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Solar Energy is a clean and boundless energy source and the worldwide solar market demand is increasing for industrial and domestic purposes. The purpose of this paper is to show the comparison of Stochastic Method(Genetic Algorithm) over derivative methods. A mathematical development [3] is provided for the extraction of Solar Panel equivalent circuit parameters from datasheet values. The analytical approach is selected for the mathematical development as the initial-point vital for proper evaluation of the Parameters of the double diode Model of PV cells. And thus using Evolutionary technique to extract the values of the parameters, a valid comparison has been presented between the numerical approaches and the Evolutionary Algorithms.

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**Parameter Estimation of Double Diode
**

Photo-Voltaic Module

Paramjit Saha∗ , Saurabh Kumar† , Dr. Sisir Kr. Nayak‡ , and Himanshu Sekhar Sahu§

∗ Student,

Electrical Engineering

NERIST, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh- 791109. Email: sahaparamjit@live.com

† Student, Electrical and Electronics Engineering

National Institute of Technology, Sikkim- 737139.

‡ Assistant Professor, EEE Department, Indian Institute of Technology

Guwahati, Assam 781-039 Email: sknayak@iitg.ernet.in

§ Research Scholar, EEE Department, Indian Institute of Technology

Guwahati, Assam 781-039. Email: himanshu.sahu@iitg.ernet.in

Abstract—Solar Energy is a clean and boundless energy

source and the worldwide solar market demand is increasing for

industrial and domestic purposes. The purpose of this paper is to

show the comparison of Stochastic Method(Genetic Algorithm)

over derivative methods. A mathematical development [3] is

provided for the extraction of Solar Panel equivalent circuit

parameters from datasheet values. The analytical approach is

selected for the mathematical development as the initial-point

vital for proper evaluation of the Parameters of the double

diode Model of PV cells. And thus using Evolutionary technique

to extract the values of the parameters, a valid comparison

has been presented between the numerical approaches and the

Evolutionary Algorithms.

Keywords—Parameter Extraction, Double Diode, Newton Raphson, Genetic Algorithm. Parameter Extraction, Double Diode,

Newton Raphson, Genetic Algorithm. .

I.

I NTRODUCTION

**Today the rate of consumption of earth’s energy resources
**

are at alarming speed which includes conventional fossil-based

fuels. Moreover, the supply of such conventional fuels has

reached a higher level of uncertainty which has resulted a need

for more reliable and sustainable energy-resources. The energy

resources is expected to be sustainable, and exist in great

abundance with the least amount of environmental impact.

Solar Energy provides one such option and demonstrates all

the required characteristics. One of the popular methods of

extracting Solar energy is Photo-voltaic technology. In this,

solar energy is directly converted to electrical energy. This,

phenomenon, to directly convert electromagnetic radiation

to electrical energy is known as the photo-voltaic effect.

Commercial production of PV cells began in the 1950s, when

Bell Laboratories developed the ﬁrst commercially available

solar cell. Until the 1970s, the only application of the PV

technology was in spacecrafts. But, in the last few decades,

decrease in the price of commercially available PV modules

as well incentives by governments around the world have

resulted in very fast growth in the use of PV systems.

II.

L ITERATURE R EVIEW

**In this paper, a mathematical approach is followed for
**

the equation to ﬁnd out the desired parameters [3]. Initially Newton-Raphson has been applied for the PV module

(KC200GT) which is a derivative method and follows the cost

function upto a certain limit. The Newton-Raphson if applied

without any relevant intial point, then the function may either

fall to a local minima or may become undeﬁned. So therby we

require a better process which can overcome these drawbacks.

Hence an evolutionary Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm, has been

employed. Genetic Algorithm has a beneﬁcial quality of not

falling into any local minima of the objective function and also

it can be applied to any noisy and rough cost function where

the derivative processes cannot be applied. Also if the problem

is Multi-dimensional, Non-differential, Non-continuous, and

Non-parametrical [16], then Genetic Algorithm can be used

as it is independent of the error surface. Thus a comparison of

I −V characteristics of PV Module has been made between the

mathematical approach and the stochastic method as a result

of the beneﬁts of GA over derivative methods.

