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with New York University. N. Inc. Cliffs.. University of California (Berkeley) Prentice-Hall. New York J. JANSON Professor of Fine Arts.HISTORY OF A MUSIC H. Englewood and Harry N. Abrams. Inc.. Dora Jane Janson JOSEPH KERMAN Professor of Music. . W.

No part of the contents of this book may be reproduced without the written permission of the publishers. Harry N. Fox Patricia • Editor-in-Chief Egan • Editor Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 68-26864 A 11 rights reserved. Abrams. Incorporated.Milton S. New York Printed and bound in Japan .


Egypt and the Ancient Near East 3. Romanticism and impressionism 161 3. Early Christian and Byzantine Art 39 two Art in the 8 Middle Ages 47 1. part ART The Art by H. W. The Sixteenth Century 108 3. Janson Ancient World in the of Prehistoric Man 3 2.N o c T Foreword Synopsis of Art and Music Terms BOOK ONE part Art one 1. Greek and Roman Art 17 4. Enlightenment and Revolution 2. Gothic Art 67 Art Part Three in the Renaissance 88 1. Romanesque Art 57 3. Early Medieval Art 47 2. The Fifteenth Century 90 2. The Baroque part Four Art in the 135 Modern World 156 156 1. The Twentieth Century 182 Maps Chronology Books Books for Further for Further Reading on Art Reading on Music Index List of Credits .

Romanticism and After 270 3. Enlightenment and Revolution 257 2. The Baroque Music 241 in the Modern World 257 1. Part Three 298 by Joseph .N IX xi MUSIC BOOK TWO part part one Music 304 318 2 1 214 Early Christian Music 217 two Music in the Middle Ages 220 1. Early Medieval Music 220 2. 1 294 in the Kerman 2. The The 3. The Twentieth Century 28 Recorded Examples 293 List of 307 A ncient World Greek Music part Four 302 211 1. Romanesque and Gothic Music 222 Music in the Era of the Renaissance 229 Fifteenth Century 230 Sixteenth Century 233 2.


compare the As aspects of and music both major developments that determine the history of civilization.FOREWORD This book has been written to fill a need history-in-brief of art and music for a need the designed as an introduction to these fields in Still another reason made us decide to keep our two accounts separate: although art and music are both as old as mankind." it they attributed the superiority of unique power over the emotions. At time. the known the framework of a general humanities course. painting. the prestige of music music to its as the noblest of the arts received further tus. and all the other "inner-directed" forces operative on the cial two fields individually. the visual arts acquired their own background of theory and rose to the status of "libas against slaves or serfs) theoretical basis that linked eral arts. in the Renaissance. But it positions. pp. medicina dolor urn. The consensus correspondence at every of scholarly opinion does not support such a view of things. art reflect the way we the riods — such divide the flow of the past into peas the rise of towns in the later Middle Ages. From the Old Stone Age to the Greeks that is. or the territory. as a glance at the table of contents common pattern show. the exigencies of technique. the — — Yet the Western World somewhat parait would seem has ranked music far above the visual arts ever since the Greeks. The Greeks invented music theory as treatment integrated of generalizations or forced attempts to strate unity of the second is demon- development at any price. more ground than the known history of music. so that art and music are presented as separate histories without a entities. enabling us to know something and of their was not until about 1000 a. due weight to the forces of tradition. own we hope Each field the reader too will find them has an internal dynamic of its that cushions the impact of outside forces.d. we have adopted a will of organization for the major subdivisions of both fields. Music was comes laetitiae. so that the history of art and the history of music are "inner-directed" as well as "otherdirected. reserved for free the men because it had a with both mathematics and philosophy (see below. the cure of sorrows. Meanwhile architecture. Of the music played on them we know nothing. the history of art during the time span since the Greeks offers a great wealth of material. We have attempted to analyze these reflections wherever we discern them clearly and to correlate and cross-reference our materials whenever we could do so without trespassing on the other's of the Renaissance. Each author has been solely responsible for his own area. the spe- pressures of social expectation. The first tends to encourage facile 20. music among the "liberal arts" (that intellectual disciplines is. readers need not expect same the to find a one-to-one point. In contrast. we find the contrasts as revealing as the similarities — and so.000 to about 2. "joy's companion. from about — — well as a system of notation. and sculpture were classed with the "mechanical arts" or crafts. much of it so fascinating to modern beholder that he may respond to it more readily than to many works of more recent date. based on the expressive range. that musical notation became precise enough for modern scholars to reconstruct with reasonable accuracy the sound of actual comof their music ideas about music. For art and music often respond to the major changes in the human condition in very different ways. the secularism and individualism dominant role of science and technology in modern life. Classical antiquity and the Middle Ages placed doxically. At the IX ." During the first century of the modern era. painters and sculptors grew more and more dissatisfied with traditional subject matter. which are based on practice rather than on reason." By we mean to give tracing each history continuously. impe- Several generations of composers of genius brought about a shift of emphasis from vocal to instrumental music and greatly enlarged its same time. We have chosen a middle way. at the other complete independence. while likely to produce two separate common denominator. inviting the reader to exposition chapter by chapter. but. and all of them have their dangers. At one extreme is the history of art covers a great deal both subjects under common headings. 215— 216). for example. the harp in fig. When. from about 1760 to 1860. 17).500 years ago the history of music consists entirely of the history of musical instruments (see. This can be done in several ways.

the Fifth Symphony. There is. In addition. in the early years of this century." ciations. w. Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik. literary own still life. 3. trated" all But it was not sons. then. sometimes past sometimes complementary. the Renaissance. Art and music play different roles in our cultural life. and either or turned to such themes as and scenes from contempo- They were increasingly concerned with the "how" rather than the "what" of their work. the musi- illustrations on the accompanying phonograph record are necessarily limited in number cal and physically separate from the book On the other hand. sources. to the live experience of — even though most of them are "details" segments of longer pieces. instrumental music) seemed to them the ideal art. Those who obtain the record should supplement — it with recordings —many well-known longer compositions discussed in the text. form rather than the significance of the subject. 2. the Appassionato Sonata. K. Our miniature recorded anthology concentrates on those periods of music history that would be hardest for the reader to fill in from his own experience or from his record library. calling them "symphonies. The book can be read with profit. and at least one of Beethoven "second-period" the following works: the Eroica Symphony. is not confined to the quantity and range of the works available to us. The difference between the two subjects of our book. form. and present. they come itself. Thus music (especially in what was then its "purest" form. we hope. and the Leonore Overture No. J." as one famous critic put it. Painters began to borrow musical titles for their works. . drew the ultimate conclusion and rejected representation altogether as an alien." "compositions. same for obvious rea- rule to music. "improvisations. without the record. to apply the possible. infinitely closer music than any color reproduction does to the original work of art. The — art historical section is "fully illus- the works referred to in the text are reproduced. and their historical development follows distinctive patterns. with its emotional effect or harmony of rary life.Bible and other made up their landscape. thirty-one of them in color. They are Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. a difference in the way the two fields lend themselves to discussion in book parallel. free from any external asso"All art aspires to the condition of music." until some of them. J. and the twentieth century. the Middle Ages. "literary" element. lists of records suggested for supplementary listening are added at the end of each section of Book Two. are available of certain h. finally. but it can be read more profitably with musical illustrations to match the visual ones.

i. reference to the proper- ties of a building or room. and buttressing at the sides. ATHEMATIC. at See basilica. 161). archivolt. etc. or (Recorded Example 9). A passageway. The main horizontal beam. their ornamentation may be elaborate (fig. A simple type of plainsong sung the Office. ars antiqua. was first used system- ter. atmospheric perspective. tionship to one another. A Greek vase having an egg-shaped body.). academies were private associations of artists. the presentation of one subject under the guise of another. and specifying types of One subject matter. ther information.. it requires support from walls. may refer movement. series of circular. XI . The form of the arch may also be derived from the ellipse or non-representational art styles of the twencentury ( colorplate 30). or geometrical (figs. A means of showing distance or depth in a painting by modifying the tone of objects that are remote from the picture plane. fast.. a narrow cylindrical neck. official academies devel- oped seventeenth century with leaders claiming authority in establishing standards. In medieval architecture. appropriate dictionaries and encyclopedias.. 126). AERIAL PERSPECTIVE: See ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE. contours may also become This technique. The science pertaining commonly used with to sound. {Art) In the Ren- A 77. the reader should consult the ' curving handles joined to the body at the shoulder and neck. allegory. Of or pertaining to the formal aspect of art. ars nova (Lat. a regular song clearly set off from the rest of the music B. generalized colors. PROGRAM MUSIC. sometimes multiple. 1300 respectively. Iarch. etc. often semi- parabola. A (anthem. abstraction. used in conexclusively r /abstract. 75).C. as in a clois- \j architectural construction. pression through . especially by reduc- marked stages the contrast and darks to a uniform light ing in gradual or between lights bluish-gray color.e. on the face of an arch and following its contour. Without THEMES. especially around the chancel of a church. Fourteenth-century terms for music from the periods after c. or columns. A I \/archaic. In opera. In art. (Ital. An especially with reference to their rela- A learned society. V acoustics. An ambulatory may also be outside a church. and two atically amphora. their supports wedge-shaped blocks (vousspan an opening. /allegro lively. emphasizing lines.. art arches and soirs) to tieth aissance. (Music) istic societies in of the human- which fostered the madrigal sixteenth-century Italy. /antiphon. Cross references are indicated by words in small capitals. arcade. also known as aerial perspective.e. relatively early sculpture of the seventh style. The molding.. to In music. short Anglican church composi- tion. pertaining to the V academy.SYNOPSIS OF ART AND MUSIC TERMS The following list of terms is drawn from both parts of this book. trast to . and the lowest part of an entablature. by the Van Eycks (colorplate 12). built of forms. less distinct. Varia. architrave. Music having form and Iapse. 1250 and after c. For fur- . in the stipulating methods. piers. large semicircular or polygonal niche. oratorio. speed of a cheerful). means the character or ^alleluia. and as Greek sixth centuries any style adopting characteristics of an earlier period. not illustrational) elements. or a symbolic narrative (fig.. A ex- musical (i. absolute music. An elaborate type of plainsong sung by choir and soloists at Mass (Recorded Example 1 ) J ambulatory. each spanning the space from the top of one support to the next. a series of lintels.

. canon. model are destroyed. which the parts of a on a symmetrically disposed are longitudinal axis. Corinthian col- umn. often provided with numbers to facilitate improvisation of fill-in chords on a harpsichord. single cast. fixed melody). figs. Casting tion. camera.). the flat the building. buttressing. which may vary according to its use. VBluttress. pier. PIER BUTTRESS. See FLYING BUTTRESS.). local variations way inexpensive A often the is a convenient and making a copy of type of bronze casting wax" method Wind is creation of a piece of sculp- devotion with prayers for different hours of day. The rectangular open court in front of \f. trussed roof. By a number it of bronze casts.). it can be either period. Bell tower.95). occasionally of a statue. The lowest element of a dome.). Church cantata: a composition in cantata style for the Lutheran church. A book for individual private in bronze or other metal final stage in the ture. and having no structural function. a tone between its had public building. 71. The crowning member of a column. horns. B —» C). A semi-cylindrical vault or plate 13. usually formed by the space between consecutive architectural supports (fig. basilican. 'Jcadence. as ica pressure lateral / (col- refers to the function of the building — the (thrust) exerted by an arch or vault. or organ. Jcasting. the — official Semi- that gives the feeling of termination. bays. A masonry support \«uffo xu bass. trombones. Ionic column. Compartments into which a building may be subdivided. and often presenting (fig. frequently elaborately illumi- the (cire perdu): this is of an the "lost produces a wax instruments made of metal. veloped in eighteenth-century comic opera. casting in plaster nated. A relatively short and semidramatic work resembling an opera scene. An existing melody used as the basis of a polyphonic composition for contrapuntal voices. on which the lowest element of the entablature rests.112). the pattern of two or three notes or chords wall. such as trumpets. principle of representation. Fourteenth-century polyphonic hunting song. pattern which has a semi- last two notes and which sounds very conclusive (e.. 4caccia (Ital. or complete work. a longitudinal axis. the Roman basil- certain religious overtones. etc. Roman an tone cadence. blind arcade.. Not tonal. campanile (Ital. but did not require. see capital. V base.78. chace (Fr. burin. for in the process both the distinguished from woodwinds. The entrance was on one short side (usually west) and the apse projected from the oppo- A fixed set of proportions for be used as a guiding A polywhich the voice-lines have figure. A group of literary men. 74). basso continuo (Ital. ments originally made of wood. 150). See Doric column. 5). original. In Baroque continuo texture (diagrams 4. A method of reproducing a threedimensional object or relief (figs. to phonic piece in same melody but present the times (e. with the identical music). at the farther end of site bass.g. / The lowest part harmonic of a musical composi- bass. (Art) timber ceiling. (Music) (usually east) side. also basso continuo. Figured bass and thorough-bass are alternate terms. the bass line. rather than to its a large meeting hall form. carving: see sculpture. column.atonal (twentieth-century).). It often had. A pointed steel cutting tool. In the word counteracts that / A ballett. usually surrounded A axial plan. The ending of a musical phrase. bas relief: see relief. type dancelike of light. fa-la. as / human (figs. more exactly. section.. 131). madrigal (sixteenth century). room). lute. A decorative arcade applied to a wall surface. y ^Jcantus firmus (Lat. and musicians who met in Florence shortly before 1600 to discuss a new musical style to be based on ancient Greek drama.. tubas. or on both. a church. 41. not composed on the basis of the tonal system. barrel vault. the it at different tenor voice following the so- prano voice one bar later. and the terminating tribunal which was rectangular or in the shape of an apse. book of hours. building plan in by porticos.g. artists. camerata (Ital. the freestanding or attached to the building t { 54. atrium. basilica. The Early Christian basilica adopted some of its these features: the longitudinal axis with ob- long plan. entrance and its apse (or apses) might be on the long or the short side. using a plaster cast as an intermediate step •/brasses. See engraving. A instru- special type of singer or role de- mold and is the clay possible to make See sculpture. \jCANTATA (Ital. or pilaster.

cloister. to form an expressive whole. and melodic ornaments. coda Chorale-prelude: a work for organ. (Music) group of church singers. forerunner of the piano. as opposed to a chorus. CHIAROSCURO. A type of "new plainsong". chant. (Ital. the choice and treatment of the also hues in a painted representation. clerestory. wallpaper. (Music) In general. in particular.. chorus. In particular. (Art) The arrangement of FORM. A covered passageway around an area or court. ing involving notes of the chromatic scale. A simple type of lute (colorplate 20). A composition made by pasting cutup textured materials.8). Type(s) of sing- many runs. plan in which the main more or less equal in size. the tune. a rounded shaft. open (usually with an arcade — areas in a painting.d. (Music) Musical style involving extensive and "colorful" use of all twelve clavichord.e. are arranged symmetrically around a given point. frequently chamber music. TINT. (Art) See chancel. hymn). mainly on a mono- used in churches having nave walls higher than the side aisle roof s (colorplates 4. The sign at the beginning of the staff which indicates the pitch of the notes. The simultaneous sounding of two or more notes. A group of secular singers. the art of putting together the component parts. (Art) Used generally to refer to the Greeks and the Romans. connect- tone. specifically to 138. the earliest form of the book. such as newsprint. and early Roman churches. In general. A other ex- vertical architectural support. light and dark). etc. usually one performer to each part. LINE. drawing.. or print (color- achieve 14. coloratura ^ See VALUE. HARMONY.C. employing a small group of soloists. chancel. (Ital. song). A manuscript pages held toThe codex. 167).. (Art) Used specifically to refer to Greek art of the fifth century B. In general. in any given work of art. etc. may be combined with painted or drawn representations. tail). the instrumental groups within an or- chestra. Unaccompanied musical recitation of certain liturgical texts. colonnade. (Art) Coloring. A series of columns spanned by f LINTELS. In a church. Gregorian chant. chiaroscuro (Ital. Syrian. ending. concerto grosso: the main Baroque type of concerto. scrolls of earlier times. Hymn Protestant Church. Syrian chant. and occasionally by a screen. the seven notes of the diatonic scale plus the five sharps and flats. are used loosely to denote all the service music chant and song employed in the Byzantine. with slightly elaborated beginning. its quite expressive tone is produced by striking the strings with of section. xm . centu- ries). also. 246.. the space reserved for the clergy and choir. a quality of visual phenomena." A small keyboard instrument. conductus. 254). also. chromaticism. collage. i. Usually applied to polyphonic French songs of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries (Recorded Example 4). rcoLOR. ally consisting ^and a capital. tunes of the Ger- chord. set off from the nave by steps. The terms Byzantine chant. church design. and punctuating formulas (end of Recorded Example 1). An instrumental composition in ]/o which an orchestra is contrasted with a single soloist or small solo group (Recorded Example 12). MELODY. see hue. 19). etc.. art of the facing ing monastery. concerto. or with three-dimensional objects (figs. an important type of non-basilican clef. to form all or part of a work of art. wood veneer. A parts of a building. (Music) for "traditional music" in Used commonly opposition to "popular.central plan. chanson (Fr. usu- of a base (except in the Greek doric column). the nave ending section of a sonato-allegro codex. thirteenth-century polyphony which is not built on a plainsong (see also organum). (Music) Used specifically to refer to music of the eighteenth century a. a form of twelfth. Music for a small group of performers. etc. chromatic. any piece of work.. generally located south of the tensive Column. modeling Also used (figs. gradually replaced the series of gether by stitching. COLOR. Ending cittern. colored). up to about eight in number.. levers little (fifteenth to eighteenth. ^composition. form... turns.. specifically. chorale man (Ger. the distribution of lighted and shadowed colonnade) or court. incorporating a chorale sides ing the church with other parts of an adjoin- — plates on the a church and west of the transept. classical. A row of windows in a wall that rises above the adjoining roof. such as RHYTHM. A choir.

A colored glass paste which solidifies . an octave (such as low C and high C) or a fifth (C and G). 39. The Corinthian amusement). elevation. A method of painting in colors mixed with wax and applied with a brush. words to music. dissonant: see consonance..22). cornetto (Ital. HALF-COLUMN. The upper tural ORDER. by corner structures (see ENGAGED COLUMN. charcoal. this is coated with printer's ink. da capo form. /.Doric column. the paper soaks up the ink and produces a print i of the original. One type (Ital. Two panels. Damp paper is placed on the plate. the area where the nave and the transept intersect. cupola. generally while the mixture is hot. often hinged together. 27). The Doric capital curves outward from the top of the shaft to fourteenth. I Counter Reformation. ensemble. and volute scrolls.161). stalks.. this is to some degree a relative matter. dome. chalk. a cylindrical wall supporting a dome. which remains in the incised lines when the plate is wiped off. 63. Assyro-Babylonians. crossing. The more or less continuous buttressing required by a cupola may be provided in a number of different ways. The wedge-shaped writing of the \ Sumerians. especially the uppermost part Of an ENTABLATURE. Reclamation. within the Roman Catholic Church which followed the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century./<contour. of setting The second SONATA-ALLEGRO FORM. and has been revived by some modern painters (fig. it had notable effects on the art and music of the time. and both are put into a press. {development. drum. ^namel. tural purpose (figs. that from is A COLUMN somewhat Such a column often has no struc- part of a wall and projects it.). The divertimento quality of blend- ing detected by the ear at the simultaneous sounding of pairs of notes at certain inter- vals. Its shaft has twenty shallow flutes. some- what light stepped platform of a temple. The movement . \\ increasingly popular after the later fourth century B. The manner etc. 119. convex roof or ceiling. usually hemispherical on a circular base. projecting architectural feature. apparently as a variation of the Ionic. The expressive design of a musical piece in terms of loudness and softness. The technique was practiced in ancient times and in the Early Christian period. diptych (Gr. i. or representation by lines. 86). or. encaustic. or musical score incised in reverse with a burin on a copper plate.consonance. contratenor. etc.and fifteenth-century polyphony. pencil. also. In a cruciform church. a musical number involving several characters at once (Recorded of the line Example 14). i . designed as a single composition or two related compositions (colorplate 12).e. v]engraving. A design. A rounded. cornice. over a noncircular space. continuo: see basso continuo. f The technique study or of combining voice-lines to make polyphony. dominant. The crowning. dissonance. 52). (Art) One of several sections composing the shaft of a column. either its facade or one side. and other ancient Near Eastern peoples. pastel. decorated with acanthus leaves. Drawings are usually made on paper with pen. these techniques may be combined with brush and ink wash. 134. text. The outline of a shape which . 40). Note-pairs that do not seem to blend are termed dissonant. drone. section of the DIATONIC SCALE: see SCALE.C. cuneiform. was widely used by the Romans (figs. A wind instrument. 12. drawn to suggest its volume (colorplates is 1. /Corinthian column. ( when fired at high temperature (figs. pendentives). (Music) See PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS. The ployed in late strict ABA form em- seventeenth-century arias. In opera. 40).. The fifth note 9. A large cupola supported by a circular wall or drum (fig. part of an architec- . the kinds of rhythms and pitches used on the various syllables. a square slab forming the uppermost part of the capital on which the architrave rests (fig. it like a recorder with a trumpet mouth- piece (fifteenth to seventeenth centuries). First appeared in fifth- order became A of any major or minor diatonic scale. The Doric column stands without a base directly on the top of the of voice-line used in century Greece. genre of Classic instrumental music.. two folds). 1 counterpoint. dynamics. The amount of pressure ex- erted on the burin determines the thickness on the copper plate (figs. A long held note. entablature. design. 38). concord. A schematic drawing of one face of a building. The capital differentiates the two: the Corinthian capital has an inverted bell shape. drawing. XIV meet the abacus. A sketch.

(Art) Subject matter of a particular type. The sharp edge formed by the intersec- groin. painting in in The layer of plaster of preparing the ground for a tempera. A medieval bowed string instrument. fifths: see interval. groin vault.. GROUND PLAN: see PLAN./freestanding. (Music) Instruments belonging to the woodwind (fig. etching is an incis- ing (or intaglio) process. POLYPHONIC texture in which melodic fragments are sys- tematically echoed through The coating is then removed. 65. 13). ^exposition. flutes. or painting (figs. However. all the voice-lines lengths of time. in time. Fugue: a composition consisting of prints . the design is drawn in reverse with a needle on a plate (often of copper) thinly coated with The resin. faburden. tion of two VAULTS. fourths: see interval. A chord. the etched lines are plate particularly needle has pierced the coating. see Doric column. Used of a work of sculpture in the round.181). Paris used / life. i. largely harmonic in style. class). themes. nJharmony. LAUDA. plaster). Luke. the pigwith water and applied to a fresh). a category or type of composition. A type of late fifteenth -century Italarchitecture atives. flute. enclosed by the lines of a sloping roof. fiddle. and tonalities. SYMPHONY. as distinct from the melodic or rhythmic. fifth. 7. not in a frontal or profile view (colorplate 11. /facade. The triangular part of a wall. In classical twentieth centuries).. is a technique of since antiquity. f/irm. An arch that springs from the upper part of the pier buttress of a Gothic church. gable. (Art) Contains the four Gospels of the New Testament that tell the life of Christ. (diagram 3). etching. 26. Point of imitation: a section and the of fugal imitation dealing with a single fragment.. (Art) The external shape or appearance of a representation. (Music) The "shape" of among the shaping elements cadences. and abuts the upper nave wall to receive the thrust from the nave vaults. 33). any horizontal band decorated with moldings. and John. /half-column: see engaged column. Harmonic style or texture often xv . ascribed to the evangelists Matthew. buttress. dimensionality. IMITATION.. treated at con- / ^esso (Ital. (Art) The use or purpose of a building or object. . genre (Fr.. figs. Ionic column. music if material. Vfunction. A \fUGAL IMITATION. wall painting ment is see overture. Fresco known mixed one melodic (typically) ways (Recorded Example 11). type. frottola. French overture: N/fresco (Ital. figs. Gospel book. spans the aisle roof. more loosely.. Often profusely illustrated (colorplates 5. and its derivan architectural element that rests on the architrave and is immediately below the cornice. fugue: see fugal imitation. A proper Gospel. The system of tuning which spaces the twelve notes of the chromatic scale exactly evenly (eighteenth to Like engraving. (Music) section of Mass which is performed in chant (end of Re/ corded Example 1 ) yGosPELS. the fugue subject. / ian song. 6. are made as in engraving (fig. 144). motet. relief sculpture.g. 125. fourth. fauxbourdon. the chordal aspect of music. An type of plainsong soloists at Mass (Re- elaborate sung by choir and corded Example 3 ) Gregorian chant: see chant. A method of representing seen at an angle and receding or projecting into space. VE1 freshly plastered area of a wall. it transmits Iflying objects as fugal imitation fragment. (Music) See tonal system. so that the groins form a diagonal cross. (Art) Vertical channels on a column shaft. See pediment. flat: see note. The front of a building. 88). forerunner of the violin. 69). The first section of sonataallegro FORM. . (Music) A particular type of composition. e. in full threeare repetitions of large sections. also.e. usually portraying as- pects of everyday this thrust to the solid pier buttresses color or on siderable length and often in different group. Wide tonal variety is made possible by exposing different parts of the plate to the acid for varying The result is permanent form of painted decoration (colorplates ^rieze. Mark. plainsong. considered apart from its foreshortening. a 9. not attached to architecture and not in relief. Gradual. plate placed is in a wax bath of or nitric produced on the by the corrosion of the acid where the acid. A vault formed by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults of equal height and diameter. equal temperament. A medieval English type of improvised polyphony.

Wagner). etc. 23). The property of color by which the vari. An ancient (especially Greek) harplike instrument (colorplate 2). contain illustrations. presented upside down (diagram 10). A term used generally for manuscript may marginal text paintings. or tower. Illuminated separate ornament initial paintings. Roman and Greek culture (fig. youth). A KEYBOARD instrument. a tall. The whole set of keys on a harpsi- tinguished as red. jongleur (Fr. ence of this revival. which the player depresses. expressed either as a ratio of their pitch-frequencies (such as 2 3) or by a term indicating the number of diatonic scale notes comprising them (e. (Music) Sequence of notes. In the Greek characterized by its object. more generally. scene. or within the often had fine painted decoration (fig. An Italian popular C these. impasto. The Ionic capital is identified by its pair of volute scrolls that extend from is over the polyphonic. juggler). around an miniature manuscripts ornamental pages. i ous sections of the visible spectrum are A orchestral motif which recurs many opera in association with times during an some definite feeling. Relation between the pitches of two notes. girl or maiden). scene. third. : Ionic column stands on molded base. organs. An (Art) The representation of a thought. leading motive). humanistic. one curved handle. cal i [key. The central topmost voussoir of an arch. Also see tonality. illustrational. Used of certain styles of art where the type of representation is fixed by religious tradition. The text of an OPERA Or ORATORIO. FIFTH. illusionistic. program. Thus harmonic bass: a bass line without autonomous melodic character. (Music) Music of the sixteenth century which shows the influ- \Idee fixe (Fr. The effort of an artist to represent the visual world with de/ l A ceptive reality.g. merely as a support for chords (eighteenth century). ^illumination. or text by artistic means. re- phony movements (e.g. as distinct from basso continuo (diagram 7). A lauda. The shaft normally has ^onic column. /interval. lantern. Paint thickly applied. the various the : and study of. kouroi. fourteenth-century or nearly identical in over-all but different hieratic. means. linear perspective. blue. with openings to admit light. (Art) Generally (fig. 4HIue.. an outline. A German song. etc. melody. kithara. '/idealized" dance: see "stylized" dance. A medieval instrumental musician. lekythos. korai. little book). more deeply cut than Doric flutes. contour. OCTAVE). Gr. espedaily a late fifteenth-century type. leitmotif (Ger. keystone. VIRGINAL. Designates an archaic Greek statue of a draped maiden. kore (pi. A tune recurring in program symand associated with youth. kylix. often decorated and usually heavier dis- Renaissance revival of interest harpsichords.. that exists. A small structure crowning a dome. a vase cylindrical body curving which is squat and cylindrical. its bright tone is produced by plucking the strings with stressed the sides of the concave bolster 30).g. kouros (pi. chord. imitation. pianos. rhythm notes. than the other blocks of the arch. (Art) A mark made by a moving tool such as a pen or pencil. entire roof. Gr.. 136). / FOURTH. \Jhumanism. song).refers to one in which the harmonic aspect twenty-four flutes. any combination of a lantern illusionism. often on a stem terminating in a round foot.. \ lied (Ger. forerunner of the piano. line. etc. Designates an archaic Greek statue of a standing nude in. Greek drinking cup shaped as a shallow bowl with two horizontal handles projecting from the sides. Of a melody or twelve-tone series. The inside of the cup of a A one main personage in the program. The characters and picturewriting used by the ancient Egyptians. organ.. quills (sixteenth to eighteenth centuries). its earliest significant appearance is in the fourteenth century. (Music) The representation of a thought. \ libretto (Ital. thin neck with an inverted bell-shaped lip. See also retrograde inversion.. '/illustration. /inversion. letter). (e. Leitmotiv. The xvi also be erected above the religious song. compositional system by which motets were written in several large sections... key-note see tonic. or idea (e. (keyboard. A mathematical system inward at the foot. Lied.g. Berlioz). ( r for representing three-dimensional objects . each section identi- isorhythm. fixed idea). HARPSICHORD. or silhouette.. see madrigal. see fugal imitation. or text by musical a may crossing of a church. fers to the On in actual visible part of the action Hieroglyphics. piano. Classic period..

the means by which the threedimensionality of a form is suggested on a polyphonic and featuring in the Classic triad seems very central.. maesta (Ital. (a) modal melodies: melodies (e. paint. such as marble. as distinct from rhythm. in the minor scale. The system is based on the princi- minated manuscript. etc. in Old ground above portion The Kingdom tomb. style color and chiaroscuro orplates 13. (Ger. Two types of diatonic scale. typically set to ^MCosaic. horizontal beam that spans an openlintel.and space on a two-dimensional surface. A seventeenth-century French dance. Marian. her honor. The which an artist works. Vocal composition. 6. Lute air: a song accompanied by lute Vmadrigal. A relatively elaborate representation of the Virgin Mary (Ma- careful donna) and Child enthroned. (Music) the implication of action An autonomous or almost autonomous section of a multi-sectional work. at least as compared tO TONAL MELODIES. was generally rectangular in plan. large mosaics were used chiefly on floors. in painting and sculpture. (Lat. The system by which musica ficta XVII . Symphony (. and later }/M inuet. 173). In antiquity. see POST AND LINTEL. monumental. The ritual or form of public worship. 122. in as lute. SONATA. the planned variety of forms. oil material with watercolor. sculpture. All from a single viewpoint. all lines trait. plainsong) in which no single note seems very central. Frequently used to describe works that are larger than lifesize. from the Early Christian period on. vMass. C -» E). A lunette window also a very small porfrequently painted on ivory. (b) MODAL HARMONY: portant in the sixteenth century (figs. ine interior was solid except for the chapel. below was the burial chamber." fWiNiATURE. In the major scale. l/MC modulation. Polyphonic Mass: a musical setting of the five main ordinary sections of the Mass (fifteenth and sixteenth centuries).). glish) movement mode.e. IpfASTABA.. liturgy. music for this service (Recorded Examples 1. lines. The expanse of color that defines a painted shape. A sixteenth-century Italian (or En- song for three to eight voices. symphony. also used to describe works giving the impression of A design formed by embedding tesserae of stone or glass in cement. ing. harmonic See two-dimensional of a sculptured or architectural form. declamation and word illustration (Recorded Example 7). mass. this is a major third (i. A lune. \AMinnesingers courtly at right angles to the visual plane appear to converge toward a single point in the distance. A Polish dance "stylized" by Cho- variations of in usually surface. having vastly differing characteristics from the thirteenth century to the present (Recorded Example 5). . German poet-composers of the twelfth to minor: see major. Change particular kind of Egyptian pin. majesty). large such as CONCERTO GROSSO. In painting or drawing. /melody. (c) MODAL RHYTHM: (twelfth and thirteenth centuries) rhythm arranged in one of a few simple standard eyre. Melodic: sometimes means "with a clearly defined melody. shape. with sloping walls and a flat roof. guitarlike instrument. "stylized" form. (fig. The main Catholic service. distinguished mainly by their third interval.g. (Art) In architecture. C -* E-flat). half half harmonic in style. especially im- (sixteenth which no (Elizabethan England). whatever their actual dimensions. mosaic decoration was increasingly used on walls and vaulted surfaces (colorplate 4). perhaps no more than two notes in a memorable rhythm or four. modal. aspect of music concerned with the relative pitch of the notes. motet. A semicircular or wall space. LITURGICAL DRAMA. A type of "NEW PLAINsong" cast in simple dramatic form. Or SYMPHONY. 20). Having to do with the Virgin Mary.e.. An ancient harplike instrument. the three-dimensional volume A century) single patterns. a etc. reached by a vertical shaft. this is a minor third (i. called modeling. at least as compared to harmony based on the TONAL SYSTEM. 10). sacred words. (Art) A distinctive and recurrent feature of theme. 2. motif. 20). A painting or drawing in an illu. objects are represented as seen ple of geometric projection. moon). The \L a great size. frequently used as a movement in the Baroque suite.. Minne. / (Fr. as in Bee- ^ — thoven's Fifth medium. the vanishing point (colorplate 13). and decoration of a building (fig. major. rhythmic modes. through tonality of in (col- the course of a musical passage or movement. — ). love). wmovement. . terracotta. \ fourteenth centuries. or figure in a work of art. minor. 162). mazurka. (Music) The smallest coherent musical unit.

usually having colonnades or arcades. ^notation. A section of certain Easter services in which the story is told of the last days of (Art) Illustrations of this story. and impasto (color- plates 14. the narthex may be a A /oratorio. opus numbers are assigned to many composers' work on publication. a The . the seventeenth-century first solemn. but their color was more opaque. imitated in other voices. natural: see note. t entire production. Opera buffa. the trian- . A free way of treating plainsong within a polyphonic work. espe- of architecture. the decorative details of a In partic- work. 4overture. r note. such as let/ ters.. pediment. i»pus (Lat. shaft. In opera. Orchestra. irregular shapes that resemble natural forms in an integrated system. and CORNICE. or notes on a five-line staff. organ. Their technique of painting in on a prepared canvas. Used to denote an see The set of eight vices (in addition to artist's monastic daily serto the was not systematically exploited Romans. for orchestra on organic. using many of the techniques of opera although not designed for performances on ject.Work. either An improvised early or polyphonic composed. Scholarly research in music and music history. right) . TEMPERA. The central aisle of a basilican church. works composed of. or a natural (to remove either a flat or a octave oeuvre : interval. and / narthex. organum sound. (Music) A musical setting of such a section. A musical sound of certain pitch (frequency). or a porch in 54). opera comique: Italian and French types of comic opera (eighteenth to twentieth centuries). In the oil they adopted softer resins. \ solo a religious sub- half-tone). was made possible by these softer resins." (Lat.. the mixture was then diluted with other oils (colorplate 12).). frieze. transparent glazes. A section of the Mass or the Of- fice that remains the same from day to day.. until the it fif- technique of early Flemish painters. see diagram 8. the sec- ond vigorous. this chest is sup- by various means. In classical architecture. \/Office. as distinguished from the side aisles. In painting and sculpture. and then identify them. paraphrase. lengthy work chorus. OIL PAINTING. "new plainsong": see plainsong. the part of a church between the main entrance and CHANCEL. musicology. vocal or instrumental. the stage. > XVlll "geometric. In architecture. etc. (Fr. French overture: a type in two sections. the written sign representing this /. ular. plied with air 114. p\L painting. Christ. vestibule inside the church front of the facade (fig. and capital. pitch can be altered in the written sign by adding before it a flat (to lower it a sharp (to raise it a half-tone). PAINTING MEDIA: See ENCAUSTIC. The transverse part of a church that forms an entrance. Though known trast to piece. a classical system of J proportion and interrelated parts. varied shadsins ing. 18). the introductory orchestral number. usually with base. sharp previously indicated). In architecture. for the hard re- oil required a wooden support prepared with gesso and glue. whereby the plainsong is decorated with extra notes or ornament. (fifteenth to sixpolyteenth century). Paraphrase Mass: A phonic Mass using paraphrase technique. WATERCOLOR. V medieval and Renaissance performers were expected to supply certain sharps and flats • that were not notated in their music. nave. oratorio. For the make-up of the Classic orchestra. A system for preserving music by means of written signs. notated. FRESCO. or suggesting. such as middle C. organ). pigments were ground in an oil (linseed or nut) and fused while hot with hard resins. Venetian painters later used freer brushwork because teenth century. (Art) Mass). the singers. etc. Passion. These include a column. Ordinary. An instrument having a keyboard that operates a series of pipes connected with a wind chest (fig. and duration. work). Was originally a spontaneous act on the part cially of the interpreter. in which one or more vocal lines is superimposed upon a plainsong (Recorded Example 3 ) ornament. provided with a strict rhythm. (Music) A note or group of notes used as decoration of a principle melodic note. often used in con- also. order. Oil technique offered such possibilities as retouching. ornamentation. A relatively large group of instrumental players. op. instead of on a wood panel (see tempera). A stage play in or with music. written in a style that varies greatly over the years. a design that is an integrated whole and also fulfills the functional requirements of a building.: abbr. opera.. and an entablature with architrave. Opera seria: an Italian term for eighteenth-century serious operas.

