natural ‘naturellement’. limpede ‘clairement’. şi ‘aussi. les adverbes sont au nombre de 513 (aşa ‘ainsi’.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe adverbiale. 3. noapte ‘nuit’. des ‘souvent’. plus’. seară ‘soir’) = 4. un pourcentage de 0. même. 4 éléments figurent pour ce type d’adverbes. p. iute ‘rapidement’. sus ‘en haut’). Ils appartiennent aussi à d’autres classes morphologiques et représentent ainsi 5.5.1.89% des mots faisant partie du vocabulaire représentatif qui tient compte du critère SD (112 mots). gata ‘assez. devant’) + [3] (nimic ‘rien’. aşa ‘ainsi. la situation ressemble beaucoup à celle qui a été antérieurement exposée: [1] adverbe (sigur ‘certainement. Quant au point de vue US. frumos ‘joliment. 3. comme’.

adesea ‘souvent’.19% des mots intégrés dans ce groupe (252).9. acolo ‘là-bas’. celle-ci renferme 1 adverbe + [0] = 1 (călare ‘en chevauchant. Étymologiquement. aproape ‘presque’.7.1. Quant à la dérivation (D). ba ‘non’.34% des mots inclus dans cette catégorie. etc. 2. altfel ‘autrement. Mis à part quelques adverbes d’origine non-latine (6 slaves: ba ‘non’. aminte ‘dans l’esprit’.1.1. sigur ‘sûr. incliné’). 3. l’adverbe roumain doit beaucoup au latin. asemenea ‘pareillement. afară ‘dehors’. 3.32% des mots intégrés dans ce groupe (310). certainement’ et 5 – origine inconnue: adică ‘c’est-à-dire’. tocmai. acum ‘maintenant’. adeseori ‘souvent’. à califourchon’) qui représente 0. adică ‘c’est-à-dire’. atunci ‘alors’. 2 – latins. qu’il s’agit des mots hérités ou empruntés au latin savant et aux langues romanes (le français et l’italien). anume ‘exprès’. Ils représentent 9. puis’. înăuntru ‘dedans’. incessamment’.6. gata ‘assez. astăzi ‘aujourd’hui’. apoi ‘ensuite. également’. prea ‘trop’. mais empruntés à l’allemand relativ ‘relativement’. astfel ‘ainsi’. puţin ‘peu’. absolut ‘absolument’. aici ‘ici’. natural 101 . relativ ‘relativement’. azi ‘aujourd’hui’. mereu ‘tout le temps. les adverbes inclus dans ce groupe (qui compte 1070 mots) sont assez nombreux 74 + [26] = 100 (abia ‘à peine’.1. ca ‘comme’. aseară ‘hier-soir’.1. La richesse sémantique (S) a permis de remarquer que la classe adverbiale compte [3] adverbes (nesigur ‘sans aucune certitude’.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe 3.1. Du point de vue U. da ‘oui’.8. strâmb ‘malhonnêtement. iar ‘à nouveau/de nouveau’.). 3. iute ‘rapidement’. 3. sinon’. terminé’. altădată ‘la fois prochaine’.néo-grecs: măcar ‘au moins’. Ils représentent 1.9. alături ‘à côté’.

sav.10. 102 . italien allemand) que le roumain a subies. C’est pour cela que les dictionnaires nous fournissent deux ou même trois langues pour expliquer la provenance du mot: probabil < fr. Cette analyse ponctuelle a permis de relever la place des adverbes dans le cadre de deux types de vocabulaires envisagés. A. En même temps. Parfois. témoigne de la spécificité de la classe adverbiale roumaine qui. Rosetti. se reporter utilement à I. contra. Pătruţ. relativ). probable. lat. relativ < fr. 184. présentes dans les deux listes dressées. it. 4. 246 – 259. auxquelles s’ajoute le latin savant. relatif. cette situation atteste la provenance multiple des adverbes. situation qui s’explique par les influences supportées par le roumain. développées ou empruntées. lat. 1974. Nous avons constaté que les différences d’inventaire sont significatives. p. 3. lat. probabilis. relativo (voir supra all. par rapport aux autres langues romanes. tous les autres ont une origine latine ou sont formés. Voir à ce propos. L’identité des unités adverbiales héritées. sav. due généralement aux diverses influences des langues modernes occidentales (français. 15 14 15 Pour le roumain. il est difficile de trouver une étymologie exacte. aspect relevé par les multiples étymons avancés dans les articles des dictionnaires. sav. contra < fr. dans la plupart des cas. est plus ouverte aux emprunts. ce qui s’explique par les critères choisis. d’éléments d’origine latine. et non par emprunt direct. contre. 2002. it. c’est-à-dire un mot qui est entré dans une langue donnée par l’intermédiaire d’une autre langue. Il s’agit parfois de ce que les linguistes appellent « emprunt par 14 filière » .Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe ‘naturellement’). pp..1. relativus.

1963. 16 M. nous avons pu remarquer l’importance des adverbes dans la langue ainsi que la place des adverbes latins hérités au sein de la langue roumaine. GRAUR. Notre brève étude confirme. Frequency Dictionary of Rumanian Words. Academia Română (DEX) [ediţia a II-a. Bucureşti: Editura Academiei Române. p. »16 Bibliographie: ***. italien. 1965. GRAUR. Esquisse historique. les langues romanes se sont forgé un nouveau système. Bucarest: Éditions de l’Académie Roumaine. Alexandru. espagnol. 2009]. 1965. ce qui n’empêche pas chaque langue d’avoir ses particularités. catalan. La romanité du roumain.146. Études étymologique. 103 .1. Adrian. provençal). A.. Bucarest: Éditions Meridiane. l’observation d’ordre général qu’a faite Marius Sala.. portugais. roumain. 2008. sans doute. La langue roumaine. À travers cette recherche ponctuelle. conservatrice et diversifiée à la fois. Sala. selon lequel « le système adverbial dans les langues romanes diffère considérablement de celui du latin. lexicale et morphologique (français. Manifestement.1975. Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române. 1999. Alphonse et alii. GRAUR. Al. Cluj-Napoca: Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă. L’adverbe dans les langues romanes. CHIRCU. Încercare asupra fondului principal lexical al limbii române. 1954. il y a quelques années. JUILLAND. Bucureşti. London – Hague – Paris: Editions Mouton.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe 4.

Cluj-Napoca: Editura Dacia. Édition de Dana-Mihaela Zamfir. in: Studii de limba română. „Împrumuturi prin filieră”. 104 . 1999. 1988. p. Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. Cluj-Napoca: Éditions Clusium. des origines au XVIIe siècle. Histoire de la langue roumaine. 2002. Paris-Bucarest: L’Harmattan & Univers Enciclopedic. A.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe PĂTRUŢ.). SALA. Marius (coord. Traduction de Claude Dignoire.. Marius. ROSETTI. I. Vocabularul reprezentativ al limbilor romanice. 1974. Du latin au roumain.. 246-259. SALA.

This is possible because in the semantic core of some apparently “neutral” proper names.fr Ana Maria PANŢU apantu@hotmail. etymological analysis. seemingly non-analysable at the level of their significance. social relations. pure and simple..com Abstract: A monographic study of Romanian mythonyms cannot ignore the problem of the etymological strata from which the corpus of these terms originates. plants. etc. before they became fixed in Romanian written versions. the place of this special area of Romanian onomastics within the Romanian lexical system. animals. the distribution of the thematic groups and subgroups from the onomasiological make-up of the inventory of mythonymic terms. The revelation is so much more interesting as the corrupted forms of names circulating in the literary folklore of other nations. etymological strata. but solely in the subgroup of anthroponyms. hinder the immediate 105 . 1. namely entities which have not been integrated in the respective subgroups. the Latin stock. Such an analysis is necessary primarily in order to establish. one can discover common names originally designating. From such a perspective we can estimate the extent to which mythonyms confirm the general etymologic structure of Romanian vocabulary and to what extent the terms designating mythical characters in our fairytales are specifically Romanian. to a certain extent. Keywords: Mythonyms. Between description and etymological analysis The internal structure of the lexical area of mythonyms can change. from this point of view as well.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe THE ETYMOLOGIC STRUCTURE OF ROMANIAN MYTHONYMS (I) Petre Gheorghe BÂRLEA gbarlea@yahoo. substratum elements.

In this way. a symbol of evil.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe deciphering of their profound significations. Gr. 1983. P. which means a species of predatory bird (“sparrow hawk. Lifte (“Poles”). Alimon Voinicul (Alimon the Sturdy) is a personage we can ascribe to the category of semiheroes. some of the words in our inventory have been quite amply written about in the course of time. as the Slavic kot means “cat”. Bg. alternatively. Iordan. of mischief (sometimes also in the role of a helpful companion). though the conclusions advanced by reputable linguists have not been unanimously 1 Cf. 2 In the same way. Rusu – the Russsian. “negative” characters are called Jidovi.). “the German”. meaning the group of “human beings endowed with exceptional qualities”. o. as a single sub-series of mythonymic terms would take hundreds of pages. the list of characters from the sphere of wondrous animals must be completed. s. This means. our research does not probe into the deep layers of a proper etymological analysis. Hasdeu. Aliman. Neamţu – the German. hen hawk”) a. This is also a relatively frequent procedure attested in studies of historical semantics. as in the case of Gasperiţa. s. B. 2 106 . Alamanas. Ion. of the series of deformities seems to be realted to Tartacan ‘Tartar”. Even in Romanian mythology or only in the more recent epic folklore. It. In fact.. of “horse thief” or “outlaw”. without necessarily leading to the elucidation of the origins and significations of some terms.v. s. since the initial form was Aliman. though only on the basis of the appositional epithet and. Alamano. Cotoşman means “big tomcat”. However. a species of arachnid (though also with the meaning of “gypsy-woman”). belonging to the affluent series of surnames of this type (cf. Sârbu – the Serb a. o. For example. I. o. Tătaru – the Tartar. we first notice that a phonetic change occurred at the end of the word Alimon (probably by analogy with Gedeon.v. in several languages where the word occurs as a surname anthroponym 1. Muscali (“Moscow people”). EMR. “castrated tomcat”. s.). The character Tartacot. From the etymological studies of Bogdan Petricescu-Hasdeu we learn that in Turkish the term was also used in a special sense. with Hărău. s. Rom. Alamanoi a. By means of etymological analysis. Machidon a. of the information contained in the respective text. o. s. Turcu – the Turk.

v.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe accepted. diastratic and diachronic configuration of the inventory of Romanian mythonyms. This only happens for the cases in which the same term is recorded with different etymologies in different lexicographic sources or when the term under discussion does not seem to fit. cit. for etymological aspects. or the case of the word copil. Nume de persoane şi nume de locuri româneşti. Iorgu Iordan...a. Etimologia şi limba română. s. 1987. more debatable situations that we have proceeded to confront the sources and to broaden the area of documentation. the information provided by etymological or mixed dictionaries. Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. resorting. op. 4 We have used the etymological indications offered by DLR. Bucureşti: Editura Academiei. cf. ProblemePrincipii. The selection of terms from each etymological stratum in the whole list compiled for our working corpus.. MDE.. EMR. we consider as valid solutions. To this effect. 1983. Ion Pătruţ. without going into details regarding the options of the authors of lexicographic instruments concerning the ascertaining of word origins. Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică ş.. EMR and DEX. with a special focus on this onomastic nominal segment. George Giuglea. according to the following descriptive scheme: 1. semantically and formally. 1984. at least from a strictly methodological point of view. with a view to achieving a clarification according to the criterion of the diachronic linguistic strata which contributed to the configuration of the lexical system of the Romanian language.4 It is only in certain. to specialist monographic studies. Edition by Florenţa Sădeanu. 107 . Cuvinte româneşti şi romanice.3 What we propose to do is a description of the etymologic sources of Romanian mythonyms. the classification proposed by authors. for which see the book by Ion Coteanu and Marius Sala. 5 Therefore our approach is aimed at creating a panoramic view of the diatopic. The analysis of the semantic content of the terms fit for completing the onomasiological groups established in the previous chapter and the dissembling of the phono-morphological mechanisms which 3 It is the case of the term Babe. 5 Cf. 2.

