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Parameter Estimation of Double Diode
Photo-Voltaic Module
Paramjit Saha∗ , Saurabh Kumar† , Dr. Sisir Kr. Nayak‡ , and Himanshu Sekhar Sahu§
∗ Student,

Electrical Engineering
NERIST, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh- 791109. Email:
† Student, Electrical and Electronics Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Sikkim- 737139.
‡ Assistant Professor, EEE Department, Indian Institute of Technology
Guwahati, Assam 781-039 Email:
§ Research Scholar, EEE Department, Indian Institute of Technology
Guwahati, Assam 781-039. Email:
Abstract—Solar Energy is a clean and boundless energy
source and the worldwide solar market demand is increasing for
industrial and domestic purposes. The purpose of this paper is to
show the comparison of Stochastic Method(Genetic Algorithm)
over derivative methods. A mathematical development [3] is
provided for the extraction of Solar Panel equivalent circuit
parameters from datasheet values. The analytical approach is
selected for the mathematical development as the initial-point
vital for proper evaluation of the Parameters of the double
diode Model of PV cells. And thus using Evolutionary technique
to extract the values of the parameters, a valid comparison
has been presented between the numerical approaches and the
Evolutionary Algorithms.
Keywords—Parameter Extraction, Double Diode, Newton Raphson, Genetic Algorithm. Parameter Extraction, Double Diode,
Newton Raphson, Genetic Algorithm. .



Today the rate of consumption of earth’s energy resources
are at alarming speed which includes conventional fossil-based
fuels. Moreover, the supply of such conventional fuels has
reached a higher level of uncertainty which has resulted a need
for more reliable and sustainable energy-resources. The energy
resources is expected to be sustainable, and exist in great
abundance with the least amount of environmental impact.
Solar Energy provides one such option and demonstrates all
the required characteristics. One of the popular methods of
extracting Solar energy is Photo-voltaic technology. In this,
solar energy is directly converted to electrical energy. This,
phenomenon, to directly convert electromagnetic radiation
to electrical energy is known as the photo-voltaic effect.
Commercial production of PV cells began in the 1950s, when
Bell Laboratories developed the first commercially available
solar cell. Until the 1970s, the only application of the PV
technology was in spacecrafts. But, in the last few decades,
decrease in the price of commercially available PV modules
as well incentives by governments around the world have
resulted in very fast growth in the use of PV systems.



In this paper, a mathematical approach is followed for
the equation to find out the desired parameters [3]. Initially Newton-Raphson has been applied for the PV module
(KC200GT) which is a derivative method and follows the cost
function upto a certain limit. The Newton-Raphson if applied
without any relevant intial point, then the function may either
fall to a local minima or may become undefined. So therby we
require a better process which can overcome these drawbacks.
Hence an evolutionary Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm, has been
employed. Genetic Algorithm has a beneficial quality of not
falling into any local minima of the objective function and also
it can be applied to any noisy and rough cost function where
the derivative processes cannot be applied. Also if the problem
is Multi-dimensional, Non-differential, Non-continuous, and
Non-parametrical [16], then Genetic Algorithm can be used
as it is independent of the error surface. Thus a comparison of
I −V characteristics of PV Module has been made between the
mathematical approach and the stochastic method as a result
of the benefits of GA over derivative methods.


Photovoltaic Cell is the fundamental building block of
PV systems. These PV cells are made up of semiconductor
materials which converts solar energy into electricity. In
this semiconductor device (PV-Cells), the solar radiation
causes the energy to rise above the band-gap energy and thus
electron-hole pair is created. It is this electric field’s force
that pushes electrons in one direction (n-side) and holes in
the other direction (p-side). The accumulation of holes on
the p-side and electrons on the n-side creates a potential
difference (voltage), which is used to pass an electric current
through the load.
There are different circuit models that can be used to
simulate PV cells. One of the simplest models is single-diode
model, where the cell is modeled as a current source caused
due to the photo-electric effect of solar irradiance in parallel
with a diode having a series and parallel resistance which
depicts that Solar Cell work both as Current and Voltage
Source. But rather than using a single diode model the double 