See oil painting. if used with an order. chitecture. Plucked with a finger. I Vpigment. portico. j/p'olyphony. A type of musical declamation. PERISTYLE. which follows the accent of the words at the expense of purely melodic. which an instrumental composition depicts. of the nineteenth century. buttressing the thrust of the vaults within (figs. 850 (sequence. canon. General name for instruments which are sounded by striking or shaking. pendentives are used as a transition from a square ground plan . fifth. /. A COLONNADE a building or open court (or ARCADE) around (figs. (/Portal. in high RELIEF Or FREESTANDING (fig. ypLAN. yRECiTATivE. sextet. Has a decorative rather than a structural purpose (fig. a work written for four instruments. see 102). usually rectangular in section. / Proper. pieta (Ital. r value of notes by arithmetical ratio. 20). The unaccompanied service music of the Early Christian and medieval periods. Dry. a concert group of four players. on a two-dimensional plane. a — song": the plainsong composed after c. "Highness" or "lowness" of a musical sound.Reformation. Music or musical texture with two or more simultaneous voice-lines rationally ordered together. A combination of four instruments.. /percussion instruments. or vehi- TEMPERA. ENCAUSTIC. nonmusical idea. WATERCOLOR. The schematic representation of a three-dimensional structure. measured by the* actual frequency of sound waves (e.. 42). (Music) The Pytha- gorean system of numerical relationships governing intervals. refers the to the playing of a stringed instrument that normally is bowed. for ar- order. 29. The third section of sonata• ALLEGRO FORM. /p pizzicato (Ital. 440 cycles per second) or by the location of the sound on a total scale such as a piano keyboard. ^quartet. For phrase is a small coherent unit "word" and design. A ground plan shows the outline shape at the ground level of a given building and the location of its various interior parts. A vertical architectural element. viola. pendentive. Thus. perspective: see ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE.d. framed by the horizontal cornice and the two raking cornices. engaged in a wall from which it . on an intermediate drum. horizontal elements vertical supports (fig. the octave. etc.). Vplainsong. story. 5) (posts) carry horizontal beams (lintels). struction consisting solely of vertical and . etc. the program music and program less VPIER buttress. septet. the system in musical notation of diminishing or augmenting the she holds give color to paint. An exterior pier in Romanesque and Gothic architecture. Vpilaster.gular part of the front or back wall that rises above the entablature. In music. 59)." pier. Secco recitative: recitative accompanied only by basso continuo and fill-in chords. \j a. such as a building or monument. Tympani or timpani refer to the big drums or kettledrums. An imposing doorway with elaborate ornamentation in Romanesque and Gothic churches (fig. cello (Re/ corded Examples 13. post and lintel. or expresses in some way. the representational arts. The dome may rest directly on the pendentives {fig. comprising both chant and the elaborate songs such as alleluias. An : more than a than an "sentence.g. etc. The sections of the Mass or the Office that are changed from day to day. illustrates. by analogy with speech. such as a violin (Recorded Example 20). POINT OF IMITATION: See FUGAL IMITATION. or indirectly. projects. 98). such as drums and tambourines. 92). The pediments at either end of a temple often it is contained sculpture. A system or unit of con/p. to a circular plan that will support a dome. Also. and fourth. esp. / LINEAR PERSPECTIVE. proportion. for opera. pitch. polyptych: see triptych. proportions. octet (diagram 8)... quintet. A flat vertical element having a capital and base. explicit poem. a representation of the Virgin mourning the dead Christ whom symphony powdered substances which. ^hrase. A covered entrance or vestibule. Similarly trio. etc. polyphonic. "New plain. often has a base and capital of the same |/pi program. 88. the roof supported on at least one side by a colonnade or ARCADE. In painting or sculpture. Quartet is often used to mean "string quartet. The sixteenth-century religious movement for the reform of the Catholic xix . 128)." the main Classic chamber-music arrangement: violin. (Art) The relation Vpr or numerical ratio of the size of any part of a figure or object to the size of the whole. harmonic and rhythmic factors. An architectural feature having the shape of a spherical triangle. when mixed with a suitable liquid. compassion). violin. ^/recapitulation.). trope. see Mary (fig- / FRESCO. 29). cle.

The chief form of . filling in the whole with black. which is most easily identified in terms of the white notes on the piano keyboard C. ^relief. rhythmic. B->C). series. Masonry having indented joinings and. (Art) Generally. a plan that shows the graduated line on a proportion which the represented object bears to the original. black or white (e. presented backward. a roughened surface 97).). Whole- — XX joke). as in a mastaba v sharp: see note. The creation of a three-dimen- r able form. etc. \/s] sinfonia (Ital. means a portrayal of an object in recogniz- scale. rhythm. a vertical enclosed space. the relative size of any object in a work of art. usually in a solid material. An elaborate type of plainsong sung by choir and soloists at the Office. in architecture. (Music) In the twelve-tone system. F. G.. retrograde inversion: presented backward and upside down (diagram 10). sonata. staircase). reference to more particularly. and. scala. REPRESENTATIONAL. 89). s/>sonata-allegro form.). Jscale (Lat. See also chromatic notes C. SEMITONE CADENCE: see CADENCE. the forerunner of the Classic SYMPHONY. The (equal) interval between any note on the piano keyboard and the next one. A. G-sharp. B (see also major. /series. portions may be entirely detached from the background. /'shaft. E. often used with normal human scale. (Art) A successive group of works. frequently. in composing. ranged from low to high. as notes are in the twelve-tone system. occasionally.. to which they remain attached. or deeply to produce high relief (fig. Of a MELODY Or a TWELVE-TONE {. A compound masonry vault. in very high relief. (Music) The aspect of music tion of a particular concerned with the relative duration of the notes. but generally in two to four MOVEMENTS. SEQUENTIA (Lat. the groins of which are marked by projecting stone ribs (fig. VSingspiel. Sarcophagi are often decorated / with paintings or relief (fig. A work for one or several instruments of (but restricted. RETROGRADE. (Ital. see freestanding and relief. and used: carving in a hard material modeling in a soft material such as clay. RHYTHMIC MODE: See MODE. sculpture. 49). after the Classic period. ribbed vault. Forms in sculpture that project from the background. rusticated stone. SECCO RECITATIVE: see RECITATIVE. cherzo of form. notes are used only in the order of the series. The outline of any given object or a portrait made by tracing the outline. the part of a column or pier intervening between the base and the capital. vresponsory. sarcophagi). As Opposed to ABSTRACT. etc. two basic techniques have been (fig. Traditionally. A type Of "NEW plainsong" (Recorded Example 2 ) serenade. or RETROGRADE INVERSION j (diagram 10). F-sharp. 142). Also. of metal). to works for one or for two) written in a style that varies greatly from the seventeenth century to the present. terracotta (less frequently. silhouette. also in inversion.g. Most Western music is based on the diatonic scale. E. 19)." Free rhythm (as in plainsong) rhythm that is not specified by the composer. semitone. it had notable effects of the on A-sharp / art and music. movement of the MINUET. 124). marble. SEQUENCE. (pi. A coffin made of stone. (Music) An artificial (and usually traditional) selection of a number of pitches. manent by a variety of suitable common most being methods. up or down. also. timbres. The eighteenth-century type overture. which serves as the basic material for music of a certain broad type. but serial usually means such arrangement of additional musical elements (rhythms. jocular type developed by Beethoven out sional form. and can therefore vary within certain limits from performance to performance. minor). For types of sculpture. : ^> Church which tone scale: experimental led to the establishment of the Protestant Church. 57). D. Rhythmic sometimes means "with a clearly defined rhythm.. (Art) The regular repeti- form (colorplate 30). A cylindrical form. A light genre of Classic instrufiring (see 4 mental music. ladder. the terracotta) or casting in molten metal (fig. RETROGRADE.). as distinct from melody. a fixed ordering of the twelve notes of the scale. Relief may be carved or modeled shallowly to produce low or bas relief (fig. (Debussy). German comic opera. Vc» sarcophagus scale consisting D. MODAL. Modeled sculpture is rendered per- wax. rhapsodic: music relatively free in (fig. Arranged in a series. serial. rhapsody. the suggestion of motion by recurrent forms (colorplate 31). A brusque.

RECAPITULATION. used by the artist. and requiring buttressing. or both (fig. vthrust. tesserae). pieces of this glass are held in a design by strips of lead (fig. ^STAINED glass. /'staff. (Music) musical unit. Generally. stele. bear- / a painted or glazed surface. A group of songs linked together by some sort of literary (perhaps also musical) continuity (nineteenth and twentieth sance painters. or some- times the lute. of \f* the represented object (figs. colored glass. the four still life. (Ital. A sophisticated composition based on a particular dance. used in making mosaics. color. stile rappresentativo (Ital. A large orchestral composition in movements (eighteenth to twentieth / centuries). which an emulsion of egg yolk and water. or egg and oil. the basic smooth gesso technique of medieval square shape with a flat face. usually in one long * movement Symphony. or goldbacked glass. Before tempera is applied to a wooden panel. several (nineteenth century). process whereby words are added to the long coloratura passages of earlier music. such as plainsong or organum. its A binding painting process distinguished by medium for the pigment. as well as for pottery and sculpture (fig. the or "threads" are combined and related (dia- grams 1-5. A painting or drawing of an arrangement of inanimate objects (color plate 24. "idealized" dance. An upright commemorative slab. symphonic poem. and often the medium. whether vocal or in- strumental. usually of square or almost ing either an inscription or a representational relief. 206). A small piece or pieces of marble. violoncello. Tempera. restated. (Ital. tint. pi ^stylized" \ysuBDOMiNANT. the tonic (diagram 6). a set of five hori/si baked clay). texting. i/tessera (Lat. mood. that which is represented in a work of art. I dance. skin. harpsichord. etc. is A polyphonic Mass constructed over a tune repeated (usually in long notes) tenor Mass. (Art) The method. 18).. toccare. or other media of the drapery. which developed. a with white. as distinct from MELODY and MODAL HARMONY. Used in architecture for functional and decorative parts. In present-day usage. / and coda. or the simulation in paint. the panel surface must be prepared with a covering of gesso mixed is with glue or gelatine. in the course of a composi- tion. Technique. members of the violin family: violin. modand fired until very hard.. ^strings: In the modern orchestra. Classic music. patviola. 183. 7). DEVELOPMENT. /t and Early Renais- tune. 110). tempera. string quartet: see QUARTET.. An orchestral composition based on a program. 107). dries quickly. thirds: see interval. (Art) The Vt general subject of the composition.. is treated extensively. / (Music) See fugal imitation. pi. fused metallic oxides. A texture. eled or molded-. to touch). figs. theme. (Art) The surface structure of a work of art. The technique of filling archicolored tectural openings with glass / by chief the difficulty of fusing tones. (Art) Often termed subject matter. . ^subject. The characteristic quality of the sound tf produced by a particular voice or instrument. followed by layers of (fig. each having its particular function with respect to a central note. etc. but color lightened by mixing more it specifically. stone.. Tonal melody and tonal harmony: melody and harmony in which one note or triad seems very central. A conventionalized grouping of several "stylized" dances to form a larger composition. tonal system. etc. modal XXI . (Music) The skill of the performer. An early seventeenth-century term for recitative style. 170). V song-cycle. Clay. timbre. The system developed in the Baroque period whereby all notes and triads are felt to be strongly interrelated. Consists normally of the exposition. third. it is less an abstract "system" than it is a basis for composing that reflects a certain way of hearing notes and harmonies. The lateral pressure exerted by an arch or vault.194). and double bass. permitting almost immediate application of the next layer of paint.). ranging in extent from a small motif to an entire A / tern of repetitions. A disadvantage in comparison with oil painting centuries ) in the tenor voice (fifteenth century). 164. A rhapsodic work designed to show the characteris- toccata tics of the organ. The "weave" of polyphonic way the simultaneous voice-lines (Music) music. »suite. evoking its rhythms. Terracotta may have terracotta upon and between which musical zontal lines notes are written. The fourth note of any major / or minor diatonic scale.

73). C E G. Vespers. (Art) Degree of lightness or darkness <A in a color.). (verb) To insert words and/or music into an older text. WROPE. See 4 eral forerunner of the violin family sizes. watercolor. (e. musicians are required. 91). An elevated platform. 120). involving the twelve-tone series or row. with the shrine on top of an artificial to the (Art) The space above the lin- it — uppermost stage Babel). see dynamics. In the tonal system. /trio texture. A work composed of more than three panels is as a polyptych (Gr. three folds).) or voices over a basso continuo and fill-in chords (diagram 4). A bowed string instrument in one of sevbrick. 243). built by the Sumerians Later ziggurats support their shrines. xxu church tympanum frequently contains relief sculpture. . versus (Lat. see series. varying in height from several feet to the size of mountain. or concrete. trumeau. wash. 187). SYSTEM. fig. TWELVE-TONE TECHNIQUE. an arm forming a right angle with the nave. often decorated with relief or a figure iTWELVE-TONE (fig. 4"iol. e. the Tower of . The ornamental stonework filling all or part of a Gothic window. but more specifically an over-all value or shade. The bass member of the viol family. An arched roof or covering. Three panels dein several ture.. Note / that four. whole-tone scale: see scale.tonality. the set of relationships around one particular note. 110. or B D F. (Music) A musical sound having a definable pitch. or D F A. (Music) See percussion in- struments. and oboes. A musical technique whereby a single element a tune or a bass motif is repeated several times. right). GROIN VAULT. 4 composers of southern and northern France that is inserted respectively into (twelfth and thirteenth centu- ries). Thus one can modulate from i the tonality of C to the tonality of G. each time with changes that modify its nature but do not entirely ob- — scure vault. as distinct from the analogous set around some other note. (Music) The degree of loudness of sound. An important Baroque texture involving two similar high instruments (violins. tonic. Pigments mixed with water instead of oil or other media. made of barrel vault. etc. a (seventeenth to twentieth centuries). (Art) In general a color. woodcut. occasionally the side panels can be folded to cover the center panel (colorplate 16. \/volume. (Art) Used to describe the three-dimensional quality. vn-ONE. A printing process in which a design carved in relief on a wooden block. were staged towers. A supportive pier in the center of a Romanesque or Gothic portal. clarinets. voussoir: see arch.T ympanum. Trio sonata: a Baroque instrumental form movements employing trio texFor a more general use of the term "trio.. see plainsong. stone. (fifteenth to seventeenth centuries. it has a large center panel. In a cruciform church. 114.e. made of various elements combined to create patterns (fig.) A type of "new plainsong". fig.. of a work of art. or a picture i painted with watercolor. The basis for composing developed by Schoenberg in place of the tonal system. triad. Used especially in watercolor and brush drawing to describe a broad thin layer of highly diluted pigment or ink. A chord of three notes (and their octaves ad lib. Courtly poetTROUBADOURS. mountain top). or apse (fig. RIBBED VAULT. woodwinds. tracery. hence the key-note. (Music) The relative duration of a TONE. triptych (Gr. Also refers to a drawing made in this technique (fig. trio sonata: see trio texture. One of the main Office services. established plainsong. solid or hollow. The first note of any major or minor diatonic scale.. 80). the areas intended not to print off (i. (noun) A type of "new plainsong" known an older.232). often on paper. transept. signed as a single composition or three related compositions. variation.g. / tel and enclosed by the arch (and archivolts) of a medieval portal or doorway. virginal: see harpsichord. viola da gamba.g. to remain white) are hollowed out or lettering is (figs. 118. such as flutes. and two the center panel side panels half the size of (figs. usually inserted between the latter and the chancel. ziggurat (Assyrian-Babylonian ziqquratu.. as distinguished from brasses. TROUVERES. Wind instruments originally made wood.162. those of invariably made of metal. alue. none of which are adjacent." see quartet. not three. many folds).

BOOK ONE ART ^j? ^s t.s by H. Janson . W.

wall paintings)." A list of credits for the black-and-white illustrations appears at the end of the book.NOTE ON THE PICTURE CAPTIONS Measurements are not given for objects that are inherently large (architecture. drawings. architectural sculpture. Height precedes width. prints). or small (manuscript illuminations. than one per cent is A probable measuring error of more indicated by "c. unless preceded by "c. ." Dates are based on documentary evidence.

Once man was able to do that. The making of tools first is of a all more complex matter. they are large pebbles or chunks of rock showing the marks of repeated use for the same operation. Reindeer and other large herbivores time. This is the earliest craft of which we have evidence. but all showing the same uncanny sense of life. deer. or a stone to throw at an enemy. and the climate between the Alps and Scandinavia resembled that of present-day Alaska. He must hundred thousand years earliest traces of later have been using tools all along. Among these it is the so-called Aurignacians and Magdalenians who stand out as especially than a million years ago. such as those in the cave of Lascaux. but even more perhaps by the power and dignity of this creature in its final agony. How did this art develop? What purpose did And how did it happen to survive inover so many thousands of years? The last question can be answered readily enough: the pictures rarely occur near the mouth of a cave. 1). At that for future use — Age was drawing to a close Europe. for apes will pick up a stick to knock down a banana. some simply outlined in black. they must have been preceded by thousands of years of slow growth about which we know nothing at all. and scholars have divided up the "cavemen" into several groups. Hidden bowels of the earth. the last Ice in striking works of Old Stone Age images of animals painted on the rock surfaces of caves. Even more impressive is the Wounded Bison on the ceiling of the cave at Altamira in northern Spain (fig. These men lived in caves or in the shelter of overhanging rocks. It is during the late stages of the Old Stone Age. that they were part of a magic ritual to ensure a successful hunt. the subtly controlled shading that lends bulk and roundness to the forms. however. preyed the ancestors of today's lions and upon by and tigers — do so? Every history of art must begin with and with the admission that we cannot answer them. each named after a characteristic site.PART ONE ART IN THE ANCIENT WORLD 1. some twenty thousand years ago. these images must have served a purpose far more serious than mere decoration. but also from the disorderly way the images are as they are in the Art in the Ancient World 3 . the assured. it serve? tact as far away from the entrance as possible. These. Some of these stones have survived. others filled in with bright earth colors. It demands the ability to think of sticks or stones as "fruit knockers" or "bone crackers" even at when they are not needed for such purposes. THE ART OF PREHISTORIC roamed MAN the plains and valleys. in the Dordogne region of France The most art are the (fig. whatever that may have been. The next step was for man to try chipping away at these tools-by-appointment so as to improve their shape. yet even in this helpless state it has lowered its head in selfdefense. in fact. already show an assurance and refinement far removed from any humble beginnings. he discovered that some sticks and stones had a times handier shape than others and put them aside he "appointed" them as tools because he had begun to link form and function. We are amazed not only by the keen observation. 2): the dying animal has collapsed. Our earliest ancestors began to walk" on the earth with two feet more by our own ancestors. and with it we enter a phase of human development known as the Old Stone Age. When did What man start creating works did they look like? to these questions of art? What prompted him — do we meet the man the toolmaker. Bison. horses. There can be little doubt. Many such sites have been discovered. vigorous outlines. but not until some six gifted artists. and cattle race across walls and ceiling in wild profusion. but only in the darkest recesses. where they would be open to easy view (and destruction). that we encounter the earliest works of art known to us. We gather this not only from their secret location and from the lines representing spears or darts that are often found pointing at the animals.

the more .15.C. Hence every image could serve only once when the killing ritual had been performed. Frieze of Animals (wall painting). Apart from large-scale cave art. 1). A Stone Age hunter. At an earlier stage. Nor has the emotional basis for this kind of magic been lost even today. Ap- Old Stone Age there was no clear distinction between image and reality. c. Cave of Lascaux (Dordogne).000 B. Still. Some of the cave pictures even scarce provide a clue to the origin of this fertility magic: the shape of the animal often seems to have been suggested by the natural formation its body coincides with a contour follows a vein or crack. for an artist who believes he is actually "creating" an animal is more likely to strive for this quality than one who merely sets up an image for the kill. They. his mind filled with thoughts of the big game on which he depended for survival. Cave of Altamira (Santander). there remains a good deal that puzzles us about the cave paintings.000 B. France superimposed on each other (as men in fig. Could it be that the Magdalenians had to practice their fertility magic in the bowels of the earth because they thought of the earth itself as a living thing from whose womb all other life springs? This would help to explain the admirable realism of these images. or stone. seem to have originated with chance resemblances. Old Stone Age men also produced small hand-size carvings in bone. so that bump or "magic" its representational quality. too. The magic worked. for the of the ble beasts with their primitive weapons. it was "dead" and could be disregarded. Hunters whose courage was thus fortified were bound to be more successful when slaying these formidaparently.— 1.C. c. until finally they learned to make images with little or no aid from chance formations. Stone Age men had been content to collect pebbles in whose natural shape they saw a of the rock. the main purpose of the Lascaux and Altamira paintings may have been not to "kill" but to "make" animals—-to increase their supply.15. Spain 4 Art in the Ancient World ment that shifted its began as simple killing magic but meaning when the animals became (apparently the big herds withdrew northward as the climate of Central Europe grew warmer). cut by means of flint tools. We all know how our imagination can make us see all sorts of images in chance shapes such as clouds or ink blots.000-10. It is tempting to think that those who were particularly good at finding such images gained a special status as artist-magicians and were permitted to perfect their image hunting instead of having to face the dangers of the real hunt. would have been quite likely to recognize such animals among the rock surfaces of his cave and to attribute deep significance to his discovery. by making a picture of an animal they meant to bring the animal itself within their grasp. we may be sure.000-10. people have been known tear up the photograph of someone they have come to hate. and in "killing" the image they thought they had killed the animal's vital spirit. Wounded Bison (ceiling painting). If so. horn. too. Why are they in such inaccessible places? And why are they so marvelously lifelike? Could not the "killing" magic have been practiced just as effectively on less realistic images? Perhaps the Magdalenian cave pictures are the final phase of a developto 2.

shows a similar interest in movement and the flavor of the a keen observation of detail (including an "x- ray view" of the inner organs). has a bulbous roundness of form that may suggest an egg-shaped "sacred fertility pebble. even though men still depended on stone as the material of their main tools and weapons.000 and 5.1900 a." The art of the Old Stone Age in Europe marks the highest achievement of a way of life that could not survive beyond the special conditions created by the receding ice of the Ice Age which was ending. Vienna life brought forth a number of new crafts and inventions long before the earliest appearance of metals: pottery. the painting on tree bark from North Australia (fig. as a rule. height 4 3/s". a basic difference between the New Stone Age and the Old.C. figurines. 10. c.d. a new discipline and order entered their lives. But of these remains tell us very little. Western Arnhem Land. Stone.000 B. but hardly anything comparable to the art of the Old Stone Age. There is. A Spirit Man Spearing Kangaroos. reaping where nature sowed and thus at the mercy of forces he could neither understand nor control. the Old Stone Age gave way to new developments.C. 15. one of several such fully this attitude. only here kangaroos on which the hunting magic is it is being practiced. even though the revolution extended over several thousand years. 3). of the New Stone Age men. Between c. Even their art has Old Stone Age. basic methods of architectural construction. except in a few particularly inhospitable areas where it continued because there was nothing to challenge or disturb it.. while far less skillful than the cave pictures of Europe. The new mode 3. North Australia Art in the Ancient World 5 . then. they settled down in permanent village communities. We know all this from New Stone Age settlements that have been uncovered by excavation.000-10. The Bushmen of South Africa and the aborigines of Australia are living remnants of this mode primeval of existence.worked pieces of later times still reflect Thus the so-called Venus of Willendorf in Austria (fig. they include stone implements of ever greater technical refinement and a vast variety of clay vessels covered with abstract ornamental patterns.000 B. Yet the change-over from hunting to husbandry must have brought about profound changes in man's view of himself and spiritual condition of 4. Old Stone Age man had led the unsettled life of a hunter and food gatherer. Venus of Willendorf. c. Once men had learned how to assure their food supply by their own efforts. 4). weaving and spinning. Aboriginal painting on tree bark. Museum of Natural History. The Old Stone Age came to an end when men made their first successful attempts to domestione of the truly cate animals and food grains — revolutionary steps in human history.

height of stones above ground I3V4'." then Stone- architecture human groups for lasted until the pres- New survivors of the are far easier to find. scale. Per- haps we ought to consult the ancient Greeks. Although the materials on which we base our knowledge of primitive society and its ways are usually of quite recent striking analogies with the date. shares one dominant offer Stone Age of its trait: limit- the im- aginative reshaping. or "large stone. While most of them have proved tragically helpless against encroachment by the West." or "building"). disquiet5. the . ev- with powerful spirits —men.C. "the art of shaping space to and aspirations. Diameter of circle 97'. Stonehenge has an awe-inspiring. they perpetuate themselves by custom and tradition. A Greek would certainly have called Stonehenge architecture." monuments. And we. Its concern is not the visible world but the invisible. or solemnity of purpose. There are. the "Primitive" — do — better. "archi-tecture" meant something higher than ordinary "tec- If is human needs henge more than meets the Age we saw. nor would we want to deny the status of archiIts tained effort required to build — tecture to open-air theaters or stadiums. and his music have been recorded by ethnologists. shall have no difficulty in doing so its once we understand that it is not necessary to than is man and a stable but precarious bal- ill equipped urban civilizations. Primitive art. permanence. theirs ture" (that is. The tribe rather entire pattern of primitive life static is rather structure set apart dynamic. rivers and lakes. Even today. and the South Pacific. Primitive societies tend to be strongly isolationist and defensive toward everyday kind by outsiders. their so- and cial political units are the village and the than the city and the state. the earth. plants. rather than the careful observation. a few Old Stone Age Modern ent day. his folklore. "construction. despite less variety. test. and therefore it must have served a sun-worshiping ritual. yet we also have landscape architects. as whom the the world. and has thus come to be burdened with all sorts of emotional overtones. too. The entire structure is oriented toward the exact point where the sun rises on the longest day of the year. superhuman quality. his customs and beliefs. apparently the susit could be compelled only by faith a faith that almost literally demanded the moving of mountains. The rewards of this interest in primitive man have been manifold. purpose was religious. without the aid of written records. the best preserved of several such megalithic. B. order. New they the distant past. Still. 1800-1400 ing world of spirits. Let us continue. Among them is a better understanding of the origins of our own culture. They include Stone all of the so-called primitive societies of tropical Af- Americas.seems hard to believe that There may be a vast chapter in the development of art here that is lost simply because New Stone Age artists worked in wood and other impermanent enclose space in order to define or articulate materials. c. animals. England 6 Art in the Ancient World erything is alive To the primitive mind. without the inner drive for change and expansion that we take for granted in our own society. with cultural heritage of primitive man has enriched our own. Salisbury Plain (Wiltshire). is an unfortunate word: it suggests quite wrongly that these societies represent the original condition of mankind. it. and primitive art is being collected avidly throughout the Western world. To them. the designers of parks and gardens. Stonehenge. no other single term will rica. then. Primitive societies are essentially rural and self-sufficient. the ance of to survive his contact environment. to use primi- convenient label for a way of life that has passed through the hunting-to-husbandry revolution but shows no signs of developing tive as a into a "historic" civilization. a from the merely practical. who coined the word. (fig. as if it were the work of a forgotten race of giants. Whether a monument such as this should be termed architecture is a matter of definition: we tend to think of architecture in terms of enclosed interiors. and it these did not find expression in art. One exception great to general this rule is the stone circle at Stonehenge in southern England 5). and thus have little awareness of their own history. of the forms of nature.

Zurich (E. Their meaning is often impossible to ascertain. from the Sepik River. to be appeased. it could establish itself as an independent art only under excep- widely spirits was the task of art to provide suitable dwelling places for them and thus to "trap" them." from the dove of the Holy Spirit to the albatross of the Ancient Mariner. so masks in general are less bound by tradi- that tion than other kinds of primitive art. as it were. v. forms a image and a strangely familiar one. sistent feature of primitive society. 6). Such a trap is the splendid ancestor figure from New Guinea (fig. with the tremendous eyebrows arching above the rest like a protective canopy. Mask. while the in primitive art generally a mere support. to act out his relations with He needed the spirit world through dances and similar dramatic ceremonials in which he himself could temporarily assume the himself Nor has by disguising masks and costumes. painting plays a subcharacteristic tures Male Figure Surmounted by a Bird. role of the spirit trap with elaborate the fascination of the mask died out even today. Cameroons. Its soaring movement. In dealing with the spirit world. Rietberg Museum. of human ordinate 19th-20th century a. Washington University Art Collection.d.d. St. since the ceremonies they served usually had elements of secrecy that were jealously guarded from the uninitiated. Our ex- ample (fig. 6. sun and moon. too. design is The centered on the head.' primitive man was not content to do rituals or to pre- sent offerings before his spirit traps. so that with the rigidity of the — compelling we find ourselves responding. Louis had of the it tional conditions. and one of the most puzzling. ancestor worship being perhaps the most per- 6). Although used to color wood carvings or the human body. Wood. wind. Compared to sculpture. includes the "soul bird. sometimes with intricate ornamental patterns (see fig.d. The feaface have not been rearranged but restructured. with tensely staring shell-eyes. height 48".Heydt Collection) ! Art in the Ancient World 7 . for our own tradition. to a work of art that at first glance might seem both puzzling and repellent. we still feel the thrill of a real change of identity when we wear one at Hal- 7. almost against our will. 19th-20th century a. 7) shows the symmetry of design and the precision and sharpness of carving African sculpture. The entire its body in- — —has been reduced as to bird emerging from be- hind the head represents the ancestor's spirit or life force. height 26 /2". it also encouraged the makers of masks to strive for imaginative new effects. This emphasis on the mysterious and spectacular not only heightened the emotional impact of the ritual. from the Bamenda area.loween or carnival time. Wood. All these rain. the and role in primitive society. iting the Thus the Indian tribes inhab- arid Southwest of the United States It belongs to a large class of similar objects. New Guinea. contrasted human figure. Masks form by far the richest chapter in primitive art.

or irrigation canals) organized tribal society fortifi- no would have that been able to achieve. seem incredibly slow-paced when measured against the events of the past five thousand years. ^j^r»* happened) And we shall see that it also means a kinds of events. is The compositions may be likened to recipes. like any fixed pattern that endlessly repeated. posed not by nature but by man threats of physical extinction. they are also rather abstract. they not only brought forth "great men and great deeds" but also made them memorable. In these areas. it must happen quickly enough to be grasped by man's memory. or was there a genuine change in the way things happened (or the kinds of things that 8 Art in the A ncient World after "history" began? Obviously. tication of animals and food plants. Prehistory might be defined as that phase of human evolution during which man as a species learned how to survive in a hostile environment.4| * j 8. That these are sessions of great emotional intensity on the part of both doctor and patient is well attested by our illustration. for the main use of sand paintings is in ceremonies of healing.> ™ ri -j^F L ^ ml *S ^*-^ *^. a shifting from low into high . The beginning of history. but it also raises some intriguing problems. which demands considera8). single process. an event has to be more than "worth remembering". This makes a convenient landmark. prehistory was far from uneventful: the road from hunting to husbandry is a long and arduous one. Such a close union — or even. begins with the invention of writing. dynamic world where their capacity to survive was threatened not by the forces of nature but by conflicts arising either within society or through competition between societies. Prehistoric events were too slow-paced for that. The technique. means a sudden increase in the speed of events. apparently. These societies quite literally made history. EGYPT AND THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST we are often told. In a few places. ago. competition for grazing land among herdsmen or for arable soil among farming communities. at times. men were to live in a new. Conflicts of this kind arose in the Nile valley and that of the Tigris and Euphrates some six thousand years ago and generated enough pressure to produce a new kind of society. some five thousand years History. however. so that the local populahimself: tribes of grew beyond the available food supply. (Or could it be that all these qualities are present to some degree in the personality and work of Sigmund Freud?) But to primitive man. very much more complex and efficient than had ever existed before. Sand Painting Ritual * ^•>?ij » ^M for a Sick Child m pf (Navaho). (To be memorable. that process of life And was to the success or failure of him quite literally a matter and death. his achievements were responses to gear. How valid is the distinction between "prehistoric" and "historic"? Does it merely reflect a difference in our knowledge of the past. These efforts to cope with his human environment have proved a far greater challenge to man . loosely dams. trying to bend nature to his needs by magic and ritual. the three functions must have appeared as different aspects of a priest. Yet these changes in man's condition. ble skill. 2. But the huntingto-husbandry revolution placed him on a level at which he might well have remained indefinitely. consists of pouring powdered rock or earth of various colors on a flat bed of sand. decisive though they are.) From then on. and in many parts of the globe man was content to stay there. Such a situation might be resolved in one of two ways: constant tribal warfare could reduce tion the population. Despite (or perhaps because of) the fact that these pictures are made impermanent and must be fresh for each occasion. change in the With the domeshe had won a decisive battle in this war. Arizona developed the unique art of sand painting (fig. healer. the designs are rigidly traditional. for the absence of written records is surely one of the key differences between prehistoric and historic societies. or the people could unite in larger and more disciplined social units for the sake of group efforts (such as building cations. the balance of primitive society was upset by a new threat. prescribed by the medicine man and "filled" under his supervision by the painter. identity — of and artist may be difficult to understand today. then. the hunting-to-husbandry revolution had been too successful.