Moldavia. I have used. as in any study referring to language history. As any etymological analysis. with Bulgarian.şi suddunăreană). Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. as well. and into Istian. phonetically and morphologically adapted to the specificity of the Romanian language. Matilda Caragiu-Marioţeanu. but also filtered through the influence of the neighbouring languages. lexical and morphological structure of mythonyms presupposes not only the chronological incursions into the ancient stages of their evolution. to decipher such a name as Istian Viteazul (Istian the Brave) we need not probe into very deep strata. Banat. we shall make the customary statistic calculations. in standard literary language. although the term is also related to some of these. among others. by direct contact. turned into Istian. Ukrainian a. 3. Serbian. such as Sanskrit or Greek and Roman sources.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe directed the evolution of the word towards its secondary. For example. 1975. Finally. It suffices for us to know that the respective name circulates in Transylvania as a Hungarian variant of the anthroponym Ştefan. 6 The same thing happens with dialectal terms from Walachia. Istina. figurative meaning placing it in a clear-cut series of mythonyms. 108 . o. so as to make it possible to obtain. Compendiu de dialectologie română (nord. from the ancient to the recent strata of Romanian lexis. but also their correct placing into the ethno-cultural space. Before applying this analytical scheme. in dialectal forms (after the model Ştefania/Ştefana). Croatian. thus we can also explain its original Greek source (Stephanos “the crowned one. the principles and methods of linguistic geography and of dialectology prove to be extremely useful. Otherwise. a quantitative confirmation of the qualitative importance which a subgroup of terms has in the general structure of Romanian mythonyms. deciphering the meanings and dissembling the phonetic. Turkish. We would not 6 To explain a certain etymon by arguments of a dialectal order. the king”) as well as the one dialectally attested. two more specifications should be made. In other words. s.

in any case. that the ornithological series needs to be completed with names such as Boghez/Boghelţ or with Socol. Sokol – hawk – the symbol of courage. through deciphering their significations and mythological symbolism. a more mechanical relation. and precisely because its principles and methods have been transferred to comparative mythology. beliefs and narrative nuclei tardily attested: some of them at the beginning 109 . sparrow hawk”. we should specify that that the etymological analysis must be confined to the general linguistic frameworks. This approach has proved inefficient. through superstitions.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe know. through the evolvement of the meaning of the common names underlying proper names. we attempted to establish a parallel between the etymologic strata of Romanian vocabulary and the mythological strata proper. If we referred only to the last two examples given above. if we did not learn that in Slavic languages there are forms such as Boheš/Bogusz. insofar as the relations with the mythological plane are indirectly derived from these. precisely because the origin of mythological linguistics was comparative-historical grammar. for example. in the lack of old documentary sources which might attest the first stages in the evolution of the respective areas for both domains. or. the oldest Romanian myths have been conserved only through ritual reminiscences. etc. and. “owl”. etc. In the initial stage of our research. the aspiration for heights. the terms under discussion can only be “fixed” through reconstitution. we considered that the approach can be applied to the material available in Romanian mythology. despite our awareness that.e. etc. On the one hand. deficient in terms of the concrete evidence which would have needed to be analysed. as in any study of ethno-linguistics. it is clear that we must establish the following relations: Boghelţ – owl – the symbol of wisdom. so to say. Finally. by means of which old. and sokol. A tighter or. Or. “hen hawk. is not possible. common forms of different languages are reconstituted on the basis of the new material existing in modern languages. i.

Vânturile (the Winds) Vârful cel mai de Sus (the Highest Peak) and others. only the names were conserved in ancient historical documents.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe of the 17th century. etc. FeţiFrumoşii (Princes Charming). very few later than that and most of them in the collections realised in the second half of the 19 th century. The chronological difference between them is of at least a millennium. such as the naiads or the later civilizing heroes are Zânele (Fairies). while the narrative structure of the Romanian fairytales which took over the characters adapted them to modern times. as Soare (Sun). I have used. i. albeit on the basis of somewhat earlier documentary fragments. and the lesser deities. Sfânta Lună (Holy Moon). and the Romanian mythonyms of Latin origin. But these are terms of Latin origin. for ancient deities from the solar series. the linguistic covering in which the ancient mythological nuclei was passed on to us was adapted to the forms of the epoch in which they were collected and archived in written/recorded versions.. in conformity with the laws of diachronic linguistics. As for the methodological aspects. with special regard to this perspective on the analysis of mythonyms. The totemism in the lycanthropic series is rendered by Lupul (The Wolf) – symbol of courage. Gebeleizis. Thus. On the other hand. even more. which means that we cannot establish a direct relation between the ancientness of the Geto-Dacian cosmogonic myth.e. In the oldest Romanian fairytale preserved. pre-Latin. etc. in the writings of D. Povestea lumii de demult (The Tale of the World of Yore). the foundational characters of Romanian cosmogony are Muntele (the Mountain). but the disparate attestations even indicate a chronological distance of one thousand five hundred – two thousand years. while the mythical characters become De cu Seară (Nightfall Man). Zorilă (Dawn-Man). Sfântul Soare (Holy Sun). Cantemir. Lună (Moon). the symbolism of the circular sanctuary of Sarmizegetusa has been preserved in its old state solely as archaeological evidence. for general 110 . Romanian-adapted variant. Zalmoxis or the goddess Bendis. in their evolved.

Note. 111 . 1972. Ion Coteanu. More often than not. it is by no means obligatory for all the component elements to belong to the same etymological stratum. by bracketing the element belonging to an etymological stratum other than the one in which I have classified the key element. more than a half of the inventory of mythonyms is made up of compound names. On the contrary. the studies of Th. In the subgroups established in this chapter we have graphically marked these situations. the Balkans. even if. three or even more terms. i. Hristea. Hristea. the territory of ancient Dacia. cf. 2.e. which they therefore explain by a new term. as I was showing in a previous chapter. supra. without knowing it. as it has been illustrated. respectively South-East Europe. Coteanu and M. Marius Sala and others. by referring to the customary influences from the neighbouring regions. Etymological strata of Romanian mythonyms The valid operation remains the etymological reconstitution of the lexical strata valid for shorter time spans – a few hundreds of years – and for more restricted ethno-linguistic and mythic-folkloric areas. note 3. the epithet expresses the same thing as the determiner. and by highlighting 7 Th. which is the fact that. Of course. For the study by I.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe problems of etymology. Sala. it is almost paradigmatic of the appositive additions or the supplementary characterising epithets to derive from a lexical stratum situated in a later stage of the name’s evolution. in current use at that time. reaching as far as Western Europe and the Middle East. they actually say the same thing. but the storytellers of later epochs lost the original meaning of the key-word.7 One of the most difficult problems in the analysis of the appurtenance of mythonyms to a certain mythological stratum has been their multiple structure. consisting of two. Articole. according to the principle of the permanent sedimentations and transformations specific to the genesis of myths. Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică. Probleme de etimologie. Studii.

Măzărel (Împărat) [Little Pea (Emperor)]. Murgilă. animals. Curpăn (Tendril. Muşa. Dunăre (Voinicul) [Danube (the Sturdy)]. personifications of plants. Etymological reconstitutions – for whole strata and for individual terms. II. because of their antiquity and of the total lack of documents of the time. Mureşul. Moş (Ene). when the situation requires – are made by proceeding from the current attestations to the ancient forms. Gammer Moaşa (Iana). pp. It is most fortunate for us that the criteria for delimitating the words in this stock8 are efficient enough for the terms we are directly concerned with. cf. Ciocârlie. hydronyms and phytonyms are among the most conservative elements in the lexical structure of a language: Argeşul. meant to fill in the “blanks” in the structure of some mythonyms. The working procedure. Moaşa (Eva). the old forms were better attested because toponyms. etc. Moş (Gligor). 2. Albanian mugull). Ciută (Hind. 1969.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe some reminiscences and evolutions from the mythology of classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Substratum elements The difficulties attending the reconstitution of the stock of substratum elements. Mugurul (cf.1. Moşul Codrilor. Ciocârlan (Lark).. Fărâmă (Piatră). Oltul. in principle. for all these cases. Considering that the mythonyms represent. mountains. Moş (Adam). Moşii. Someşul. 313-365. “woodpecker”). Murg (cf. should also characterize the sphere of mythonyms in Romanian vocabulary. in the chapter „Influenţa autohtonă” (The autochthonous influence) in Istoria limbii române (ILR). Albanian shut). Albanian murg). 112 . waters. Brad (Fir). cf. [Break (Stone)] Gheonoaie (cf. by recourse to an interdisciplinary analysis. Moş (Lăcustă). remains the one validated by comparative historical grammar and comparative historical mythology. Albanian Gjon “owl”. Albanian Kurpen). Bucur. Bucureşti: Editura Academiei. Moşul. 8 The most convincing criteria were established by Cicerone Poghirc. trees. vol.

of the Wood). Moşii. moşie “country. is the mythonym Dunăre (Voinicul) [Danube (the Sturdy)].. etc. 11 Cf. names of human relations. uses the term “autochthonous” as a subdivision of the substratum. cf. but also “old 9 Among the numerous difficulties in reconstituting the substratum of the Romanian language there are the very terminological inconsistencies of the specialists. cf. 68. i. Other studies have also treated the respective toponym from a mythological point of view. region. Gh. in: Constributions onomastiques. Rosetti. so much more as it also has gender derivatives (moaşă. Alina Jercan-Preda.e. 12 Cf. The term mal. C. in fact. at page 204. to which Gh. 1958. Moaşa Eva (also Baba Eva) or locative-abstract derivatives. etc. Ivănescu. such as MDE.e. but is quite well defined thematically. 2010. names of mountains and rivers. Moş (Gligore). cf. farming land. Noteworthy.11 only occurs as a toponym proper or as a common name. gammer). insofar as it illustrates some stable onomasiological areas: names of plants 10 and animals. Cicerone Poghirc. of diverse origins. the qualifier “autochthonous” is attributed both to the words inherited from the Thracian-Dacian substratum and to those formed subsequently from older roots. „Origine pré-indo-européenne des noms du Danube”. also the Albanian motschë and moschë “age”. of Istoria limbii române. 113 . with its cu mythonymic concretisations.D. Also. Moşul (Pădurii. whereas others. cf. in this sense.. the autochthonous inventory of mythonyms 9 is relatively scarce. more restricted to the fairly certain proto-Romanian corpus. oronyms and toponyms are recorded in treatises of history and geography. Hydronyms.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe As it can be seen. but also in the definitive one of 1978. Al. p. but then refers to the whole substratum. widely studied by specialists. 331. p. etc. Bucureşti: Editura Academiei. that is to the ones commonly designated as “words formed on Romanian territory”. but „Traca şi ilira”. some fragments of writings about medicinal plants. i. do occur. land. Moş (Lăcustă. 12 Numerous research studies have been devoted to moş (old father). „Elementul autohton”. In the lexicographic works in current use. at page 607. 1969. Locust). i. I. Moş (Adam). „Acţiunea subtratului”. unfortunately) are. etc.e. pp. at pages 219-230. Poghirc observes that the correct term for this phase in the history of our language is that of “Geto-Dacian”. Ivănescu devoted a very pertinent study several years ago. in the 1969 edition. “the Romanian substratum word with the most certain attestation”.”. 10 The advantage consists especially in the fact that the famous glossaries recording Dacian words (from the 3rd – 4th centuries A. 125-139.