III.

PV C ELL M ODELLING

**Photovoltaic Cell is the fundamental building block of
**

PV systems. These PV cells are made up of semiconductor

materials which converts solar energy into electricity. In

this semiconductor device (PV-Cells), the solar radiation

causes the energy to rise above the band-gap energy and thus

electron-hole pair is created. It is this electric ﬁeld’s force

that pushes electrons in one direction (n-side) and holes in

the other direction (p-side). The accumulation of holes on

the p-side and electrons on the n-side creates a potential

difference (voltage), which is used to pass an electric current

through the load.

There are different circuit models that can be used to

simulate PV cells. One of the simplest models is single-diode

model, where the cell is modeled as a current source caused

due to the photo-electric effect of solar irradiance in parallel

with a diode having a series and parallel resistance which

depicts that Solar Cell work both as Current and Voltage

Source. But rather than using a single diode model the double

,(((

9106 0. B. applying Nodal Analysis at point a we get. (0. An analytical approach has been followed to ﬁnd a good initial point for the Newton-Raphson Algorithm [3]. Rs = Series Resistance.29153 17. The diode currents for Diode D1 and D2 respectively.Voc ).Vm ).e. Rsh .2280 135. I = Iph − ID1 − ID2 − V + Rs I Rsh (1) where. NUMERICAL TECHNIQUE-NEWTON RAPHSON A. The equations that are solved in [3] using Newton-Raphson Algorithm is given below: Im Vm Double Diode Model of PV Cell Module Isc = Im (1 + = Voc Rs Isc ) − exp( )] + Ns V t Ns V t Voc Rs Isc Voc − Rs Isc ) − exp( )] + Is2 [exp( 2Ns Vt 2Ns Vt Rsh Is1 [exp( Rs ) Rsh From ﬁgure 1. In this model. the results obtained from analytical and thus from NewtonRaphson are: TABLE I.3 7. Is1 .5309 0.ID2 = Diode currents from the diode D1 and D2 respectively. [3] analytical and numerical approach has been implemented for PV-module KC200GT where only 5 parameters have been taken as unknown (Rs . we have 7 unknown parameters. That is why modelling the PV cell using two diodes is said to be more accurate. Rs .0) and (Im .4335 8. A NALYTICAL AND N EWTON -R APHSON METHOD [3] DATASHEET-VALUES Voc (V ) Isc (A) Vm (V ) Im (A) Pm (W ) Ns PV-MODULE 32.21 0.. the equivalent circuit of a double diode PV module is represented as Fig 1. Fig.diode model has been used in this paper. Iph = Photo-current generated by the Cell. (Isc .i. Is2 . Is1 .2193 Taking the values from Newton-Raphson Method if V-I and Power curve is plotted: . n2 and Iph .21 26. n1 and n2 = Diffusion and Recombination Diode Ideality Factor. 0 Im Is1 V m + Im Rs (1 + Rs )exp( ) Ns V t Vm Ns V t Im V m + Im Rs Is2 (1 + Rs )exp( ) − 2Ns Vt Vm 2Ns Vt Im 1 (1 + Rs ) − Rsh Vm − = = Voc Vm + Rs Im ) − exp( )] Ns V t Ns V t Voc V m + Rs Im ) − exp( )] +Is2 [exp( 2Ns Vt 2Ns Vt Voc − Vm + Rsh Is1 [exp( 1 Is1 Rs Isc + exp( ) Rsh Ns V t Ns V t Rs Isc Is2 exp( )] − 1 + 2Ns Vt 2Ns Vt (Rsh − Rs )[ These equations are derived from certain remarkable points on the I-V curve of the PV Cell-Module. the current source is connected to two diodes having different saturation current Is1 and Is2 which are connected in parallel to a shunt and series resistance.e. The second diode in parallel with the other is for the separation of the two recombination saturation current terms. Now. are given as ID1 = Is1 (exp( ID2 = Is2 (exp( I = Iph −Is1 (exp( V + Rs I ) − 1) n1 N s V t V + Rs I ) − 1) n2 N s V t (2) (3) V + Rs I V + Rs I V + Rs I ) − 1)−Is2 (exp( ) − 1)− Ns V t 2Ns Vt Rsh (4) where. one in the depletion region and other in the quasi neutral region. Is2 and Iph ) considering the diffusion and recombination diode ideality factor as 1 and 2 respectively. Here.61 200 54 Parameters Analytical-Method Newton-Raphson Rs (Ω) Rsh (Ω) Is1 (nA) Is2 (μA) Iph (A) 0. from the above equation. Rsh . Rsh = Shunt Resistance.3181254 278. Therefore. ID1 .556 8. n1 . 1. Double-Diode Model From.3794957 4. These 7 parameters are needed to be extracted from the equation above.9 8. V= Terminal Voltage.i.