Art in the Ancient World 9 . However absurd his status may seem. and arideas was formed between 3000 and 2500 and kept -reasserting itself for the next two thousand years. well Egyptian civilization has long been regarded as the most rigidly conservative ever known. so that all Egyptian art. There is some truth in this belief. and however ineffective it was at times. Actually. it has particular importance for us because it very largely determined the character of Egyptian art. We can thus feel ourselves linked to the Egypt of five thousand years ago by a continuous. and who had provided these pleasures in advance. Egyptian art alternates between conservatism and innovation. It already shows most of the features characteristic of Egyptian art. could lead an active and happy life free from fear of the great unknown. king of Upper Egypt. was quite devoid the spirits of the dead but the meaning they gave it which dominates primitive ancestor cults. This method of counting historic time conveys at once the strong Egyptian sense of continuity and the overwhelming importance of the Pharaoh (king). History was under way by the time writing could be used to record historic events. over Lower Egypt. height 25".than his struggle with nature. effective state and increased its fertility by regulating the annual floods of the river waters through dams and — canals. tombs were built to endure forever. who was not only the supreme ruler but a god. but it must have taken several centuries after the new societies were already past their first stage.3100 B. for the basic pattern of Egyptian institutions. or. Some of its great achievements had a decisive influence on Greece and Rome. The history of Egypt is divided into dynasties of rulers. was a kind of life inafter death his surance.C. their cult of the dead a link with the is of that dark fear of New Stone Age. a statue of himself). 3000 B. tends^to have a certain sameness. divine. the Pharaoh transcended them all his kingship was not delegated to him from above but was absolute. Their attitude was. from Hierakonpolis. ring of the sharp line between these mock households. We do not know the beginnings of its development. a corpse. We do not know exactly how the early Pharaohs established their claim to divinity.C.C. King Nanner. they are the cause of the ever-quickening pace of events during the past five thousand years. tion of writing The inven- was an early and indispensable achievement of the historic civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Cairo tian practice. All kings claim to rule in the name or by the 9. and by making sure that the ka would have a body to dwell in (his own mummified substitute. beginning with the First Dynasty. at first glance. shortly before grace of some superhuman authority (that is what makes them superior to tribal chiefs). Egyptian Museum. an investment in peace of mind. in accordance with ancient Egyptistic B. the oldest known image of a historic personage identified by name. Of works nothing remains today. but we know that they molded the Nile valley into a single. Yet the Egyptians did not view life on this for these earth mainly as a road to the grave. the ka. rather. But before we concern ourselves with carved slate palette (fig. but is never static. beliefs. Palette of c. as a There is a blurand death in life man who knew that ka would enjoy the same pleasures he enjoyed. Slate. Our knowledge of Egyptian civilization rests almost entirely on the tombs and their these contents. to enjoy. that man can provide for his own happy afterlife by equipping his tomb as a kind of shadowy replica of his daily environment for his spirit. At work the threshold of Egyptian history stands a of art that also a historic is document: a 9) celebrating the victory of Narmer. public since little Egyptian palaces and has survived of ancient This is no accident. then. living tradition. The Egyptian tomb. cities.

it must have an inner coherence. A ncient World means the distinc- To study of styles is of central not only enables them to find art historians the importance. Boston tive way in which the forms that make up a given work are chosen and fitted together. it by careful analysis and comparison. when and where (and by whom) a given work was produced. Even these may need to be subdivided further into the various phases of an artist's development. used loosely to mean the disis done in any field of human endeavor. And within these we in out. and the slaying is a ritual. In art. until styles of individual we arrive at the personal artists. We Roman word Slate. A thing that has style. style Art in the Museum B. seemed best not to introduce the term tions tends to tightly The is prematurely. how to put it in its proper context. seized an enemy by Narmer has and is about to slay him with his mace. In the upper right we see a complex bit of picture writing: a falcon above a clump of papyrus plants holds a tether attached to a human head that "grows" from the same soil as the plants. of Fine Arts. because it seems to be pointing in several directions at once. too when we say that something "has no style" we mean that it is not only undistinguished but also undistinguishable: we do not know how to classify it. Horus and Narmer are the same: a plants stand for god triumphs over human foes. ferred to distinctive Mycerinus and His Queen. We gather this from the fact that Narmer has taken off his sandals (the court behind him carries them in his left official hand). style is way tinctive a thing — style 10 is involved. to stand out. a sense of wholeness. let us say. originally. We have avoided that term until now and it is necessary to comment on it briefly before we proceed. means of the hieroglyphic labels. style . but it also leads them to understand the artist's intention as expressed through the style of his work.2500 10. the ancient for writing tool. Egyptian art from Greek art. hence knit it how much of a in the material art of historic we civiliza- have a much more controlled. then. while the victorious falcon is Horus. Often it is simply a term of praise: "to have style" means to have distinction. two more fallen enemies are placed in the bottom compartment (the small rectangular shape next to the one on the hair the left stands for a fortified town)."read" the scene. to the burning bush. Hence. there are dealing with. height 56". This intention depends on both the artist's personality and the setting in which he lives and works. turn distinguish particular phases. This image actually repeats the main scene on a symbolic level the head and the papyrus — Lower Egypt. us let first able to do so tional is orderliness of the design. its style. c. than does prehistoric art. but also through the rathese. Narmer's gesture must not be taken as representing a real fight. the god of Upper Egypt. sense of continuity. That we are another indication that we have left primitive art behind. ways of writing. Style is derived from stilus. The same notion recurs in the Old Testament when the Lord commands Moses remove his shoes before He appears to him in have discussed this scene at such length because we must grasp its content in order to understand its formal qualities. for the meaning of the relief is made clear not only by. But there is another implication. The enemy is helpless from the very start. And this quality has a way of impressing itself upon us even if we do not know what particular kind of however. We thus speak of "period styles" if we are concerned with those features which distinguish. The extent to which we are able to do all this depends on how much internal coherence. rather than a physical effort. of being all of a piece. an indication that he is standing on holy ground. from Giza. Clearly. it re- Nowadays. or national or local styles.C. must not be inconsistent with itself.

make age afterlife. c. He thus acknowl- self: edges only three possible views: full face. 1 1 at Saqqara. — and de- achievement or what most impressive even today. and other light materials. Saqqara Art in the A ncient World 1 . They were not were linked with vast isolated structures but fu- with temples and other build- which were the scene of great religious itself to represent- ings quality of celebrations during the to we must be we do clear that it The frozen be especially suited to the divine nature of the Pharaoh. for such activities are always performed by underlings whose dignity does not have to be preserved (compare ward death and well as after. close-fitting gown." picture of these nerary districts. moment observer at a single Egyptian artist as He predecessors. who knew not only how to contrast the structure of the two bodies but also how to emphasize the soft. But he imposes a strict rule on him- when he changes his angle of vision. 10). the Egyptian artist does not hesitate to abandon the composite view of the body. Whenever physical activity demanding any sort of effort must be depicted. not illusion.)1 now Let us return to the The new inner logic of its Narmer style is palette. strict profile. is had been it as alien to the to his Stone Age strives for clarity. Imhotep used cut stone. he simply is. a step pyramid suggestive of a stack of mastabas as against the smooth-sided later examples at Giza. would seem — of fig. How he does this shown clearly is in the figure of Narmer: eye and shoulders in frontal view. The artist must have started out by drawing the front and side views on the faces of a rectangular block and then working inward until these views met. There is still about the origin and significance of Egyptian tombs. swelling form of the queen through a thin. readily ap- even though the modern notion of showing a scene as it would appear to a single parent. Imhotep. Moreover. does not have a single main profile but two competing profiles. of "the apt to create a false is monuments. he standing faced with the fact that the is human figure. his remains of it is Egyptian architecture had begun with structures made of mud bricks. The standard form of these tombs was the mastaba. ordinary mortals act. wood. Inside the mastaba there is a chapel for offerings to the ka to the privileged tion with the and a secret cubicle for the statue of the deceased. Only in this way could he have achieved figures of such overpowering three-dimensional firmness and immobility. for the sake of clarity. and vertically from above. is the first artist whose name has been recorded servedly so. the fact that ing in it movement the image spite — or perhaps because does not lend or action. The probably that of King Zoser (fig. The most Pharaoh's lifetime as elaborate of these is the funerary district around the pyramid of Zoser: its creator. enamored silence of the pyramids. unlike that of an ani- mal. such as the splendid group of the Pharaoh Mycerinus and his queen (fig. above a burial chamber that was deep underground and linked with the mastaba by a shaft. as if he were sighting along the edges of a cube. 13). Any intermediate position embarrasses him (note the oddly rubberlike figures of the fallen enemies). reeds. he must combine these views. since — in history. a squarish mound faced with brick or stone. Funerary District of King Zoser. Step Pyramid. What magnificent vessels for the ka to inhabit! Both have the left foot placed forward.2650 b. he must do so by 90 degrees.c. yet is no hint of a forward movement. and therefore picks the most telling view in each case. When we speak of the Egyptians' attitude to- 11. Royal mastabas grew to conspicuous into pyramids. head and legs in profile. size and soon developed earliest is The modern imagination. but the concept a great deal to be learned of afterlife they reflect apparently applied only few because of their associaimmortal Pharaohs. so that. The method worked so well that it was to survive for twenty-five hundred years. The group also affords an interesting comparison of male and female beauty as interpreted by a fine there sculptor. The "cubic" approach to the human form can be observed most strikingly in Egyptian sculpture in the round. man careful to not refer to the aver- but only to the small aristocratic caste clustered around the royal court.

let us cast a brief glance at one of the scenes of daily life that adorn the offering chambers of the mastabas. towering above the lesser gods as the Pharaoh towered above the provincial nobility. We of absolute rulers. Politically. when Egyptian rule extended as far to the east as Palestine and Syria. Cattle Fording a River (detail of painted limestone relief). District of King Zoser. While these depict ary typical. the feeling of strength or resilience they convey. their spacing. tian stone all which took over the Egyp- column and developed it further. The divine kingship of the Pharaoh was now asserted in a new way: by association with the god Amen. Saqqara but his repertory of architectural forms still reflects shapes and devices developed during that always earlier phase.Such a picture may well be have been preserved which indicate that the labor was paid for. North Palace. c.C. and who became the supreme deity. Our ilshows part of a relief of cattle fording a river.C. Its plan The facade (fig.C. and drawn from thus share the "timelessness" of all Egyptian art. do not simply decorate the walls to which they are attached. far were. But the very fact that these members no longer had their original function made it possible for Imhotep and his fellow architects to redesign them so as to make them serve a new. The world has always marveled at their sheer size as well as at the technical accomplishment they represent. to keep it from drowning. Saqqara . Such sympathetic portrayal of an emotional relationship is fully as delightful as it is unexpected in Egyptian art. but they have also come to be regarded as symbols of slave labor thousands of men forced by cruel masters to serve the glory — 12 Art in the A ncient World is general pattern of later 13. Tomb of Ti. as it his (fig. Thus vast architectural energies were devoted to the building of huge temples of Amen under royal sponsornity to lustration 12. unjust. recurrent activities rather than events the career of the deceased. 13) ship. (fig.2650 B. and the frightened animal turns its head to look back at its mother. Egypt reached its greatest power during the Empire period (c. 14). today we tend to assume that unless these forms serve a clear-cut structural purpose (such as supporting or enclosing) they are mere surface decoration. who answers with an equally anxious glance. certain records arc probably nearer the truth these monuments if we think of works providing economic security for a good part of the as vast public population. the degree to which they project. or the papyrus-shaped half-columns in figure 12. one of the herders carries a newborn calf on his back. c. they offered the artist a welcome opportu- widen powers of observation. sive role of Greek We share more of the exprescolumns when we come to know shall learn architecture. Thus we find columns — — "engaged" rather than freestanding which echo the bundles of reeds or the wooden supports that used to be set into mud-brick walls to give them added strength. in this task. Yet the slender. whose identity had been fused with that of the sun-god Ra. Funerary Papyrus Half-Columns. (fig. expressive purpose The notion that architectural forms can express 12).). Enterprises of the huge scale of the pyramids mark the high point of Pharaonic power. they interpret them and give them life. tapering fluted columns in figure 1 1. 1500-1 166 B. Before we leave the realm of Egyptian funerart. such as that at characteristic Luxor of the Egyptian temples. Their proportions. 14. anything may seem difficult to grasp at first.2400 B.

C. The overawing effect is certainly impressive. to be closely spaced. 15). or pylon. height V/s". the country became ever more priest-ridden.C. Berlin A ncient World 1 .1260 B. a pillared hall.1390 B. As a result. Yet the architect has consciously exploited this condition by making the columns far heavier than they need be. but also rather vulgar lier when measured period of Egypt's decline. The growth of the Amen cult produced an unexpected threat to royal authority: the priests of Amen grew into a caste of such wealth and power that the king could maintain his position only with their consent. such a structure is designed to be experienced from within. ordinary worshipers were confined to the courts and could but marvel at the forest of columns that courts. for they The columns had supported the stone beams (lintels) of the ceiling. and these had to be short to keep them from breaking under their own weight.C. did not outlast his reign (1372-1358 B. compared with works in the traditional style (see fig.). and Colonnade and Court of Amenhotep III (c. the beholder feels almost crushed by their sheer mass. One re- markable Pharaoh. after 1000 B. Except for the monumental fagade. is and another pillared the temple proper. consciously fostering a and a new the past trait of is ideal of beauty. leads to a court. with sloping sides. the sun disk Aten. under Greek and Roman rule. Egyptian civilization came to an end in a welter of esoteric religious doctrines. His attempt to place himself at the head of a new monotheistic faith. 12) to realize how little of Imhotep's genius still survives here.. until. What distinguishes against the ear- masterpieces of Egyptian architecture. and under his successors orthodoxy was speedily restored. that flank the entrance.C. however. Court and Pylon of Ramesses II (c. and moved the capital to a new site. Temple of Amen-Mut-Khonsu. a second court. beyond which entire sequence of and temple was enclosed by high walls that shut off the outside world. c. Amenhotep IV. halls.C. with its oddly haggard features and overemphatic.3 14. Akhenaten was a revolu- tionary not only in his faith but in his artistic tastes as well. screened the dark recesses of the sanctuary. During the long 15. this gateway. this head seems at first glance like a brutal caricature. closed the Amen temples. The hall. He changed his name to Akhenaten. 10). Museums.). tried to defeat them by proclaiming his faith in a single god. We need only compare the papyrus columns at Luxor with their ancestors at Saqqara (fig. Luxor left) consists of two massive walls. The new style contrast with strikingly evident in a low-relief por- Akhenaten (fig.1365 B. State A rt in the IV). undulating lines. Akhenaten (Amenhotep Stone.).

Each Sumerian city-state had its own local who was its "king" and owner. it resembles a wide. they came to southern Mesopotamia from Persia. shallow trough with few natural defenses. although writing was a priestly privilege. The origin of the Sumerians remains ob- Sometime before 4000 B. The most famous of them. hence early Sumerian inscriptions deal mainly with economic and administrative matters. the Biblical Tower of Babel. vation. a few richly in the city of endowed tombs have been found Ur.C.30".C. has been completely leveled. The temple of the local god stood on a raised platform in the center of the city. although cept the foundations. or ziggurats. Marble. for lack of stone. Baghdad. even though they had contact with each other from their earliest betime. such as Egypt. almost nothing left is of their architecture ex- Nor did they share the Egyptians' concern with the hereafter. the erally thought to who con- wind and and the heavenly bodies. Chicago A ncient World . Even so. weather. the tangible remains of this Sumerian civilization are very scanty compared to those of ancient Egypt. The pressures that forced the inhabi- tants of both regions to prehistoric village life abandon may the pattern of well have been the Sumcrians after Sumer. inventive." a planned society centered on the temple. It was the temple that controlled the pooling of labor and resources for such enterprises as building dikes or irrigalation and its tion ditches. phrates. founded a number of city-states. the "land between the rivers. Our knowledge of Sumerian civilization thus fragments depends very largely on chance — including numbers — brought by excavast of scribed clay tablets in recent decades we have learned form general But the valley of the Tigris and Euis not a narrow fertile strip protected by deserts. ginnings. the two rival centers retained their distinct character. and it collected and distributed a large part of the harvest. These are very largely the creation of the founding fathers of — Mesopotamian civilization." And for close to three millennia. the sudden upsurge and equally sudden collapse of military power these are its substance. The had a human ruler. Thus the area proved almost impossible to unite under a single ruler.. easily encroached upon from any direction. and Art in the tallest figure c. Tell Asmar. Still. height of Museum. It is an odd and astonishing fact that man should have emerged into the light of history in two separate places at just about the same Between 3500 and 3000 B. whom we call in- to light achievements of a this picture of the vigorous. Statues.C. the stew- ard of the divine sovereign god's deities own transmitted the ownership god was quite lit- divine not only the territory of the city-state but the labor power of the popu- products as well. community also fellow his who commands. soon reached the height of man-made mountains. subjects among fertility. These platforms. the region near the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates which they inhabited. foreign invasions. so that scure. All this required the keeping of detailed written records. Unfortunately.2700-2500 Iraq 14 from the Abu Temple. c. and developed their distinctive form of writing in cuneiform (wedgeshaped) characters on clay tablets. when Egypt was being united under Pharaonic rule. same. enough to local rivalries. and disciplined people. but remnants of others survive. great landmarks towering above the featureless plain. Some have yielded stone statuary.the "Akhenaten style" is not greater realism so as a new sense of form that seeks to much unfreeze the immobility of Egyptian art contours as well as the plastic shapes are — the more and relaxed. such as the group of figures from Tell true 16. there was a remarkable continuity of cultural and artistic traditions. B. Nor was treated as a pious fiction. Oriental Institute. the Sumerians built only in mud brick and wood. The political history of ancient Mesopotamia has no underlying theme such as divine kingship provides for trolled the forces of nature. another great civilization arose in Mesopotamia. unlike that of the Nile. as if they had been suddenly released from the grip of geometry that pliable underlies Egyptian art. He in return was expected to plead the cause of his god. The result was a "theocratic socialism.

C. 16).C. from Ur. The conic-cylindrical simplification of the Asmar statues is characteristic of the carver. sculpture had ac- quired a far richer repertory of shapes. the god of vegetation. and lapis lazuli). but the other sections show animals per- design has forming a variety of human tasks in lively and precise fashion: the wolf and the lion carry food and drink to an unseen banquet. the the middle of the third millennium Semitic inhabitants of northern Meso- potamia drifted south in ever larger numbers until they outweighed the Sumerian stock. too. he. gether from such substances as wood. panel from a bull-headed harp (fig. and the statues of the worshipers served as later flourished in the Asmar size sized stand-ins for the persons they portrayed. Even in later when Mesopotamian times. we may regard them as the ear- by colored inlays. Yet none of them indicates any attempt to achieve an individual likeness the bodies as well as the faces are rigorously simplified and schematic so as to^ avoid distracting attention from — the eyes. bronze or put to17. the second largest a mother goddess. What distinguishes the two deities is not only their lapping forms or foreshortened shoulders. and deer provide musical entertainment (the harp is the same type as the instrument to which the panel was attached). The tombs at a Ur have Soundbox of Harp. this quality asserts itself again and again. Philadelphia become a rigidly symmetrical formula. including the inlaid Bitumen with Here we catch a tantalizing glimpse of Sumerian mythology. At the bottom. places his figures on ground lines. "Representation"' here has a very direct meaning: the gods were believed to be present in their images. they were less bound by the tradition of theocratic socialism. Although they adopted Sumerian civilization." If — what may strike us purpose humorous was probably meant his with perfect seriousness. We must be careful. the priests and worshipers were meant to communicate with the two gods through their eyes. shell The University Museum. c. After B. although. The artist who created these scenes was far less constrained by rules than were his contemporaries in Egypt. the rest priests and worshipers. Tell A more far among flexible and realistic style prevails those works that are rather than subtraction (that in soft materials for casting in made by addition either modeled is. that of the Sumerian was based on the cone and the cylinder: arms and legs have the roundness of pipes. The tallest represents Abu. he is not afraid of over- A rt in the A ncient World 1 . The hero embracing two humanheaded bulls was so popular a subject that its inlay. Clearly. gold leaf. it was they who produced the first Mesopotamian rulers who openly called themselves kings and proclaimed their ambition to the Egyptian sculptor's sense of form was essentially cubic.2600 B. shell. not to misinterpret but the larger diameter of the pupils of their eyes. however. who cuts his forms from a solid block. liest known If we as delightfully viewed to be only knew the ancestors of the animal fable that West from Aesop to La Fontaine. while the ass. height 8V2". 17). Their insistent stare is empha- context in which these actors play their roles! Nevertheless. and the long skirts worn by all these figures are as smoothly curved as if they had been turned on a lathe.. bear. yielded objects of this kind. the "windows of the soul.5 (fig. although the eyes of all the figures are enormous. a scorpion-man and a goat carry some objects they have taken from a large vessel. contemporary with the Pyramid of Zoser.

Here Assyrian art rises to impressive heights. This people had slowly expanded from the city-state 16 Art in the A ncient World Dying Lioness. justly famous as the earliest written uniform body of laws and amazingly rational and humane in conception. but reinterpreted them to fit its own distinctive character. height of figure 13 3A". London 19. the impression of statues sliced in half. tween god and man in an earlier phase of Mesopotamian civilization.. 17). at it "the favorite shepherd" to the divine king. Diorite. At the height of of Assur power. but for the tragic grandeur of her agony. By endowing them with magnificent strength and courage.C. which convey all the weight and volume of the body despite the shallowness of the relief.on the upper course of the Tigris until they ruled the entire country. it has been said. was a time of almost continuous turmoil. 19) stands out not only for the subtle gradations of the carved surface.C.. The dying lioness (fig. The ruler's right arm is raised in a speaking gesture. He had it engraved on a tall stele (an upright stone slab used as a marker) the top of which shows Hammurabi confronting the sun-god Shamash (fig. Paris their neighbors.c.C. whose enormous eyes indicate an attempt to establish the same relationship befig. Once again we sense the special genius of ancient Mesopotamian art for the portrayal of animals (see fig. . The relief so high that the two figures almost give As a re- sculptor has been able to render the sult. height of stele c.C. height of relief 28". By far the greatest figure of the age was Hammurabi. Few of them succeeded. the finest images in these scenes are not the king and his retinue but the lions. the second millennium B.C. The Assyrians. either by detailed depictions of his military conquests or by showing the sovereign as the killer of lions. which was dominated by the Assyrians. espe- hunts from seems. Stone. The Louvre. Much of Assyrian art is devoted to glorifying the power of the king. under conquer whose rule Babylon became the cultural center of Mesopotamia. that between c. 18. 18). 1000 and 500 B. gaze Strange as Hammurabi and Shamash each other with a force and directness that recalls the statues from Tell Asmar (see 16). His most memorable achievement is his law code. as were reporting here is if dable adversaries. These royal hunts were ceremonial combats (the animals were released from cages within a square formed by soldiers with shields) in which the king re-enacted his ancient role as supreme shepherd who kills the its the Sinai peninsula to predators menacing the communal flock. c. the ers took over not only the Assyrian its artistic transmitted traditions some of as them well new rul- empire but and eventually to the West. Stele Inscribed with (upper part). the sculptor exalts the king who is able to slay such formi- cially in the splendid reliefs of lion Nineveh.1760 Law Code of Hammurabi B. The most copious archaeological finds date from the third major phase of Mesopotamian history. from Nineveh (Kuyunjik).7'. British Museum. Their civilization depended on the achievements of the South. Nor was this genius to be lost when Mesopotamia fell to the final Persians in the sixth century B. were to the Sumerians what the Romans were to the Greeks.650 B. the Assyrian empire stretched from Armenia. the eyes in the round.

7 20. where the monster was kept. Heinrich Schliemann in the 1870s and Sir Arthur Evans at the beginning of our own century made the archaeological finds that proved Homer was describing real people and places. II mi Ml.C. their duration must indeed have seemed without beginning and without end. not just inventing a world of heroic adventure.n.. sheltered from their might but at the same time in communication with them via the Mediterranean Sea. political shifts time. c. the story goes. Egyptian artifacts have been found among the Cretan ruins and Cretan pottery in Egypt. and the flowering of its — — despite certain setbacks and interthought to have been caused by earthquakes took place at about the same time as that of Egypt. until a young Greek hero. A hundred years ago we knew little more about these vest-pocket states than what Homer told us in his account of the Trojan War. 21)." the king whose the Minotaur. there to be caught by the other members of the team. a race of A rt in the A ncient World 1 ." thinking that such stones could only have been moved by the Cyclopes.Mm name is also used to identify this "Minoan" Every year. Of the island-states lying closest to Egypt. so we know that they traded with each other. the inhabitants of Crete laid the foundations for a way of life that their strikes the modern beholder as infinitely livelier and more joyous than anything we have studied so far. and the outright sacrifice of helpless human beings as told in the legend. palaces on the peninsula were girt about with walls such as those framing the Lion Gate at Mycenae (fig. small kingdoms which flourished were founded by other peoples. Herakleion UIUIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 3. Though unarmed. Although internal — might shake them from time to and foreign invaders temporarily breach their borders. GREEK AND ROMAN ART . This is true even of the deadly game depicted in the Toreador Fresco (fig. So massive are these ramparts that the Greeks of a later time called them "Cyclopean. all of these even acrobatic team. 31 Vi" (including borders). More somber is the corresponding art of the Greek mainland. where warring chiefs were constantly raiding each other's tiny "king- They seem doms.1500 B. Theseus.. In this game of "Minoan roulette" it was the gods who decided whether the sacred bull or the skillful gymnasts would "win. The Toreador Fresco. and civilization ruptions own agricultural wealth. where the men are armed. with the help of the Cretan princess Ariadne.m*j~. or maze. the bull —have Each — a strangely weightless quality. Unlike the ponderous permanence of Egyptian figures." Whereas no traces of ancient fortifications have been unearthed on Crete." Yet our eyes are charmed long before our minds recoil from the bloody consequences of one miscalculation. Archaeological Museum. managed to slay civilization). differentiated as in Egyptian art by their darker or obviously function as an lighter skin tones — — in turn would grasp the horns of the charging bull and be tossed over its back. Yet on the fringes of these giant domains. Height c. 20). a group of youths and maidens from such parts of the Greek mainland as the Minoans had conquered were left to perish in the Labyrinth. to float and sway in an atmosphere devoid of gravity where no serious physical shock can occur. although it seems an illustration made to order for the blood-chilling legend of the Minotaur (literally "Bull of Minos. Out of this commerce. The two great civilizations discussed in the previous chapter kept their identities for almost three thousand years half again the length of the Christian Era up to now. The action shown in the fresco is something between a modern bullfight. Crete was the largest. these athletes boys and girls.~m.




column between



lions, ta-

pering from top to bottom, is of the same design as those used in Cretan palaces, and from

alone (though there are other evidences as
we would suspect that there was contact


greek art. The Mycenaeans and



by language and

The works

of art

we have come to know so
we approach



aware of

their alien

background and

of the "language difficulties" they present.


soon as we come to the sixth century B.C. in
Greece, however, our attitude undergoes a
change: these are not strangers but relatives,
we feel older members of our own family. It
is just
as well to remember, as we turn to
these "ancestors" of ours, that the continuous
tradition that links us to the ancient Greeks is a
handicap as well as an advantage: we must be

careful, in looking at


originals, not to let

our memories of their myriad
get in the way.

later imitations



Greek-speaking tribes to wander into the peninsula, around 2000 B.C. Then, around 1100
B.C., others came, overwhelming and absorbing
those who were already there. Some of the late

between the Minoans and their neighbors on
the Greek mainland. But the artistic ancestry
must evident in the two carved lions is Mesopotamian: we have seen symmetrically confronted animals in figure 17; and the Dying
Lioness (fig. 19) is surely of the same heavymuscled artistic species as the guardians of the

far are like fascinating strangers:



Homer were




arrivals, the Dorians, settled

on the mainland;

others, the Ionians, spread out to the


and Asia Minor.



few centuries


they ventured into the waters of the western
Mediterranean, founding colonies in Sicily and



Greeks were united

religious beliefs, old tribal loy-

continued to divide them into











wealth, and status undoubtedly stimulated the
growth of ideas and institutions; but in the end

they paid dearly for their inability to compromise enough, at least, to broaden their concept

The Peloponnesian War
which the Spartans and their
allies defeated the Athenians was a catastrophe
from which Greece never recovered.

of state government.



B.C.) in

destruction of the ancient



by the Dorians did not, for several centuries,
appear to result in anything but retrogression.
The new masters seemed content with the meager crafts they had brought with them, chiefly a
style of pottery that we call "Geometric" because it was very simply decorated with trianies


checks, or concentric circles.

Of monumenwas none.

architecture and sculpture there

Toward 800

B.C. human and animal figures
appear within the painted bands of
the pottery; our example (fig. 22) is a huge



vase that served as a grave monument. The
bottom of the vase is open so that liquid offerings poured into it could trickle down to the
deceased in the grave below, but the scene
painted on the outside is commemorative: the

dead man is laid out on his bier, with a row of
mourners raising their arms in lament on either
side; below is a funeral procession of warriors,
on foot or in chariots a hero's funeral. Unlike
the Egyptians (see p. 0), the Greeks did not
attach much importance to life beyond the
grave; although they believed that there was a
place to which their "shades" (spirits) went,
they counted rather upon their exploits in this
world to give them fame and thus immortality.
Even at this early stage in the development of
Greek painting when the representation of an
individual was so far from realistic, his remembrance by posterity was a matter of
greater importance than any amount of tomb


The Lion Gate.
B.C. Mycenae




in the

A ncient World


Toward 700




stimulated by an



Psiax. Hercules Strangling the Nemean Lion. Attic Black-Figured amphora (detail).
c.525 B.C. Height of portion shown c. 5 3A". Museo Civico, Brescia




'Achilles Painter.

Muse on Mount

Helicon. White-ground lekythos

(detail, slightly enlarged), c.445 B.C. Private Collection,





Dipylon Vase. 8th century

The Metropolitan Museum
below: 23.

of Art,

The Foundry Painter.



Height AlVi"
(Rogers Fund)

New York

Lapith Battling a Centaur.

Attic Red-Figured kylix (interior), c.490-480 B.C.


increased trade with Egypt and the Near East,
began to absorb powerful influences from these
regions that put flesh on the bare bones of the
Dorians' Geometric images. From the later seventh century to about 480 B.C., this amalgamation produced what we call the "Archaic" style;
while it does not yet have the balance and perfection of the "Classic" style, which followed in
the later part of the fifth century B.C., the Archaic style has an appealing freshness that
makes many persons consider it the most vital
phase of Greek art. Ordinarily, decorated pottery, however valuable as an archaeologist's
aid, is thought of as an industry or craft, rather
than an art; but by about the middle of the
sixth century B.C. vase painters were so highly
esteemed that the best of them signed their
works. Art lovers might collect Psiax (colorthe way people nowadays collect
The scene of Hercules strangling the
Nemean lion on Psiax's amphora is a far cry

1 )


from the conventionalized figures of the Geometric style. The two heavy bodies almost
seem united forever in their grim struggle; incised line and touches of colored detail have
been kept to a minimum so as not to break up
the compact black mass, yet both figures show
such a wealth of anatomical knowledge and
skillful use of foreshortening that they give an
amazing illusion of existing in the round.
Like the Hercules amphora, other vase

15". Staatliche

Antikensammlungen, Munich

sixth century B.C. were
black pigment against the natural reddish color of the earthenware; but toward the
end of the century, vase painters Psiax among
them experimented with a reversal of the colors, making the backgrounds black and leaving

paintings during the







By 500



B.C. this



new "Red-Figure



had completely superseded the

earlier "BlackLapith Battling a Centaur (fig.
23) shows the advantage of the reversed color
scheme: brushwork replaces the incised lines,
so that the artist now has a great deal more
freedom in depicting complicated, overlapping
shapes; details of costume or facial expression
are more precise; and the whole composition
seems to expand, since there is no reason to
put in more black background than is necessary
to set the figures off to advantage.
The Red-Figure Style continued through
the fifth century B.C., but alongside it a new
method sprang up possibly in imitation of
wall paintings, which have all disappeared
since then: these "white-ground lekythoi," as

Figure Style."

called, seem to have been
one purpose, the bottling
of oil customarily used as a funerary offering
(colorplate 2). The white background permits
the artist a wider range of superimposed colors,
and we become aware of the subtleties of line
drawing that can make shapes seem to recede

group of vases


largely restricted to

A rt in


A ncient World


Standing Youth (Kouros).
c.600 B.C. Marble, height 6' l'/z".
The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
New York (Fletcher Fund, 1932)

right: 24.

jar right: 25. Hera,



from Samos.

The Louvre,

height 6' 4".


or come forward, or give us the "feel" of drapery or soft flesh. Further, the white back-




easily interpreted as airy space,


are less aware of the hard, confining surface

of the vessel


While enough examples of metalwork and
ivory carvings of Near Eastern and Egyptian
origin have been found on Greek soil to account for their influence on Greek vase painting, the origins of monumental sculpture and
architecture in Greece are a different matter.
To see such things, the Greeks had to go to
Egypt or Mesopotamia. There is no doubt that
they did so (we know that there were small
colonies of Greeks in Egypt at the time), but
this does not explain why the Greeks should
have developed a sudden desire during the seventh century B.C., and not before, to have such
things themselves. The mystery may never be
cleared up, for the oldest existing examples of
Greek stone sculpture and architecture show
that Egyptian tradition had already been well
assimilated, and that skill to match was not
long in developing.
Let us begin by comparing a late seventhcentury statue of a Greek youth, called a Kouros (fig. 24), with the statue of



The similarities are certainly striking:
both we note the same cubic character,



in the

Ancient World



though the sculptor was


original block of stone;


conscious of the

silhouettes; the position of the

arms with

hands; the stance with the left
leg forward; the emphatic rendering of the
kneecaps; and the wiglike curls of the Greek
boy that resemble the headdress worn by the
Pharaoh. Judged by the Egyptian level of accomplishment the Archaic Greek example
their clenched





But the Greek statue
has some virtues that cannot be measured in
Egyptian terms. First of all, it is freestanding.
In the entire history of art there are no earlier
examples of a sculptor's being daring enough to
liberate a lifesize figure completely from the
surrounding block of stone. What had doubtrigid, less close to nature.

less started as a timid

precaution against break-

age of arms, or the crumbling of the legs under
the weight of the body, became a convention.
Here, however, the artist has carved away


bit of

"dead" stone except for the

bridges that connect the



to the thighs. This

a matter not merely of technical daring but

of a





was important to the
from inert

artist to dissociate his statue




approximate the living

being that it represented. Unlike Mycerinus,
who looks as though he could stand in the same

anatomy, looks squat and lifeless by
When the Greeks began to build their tem-

Kouros is tense
seems to promise movement. The calm, distant gaze of the Egyptian
prince has been replaced by larger-than-life,
wide-open eyes that remind us of early Mesopotamian art (see fig. 16).
Statues of the Kouros type were produced in
great quantity during the Archaic period, des-


tined for temple offerings or graves. Like the

weight or volume of their own. The guardian





the end of time, the



decorated vases of the period, some of them
were signed ("So-and-so made me"); but
whether they represent gods, or donors, or victors in athletic games, nobody knows for sure.
Since they vary but little in their essentials, we
assume that they were meant to represent an
a godlike man, or manlike god.
The male figures show best the innovations
that give Greek sculpture its particular character, but there is no dearth of female statues of
the same period. Since these were invariably
clothed, skirts and shawls fill in those empty
spaces that make the contrast so clear between
Greek sculpture and all that came before it.
Nevertheless, the Kore, as the female statue
type is called, shows more variations than the
Kouros. In part these are due to local differences in dress, but the drapery itself posed a



to relate


to the



ways. The Hera (fig.
25), so called because of her impressive size
and because she was found in the ruins of the






in various

Hera on the island of Samos, is
than our Kouros (fig. 24). This

slightly later

smooth-skirted figure with the folds of her hem
fanning out over a circular base seems to have
evolved from a column rather than from a rectangular block. But the majestic effect of the

depends not so much on its closeness to
an abstract shape as on the way the column has
blossomed forth with the swelling softness of a
living body. Following the unbroken upward
sweep of the lower folds of drapery, the eye
slows to the gently curving hips, torso, and
breast. If we turn back to figure 10, we realize
suddenly that Mycerinus' wife, with far more


ples in stone, they fell heir to age-old traditions

of architectural sculpture as well.

The Egyp-

covered the walls and even the columns of

their buildings with



13), but


these carvings were so shallow that they
figures of the

Lion Gate



had no

are of a

different type: although they are carved in high
relief on a huge slab, this slab is thin and light
compared to the Cyclopean blocks around it.
In building the gate, the architect had left an
empty triangle above the lintel, for fear that the
weight of the wall above would crush it, and
filled the hole with the relief panel. This
kind of architectural sculpture is a separate entity, not merely a modified wall surface. The
Greeks followed the Mycenaean example in
their temples, stone sculpture is confined to the


pediment (the "empty triangle" between the
and the sloping sides of the roof) and
to the zone immediately below it (the "frieze")



they retained the narrative wealth of
Egyptian reliefs. The Battle of Gods and
Giants (fig. 26), part of a frieze, is executed in
very high relief with deep undercutting (the
hind leg of one of the lions has broken off because it was completely detached from the
background). The sculptor has taken full advantage of the spatial possibilities of this bold
technique; the projecting ledge at the bottom
has become a stage on which to place the figures in depth. As they recede from us, the carv-

becomes shallower, yet even the furthest
plane is not allowed to merge into the background. The result is a condensed but very convincing space that permits a dramatic interplay
among the figures such as we have not seen being


Not only




in the physical

but in the expres-

new dimension has here been


The Greek achievement in architecture has
been identified since ancient Roman times with

26. Battle of


height 26".