Irodan. who records these hypostases. I. p. s. but it may also be a corrupted form of the adjectival noun ghiuj. the mistress of the nine-hearted horse. 213. cit. cit. Lazăr Şăineanu. p. also S.13 In the category of words that can be interpreted as contributions revealed exclusively by etymological reconstruction there is ghiuj (decrepit old man) which. p. Puşcariu. 640. SCL. pseudo-etymologically equated with i. Şăineanu. It may simply be a name of onomatopoeic origin. 345. 114 .v. It is the correspondent from the Transylvanian variant (col. Pompiliu) or to Baba Relea (Evil Hag) of the Bukovina variant (col. XVII. considers that in the Transylvanian dialect Vâja means “witch. Iordan. 14 Cf. with an î. Al. moaşă. cf.14 But these are found in our mythonym Vâjbaba (the Old Hag). It is not to be found as such in our inventory of mythonyms. “the World’s Edge”. op. VI. For the history of the word. III. 272. 140. loc. is considered to belong most certainly to the Geto-Dacian stock. M. C. p. 1969. SCL. 1966. in other variants).16 The fact that VâjBaba (Old Hag) would express in a pleonastic manner the same concept by two different words does not represent a counterargument for this 13 Cf. Brâncuş. in the above-mentioned specialist treatises. but also Vâjoi2 as “swirling brook”.15 whereas Iorgu Iordan puts forward other solutions. p.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe woman”. of Thracian-Dacian origin. p. Limba română. Poghirc. p. Pop-Reteganul. 1983. G. Sbierea. there is also the Bulgarian Važo. On the other hand. 15 L. 1969. 59) of the fairytale Ileana Cosânzeana and it corresponds to Mama Ciuma (Mother Plague) of the stock fairytale (col. There are attested forms such as Vâjoi1 for “ghiuj” (decrepit old man). 16 Apud I. Rosetti. 56). I. from the interjection vâj!. 172. It is Baba din fundul Iadului. but it was proposed as a solution for the semantic interpretation of some anthroponyms of the type Vâj and Vâje. Gr. M. ghost-woman”. I. Sala.. from which vijelie might have been derived. the “Hag of Hell’s Bottom” (or Marginea Lumei. meaning “decrepit old man”. This last attestation explains why in Meglenoromanian there is only the feminine form. 1955. p.

. Not all the mythonymic terms of Latin origin come from Vulgar Latin and. the respective thematic areas are prone to mythological personification. etc. etc. directly proportional with the general structure of Romanian lexis. of some oronyms and hydronyms and of some concepts regarding people’s age17. through the personification of plants. on the other hand. From this last point of view. etc. 2. not even in the case of mythonyms from the Geto-Dacian substratum. as it was shown above. we cannot even try to delimitate any thematic subareas. This lexical affluence has its inconveniences. based on a very wide range of onomasiological references. as we proceeded in the case of mythonyms derived from substratum elements. by reference to the integral inventory of Romanian mythonyms and. the latter is. periphrases. the fact that from the substratum words we only know those designating names of plants (thanks to the glosses of late Greek Antiquity) animals. moments of the day. this is the most fertile. hydronyms.. trees. oronyms etc. the mythonyms in the substratum of the Romanian language constitute a quite well-established segment. animals. metaphorical formulations. We could conceivably observe that chromatic terms and several determinant semantic fields (celestial bodies. on the other hand a segment which is convincing in terms of mythological symbolism. of a diachronic order. without any existing tendency for the selection of a certain semantic type of words.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe etymological interpretation. but. in 17 In fact. aloglotic pleonasms represent a common phenomenon. just as in toponymy. The Latin stock of Romanian mythonyms From a quantitative point of view.) derive almost exclusively from Latin. because it facilitates the most phrases. quite the opposite. because the names of Latin origin cover practically all the big groups and all the subgroups and subseries from the onomasiological classification of the respective terms. but this mechanism affects the lexis of any other language. Qualitatively as well.2. birds. it is not these that selected a certain domain. from an ethnologic perspective. Incidentally. 115 . since in mythonymy. In whole. makes us identify a few mythonyms among them. the mythonymic segment of Latin origin is the most consistent.

D.). -a. Others belong to late Vulgar Latin. I-II. vol. formosus. -a. Luna (Moon). (See Well). 18 In the staging of the history of the Romanian language. Some terms still keep the characteristics of a certain phase. Vede Bine. 9-10. Some terms belong to even later periods.D. verbs. which became Omul (Pământului). adverbs) turned into metaphoric proper names. in scholarly ways. This refers to common names (nouns. Cf. Latina dunăreană. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. to the so-called “Danube Latin”. such as alapa (for Latin ala. “Leaf (of Marjoram)”. also Al. Both are part of the phenomenon of “re-Latinising” of the Romanian language. as an intermediary of the transition from Latin to Romanian. that is of the terms borrowed much later. Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. Dimitrescu (coord. such as malus and pirus. which became Măr (Apple-tree) and Păr (Pear-tree) or homo and bruma. 1979. and II. 105-271 A. 18 Some terms belong to classical literary Latin. Apă Bună (Good Water). symbolic of mythical characters. Introducere în istoria limbii române.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe its turn. I. For example. Rosetti. that is prior to the separation of Aromanian from Daco-Romanian).). 1975. throughout the phase of Danube area Latin (the 4th – 5th centuries A. -tis). -um (for literary Latin bellus.19 such as frondia (< frons. I used as a point of reference the proposals of the collective of ILR. have been preserved as such since the Dacian-Roman period (cca.). 19 Cf. -um). divided according to certain periods. cf. -ae). and Fl. Fischer. 1978. there are also two other important Latin sources – that of elevated Latin. It treats of the Latin element of the 4th – 5th centuries North and South of the Danube. “Man (of the Earth)” and Brumă (hoar-frost). adjectives. up to that of modern and contemporary Romanian. the phase of medieval Romanian (the 9th – 17th centuries). for Frunză (de Măgheran). pp. I. the phase of common Romanian vernacular (the 5th – 8th centuries. Istoria limbii române. etc. Finally. 1969. Most terms were preserved as such throughout all of these stages. which serve as “connection”. which became Aripă Frumoasă (Beautiful Wing). 15-18. I. Soarele (Sun) Steaua (Star). 116 . Aude Bine (Hear Well). as well as the one of Romance languages. pp.

117 . Făt Frumos cu Părul de Aur (Golden-Haired Fair Youth/Prince Charming).Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe which are not always easy to identify. De către Seară. Dumnezeu (God). Argintar Galbeni Buni (Silversmith Good Ducats). Fata (din Dafin*) (The Maid [of the Laurel]). Fata Nenăscută de Om Nevăzută (Unborn Maid Unseen by Man). Bou (Bălanel) (Ox. Floarea (Flower). Constantin. De cu Seară (Falling Night). Aripă Frumoasă (Fair Wing). (Bad Water). Alb Împărat (Emperor White). Doamna (Chiralina*) (Lady). Doamna Florilor (Lady of the Flowers). Frigurosul (Chilly). Alba Împărăteasa (Empress White) Apa Rea. because we have not intended a study on the history of language. Barbă Cot (Elllong Beard). Freacă Pietre (Rub Stones). Frântul (The Crooked). Brumă (Hoar-frost). Galben de Soare (Sunny Golden). Floriţa. Fiul Oii (The Sheep’s Son). Faurul Pământului (The Blacksmith of the Earth). Greuceanu. Florea Înfloritul (Blossomy Florea). Frumoasele (Fair Maids). as stated above. Floarea (Codrilor) (Flower [of the Woods]). Fiul Vacii (The Cow’s Son). Florica. Floarea Florilor (Flower of the Flowers/Flower Queen). considered semantically unusual and hard to decipher: Agerul Pământului* (The Agile/Sprite of the Earth). Fătul (Babei) ([The Hag’s] Lad). Fata Nevăzută. White Ox). Aude Bine. we have ignored these diachronic subdivisions. Neauzită. (Hear Well). Chipăruş. Auraş Împărat (Emperor). Fiul Iepei (The Mare’s Son). the etymological solutions offered by the lexicographic instruments in current use and have extended our area of research only in the case of some words. Gerul (Frost). In our classification. Frigul (Cold). Austru (Southern Wind). Ciperi. Bourean (Young Ox). We have adopted. Aflatul. din Cer Căzută (The Unseen/Unheard/Sky-fallen Maid). Fata Rumpe Haine* (Tatter-Clothes Maid). Foametea (Famine). Frunză de Măghiran (Leaf of Marjoram). Barbu. Grâuşor de Aur (Golden Little Wheat). Făt Frumos din Lacrimă (Tear-Born Fair Youth/Prince Charming). Florian. Frumoasa Lumii (Fairest of the World). De către Ziuă (Break of Day). Bucăţica (Tiny Tot). Aude Rău (Hear Badly). Căldură (Heat).

Pasăre Măiastră (Wondrous Bird). Pier de Căldură (Die of Heat). (Mama*) Pădurii. Regina Florilor (Flower Queen). Sora Soarelui (The Sun’s Sister). Pescăruş (Seagull). Ochi Râde-Ochi Plânge (Laughing Eye-Weeping Eye). Statu Palmă Barbă Cot (Palm Tall Ell Beard). Sumedru (Saint Demeter). Împăratul Alb (White Emperor). Mustaţă de Aur (Golden Moustache). Picioare de Cal (Horse Legs). Setosul (Thirsty). Nămiaza Nopţii (Dead of Night). Mângiferu. Măr (Împărat) (Apple [Emperor]). Mintea (Mind). Soarele (Sun). Sân Petru (Saint Peter). Păr (Împărat) – Pear (Emperor). Petrea (Tâlhariul) (Highwayman). Roşu Împărat (Emperor Red). Şchiopul cu Barba cât Cotul (Ell118 . Mama Vânturilor (Mother of the Forest/Sun/Winds). Omul Pământului (Man of the Earth). Spată Lată (Broad Back). Mutu (Dumb). Mucea făr’ de Păr (Baldy Snotty). Sorin. Împăratul Verde (Green Emperor). Petrea Căţelei (Peter of the Bitch-dog). Necuratul (Evil One). (Mama) Soarelui. Barbă de Mătase (Beard of Silk). Spic de Grâu (Wheat Spike). Împăratul Galben (Yellow Emperor). Miez de Noapte (Midnight). Papură Împărat (Reed Emperor). Sântilie (Saint Elijah). Serilă (Nightfall). Împăratul Negru (Black Emperor).Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Inimă Putredă (Rotten Heart). Petrea Şchiopul (Lame Peter). Omul din Lună (Man in the Moon). Spic de Aur (Golden Wheat Spike). Omul cât Şchiopul (Tiny Man). Petre Cel Frumos (Fair Peter). Petrea Piperiul (Peter Pepper). Por Împărat (Emperor Por). Barba cât Cotul (Elbow/Ell-long Beard). Sântana (Saint Ann). Pătru Făt Frumos (Peter Prince Charming). Mintă (Creaţă) (Peppermint/Curled Mint). Miazănoapte (North). Scutură Munţii (Shake Mountains). Nour Împărat (Emperor Cloud). Lungilă (Long Legs). Măiastra*(Wondrous). Petrea Făt Frumos. Pipăruş (Viteazul) (the Brave). Împăratul Roşu (Red Emperor). Lupul (Woolf). Pipăruş (Little Pepper). Pipăruş Petru. Strâmbă Lemne (Bend Wood). Mezilă. Sânta Duminică (Saint Sunday). Sora Crivăţului (The North Wind’s Sister). Peneş Împărat (Emperor). Pier de Frig (Die of Cold). Negru Împărat (Emperor Black). Lăcustă Ler* Împărat (Locust Ler Emperor). Petru Firicel (Leaflet). Sân Georz (Saint George). Petrea (Voinicul) (the Sturdy).