9106 0. B. applying Nodal Analysis at point a we get. (0. An analytical approach has been followed to find a good initial point for the Newton-Raphson Algorithm [3]. Rs = Series Resistance.29153 17. The diode currents for Diode D1 and D2 respectively.Voc ).Vm ).e. Rsh .2280 135. I = Iph − ID1 − ID2 − V + Rs I Rsh (1) where. NUMERICAL TECHNIQUE-NEWTON RAPHSON A. The equations that are solved in [3] using Newton-Raphson Algorithm is given below: Im Vm Double Diode Model of PV Cell Module Isc = Im (1 + = Voc Rs Isc ) − exp( )] + Ns V t Ns V t Voc Rs Isc Voc − Rs Isc ) − exp( )] + Is2 [exp( 2Ns Vt 2Ns Vt Rsh Is1 [exp( Rs ) Rsh From figure 1. In this model. the results obtained from analytical and thus from NewtonRaphson are: TABLE I.3 7. Is1 .5309 0.ID2 = Diode currents from the diode D1 and D2 respectively. [3] analytical and numerical approach has been implemented for PV-module KC200GT where only 5 parameters have been taken as unknown (Rs . we have 7 unknown parameters. That is why modelling the PV cell using two diodes is said to be more accurate. Rs .0) and (Im .4335 8. A NALYTICAL AND N EWTON -R APHSON METHOD [3] DATASHEET-VALUES Voc (V ) Isc (A) Vm (V ) Im (A) Pm (W ) Ns PV-MODULE 32.21 0.. the equivalent circuit of a double diode PV module is represented as Fig 1. Fig.diode model has been used in this paper. Iph = Photo-current generated by the Cell. (Isc .i. Is2 . Is1 .2193 Taking the values from Newton-Raphson Method if V-I and Power curve is plotted: . n2 and Iph .21 26. n1 and n2 = Diffusion and Recombination Diode Ideality Factor. 0 Im Is1 V m + Im Rs (1 + Rs )exp( ) Ns V t Vm Ns V t Im V m + Im Rs Is2 (1 + Rs )exp( ) − 2Ns Vt Vm 2Ns Vt Im 1 (1 + Rs ) − Rsh Vm − = = Voc Vm + Rs Im ) − exp( )] Ns V t Ns V t Voc V m + Rs Im ) − exp( )] +Is2 [exp( 2Ns Vt 2Ns Vt Voc − Vm + Rsh Is1 [exp( 1 Is1 Rs Isc + exp( ) Rsh Ns V t Ns V t Rs Isc Is2 exp( )] − 1 + 2Ns Vt 2Ns Vt (Rsh − Rs )[ These equations are derived from certain remarkable points on the I-V curve of the PV Cell-Module. the current source is connected to two diodes having different saturation current Is1 and Is2 which are connected in parallel to a shunt and series resistance.e. The second diode in parallel with the other is for the separation of the two recombination saturation current terms. Now. are given as ID1 = Is1 (exp( ID2 = Is2 (exp( I = Iph −Is1 (exp( V + Rs I ) − 1) n1 N s V t V + Rs I ) − 1) n2 N s V t (2) (3) V + Rs I V + Rs I V + Rs I ) − 1)−Is2 (exp( ) − 1)− Ns V t 2Ns Vt Rsh (4) where. one in the depletion region and other in the quasi neutral region. Is2 and Iph ) considering the diffusion and recombination diode ideality factor as 1 and 2 respectively. Here.61 200 54 Parameters Analytical-Method Newton-Raphson Rs (Ω) Rsh (Ω) Is1 (nA) Is2 (μA) Iph (A) 0. from the above equation. Rsh . Rsh = Shunt Resistance.3181254 278. Therefore. ID1 .556 8. n1 . 1. Double-Diode Model From.3794957 4. These 7 parameters are needed to be extracted from the equation above.9 8. V= Terminal Voltage.i.

2. The objective function to solve for the parameters is given as: f (VL . n2 )[14]   N 1  f (ViL . n2 )2 ) f = ( N i=1 (5) (6) GENETIC ALGORITHM Sl.The cost function will be evaluated by taking the minimization task for the extraction of unknown parameters.0013 418. n1 . Is1 . Rs . in this paper only the STC (25C o and 1000 W/m2 ) has been studied.8. Is2 . Is1 .2039 . Is2 . IiL . Genetic Algorithm is an evolutionary algorithm that mimics the process of natural selection. 100. GENETIC ALGORITHM Fig. So. It is an iterative method. IV.i. IL . Also. of data points of V and I in the I-V curve. from the plot we can say that the V-I and power curve for the extracted value using Newton-Raphson Algorithm is deviating from its actual Datasheet Values. Genetic Algorithm has been employed to find out the unknown parameters of the KC200GT model.e. for better results Evolutionary Algorithm can be implemented and thus a better result is expected as compared to Newton-Raphson Algorithm. Rsh .3902 0. n2 and Iph are dependent on Temperature and Ir-radiance. Power Curve from parameters extracted from NR min f (x) x∈Rn Genetic Algorithm Settings [15] Population type: Double Vector with Populations size = 20.Mutation function: Constraint Dependent: 100 The generations have been set to default value. V-I curve from parameters extracted from NR where. In this paper. n1 . TABLE II. PROBLEM FORMULATION Equation (4) is a transcendental function that gives the current produced by the PV Cell Module. A. Rsh .9996242 2. This process/iteration is terminated until a maximum number of generations is produced or the cost function has reached a satisfactory level of fitness value.Fig. Fitness scaling: Rank Selection Function: Stochastic uniform Reproduction-Crossover fraction: 0. Now.2 40 1 2 1 500 Genetic Algorithm Execution Results and Plots TABLE III. the unknown parameters Rs . n1 . Many evolutionary/optimization techniques are often used to solve the equation.1257773 32. N= No. Rs .1 30 0 1 0 100 8. Rsh . This heuristic is usually used for solutions to optimization and search problems. Is2 . 3.3 0. Parameters Lower Bound Upper Bound 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Iph (A) Is1 (nA) Is2 (μA) a1 a2 Rs (Ω) Rsh (Ω) 8 0..0000 0.No. Is1 . GENETIC ALGORITHM PV-MODULE KC200GT Parameters Genetic Algorithm Iph (A) Is1 (nA) Is2 (μA) a1 a2 Rs (Ω) Rsh (Ω) 8. The individual with the best fitness value is selected stochastically from the current population and the rest of the population is modified by mutation and ) crossover to form a new generation.21 0. having some randomly generated population and in each iteration (called generation) new individuals are generated and thus the fitness of every individual in the population is evaluated. But.

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