Gods and


portion of north frieze,
Treasury of the Siphnians,
Delphi, c.530 B.C. Marble,

in the

Museum, Delphi

Ancient World



The Temple of Poseidon
foreground; c.460 b.c.)

and the "Basilica"
(background: c.550 B.C.).
Paestum, Italy

the creation of the three classical architectural




these, the Doric


and Corinthian. Of



well claim to be the basic

being older and more sharply defined

than the Ionic; the Corinthian
the latter.

What do we mean by

The term

a variant of



used only for Greek architecture (and its descendants), and rightly
so. for none of the other architectural systems
known to us has produced anything like it. Perhaps the simplest way to make clear the unique


character of the Greek orders





no such thing as "the Egyptian temple" or "the
the individual buildings, howGothic church"
ex er much they may have in common, are so
varied that we cannot distill a generalized type
from them
while "the Doric temple" is a real
entity that inevitably forms in our minds as we
examine the monuments themselves. This abstraetion is not, of course, an ideal against
which we may measure the degree of perfection of any given Doric temple; it simply means
that the elements of which a Doric temple is


are extraordinarily constant in

ber, in kind,



Doric temples


belong to the same

clearly recognizable family, just as the

statues do; like them,






relation to one an-

in their

show an





















• -*_•
f _» • ==

28. Plan of a Typical



in the

Greek Temple

Ancient World

a unique quality of wholeness


organic unity.

The term Doric order

refers to the standard

and their sequence, making up the exterior of any Doric temple. At Paestum (fig. 27),
for example, let us note the three main diviparts,

sions that occur in both temples: the stepped
the columns, and the entablature
(which includes everything that rests on the
columns). The column consists of the shaft,
made of sections (drums) and marked with
vertical grooves called flutes, and the capital,
which supports the horizontal stone blocks of






and the cornice.






the long sides of the

on the short
open so as to enclose the pediment between its upper and lower
temple, the cornice
sides (or fagades)







The plans


Greek temples are not

linked to the orders.



basic features of



them are so much alike that it is useful to study
them from a generalized "typical" plan (fig.
28). The nucleus


the cella or naos (the


where the image of the deity is placed), and
the entrance porch (pronaos) with two columns flanked by pilasters. Often a second
porch is added behind the cella, for symmetry.
In large temples, this central unit is surrounded
by a row of columns (the colonnade, also called
the peristyle).


did the Doric temple originate?

Its es-

features were already well established










consistency, a mutual adjustment of parts, that

(after Grinnell)

about 600 B.C., but how they developed, and
why they congealed so rapidly into a system as
it seems they did, remains a puzzle to which we
have few reliable clues. The notion that temples ought to be built of stone, with large numbers of columns, must have come from Egypt;

erected about a hundred
do the two temples differ?
The "Basilica" looks low and sprawling and

the fluted half-columns at Saqqara (see


strongly suggest the


fig. 11)
Doric column. Egyptian
temples, it is true, are designed to be experienced from the inside, while the Greek temple
is arranged so that the exterior matters most
(religious ceremonies usually took place out of
doors, in front of the temple facade). But
might not a Doric temple be interpreted as the
columned hall of an Egyptian sanctuary turned
inside out? The Greeks also owed something to
we have seen an elementary
the Mycenaeans
kind of pediment in the Lion Gate, and the

capital of a

Mycenaean column

Doric capital (compare

a third factor:


rather like a

21 ). There is, howwhat extent can the



Doric order be understood as a reflection of
wooden structures? Our answer to this thorny
question will depend on whether we believe
that architectural form follows function and
technique, or whether we accept the striving
for beauty as a motivating force. The truth may
well lie in a combination of both these ap-


At the







only because these features
served to identify the building as a temple. But
when they became enshrined in the Doric
order, it was not from blind conservatism; by
then, the wooden forms had been so thoroughly

wooden temples,


transformed that they were an organic part of
the stone structure.

Greek buildings here illusthe "Basilica" in Paestum
(fig. 27, background); near this south Italian
town a Greek colony flourished during the Archaic period. The Temple of Poseidon (fig. 27,




trated, the oldest




while the
not only because its roof is lost
Temple of
tall and compact. The difference is partly psy-

produced by the outline of the colmore
the "Basilica." are
strongly curved and are tapered to a relatively
tiny top. This makes one feel that they bulge



with the strain of supporting the superstruc-

and that the slender tops, even though
aided by the widely flaring cushionlike capitals,
are just barely up to the job. This sense of

been explained on the grounds that
Archaic architects were not fully familiar with
strain has



and engineering


dures, but this



by the
and to overlook

to judge the building

standards of later temples
the expressive vitality of the building, as of a
living body,

the vitality

Archaic Kouros

Doric architects cer-



In the




also sense




of Poseidon the exaggerated

curvatures have been modified;



with a closer ranking of the columns, literally
as well as expressively brings the stresses be-

tween supports and weight into more harmonious balance. Perhaps because the architect
took fewer risks, the building is better preserved than the "Basilica," and its air of selfcontained repose parallels the Hera (fig. 25) in
the field of sculpture.


the most perfect embodiment of the Clasperiod of Greek architecture, the Parthenon
(fig. 29) takes us a step further toward harmo-


nious completeness. Although



only a few

29. The Parthenon,
by Ictinus and Cali icrates
(view from west). 448-432 B.C.
Acropolis, Athens


in the

Ancient World


as of soldiers standing at attention. the Parthenon performs with apparent facility. A general and readjustment of the proportions accounts for this. the columns tilt inward. The Propylaea. the framework of the gable projects less insistently. Sometimes things that seem simple are the hardest to achieve. and the interval between each corner column and its neighbor is smaller than the standard interval used in the rest of the colonnade. 24. and workmanship. The is the resulting stance brings about all kinds of subtle curvatures: the bending of the "free" knee results in a slight swiveling of the pelvis. It is fascinating to see how the familiar elements of the Doric order are here adapted to a totally different purpose and a difficult terrain. these variations have nothing to do with the statue's ability to maintain itself erect but greatly enhance its lifelike impression: in repose. It took over a century after our Kouros was made before the Greeks discovered the secret of making a figure stand "at ease. this is simply a matter of allowing the weight of the body from equal distribution on both case with the Kouros.460-450 B. adding to it festive. hill the Parthenon. in addition to is one of lightening being slenderer. right) is the elegant little Temple of Athena Nike. Athens overture to the sacred precinct above. and the columns. material. then at the peak of its glory and wealth. but curve upward slightly toward the middle. ensured it the best of design. In spite of its greater size it seems less massive than the earlier temple. Instead of resembling an Archaic Atlas. running figures. they give us visual reassurance that the points of greatest stress are supported. rather. Bronze. but their freestanding statues also have an unintentional military air. The new sense of ease.C. such as the steps. to one to shift legs (as leg. which one has to climb to reach (fig. 30. Poseidon (Zeus?). and the Temple of Athena Nike (upper right. the dominant impression years younger than the curvature of the columns and the flare of the the fact that capitals are also discreetly lessened. a compensating curvature of the spine.C. displaying the slenderer proportions and the scroll capitals of the Ionic order.). Next to it (fig. 437-432 B. add to the overall impression of springy vitality: horizontal elements. The architect has acquitted himself nobly: not only does the gateway fit the steep and craggy hillside. National Museum. measurable but not immediately apparent. Athens 26 Art in the Ancient World of the shoulders. are not straight." Just as in military drill. Such intentional departures from strict geometric regularity are the not made of necessity. 427-424 B.C. . it will still seem capable adjusting tilt details of the 31. was built upon the rough. straining to hold up the weight of a world placed on his shoulders. the Propylaea irregular 30). and an Like the refined Parthenon. balanced grace. Unobtrusive refinements of proportion and line. height 6' 10". Acropolis.). by Mnesicles (view from west. Shortly afterward an impressive gateway. c. the horizontal courses above the columns are not so wide in relation to their length. was built in Athens. 26) were adept at representing battle scenes full of struggling. are more widely spaced. Greek sculptors of the late Archaic period (see figs.Temple of Poseidon. it transforms it from a rude passage among the rocks into a majestic 30. even though one foot is in front of the other). and provided with a counterstress as well.

and even the hair which has been left comparaArt in the Ancient World 27 . B. Museum. to be sure. or even halfreclining. London British below: 33. did not long survive the defeat of Athens by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War.C. Judged by Parthe- non standards. If it is the latIn many more the most ter. the ward on her horse) Amazon well as seated back- as heightened expressiveness. showing the birth of Athena from her father's head. it fits which Praxiteles was The lithe grace. Marble. the turning of the bodies under the elaborate folds of their costumes makes them seem anything but static. Here. impulsive gestures re- quire a lot of elbow room. so harmonious both in and form. Though all are seated. the hurling of a we may be dent sure. but it is not merely a moment in some continuing exercise. Mausoleum. feeling who was Scopas. at any rate. but he has rejected its rhythmic (fig. height 35". or "Hellenistic. Building and sculpture continued in the same tradition for another three centuries. he held a thunderbolt or a in his right hand) is tri- a divine attribute. famous works of Greek sculptors of the fifth and fourth centuries B. the composition lacks continuity. in motion. British of movement. it is a very skillful copy. not an act of war. portion of east frieze. is a good example of that other quality mentioned above: the possibility of action even in repose. instances than we would like.C. 34) is the original. There is some doubt whether the famous Hermes by Praxiteles (fig. inspiring gesture that reveals the god. an -over-lifesize statue that was recovered from the sea near the coast of Greece some The pose. 359-351 b. the sculptural decoration of later buildings tended to be placed in areas where they would seem less boxed in. His sweeping. was familiar with the figure style of the Parthenon. 32) that originally belonged to the scene in the east pediment of the Parthenon. In fact they seem so capable of arising that it is hard to imagine them ''shelved" up under the gable. the play of gentle curves. Perhaps the sculptors who achieved such lifelike figures also found this incongruous. its flow of action from one figure to the next. Scopas(?). The postclassical. power of the weapon (originally. but without the subtleties of the Classic age whose achievements we have just discussed. very probably the sculptor of the frieze showing Greeks Battling Amazons 33). The 1 Hermes' bland. Three Goddesses. This Athenian style. but in a sense it turned backward to the scenes of violent action so popular in the Archaic period.c. but it makes up for this in bold innovation (note.438-432 Marble. lyrical charm is further enhanced by the caressing treatment of the surfaces: the meltingly soft. rather. of maintaining Museum. "veiled" features. however. for instance. the feeling of complete relaxation (enhanced by an outside support for the figure to lean against) are quite the opposite Scopas' of energetic innovations. is that of an athlete. 31). Halicarnassus. over lifesize. for perfectly the qualities for admired in his own day. Battered though it is." style spread far and wide around the Mediterranean shores. it is an awe- thirty years ago. This stability in the midst of action becomes outright grandeur in the bronze Poseidon (fig.left: 32. have been lost and only copies are preserved. harmony. Greeks Battling Amazons. from east pediment of the Parthenon. Phidias(?). c. London its stability. the group of Three Goddesses (fig. or a copy made some three centuries later.

the rising power of the Mediterranean region and a center of great admiration By 35. The Laocoon group 36) was dug up in Rome in 1506 a. c. This is not merely a relationship between the statue and the space which the sculptor imagined it inhabiting. Michelgroup (which had special significance for the found- Italian sculptors of that time.C. notably Today we tend angelo. Marble. Similarly. The invisible force of on- — rushing air becomes a tangible reality that balances the forward thrust of the figure and shapes every fold of the wonderfully animated drapery. and were called Etruscans. The Nike deserves her fame as the greatest work of Hellenistic sculpture.d. but an interdependence more active than we have seen before. and we understand little of it. The peninsula of Italy did not emerge into the light of history until fairly late. c. 28 Praxiteles. even though remind us of the dramatic invented by Scopas. A hundred years later the effects of the atmosphere surrounding a statue are played up in much more dramatic fashion. while owing much to Greek bet their language 34. Marble. her great wings spread wide. in Asia Minor. and it made a tremendous impression upon for (fig. tells us that they had originally wandered in from Lydia. Museum. height 7' 1". their art. 330-320 B. Greek learning and art. Whether or not they usurped the lands of peoples previously settled there. Nor shall we see it again for a long time. Nike of Samothrace. there is an attempt to modify the stony look of a statue by giving to it this illusion of an enveloping atmosphere. We know little about the inhabitants of Italy at that time: the classical Greek historian. Herodotus. the homeland an area that extends roughly between the cities of Rome and Florence today (from Tusci. ing of Rome) somewhat thos and dynamism the straining figures style to find the contrived and its pa- self-conscious. silken quality. Olympia Art in the Ancient World in . she is still partially air-borne by the powerful headwind against which she advances.— lively rough for contrast. for the all share a first misty. (or copy?).C. Hermes. height The Louvre. much Greek sculpture was made on commission for Rome..C. The Bronze Age came to an end there only in the eighth century B. time.200-190 b. roman art.c. the end of the second century B. 35) has just alighted on the prow of a warship. Paris of 8'. about the time the earliest Greek seafarers began to settle along the southern shores of Italy and in Sicily. The Nike of Samthe goddess of victory othrace (fig. or called Tuscany is still Etrusci). Although they used the Greek alpha- of the Etruscans — — was not related to the Greek any other way.. Here.

The Laocoon Group. the wolf has a muscular tautness and an intensity of expression that was.500 B. Romulus and Remus. The famous bronze statue of a she-wolf (fig. of town planning. B. Vatican Museums. made up of wedge-shaped sections that lock each other securely in place. thought to be medieval.with others borrowed from the Greeks. in the art Romans who conquered and of the ab- sorbed the Etruscan state. the art of building. height 8'. and Polydorus of Rhodes. seem to have considered it merely a useful "beast of burden. Agesander. More important to the Romans than the sculptural example set by the Etruscans. built with a however beautiful. Little remains aboveground of either Etruscan or early Roman architecture. Capitoline Museums. which consists of two barrel vaults intersecting each other at right angles. 37. the two infants are Renaissance additions). This herirecent was be of particular importance as her rule around the shores of the Mediterranean and toward the less populous north of Europe. c. Late 2nd century Marble. building new cities to serve as seats of colonial government. later venerated by the Romans as the nurse of their founding fathers. the groin vault." and not a form beautiful enough to be used for its own sake. highly skilled builders. Rome Art in the Ancient World 29 . plus the information collected from ers the Etruscans excavations. But we shall later see that these Etruscan characteristics continued side bv side vault — a half-cylinder.C. show that the Etruscans were. Rome techniques and forms. Athenodorus. but it remained for the Etruscans to make it fully "respectable. does not *'read" as Greek. how- was what they learned from them about ever. were view to accommodating a 37. and the dome. In ancient Mesopotamia it occasionally appeared aboveground in city gates. and of surveying. but they. Not that the Etruscans invented the arch: its use dates as far back as the Egyptians. is actually an Etruscan work. and the Greeks after them. but such works as we have. in fact. She-Wolf. at one time. height 331/2"." The growth of the capital city of Rome is hardly thinkable without the arch and the vaulting systems derived from it: the barrel tage to Rome expanded 36. Greek seldom buildings. Although the technique of casting large statues in bronze had surely been learned from the Greeks. According to Roman writ- were masters of architectural engineering. Bronze.C. Perhaps the single most important feature of this Etruscan legacy was the true arch.

40). Rome large crowd of people under one roof. Small buildings.000 spectators. no longer sufficed. which could seat 50. to all the gods. 38). such as a votive chapel or a family mausoleum. which seems to have been colder in those days than it is now (forests populated with wolves and bears extended stripped nearly the whole length of the peninsula). The Colosseum. The Pantheon. and cheaper materials and quicker methods had to be used. Its core is made of a kind of concrete.d. There 38. from water it a vast scale.1750 a. The best preserved of these is the Pantheon (figs. 30 Art in the Ancient World them off aesthetically they are important. The Colosseum (fig. for through them the enormous fa- cade becomes related to the The same innovations dicates.d. Pannini. vault. might imitate a Greek example. engineering and to create vast portico. Reverence for Greek architecture is still visible in the use of half-columns and pilasters reflecting the Greek orders. Rome The Interior of the Pantheon. a very large. 118-125 a. the fact remains that models. looks like the standard entrance to . painting by G. D. structurally these have become ghosts— the building would still stand if one —but the Romans became "indoor people" because of the climate.C. is still one of the largest buildings anywhere.d. The barrel vault. human in Romans The scale. though much admired. with miles of vaulted corridors to ensure the smooth flow of traffic to and from the arena. even the temples were considered houses of the gods rather than gathering places for worshipers. 39. dignified reflects the subdivi- sions of the interior. as the name in- Whether and Greek necessitated large administrative buildings gathering places. Washington. and it is a masterpiece of engineering and efficient planning. P. c. exterior. It utilizes the arch. National Gallery of Art. the and the groin and monumental. or materials permitted the whether the sheer numbers of the population covered spaces as well. a huge amphitheater in the center of the old city.citizenry with everything to entertainment on needed. but when it came to supplying the above: 39. radical new forms had to be invented. originally preceded by a colonnaded forecourt which blocked off the view we now have of the circular walls. but clothed and accenis a fine balance be- tuated in cut stone. tween the vertical and horizontal members that frame the endless series of arches. round temple dedicated. (Kress Collection) right: 40. 72-80 a.

is another example." is hard to believe. Palace of Diocletian. photographs fail to and even the painting (fig.d. the center tract (or "nave") was 41. Peristyle. 40) that we use to illustrate it does not do it justice. as well as their relationship to each other. with columns in the Corinthian a typical order). and domed space opens before us with sight as the great dramatic suddenness. Only when the Roman Empire the outside gives any hint of the airiness and was in decline did this reverential attitude give interior. c. In — these. The Basilica of Constantine (fig. and noted the Roman architects' continued alle- giance to the Classic Greek orders. thus perfect balance. on the left we see an even more revolutionary device a series of arches resting directly on columns. niches are daringly hollowed out of the massive concrete. Yugoslavia A rt in the A ncient World 3 . feel that the walls are less thick dome much lighter than is unorthodox ideas. and these. Thus. still followed the original grammar of the orders.300 a. domed construction. with all the weight concentrated at the four corners. Nothing on elegance of the capture dome it. called a "clerestory. That the architects did not have an easy time with the engineering problems of supporting the huge hemisphere of a dome may be deduced from the heavy vaulted. the essential features of this awesome temple were already it described (though on a smaller scale) a century earlier. 41). The multicolored marble panels and paving stones are still originally the golden dome Though essentially dome was as they were. We meet echoes of this vaulting system in many later buildings. archiand pediment might be merely superimposed on a vaulted brick-and-concrete core. Diocletian — and actually the case. on the eve of the victory of Christianity. column. but their shape. then. the oculus could lid that be covered by a bronze to regulate the tem- opened and closed 42. trave. 3 10-320 a. still stands today. as in the Palace of (fig. with graceful columns in front. but gilded to resemble "the of heaven. we have In discussing the Roman temple (derived from Greek temple facades. or "eye") that of the diameter of the giving the proportions weight of the dome is exactly dome's base. The covered by three groin vaults and rose a good deal higher.1 perature. by the architect Vitruvius for the construction of steam rooms in public baths. is the we step through the tall portals. con- the sisting of three enormous barrel vaults. from churches Basilica of Constantine. Split. The concentrated on the eight between them. c. solid sections making us the of is wall. Rome to railway stations. the wall surfaces in between could be pierced by windows. The height from the floor to the opening of the way to plainness the of exterior wall. Nor was the Pantheon the only huge building to be derived from similar designs for popular bath establishments that were placed conveniently in various quarters of the city. (called the oculus. he remained faithful to their spirit." Like the niches in the Pantheon. All the more breath-taking. While he no longer relied on them in the structural sense. 42) on the coast of presentday Yugoslavia. new forms based on arched. the marriage of arch and column was finally legitimate. echoing the arch of the doorway below. while not connected with each other. probably the largest roofed space in ancient Rome. these helped break up the ponderous mass and made it seem less overpowering. Since a groin vault is like a canopy.d. Only one side. give the effect of an open space behind the supports. Here the architrave between the two center columns is curved.

indispensable for the subsequent development of architecture. lifesize. bly one of the Rome a of society. rugged. head from a ferentiates this make a emerges as a — little jutting larger- specifically stern. Wax. lifesize. than-life. a wax image was made of his face. Portraiture and narrative reliefs are the two aspects of sculpture most conspicuously Roman The rooted in the needs real portrait bust in figure 43. Although there no doubt that the Romans is new created a bold architecture. seems so natural that we wonder why it was ever opposed.C. however. when it could be obtained. What difexpressive example of Greek sculpture? Can we say that it has any new. . Ancient World Ostia Roman It is and which face personality a "father late. Starting as an- cestor worship back in prehistoric times. sparing neither wrinkle nor wart.80 B. 43.d. When the head of a prominent family died. Yet the sculptor has exercised a choice among which wrinkles to emphasize lower lip. of whether they the field and for quite understandable reasons. the question had anything original to give to of sculpture has been hotly disputed. c. Marble.Their union. and it is these that continue the living sculptural tradition. c. Trajan. 32 Art in the Museum. for opulent decoration. specifically Roman qualities? At first it may strike us as nothing more than the detailed record of a facial topography. and these images were preserved by subsequent generations and carried in the funeral processions of the family. or mass copying of Greek sometimes even of Egyptian models. emptied of their former meaning and reduced to the status of refined works of craftsmanship. Palazzo Torlonia. Portrait of a Roman. dating the beginning of the Republican era. this custom became a convenient way to demonstrate the importance and continuity of a family a habit that continues practically unbroken to our own day in the displaying of family portraits. image" of frightening authority.C. Marble.100 a. A taste and interior. iron-willed. certain kinds of sculpture had serious and important functions in ancient Rome. and for some reason perhaps a cri- — sis of self-confidence — — became important it the patrician families of Rome in the first to cen- tury B. 44. is a very impermanent material. led to wholesale importation of Greek statuary. both exterior — — On the other hand. There are entire categories of Roman sculpture which deserve to be called "deactivated echoes" of Greek creations. to put these ancestor likenesses into more enduring substance 43). (the features for instance) to The (fig. much is from proba- permanent embodiments of first we know about older tradition that from literary sources.

cornered and doomed. his ideal was the ancient Greek "philosopher-king" who ruled by wisdom rather than by force and cunning. cruelty strange way — it moves us to pity: there is a psy- nakedness about it that recalls a brute creature. is the equestrian statue of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (fig. and were at pains to give the impression that they were cool in the face of any and all crises. or so they one that can be imagined to rule not merely a family. A rt in the Marble. in the noblest sense of the word.Alas. empire glories must have seemed in rein. Vatican Museums. keep of its dwindling to Con- stantine the Great (fig. set the fashion for more heroic and idealized likenesses. became One more difficult to larger. Philippus the Arab. So. A portrait which succeeds in being human. under Julius Caesar. by contrast. Clearly. this head is Christian emperor. the rulers 46. 161-80 a. and the first No mere bust. but a colony or even an empire. portraiture lost something of its intense individuality. 244-49 a. lifesize. 36) seems lacking in forcefulness. 47). Astride his noble horse (which seems. The face of Philippus mirrors all the violence of the time. feature by feature. reorganizer of the Roman State. 46). Soon the ruler's supernatural power. the Romans now went back to these forms to elevate the images of men to the level of gods. It may seem surprising that when the Republic. The Greeks had given the world unsurpassable forms in conjuring up gods in the guise of men. Such a man was Philippus the Arab (fig. were the years. the turmoil of the overextended empire had already begun. it is as stark as the Republican bust. 44).d. brief it is! For realism. over lifesize. yet in a cion. gave way to the Empire (shortly after this head was made). Rome physical but spiritual.) if he had been merely a successful general who attained the throne by overthrowing his predecessor. suspidark passions of the human mind stand revealed with a directness that is almost unbelievable. Equestrian Statue of Bronze. while not lacking in recognizable personality. whether conferred by divinity or wisdom. 37). one of several remaining fragments of a colossal statue (the head alone is over eight feet tall) that once suspects that as the more complex. who reigned for five 244 to 249 a. the agony of the Roman world was not only chological 45. but here the aim is expressive rather than documentary: all the — fear. no longer seemed plausible. What a portrait years. even the agonized face of Laocoon (fig. too.d. Depictions of the emperors such as Trajan (fig. Perhaps this fierce expression is inherited from Etruscan sculpture (see fig. Marcus Aurelius. Piazza del Campidoglio. like its master.d. 45): a learned man himself.d. especially (as was increasingly the case in the third century a. to control itself rather than to be controlled) he gazes downward at the passer-by with an expression of lofty calm tinged with compassion. Rome A ncient World 33 .

including the children dressed in miniature togas. Greek or Roman painting has been preserved (and that little is Because so little of either largely thanks to the eruption of Mount Vesu- vius in 79 a. the booty displayed includes the seven- branched candlestick from the Temple.Stood 41 ). head everything is sq out of pro- In this portion to the scale of ordinary feel crushed by its men we that immensity. the procession turns away from us and disappears through an arch placed obliquely to the background plane so that only the nearer half actually emerges from it a radical but effective device for conveying the depth of the — scene. Capitoline Museums. most baffling. Early 4th century a. aspect of art under That famous Greek designs were copied and even Greek painters imported. Emperor Titus. still too young to understand the solemnity of the occasion (note the little man boy tugging at the mantle of the young him. height 34 Art in the 8'. fig. 48) was built for Augustus Caesar. This illusion of depth given to a shallow space reached its most complete development in the large narrative panels that formed part com- of a triumphal arch erected in 81 a. the present and and promising.d. The impression some unimaginable of being in the presence of power was deliberate. The Ara Pads (or "peace altar". Constantine the Great. immobile features out of which the huge. for it is reinforced by the massive. so that some of the faces farthest removed from us (such as the veiled young woman facing the youth whose cloak is being pulled) seem to be embedded in the stone of the background. could not foresee the soon to come. 50) may be assumed to have been inspired by . were meant to be identifiable portraits. nephew and successor to Julius Caesar. shows the victory Rome conquered Jerusa49) procession held after lem. and he could confidently celebrate Peace. in her bad times so leadership. The participants. sculptures of the Parthenon serene too. but the number of cases where a direct link can be surely established as well as the Roman rule. and other sacred objects. The forward surge of the crowd is rendered with striking success: on the right.d. and the first to call himself "Emperor. it tells us less about the way Constantinc looked than about his view of himself and his exalted office. the narrative relief. in Constantino's gigantic basilica (sec fig. radiant eyes stare with hypnotic intensity. while turning toward an in front of older child who smilingly him tells to be- have). to memorate One of the victories of the them (fig. nobody will dispute." For him. All in all. what does remain is apt to strike the beholder as the most exciting. There is a self-assurance about this procession which does not depend upon superhuman intervention. It is almost with the feeling of ridding ourselves of an insupportable weight that we turn back to the early years of the Empire to investigate another type of sculpture. Rome Ancient World is small indeed.. the sculptor has made advances in composition: there is a greater concern to give an illusion of spatial depth than in Greek reliefs. with the older art 47. and a kind of joyful the future looked bright dignity that puts us in mind when Athens. But there are also many things that differentiate the Ara Pads from its Greek predecessor: the procession here is a specific occasion rather than a timeless and impersonal event.d. which buried buildings erected leaving us during a relatively short time span to wonder what sort of painting came before — and after this catastrophe). we may be sure. In addition to taking delight in humanizing details. Marble. by name and also in spirit. at least so far as they belong to the imperial family. A Battle of Alexander the Great Against the Persians (fig.

Imperial Procession. the air of frantic excitement." were not frequent in Roman times. Rome the Greek work. such as we think of nowadays when we speak of "paintings.d. Marble. relief in passageway. Movable pictures on panels. Arch of Titus. 13-9 B. Spoils from Temple in Jerusalem. the precisely cast shadows when did all these qualities reach this particular stage of development? We can only say — that we do (see fig. height 7' 10". but an exceptionally elaborate floor mosaic made out of thousands of tiny colored marble cubes. or tesserae. But a Hellenistic picture of what date? The crowding. portion of frieze on the Ara Pads.left: 48. Acit is not a painting. not know.C. height 63". Marble. though we can hardly doubt that it is copied after a Hellenistic picture. or if Art in the Ancient World 35 . as well as by Greek history. Rome below: 49. the powerfully modeled and a tually foreshortened forms. 81 a. for even the Laocoon 36) seems restrained by comparison.

This is strikingly demonstrated by the Odyssey Landscapes. the virtues of the Roman painter's approach outweigh its limitations. . strangely enough. where the human figures seem to play no more than an incidental role. painters Roman spatial depth.d. Pompeii Ancient World such an outstanding had not also existed Roman in part of painting. or later. bluish a wonderful impression of light-filled space that envelops and binds together all the forms within this warm Mediterranean fairyland. 51) from the House of the Vettii in Pompeii. have survived from the third century a. however. mentions it as an established custom in Republican Rome. National Museum. the The portraiture. and fantastic architectural vistas seen through make-believe windows. The the original brilliance of atmosphere creates airy. a continuous stretch of tural features. When landscapes take the place of architechowever. Width of portion shown c. copy of a Hellenistic painting. we find ourselves con- and we quickly realize that the had no systematic grasp of fused. forms sculpture. they have all disappeared wax ancestor images. each illustrating an episode from the adventures of Odysseus (Ulysses). and is reproduced here show in colorplate 3 to the tones. if which historian.lO'/i'.d. to Lower Egypt. There. try to analyze the relationship of the var- ious parts to each other.50. Mosaic. if we want to get some idea of what Roman painted portraits looked like we must turn. One of them has been recently cleaned. The illusion of surface textures and distant views has an extraordinary degree of three-dimensional reality. Battle of Alexander the Great Against the Persians. 51. in Pliny. Rather. but as soon as we Ixion (fig.. Only upon further reflection do we realize is: landscape. It would be strange indeed Rome's particular contribution to the history of Ixion Room. House 63-79 36 Art in the a. These scenic panels are set into an elaborate ensemble combining imitation (painted) marble paneling. panorama subdivided into eight large panels. painted on glass. cluded in the fresco the decorations (on more per- manent surfaces of hard such as the like pictures were in- plaster) Room of interiors. we would if how we were coherence find frail the illusion of to try mapping this ambiguous as it as the architectural decorations discussed above. Naples they were. A few miniatures. of the Vettii.

The Laestrygonians Hurling Rocks at the Fleet of Odysseus. Late 1st century B. Rome .C.m \ » Colorplate 3. Vatican Museums. wall painting in a house on the Esquiline Hill. panel of Odyssey Landscapes.

Interior (view toward apse). Ravenna . Apollinare in Classe.d. S.Colorplate 4. 533-549 a.

The new capital also symbolized the new Christian basis of the Roman state. soon fell prey to invading Germanic tribes goths. thus the Russian stantinople.d. New York (Gift of Edward S. fell to the Normans. 2nd century a. survived these onslaughts. Constantine the Great ful decision. Before Egypt came under Roman dominion. Vandals. in contrast. ruled by western Roman emperors. a Romanized strange version of the traditional Egyptian mummycase has been found. soon came to be disputed. with its domain reduced to the Balkans and Greece. for example. As in 52. yet within a hundred years the division had become an accomplished fact. Lower Egypt. 52) is as sparkling and natural as anyone might wish. or Byzantine. head claim. Roman Empire to a religious split as well. when the Turks finally con- EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART 4. 13 x IVa". even though the emperors at Constantinople did not relinquish their claim to the western provinces. could no longer claim the status of gods. Church and an Eastern. differences in doctrine began to develop. fig. and under Justinian (527565 a. and eventually the division of Christendom into a Western. In taking this step. or Orthodox. exacting a double allegiance from the faithful but sharing the vicissitudes of political power.) reached new power and stability. Museum Harkness. Ostrogoths. the Pope Peter. unlike their pagan predecessors. Church became all but final. modeled in stone. while the last Byzantine possessions in the West (in southern Italy) ern. and became an international institution reflecting its character as the Universal Church. the artist has magnified and stressed certain features: the eyes. His however. Constantine imperial division of the sixth century the last trace of cen- (a development that had been going on for some time). Portrait of a The Metropolitan of Art.d. if the Byzantine emperors. the divine kingship of Egypt and Mesopotamia. in contrast. stantine. the Turks occupied a large part of Asia Minor. still felt of the the made a fate- consequences of which are today: he resolved to Roman Empire to the move the capital Greek town of Byzantium. wood. It was thus dependent on the State. Yet the Empire. Nor did the tradition die with the fall of Conheritage. exhibiting a sureness of touch on the part of the artist that has rarely been surpassed. in the eleventh century. The latter. The tsars of Russia claimed the mantle of the Byzantine emperors. The differences between them went very deep: Roman Catholicism maintained its independence from imperial or any other state authority. With the rise of Islam a hundred years later. end of the itself. the bishop of thority — from St.the region of Faiyum. The very fine portrait of a boy (fig. it The Lombards. are exaggeratedly large. 47). Art in the Ancient World 39 . or plaster. deriving his au- was the acknowledged as the Christian adaptation of a very ancient in the heart of the Christianized region of the Empire. now these were replaced by painted portraits of the dead. the tralized authority — Visi- had disappeared. executed in lifelike colors on wooden panels. Encaustic on panel. By the peror acknowledged the growing strategic and economic importance of the eastern provinces since quered Constantinople of the Christian Church. But in this happy instance the stylization has not been made with the intention of overawing us (as in the case of Constantine's hypnotic stare. The Orthodox Church. but only" to recall the attractive personality of a beloved child. and Moscow became "the third Rome". the heads of mummy-cases were provided with conventionalized masks. — soon led At the time of Con- Rome. the African and Near Eastern parts of the Empire were overrun by conquering Arab armies. held on till 1453. which henceforth was to be known Em- was most thoroughly could hardly foresee that shifting the seat of power would result in splitting the realm. 1918) the sculptured busts. In 323 a. The East- Empire. from the Faiyum. or Catholic.d. they kept a unique and equally exalted role by placing themselves at the head of the Church as well as the State. Boy. We will recognize this pattern as Constantinople. was based on the union of spiritual and secular authority in the person of the emperor.