respectively the mythonyms Florea and Floarea (with the 20 Fortunately for us. morphologic. by suffix derivation.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Beard Lame Dwarf). Zâna Stelină (Starry Fairy). at phonetic. Vulturul (Eagle). so active in Latin and Romanian. Zâna Zânelor (Fairy/Queen of the Fairies/Fairy-Godmother). Zâna Soarelui (the Sun Fairy). 119 . it becomes complicated by association with other phenomena. Zâna Florilor (Flower Fairy). Even from a general survey of the above sub-inventory we can notice that the problems of interpretation are much more numerous than the ones mentioned in the preamble to this subchapter. Vârful cel mai de Sus (The Highest Peak). in the case of mythonyms. in the analysis of the significations of some mythical character names. Vântoasele (the Whirlwinds). From the Latin Accusative florem. There we discussed the problems in selecting and including the terms in the “Latin” class of mythonyms. Unfortunately. Zâna Verbină (Verbena Fairy). Heavy as the Earth). until the complete loss of the connection with their initial Latin etymon. Vede Bine (See Well). Vânt Împărat (Wind Emperor). A second problem is linked to the lexical-morphologic evolutions even in the standard literary language. under different forms.20 Though not very productive here. lexical and semantic levels. Zâna Munţilor (Mountain Fairy). Uşor ca Vântul-Greu ca Pământul (Light as the Wind. so the disassembling of the basis of a form complicated by derivational mechanisms (often also combined with compounding and conversion) was less fastidious here. problems which we have simplified as much as possible. Verde Împărat (Green Emperor). A first problem is that of the usual “corrupted” forms. without whose clarification we could not even convincingly complete the etymological under discussion. Vântul cel mai de Sus (Highest Wind). by renouncing the sub-classifications according to the chronologic and dialectal criterion. more precisely those which evolved according to later dialectical and historical laws. Urmă Galbină (Yellow Trace). suffix derivation proved less productive. we have inherited the Romanian floare (flower). these recur.

the labial consonants become palatalised. But from the context we understand that it refers to the condiment granule. Floriţa. But for Pipăruş Viteazul (Little Pepper the Brave) or Petrea Voinicul. In Agerul Pământului. If we say Negru Împărat. as both terms belong to the same language. Macedonean bedros/Bedros. to the same period in the evolution of Latin. Iordan. then. It is the same with Frunză de Măghiran (Leaf of Marjoram). and. we should believe. by the philological analysis carried out by Iorgu Iordan. What is not understood is the form Ciperi. Florian. but also the derivatives /diminutives Florica. which is a rare case in mythonymy.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe respective vocalic alternation). On this antanaclasis is based the assertion attributed to Jesus Christ: „Tu es Petrus et super hanc petram aedificabo meam ecclessiam” “You are Peter and on this stone I will build my church”.22 But then compounding complicates almost permanently these etymological interpretations. etc. where the second term is the German Mageran (a certain oregano species). respectively the Latin ones petra/Petrus21 and piper. as well as the compound forms (pleonastic) Florea Înfloritul (Blossomy Florea).v. When we say Petrea Piperiul (Peter Pepper). The problem is that. by diminutive derivation. 22 I. they were the Romanian terms Petre and piper. we understand that. originally. the first term is Latin. which would be more suggestive of “chiparosul” (cypress) (more mythologizing) rather than of “pepper”. French pierre/Pierre etc. that concerning the dialectal phonetic and morphologic evolutions. the first term comes from the valid universal 21 Cf. an enigma solved later (though not definitively. also Greek πέτρος/Πέτρος. (The Agile/Sprite of the Earth). so that Piper becomes Chiper. 120 . with Sora Crivăţului (The North Wind’s Sister) (Latin + Slavic). in some Transylvanian and Moldavian dialects. while the other is of Slavic-Magyar and Slavic origin. even more. However. (Peter the Sturdy). Chipăruş. Ciperi. these are infinitely more easily analysable than the ones which evince the very first problem enounced here.). with a para-synthetic derivation in the second term. respectively. (Emperor Black) things are all right. 1983. s.

Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe

classical Latin stock, since agilis (Acc. agilem) normally evolved towards
ager (with the predictable modifications – the loss of the Latin termination,
the rhotacization of intervocalic -l-, etc.), while the second belongs to the
late vulgar stock, as pavimentum has a special significance in Latin (“earth
layer”, alternatively “beaten earth”), while in Romanian it acquired the
meaning of terra, a word it replaced for the most part.23
Some terms, even from the very common mythonymic stock, such
as Făt Frumos (Fair Youth/Prince Charming), or Zâna/Zânele (the FairyGodmother/the Fairies) are always controversially discussed, as it is not
very certain, for example, that Zâna derives from Diana, although all the
phonetic, morphological-lexical and semantic-symbolic evidence would
confirm this evolution.
There are terms formed on Romanian soil, such as Mama, a word
of infantile origin, created autonomously in different languages, even
genealogically unrelated,24 so that the popular and archaic Latin mamma,
used in familiar register, bears no relations, despite all appearances, with the
corresponding Romanian term, and the standard literary doublet mater was
not at all adopted from Latin. In the combination Mama Pădurii/Muma
Pădurii (Mother of the Forest), etc., which was classified with the terms of
Latin origin, we can have the form with u (Muma), but also with Maica, a
Slavic form. What is more, the problem regarding the evolution of the Latin
paludem “marsh” to the Romanian pădure, through metathesis,
rhotacization, and especially through the spectacular change of meaning,
makes the classification in a certain group even more difficult.
Finally, if there can be an end to etymological problems, some
mythonyms are totally encoded. The first term from Ler Împărat (Ler
Emperor) was intensely studied, due to its frequency in the incantatory
formulae of carols and spells, texts which accompanying ritual acts. We
23

There remain, however, in Romanian, terra>ţeară>ţară “country”, respectively,
terranus “peasant”.
24
Cf. P. Gh. Bârlea, 2013, p.192.

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have accepted the most widespread explanation among specialists: it might
well be a form which was reduced, syncopated (because of its usage in
incantatory, rhythmical and rhymed contexts) to this enigmatic syllable,
deriving from the Hebrew Alleluiiah > Latin ler > Romanian ler/Ler. 25
BIBLIOGRPHY
1. Surces
***, 2003, Antologia basmului cult românesc. Vol. 1-2. Ediţie îngrijită de
Ioan Şerb, Bucureşti: Editura „Grai şi Suflet- Cultura Naţională”.
***, 2010, Basmele românilor, vol. I-X, Bucureşti: Editura Curtea Veche.
OPRIȘAN, I. (ed.), 2005, Basme fantastice românești, vol. I-IX, București:
Editura
ŞĂINEANU, Lazăr, 1978, Basmele române în comparaţiune cu legendele
antice, clasice şi în legătură cu basmele popoarelor învecinate şi ale
tuturor popoarelor romanice. Ediţie îngrijită de Ruxandra Niculescu.
Prefaţă de Ovidiu Bîrlea, Bucureşti: Editura Minerva.
2. References
BÂRLEA, P. Gh., 20132, Limba română contemporană..., Bucureşti:
Editura „Muzeul Literaturii Române”.
BÂRLEA, Petre Gheorghe, 2007, Ana cea Bună - Lingvistică şi mitologie,
Bucureşti: Editura „Grai şi Suflet - Cultura Naţională”.
CARAGIU-MARIOŢEANU, Matilda, 1975, Compendiu de dialectologie
română (Nord- şi Sud-dunăreană), Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică şi
Enciclopedică.
COTEANU, Ion; SALA, Marius, 1987, Etimologia şi limba română.
Probleme - Principii, Bucureşti: Editura Academiei.

25

The phenomenon is also attested in other lexemes and syntagms, such as the popular
interjection zău, reduction from Romanian (pe) Dumnezeu (by God) < lat. Dominus Deus.

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DIMITRESCU, Florica (coord.), 1978, Istoria limbii române, Bucureşti:
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MSc Anyla SARAÇI (MAXHE). they are widespread not only in the written language but also in the spoken language. Albania kaneeva@ymail. This article presents a contrastive study of the structures and semantics of phraseology units containing the word “head” in Albanian. a property or a relationship outside the world. Key words: Head. Lloshi II. often according to existing patterns. 125 . BULGARIAN AND GREEK LANGUAGES) Eva ÇËRAVA (KANE). Balkan languages. Noli” University. a process or a state. Introduction Glaser (1996) defines PhUs as “Glaser nominations” because they designate a phenomenon. Korçë. the use of a systematic empirical research to describe these phraseological units serves to determine which idioms actually share a relatively identical lexical and semantic structure across the three languages and could therefore be called “widespread”. Bulgarian and Greek languages. an object. a term which is usually not defined any further. phraseology. this term can allow us to see how this heritage is represented in phraseology. semantics. (Thomaj. First of all. As a result. PhD “Fan S.com animaxhe@yahoo. contrastive insight.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe THE PHRASEOLOGY OF “HEAD” IN RELATION WITH BALKAN MENTALITY (CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHRASEOLOGY OF ALBANIAN. This approach can describe similarities and differences of mentality as reflected in phraseology. Every language forms them according to its particular nature.com Abstract: The common points in the phraseology of Balkan languages are often attributed to some “Balkan cultural heritage”. So. 1972: 231).

in what is described as Balkan Sprachbund. the movement of the population.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe The common points in the phraseology of European languages are often attributed to some “European cultural heritage”. a term which requires defining further. Balkan cultures are so similar: the long coexistence close to each other. but as a linguistic angle of a common mentality. English) and two Romance (French and Italian) languages. proverbs etc. Based on this common Balkan element. Her analysis reveals quite a large number of near-equivalent idioms in these languages (Pirrenei. all these have determined common linguistics realities. many scholars have found concordances between languages in folkloric forms. One of the main reasons for the similarities in folklore is bound up with the common elements in the spiritual realm of Balkan nations. These similarities are seen by Sanfeld as one of the factors defining the Balkan community (Thomaj. drawn from six languages of diverse genetic relationships. 2005:49). Russian). II 1972:223). based on the concept of Glaser. that in this case is the Balkan mentality. From this point of view. the lexical concordances between Balkan languages are present and more distinctive because “…it is the nature of linguistic cognation that the analogies are created from the first contacts mainly in the field of lexis” (Thomaj. two Germanic (German. II 1972:225). Menac (1987) presented an inventory of several dozens of (supposedly) common European idioms. economic and social circumstances. the common historical. seen as the “Balkan cultural heritage”. phraseology is described not only as a nomenclature of designations. 126 . Lloshi. by analogy. namely two Slavonic (Croatian. so through comparative and contrastive cross-linguistic description it becomes possible to find out the inner linguistic connections underlying a common Balkan mentality. Meanwhile. Language itself is an implicit “thought scheme”. Lloshi.