2. The objective function to solve for the parameters is given as: f (VL . n2 )[14] N 1 f (ViL . n2 )2 ) f = ( N i=1 (5) (6) GENETIC ALGORITHM Sl.The cost function will be evaluated by taking the minimization task for the extraction of unknown parameters.0013 418. n1 . Is1 . Rs . in this paper only the STC (25C o and 1000 W/m2 ) has been studied.8. Is2 . Is1 .2039 . Is2 . IiL . Genetic Algorithm is an evolutionary algorithm that mimics the process of natural selection. 100. GENETIC ALGORITHM Fig. So. It is an iterative method. IV.i. IL . Also. of data points of V and I in the I-V curve. from the plot we can say that the V-I and power curve for the extracted value using Newton-Raphson Algorithm is deviating from its actual Datasheet Values. Genetic Algorithm has been employed to ﬁnd out the unknown parameters of the KC200GT model.e. for better results Evolutionary Algorithm can be implemented and thus a better result is expected as compared to Newton-Raphson Algorithm. Rsh .3902 0. n2 and Iph are dependent on Temperature and Ir-radiance. Power Curve from parameters extracted from NR min f (x) x∈Rn Genetic Algorithm Settings [15] Population type: Double Vector with Populations size = 20.Mutation function: Constraint Dependent: 100 The generations have been set to default value. V-I curve from parameters extracted from NR where. In this paper. n1 . TABLE II. PROBLEM FORMULATION Equation (4) is a transcendental function that gives the current produced by the PV Cell Module. A. Rsh .9996242 2. This process/iteration is terminated until a maximum number of generations is produced or the cost function has reached a satisfactory level of ﬁtness value.Fig. Fitness scaling: Rank Selection Function: Stochastic uniform Reproduction-Crossover fraction: 0. Now.2 40 1 2 1 500 Genetic Algorithm Execution Results and Plots TABLE III. the unknown parameters Rs . n1 . Many evolutionary/optimization techniques are often used to solve the equation.1257773 32. N= No. Rs .1 30 0 1 0 100 8. Rsh . This heuristic is usually used for solutions to optimization and search problems. Is2 . 3.3 0. Parameters Lower Bound Upper Bound 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Iph (A) Is1 (nA) Is2 (μA) a1 a2 Rs (Ω) Rsh (Ω) 8 0..0000 0.No. Is1 . GENETIC ALGORITHM PV-MODULE KC200GT Parameters Genetic Algorithm Iph (A) Is1 (nA) Is2 (μA) a1 a2 Rs (Ω) Rsh (Ω) 8. The individual with the best ﬁtness value is selected stochastically from the current population and the rest of the population is modiﬁed by mutation and ) crossover to form a new generation.21 0. having some randomly generated population and in each iteration (called generation) new individuals are generated and thus the ﬁtness of every individual in the population is evaluated. But.

9. Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on System Science and Engineering. Teodorescu. IEEE Trans. Hossein Mokhtari. pp. 419-428. V. ZHIXIN YANG. Electronics and Communications Engineering Vol:7 No:2. 1999. vol. Himanshu Sekhar Sahu. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. Electron Devices. pp. A comprehensive MATLAB Simulink PV system simulator with partial shading capability based on two-diode model. Auburn University LevenbergMarquardt Training. Modeling and Parameter Extraction of PV Modules Using Genetic Algorithms and Differential Evaluation. China . ACKNOWLEDGMENT R This work is carried out using MATLAB 2013b provided by Summer Internship Project (EEE Department) at lIT Guwahati. 1987. Noel.Symp. G. Sisir Kumar Nayak. no. New York. Samrat Roy Estimation of Maximum Power Point of PV Array Using Datasheet Values for Microgrid Integration.Jun. Energy. NY. pp. Analytical methods for the extraction of solar-cell single and double diode model parameters from IV characteristics. Vol. C. 34.P Sangameswar Raju. G. Gow and C.J. Andrey Popov. vol. 85. WUI IAN HOI and JIANHUA ZHONG. Z. no. 3 May 2014. 4. Hao Yu. Phang. It signiﬁes that GA has the potential as a valuable tool for parameter estimation. Mehrdad Ghandhari. The outcomes of GA are quite promising and deserve serious attention. The maximum power point tracking based on the double index model of pv cells. Manning Development of a photovoltaic array model for use in power electronics simulation studies. Mohammad Hejri. 2009. F. 2. PP 37-44.June 2011. 286293 Feb.2392 2396.Hill 1948. IEEE 6th International.IEEEInt. vol. 2005. The double diode model of solar cell is used to validate the performance of GA in comparison to Newton-Raphson. . Mr. Auburn University and Bogdan M. H. 2007. IEEE Innovative Smart Grids Technologies-Asia (ISGT ASIA) 2014. H. ED-24. K. J. Simple. Mohammad Reza Azizian. W. IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) e-ISSN: 2278-1676. Hongpeng.pp. other Evolutionary Techniques will be [16] J. S. D. Electr.. Gearbox Fault Diagnosis based on Artiﬁcial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms. T. Dr. Dianguo L. Wilamowski. Investigation of the double exponential in the current-voltage characteristics of silicon solar cells. IPEMC’09. Issue 6 (May. World Academy of Science. Fast. 2009. AlRashidi. No. R. [15] C ONCLUSION The extraction of solar cell parameters using Genetic algorithm is presented in this study. J. no. A. Salam K. D. Rodriguez PV panel model based on datasheetvalues. D. AlHajri. Wolf. and M. Solar Energy. Chenni. and X. Electron Devices. Sera. A. M. 2.. Uspensky Theory of Equations. Taheri K. R.employed with different working conditions such as shading on solar cell and also parameter estimation will be efﬁciently investigated. 146. USA: McGRAW. J. October 2010. Macau. Z. 32. Ishaque. 2013). vol. Ishaque. In a forthcoming study. and Lennart Soder On the Parameter Extraction of a Five-Parameter Double-Diode Model of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules IEEE Journal Photovoltaics. and Accurate Two-Diode Model for Photovoltaic Modules. Stirn M. in Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference. Salam. IEE Proc. Volume 5. Hamburg Genetic Algorithms For Optimization Programs for MATLAB. Robotics. 2013.Electron. El-Naggar. Power Appl. 193 200 Mar. R EFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] The V-I and Power plot shows that GA results are quite accurate to the actual Data-Sheet Values of KC200GT PV Module under STC conditions in comparison to the NewtonRaphson Algorithm [3]. and P. inProc. M. Bouzid R. pp. Shigong. R.Ind. Vol. Parameters Estimation of Double Diode Solar Cell Model. September 2011. Engineering and Technology International Journal of Electrical.p-ISSN: 2320-3331. H. Wei. Chan and J. September 2007. . 1977. A detailed modeling method for photovoltaic cells. 2113–2116.. IEEE Trans. Venkateswarlu. Kerbache. Makhlouf. M.

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