The East experienced no such break. strictly any produced by or for Christians during the time prior to the splitting off of the Orroughly. define a style. ever. the in which the new religion. symtectural him the original meanwas a matter of small interest. a simple device that forms the cross. If more flourmakes it diffi- the dearth of material from the ishing Eastern Christian colonies cult to judge these pictures in a larger context." on the other speaking. there. on the right he emerges from the whale. This Old Testament miracle enjoyed immense favor in Early Christian art. Even the geometric framework shares in the bolic content.d. as proof of the Lord's power to rescue the faithful from the jaws of faith. and at the bottom. Catacomb of SS. howand Germanic peoples fell heir to politically as well. and transformed it into that of the Middle Ages. although the Greek and Oriental elements came increasingly to the fore expense of the Roman heritage. But the catacomb painter has used this traditional vocabulary to convey a new. not only con- versant with artistic currents in both parts of the Empire. as was its Byzantine parent body. still those of Thus we recog- compartmental divisions as a late and highly simplified echo of the illusionistic archi- schemes in Pompeian painting. for the first three centuries of the Christian Era we have ies to little go on when trying to trace the evolu- tion of art in the service of the The only exception is walls of catacombs. of which Early Christian art had been a part. designates not only the art of the Eastern Roman Empire. the first five centuthodox Church ries of our era. and the modeling of the figures. Pietro e Marcellino.— Orthodox Church was closel) tied to the State. The imagery of the catacombs. official center of the faith. Celtic civilization of Roman late antiquity. but here the oculus in the center has been connected to the outer ring by four pairs of brackets. too. work of it refers. much as the ceiling of the Pantheon was meant to (see p. older and larger Christian communities existed in the great cit- of North Africa and the Near East. but almost succeeded in reuniting them the Soon after him." at the 53. Early 4th century a. It is the religious even more than the political separation of East and West that makes it impossible to discuss the development of Christian art in the Roman Empire under a single "Early Christian" does not. late antiquity lived on. he meditates upon the mercy of the Lord. heading." as one historian has observed. though debased in the hands of an artist of very modest ability. In the central ful . The semicircular compartments contain episodes from the legend of Jonah: on the left he is cast from the ship. also betrays its descent from the same Roman idiom. rather. too. The burial rite were of Rome and safeguarding of the tomb concern to the early Christians. our knowledge of them is scanty in the extreme. they nevertheless spirit of the 40 Art in the Ancient World new task: the great circle suggests the Dome of Heaven. the main symbol of the medallion we see a youthshepherd with a sheep on his shoulders. Painted Ceiling. but a specific quality of style as well. al- though the forms are pre-Christian nize the Roman in essence painting. Actually. can be traced as far back as the Archaic Greeks. "but they remained Greeks to the end. there is no sharp dividing line between the two until after who was the reign of Justinian. vital clearly expresses this otherworldly outlook. As a consequence Byzantine civilization never experienced the flux and fusion that created medieval art: "The Byzantines may have been senile. "Byzantine art. Since this style grew out of certain tendencies that can be traced back to the time of Constantine. safe again on dry land. whose faith rested on the hope of eternal life in paradise. It is true that this form. 31). or even earlier. on the underground passages the painting found Roman Christians buried their dead. to art — hand. but here it has become an emblem of Christ the Saviour the Good Shepherd. so that to ing of the forms Rome was not the yet Before Constantine. tell us a good deal about the communities that sponsored them. as can be seen in the painted ceiling in figure 53. such as Alexandria and Antioch. and they probably had artistic traditions of their own of which we seem to catch glimpses in the mainstream of art at a much later date.

we may note that the eastern end. either for expanse or technique. combining the spacious interior. they had used marble tesserae having a limited range of colors. in addi- tion to the more expert use plus-arch construction. for the purpose of achieving an "illusion of unreality. screenlike effect is produced." To glory transport the spectator into realms was not. too. and the explosion of vivid col- and rich materials within. an almost overnight blossoming of church architecture began in both halves of the Empire. see colorplate 4) A rt in the A ncient World 4 . in a traditional members the of figures. Early Christian basilicas cannot be wholly explained in terms of their pagan Roman prede- ritual ble necessary for the performing of Christian before a congregation. is a small-scale. zation of the construction Here the dematerialiis turned to positive account. we find ourselves in a shimmering realm of light. echoed by a matching arcade in the interior. 32). as intangible as it is dazzling. we will find many features to remind us of pagan buildings that have already been discussed: the transverse porch (narthex) which welcomes the visitor to the sacred building. But the Christian basilica had in addition to be the Sacred House of God. usually facing west. Having left the workaday world outside. Like the modest beginnings of Christian art (see fig.d. and turning to the interior view (colorplate 4). with imperial asso- proclaimed the exalted status of the new state religion. Instead of stone. is set off from the rest by a frame reminiscent of a Roman triumphal arch (see the one in fig. At the opposite end of the long nave was the altar.1 The standing death. a church built on Italian soil during the reign of Justinian. Church pleading for divine help. Instead. is opens onto the where Christ presides in the highest Diocletian (p. and mosaics evoke the unearthly glittering Kingdom of God. 54). although the latter served well as a point of departure. The row of arches. their gesture of hands raised represent prayer. S. trast is of the column- the astonishing con- between the plain brick exterior which (unlike classical temples) is merely an envelope for the interior. for all to see. 50). 533-49 a. cessors. of course. This emphasis on the longitudinal axis is easily seen in the exterior view of Sant'Apollinare in Classe (fig. with each tiny square of glass also acting as a reflector. Apollinare in Classe. Although the Romans. now impressive new buildings were wanted. for this reason the entrances. simplified reminder of the portico of the Pantheon (see p. If the exterior of Sant'Apollinare strikes us as unassuming even antimonumental in comparithe interior son with previous building styles — is its — perfect complement. produced mo- splendor of the (see fig. were concentrated at one end. 49). Ravenna (for interior. What is new here. so that they do not lend themselves readily to the copying of painted pictures. The vast and intricate wall mosaics in Early Christian churches really have no precedent. a glittering. 30). Before that. these saics With the triumph of Christianity as the State religion under Constantine. which in Roman secular basilicas had been along the flanks so as to provide many doorways for people bent on a variety of errands. and services were held inconspicuously in the houses of the wealthier members. 31). If we except the round bell tower (campanile) on the left. the only of purpose of these mosaics. 53) they contain sym- bols of the faith (in Sant'Apollinare the Cross plainly visible in the oculus that starry skies. aerial view. the clerestory too had apin Roman basilicas (p. they are brilliant in color but not rich in tonal gradations. the tesserae are made of glass. where precious mar- ors 54. is a form of architecture pioneered under the Emperor ciations tha"t mosaics were more suitable for floor decoration than for walls. the focus of the ritual. congregations had not been able to meet in public. while at the same time obscuring the view of what is to come. where the altar peared earlier was placed.

flanked by the symbols of the flake four Evangelists). For church use and the devotions of the learned there were also illustrated Bibles. Manuscript illumination. was not an ideal surface for painted illustra- repeated bending and unbending would tend to make the paint The Torah. It was strong enough to be creased without breaking. Early 6th century a. Jacob Wrestling with the Angel. Vienna 42 Not so that it became . and thus made possible the kind of bound book (technically known as a codex) that we still have today. toward depravity and ruin. trate scenes from both Old and New illus- Testa- ments." however. illumination) 56. as it is called. or vellum (thin. gradually replaced the scroll.430 Sta. while go one way Lot and his family.d. c. Rome a. thus serving the unlettered as pictureThe Parting of Lot and Abraham (fig.Early Christian artist make the need to was not constrained by a specific event look real. for the of each section realm of heaven. National Library.d. Mosaic. as well as the nave of Santa The idea of some of the pictorial devices that the mosaicist has used (such as the "grape clusters" of heads arising behind the relatively few bodies that occupy the foreground). these Biblical scenes. bleached animal hide). The Parting of Lot and Abraham. out of papyrus reeds. the sacred scriptures tion.d. were not so much illustrations as symbolic events with didactic purpose. for instance. Maria Maggiore. are departing for Sodom. Their "books. Hellenistic come times available: Art in the Ancient World until still late did a better substance beparchment. This 55. making such a series. were scrolls to be unrolled as one read. may well have been derived from Roman narrative reliefs. preserves this ancient format. a Abraham and his clan (the left-hand group) are about to the way of righteousness. But the off. about to exit right. Here. greatly en- hancing the range of painted illustration (or. 55) is one frame of a long series that decorates Bibles. whose stories were known already to most of the faithful. Between this the first and the fourth centuries a. The development of the book format itself is not — entirely made clear: we know that the a paperlike substance. Sometimes they also that are read at each service in synagogues. from the Vienna Genesis. Maria Maggiore in Rome. only Egyptians more brittle.

Vatican Grottoes." like the letters themselves. where He stands. though it must have been preceded by others which have been lost. has a long ancestry going back sculptured relief. was written in silver (now turned black) on purple-tinted vellum. 56) comes from one of the oldest extant examples of an Old Testament book. The Old Testament prohibition of "graven images" was thought to apply Youthful and serene. scroll in hand. reflecting the new. personifying the sky. 57. The earliest works of sculpture that can be called "Christian" are sarcophagi made for the wealthier members of the congre- gation. etc. as a bearded and often suffering man. Junius Bassus himself was a Roman prefect. out-in-the-open position of Christianity now that it was the es- tablished State religion and no longer had to allude to the faith in cryptic. how- shows a richly expanded repertory of subtaken from both the Old and the New Testaments. called the Vienna Genesis. upper row). they differ from pagan sarcophagi not Jacob Wrestling with the Angel (fig. becomes progres- known as contin- uous narration. came to be its lacelike surface decoration characteristics. This aspect of with particular force to large cult statues Christ as a composition. small-scale forms. beginning about the middle of the third keeping with the Christian thought and His power to redeem us from death. religious sculpture — the avoid the had to de- velop from the very start in an antimonumental direction. and adorned with brilliantly colored miniatures. symbolic terms. 53). He sits enthroned in heaven (a bearded figure. Art in the Ancient World 43 . Marble. To those of us who are familiar with only the later formulation of Christ's image. and possibly to scroll books. mosaics. jects. rather than taken in all at once to so much in decoration. but a whole sequence strung out along a U-shaped path.359 a. so form as in the subject matter of the At first this consisted of a somewhat limited repertory. the effect is not unlike that produced by the mosaics which we have discussed. nor does He seem troubled in the scene of Christ before Pontius Pilate. 3' lOW'x 8'. This dignified conception lent itself well is in of the period that stressed His divinity to a revival of and some classical features of com- Such revivals occurred quite frequently during the two centuries after Christianity had become the official religion: paganism still had many adherents (Junius position figures. recognize cult to Him it at may all at first in be diffi- these scenes. ius Bassus ever. rather than the torments that He took on when He became flesh. like some young philosopher expounding his views. This codex. To taint of idolatry. Jonah. (fig. or panel pictures.d. century. Compared sculpture to played worshiped idols in painting and architecture. secondary role in Early Christian times.Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. a pagan temples. Here it permits the painter to pack a maximum of content into the area of the page at his disposal. such as we have seen in the catacomb painting: the Good Shepherd. and the continuous episodes were probably meant to be "read. c. and Shallow carving. holds up His throne) between Saints Peter and Paul (center panel. that progression in space also sion in time. (fig. Rome the small-scale counterpart of murals. The sarcophagus of Jun57) of a century later. This method. which occupies the two panels directly to the right. The scene itself does not show a single event.

which amples of Early Christian buildings in Rome itappearance. there were important leaders of the Church who favored a reconciliation of Chrisfore his death) with the classical heritage. preserves unaltered the self claim — — structural features. always re- tianity mained aware of their institutional links with pre-Christian times. 532-37 a. Sant' better than exApollinare in Classe. we must be glad that the Roman Empire in transipreserved. liest 44 A rt in the A ncient World churches. Istanbul below: 59. Istanbul Bassus himself was converted only shortly bewho may have fostered such revivals. But and decoration of the among ear- the surviving build- . the works he sponsored or promoted have plete an imperial grandeur that fully justifies the acof those who have termed his era a golden age. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus. but in the city of Ravenna. Hagia Sophia. Hagia Sophia.right: 58. and the imperial courts. tion and thus helped transmit. Interior. in Italy. a and an ideal of beauty that treasury of forms might have been irretrievably The reign of Emperor lost. Ironically enough. both East and West.d. They also display an inner coherence of style which links them more strongly with the future of Byzantine art than with the art of the preceding centuries. Justinian himself was an art patron on a scale unmatched since Constantine's day. Whatever the reasons. the richest array of the monuments of this period survives today not in Constantinople. Justinian marks the point at which the ascendancy of the Eastern Roman Empire over the Western became comand final. We have already seen one of them.

the portrait Emperor himself. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidor of Miletus. past and future. Here we find a new ideal of human of the courtiers. domes than lighter. must have come directly from the imperial workshop. saics the windows which pierce the walls made the golden sky-dome seem to float on air itself. Vitale. have come down to us. but Hagia Sophia is the first example of its use on a monumental scale. somewhat later. and now only partially restored) must have been even more spectacular when some great wind. Hagia Sophia thus unites East and West. the walls below the arches have no supporting function at all. of Western architecture as well. and it was epoch-making. as an example of the mosaics of Justinian's reign. in a single overpowering synthesis. the two ian have interiors in common a feeling of weight- lessness (colorplate 4). as though it has a the re- and the dome were so expanding under the pressure of cesses. here. small. 59). henceforth it was to be a basic feature of Byzantine architecture and. was so famous 58. surrounded by his which has survived in good condition in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna (fig. S. the greatest monu- 60. Justinian and Attendants. as was the case with Sant'Apollinare. however. new. Mosaic.d. feet. Although there is nothing unassuming about the grand exterior. The design. many sails The golden glitter of the mo(covered over when the Moslems captured the city. It is only fitting that we use. c. called either pendentivest This device permits the construction of taller. imaginative aspect. The design of Hagia Sophia presents a the unique combination of elements. and perhaps the workmen. with almond-shaped faces dominated by large eyes.ings of Justinian's reign. Constantinople it (figs. but the central feature of the nave is a square compartment crowned by a huge dome abutted at end by half-domes. The weight of the dome is carried on four enormous arches. The plan and of Constantine size will recall the Basilica (fig. The transition from the square formed by the four arches to the circular rim of the dome is made by spherical triangles. Built in in its day that even names of the architects. it has the longitudinal axis of an Early Christian basilica. the pendentives. 60). beauty: extraordinarily tall. slim figures. 41). We do not know the ancestry of this useful scheme. the older and more economical method (as seen in the Pantheon). Ravenna Art in the Ancient World 45 .547 ment associated with the ruler for whom Justinhad a particular admiration. by far the greatest is Hagia Sophia (The Church of the Holy Wis- dom) in 532-37. so that the effect is that of a huge oval. and bodies that seem capable only of ceremonial gestures and the dis- tiny a.

as have the bodies though some modeling is still to be found in the faces. With gold as a background. tilt of the head. 32 x 19»/2". the ef- cannot be called either flat or spatial. but in the medieval everywhere the golden background shines through. and gold used to — pick out fect all the highlights of the forms.C. heroic Christ that we saw in the Junius Not zantine that it disappeared completely from By- but after centuries of repetition. Panel. the sagging the expression of suffering a powerful appeal to the beholder's emo- above: 61. (see 52). rather. Daphne. it tions. Panels such as ours. is transparent. The' majestic images of Justinian's "golden age" continued to pervade all of later Byzantine as well. art But in the Crucifixion (fig. rather than as the descendants of the classical panel painting tradition from which they spring West. and the solemn frontal images seem to present a celestial rather than a secular court. This union of spirthe and itual political authority accurately reflects the "divine kingship" of Byzantine emperors. (Mellon Collection) 46 Art in the Ancient World fig.— play magnificent costumes. Mosaic. Washington. D. of movement or change is Every hint of carefully excluded dimensions of time and of earthly space have given way to an eternal present amid the golden translucency of heaven. National Gallery of Art. 13th century. called icons (sacred images). 61) of the eleventh century in the church at Daphne (Greece) we no longer find the youthful. The Madonna Enthroned (fig. Monastery Church. 62) is a of this kind. work art. The graceful drapery folds. This compassionate quality was perhaps the greatest achievement of later Byzantine art. 11th century. Bassus reliefs. Greece Madonna Enthroned. the tender expression are still there. but they have become strangely abstract. right: 62. exquisiteness of craftsmanship rather than expressive impact came to dominate such images. The throne (which looks rather like a miniature Colosseum) has lost any semblance of solid threedimensionality. even though its full possibilities were to be explored not in Byzantium. as though the picture were lit from behind. should be viewed as the aesthetic offspring of mosaics. for . the lines of the make body. The Crucifixion.

in the year 800. whereas hitherto it had been the other way around (the emperor in Constantinople had always ratified the newly elected popes). although the emperor had to be crowned by the pope in Rome. provincial states along the borders of the Byzantine Empire. a border zone. the legitimacy of the latter depended on the pope. rather than to the Mediterranean. Gaul. the Colosseum of Rome all were made famous (or infamous) by the part that they played in the history of their times. however. and power. and northern Italy. This possibility ceased to exist When we think of the great civilizations of our past. Germany. This is the most important single fact about the Middle Ages: the center of gravity of European civilization has shifted to what had been the northern boundaries of the Roman world. In such a review. and the decay of the Western half of the Roman Empire under the impact of invasions by Germanic tribes.PART TWO ART IN THE MIDDLE AGES /. Western Europe was forced to develop its own resources. The Mediterranean. within a century after the death of Mohammed. The reconquest of the lost Western provinces remained a serious political goal of Byzantine emperors until the middle of built his capital at the center of his Aachen. and in Spain. where the Frankish kingdom. aspired to the status of imperial power in the eighth century. for example. With more than enough to do to keep this new force at bay in its own back yard. once they had settled down in their new land. were overrunning the Near Eastern and African provinces of Byzantium. the Byzantine Empire lost its bases in the western Mediterranean. it will be well north of the Alps. he did not live there. And if we spill a bucket of water in front of that cathedral. Outwardly it was symbolized by the fact that. they had occupied North Africa as well as most of Spain. Charle- cultural magne Roman. but whichever one we pick. the Middle Ages would undoubtedly be represented by a Gothic cathedral. When the Pope. and threatened to add southwestern France to their conquests. Christian civilization: the new states they founded. and the Netherlands meet today. in Art in the Middle Ages 41 . where Belgium. on the northern coast of Africa. were Mediterranean-oriented. of Church and State. he solemnized the new order of things the pull of by placing himself and all of Western Christendom under the protection of the King of the Franks and Lombards. we tend to do so in terms of visible monuments that have come to symbolize the distinctive character of each: the pyramids of Egypt. although in territory that formerly belonged to the Roman Empire. under the banner of Islam. bestowed the title of Emperor upon Charlemagne. effective power. and spiritual. or the Parthenon of Athens. had become a barrier. economic. under the leadership of the energetic Carolingian dynasty. Left exposed and unprotected. This interdependent dualism of spiritual and political authority. for so many centuries the great highway of commercial and cultural exchange for all the lands along its shores. the growing split between the Catholic and Orthodox faiths. political. Yet these tribes. the water would eventually make its way to the English Channel. accepted the framework of late — made when a completely unforeseen new force Arabs. In the preceding chapter we became familiar with some of the events that paved the way for the shift: the removal of the imperial capital to Constantinople. He did not. subordinate himself to the newly created Catholic emperor. EARLY MEDIEVAL ART the seventh century. we have many to choose from. subject to its greater military. By 732. It would be difficult to exaggerate the impact upon the Christian world of the lightninglike advance of Islam. commercial. The Church of Rome broke its last ties with the East and turned for itself felt in the East: the support to the Germanic north. was to distinguish the West from both the Orthodox East and the Islamic South.

have not survived in large quantities. has a very long sources. to carnivore-and-victim motifs. where the animal style flourished longer than anywhere else. the so-called animal style. It is of more rewhose consists of fighting animals legs. as shown here. the some important same artistic achievements. as an ornamental device. The splendid animal head of the early ninth century (fig. such as the gold-and-enamel purse cover (fig. stone. Like the motifs on the purse cover.d. Gold and enamel. Wooden specimens. nostrils). political. The Germanic tribes that had entered Western Europe from the east during the declining years of the Roman Empire carried with them. small. the standing man between two confronted animals. even manuscript illumination. an ancient and widespread artistic tradition. formal discipline and imaginative freedom. gums." With the spread of this new. but also technically and artistically into other materials wood. and as we period also gave shall rise to now see. an indication that the mohave been assembled from different tifs 63. been spun and geometric patterns from metalwork. London a. and gold in southern Russia. In order to unover with interlacing that betray their derivation . Those who coined the term the entire thou- "Middle Ages" thought of sand years that came between the fifteenth centuries as an fifth and age of darkness. Metalwork. there was a great deal of activity in that darkness while the economic. and spiritual framework of Western Europe was being es- empty its interval revival. they arc almost impossible to change. roughly between the death of Justinian and the reign of Charlemagne. Art in the Middle Ages One of them. durable. The design just above them. in the form of nomads' gear.a the dark ages. Perhaps we ought to pare down the Dark Ages even further. techniques and often of exquisitely refined craftsmanship. The eagles pouncing on ducks also date back a long way. the idea of darkness has become confined more and more to the early part of the Middle Ages. had been the principal medium of the animal style. but their combination with the animal style. Such objects. as we might expect. our view of the Middle Ages has completely changed." but as the "Age of Faith. the tablished. even though they may no cal longer be suitable. The labels we use for histori- periods tend to be like the nicknames of people: once established. They "migrated" not only in the geographic sense. Interlacing bands. an between classical antiquity and Renaissance in Italy. Sutton Before 655 British 48 Hoo from the Ship-Burial. 63) from the grave of an East Anglian king who died in 654. Museum. but the surface has as certain details (teeth. account for the repertory of forms. positive conception. Four pairs of motifs are symmetrically arranged on its surface. history indeed: we first saw it 17 in figure — panel more than three thousand years older. we no longer think of the period as "benighted. This pagan Germanic version of the animal style is reflected in the earliest Christian works of art north of the Alps as well. it shows a peculiar composite quality: the basic shape of the head is surpris- — are ingly realistic. seems to have been an invention of the Dark Ages. had existed in Roman and even Mesopotamian art (see fig. and jaws are elongated into bands forming a complex interlacing pattern. 64) is a terminal post that was found. bottom row). each has its own distinctive character. A combination of abstract and organic shapes. Purse Cover. most of them come from Scandinavia. and eagerly sought rapid diffusion of its after. in a variety of materials and tails. Examples of it have been found in the form of bronzes in Iran. it became an important element in the Celto-Germanic art of the Dark Ages. in a buried Viking ship at Oseberg in southern Norway. however. cent origin. Since then. 17. along with much other equipment.

for a manuscript containing the Word as a sacred object reflect the of God was whose looked upon visual beauty should importance of its monks must have known Early contents. While pictures illustrating Biblical events held little interest for them. In order to spread the Gospel. but here again. being ried the essentially character ferred saints urban. howacquaint ourselves with the important role played by the Irish. c. they did de- Art in the Middle Ages 49 . in fact. thus the missionaries who car- Gospel to them from the south in the fifth century found a Celtic society. they developed an independent tradition instead of simply copying their models. height University Museum of Antiquities. By the fifth had spread as far north as western Britain. monasteries soon became seats of their desert prototypes. These Irishmen not only speeded the conversion to Christianity of Scotland. Unlike their English neighbors. but without becoming Rome-oriented. Wood. and Germany. Although their Continental foundations were taken over before long by the monks of the Benedictine order. to be produced.825 a.d. unlike century. sharing a had of discipline. Their felt within hundred years writing workshops also (scriptoria) became centers of artistic endeavor. who. Irish monasteries. the Irish monasteries had to produce copies of the Bible and other Christian books in large numbers. to be called the of Ireland. Cross Page. a.700 Manuscript illumination.above: 64. learning and the arts. which brought them into contact with Mediterranean civilization. how we must 600-800 a. c. Golden Age they came first deserves. Oslo c. ill suited to the Irish Christians rural pre- example of the desert of North Africa and the Near East who to follow the had left the temptations of the city in order to seek spiritual perfection in the solitude of the wilderness. during the Dark Ages. London right: 65. assumed the spiritual and cultural leadership of Western Europe. The Irish readily accepted Christianity. as in so many other respects. The institutional framework of the Roman Church. from Lindisjarne Gospels.5". The period derstand ever. ascetic ideal founded the earliest monasteries. Animal Head. but only in Ireland did monasticism take over the leadership of the Church from the bishops. they also established the monastery as a cultural center throughout the European countryside. Rather. from the Oseberg Ship-Burial.d.d. Christian Irish illu- minated manuscripts. they adapted what they had received in a spirit of vigorous local independence. Irish influence was to be in medieval civilization for several to come. they also developed a missionary fervor that sent Irish monks preachand founding monasteries ing to the heathen northern Britain as well as on the European mainland. entirely barbarian by Roman standards. who were advancing north from Italy during the seventh and eighth centuries. northern France. the Netherlands. the Irish had never been part of the Roman Empire. common Groups of such hermits. British Museum. was of Irish life.

There are also rules. gulf that this Irish artist did not Much know how to same situation prevailed elsewhere during the Dark Ages. attached to a central pattern of whorls. It is as if the world of paganism. The bronze plaque (fig. a this strange. had here suddenly been subdued by the superior authority of the Cross. Palace symme- repetitions of Chapel of Charlemagne. and proved incapable of effective rule even in these. combining Celtic and Germanic elements. that within the animal compartments every line must turn out to be part of the animal's body. head. In order to achieve has had to impose an exupon himself. shows how helpless they were when given the image of man to copy. Interior. His "rules of the game. the HibernoSaxon illuminators generally retained only the symbols of the four Evangelists. clawing monsters. our artist suffered from an utter inability to conceive of the human frame as an organic unit. this effect tremely our artist severe discipline too complex to go into here. zigzags. manuscripts belong to the effort to decorative Hiberno-Saxon style. His grandsons divided it into three parts. and interlacing bands.d. Only by working these out for ourselves can we hope to enter into the spirit of mazelike world. In his attempt to reproduce an Early Christian composition. and feet are separate elements. Of the representational images they found in Early Christian manuscripts. has poured into the compartments of his geometric frame an animal interlace so dense and so trolled movement full of con- that the fighting beasts on the Sutton Hoo purse cover seem childishly simple in comparison. even the Lombards. 66). working with a jeweler's precision.d." for example. 50 Bronze. embodied in biting. there is a wide gulf between the CeltoGermanic and the Mediterranean traditions. National Art in the Museum Middle Ages of Ireland. 8th century a. governing mirror-image try. Aachen shape and color. effects. 792-805 a. with 66. Clearly. The empire built by Charlemagne did not endure for long. and 67. carolingian art. since these could be translated into their ornamental idiom without difficulty. probably made for a book cover. the miniaturist. 65) is an imaginative creation of breath-taking complexity. which flourished in those monasteries founded by Irishmen in Saxon much The finest of these embellishment. so that the figure of Christ becomes disembodied in the most elementary sense. demand that organic and geometric shapes must be kept separate. The Crucifixion (from a book cover?). Dublin human the images. on Italian soil. if we take the trouble to trace it back to its point of origin. so . arms. The Cross Page in the Lindisfarne Gospels (fig. did not know what to do bridge.

would look different without printed in letters whose shapes have contrast. Switzerland in the Middle Ages 51 . The importance of the monasteries. by the reign of Justinian in ital at Odo of Metz (probably north of the Alps known the earliest architect by name). 67) is. forthright. surviving texts of a great many The too. his own capAachen. must convey the majesty of empire through buildings of an equally impressive kind. which were encouraged by Charlemagne. for it proved far more lasting. Art Gall. realm. with bold structural parts that outline and balance the clear. The design. and with those of oldest classical Latin authors are to be found in Carolingian manuuntil not long ago. Plan of a Monastery. in very page them. a in some ways may be termed the most important genuine fusion of the 68. His famous Palace Chapel (fig. Celto- its divisions of the interior space. On his visits to Italy. is derive from the script in Carolingian The scripts. through which he expected to im- monuments of the Ravenna.d. 60). To erect such a structure on Northern soil was a difficult undertaking: columns and bronze gratings had to be imported from Italy. with that of the Mediterranean manu- scripts which. is by model but a vigor- to us plant the traditions of a glorious past in the no means a mere echo of minds ous reinterpretation. along with the imperial title. in fact. were mising. fact that these letters are Roman literature. he succeeded. St. takenly regarded as spirit world. 819-30 a. he had become familiar with the architectural Constantinian era in Rome. from which we have seen the portrait mosaic of Justinian and his courtiers (fig. this to the local no- cultural achievements of his reign. Thus the of semibarbarian the To an the "Carolingian revival" — and first —phase of people of his astonishing extent. Charlemagne himself took an active hand in this revival. he felt. This interest in preserving the classics was part of an ambitious attempt to restore ancient Roman civilization (see also p.'219). and expert stonemasons must have been hard to find.power reverted that political The bility. is vividly Ink on parchment. directly inspired by the church of San Vitale in Ravenna. known today as Roman rather than Carolingian recalls another aspect of the cultural reforms sponsored by Charlemagne: the collecting and copying of ancient Germanic Roman: hence their letterRoman. Chapter Library. was called The fine arts played an important role in Charlemagne's cultural program from the very start.

the hills heave upward in the background. portable works of alart. It emphasizes the church as the center of the monastic community. and other service buildings. Mark from this book has many features that will remind us of the Enthroned Christ from the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (fig. The south side is occupied by workshops. though the eastern end is given emphasis by a raised choir (with steps leading up to it) preceded by a space. France 69. Epernay. partially screened off from the nave and organized transversally to it. Those that were produced in Aachen itself. Municipal Library. and then this copy was sent to the abbot of St. the square outline of the face. occupying a rectangle about 500 by 700 feet. even the hands. though all of them went back to late classical models. flanked by two round towers which must have loomed impressively above the lower outbuildings. St. which can be called a transept a term that we shall meet again in later church Switzerland ( are grouped the side). as a standard plan. rather than for a congregation of laymen. the other with a quill pen that is added to what must once have been an expository gesture. novices' quarters and chapel. a garden. the diagonal drape of the upper part of the toga. preserved in the Chapter Library of St. designed for the devotional needs of the monks. (Our reproduction renders the exact lines of the original. The nave and aisles. containing numerous other altars. including books. do not form a single. This entire arrangement reflects the functions of a monastery church. Manuscript illumination. Its basic features seem to have been decided upon at a council held near Aachen in 816-17. is the GosArchbishop Ebbo of Reims (fig. . a school. therefore. three large buildings to the north of the church are a guest-house. 816-35 a. The scriptoria of the various monasteries tended to produce book illu- minations which can be grouped into distinct styles. from the Gospel Book of Archbishop of Reims. But now the more interesting. around this the large tig. but omits the explanatory inscriptions. one holding a scroll or codex. continuous space but arc subdivided into compartments by screens. and the throne on which Christ is seated in the earlier sculpture has exactly the same kind of animal legs as St. To the east are the infir- mary." with one foot advanced. needless to say. have however survived in considerable numbers. Gall in plans. monks' dormitories (east and kitchen (south side). the vegetation seems tossed about by a whirlwind. — We know from literary sources that Carolin- gian churches contained murals.d. We may regard it. the drapery swirls. Book 69). and the abbot's house. the cemetery (marked by a large cross). under Charlemagne's watchful eye. Gall the plan was not carried out as drawn yet its layout conveys an excellent notion of the character of such establishments throughout the Middle Ages. There are several entrances: two beside the western apse. self-contained unit. 57) made some five hundred years earlier: the seated "stance. a dining hall and a The cellar. and relief sculpture. most entirely. Mark's seat. to be modified according to local needs. There is. The pel Mark. are very close to the originals. Ebbo 52 Art in the Middle A ges of figure is filled with electrifying energy that sets everything in motion. Gall for his guidance in rebuilding the monastery. others on the north and south flanks.) The monastery is a complex. 68). from the west (left). but these have disappeared Smaller. no monastery exactly like this anywhere even in St. mosaics. passes between stables and a hostelry toward a gate which admits the visitor to a colonnaded semicircular portico. and coops for chickens and geese. Adjoining the church to the south. The main entry. there is an arcaded cloister with a well in the middle. The church is a basilica with a semicircular apse and an altar at either end.— — suggested by a unique document of the period: drawing of a plan for a monastery. barns. St. but perhaps if somewhat later.

This dependence on the Will of the Lord. since it led the rying the German emperors into Art centuries in the of conflict Middle Ages 53 . His arms spread wide in what one might almost ture. the civilization. occupying the area that has. ever since. These Norsemen (the ancestors of today's Danes and Norwegians) had been raiding Ireland and Britain by sea from the late eighth century on. an instrument for the recording of the Word of God. the Moslems resumed their depredations. beard- 6' 2". the Holy Roman Empire was to be a German institution. a work of the third quarter of the ninth century. marks the contrast between the classical and the medieval image of what Man is. But the means of expression the dynamism of line that distinguishes our reminiature from its classical predecessors calls the passionate movement we found in the ornamentation of Irish manuscripts of the Dark — — Ages. also revived the imperial ambitions of Charlemagne. the West Frankish king. earliest Christian they soon adopted Christianity and Carolingian again takes us back to the spirit of the images of the Saviour. from 911 on. rather than hang. The influence of the Reims school can still be felt in the reliefs of the bejeweled front cover of the Lindau Gospels (colorplate 5). crucified Christ betrays 70. From then on. and Vikings from Scandinavia ravaged the north and west. about the time that the Lindau Gospels cover was made. after the death while other ottonian art. The main clusters of semiprecious stones are not set directly on the gold ground. meanwhile. The Saxon kings (919-1024) then re- center of political established an effective central the greatest of them. but raised on claw feet or arcadcd turrets so that light can penetrate beneath them Interestingly enough. and this. After mar- widow of a Lombard king. Normans assumed a role not yet conceivable. whose domains corresponded roughly to the France and Germany of today. as yet untouched by human agony. the re- from mains of Charlemagne's empire were ruled by his two surviving grandsons: Charles the Bald. and Louis the German. monarch in 911. Once established there. the and make them glow. less face. Slavs and Magyars advanced from the east. as we can see menting figures that surround Him. nominally subject to the authority of the king of France.d. now they invaded northwestern France as well. Their power was so weak. of the last Carolingian In Italy. height Cologne Cathedral no hint of pain or death. been called Normandy. even though the expressive of great importance in shaping the political hand. the East Frankish king. In the south. so powerfully expressed here. During the was eleventh century.and even the acanthus-leaf pattern on the frame assumes a strange. Wood. the power had shifted north to Saxony. flamelike character. however. Or perhaps we ought to call it a German dream. The Evangelist himself has been transformed from a Roman philosopher into a man seized with the frenzy of divine inspiration.975-1000 a. Otto I. Sicily. with Conqueror being crowned King Norman nobles expelled the Arabs and the Byzantines from South In Germany. that continental Europe once again lay exposed to attack. He seems to stand. c. 870. The Gero Crucifix. he extended his rule over most of Italy and had himself crowned Emperor by the Pope in 962. along with His youthful. Yet this claim had momentous consequences. To endow Him with call a welcoming human suffering ges- and. This masterpiece of the goldsmith's art shows how splendidly the Celto-Germanic metalwork tradition of the Dark Ages adapted itself to the Carolingian revival. government. cultural means were at in the la- destiny of Europe. for Otto's successors never managed to consolidate their claim to sovereignty south of the Alps. and William the in England. their leaders were recognized as dukes.

horizontal panels. Hildesheim Cathedral with the papacy and local Italian rulers. perhaps Byzantine ones too. In the Gero Crucifix we meet an image of the Saviour new to Western art. Germany was the leading nation of Europe. which makes the physical strain on arms and shoulders seem almost unbearably real. the oddly stylized bits of movement we recall from Irish miniaYet the story is conveyed with splendid directness and expressive force. linking North and South in a love-hate relationship whose echoes can be felt to the present day. for the di- the of pels (fig. sculptural bold and named Bernward. remarkable for their classical acter. however. it . but the contrast between them suggests a far greater span. in These are impressively brought home to us if we compare the Christ on the Lindau Gospels cover (colorplate 5) with the Gero Crucifix (fig. politically well deeply German The was a and built the as artistically. The Bernward doors. both areas began as a revival of Carolingian traditions but soon developed new as achievement angular features incised. from Doors of Bishop Bernward for Abbey Church of St. The two works are separated by little more than a hundred years' interval.71. field Our than vertical rather contains a Biblical scene detail (fig. 1015. In these figures we monumental spirit of the seem far smaller than they find nothing of the Gero Crucifix. though a restrained beginning toward this interpretation (see fig. The pervasive presence of Spirit. later be- came Bishop of Hildesheim. establishing a rect link mained German the Byzantine image with its expressive realism that re- strength of German art ever since. nor need we be surprised that Eastern influence should have been strong in Germany at this time. Mark of the Ebbo Gosare a the nated manuscript. Otto III. where he ordered Benedictine abbey church of St. The entire composition must have been derived from an illumi- between the two imperial courts. idea of commissioning a pair of large bronze doors for the church come to him may have Rome. from the midtenth century to the beginning of the eleventh. c. The accusing turning tures. who cleric imbued with an been the main large-scale has tutor of Otto II's son gentle pathos into It sculptor to transform terms. seen against a great void of blank surface. with the date and Bernward's name. differ from these. 69). is the focal point of the drama. existed. 61) was already in the making somewhat earlier in Byzantine art. so new and striking in the St. We do not belittle the genius of the Ottonian sculptor by pointing this out. finger of the Lord. as the result of a visit to where ancient examples. Michael. Below ) it. married a Byzantine princess. for Otto II had original traits. Mi- The chael.23 x 43". Adam and Eve Reproached by the Lord. they are divided into broad. How did he arrive at this startling conception? Particularly is the forward bulge of the heavy body. and Eve ters fields. is shows Adam in inlaid let- Roman char- part of the dedicatory inscription. During the Ottonian period. face them for a piece of goldsmith's work such as Lindau Gospels cover. they actually are. Bronze. mask of agony from which all life has fled. so that one might easily mistake vegetation have a good deal of the twisting. The 54 Art in the Middle Ages heir. 71 after the Fall. and each in high relief. acquires added meaning if paired with this graphic visualization of its departure. 70) in the Cathedral of Cologne.

the Lindau Gospels. The Pierpont Morgan Library. Gold with New York jewels.d.Colorplate 5. x lOVi". Upper Cover of 13% binding. c. .870 a.