127 . 2) part of the human body as the unit of thinking. taken from the “Balkan phraseological dictionary”. 4) the beginning of some beings or objects. the human being as holder of ideas and of certain mental capacities. top. They come to the conclusion that there are “similar idioms” in some languages (Piirainen 2005: 47). Greek and Bulgarian. ego. The analysis features 108 phraseological units that contain the word head. which means when the words in both languages belong to the same semantic field and it is difficult to find any other extralinguistic explanation for the usage of one word or another in the noun phrases (Hristova Bejleri. 1996).. Methods One type of cultural fundament is represented by idioms whose underlying cultural knowledge chiefly goes back to knowledge folk social mentality. the nose etc. These phrase units are examined in parallel in three Balkanic languages: Albanian. mistakenly referred to as the “onomasiological” approach as well. Such parallels include items with slight lexical differences. This type can be divided into smaller subgroups and the phraseology containing parts of the body is one of them. Results and discussion According to the meanings given in the “Dictionary of the Albanian language” (2002: 587-588). the ears. the phraseological units containing the word head have four main meanings: 1) upper part of the body which is the location of the brain. animal or garment constituents). 3) part of the human body as representative of human life. starting from the Albanian language. idioms with body parts.g. the eyes.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Several other “cross-cultural” studies start from the traditional grouping of idioms into “thematic groups” (e.

s’më hiqet nga koka – не ми излиза от главата-. There are many instances of phraseological units where both the form and the structure are the same in both languages.Κεφάλι με κεφάλι. kokë qepë – лукова глава .Δεν μου βγαίνει(φεύγει) από το κεφάλι(από την γνώμη.Από το κεφάλι μέχρι τα πόδια. kokë e këmbë – от главата до петите. we shall identify will three groups: The first group includes the phraseological units evincing the same lexical structure.Με χτύπησε πίσω από το κεφάλι.боли ме главата.обръщам назад.Κρεμμυδοκέφαλος. i bie kokës me grushte – бия си главата (с два камъка).Γυρίζω το κεφάλι πίσω. kthej kokën prapa .Με το κεφάλι κρεμασμένο. In a contrastive analysis of the phraseological units containing “head” in Albanian and Bulgarian. These examples of structural correspondences containing the same verb or synonymous verbs show lexical-semantic phraseological parallels. for example such expressions as: më ra prapa kokës – удря ме в главата.Με το κεφάλι κάτω.” Thus. This means that. 128 .το μυαλό)..Ξύνει το κεφάλι. më dhemb koka . heq(fshij) nga koka – махам (изтривам) от главата си (от акъла си.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Christians have usually understood the word “head” to mean “authority over. in Greek το κεφάλι).Χτυπώ (βαρώ) το κεφάλι μου με γροθιές. nga koka në këmbët .. me kokë ulur – с наведена глава. kruaj kokën – почесвам се по главата. the phraseological units contain the same verbs or synonymous verbs followed by the word head (in Albanian kokë-a. in both languages. in Bulgarian глава-та. Christ is the authority over the church and a husband is the authority over his wife (1985: 38). от ума си). kokë më kokë – глава до глава. m’u ça koka – цепи ме главата.Το γυρίζω με το κεφάλι κάτω.Βγάζω (σβήνω) από το κεφάλι μου(κάτι). e kthej me kokë poshtë – обръщам надолу с главата .Με πονά το κεφάλι. The phraseological units show parallelisms not only in their lexemes but even in their meanings.Μου σκίστηκε (έσπασε)το κεφάλι.от главата до петите. me kokë poshtë – с наведена глава.

the word head occurs in its usage as “part of the body where the brain is located” or as “mind. in the three languages. these phraseological units contain verbs with a wide semantic structure.Δεν ξέρει που να χώσει (βάλει) το κεφάλι του. having in common the noun “head”. This requires archaic operations which utilize rudimentary 129 . These verbs have more than one meaning. In these cases. The verbs occurring in these phraseological units have different meanings but the meaning of the whole phraseological unit is the same in all three languages.Μου βράζει (βουίζει) το κεφάλι. as in the following groups of examples: Ia bëri koka – от главата си патя . e lodh kokën kot – бъхтя си главата . имам бръмбари в главата Έχει τη γνώμη (το μυαλό) πίσω από το κεφάλι.Του ανέβηκε (ήρθε) στο κεφάλι κάτι. e ka mendjen prapa kokës – нямам ум.Αφήνω το κεφάλι μου (για κάτι).Κουράζω το κεφάλι (μάταια). s’i dhemb koka (për asgjë) – ништо не ми тежи на главата . lë kokën (për dikë a diçka) – главата си залагам (за нещо.Του το’πλυνε το κεφάλι. s’di ku kam kokën – пламнала ми е в главата .Δεν το πονάει το κεφάλι. i hipi (i kërceu) në kokë – наумявам си нещо. s’e ngre kokën – глава не повдигам.Κόβω το κεφάλι μου (για κάτι). the process of thinking itself”. Generally. these units are a result of a transformation of free noun-phrases to phraseological noun-phrases. влиза ми някаква муха в главата .Του το΄κανε το κεφάλι.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe ia lau kokën – насапунисвам главата . më zien (mizëron) koka – пламва ми главата .за някого) . The second group includes phraseological units with a different structure. but in the most cases the verb is used in its literal meaning.. As already mentioned.Δε σηκώνω κεφάλι (από κάτι).(δεν έχει λογική). These phraseological units demonstrate the process of constructing the “we” in opposition to “the others”. e pres kokën – главата си режа. This group is semantically based on the figurative meaning of the components in the phraseological unit.

изнемогвам (head-life). In Bulgarian these examples are linked to lexemes that in most cases express meanings similar to the meaning of “head” as brain.не ми стига акьла. 1997:14-16) The third group includes phraseological expressions containing the word head in Albanian but not in Bulgarian. There are some phraseological units in which the word head is used as “process of thinking” in Albanian and in Greek.вадя душата с памук (head-spirit). whereas in Bulgarian phraseological units other lexemes are used.(head-life). ia hëngri kokën me të mirë – Του το’φαγε το κεφάλι με το καλό .не ми работи акьла.Το’βγαλε το κεφάλι του показвам си рогата (head-horns). s’ka kokë – Δεν έχει κεφάλι (γνώμη. μυαλό) . From a detailed analysis it results that. ум море глава кофа.няма сила (зимната) (head-force). μυαλό) . while in Bulgarian phraseological units another word is used with the same meaning: i ka bërë kokën – Του έχει κάνει το κεφάλι давам живот .Του το ξεκαθάρισε το κεφάλι . ia shpëlau kokën. s’ka kokë dimri – Δεν έχει κεφάλι (γνώμη. in the case of phraseological units containing the word head as the upper part of the human body. while in Bulgarian “head” is replaced with the words “mind. ku më ka rënë koka . përpjek kokën (pas murit) .сам се боря с живота.Που μου έχει πέσει το κεφάλι .Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe generalizations. Therefore. brain”.кьдето ми е вьрзан пьпа (head-navel). in Bulgarian the word head is replaced with other parts of the body linked to the head. 130 . the word head is used in its meaning as life. functioning as crude means of detachment which will later provide the basis for opposition (Frangoudaki & Thalia. in such cases as: s’ia pret koka – Δεν του κόβει το κεφάλι . such as: e nxori kokën . in Albanian and Greek phraseological units the word head is present. In Albanian and Greek phraseological units. mind or connected to the meaning “head” as representative of life.избистрям мозька.Χτυπώ το κεφάλι μου στο τοίχο .

Lloshi “…the common origin of Indo-European languages explains even the analogies in the process of formation of the phraseological noun-phrases of this type. Therefore their origin cannot be explained with any certainty and it is also difficult to separate the Balkan stock of phraseological units. they preserve the features of the IndoEuropean family. Lloshi. II 1972:234). Thomaj and Xh. Based on the analysis of these phraseological units. 131 . some phraseological units are introduced as synonymous versions. The contrastive semantic-structural analysis of phraseological units will complete the linguistic coincidences between Balkan languages. Quite probably. but without affinity or connection to each other. ego”. a systematic multilingual investigation of idioms. along lines similar to those outlined above for proverbs. of the history of every nation in all its aspects (Thomaj. would produce promising results. Lloshi. we should point out that these phraseological parallels cannot be called exhaustive. The study of phraseological units makes it possible to assume that Balkan languages have to be studied in connection with each other. Even so. brain”. except in the cases documented from written monuments” (Thomaj. II 1972:227). these coincidences in phraseology present in the general system of the Balkan community are linked to the features of every language in the complexity of its national features. because the phraselogical units carry not only the original structure but even the meaning of the phraseological unit. At the same time.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe In this group. even national features of both nations are referred to. Conclusion As a conclusion. it can be noticed that most of them are linked to the meaning “unit of thinking” and “representative of life. In the first case. According to J. where the word “head” is replaced with the synonyms “mind.

R. letërsisë dhe kulturës shqiptare.. 1972. Fjalori ballkanik frazeologjik. J. ИНСТИТУТ ЗА БЬЛГАПСКИ ЕЗИК.1 (Spring): 38-59:35. MELONASHI. QIRIAZATI. Paralele frazeologjike të gjuhës shqipe me gjuhë të tjera të Ballkanit. J. Analysis. In Cowie. 1996. 587-589. PIIRAINEN.. botim i ASHSH. 35. and Applications... 208. në Studime mbi leksikun dhe formimin e fjalëve në gjuhën shqipe. София. 2005. FRANGOUDAKI. Fjalori frazeologjik i gjuhës shqipe. (in Greek). ed.. A. Dituria. E. Tiranë. Tiranë. THOMAJ.. GLÄSER. A. R. K. The Stylistic Potential of Phraseological Units. EDFA. Фразеологичен речник на бьлгарски език.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe References AKADEMIA E SHKENCAVE TË SHQIPËRISË. 2010. R. 2002. HRISTOVA-BEJLERI. БЬЛГАРСКА АКАДЕМУЯ НА НАУКИТЕ. ‘Europeanism. 1998. II.. Fjalor i gjuhës shqipe. XH. W.. HRISTOVA-BEJLERI. Does κεφάλι (“Head”) Mean “Source” Or “Authority Over” in Greek Literature? A Survey of 2. 1985. What is our fatherland? Ethnocentrism in education. 1974. 1999. J. Seminari i XVIII i gjuhës. 160-166. Toena. Njësi frazeologjike që përmbajnë krahasim në shqipe e bullgarishte.. GRUDEM. 6. 223-234. XH... A.: 1998: Phraseology: Theory. 1997.. LLOSHI. Tiranë. Alexandria publications. Hermes Journal of Linguistics no. & THALIA D. Oxford: Clarendon Press: 125-143. Tiranë.336 Examples.. THOMAJ. Trinity Journal no. 132 . LLOSHI. P. internationalism or something else? Proposal for a cross-linguistic and cross-cultural research project on widespread idioms in Europe and beyond’. THOMAJ.

Robert STRATOBERDHA Université “Fan S. Great personalities of Albanian literature and culture.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe CONVERGENCES ET DIVERGENCES IDENTITAIRES LA COMMUNICATION INTERCULTURELLE ET LA NEGOCIATION DE L’IDENTITE DES ALBANAIS Prof.. Dr. Gjergji PENDAVINJI Doc. linguistic and cultural arguments. La méthodologie d’étude est basée sur la recherche ethnographique ainsi que sur la culture. the problem of negotiating the identity of Albanians in the framework of intercultural communication. l’article expose une perspective théorique sur le problème de la négociation de l’identité des Albanais et à la fois présente une analyse des faits sur le phénomène en question. Central to the discussion regarding the identity of Albanians has been the idea of European identity. Résumé: Dans le cadre de la communication interculturelle. Albanie gjpendavinji@yahoo. One of the main issues of today’s discourse. historical. The study methodology is based on ethnographic research and the concept of culture. has naturally led us to some controversial conclusions in terms of support. in the context of Albanian social space. the debate on negotiating the identity of Albanians in the European integrated social space has aroused a great deal of interest.com robert_npf@hotmail.com Abstract: The article presents. 133 . have brought their contribution to this intellectual debate. like Ismail Kadare. which has sparked off new and innovative ideas with respect to negotiating the identity of Albanians in the framework of communication within their socio-cultural space. cultivation and renewal of some very important cultural values in modern sociocultural communication. Rexhep Qose etc. This thesis has received a number of interesting social. is the intercultural communication as a fundamental aspect of regional and global integration processes. At the sociocultural level. The review of such an issue. introducing at the same time the data analysis of this phenomenon. Noli” Korçë. from a theoretical perspective.

la sauvegarde et la rénovation de quelques valeurs culturelles d’une très grande importance à la communication moderne socioculturelle. qui a été rendu très intéressant suite à l’intervention des personnalités éminentes de la culture et des lettres comme Ismail Kadare. Au sein de la dynamique sociale albanaise au Kosovo et des transformations politiques. analyse sociolinguistique et ethnoculturelle. la question de la négociation de l’identité des Albanais a été l’objet d’un débat 134 . Ce débat. argument sociolinguistique. A ce propos. le débat sur la négociation de l’identité des Albanais dans l’espace social européen et plus large encore a suscité beaucoup d’intérêt sur le plan socioculturel. historique. Le problème crucial qui a gagné du terrain dans la discussion de l’identité des Albanais c’est l’idée de l’identité européenne. Introduction: La communication interculturelle ainsi que la négociation de l’identité sont en général des processus sociologiques liés à la culture. Ces processus ont été mis en évidence également dans la société albanaise pendant la première décennie du nouveau siècle (21-e siècle) en tant que conséquence de quelques développements rapides qui ont eu lieu dans tout l’espace albanais et particulièrement la fin de la guerre au Kosovo et la création de l’état indépendant. négociation de l’identité. Rexhep Qose. L’analyse de cette discussion a fait tirer de manière naturelle quelques conclusions contestables en ce qui concerne le soutien. Dans le cadre des dynamiques sociales. et d’autres a mis face à face maints arguments au niveau social. Mots clés: Communication interculturelle. linguistique et culturel sur ce sujet. Cette polémique intellectuelle a fourni beaucoup d’idées et d’arguments nouveaux à propos de la négociation de l’identité des Albanais dans le cadre de la communication à l’intérieur de leur espace socioculturel. discours sur l’identité européenne des Albanais. les phénomènes de la communication à travers les cultures et les subcultures ainsi que la négociation des identités sociales occupent une place importante. économiques et sociales profondes.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Une des questions du discours actuel dans le cadre de l’espace social albanais est la communication interculturelle comme un aspect principal des processus d’intégration régionale et globale.

La langue albanaise. l’identité européenne etc. analyser ensuite les arguments apportés et réaliser une présentation aussi précise que possible de ce phénomène socioculturel et à la fois sociolinguistique vu sous trois aspects de son développement: 1. Des zones communes. Rexhep Qose. Tous les chercheurs acceptent que la langue est la base principale de cette identité nationale albanaise. Chaque façon de poser et de résoudre ce problème présente beaucoup d’intérêt ce qui constitue une richesse culturelle et scientifique dans le discours sur la négociation de l’identité. Le débat a été concentré essentiellement sur l’explication de la substance de l’identité des Albanais sous une perspective essentialiste et constructiviste. Il consiste aussi sur le modèle de l’analyse et de l’argumentation des questions du problème soulevé à débattre comme: l’identité nationale. Le débat sur l’identité européenne des Albanais. Ce débat a été rendu très intéressant suite à l’intervention des personnalités éminentes de la culture comme Ismail Kadare. l’identité intégrale ou même partielle. Dans cet article nous allons essayer de mettre en évidence le contenu principal du débat Kadare – Qose. 1. la base de l’identité nationale albanaise. Dans la littérature albanologique il existe un fond assez considérable de travaux qui directement ou indirectement argumente aisément les fondements linguistiques et culturels de l’identité des albanais. entre autres même dans une approche sociolinguistique où la langue fait la base de l’argumentation et de la négociation de cette identité a été bien intéressante. la base de l’identité nationale des Albanais. La langue. 3. des zones de divergences et la question de l’identité.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe intellectuel et a attiré l’attention sur l’horizon culturel albanais. 2. La concentration de ce débat. 135 . politiques et du domaine des médias etc. Rexhep Ismaili et d’autres personnalités académiques.

puis les albanologues Francesko Maria en 1716. Çabej. « Le Meshar » de Gjon Buzuku en 1555. programme qui a entrainé plein de débats. Mais la langue a maintenu ce rôle ultérieurement aussi: on peut citer ici les activités linguistiques dans les années ’60 du XX-e siècle où l’on s’intéressait à l’unification standardisée de la langue («Consultation Linguistique de Pristina» où on a formulé le slogan «une nation. 2 Idem 136 . Leke Matranga en 1592. E. dans cette productivité scientifique.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Il y a assez de travaux scientifiques qui traitent définitivement la thèse de la langue albanaise comme la fondation de l’identité nationale albanaise et qui s’étendent depuis 1462 avec « La formule du baptême » en dialecte du nord (dialecte geg. William Martin Leake en 1814. A. Riza. il a été défini même la différence entre «l’unité linguistique» et «l’unité nationale» 2. “Gjuha dhe identiteti kulturor e kombëtar”. Frank Bardhi en 1635. une mesure de l’identité du groupe. une réflexion de l’être national. Discours tenu au Séminaire pour les enseignants. Nos poètes de la Renaissance (Sami Frashëri et d’autres) considéraient la langue comme l’élément primordial de l’identité nationale. Françesko Rossi. 1 R. 07.une langue»). on peut citer une série d’arguments contemporains qui présentent de l’intérêt. et plus encore S. région de Mat). M. De nos jours. ISMAIL. A. 2005. Pristina. Pjeter Budi en 1622. 26. L’auteur respectif apporte des arguments afin de soutenir l’idée que la langue est une expression initiale de l’expérience collective. Xhuvani. Sami Frashëri en 1886. Pjetër Bogdani en 1685. August Dozon en 1879 et ensuite Kostandin Kristoforidhi en 1882. Gjergj Pekmezi. Kostallari et d’autres qui arrivent jusqu'à nos jours. On va s’arrêter à quelques uns de ces arguments qui ont été élaborés par la figure académique Rexhep Ismaili1. Dans ces discours. Domi.

Mais cette précaution et cette attention ont un prix. Pour cette raison. comme conclut l’académicien Rexhep Ismaili. la langue albanaise a une valeur particulière symbolique. 2. nous nous rendons compte que «la culture de la langue» demande l’attention de tous afin de protéger la langue littéraire du phénomène de la stagnation. culturelle et religieuse. 3 Idem 137 . la langue a été et l’est encore l’élément principal de l’identité culturelle et nationale de la communauté albanaise. étatique. la population albanaise qui est restée en dehors de son territoire surtout celle de la Yougoslavie. qui constitue «le coût de l’énergie nécessaire pour faire apprendre le standard linguistique à un grand nombre d’interlocuteurs parce que c’est la seule voie de protection des pressions extraordinaires dans cette époque de globalisation» 3. les aspects communs et les distinctions dans ce processus. Avec la création de l’Etat albanais (1912). a continué à ressentir et à considérer la question de l’identité et de l’intégrité nationale comme un objectif et un besoin permanents. Dans le contexte de la liaison interne de l’identité.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Malgré la complexité ethnique. de l’identité historique et actuelle malgré d’autres dissimilitudes. des zones de divergences et la question de l’identité Dans l’analyse de ce problème on a élaboré et développé beaucoup d’aspects du discours sur l’identité et son cadre interculturel. la langue albanaise standard reste le pilier de l’identité nationale et ethnique. Des zones communes. En analysant cet espace sociolinguistique albanais ainsi que la consolidation de la communication interculturelle.

Dans ce cadre. les individus socialisent à l’intérieur d’un groupe principalement à travers la langue. Peut-être. Mais en tout cas. ROSALDO. “Culture theory”. la question se pose: peut-on parler d’une identité kosovare différente de l’identité albanaise? Dans la réalité actuelle on constate des distinctions dans l’aspect étatique. Cambridge University Press. en communiquant avec les autres ou bien en recevant l’information qui est absorbée en tant qu’ un héritage culturel. les légendes etc. Cela veut dire que par l’intermédiaire du système éducatif. parce que c’est la langue albanaise qui a le plus de puissance de transmettre les valeurs communes des Albanais mieux que les autres instruments culturels comme les symboles culturels. on accepte la nouvelle réalité de communication grâce à la formation du nouvel Etat du Kosovo. Théoriquement. il est indispensable de protéger et d’entretenir la langue albanaise comme instrument principal de la communication. 138 . 4 M. Les conditions actuelles sont très favorables à l’unification de la communication interculturelle entre les Albanais dans les Balkans.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Généralement. ces différences iront-elles graduellement et de manière artificielle vers une identité kosovare? L’existence même des deux Etats albanais dans les Balkans peut-elle influer sur la reformulation des identités des deux cotés de la frontière entre l’Albanie et le Kosovo? En même temps. De plus. il a été accepté que l’identité sociale et l’identité personnelle naissent et se développent à l’intérieur des grands réseaux de notre culture4. des échanges culturels en général on peut éviter les tendances centrifuges au Kosovo et en Albanie. Cela. éducatif. Si l’on se réfère au phénomène dans notre société. 1984. médiatique jusqu'à l’utilisation d’une langue officielle à Pristina différente de celle de Tirana. nos identités culturelles peuvent être si exhaustives que nous ne pouvons pas remarquer l’importance de nos distinctions culturelles.

argumente “la modification”. soutenue par Rexhep Qose et d’autres. “les changements” qu’a subis l’identité albanaise préottomane sous l’influence de la domination ottomane. représentée par Ismail Kadare. contient un élément d’identité”5. “Komunikimi bashkëkohor midis shqiptarëve” Département de journalistique. çarçaf=drap. UT. donc même pour la société albanaise. 139 . Mais la question se pose si les circonstances sociales et historiques sont telles que ces différences peuvent mener vers de nouvelles identités ou non. FUGA. voire la langue avec toutes ses formes linguistiques. 2009/1. 5 A. Donc.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe les différences sont un phénomène normal pour chaque société. la langue reste l’élément le plus consistant de cette identité. tullë=brique. ce qui arrive avec presque toutes les nations. dyshek=matelas. combien la domination ottomane trop longue en Albanie a-t-elle influé sur la sauvegarde ou bien sur la modification de l’identité albanaise? Nous distinguons deux attitudes différentes dans le débat sur cet argument: La première attitude. peut-on mentionner la langue de la poésie nationale. Selon lui. dysheme=plancher. allçi=plâtre. Dans le cadre du discours sur l’identité des Albanais. “la trace”. il a été étudié même un aspect historico-linguistique lié à l’influence ottomane chez les albanais durant cinq siècles d’occupation. L’argument de cette attitude est lié à l’influence que la langue albanaise a subie où un tas de mots de la langue courante a été emprunté de la langue turque (tavan=plafond. même dans son aspect matériel simplement comme code de communication. Cette langue “est une manière prioritaire et une réalité en soi-même qui. A l’intérieur de ces distinctions il n’y a rien de très particulier. cinq siècles de domination ottomane n’ont pas changé l’identité des albanais. jorgan=duvet. dollap=placard. La deuxième attitude. Assurément. Ainsi. argumente que l’identité albanaise est restée “inchangée” et “non modifiée”.