1000 a. Munich III.d. Manuscript illumination. . Christ Washing the Feet of Peter.Colorplate 6. from the Gospel Book of Otto c. Bavarian State Library.

They have been borrowed from technology (e. Christ's "active" arm is longer than the "passive" one. and heavy. in turn. celestial now becomes the Heavenly of the Lord. as we have indicated. and Christ — still that of the doctor. Why don't we have more — but terms of this sort? We do. or barbarians). embracing it a host of regional styles. The early historians of medieval art followed a similar pattern. filled with golden against as earthly space without. all of medieval art before 1200 could be called Romanesque if it showed any link at all with the Mediterranean tradition. to this rule: many ways. and without a single cenresembled the art of the Dark Ages which. from which the scene of Christ washing the the Gospel we reproduce feet of the Disciples (colorplate 6). 51). they noted. followed this peak did not deserve a special ern Europe at a much sprang up throughout Westabout the same time. sufferer.g. ROMANESQUE ART style that Roman style of building. or from geography.. solid. which blends Carolingian and Byzantine elements into a new style of extraordinary power and scope. rather like the ancient decorated' Pompeian houses (fig. but by a variety of factors that made for Art in the Middle Ages 57 . Such classical revivals rose and fell with the political fortunes of the dynasties However. had dreams of Roman Empire and becom- tious ruler. though in our context they also designate There are two notable exceptions Archaic and Classical are both pri- artistic styles. filtered through By- marily terms of style. as we shall see only for the art of the last nine hundred years. the place of the beardless and young here A Now. In this it wandered with the nomadic tribes that came from Asia. to them the great climax was the Gothic style (though the term itself was invented by lovers of the classical. picking up local modifications or putting old forms to The welding of new all uses. emphasis from physical to spiritual action is conveyed not only through glances and gestures. like reconstituting the ing emperor himself. That these elements have been misunderstood by the Ottonian artist is obvious enough. but also by nonrealistic scale relationships: Christ and St. — Peter takes St. and was meant to indicate that medieval art was the work of Goths. ethnology. Everything that came before was termed Archaic still old-fashioned and tradition-bound. who a cringing to blame to the passes his mate. or the Bronze Age). For whatever was not-yet-Gothic they invented the term "Romanesque". literally 55) is from not quite so disembodied. and the eight the who merely watch have been compressed into a space so small that we are conscious of them only as so many eyes and hands. Peter are larger than shift of other figures. these components into a coherent style during the second half of the eleventh century was not done by any single force. The men who first conceived the history of art as an evolution of styles started out with the conviction that art had already developed to a single climax: Greek art from the age of Peri- Alexander the Great. the that sponsored them. being merely an echo or a decadence of Classic art. but cles to that of they called Classic — The zantine art. This flourished from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. a thoughtful reader will be struck by the fact that many of the labels used to designate the art of a given place and period might serve equally well for a general history of civilization. The atmospheric have under- the figures gone a similar transformation: in classical art composition had been used to represent a this doctor treating his patient. right direction. perfect). disciples Even the Early Christian crowd-cluster which this derives (see fig. preGothic churches. The same intensity glance and gesture of Ottonian manuscript painting. But this usually happened only when an ambi- Charlemagne. passes it to the dragonlike serpent at her feet. or religion. In this sense.points Adam. distinct yet closely re- Looking back over the ground we have covered in this book so far. the soft pastel hues of the background recall the illusionism of Roman land- striving in the scapes (see colorplate 3). in doing so they were thinking mainly of architecture. This style (that is. with all the glorious trap- pings of old. but he has also put them to a new use: what was once an architectural vista City — House the space. while she. is given the style that name "Romanesque" had broader base: 2. were roundarched. all the way across northern and central Europe. and the architectural frame around Christ is a late descendant of the sort of painted architectural perspectives that term since it had no positive qualities of its own. Perhaps its finest achievement and one of the great masterpieces of medieval art characterizes — — is Book of Otto III. the Stone Age. It contains echoes of ancient painting. as against the arches and the soaring lightness of pointed Gothic structures. they refer to qualities of form rather than to the setting in which these forms were created. lated in tral source.

new towns sprang up everywhere. but the the empire of Otto ther west than central spiritual authority of the place to some pope took extent as a unifying force. with the consequent growth of city life. 72-74). The quickening of energy in both spiritual international Urban IPs that call to the First and secular enterprise is responsible for the greatest single change that we discern in Romanesque architecture: the amazing number of new buildings which were begun all over Europe at about the same period. An eleventh century monk.-Sernin. Raoul Glaber.000 at one time). urban of the quality. from 1095 on. and Pisa. aerial view.d. from the Scottish-English that to — of is to border to central Italy. in the crusades to liberate the Holy Land. If we add to this group those destroyed or disfigured buildings whose original design is known to us through archaeological research.-Sernin (after Conant). The plan immediately strikes us as — — much more complex and more fully integrated . St. in reflected in the greatly increased pil- grimage traffic to sacred sites. Carolingian.. the threat of hostile invading cultures around its outer edges had been stilled." for their naves now had vaulted roofs instead of wooden ones. c. were decorated with both architectural ornament and sculpture. unlike those of Early Christian. Genoa. then. 72. 58 Art in the Middle A ges represented the the world first — importance Catholic the are world. and culminating. The richest crop. and the most adventurous ideas are to be found in France. During the turmoil of the early Middle Ages. a new burgeoning Toulouse of vitality throughout the West. summed it up well when he triumphantly exclaimed that the was "putting on a white mantle of less than 50. and more "Roman looking. some were deserted altogether. political authority was lacking. about one million in 300 a. more richly articulated. trade the The pat- military central to be sure (even I did not extend much farmodern Germany does).-Sernin it cannot be more than that in the southern French town of Toulouse (figs. they began to regain their importance. Romanesque world 73. and their exteriors. either because their momentum gave out or because they were conquered or assimilated. There was a growing spirit of religious enthu- siasm." These churches were not only more numerous than those of the early Middle Ages. St. Equally important was the reopening of Mediterranean trade routes by the navies of Venice. we have a wealth of architectural invention unparalleled by any previous era. Raoul Glaber: from northern Spain the Rhineland. Christianity had at monuments where distributed over an area that might well have last triumphed everyEurope. and the revival of trade and manufacturing. From the eleventh century on. they were also generally larger. and Ottoman churches. Byzantine. and strength of ancient imperial times. In many respects. Let us begin our sampling with St. did indeed become a great deal more "Roman-esque" than it had been since the sixth fell century. Western Europe between 1050 and 1200 a. army its The responded to Pope Crusade was more powerful than anything a secular ruler could have raised for that purpose.d. Plan. the greatest variety of regional types. 1080-1 120 some recapturing the terns. the towns of the Western Roman Empire had shrunk greatly (the population of Rome. and an urban middle class of craftsmen and merchants established itself between the peasantry and the landed nobility.

the apse at the east end. that cover the complex eastern end. the inner aisle continuing around the arms of the transept and the apse. 68). 38). The contrast between St. Even necessary structural features. where altars and chapels for special deVotions are scattered fairly evenly dimensions: the width of the central space of the nave. and where the transept. equals twice the width throughout the enclosure. we are impressed by its tall proportions.-Sernin. Chapels extrude from the ambulatory along the eastern edge of the transept arms. accommodate large crowds of lay worshipers. arches. such as the thick pier buttresses be- tween the windows. cated to the Virgin Mary. pilgrims could rather like the cross inscribed in a circle that "make we saw there the three other projecting parts (the Greek cross.-Sernin and a such as Sant' Apollinare (colorplate 4). such as the Colosseum (fig. The nave is the largest space compartment. with the possible exception of Hagia Sophia. the than the plans of earlier structures. The half-columns running the entire height of would appear just as unnaturally drawn-out to an ancient Roman beholder as the nave wall the 74. anchored to the two towers on either side of the main entrance (these can clearly be seen in the plan. Toulouse arm of Christ in colorplate 6. The nave is flanked by two aisles on either side. our earliest Christian paintings. 74). and the dim indirect lighting. gaged columns. large and small and at every level. Nave and Choir. entypical Early Christian basilica. the architectural elaboration of the walls. as is the tower over the (although this was completed in crossing Gothic style. and is thus often referred to as the Lady Chapel. This type of apse with its elaborations of chapels and ambulatory is called a "pilgrimage choir". of the kind that ap- in pears in the mosaic half dome in Sant'Apollinare (colorplate 4). "muscular" interaction nin are forces of itual Graeco-Roman forces — architecture. unseen Art in the Middle Ages 59 . for example. which serve to stabilize the outward thrust of the ceiling vaults. They seem to be driven upward by some tremendous. Gall (fig. see fig. tends to merge with the altar space at the east end. and is taller than originally intended). which is filtered through the aisles and the gallery above them. become decorative assets. The two facade towers unfortunately were never completed. for all the other all.the superstructure).-Serno longer the physical. but spir- spiritual forces of the we have seen governing the kind that human body in Carolingian miniatures or Ottonian sculpture.-Sernin were groin-vaulted throughout. and pilasters all firmly within a coherent order. Unlike the plan of the monastery church in St. but it is extended by the transverse arms in the (called transept) where more pilgrims could be accommodated to witness the sacred ritual which was concentrated in the smallest compartment of the rounds" of the chapels even when was no Mass being celebrated at the main altar. before reaching the nave. has all arms of the same length. As we enter the nave (fig. rior this rich articulation is the exte- further enhanced by and the cluster of semicircular roofs. that have vaults. The plan shows that the aisles of St. and all around the apse. plainly meant to complete ambulatory (which means "for walking") circuit. but not thus forming a of one compartment On in the aisle. does indeed point up the kinship between St. 53). and that the measurements of these compartments logically form the basic unit. with the stem longer than longest one at the eastern tip was usually dedi- used as a symbol in the Eastern Orthodox Church.Sernin and Roman buildings. this church was the different roof levels of the aisles. St. Its outline is an emphatic Latin cross. Yet the forces knit whose is expressed in the nave of St. though identifiable. set off against the higher gables of nave and transept. or module. with its simple "blocks" of space and unobtrusive masonry.

Poitiers 60 Art in the Middle Ages is it vides a visual feast. Since the west end of St. For him. Notre-Dame-la-Grande.-Sernin serves to remind us that architecture. St." and that the designer here. as elsewhere. ing it has elaborately bordered arcades housseated or standing figures. 75). the "mysterious" semi-gloom of the interior was not a calculated effect. deeply recessed within a framework of is the main extends from arches resting on stumpy columns. 76. In thus describing our experience we do not. Early 12th century. but merely the result of the windows having to be at some distance from the center of the nave. from the ground) in honor of make His house grander and more (a vault gets it the higher it the Lord. to impressive. to suggest that the architect consciously set out to achieve these effects. Their conical helmets match the height of the center gable (which rises above the height of the actual roof behind it). Yet we feel that the whole ther rational nor organic. and the arches are every bit as "Roman" as those used finally in St. Perhaps the designer never studied actual Roman buildings. but nei- pro- had had . Begun c.-Sernin.1068. is successful to the what was him under those particular circumstructurally and aesthetically. Caen St. looking rather like fantastic chessmen. Their insistent rhythm propels us forward pressure. we shall its tow- examine West Facade.-Sernin with ers was never completed.hastening to meet the transverse arches that subdivide the barrel vault of the nave. entrance. No doubt the columns. it was also a challenge to see how high he could if build more difficult to sustain. below large these.-Etienne. is "the art of the possible. A wide band of the center arch all relief across the facade until it is terminated by the two towers with their taller bundles of columns and open arcades. vaulting the nave so as to eliminate the fire hazards of a wooden roof was a practical aim. with its apse and ambulatory (now partially obscured by a large altar of later date). with their classical foliage capitals. Thus. Low and Notre-Dame-la-Grande in Poitiers. toward the eastern end of the church. is The ambitious height required the galleries over the aisles to carry the thrust of the central barrel vault and ensure its stability. West Facade. extent that he explores the limits of possible for stances. the west of France. a town in example of the Romanesque church facade (fig. like politics. even though 75. light-tilled mean of course. beauty and engineering were inseparable. for a lavish wide.

founded by William the Conqueror soon after his successful invasion of England. 77). in Normandy. which we can glimpse through the consist of the same sort of nearly square groin-vaulted compartments that are familiar to us from St. Since the nave bays are twice as long as the aisle bays. separated by strong transverse arches. four huge buttresses divide the front of the church into three vertical sec- and the impetus continues triumsplendid towers whose height would be impressive enough even without the tall Early Gothic spires on top. But how did the architect come upon this peculiar solution? Let us assume that he was familiar with earlier churches on the order of St. They are groin-vaulted in such a way that the ribs. arcade. The ribs. form a double-X design.-Sernin. Decoration is at a minimum and even contrasts of the lesser are played members architectural down. The weight and thrust would be suddenly various curved surfaces between them could be filled in with masonry of minimum thickness. And." St. by the was doing occurred to him that by putting groin vaults over the nave as well as the aisles. where the 77.-Sernin. in fact. and started thrust of the vaulting out by designing a barrel-vaulted nave with galleries over the aisles. in all its refinement of is greatest. since it had no essential supporting function. Where tions. Further north. the thinking that went into Anglo-Norman architecture (for proportions.-Sernin strikes us as full-bodied lar. is and it which has a greater overall length: 400 feet. While he the William started to build thrust. it concentrated at six securely anchored points at the gallery level. Despite its width. this area.-Sernin.-Etienne at Caen (fig. Nave (view toward Durham east). and this vault is the start to be of great interest. bundles of column shafts and pilaster shafts attached to a square or oblong core). of course. in England. 1093-1130. rather than the conventional four. so that mind rather than the visual or tactile faculties. thus the piers alternate in size. For an example soil. the west facade evolved in an entirely different direction. the larger ones. too) is re- so. examples such as that of Junius Bassus (fig. he would gain a semicircular area at the ends of each transverse vault. and thence led down to the piers and columns below. The result would be a pair of Siamese-twin groin vaults. just south of the Scottish border. in each bay of the nave. the nave may have been from designed vaulted. phantly in^ vertical the two and "muscucool and composed: a struc- St. offers a complete contrast to Notre-Dame-laGrande. vault over a three-story nave. Cathedral. are decidedly oblong. 76). for it represents the earliest systematic use (the east end vaulting was completed in 1107) of the ribbed The groin aisles. The nave that we see here actually one third wider than St. Art in the Middle Ages 61 . dividing the vault into seven sections. but the bays of the nave. thus reducing both weight and sponsible for the next great breakthrough in made structural engineering that possible the soaring churches of the Gothic period. used at the junctures of the intersections. and no windows to light the nave directly. the heavy transverse arches occur only at the odd-numbered piers of the nave arcade. we Romanesque on English of Durham Cathe- turn to the interior of dral (fig. That of the abbey church of St.received repertory their forms of through Roman sarcophagi (which were abundant through the south of France). could be broken through to make windows. places it among the largest churches of medieval Europe. being of compound shape (that is.-Etienne is ture to be appreciated. the others cylindrical. begun in 1093. were necessary to provide a skeleton. 57) are decorated with a kind of two-story "doll house" that serves to frame the various Biblical figures. divided into seven compartments.

73)." which was not planned that way but began to tilt beof weak foundations). the Tuscans were content to continue what are basically Early Christian forms. with the pope or the German emperor. Florence A ges themselves from time to time. which had been Roman part of the heartland of the original Empire. and compare it on the one hand with the view of Sant' Apollinare in Ravenna (fig. True. with the closer relation. and Campanile. those farther along toward the west end of the nave are slightly pointed. and furthermore having Early Christian church buildings as readily accessible as classical Roman architecture. if it seemed politically profitable. but it could not have been created much earlier. and on the other with the view of St. Baptistery. which competed among themselves or aligned consolidate a above: 78. much as we see them in Sant'Apollinare. Pisa right: 79. while the transverse arches at the crossing are round. But the essential features of the earlier basilica type.We do not know whether this ingenious scheme was actually invented in Durham. made New from imperial centers of sea-borne tended rather to number of small principalities. The only deliberate revival of the antique cause Roman style was in the use of a multicolored marble "skin" on the exteriors of churches . 62 A rt in the Middle c.1060-1150. the Cathedral complex of Pisa (fig. It comes to have produced them all. indicating a continuous search for improvements. tered the plan to consequent addition of a tall lantern rising above the intersection. 78). in Italy difficult. reinforced by that considerable territorial holdings. were in the north of Europe. therefore.-Sernin in Toulouse (fig. Cathedral. The spiritual authority of the pope. we are left in little doubt as to which is its than it has grown taller and a large transept has alform a Latin cross. 1053-1272. sail-like surfaces of the vaults. but to enliven them with decorative features inspired by pagan Roman architecture. with flat its files of arcades and even the detached bell tower (the famous "Leaning Tower of Pisa. since surwere close at hand to it of as a slight shock. whether commerce or arising local industries. for it is still in the experimental stage here. still continue. we might expect the noblest Romanesque viving classical originals study. If we take one of the best preserved Tuscan Romanesque examples. its ancestor. ambitions prosperity. Turning Central to Italy. Baptistery. Aesthetically. to realize that such was not the case: all rulers having ambitions to revive "the of the grandeur was Rome. the nave of Durham is one of the finest in all Romanesque architecture. 54)." with themselves in the role of Emperor. the sturdiness of the makes alternating piers wonderful contrast a with the dramatically lighted. Lacking the urge to re-create the old Empire.

Some distance north of Toulouse stands the abbey church of Moissac. Bernard of Clairvaux. the Baptistery in Florence (fig. the rapid development of stone sculpture between 1050 and 1100 reflects the growth of religious fervor among the lay population in the decades before the First Crusade. Early 12th century. Ottonian art. since it was destined to play an important part in the Renaissance. being threedimensional and tangible. (fig. St. The link with the pilgrimage traffic seems logical enough. denounced the sculptured decoration of churches as a vain folly and diversion that tempts us "to pilgrimage roads leading to Santiago de Compostela. 70). even dangerous novelty. writing in 1127. classical in few hundred years later. Little of this is left in Rome. stone relief Western survived only in the form of architectural ornament or surface decoration. the entire building. for architectural the sculpture. We shall have to return to this Baptistery again. to the unsophisticated. Just when and where the revival of stone we cannot say with assurance. The green and white marble paneling follows severely geo- The blind arcades are eminently proportion and detail. and to a cleric. 79). Moissac have sculpture began signs of a revival of idolatry. is meant to appeal to the lay worshiper rather than to the members of a closed monastic community. especially when applied to the exte- church. but the interior of the still gives us some nize the desire to idea of it. St. along seemed a frivolous. that it had been a temple of Mars. repre- sented by the impressive Gero Crucifix 80. this might but if any one area has a claim to priority it is southwestern France and northern Spain. we recall. steeped in the abstractions of theology and edgy about any read in the marble rather than in our books. all but disappeared from art after the fifth century. is more "real" than a painted one. a great deal of it having literally been "lifted" for the embellishment of later struc- Pantheon (fig. South Portal (portion). and truly large-scale sculpture. 40) and we can recogemulate such marble inlay in tures. we will recall. in larged the scale of this tradition but not its spirit. Of course a carved image in stone.-Pierre." His warning was not much heeded. a originally The revival of monumental stone sculpture is even more astonishing than the architectural achievements of the Romanesque era. Stone. was limited almost entirely to wood. made of works such as the bronze doors of Bishop Bernward. with the depth of the carving reduced to a minimum. tended to leave the outsides plain). Like Romanesque rior of a architecture. Freestanding statues. in fact. had enmetal or ivory.(Early Christian examples. however. but that very fact is what gave it such great appeal: praying before a statue of a saint made the worshiper feel that his prayers were going in the right direction. since neither Carolingian nor Ottonian art had shown any tendencies in this direction. believe. any large piece of sculpture inevitably did have something of the qual- of an idol. not wafting into the thin air that might or might not transmit them to heaven. exudes such an air of classicism that the Florentines themselves came to metric lines. its south portal displays a richness of invention that would have ity Art in the Middle Ages 63 . Thus the only continuous sculptural tradition in early medieval art was of sculptures-in-miniature: small reliefs and occasional statuettes. the Roman god of war.

It does not happen very often. like children. and to turn his head toward the interior of the church as he unfurls his scroll. — even though they are compelled like our lions to perform supporting functions. but their cruelty. Romanesque churches main portal the trumeau seems perfectly adapted to his precarious perch. originated continued to be felt during period. their fate quite literally hangs in the balance. No visitor. The saved souls Prophet has garments. They belong to a vast family of savage or monstrous creatures in Romanesque art that retain their demoniacal vitality painting. -^is tradition had never died out. gian times (the Ebbo Gospels. some are already beset (whose descendants they are) animated the compartments assigned them. like in the Temple at Jerusalem as Solomon's basin . it Romanesque the 69. just as the agitated movement of the by snakes or gripped by huge. clawlike hands. the dead rise from their graves. 82) 107-18 in Liege. however much usually given over to a is on the centered Enthroned com- Christ. "Mosan" Romanesque sculpture excelled in metalwork. Bernard). of course.— Bernard wince. which is the masterpiece of 1 whose name Huy. Our figure 81 shows part of the tympanum. our sculptor has undoubtedly been influenced by it. colorplate 5. These devils betray the same nightmarish imagination we observed in the preRomanesque animal style. having "read in the marble" (to speak with St. unlike that of the animal monsters. goes unbridled. In manuscript illumination. Interestingly enough. or banished to a position that holds them fixed for all eternity. could fail to enter the church in a chastened spirit. Both have a scalloped profile apparently a bit of Moorish influence and within these outlines human and animal forms made St. with the weighing the right half of of the souls. Autun Cathedral. position as the interlacing beasts of Irish miniatures embody tympanum the (the lunette inside the arch above the lintel) of so that the spidery Prophet on the side of the — also expressive. In figure 80 we see trumeau (the center post supporting the lintel of the doorway) and the western jamb. they is dark forces that have been domesticated into guardian figures. Stone. even if the classical influence did not always produce monumental works. pose. most often the Apocalyptic Vision of the Last Judgment the most awesome scene of Christian art. Above. Their pur- — cling. the revival of individualism and personality may often be linked with a revival of ancient art. The vessel rests on of the earliest artist of the region we know: Renier Judgment (detail). with devils yanking at one end of the scales and angels at the other. but it is no less significant for all that. there had been a particularly strong awareness of classical sources since Carolinin the twelfth ties edged. while the condemned are seized by grinning demons and cast into the mouth of Hell. the magnificent — are treated with the same incredible flexibility. they enjoy themselves to the full in their grim occupation. But what of the crossed lions that form a symmetrical zigzag on the face of the trumeau do they have a meaning? So far as we know. In the valley of the Meuse River. Lindau Gospels cover. Last 64 Art in the Middle Ages twelve oxen of (symbolizing the Apostles). in fear and trembling. 1130-35 81. they simply "animate" the shaft. its ultimate origin in miniature Yet we cannot fully account for the presence of the lions in terms of their effectiveness as ornament. At Autun Cathedral this subject has — been visualized with singular expressive force. and the fig. such as the splendid bronze baptismal font (fig. therefore. At the bottom. c. He even remains free to cross his legs in a dancelike movement. to the The emergence hem of the angelic of distinct artistic personali- century is rarely acknowlperhaps because it contravenes the widespread assumption that all medieval art is anonymous. west tympanum. in this region). they In may snarl in protest. which runs from northeastern France into Belgium and Holland.

it Thus. Bronze. The figure seen from the back (beyond the tree on the left in our with picture). in medieval terms.1130. Romanesque painting shows no sudden revolutionary developments that set it apart immediately from Carolingian or Ottonian. The prevalent tendency of Romanesque painting toward uncompromising linearity has here been softened by Byzantine influence. are amazingly classical." This does not mean that it had been merely emphasizes the greater conti- painting was less important than before: it nuity of the pictorial tradition. soon after the year 1000 we find the beginnings of a painting style which corresponds to and — — monumental qualities of Romanesque sculpture. in the shape of lions. we find here a harmonious balance of design. Victoria figure in figure 17. Baptismal Font. height 25". via several intermediaries. its greatest achievements emerged from the monastic scriptoria of northern France. London (Crown Copyright Reserved) make an in- Bernward's 71) since they are about the contrast structive with those of same height. from Meuse Valley.82. only one example of the period has survived. especially in manuscript illumination. both in the main figure and the frame. Ewer. Belgium. 1107-18. Of freestanding bronze sculpture. to the fanciful performing beasts tion. St. Instead of the rough. and an understanding of organic structure that. but related to it are the countless bronze water ewers. Renier of Huy. unite the varied elements of the composition into a coherent whole. The works produced in this area are so closely related in style that at times is impossible to be sure on which side of the English Channel a given manuscript belongs. These vessels —another instance of monsters doing menial service for the (see p. and southern England. 83. Gilt bronze. expressive power of the Ottonian panel. its graceful turning movement and Greek-looking drapery. that came into use during the twelfth cen- tury for the ritual washing of the priest's hands during Mass. 65). 64) —were of Near Eastern Lord inspira- The beguiling specimen reproduced in 83 ultimately goes back. c. But ultimately the style of such a page as this goes back to the Celto-Germanic tradition (see fig. The reliefs & Albert Museum. height IVa". The stance human and floral Art in the Middle Ages 65 . the style of the wonderful miniature of John (colorplate 7) has been linked with both Cambrai and Canterbury. a subtle control of the sculptured surfaces. As in the case of architecture and sculpture. that St. might almost be mistaken for an ancient work. without losing any of the energetic rhythm that it inherited from the Reims school of illumination. Barthelemy. Nor does it look any more "Roman. dragons. doors (see fig. Liege described in the Bible. and other monsters. Romanesque painting often anticipates the developed a wide variety of regional styles. Unlike architecture and sculpture. Nevertheless. to the precisely controlled dynamics of every contour. even though in this informs may be copied from Carolingian or Byzantine models.

Devoid of nearly all the pictorial refinements of classical painting (see manages 66 fig. the main scene is enclosed by two border strips performing a function not unlike the frame around the St. c. is in turn toppling his adversary by yanking at the saddle girth of his mount).-Savin-sur-Gartempe unity of the page is conveyed not only by style. Hall. is in lapping.-Savin-sur-Gartempe. the eagle. He addresses the builders of the growing structure.84. so that the entire scene be- comes a great test of strength between God and Man. Wool 1073-83. who has just fallen from the horse that is somersaulting with its hind legs in the air. who frantically passes blocks of stone to the masons is atop the tower. He counterbalanced. the Lord Himself. stained-glass win- but partly giant (the lower strip is full of dead warriors and horses and thus forms part of the story). It is an intensely dramatic design. The Building of the Tower of Babel. which shows the Battle of Hastings. whether by dint of force or cunning (observe how the soldier. The Building is Romanesque wall Tower of Babel of the taken from the most impressive surviving cycle. tapestries. Early 12th century. by the Nimrod. the leader of the enterprise. on the far participates directly in the narrative as left. Town linen. The linearity and the simple. 85) (fig. The so-called Bayeux Tapestry is an embroidered strip of cloth 230 feet long illustrating William the Conqueror's invasion of England. St. . 50). in our detail (fig. Abbot Wedricus). Bayeux 85. but to a scale it account of warfare century. Partly it is purely decorative (the upper tier with birds and animals). portion of the Bayeux Tapestry. The Battle of Hastings. and this is not due to the of Firm outlines and a strong sense of pattern at integral to the central action the new kind of individualism that each combatant a potential hero. but by content as well. embroidery on height 20". a little reminiscent of the hand-to-hand combat in the Bayeux Tapestry. sculptured reliefs). on the nave vault of the church St. John (see above). or his identifying symbol. closed contours tion (the of of a painting style such as this lend themselves very well to other media. his source of inspira- dove of the Holy Spirit. the massed discipline of the Graeco- are equally characteristic of painting. The Evangelist "inhabits" the frame in such a way that we could not detailed Roman scene remove him from artist's ineptitude at foreshortening and over- it without cutting off his ink supply (proffered by the donor of the manuscript. and to changes in (murals. portion of painted nave vault. makes dows. on the right. in the hand God). it nevertheless to give us an astonishingly vivid A rt in the Middle Ages and eleventh is gone. 84).

this simple image works reasonably well.Soon after the middle of the twelfth century. each layer having a specific depth its duration. The drapery folds no longer lead an ornamental life of their own but suggest the rounded volume of the body underneath. The Crossing of the Red Sea (fig. shows that lines have suddenly regained their ability to describe three-dimensional shapes. with only a few At the indeed. at first severely architectural in spirit. Klostemeuburg Abbey. then. we meet the pictorial counterpart of that classicism which we saw earlier in the Baptismal Font of Renier of Huy at Liege (see fig. moreover. we have been taught. Yet we tend to think of history as the unfolding of events in time without suffi- cient awareness of their unfolding in space visualize it —we as a stack of chronological layers. That the new style should have had its origin in metalwork (which inthat cludes not only casting. It becomes less and less adequate as we draw closer to the present and our knowledge grows more precise. for its essential qualities are Romanesque pockets left here and there. height 5 A". This shape. and goldsmithing) is not as strange as it might seem. In these "pic- cept of Gothic art suggests the on metal. its depth — — including nearly four hundred years in some places and a hundred and fifty at the least in others. began with architecture. 82). 86). we must consider the changing surface area of the layer that corresponds to past. in turn. tended to become less and less so after 1200. through the Crusaders. Nicholas of Verdun. The term Gothic was coined for architecture. during the Age of the Great Cathedrals dominant role. Indeed. Though the Klostemeuburg Altar was completed well before the end of the twelfth century. the altarpiece was to have a profound impact upon the painting and sculpture of the next fifty years. as well as its depth. are interdependent. style actually grew: it the — — GOTHIC ART Time and space." Nicholas straddles the division between sculpture and painting. the royal domain of the French kings. and for about a century from c. 1150 to 1250. enameling. there is an understandable inclination to rank it as a harbinger of the style to come. There is. but also engraving. as well as that between Romanesque and Gothic art. 1181. Painting. does not with equal clarity in all emerge the visual arts. when the astonishing humanity of Nicholas' art found a ready response in a Europe that was generally reawakening to a new interest in man and the natural world. an important change in style begins to make itself felt in Romanesque painting on either side of the English Channel. 1 It 86. About 1450 it no the Gothic area had begun to shrink and about 1550 it had longer included Italy disappeared almost entirely. as we shall see. and is it in architecture that the characteristics of the most easily recognized. Paris and vicinity). A hundred years later. Austria l Art in the Middle Ages 67 . reached a climax of creative endeavor between tures 3. has a rather complicated shape. one of many enamel plaques make up a large altarpiece at Klosterneuburg by Nicholas of Verdun. some uncertainty even today about the exact limits of the Gothic style are the past style in these fields. The Gothic layer. from Klostemeuburg Altar. rather than the culmination of a style that had been. about 150. start. at last. Enamel plaque. the new style had even been introduced in the Near East. The Crossing of the Red Sea. most of Europe had "gone Gothic" from Sicily to Iceland. Thus we cannot define the Gothic era in terms of time alone. its greatest achievements are between the years 1220 and 1420. or periods. Here. The evolution of our con- way new sculptural rather than pictorial. Only during hundred years have we become accustomed to speak of Gothic sculpture and painting. retained its architecture Gothic sculpture. For the remote where our sources of information are scanty. this area was small embraced only the province known as the Ile-de-France (that is.

-Denis more directly than any other. and just then. as chief adviser to Louis VI. But their power was eclipsed by that of the nobles who. as well as the chief memo- (Charlemagne as well as his father. It was born between 1137 and 1144 in the re- by Abbot Suger. the only area they ruled directly was the Ile-de-France. with religious significance. and the east end (the choir). but in countless other ways as well: bishops and the city clergy rose to new importance. this unity breaks apart: Italy. The Suger. grimage church to outshine the splendor of Toward the middle of the fourteenth we notice a growing tendency for these century. The great Abbot himself described the cam- achievements to influence each other until. which 68 Art in the Middle Ages all as patriotic emotion. Suger wanted to make rial the of the Carolingian dynasty Abbey the spiritual center of France. in theory. A century later. the others. for the church. we must be content here to take note of its importance and important it was: every visitor. That of Notreat Paris. while the artistic efforts of the age culmi- nated in the great cathedrals. kings of France claimed their authority from the Carolingian dynastic tradition. ourselves with the special relationship between St. while and sculpture strive international diffusion as against regional inde- pendence. this movement continued at an accelerated pace. Let us begin by Dame ("Our Lady") . the Italian Renaissance becomes the basis of another in- With ternational style. a surprisingly homogeneous "International Gothic" style prevails almost everywhere. We Central Italy. played a key role in the process. which Suger regarded as the most important part of the church. There had been a vigorous revival of urban life. Pepin. of the royal Abbey Church of St. a gradual shift of emphasis from ar- chitecture to painting. and within a few decades the new style — had spread far beyond the confines of the Ile- de-France. about 1400. the focal point of religious as well regional But in order to become embodiment of such a goal. Suger.[300 and 1350 Alps. supported the papacy in its struggles against the German emperors. Overlying this broad pattern there is another one: tecture setting. -Denis must be understood in this context. while the King. or. -Denis was an abbey. ideally suitable for Suger's purpose: it was the shrine of the Apostle of France. where it comes to be known as opus modemum jrancigenum or ("modern" or "French" work). Flanders assumes an equally commanding position in the development of Late Gothic painting and sculpture. that of the Early Renaissance. in surveying the Gothic era as a whole. better perhaps. cathedral schools and universities took the place of the monasteries as centers of learning (see p. origin of no previous architectural style can be pinpointed as exactly as that of Gothic. Gothic The this skeleton outline to explore the unfolding of art in greater detail. enjoyed a dual prestige that made it "spiritual politics". Gothic art radiates from there to the rest of France and to all Europe. painting both monumental Gothic Early tically the reflect sculpture discipline of and their Late Gothic archifor "picturesque" effects rather than clarity and firmness). for the west facade and its sculpture are sadly mutilated today. He forged the alliance be- tween the monarchy and the Church. In the course of the thirteenth century. finally. If be we how it came to we must acquaint are to understand just there. and they often found their authority challenged even there. since the early eleventh century. a pil- flavor. the visible paign in such eloquent detail that we know more about what he desired to achieve than we do about the final result. Because of the disappointing visual remains of Suger's church today. Paris. were their vassals. the old edifice would have to be enlarged and rebuilt. however. regional variety begins to reassert itself. the sacred protector of the realm. begun in 1163. and the growing weight of the cities made itself felt not only economically and politically. founded in the late eighth century. from architectural to pictorial qualities (characteris- enough. and the French monarchy. creates a radically new art. Not until the early twelfth century did the royal power begin to expand. we will recall. had been consecrated there as kings). we can now guide us. it seems. Although St. the future of Gothic architecture lay in the towns rather than in rural monastic communities. -Denis. reflects the salient features of Suger's St. new the style gradually loses its "imported" brought the bishops of France (and the cities under their authority) to the King's side. was overwhelmed by its extraordinary impact. in turn. Shortly thereafter. His architectural plans for St. with Florence in the lead. 223). championed the monarchy not only on the plane of practical politics but on that of by investing the royal office by glorifying it as the strong arm of justice. North of the leading art after about in became it the thus find. Starting as a local development in the Ile-de-France. and Suger. he sought to rally the nation behind the King. while north of the Alps. -Denis just outside the city of building. has been much altered. 1400.

we cannot distinguish the Art in the Middle Ages 69 . meet the critical spot between the clerestory windows where the outward thrust of the nave vault is concentrated. also. the stubby transept barely exceeding width of the facade. by contrast. The rich sculptural decoration. had been derived from Norman Romanesque facades such as that of St. the use of pointed arches. 88). and. and the stone tracery that makes the pattern is clearly set off from the masonry in which it is imbedded. divided by a rib system that we have not the what we shall find in the met heretofore. each compartment is then not only subdivided by two crossed ribs (the groin vault familiar to us from the aisles of St." and they will remain one of the characteristic features of Gothic architecture. is the "verticalism" of the nave's This depends less on the actual proportions some Romanesque churches are equally tall. Except for its sculpture. In the interior (fig. and apart from supplying actual support. the ends of each rib corresponding to a column on the floor of the nave. the placing of the portals. These arches are called "flying buttresses. which is no longer permitted the spontaneous (and often uncontrolled) growth that we found on some Romanesque churches. the three-story arrangement. which. lightness and slenderness of the forms. they first — of teeth. the cubic severity of the unadorned front of St. rapidly this tendency advanced during the half of the thirteenth century can be seen by comparing the west fa?ade with the somewhat later portal of the south transept (visible in fig. where we find the same basic features: the pier buttresses that reinforce the corners of the towers and divide the facade into three parts. lacelike arcades. by eliminating the part of the round arch that responds the most to the pull of gravity. In preparation for view of the interior. This is known as a sex- Although not identical with the that we found in Durham Cathedral (fig. create in the the "weightless" effect that we associate with Gothic interiors. 76). however. too.-Sernin and other churches). the pointed arch thus exerts less outward pressure than the semicircular arch. In contrast to the heavily emphasized moldings of St. it can be made as steep as one wishes. 87) with that of a Romanesque church (fig. system vaulting vault). but also bisected by a third rib. The plan shows them as massive blocks of masonry that stick out from comparing the plan (fig.-Etienne at Caen (fig. the walls here are left plain. The most monumental aspect of the exterior of Notre-Dame is the west fagade (fig. 75). outlined by transverse ribs.-Sernin.Etienne has been transformed into its very opposite. — turns tresses Gothic. Much more important than these resemblances are the qualities that distinguish the facade of Notre-Dame from its Romanesque ancestors. recalls the facades of the west of France (see fig. relative to their width than on the constant accenting of the verticals and on the sense of ease with which the height has row side (fig. an architect could make them "express" it in a variety of ways. 72): it is very much more compact and unified. 77 the "Siamese-twin" groin partite vauft. which was pioneered in the western bays of the nave at Durham.from the inside. in the former. How been attained. The two halves of a pointed arch. it retains its original appearance. Although they that reaches interior. each of these but- the aisles. The design reflects the facade of St. the rose window (as the round windows in Gothic churches are called) is deeply recessed. in turn. vast portals and windows dissolve the continuity of the wall surfaces. From erations. making a huge. brace each other. which reflect that of the ribs of the vault. -Denis. has become systematic throughout the building. that find it — continues the kind of experimentation was begun in the Norman Romanesque to ways of lightening the load of masonry be- tween the supports. a formal discipline that also embraces the sculpture. with the double am- ble bulatory of the choir continuing directly into 88) we can see that above the level of the aisle compartments. the building like a certainly In Notre-Dame the buttresses (the "heavy bones" of the structure that ultimately take the weight and thrust of the vaulting) are not visi- the out- into diagonally a upward pitched arch owed to their origin to functional consid- soon became aesthetically important as well. At the same time. 89) we find other echoes of Norman Romanesque in the galleries above the inner aisles. in the latter. Here. the large clerestory windows. depending on the angle at which the two sections meet. 90). openwork screen of the whole. which makes them seem thinner. which suffered heavily during the French Revolution and is for the most part the product of the restorer's art. and the columns used in the nave arcade. we may also take note of the vaulting system: each bay (except for the crossing and the apse) along the central axis has an oblong shape. Foremost among these is the way all the details have been integrated into a harmonious whole. The potentialities of the engineering advances that grew out of this discovery are already evident Notre-Dame.

Interior. Paris in the Middle Ages 1163-C. Notre-Dame. 70 Art Notre-Dame.1200. Plan. Paris 89.1200-C.1250. 1163-C. 1163-C. Paris . C. view from southeast.1250. West Fagade. Notre-Dame. Notre-Dame. Paris 90.1250.87. 88.

This would lend substance to the idea that all he needed was good technicians: yet. called. buttresses lacier. until in a few cases they did collapse. to explain this rapid spread: the superior of French architects and stone carvers: the of French centers of learning. stresses insistently that ship it among "harmony. has stood up. Whether or not he was the architect of St. since exemplifies the laws according to which di- 91. he would have found himself with nothing but at a few critical points. Gothic architecture has seemed the result of advances in engineering that made it possible to build more efficient vaults. which as astrously.-Maclou in it almost becomes a game of hide-and-seek to locate the "bones" of the building. Here we tracery of the encounter an ever-present controversy: to the advocates of the functionalist approach. as skill Notre-Dame vast exemplified in the Cathedral of so. The architect has turned into a virtuoso who overlays the structural skeleton with a web of decoration so Rouen (fig. the further evolution of Gothic architecture in France became ever more daring in vault based on the which this kind of construcNaves became ever loftier. "miraculous" light flooding through the "most sacred" windows becomes the Light Divine. which kindled the imagination and aroused religious feelings even among people who were Art in the Middle Ages 71 . the divine order.window apart from its frame: covers the whole area. traordinary persuasive power of the style (fig.-Maclou. Ultimately.- overwhelms us when we step into the finest Gothic cathedrals. web a continuous Though we may trace this or that feature of Gothic architecture back to some Romanesque source." the perfect parts. Germany. Even more remarkable was its ability to acclimate — itself much to a variety of local conditions these act mainly as huge multicolored diffusing Gothic monuments of England. and which still visitors to St. dis- that so as The un- dulating patterns of curve and countercurve of pierced-stone ornament St. so pride in ward After the basic plan of the Gothic church. a the more than To just the which made Gothic churches sum of their parts. of its original stained-glass values so highly praised by Abbot still retains windows: Suger. suggest the fusion of material and spirit- ual beauty that impressed the Denis. St. the major Gothic cathedrals. if that had been all. who tells us himself that he was hard put to it to bring together artisans from many different regions for his project. pointed arch had been grasped. Still. 91 ) in are so luxuriant that dense and fanciful that structure almost completely obscured. solid walls of the a conglomeration of different regional styles in the end. imperceptibly turned into a kind of vine reason has constructed the universe. Rouen is we ended recall amazing to find ("flame-like") out to Tower Gothic. Chartres alone. in fact. is relation- the source of beauty. to concentrate their thrust and thus eliminate the Romanesque. might be brought for- most filters light. Begun 1434. his was West Facade. easy to do on a printed page. the how and why of its success are a good deal more difficult to explain. had been found satisfactory and the such as the Cathedral School of Chartres or the heretofore unimagined flexibility of the groin testing the limits to University of Paris: the vigor of the Cistercian order (founded in France) that built Gothic churches wherever it founded new abbeys. the international victory of Gothic art seems to have been due to the ex- tion could be carried. A number of reasons. and other countries have become objects of intense national that change the quality of ordinary dayendowing it with the poetic and symbolic singly or in combination. prestige 87). Perhaps the purpose of glorifying itself. But is that all there is to it? We must return briefly to Abbot Suger. that the modern times. -Denis. The view is not inside Chartres Cathedral (colorplate 8) will perhaps supply the dimension that is missing from black-and-white reproductions. as of Babel contest. however. Suger's account. the mystic revelation of the spirit of God. however. among is it much Flamboyant the last phase the guiding spirit Abbot Suger had set do. becomes One of the truly astonishing things about Gothic architecture is the enthusiastic adoption that this "royal French style" found abroad.

does not require it to rise high in order to dominate the clustered core of a city like Paris. Though it developed independent of French Flamboyant ornament.92. best exemplified in Salisbury Cathedral how (fig. Salisbury Cathedral. later choir of Gloucester Cathedral English Late Gothic ("Perpenis more akin to French church though the repetition of small. such as the emphasis placed on the main portal by the tall windows above it. to give spiritual once — different it is sanction to a royal dynasty. but in its links to Anglo-Norman past. 1220-70 removed from far the cultural climate of the Ile-de-France. The vaulting displays an innovation which. though given its start by imported French architects. (fig. soon developed its own style. identiforms in the great window recalls the repetition of carved motifs on the Salisbury facade. which seem structurally unnecessary). Salisbury has also retained important features from the Romanesque style. -Denis. -Denis. though it was later adopted on the Continent also. The spire that rises above the about a hundred years the crossing is than the rest of the building. is truly English: the blossoming of the ribs into a multiple-strand ornamental network. 93). in the middle of the open countryside. for its setting. 92). and giving the interior a greater visual unity. With its two tain — 72 Art in the Middle Ages strongly projecting transepts and its sprawling facade terminating in stumpy turrets. obscuring the boundaries between the bays and their subdivisions. It gives us the impression of spaciousness and ease. cal tracery . Early English Gothic. We realize at from the French example and also how futile it would be to judge it by French Gothic standards. and it indicates the rapid development of English Gothic toward a more pronounced The verticality. as though it were comfortable not only in its setting. By accepting cer- French features. there is obviously an artistic kinship between interiors. in the dicular") style. new style is hardly sur- Yet English Gothic did not grow rectly out of the di- Anglo-Norman Romanesque which had contributed so much of the technical experimentation that went into the realization of St. nor had it the same mission as St. it proclaims the new era in architecture even if these features sometimes look like afterthoughts (note the flying buttresses. That England should have proved particularly receptive to the prising.

St. Manuscript illumination. Avesnes.Colorplate 7. John the Evangelist. Societe Archeologique. France . Shortly before 1147. from the Gospel Book of Abbot Wedricus.

View of North Clerestory Wall of the Nave. 1194-1220 . Chartres Cathedral.Colorplate 8.

Padua . Christ Entering Jerusalem.Colorplate 9. Fresco. 1305-6. Giotto. Arena Chapel.

Death of the Virgin. Boston . c. 1350-60. 39 x 27%". Panel. Museum of Fine Arts. Bohemian Master.Colorplate 10.

Santa Croce is Gothic beyond doubt. belong to the early fifteenth century. Sta. There is no trace of the Gothic structural system. fig.these two varieties of intricately worked ar- chitectural decoration. Apart from the windows and doorways. 54.1295. then. and there are no flying buttresses. Nave and Choir. 1332-57 The nave walls have the weightless. are a perfect match for the Romanesque Baptistery across the way (see fig. even though it has wooden ceilings instead of groin vaults. Yet it produced structures of singular beauty and impressiveness. Judged in terms of its emotional impact. encrusted with geometric marble inlays. Croce. Art Begun c. If in Santa Croce the architect's main concern was an impressive interior. 79). most of it hardly can be called Gothic at all. Choir. 94) is a masterpiece of Gothic. lest we fail to do justice to their unique blend of Gothic qualities and Mediterranean tradition. Its most striking feature is the huge octagonal dome (compare Pisa Cathedral. The actual building of the dome. and a separate bell tower. 78). and the dramatic massing of windows at the eastern end forcefully conveys the dominant role of light. Florence in the Middle Ages 11 . Christian basilicas and thereby linking Franciscan poverty with the traditions of the early Church. in acCathedral. Gloucester Cathedral. Florence Cathedral (fig. except for the groin-vaulted choir. evoking the simplicity of Early Italian that of the rest of Europe. "transparent" qualities we saw in northern Gothic churches. This surely was a matter of deliberate choice rather than of technical or economic necessity. 94. since the wooden ceilings do not require them. 95) was planned as a great landmark towering above the entire city. it is also profoundly Franciscan and Florentine — — in the monumental simplicity of the means by which this impact is achieved. cordance with Italian tradition (see figs. covering a central pool of space that makes the nave look like an afterthought. We must be careful to avoid too rigid or technical a standard in approaching these monuments. and the details of its design. The Franciscan church of Santa Croce in Florence (fig. Why. the walls remain intact as continuous surfaces (Santa Croce owes part of its fame to its wonderful murals). speak of Santa Croce as Gothic? Surely the use of the pointed arch is not enough to justify the term? Yet we sense immediately that this interior space creates an effect fundamentally different from either Early Christian or Romanesque architecture. there is nothing Gothic about the exterior of Florence The solid walls. Gothic architecture stands apart from Judged by the style of the Ile-de-France.

West Fagade. It is Cathedral are both modern). fig. and French Gothic facades on the other (see Many 90). Orvieto Cathedral. Palazzo Vecchio. Lorenzo Maitani and others. 1296. Except for the modest-sized rose window and the doorways. so that ings. and its screenlike unmistakably Gothic. The iar west facade.78). it makes an instructive comparison with Tuscan Romanesque facades (see fig. since they mosaics are —an filled with brilliantly effect equivalent to colored Gothic stained glass in the North. Florence . material surfaces but as translucent. tance never in Italy. of its ingredients clearly derive from the latter source. as solid. so dramatic a feature in French achieved the same imporremarkable how few Italian Gothic facades were ever carried near comple(those of Santa Croce and Florence tion cathedrals. entire compete with the central design has a strangely small-scale quality that has nothing to do with its of The Orvieto Notre-Dame in Paris. too. 1420-36 95. is to turrets so as not to and the gable. Begun by Arnolfo di Cambio. Begun 1298.1310 78 Art in the Middle A ges secular buildings of Gothic Italy convey as distinct a flavor as the churches. the finest is Orvieto Cathedral (fig. Begun c. Florence Cathedral. Yet these features have been superimposed on what is essentially a basilican facade like that of Pisa Cathedral: the towers have been reduced lightness. unlike that lacks a dominant elements seem "assembled" rather than merged into a single whole. in the cities of There is northern Europe to 97. facade. actual size. its and large parts of it consist of framed secYet we experience these not tions of wall area. 78) on the one hand. 96). Among those that were. the Orvieto facade has no real openmotif. takes the place of the facade towers familto us from French Gothic churches. dome by Filippo Brunelleschi. The nothing 96.

each with its own axis.-Denis far larger than those of and even more richly decorated Romanesque churches. the Christ of the Ascenframed by the signs of the zodiac. in theory. a term denoting any large urban house) was quite literally of istic life his castle. on the Chartres west portals it appears to spring from statues. the town hall of Florence. as if all the figures had suddenly come to attention. see colorplate 8) reaction against the demoniacal tals of ing homage to divine wisdom) above. a reaction that counterparts. 97). The vast sculptural program for Reims Cathedral had made it necessary to bring together masters and entire workshops from various other building sites. of course. 98). Comparing them with a Romanesque portal such as Moissac (fig. They paved the way for the admirable west portals of Chartres Cathedral (fig. but styles of sculpture developed rapidly. the labors of the ever-repeating cycle of the year. Romanesque the city The were portals of the west facade of St. them into a certain air of heads already show a gen- The jamb sent the prophets. These probably represent the oldest full-fledged example of Gothic sculpture. In the tympanum. they could be detached from their supports. Realism is. 98. 25).match the impressive grimness of the Palazzo Vecchio (fig. It is as though Gothic sculptors had to relive the same experiences as Archaic sculptors in Greece (see fig. Instead of being treated essentially as reliefs carved into (or protruding from) the masonry. and also an idea insistently the harmony of secustressed by Abbot Suger lar and spiritual rule. social factional strife — and prominent families classes. Apparently this first step since the end of classical times toward recap- monumental c. but even more ambitious in conception. begun about 1 145 under the influence of St. and varied from region to region. but stand out separately. and so we have there a compact sampling of several styles. The subtler aspects of this symbolic program can only be understood by minds well versed in theology. finally. we are impressed first by a new sense of order. it served as a lookout against enemies from without or a within. programs of this type remained a of Gothic cathedrals. with scenes from His life below. planned both to withstand armed as- and to proclaim the owner's importance.-Denis. Christ Himself appears enthroned above the main doorway as Judge and Ruler of the Universe. The wealthy man's home (or palazzo. 1145-70 (for view of interior. uous sequence linking round could be taken only by "borrowing" the sculpture of seen underlying symbolic scheme. but main elements are simple enough to be its grasped by anyone imbued with the fundamen- sion. — so character- within the Italian city-states. Symmetry and clarity have taken the place of crowding and frantic movement. and the twenty-four Elders of the Apocalypse in the archivolts above. figures are no longer entangled with chitectural each other. government could feel well protected from the wrath of angry crowds. Fortresslike structures such as this reflect the among political parties. a contin- three portals. all and queens of the Old Testament. their in the Bible. these are statues. so that the whole carries much better over a long distance. we see the time- left-hand less Heavenly Christ. stone aspects may be not only in the calm. and earthly —an This method traps immobility. solemn spirit of the figures. repre- — — months tle. follows the same pattern. On the right side of figure 99 we Instructive feature Art in the Middle Ages 79 . The tall tower not only symbolizes civic pride but has an eminently practical purpose: dominating the city as well as the surrounding countryside. 80). with the Apostles assembled below. sault The Palazzo Vecchio. but also in the rational discipline of the the turing art. a relative term whose meaning varies greatly according to circumstances. Behind its battlemented walls. The right-hand tympanum shows His incarnation. conscious of their responsibility to the ar- framework. and personifications of the liberal arts (human wisdom pay- cylindrical shape of the column for the figures. while larger. yet the constant human quality that betokens the search for more realism. lined with long figures attached to columns. their purpose is to acclaim the rulers of France as the spiritual descendants of Biblical rulers. Particularly striking is the treatment of the door jambs. West Portals. flanked by the symbols of the four Evangelists. at least. kings. Chartres Cathedral.

is in a severe style. 70). clad in contemporary armor. meet- contrast. richly accented drapery. Reims Cathedral see the encounter between the Virgin St. it was invented as a counterpart to the familiar Madonna and Child. dramatic emotionalism of much earlier Gero Crucifix (see fig. was such a success that the standard formula for it soon became High Gothic sculpture over Europe. smile. the style that they took home with them rapidly took on some of the character of older native traditions. Thus. So rich is the intricate drapery that the body almost disappears beneath it — a characteristic that was to become more and more pronounced as Gothic progressed toward its final stage. as we have come to know far. is quite bluntly realistic.other with the same human warmth Ara the two older children in the Annunciation group In the Virgin cal that links Pacts. Peter. by the vertical columns. part of the choir screen of makes us Naumburg Cathedral recall the in Germany. designed to serve private devotions. 102)." created 224). After 1251. tiny. reflects themes of a desire to Christianity emotional appeal. Annunciation and Visitation. as the strictly 80 Art in the Middle Ages . over lifesize. at first glance. Though artists from all over Europe came to be trained in the great cathedral workshops of France. is round the emphatic face framed by a cap of curls. 101). a representation of the Virgin grieving over the dead Christ. with a rigidly verti- body axis and straight. near the end of the thirteenth century. It is endow with it so the traditional an ever-greater not surprising. Again there is a contrast of styles: Abraham. Stone. Our example (fig. whereas the priest Melchizedek exhibits a further elaboration of the "courtly" style of the angel in the previous picture. gant style. The most characteristic and widespread of these images is the so-called Pieta (an Italian word derived from the Latin pietas. 100. 1225-45. Reims Cathedral fagade. Mary and Elizabeth (the Visitation). so expert is classicism of these Ara Pads relief erned. there- the that Germany played a particular role. No longer govChartres figures were. the strong S-curve of the slender body. we have not seen before. in developing a new kind of religious imagery. the root word for both works that. in conspicuously graceful: we note the ing at sharp angles. they seem almost to have stepped out of the "piety" and "pity"). Melchizedek and Abraham. the relief showing the Kiss of Judas (fig. 99. all A group slightly later (fig. Stone. This "ele- about 1240 by Parisian masters working for the royal court (see also p. they turn toward each scene occurs in the Scriptures. 48). like most such fore. here brought to a theatrical pitch by the con- the trast of Christ's meekness and the passionate wrath of the sword-wielding St. left) the (fig. tubular folds The angel. 100) in the inte- Reims Cathedral offers a new pictorialism: light and shade now give the deeply rerior of cessed figures an atmospheric setting which 99. Gothic art. center portal of west c. the ample. interior west wall. No such (see fig.

After and we again find an in- the physical aspects of the 1350 a reaction set in. coupled with a to explore tangible reality. Italian Gothic sculpture. the Moses. (fig.101. 103). Dijon weight and volume. vividly painted. — whelming sense The Pieta. of horror with its and pity. Stone. The Moses height of figures c. Note that the soft. Bonn carved of wood. stands apart from that of the rest of Europe. Early 14th century. explores sculptural style in two new directions: the Isaiah shows a realism that ranges from the most minute details of the costume to the surprisingly individualized head. The Kiss of Judas.6'. screen. puppetlike bodies. Naumburg Cathedral 103. so called for the group of Old Testament prophets around the base. which were part of domain of the German Emperor. Frederick The works made for him have fared badly. south. swinging lines seem to reach out. determined to capture as much of the surrounding space as possible. on choir Stone. including Moses (right) and Isaiah (left). reaches an extreme in the negation of human figure. emaciated. height 34V2". Provinzialmuseum. is Realism here has become purely a vehicle of expression the agonized faces and Christ's blood-encrusted wounds are enlarged to an almost grotesque degree. like Italian Gothic architecture. c. in the works of Claus Sluter. in Apulia the II. Art in the Middle Ages 81 . 1395-1406. Well. Claus Sluter. so as to arouse an over- groups. It probably began in the extreme and Sicily. Wood. The climax was reached about 1400. Pieta. His Moses Well terest in new impulse 102. a new sense of weight and volume. 1250-60. a Netherlandish sculptor working at the court of Burgundy. Chartreuse de Champmol.

Prato Cathedral 82 us fear that lines to buttress the of Isaac. c. and Nicola must have got it from the late Roman style which is also reto the flected in figure 55. Its foremost representative was a Florentine. in 1401-2. with its crowded space. somewhat lacking line in it If easy to understand why the composition seems dramatic force. 106). atmosphere that envelops the Roman scenes. The wcightiness of the classical top half of the figure would top-heavy composition. His Virgin and Child (fig. 99). In 1260 he finished a marble pulpit for the Baptistery of Pisa Cathedral (see fig. who. French influence had been thoroughly assimilated in Italy. The Nativity. Such was the background of Nicola Pisano. fitted well with the imperial image of himself. There is no precise counterpart of this in Northern Gothic sculpture. 86 ). did not extend to the realm of the emotions. Pisa right: 105. time of the International Style (see pp. that was in with the taste of the period. the perfection of craftsmanship. Giovanni Pisano. turning back briefly to the Ixion Room decorations (fig. Nicola's son. which reflects his training as a goldsmith. had Giovanni not used the drapery the Gothic . but all the episodes (Annunciation to Mary. he won makes the prize. But the treatment of space in our relief is certainly different. fig. 33'/2 x 43". above: 104. 78. height 27". Art in the Middle Ages at the the Sacrifice of Isaac (fig. from which we illustrate the Nativity fig.but he seems to have favored the classical style of the 'Visitation Cathedral. Marble. Marble. Annunciation Shepherds) associated with it. or the crouchtypes ing one that have here been revived twelve hundred years later. this is a kind of shallow box filled to bursting with solid forms that tell not ( — — only the story of the Nativity itself. Nicola Pisano. 51) we can spot certain the semi-reclining figure. We reproduce the trial relief that he submitted. 104). which developed out same courtly art in France that had earproduced the smiling angel of Reims (see of the lier left. foreground). instead of the ample. 105) still has the rather squat proportions and the Roman in facial type that we saw in his father's work. but however much he may have owed to French influence. This also seems to have suited Ghiberti's own lyrical temperament. but these have been combined with such up-to-date Gothic traits as the Scurved stance. if imprecise. Ghiberti remained thoroughly Italian in one respect his admiration for ancient sculpture. 1259-60. Lorenzo Ghiberti. who came to Tuscany from southern Italy about 1250 (the year of Frederick II's death). panel on pulpit. showing By about 1400. which Master" 99) of Reims (tie. Madonna.1315. make bottom half might collapse under the burden. Baptistery. that was much more made sculpture tune with the mainstream of Gothic style. Half a century after the Baptistery pulpit. won a competition for a pair of richly decorated bronze doors for the Baptistery in Florence. as evidenced by the beautiful nude figure at — body Giovanni Pisano. for the realism of the International Style. 67.

Yet in the compositions of a great master involved the the maze itself fitting together. Some slacken." except for linear details that were added in black or brown. so that these works on glass. However. ing Bourges Cathedral times. and the descendant of Nichoof Verdun's revival of classicism a genera(fig. window. National Museum. stained glass tends to resist any attempt at three-dimensional effects. which was used immediate Suger's effect in new in ever-increasing quantities as the tecture made room for more and archi- larger win- 107. — names in this secular breed of illuminators in the second quarter of the fifteenth century. the window designers came to be influenced more and more by the the leading cathedral style of the sculptors. we experience the flat background not as a limiting "wall" but as empty space from which the figures emerge toward the beholder (note especially the angel in the upper right-hand corner). After 1250 architectural activity declined and the demand for stained glass began to Lorenzo Ghiberti. has been greatly advanced by Ghiberti. create a figure of true mentality in this miracle in dieval itself: glass medium monu- something of a is the primitive methods manufacture made it of me- impossible produce large panes. Working in the workshops. 1401-2. one of a series of windows representing Old Testament prophets. Yet the technique of stained-glass paint- Habakkuk. Florence 106.14'. The Sacrifice of Isaac. even though the amount of c. of leaded puzzle pieces could resolve into figures that mentality. it did not demand any radical change of style in painting. however. 21 x 17". that of the window maker by means of lead strips. c. he prepares for the great revolution in the arts for the first we that call the Florentine Renaissance. but "painting with glass. Well suited to abstract ornamental pattern. Art in the Middle Ages 83 . miniature painting had caught up with the new style pioneered in stone and glass. Though Abbot St. -Denis had an changing the course of architecture and sculpture. is the direct (fig. time since classical antiquity. kin of Reims las statues like the Visitation group at 99). Gilt bronze. While Ghiberti was no revolutionary himself. such as the have a looming monu- Habakkuk. depth. By then. of odd-shaped fragments that followed the contours of his design. More laborious than the to are not painting mosaicist's technique. The majestic Habakkuk 107). dows. height Stained-glass had already been perfected in Romanesque and the style of the designs did not change quickly.To tion before. Suger himself places a great deal of emphasis on the miraculous effect of stained glass.1220. the centers of production now shifted from monastic scriptoria to urban workshops run by laymen the ancestors of our modern publishing houses. Spatial notably absent in so figure 104. stained caused glass it required in the to displace new cathedrals manuscript illumination as form of painting.

and since the figures obviously cannot step very far to the rear.^ lfi«B*"**tfl t^ _l i «BnJ|M&^4Jj j+A \ vQifen «r ijbi»y itw^w^wjiSi?! W"*xLl 1 77 B All J 1 AtA \m ' '-VK Us I TOw^w^ 108. Manuscript illumination. we met an artist of far bolder and more dramatic temper. and the unmistakable desire on the part of the artist to give his scene lively. of which sculptors Giotto The is the greatest exponent. Giotto subjects it to a . spatially as well (thus. a still-timid wish seems to be at work to give the figures a real space of their own to move in. an instance is Master Honorc of Paris who did the miniatures in the Prayer Book of Philip the Fair. In Giotto. his architecture demonstrates a capacity and define space in a manner more intelligible than anything medieval had produced. and he was a wall painter by instinct. in the soft modeling of human forms. But where Duccio had enriched the traditional scheme. Master Honore has placed a stage-prop landscape. in the Duccio panel). 108) the figures do not seem very firmly anchored to the ground. a panel that shows same subject and was painted about the same time by the Sienese master. 104. panel painting. from the Prayer Book of Philip the Fair. architects were assimilating the Gothic style. process outlined above will. to contain vastly art cal Gothic elements are present. here the struggle to create pictorial space seems to have been won. How. too. sense to us if we consider make more a fine example of "Greek 84 Art in the manner" Middle Ages Italian paint- In contrast to what we have seen of northern Gothic painting. when we delve into the background of Giotto's art. is especially instructive (fig." as the Italians it) appeared soon after the conquest of Constantinople in 1204 by the armies of the Fourth Crusade one thinks of the way Greek art had captured the taste of the victorious Ro- called — mans of old. even contemporary. we find it arose from the same "old-fashioned" we met in Italian Gothic archiand sculpture. Master Honore. There is kept alive in Italy. are faced with a truly development revolutionary here. a certain irony in the fact that this neo-Byzantine style (or "Greek manner. 105). too. His Entry into Jerusalem ultimately derives from the same sort of Byzantine composition as Duccio's. has been carefully studied. Whatever the faults of Duccio's perspective. ing. rather than a panel painter. mosaics. 109). Against the patterned background. such as in figure 100. though the figure style is another matter entirely. A France. historical perhaps. in conjunction with Giotto's Entry into Jerusalem. so that Italian painters were able to absorb the Byzantine tradition far more thoroughly than ever before.H HOW become known to us. It was the interaction of these two currents that produced the new style. touches in order to make us feel that "we are there" costumes and the Master Honore's woebegone David and Goliath. as a result. Here. we wonder. the contemporary expressions as in in narrative detail. The Greek manner prevailed until almost the end of the thirteenth century. and murals techniques that had never taken firm root north of the Alps were attitude that tecture — — At the very same time when stained glass became the dominant pictorial art in the north of Europe. and toward 1300 this spilled over into painting. Christ's Entry into Jerusalem will convince us that we (colorplate 9). Giotto was less close to the Greek manner from the start. they assert their mobility by stepping forward onto the frame. and superior to most classisettings and their Byzantine derivatives. and the up-to-date Gothic tower. Paris We must now turn our attention to Italian which at the end of the thirteenth century produced an explosion of creative energy as spectacular and far-reaching in its effects as the rise of the Gothic cathedral in painting. as we recall. through the city gate. Bibliotheque Nationale. could a work of such monumental power have been produced by a contemporary of Master Honore? Oddly enough. 1295. In the scene of David and Goliath (fig. Duccio had mastered enough of the devices of Hellenistic-Roman illusionism to know how to create space in depth by the placement of various architectural features which lead the viewer from the foreground and up the path. For this purpose. David and Goliath. but the attention given to modeling indicates that stone sculpture. 3 . Duccio di the Buoninsegna. a new wave of Byzantine influence overwhelmed the lingering Romanesque elements in Italian painting. In the and same years. and comes out of the sculpture of Nicola and Giovanni Pisano (see figs. glance single Giotto's at mural. pennant aflutter.

Nor does Giotto have to make his characters step in our direction in order to have them dwarf the spect."jump out at their us": modeled forcefully so convincing that they seem almost as solid as sculpture in the round. The two brothers Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti coupled the joy in contemporary life that Duccio had included in his works with monumentality of scale and a new interest in solving spatial problems. (fig. but within these limits it is very persuasive. The painted architecture has been correlated with the real architecture of the frame in such a way that the triptych. gives some idea of its brightness). from the back of Maesta Altar. the is narrative. But Giotto does not invite us to wander back and even the groups of linger over small things. figures are to be taken as blocks. To who first saw painting of this sort. however. On Giotto's much larger scale. though slightly later in date. so is it there. architec- and sential have been reduced to the esminimum. who succeeds in overwhelming us with the reality of the event. rather. is the boldest of their experiments. that the next step is taken in the de- velopment of Italian Gothic painting. as cio's Duc- against the jewel-like brilliance of panel (colorplate 10. Yet his aim was not merely to rival statuary. nor to into the picture space. and placed so that the the tiny French miniature beholder's eye level is at the same height as the heads of the figures. His boast was that painting is superior to sculpture not — Giotto does indeed mark the start of what might be called "the era of painting" in Western art. allel ture. pace we have surveyed the entire area. harbor great depths of expressiveness. The more we study the picture. Christ stands out alone. much the action takes as is the case in where we noted that some figures were almost advancing toward us out of the frame (fig. His very greatness. tended ors applied to the freshly plastered wall) fur- to ther emphasizes the austere quality of Giotto's painters. or even supethose fect rior. the picture space seems to be a continuation of the space we are standing in. and his contemporaries praised him as equal. rather than in Florence. find our glance traveling at a leisurely from until detail to detail. The action proceeds par- to the picture plane. and the limited range and Aposand the bowing townspeople on the right. Siena 109. he wanted the total impact of the whole scene to hit the spec- an idle boast. Moreover. There are few men in the entire history of clarity figures art to equal the stature of Giotto as a radical intensity of tones in fresco painting (water col- innovator. the vaulted chamber where the birth takes place continues unbroken occupies two panels it — Art in the Middle Ages 85 . rather than agglomerations of individuals. landscape. the radical simplification. Cathedral Museum. With Giotto. to the greatest of the ancient painters be- cause his forms seemed so lifelike that they could be mistaken for reality itself. and architecture is kept to the minimum re- three-dimensionality by quired quently. however. and at the same time Duccio. two are seen as a single system. In The Birth the latter regard. Christ Entering Jerusalem. the efmust have been as sensational as the first Cinerama films in our own day. How does Yet this it is Giotto come about? First of place in the foreground. for generation next of Florentine was more fortunate in this reDuccio had never had the same over- powering impact. all. of the Virgin Pietro's 110). the figures create their own space. Siena art. Panel. for tator all at once. the more we realize that its majestic firmness and bridges the gap between the advancing tles on the left. conse- depth. 1308-11. Its produced by the combined volumes is of the overlapping bodies in the picture. If we we look at earlier pictures. 108). in the center.

was nevertheless painted by a Bohemian. around the year 1400. for what happened there in the latter half of the fourteenth century was determined in large measure by the influ- ence of the great Italians. 1338-40. which in 1 347 became the residence of Emperor Charles IV and rapidly developed into an international center second only to The Death of the Virgin (colorplate 10). Italian. Siena . Although he probably knew the work of the Sienese masters only at second or third fill the life the streets of a well-run city-state. Still. Panel. has already been mentioned in master's picture is connection with sculpture. 111). Good Government in the Middle A ges Birth of the Virgin. The same procedure enabled Ambrogio Lorenzetti. many people his plausible organization of the and buildings comes from a combination of Duccio's panoramic picture space with the immediacy of Giotto's sculptural picture space. 1342. is the vigorous modeling of the heads and the overlapping of the figures that enhance the three-dimensional quality of the composition. We are now in a position to return to Gothic painting north of the Alps. Here the picture surface begins to assume the quality of a transparent window. In order to fresco 111. 6' Wi" x 5' HVi". to unfold a comprehensive view of the town before our eyes (fig. One of the chief gateways of Italian influence was the city of Prague. Cathedral Museum. which we alluded to for its Sienese-like colors. he and houses with teeming had to activity. The left wing represents an anteroom which leads to a vast and only partially glimpsed hall. Palazzo Pubblico. which shows the same kind of space that we know from daily experience. The Birth of the Virgin. Pietro Lorenzetti. the Bohemian no mere echo of Italian painting: the gestures and facial expressions convey an intensity of emotion that represents the finest heritage of Northern Gothic art. 1 110. the architectural interior betrays its descent from works such as Pietro Lorenzetti's Paris. The merging of Northern and Italian traditions in an International Gothic style. suggesting the interior of a Gothic church. Fresco. in his Good Government in the Siena City Hall. Siena behind the column that divides the center from the right wing. 86 Art Ambrogio Lorenzetti. about 360. but painters clearly (portion). too.