Hashim Thaçi et Taip Erdogan) au journal Panorama du 25. “Për një përkufizim të identitetit shqiptar”. débat qui dans les medias est baptisé “Le débat Kadare-Qose” à cause des deux protagonistes qui l’ont dirigé. en ce qui concerne l’identité européenne des Albanais. Le premier document. Ismail Kadare. Forum albanais. penxhere=fenêtre.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe jastëk=oreiller. 25 Octobre 2013. du Kosovo. dans une interview des derniers temps faisant le commentaire des déclarations des trois premier-ministres à Pristina (Edi Rama. 3. 06. Le débat Kadare . 25. Ismail Kadare dit avoir développé et argumenté cette idée depuis longtemps dans le livre “Mosmarrëveshja” (Le Désaccord). L’identité européenne des albanais. de la Macédoine et des Albanais d’Italie.) Quelques partisans de cette attitude vont même jusqu'à une affirmation extrême disant que “l’identité albanaise a été produite dans les formes actuelles en conséquence de l’influence ottomane”6. sëndyk=malle. VEHBIU. L’une des idées soutenues par Qose est que les albanais n’appartiennent pas seulement à la civilisation européenne et qu’il ne faut pas négliger le fait que la culture 6 7 A. le débat des dernières années.2013 dit: ”Une des hontes de la pensée albanaise c’est celle qui affirme que l’existence de l’Albanie est due à deux remparts: à l’Etat ottoman et à l’Etat communiste” 7. c’était celui de Rexhep Qose “Ideologjia e shpërbërjes” (L’idéologie de désagrégation) où l’auteur traite quelques idées sur les facteurs influents de la décomposition de l’identité des Albanais ou bien de leur unité nationale.10. 2008. qui a initié le débat. etc. Panorama. 140 . Mais dans ce débat ont été engagés aussi d’autres intellectuels d’Albanie. a été très intéressant.Qose Dans le cadre du phénomène social de la négociation de l’identité des Albanais.

“l’Albanie ne se situe pas à l’écart de l’Europe. Selon lui. leur civilisation c’est donc l’union des deux cultures. 8 R. p. nous avons à faire avec une identité européenne des Albanais formée depuis l’antiquité et le moyen âge pré ottomane. “Identiteti europian i shqiptarëve”. ils ont ramassé de bon gré ou de force: leur culture. en réalité. les éléments de la culture populaire albanaise font partie de la culture européenne”10. 2006.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe albanaise contient aussi des éléments de la civilisation de l’Est. l’argument historique et celui culturel. KADARE. Ismail Kadare entre en polémique avec cette idée grâce à son essai “Identiteti europian i shqiptarëve” (L’identité européenne des Albanais) où il affirme que les Albanais ne sont pas moins européens que les autres nations de l’Europe. est de race blanche. pp. 2006. QOSE. “Ideologjia e shpërbërjes”. Tirana . comme celle de tout le continent européen. où l’on sous-entend la civilisation musulmane. Selon cet argument. un peuple fondateur dans sa création”9 Les arguments fournis par Kadare en faveur de la thèse de l’identité européenne des Albanais sont: l’argument géographique. 9 141 . Onufri.20. p. l’argument anthropologique. 31 I. “Les Albanais. 10 Idem. selon lequel l’identité européenne des Albanais a changé au cours des occupations et que dans la période ottomane elle a été divisée en deux entre l’Est et l’Ouest. appartiennent aux deux civilisations: à la civilisation de l’Ouest et à celle de l’Est …ils ont ramassé de ces civilisations tout ce qu’ils ont voulu et qu’ils n’ont pas voulu. Tirana. 21-23. Kadare contredit également l’argument de Qose. “Les lettres des albanais sont très claires … les Albanais sont parmi les peuples les plus anciens du continent européen. des deux civilisations”8. la population albanaise. les contrées actuelles de l’Albanie ont été présentes en Europe depuis l’antiquité.

une commission dirigée par Gjergj Fishta et Mit’hat Frasheri. p. l’année de sa liberté. en 1908. Des personnalités célèbres de cette littérature comme Pjetër Budi. 11 Idem. littérature bilingue albanaise et latine. 55. 13 Idem. Sur le plan sociolinguistique. “les Albanais sont clairement européens et alignés au côté de l’Occident” 12. Selon Kadare.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Kadare accepte que dans la culture albanaise il y a eu des influences anti européennes comme conséquence du programme de l’Empire ottoman pour “l’occupation et la dévastation de l’Europe entière” 11 Suite à cet argument. 58. a été développée au même niveau pendant presque trois siècles. p. Selon lui. l’argument de Kadare se développe en mettant en évidence les corrélations et les éléments communs européens linguistiques et culturels. “dans les conditions dramatiques de l’interdiction. ont donné une idée claire de l’européanisation albanaise” 13. Idem. depuis la proclamation de l’alphabet latin comme alphabet officiel des Albanais. la littérature ancienne albanaise. 25. Kadare contredit aussi l’idée de Qose selon laquelle les Albanais ont été faits pour être un pont de liaison ou bien un élément réconciliateur entre l’Est et l’Ouest. p. En outre. Frang Bardhi. Pjetër Bogdani éditaient leurs œuvres bilingues dans les métropoles européennes pour les apporter en cachette en Albanie où l’écriture et l’imprimerie en Albanais n’étaient pas permises. C’est avec cet alphabet que l’Albanie est arrivée en 1912. Cela s’avère la veille de l’indépendance après une longue période de cinq siècles. où les esprits étaient encore troubles et l’alphabet latin dans les Balkans était trop rare. tout comme dans la plupart des pays européens. 12 142 .

les idées de Kadare et de ses souteneurs sont considérées comme des inspirations romantiques qui sont nourries d’une imagination en noir et blanc de l’histoire albanaise et de la réalité d’aujourd’hui. Il pense que Qose a offert une conception plus variée de l’identité albanaise mais même celui-ci. Dans quelques articles.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe L’analyse critique du débat Kadare – Qose en automne 2006 était au centre de la Revue ”Përpjekja” (L’effort). Donc. à la protection du “caractère européen” des Albanais et comme ça “l’occasion est perdue pour que le débat intellectuel soit développé en tant que processus de reconnaissance et de discussion” 14. pp. 143 . les identités albanaise et européenne sont vues de manière essentialiste et sont considérées comme “invariables” dans leur essence. le débat Kadare – Qose au début a été déplacé au niveau de la politique identitaire. Qose n’a pas saisi la nature construite de l’identité nationale albanaise comme une création de la Renaissance Nationale Albanaise. quand il analyse la Renaissance Nationale. il n’arrive pas à la voir comme une construction idéologique des intellectuels et des activistes nationalistes albanais de ce temps-là mais il la présente comme une découverte de leur part de l’identité existante albanaise. “Përpjekja”. Pour le chercheur Artan Puto. 23. “Fryma romantike dhe nacionaliste në debatin për identitetin shqiptar”. 13-39. Dans ces articles. Puto. Mais le point commun des articles de la Revue ”Përpjekja” c’est la mise en évidence de la nature construite des identités. L’approche constructiviste part de l’idée du changement continu des 14 A. C’est pour cette raison que le titre “L’identité autrement” a été utilisé: d’une part pour accepter l’approche constructiviste et d’autre part pour se distancier du point de vu essentialiste de beaucoup d’autres débatteurs pour lesquels “le caractère européen” des Albanais est dans l’essence quelque chose déjà fait préalablement et qui est inchangeable par l’histoire et la politique.

la communication et la négociation de l’identité ne peuvent pas se faire en dehors du contexte interculturel. Cela se voit même au niveau sociolinguistique. La négociation de l’identité albanaise demande préalablement une réflexion et une relation avec la langue albanaise. l’élargissement des espaces de communication entre les Albanais accentue d’avantage le rôle unificateur de notre langue et impose de la soigner et de l’entretenir. Cette relation est argumentée aujourd’hui par les savants de la langue et les sociolinguistes albanais. régionaux. Conclusions: Basés sur l’étude du discours intellectuel sur l’identité et l’argument de négociation de l’identité des Albanais. Premièrement: La communication et la négociation de l’identité sous un aspect sociologique sont liées essentiellement à la langue. chez nous aussi. dans ce processus il faut accepter comme des faits normaux les différences et les changements liés à des facteurs historico-culturels. Les espaces sociaux du fonctionnement de notre langue dans le processus de la communication renforcent les dimensions identitaires si bien qu’ils rendent ainsi indispensable et utile l’existence d’un standard unique de cette langue. Nous pensons que théoriquement cette relation entre l’identité et la langue albanaise est essentiellement acceptable et ensuite négociable. La langue albanaise comme fondement identitaire des Albanais dispose de plusieurs codes de communication et chaque code a ses propres valeurs identitaires et symboliques. Donc. Deuxièmement: Comme il arrive généralement dans les sociétés avancées. dialectaux. 144 . Actuellement. etc.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe identités et veut mettre en vue les cas de leur rigidité temporaire si bien dans l’espace européen que dans celui albanais. nous pouvons tirer quelques conclusions qui ne sont pas encore définitives pour le fait que ce débat n’est pas encore considéré consommé.

Toena. Rexhep. Les deux approches ont élaboré et ont affronté des arguments en enrichissant leurs modèles d’analyses. Koha jonë. C’est ce qui se passe même avec les grandes langues en Europe. ISMAILI. Asdreni. Pristina. “Identiteti europian i shqiptarëve”. Ismail. Artan. “Etiketat politike dhe integrimi europian”. “Perëndimi i përçarë”. comme de nouvelles configurations dans le cadre du projet de l’intégration de l’Albanie à l’Union Européenne. Artan. “Majtas jo djathtas …” Ora. 2005. 2005. KADARE. KADARE. Sous cet aspect. Skopje. a ouvert un nouvel horizon intellectuel de la pensée sur la négociation de l’identité des Albanais. Ismail.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe L’accentuation de l’identité nationale à travers la communication à l’intérieur de la mosaïque et la diversité des codes de pensée chez les albanais développera ultérieurement l’approchement et la relation de la pensée à la réalité dans un sens d’unification à travers la communication interculturelle au moyen de la langue. de diagnostic et d’argumentation des idées. 145 . celui essentialiste et celui constructiviste. 2003. Tiranë. “Biseda për Europën”. Jurgen. Tiranë. Tirana. References bibliographiques: FUGA. l’identité européenne des Albanais serait plus proche et plus liée au système conceptuel commun des langues occidentales allant de pair avec le processus de la pensée. Ce débat a ouvert la perspective à l’articulation de l’idée de l’Europe dans le discours actuel des intellectuels albanais soit comme continuité diachronique soit comme influence synchronique ou plus encore. Tirana. 2006. 2006. FUGA. Shekulli. Troisièmement: Le débat sur l’identité des Albanais et particulièrement sur leur identité européenne qui est baptisé comme le débat Kadare – Qose. 2003. HABERMAS. Ce débat a basculé entre deux points de vue. “Gjuha dhe identiteti kulturor e kombëtar”.

pp. University of Chicago Press. Arben. “Mind self and society”. Rexhep. 2002. 1912. Cambridge University Press. Tirana. ROSALDO. Tirana. Artan. Globalization. 2006. 146 . Shqip. “Fryma romantike dhe nacionaliste në debatin për “identitetin shqiptar”. Tirana. RUMFORD. 2006. “Demokracia në Amerikë”. 1984. Chicago. 1934. Tiranë. “Realiteti i shpërfillur”. Ismail. Fondacioni Soros. PUTO. Toena.1939”.Turqi? E kam shkruar prej kohësh te libri “Mosmarrëveshja” Panorama. Toena. QOSJA. Përpjekja. “Kosova .Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe KADARE. 2008. 2009. 23. C. Alexis. Tiranë. “Cosmopolitan Spaces: Europe. “Culture theory”. “Thelbi i identitetit të shqiptarëve”. G. 2006. PUTO. “Shqipëria Politike. Theory”. M. H. 13-39. Rexhep. London. 2013. TOCQUEVILLE. Toena. QOSJA. Ismail. MEAD. KADARE. “Ideologjia e shpërbërjes: trajtesë mbi ideologjinë ç’integruese në shoqërinë e sotme shqiptare”.

I. pp. Studies. in: Victor Petrescu. In this context. Thus. D. in 1876. Târgovişte. Editura Bibliotheca. D. cultural society. D.com Abstract We could state that after having gone through a stage of great founders and foundations in the 19th century.J. Rădulescu being recognized on a national level. Key words: culture.. A restoration in the cultural life of this town occurred through the opening of several primary schools and the creation of a secondary school in 1874. Editura Biblioteca. library. culture was reborn.N. Mihai Oproiu. Petrescu. Societatea Culturală . Târgovişte.D. vol. Condurăţeanu. school. the first cultural society of Târgovişte. Authority of Dâmboviţa County (Direcţia Judeţeană Dâmboviţa). Note (Cultural Târgovişte. the Romanian culture began a new one. For the Cultural Society “Progresul” (The Progress) of Târgovişte see the Central National Historical Archives (Arhivele Naţionale Istorice Centrale). 137-138. Dudea. Constantin Manolescu. 2001. Studii. 279-280. pp. Articole. dosar (file) 79/1876-1877.C.) Fond Primăria oraşului Târgovişte (fund: Târgovişte Town Hall). D. (henceforth A. Mihai Oproiu. Petrescu.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe THE MODERN EVOLUTION OF TÎRGOVIŞTE TOWN’S CULTURAL LIFE (1878-1914) Ramona Elena STANCIU ramonaestanciu@yahoo. Mihai Oproiu. 2 Ibidem. which managed to attract the town’s personalities. Al. II.Progresul” (1876) (Pages of the cultural history of Târgovişte. 2 Out of the intellectuals of Târgovişte who laid the foundations of this cultural society and carried out a particular activity. The town and its surroundings between 1821 and 1918). Pagini din istoria culturii târgoviştene. 147 . H. The cultural society “Progresul”. He even tried to inaugurate a bookshop in Târgovişte with the help of I. 138. in the old Walachian capital as well. cultural personalities such as I. Dobrin Pârvan. we shall mention: I.. all the Romanian provinces lived a strong cultural effervescence. p. Oraşul şi împrejurimile sale între 1821-1918 (Târgovişte. 1 Constantin Manolescu.1 and especially through the creation of the Society “Progresul” (The Progress). 2000. Târgovişte. Articles). Târgoviştea culturală. 1876). in the general framework of the rebirth and national affirmation process that characterized the second half of the 19th century.

7 Idem. as the classrooms get unbearably cold”4. which generated a large number of petitions addressed to the mayor of the town (“door repairs. Ibidem. brooms and “ordinary cloth to dust the furniture”. assuring wood to light the fire was another necessity that the Town Hall needed to solve. 3 SJAN Dâmboviţa. Documents kept in the local National Archives. school whitewashing. Fond Primăria Oraşului Târgovişte. The prevailing information. for the cold weather of the year 1911. by the Town Hall of Târgovişte or by the local School Committee but also by the schools that are representative in the cultural landscape of Târgovişte preserve pieces of information that attest serious cultural preoccupations in the area of this town and of this county. f. 5 Ibidem. f. as the headmasters of the Boys’ Schools No. when it comes to the existing situation of the local education. a process of effervescence shall begin and continues plentifully after the 1950s.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Besides the activity of “culturalization” undertaken by the Churches and monasteries. in agreement with the demands of the Ministry of Education3. in archives created by the Prefecture of Dâmboviţa County.1. as in the case of the School for Cantors.5.27/1878.1 and No. dos. floor and window cleaning. f. which supported schools and libraries and are representative in architecture or mural painting. furniture and teachers. refers to: construction of new schools or rental of buildings to be “attested” by commissions caring about pupils’ health. need of repairs. dos. or “metallic mugs” to drink water5. 6 Ibidem.2 demanded .6.7.19/1911. f. 4 148 . 3. requested a fathom of wood7. which. f.these schools occupied the floor and the upper storey of the same building6). at the beginning of the 19 th century. in general.

Niţescu. reflect the interest in the books needed to award the 1st. the Military High School of Dealu Monastery was founded8. pp.Filipescu” (Dealu Monastery and the “N. a school of secondary practice for girls. two schools for girls and two for boys. f.34/1879. The Christian Family (“Familia creştină”). the first kindergarten (“grădină de copii mici”) was opened.. dos. the school for army assistants of Dealu Monastery.. C. some of them being Nine Stories for Children (“Nouă istorioare pentru copii”). Tgv. 1976. the organization in Târgovişte of congresses or conferences of the personnel in education (for example. The Two Sisters (“Cele două surori”). Filipescu” Military High School). pp.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Fond Primăria Oraşului Târgovişte. 4. f. for whose good running it was required to assure the necessary space11. 10 SJAN Dâmboviţa. Tgv. and other schools that had already begun to get open in the outskirts of the town. Another quantitatively representative series of documents of those times. 11 Idem. dos. for example the holding of certain courses or the organization of exhibitions. In 1910. founded by Fussea.70 lei each 10. too9. 10. Mănăstirea Dealu şi Liceul Militar “N. at the 8 th 8 Fr.Văcărescu” Primary and Secondary School handed over to the mayor a clear list of the books that needed to be purchased. kept in the local archives.70-74. The petitions addressed to the Town Hall also concern other aspects of the cultural life of Târgovişte. 60-74. in town there were 10 schools running their activity: the 4 grade secondary school. 149 . at the end of a school year (for example. The Nightingale (“Privighetoarea”) etc.106/1978. worth 0.. Şcoala generală “Vasile Cârlova” (“Vasile Cârlova Primary and Secondary School). 1932. Dr. 9 Xxx. where in 1912. the headmaster of “I. 2nd and 3rd prize at each school.

due to the personality of D. The organization of the local museums starts timidly. with a role in the editing of the newspapers “Armonia” (Harmony). 286. Alexandrescu. dos. the mayor Gonzalv Ionescu asked the local butchers. p. 2001. at the “Ienăchiţă Văcărescu” Primary and Secondary School.cit. with a numismatic mini-collection.21/1911.27/1878. 14 Ibidem. “Liga Culturală din Târgovişte” (The Cultural League of Târgovişte). August 1911. 1-5. f. Rădulescu. 321. p. Gr. Dobrin Pârvan. Tudor Vladimirescu – situated in front of the Metropolitan Church. attended among others by Smaranda Gheorghiu (Mother Smara)13. 13 150 . vol. according to what the documents indicate – “Progresul” (The Progress). “Societatea Corpului Didactic din Târgovişte” (The Society of the Teaching Staff of Târgovişte). where the History Museum was established14. 17 SJAN Dâmboviţa. aiming to preserve and maintain the historical monuments. Fond Primăria Oraşului Târgovişte. 290.Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe Romanian Primary Teachers’ Congress /Congres al Învăţătorilor din România.Papazoglu and the donation made by Fussea in 1911. bakers and bar-owners to provide “enough food for 2000 people”12.. aiming to create a school for adults. dos. 51. or the congress of the “Orientalists of Rome”.. in town17. 12 Idem. Tgv. “Năluca” – a gymnastics society. Op. of 1899. founded in 1907. 15 Mihai Oproiu. Târgovişte.p. The important figures of the local and national culture were given their due importance by placing their statues in the town squares (I.H. numerous societies.II. 16 Ibidem. p. 303. “Progresul” (The Progress) or “Unirea” (The Union).191016. f. “Târgoviştea” . Oproiu Mihai. The same cultural set included the settlement of different. owing to the efforts of Mother Smara 15. for whose organization. who donated his houses and goods.

Târgovişte. “Valachica”. dos. dos.Filipescu” (Dealu Monastery and the N. dos. Târgovişte. ***. and the numeorus petitions requesting space or authorization for the organization of different shows. 1932.. f. Mihai. Fr. Fond Comitetul Şcolar al Oraşului Târgovişte (papers of the School Committee of Târgovişte). Târgovişte. Fond Prefectura Judeţului Dâmboviţa (papers of Dâmboviţa County Prefecture). Târgovişte. C. NIŢESCU. the announcements regarding the events occasioned by the celebration of Their Royal Majesties. 18 Idem. 1980-1981. Maria. 1910. 151 . 1974. Dr. IANCU. Târgovişte. PÂRVAN Dobrin. ***. 8 şi 42. Târgovişte. demolitions or the building or new churches. ***. vol. OPROIU. Fond Primăria Oraşului Târgovişte (papers of Târgovişte Town Hall).Diversité et Identité Culturelle en Europe We also need to mention the innumerable petitions regarding the execution of different repair works. SJAN Dâmboviţa.. Liceul Ienăchiţă Văcărescu. 3. II. f. SJAN Dâmboviţa. SJAN Dâmboviţa. monografie (Ienăchiţă Văcărescu High School monograph). Filipescu Military High School). nr. Mănăstirea Dealu şi Liceul Militar “N. 91/1878. 1972 “Acta Valachica”. 12-13. 1976.10/1912. Statutele Societăţii “Târgoviştea” (Statuses of “Târgoviştea” Society). 2001. f. Bibliography: ***. 4 şi 15. Şcoala generală “Vasile Cârlova” (“Vasile Cârlova” School). masquerades or cinema projections18. 37/1878.