Gentile da Fabriano. The Limbourg Brothers. 1413-16. contains a group of remarkable calendar the glad tidings to the shepherds in the pages. however. Our figure painters. The poetic intimacy of this night scene opens up a whole new world of artistic possibilities. The Limbourg brothers. face. they were sitting if 113. he is obviously used to working on a larger scale than manuscript illumination. for their panoramas of man's life in nature. Yet he too commanded the The delicate pictorial effects of a miniaturist. as it looked would be too much to say royal palace of Paris. Chantilly differences are noted here. the 112. had settled in France. possibilities that were not to be fully explored until two centuries later. from Les Tres Riches Heures du Due de Berry. 79). presented as a pathetic figure. first with a sympathetic eye. Musee Conde. we light observed in as an independfirst Even though —dom- the main sources of light are the divine radiance of the newborn Child ("the light of the world") and the burst emanating from the angel is as natural as who brings hills. new awareness of light that the October miniature — inates the entire picture. It is a bright. the Duke of ent force. predella panel of altarpiece The Adoration of the Magi. the in those days). was trying Yet. and some entire compositions.2 shows the sowing of winter grain during month of October. 1423. "realism of particulars" that we first The encoun- ity (fig. Florence Art in the Middle Ages 87 . well. 12 J/4 x 29 1/2 ". was continued by the workshop of the Limbourg brothers soon after the turn of the fifteenth century. well. October. Uffizi Gallery. separate from form and color Berry. his sallow unhappy go beyond mere description. They were Flemings who. like Claus Sluter. enlarged such examples into around campfires. Manuscript illumination. and for the first time since classical antiquity the figures in the foreground cast visible shadows. He is con- footprints that the sower field. In his Nativ- played the major role in this development. Calendar cycles depicting the labors of the effect each month had long been an established part of medieval art (see p. The Nativity. in the distance to the from the scarecrow makes in the plowed The sower is memorable in other ways as his tattered clothing. Gentile da Fabriano was the finest Italian painter of the International Style. to arouse us to the miserable lot of the peasantry sciously on the bank of the far who of the aristocracy in contrast to the life live splendid castle (actually river Seine in their a "portrait" of the it is Louvre. It that the painter cial criticism. the sculptor. even if some to slip in was it so- to be a long time before anyone thought that such matters as one's station in life were not preordained. than among Northern to and later in miniatures. we could hope of physical substance. for the time. tered in Gothic sculpture. Panel. but they must have visited Italy as find work includes a great number of motifs. 113) there is a greater sense of weight. We marvel at the wealth of minute 1 1 the — — detail. sunny day. borrowed from the great masters of Florence and Siena. The Book of Hours that they made for the King of France's brother.

While these images overlap. That in the two salient features of the Renaissance: individualism and humanism. the deep spiritual crises of Reformation and Counter Reformation. Thus it is no surprise that scholars debating the causes of the Renaissance disagree like the proverbial the writings of the Italian poet Petrarch (see p. a belief in the importance of what we still call "the humanities" or "humane letters" (as music. for Petrarch embodies Renaissance.PART THREE ART IN THE RENAISSANCE from classical antiqMiddle Ages. by adoption. an era brought to a sudden end by the barbarians who Art in the Renaissance against Divine letters. The Renaissance. they do not coincide. with the subsequent rivalry of Spain and England as the foremost colonial powers. the Renaissance was well under way. By interposing the concept of "a thousand years of darkness" between themselves and the ancients. the study of Scripture): the pursuit of learning in languages. Perhaps the one point on which history. philosophy. Yet Petrarch and to revive classical his successors did not antiquity lock. the past. want and barrel. but saw on the basis of human classical antiquity as the era actions. is made in him. stock. Again set a pattern. and philosophy for its own end. because the humanists. little was accomplished. we were able to point In discussing the transition uity to the to a great crisis — the rise of Islam — separating two eras. origin of this revolutionary view New of history can be traced back to the 1330s in World. The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries did witness farthe reaching developments: the fall of Constantinople and the Turkish conquest of southeastern Europe." by rediscovering the full greatness of ancient achievements in art and thought and by trying to compete with them on an ideal plane. It when man had reached the peak of his creative powers. for the Renaissance was the first period in history to be aware of its own existence and to coin a label for itself.C." and "a. disregard those few Even who would deny the existence of the animal altogether. so that our concept of the Renaissance may vary as we focus on its fine arts. politics. most experts agree is that the Renaissance had begun when people realized they were no longer living in the Middle Ages. consisted simhistory.d. in this given — The English. they acknowledged unlike that the Graeco-Roman medieval classicists world was now irretrievably dead. but now at last "time in-between" or "Middle Ages" had way to a revival of all those arts and sciences that flourished in ancient times. economics. the first of the great men who made the the founding of overseas empires in the blind if we men trying to describe an elephant. and in Asia. across the barrier of the "dark ages. the journeys of exploration that led to destroyed the Roman Empire. Individualism a new self-awareness and "self-assurance enabled him — — to claim. literature. became the intellectual leaders of the Renaissance.". Its glories could be revived only in the mind. literature. The present could thus be fittingly labeled a "rebirth" renaissance in French and. the Humanism. to ply of "B. By the time they happened. Every branch of it should have had its start mind of one man is itself a telling comment on the new era. and that the "benighted pagans" of represented antiquity stage of history. we are left with a vast diversity of views. that was actually an era of darkness. in Africa. point of view. divided the past not according to the Divine plan of sal- on vation. Heaven from this rather than earth. meant developed its own image of the period. 237). No comparable event sets off the Middle Ages from the Renaissance. Medieval man did not think he belonged to an age distinct from clas- he historic study has sical antiquity. In the thousandyear interval of "darkness" which then followed. against the "age of all faith" established authority. or science. But none of these can be said to have produced the new era. by contrast. the new breed of scholar following him. This statement is not as simple-minded as it sounds. in a secular rather than religious framework. most enlightened to Petrarch. The aim of the Renaissance was not to duplicate the works of antiquity but to equal and perhaps to surpass — — .

but they discovered errors when they matched the books against the direct experience of the dissection table. Playing Angels (right). The humanists did not become neopagans but went to great lengths seeking to reconcile classical philosophy with Christianity. Singing Angels (left). Completed 1432. and learned to rely on the evidence of their own eyes. from side wings of The Ghent Altarpiece (open). Renaissance physicians ad- mired the anatomical handbooks of the ancients. based on a rejection of the Middle Ages. and architects continued to build churches. brought to the new era not the rebirth of antiquity but the birth of Modern Man. Art in the Renaissance 89 . Panel. not pagan temples. this meant that the authority granted to the ancient models was far from unlimited. Bavo. Hubert and Jan van Eyck. It is a fundamental paradox that the desire to return to the classics. St. but in doing so they used an architectural vocabulary based on the study of classical structures. Ghent them. each 63 x 27".114. In practice.

or in several places at the same time? Should we think of one new. How could they create a genuinely post-medieval style in such a setting? Would it not be more reasonable to regard 1420 on. or as a new attitude that might be embodied in more than one style? So far as architecture and sculpture are concerned. The Merode Annunciation." often applied to it. in conStyle their pictures undertaken to tell the truth. it took a second revolution. He was probably Robert Campin. transports us quite abruptly from the aristocratic world of the International Style to the household of a Flemish burgher. An analogous claim might well have been made new school for the flanders. in short. It abrupt in the also reminds us that less fifteenth-century architecture in the North re- mained firmly rooted in the Gothic Whatever we choose to call the style tradition. texture. continuity. and their intense realism had a conspicuous influence on Early Renaissance painting. has whole truth. without making it look either God) from trivial or incongruous. for Renaissance painting to be born. some questions it. who is recorded there from 1406 until his death in 1444. Comparing it with the FrancoFlemish pictures of the International Style (see fig. A contemporary said of them that nothing worth listening to had been composed before their time. with obsessive determination./. This is the earliest Annuncia- their panel painting that occurs in a fully equipped domestic interior. they took it as their point of departure. — not yet do it with ease his objects. the center panel of the Merode Altarpiece. The first lution in Flanders whose name is of Flemish painters. of North- ern painters at this time. he defines every aspect of every last object: its individual shape and size. It indicates. For the first it time. 84). as it coherent style. did not reject the International Style. material. its color. have the enchanting quality of fairy tales where the scale and relationship of things can be shifted at will. Some scholars believe that the first Renaissance painter was Giotto an understandable claim. overly foreshortened. done soon after 1425 (colorplate 11). where fact and fancy mingle without conflict. they have a close parallel in the field of music: from about 90 Art in the Renaissance tion in nouncing to Mary that she will bear the Son of a symbolic setting to an everyday environment. and this revolution began independently both in Florence and in the Netherlands. so that the break with the past North than was in the South. and its way of responding to light (note the surface reflections and sharply defined shadows). that the creators of the new style in Flanders. phase of the pictorial revorepresented by an artist is somewhat uncertain. Nevertheless. the foremost painter of Tournai. we recognize that it belongs within that tradition. since his achievement (and that of his contemporaries in Siena) had revolutionized painting throughout Europe (see p. the and nothing but the truth. their environment was clearly Late Gothic. THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY As we narrow our as a we whole to the are faced with under debate: Did in a focus from the Renaissance Renaissance in the fine arts. the Netherlands produced a school of composers so revolutionary as to dominate the development of music throughout Europe for the next hundred years (see p. the situation is less clear-cut. 230). rather. as the phase of Gothic painting? If we treat them here as the Northern counterpart of the Early Renaissance. Thus the lilies denote the Virgin's . painters of the and com- International had never aimed at such consistency. despite its great importance. The stability. there is general agreement that the Renaissance began in Florence soon after 1400. unlike their Italian contemporaries. 112)." which means that any detail within the picture. Campin. But. While — the new realism of Florentine painting after about 1420 is clearly part of the Early Renaissance movement. Among his finest works is the Annunciation. Moreover. may carry a symbolic message. originate specific center. yet rial we also find in experience. new pictowe have the a sensation of actually looking through the surface of the panel into a spatial world with all the essential qualities of everyday reality: unlimited depth. however casual. He has solved the prob- lem by a method known as "disguised symbolism. for instance. a century after Giotto. Campin has here faced a problem no one had met before: how final to transfer a supernatural event (the angel an- work. The twin revolutions — — were linked by a common aim the conquest of the visible world beyond the limits of the International Gothic style yet they were sharply separated in almost every other respect. we do so for several reasons. The great Flemish masters whose work we are about to examine were as much admired in Italy as they were at home. although the term has some justification. hardly does justice to its special character. we have no satisfactory name for its counterpart in the North. He does trast. In painting. like that are Gothic still art. pleteness. tend to jostle each other in space. The label "Late Gothic.

while his older brother Hubert. the deep space. which produced a con- tinuous scale of hues that included rich. All these ef- Cam- fects are essential to the realistic style of were made possible by the use of pin. 33 x HVi". 232). that in Christ "the Word was made flesh"? Clearly." for the painter's basic Thus. but why. they the medium he was among the first oil. Oil.are rendered with the same concentrated atten- tion as the sacred figures. It was extinguished only moments ago. How. It could from thin. bluish — — subtlety. less that their date — Art in the Renaissance 91 . This deeply reverential toward the physical universe as a mirror of Divine truths helps us to understand why in our panel even the least conspicuous details it attitude Last Judgment (colorplate 12). slow-drying yield a vast range of effects. heavy-bodied paint). in contrast. the Flemish masters' conquest of visible reality would have been much more from the technical point of view. now extinguished to show that God has become out? man. realism and symbolism? To him. and what made the flame go chastity. painting. tough. The jewel-like brightness of the older picture." Perhaps the most intriguing symbol is the candle next to the lilies. everything is symbol. If we compare our Annunciation with Merode colorplate of the that an of panel earlier painting (colorplate 10). apparently also a painter. the entire wealth of medieval symbol- ism survives in our picture. in broad daylight. and the scale of intermediate shades is smoother and has a wider range. were too. medium. remains a disputed detail a apparently. Scholars agree is between 1420 and 1425. including the pair of panels showing the Crucifixion and the the two rather than in conflict. at least. 1434. had it been lit. velvety dark shades unknown before. they oil was to medium everywhere. have given way to a color scheme far and but much more flexible The subdued tints muted show a new or brownish grays decorative less differentiated. Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride. About the actual Jan's life artist. a and thus merits an equally exacting scrutiny. was a color surfaces. Campin contributed less than Jan van Eyck. quick-drying coat admirably suited to the medieval taste for high-keyed. greens. the "fathers of become modern limited. Panel. the full range of effects possible by oil was not discovered all at once. It ors right also permitted the blending of col- on the panel. The style of these panels has much in common with that of the Merode Annunciation the all-embracing devotion to the visible world. The basic technique of medieval painting had been tempera. Jan van Eyck. translu- cent films (called "glazes") to the thickest im- and the shiny water basin and the towel on its rack are not merely household equipment but further tributes to Mary as the "vessel most clean" and the "well of living waters. potentially. pasto (a dense layer of creamy. Needless to say. could Campin pursue simultaneously what we tend to regard as opposite goals. we become aware of another revolutionary quality of Campin's work. figure. to exploit. the angular drapery folds. we wonder. flat viscous. who was "invention" long of oil and career we know good deal. There are several works that may have been painted by either of the two. if not on whether Jan or Hubert was the author. London 115. its pattern of brilliant hues and lavish use of gold. It produced a thin. a somewhat younger made and much more famous credited with painting. nor by any one man. were interdependent. Without oil. but it is so immersed in the world of everyday appearances that we are often left to doubt whether a given demands symbolic interpretation (see p. He must have felt that he had to "sanctify" everyday reality with the maximum of spiritual significance in order to make worth painting. The National Gallery. in which the powdered pigments were mixed ("tempered") with diluted egg yolk. Has the divine radiance of the Lord's presence overcome the material light? Or did the flame itself represent the Divine light.

7' 2 5/s" x 8' 1W The Prado. Yet the individual forms are not so tangible. Clearly. Panel. This optical so that the fur- phenomenon is known as "atmospheric perspective. the Crucifixion singularly devoid of drama. The two states thus correspond to Heaven and Hell. thest mountain range merges with the color of the sky. ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN. was the greater — challenge to The dead rising the artist's imaginative powers. from the foreground figures to the distant city of Jerusalem and the snow-capped peaks beyond." since it results from the fact that the atmosphere is never wholly Even on the clearest day. Only when we concentrate on the details do we become aware of the violent emotions in the faces of the crowd beneath the Cross. less "sculptural". contemplative bliss as against physical and emotional turbulence. from their graves with frantic gestures of fear and hope. it swallows them altogether. the Van Eycks used acts as a ability to see distant the 92 oil medium Art in the with extraordinary refinement. we must limit ourselves angels singing and making music Surely the work of Jan. Renaissance Viewed as a whole. hazy screen that interferes with our shapes and colors clearly. In the Last Judgment. Their realism is so persuasive that they may serve as important visual evidence for the musical practices of the time (see p. the air between us and the things we are looking at transparent. Atmospheric perspective is more fundamental to our perception of deep space than linear perspective. in the Crucifixion. and completed by Jan in 1432. Madrid graceful but far more realistic than the unbroken loops of the International Style. It is effective not only in faraway vistas. clearly. The entire scene has a continuity and harmony quite beyond Campin's pictorial range. they to two. was begun by Hubert. Everything tends toward a uni- intensity of local colors light form tint of light bluish gray. and the sweeping sense of space comes not so much from violent foreshortening as from subtle changes of light and color. The greatest work of the brothers Van Eyck. the damned being torn apart by devilish monsters more frightful than any we have seen before. we see a gradual decrease in the and in the contrast of and dark. of 114).— 1 16. all is order and calm. even the foreground seems enveloped in a delicate haze that softens contours. If we inspect the Crucifixion slowly. c. the Ghent Altarpiece. Of its twenty panels. and the restrained but profoundly touching grief of the Virgin and her companions in the foreground. and colors. while below it on earth and in the realm of Satan the opposite condition prevails. which records the diminution in the apparent size of objects as their distance from the observer increases. they seem less isolated. as if seems had the scene been becalmed by some magic spell.1435. The Descent from the Cross. The lower half. shadows. as we approach the limit of visibility. all have the — awesome reality of a nightmare a nightmare "observed" with the same infinite care as the natural world of the Crucifixion. this dual aspect of the Eyckian style takes the form of two extremes: above the horizon. show our artist's mastery in presenting large figures at close range. 227). (fig. .

25V4 x 24% (The Cloisters Collection. Purchase) . New York c. The Annunciation. center panel of the The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Panel. M erode Altai-piece. 1425-28. Master of Flemalle (Robert Campin?).Colorplate 11.

The Last Judgment fright). . Canvas. each 22V4 x 1 3A " The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Hubert and/or Jan van Eyck. transferred from panel.The Crucifixion Colorplate 12. 1420-25. New York (Fletcher Fund. . 1933) (left). c.

Sammlung. In the picture. vows in the privacy of They seem to be quite the bridal chamwe alone. the third great master of early Flemish painting. Munich 118. Yet the setting. Conrad Witz. St. painted about the same time as the Arnolfini double portrait. the panel purports to show exactly what he saw and has Jan's role. while the soft halfshadows show the influence of Jan van Eyck. is replete most subtle kind. in florid legal lettering. 103). The modeling here is sculpturally precise. Jan van Eyck produced many. disguised symbolism of the The burning single candle in the chandelier. the exploration of the reality made visible by light and color had reached a limit that was not to be surpassed for another two centuries. Museum. 10). No wonder that Rogier's art. Ghent. the largest and the most remarkable being Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride (fig.1420. the shoes which the couple has taken off remind us that this is "holy ground" (see p. with brittle drapery can see this Campin. The outward events (the lowering of Christ's body from the cross) concern him less than the world of human feeling: the artistic ancestry of these grief-stricken gestures and faces lies in Gothic sculpture such as the Bonn Pieta (see 102) and the lamenting angels of Sluter's Moses Well (see fig." set an example for countless other art- fig. 116). even the little dog is an emblem of in marital fidelity. Dorothy. 1434. conveying the sacramental nature of marwith riage. the Gothic past. Art in the Renaissance 95 . what he owes to them he folds like those of uses for ends that are not theirs but his. since the words above the mirror. 51 x 61". One must be the artist. Their portrait play a — foreign residents included many Italian business- men. The Flemish cities where the new style of painting flourished rivaled Florence as Tournai. Rogier van der Weyden. thus focusing our entire attention on the foreground. which has been well described as "at once physically barer and spiritually richer than Jan van Eyck's. as if his figures were colored statues. the natural world is M erode Annunmade to contain Woodcut. the pathos. Yet Rogier is far more than a mere follower of the two older men. the reflection that is that of a witness. set himself a different though equally important task: to recapture. within the framework of the new cessors. Panel.— ^Wi -|HK s**<?< I j\ m\ v\r§i 1 *\v W' hi '^/v 117. tell us that "Johannes de eyck fuit hie" (Jan van Eyck was here) and the date. Geneva yet they also breathe a deeply devotional spirit. Here. 77je Miraculous Draught of Fishes. Staatliche Graphische the world of the spirit in such a way that the two actually become one. We of immediately in his early masterpiece. broad daylight. Indeed. but as look at the mirror behind them. 1444. Rogier has staged the scene in a shallow architectural shrine. however realistic. we discover in two other persons have entered the room. but not until Robert did the major role in Northern painting. The Descent from the Cross (fig. then. the function of a pictorial marriage certificate. renewed interest in realistic portraiture A had developed as early as the mid-fourteenth Campin century. such as Giovanni Arnolfini. stands for the allseeing Christ. 115). c. Bruges centers of international banking and trade. In the work of Jan van Eyck. style created by his prede- the emotional drama. as in the ciation. he and his bride are solemnly exchanging marriage ber.

printed from wooden blocks carved in relief (the areas meant to remain white being hollowed out). 1444. violent movement and ornamental stability. The longer we look at it. 1920) 1 St.So great was the authority of his style that between 1450 and 1500 he had supreme inists. Engraving. and the most important engravers of the later fifteenth century are known to us by name. The ear- first time in our Engraving. his finest prints have a complexity of design. so that much easier to achieve. only a few were gifted enough to impress us today. might be called the Rogier van der Weyden of engraving. Anthony. 107) more than the miniatures which they replaced. Printed pictures. the Van Eycks seems dominant. Witz was an explorer in his own influence of the Nevertheless. he must have had close contact with Campin. 96 19. since his prints are full of Rogierian motifs and expressive devices. The landscape. 240). heavy contours. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. specific part Geneva we know. is an original especially the venture. but they have a ornamental pattern. but in sculpture as well. somewhat younger than woodcuts. the more we marvel at its range of tonal values. was the development of bringing the individual ownership of pictures century within everyone's reach for the printing. Unlike woodcuts. Since the outlines were meant to be filled in with color. history. dating from around 1430. tract masters of high ability until shortly before 1500. and the artist's ability to render every conceivable surface texture merely by varying his . Yet Schongauer had his own powers of invention. 118). already show the influence of the great Flemish painters. see p. New York (Rogers Fund. But it is the setting more than the painted in figures that attracts our and here interest. the — of the earliest Western civilization (for music printing. oldest pictorial printing tech- nique is the woodcut. however. too. Germany's chief contribution to fifteenthart. The steel tool are very fine lines oldest ex- amples we know. right. engravings are printed not from a raised design but from V- shaped grooves cut into a copper plate with a known as a burin. without them. and most original was Conrad Witz of whose altarpiece for Geneva Cathedral. The earliest examples all show the familiar qualities of the (fig. The Temptation of St. had hardly less importance. however. Nor do engravings share the anonymity of early woodcuts. these prints often recall stained glass (see fig. Art in the Renaissance line. Anthony (fig. 1480-90. to be sold for a few pennies apiece. on a level that did not at- International Style flat. the licst the Rhincland soon after 1450. individual hands can be distinguished almost from the beginning. The Temptation of c. 119) masterfully combines savage expressiveness and formal precision. Martin Schongauer. shore of representing the Lake a of "portrait" landscape that type-set printed books were produced nique spread all The new in tech- over Europe and grew into an industry that had the most profound effect on the Alps. spatial depth. dates and initials appear soon after. They were a popular art. To judge from the drapery. A single wood block yielded thousands of copies. for pictures as well as books. the printed book could not have replaced the work of the medieval scribe and illuminator so quickly and The completely. The greatest of them. and richness of texture that is fully equivalent to panel paintings. the rhythmic beauty of the engraved Martin Schongauer. lluenee not only in European painting north of Among the countless artists from Spain to who turned out provincial adaptations of the new Flemish style. ties who knew more about the optical proper- of water than any painter of that time (note bottom of the lakeshore in the foreground). the was a more sophisticated medium from start. includes the remarkable panel shown in figure 117. One of the Baltic earliest Basel. forms are defined by simple.

of Delights. detail Art in the Renaissance 97 . Jerome Bosch.) 120. Madrid of Delights (right wing. wings 86V2 x 38".1500. 76%". c. Jerome Bosch. The Garden The Prado. Panel. The Garden 121. detail) 122. The Garden of Delights (center panel. center 86 V4 x Jerome Bosch.

even though surpassed by any later engraver in this respeet." The huge investment was itself no guarantee of artistic the crisis." throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages. Consciously. fruit. however oddly disguised. We can readily be- italy. etc. and cultural setting in which they worked. not a mere manipulator of materials. unfin- eagerly collected. judged by fixed standards of craftsmanSoon everything that bore a great master's imprint — drawings. So. social. but it to the resurgence of the Florentine spirit. now in the company of scholars and poets. gruesome and found more than once in Northern European art toward the end of the fifteenth century. Florence remained the only serious obstacle to his the The ambition. From the start.. or prised the intellectual disciplines necessary for a gentleman's education — mathematics (geome- try. the Garden of Satan ready asserted itself (witness the monsters are Adam doomed to be the prisNowhere does he so in the Garden of Despite Bosch's deep pessimism. who spent his life in the provincial town of 's Hertogcnbosch. many disport themselves in pools of water. political. Florence faced an acute threat to its independence from the powerful Duke of Milan. fruit. We encounter its extreme form in the strange works of a Dutch painter. have proved so difficult to interpret that many of them still remain a puzzle. had al- Eden in the left wing). he must have been so enraptured by the sensuous appeal of the world of the flesh that the images he coined tend to celebrate what they are meant to condemn. That. surely represents Hell. . The landscape. What does it imply? The liberal arts. only the left one has a clearly rec- ognizable subject: Lord introducing the the newly created Eve to Adam in the Garden of Eden. com- had been classed with the crafts." the champion of freedom as well as gave the rise to a home of arts and letters. rhetoric. the nature work had to be redefined: he came to be looked upon as a man of ideas. the Florentines provided a splendid opportunity for creative talent of every kind. 121 ). level at least. flowers. in the midst of embarked upon a vast campaign to embellish their city with monuments worthy of the "new Athens. the fine arts were excluded because they were "handiwork. 120-22). Jerome Bosch. full of weird and seemingly irrational imagery. every detail packed with didactic meaning. Unconsciously. whereby we are all oners of our appetites. and the work of art was viewed as the visible record of his creative mind. and we Hell. which hailed Florence as the "new Athens. But what of the center? Here is a landscape much like that of the Garden of Eden. is why The Garden of Delights still evokes so strong a response (fig. who was trying to bring all of Italy under his rule. successful resistance of the city new. in this panorama of sinful mankind. The right wing. all possibility on the animal destined for and of Salvation. The birds. grammar. fragments. In the years around 1400. however. Thus. much as hint at the corruption. almost Eyckian in its airy vastness. filled with countless nude men and women performing a variety of peculiar actions: in the middle ground. an innocence. Of the three panels. too. he often became a man of learning and literary ist's own outlook. they parade around a circular basin on the backs of all sorts of beasts. even a haunting poetic beauty. however. This meant that works of art ought not of his to be ship. civic-patriotic kind of humanism. yet there can be no doubt that the delights in this "garden" are those of carnal desire. and philosophy. Schongauer's engraving of the tormented St. They "mechanical arts. now. we are in a better position.burin's attack upon the plate. The art- underwent a change. surely. or marine animals (fig. —was ished pieces sketches. His pictures. every word of the sermon. 122). Anthony reflects a taste for the fantastic that can be lieve this if we study the triptych known as The Garden of Delights (figs. is filled with animals and with hybrid monsters of odd and sinister kinds." having no basis in theory. dialectic. that no explanation is possible. It is simply that we do not yet fully understand the link between the great Flemish painters and did not try to explain this revolution place where and did. by a tradition going back to Plato. Only a few are openly engaged in making love. for the first time. the visual arts were considered essential quality. A century later. there is 98 Art in the Renaissance When we new style of painting that arose in Flanders about 1420. they were given the rank of liberal arts. a nightmarish scene of burning ruins and fantastic instruments of torture. we discussed the why when it took This docs not mean. when the artist gained admission to this select group. most of them are closely linked with enormous birds. this claim was to win general acceptance in the Western world. Regarding the origins of Early Renaissance art in Florence. are symbols or metaphors that Bosch uses to depict man's life on earth as an unending repetition of the Original Sin of Eve. He was not to be we no longer understand today. arithmetic. he was a stern moralist painting a visual sermon. musical theory).

how did he conceive it? Surely not by observing the people around him. on the campanile of Florence Cathedral. fig. Florence 1 24. and thought him a portrait of one of their own statesmen. Marble. at ease in aristocratic society. 1430-32. David. new statue of the series nicknamed is the unidentified prophet Zuccone ("pumpkin head". the first freestanding lifesize nude statue since antiquity. and this in turn reminded him of the Roman orators he had seen Sluter did in the in ancient sculpture. He gained the impression. of divinely inspired orators haranguing the multitude. for the great upsurge of civic art patronage had begun with a competition for the Baptistery doors (see p. 82 ) and for some time involved mainly sculptural projects. filled five of them during the decades between 1416 and 1435. held an undisputed position of leadership. It was in this material that. an autobiography. More likely. It is remarkable how soon this modern view of art and artists became a living reality in Early Renaissance Florence. like late 46). The first half of the fifteenth century is the heroic age of the Early Renaissance. tended to develop into one of two artists contrasting personality types: the man of the world. Donatello. and the fascinating Roman head. has long enjoyed special fame as a striking example of Donatello's realism. and it is indeed realistic far more so than any an123). whose mantle falls from his shoulder like a toga (see fig. noble. Florentine dominated by the original creators of the style. As culture. 48). One of these was to provide statues for the Gothic niches of the bell tower of Florence Cathedral (sec fig. we must discuss sculpture first. The most impressive art. height 6' 5". height 62 National Museum. 95). 124). it is the first of his works to carry his signature. he seems to have regarded the Zuccone with pride as a particularly hard-won achievement. To trace its beginnings. 103). Donatello. he imagined the personalities of the prophets from the Biblical accounts of them. Hence the classical costume of the Zuccone. likely to be in conflict with his patrons. Donatello had learned the technique of bronze sculpture as a youth by working under Ghiberti (see p. Bronze. we may ask. half of which were still empty. It — cient statue or the nearest rivals. The original is now in the Cathedral Museum. there had been only "recipe books" for artists). But.W who might write poems. Art in the Renaissance 99 . 1423-25. the prophets of its Moses Well (see fig. or the solitary genius. a few years after the Zuccone. or treatises on art theory (until then. Donatello. what kind of realism have we here? Instead of following the traditional image of prophets. the founding father of Renaissance sculpture. It is an far left: 123. Prophet (Zuccone). another consequence of their new social status. as Moses Well. The Florentines themselves soon forgot that the Zuccone was meant to be a prophet. ugly portraits (see yet fig. 83 ). he produced a David (fig. As for Donatello. we may assume. Florence left: c. Donatello has invented an entirely new type.

Yet the differences are as . when he died the at the age of twenty-seven. making of flat visual surface in such that the depth of the foreshortened flanks of buildings could be measured as precisely as the height or width of the fagade. 106). continuous space of this "pictorial relief" in no way depends on their presreach. What the Trinity fresco brings to mind is not the immediate past (see fig. saying that is it beyond a geometric procedure analo- gous to the way the camera lens projects a perspective image on the film. The we saw in The now grown in The Story hint of spatial depth Sacrifice of Isaac has of Jacob and Esau into a complete setting for the figures that goes back as far as the eye can We can imagine the figures leaving the scene the deep. by architecture. toward which any set of will seem to converge. Scientific per- was not discovered by Ghiberti. Baptistery. was style). but by Filippo Brunelleschi. to find a way 125. figs. their vanishing point will be on the horizon. the crea- Renaissance Early of tor building in Ghiberti's new signed in this ently. panel of the "Gates of Paradise. 31Vi" square. however. The Middle Ages would surely have regarded the David as an idol. 48. for many years it remained the only work of its kind. nevertheless. Brunelleschi's discovery in itself was scientific rather than artistic. 113) but Giotto's art. which were to be dubbed the "Gates of Paradise. as in the case of the Merode Annunciation (see colorplate 11). the young genius who singlehandedly created Early Renaissance painting during his brief life before 1428. had been commis- first sioned to do a second pair. which we call scientific perspective." Its reliefs. spective nude victorious athletes of antiquity. Gilt bronze. Be it may. but sculptors and painters took it up enthusiastically. proving that the fine arts were now indeed "liberal" rather than "mechanical"! The earliest known picture done according to parallel lines lines are new theory is The Holy Trinity (colorplate 13) by Masaccio. a realm of monumental grandeur rather than the concrete everyday reality of Robert Campin. appar- method records of architecture on a a (the architecture figure relief. Florence 125. was and but his achievement remains stupendous. Lorenzo Ghiberti. must have felt uneasy about it. with its sense of large scale. The Story 100 Art in the Renaissance The new style that time well established in sculpture making his task easier. of Jacob and Esau. and Donatello's contemporaries. is de- His purpose. This system. Its central feature is the vanishing point. How did Ghiberti achieve this effect? In part by varying the degree of relief. — ence. we seem to plunge into a new environment. Far the carefully con- is and figures architecture. Ghiberti. who had achieved the effect of unlimited depth in their pictures by empirical means." c. with the forms closest to the beholder being modeled almost in the round a method familiar to us — causing tle their gradations of light and color. was one of the fundamental innovations that distinguish Early Renaissance art from everything that had gone before as well as from the great Flemish masters of realism. the body the Meanwhile. that "action in repose. 125). for here at one stroke Donatello has recaptured that internal bod) balance. If these perpendicular to the picture plane. as before) as their distance from the beholder increases.even more revolutionary achievement. Here at last was a theoretical basis for representing the visible world. through sub- speaks to us more eloquently than the face. its compositional severity and sculptural volume. 49). Why the artist chose to represent the young victor in this way is a puzzle. nor by a painter. corresponding exactly to the position of the beholder's eye. 27).1435. The details of the system need not concern us here. unlike those of the first doors (see fig. too. unless he wanted to liken a Biblical hero to from ancient art (sec recession trolled of 26." which had distinguished the Classic style of Greece (see p. as in ancient statues. Here. that as apparent size to diminish systematically (rather than haphazardly. nudity is clearly this David's natural state. of his after the great success Baptistery doors. more important. were large and set in simple square frames (fig.

like Donatello's (see fig. A medieval column or and self-sufficient. he thought. and to rationalize ar- needed the for this he standardized and regular vocabulary of the ancients. the new rational picture independent of the figures. while Masaccio's figures. rational. of a rational picture space. must have seemed their chief drawback: antiquarian enthusiasm. Lorenzo. they inhabit but do not create it: take away the architec- and you take away the figures' space. unlike a defined and strictly shape can be varied only within narrow limits (the ancients. 126. comparable to the human body). Filippo Interior 1421-28. The was harthe same ratios of simple circle secret of their buildings. a semicircle. both scientific a The set- thorough perspective and Brunelleschi's new architecture. like reveals up-to-date. the classical round arch has only one possible shape. In Masaccio's Trinity. and Plan. We could go even further and say that scientific perspective depends not just on architecture. draw its to duplicate the structure in three diIt is. The theory of proportions provided him. based on the and the square. self to side San Lorenzo reveals us completely as soon as it. No wonder this stable. in a word. barrel vaults and domes in preference to groin vaults. for they recur throughout the universe and must thus be of Divine origin (see p. 126).Brunelleschi. 94) translated into Early Renaissance Art in the Renaissance 101 . equally command of real fabric. Brunelleschi's architecture. This barrelvaulted chamber is no mere niche. and mensions. and the classical architrave and all its details are subject to the thought of it as strict rules of the ture. their inflexibility. but on this particular kind of architecture. But Brunelleschi did not revive these forms out of mere What attracted him to them was what. unlike a Gothic church interior. Florence striking as the similarities: for Giotto. as it were." their drapery falling ting. or scientific perspective. are "clothed nudes. to plan. ). 123). with the syntax that ruled the use of his architectural vocabulary." we it- set foot in- designed to be seen "in scientific like the chapel in Masaccio's Trinity. we immediately sense its cool. classical pier. so different from Gothic. we recall. strikes us first of all such San Lorenzo as a conscious return to the vocabulary of the Greeks and Ro- mans: round arches instead of pointed arches. S. body and drapery form a single unit. controlled quality. but a deep space in which the figures could move freely if — for the first time in history they wished. it must also have been a symbol of the universe ruled by Divine reason. And we are given all the needed data to measure — the depth of this painted interior. the earliest example For Masaccio. as well as in Ghiberti's later relief space is it panel. columns instead of piers. San Lorenzo. itself and clearly articulated system lent so singularly well to scientific perspective! Looking at the interior of San Lorenzo. which invites us to move forward and explore what seems an architectural miracle. we may well ask what came first in Brunelleschi's mind: the new ture architectural style. recalls the interior of Santa Croce (see fig. as if both had the same substance. from the medieval point of view. its is column. In fact. it is perspective. with its wooden ceiling over the nave. as reflected in the Trinity and as we see it in actual buildings as the interior of the church of (fig. "orders" of ancient architec- was Brunelleschi's aim chitectural design. — monious proportion whole numbers that determine musical harmony.

In his last work. Facade. the church of Sant'Andrea in Mantua (fig. To harmonize this "marriage. a strongly projecting cornice inspired by those of Roman temples. a church. A highly educated humanist. 39. etc. the palazzo. Toward end of the century. ity. similar process of rationalization rc- shaped another traditional building type. entire design within a square. like a heavy lid. Andrea. Leone Battista Alberti. the second of smooth-faced blocks with "rustistories are in a cated" (that is. 96). an architect had been long delayed. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi. on architecture. the most powerful famil) in Florence. Nevertheless. because the circle is the only perfect shape and therefore a direct image of Divine reason. composed on sculpture and painting. as a basilican Andrea does not conform church. They are of two sizes: the smaller ones sustain the arch over the huge center niche.). Miehelozzo. 97. however. When he formulated these ideas. An early the treatise 128. Designed 1470. . the central-plan church gained general acceptance. And he points to the Pantheon (see figs. That such a central-plan structure was ill adapted to Cathritual made no difference to Alberti. 102 Michelozzo. Florence Art in the Renaissance temple front on the traditional basilican church facade (see figs.A tonus. He explains there that the plan of such structures should be either circular or of a shape derived from the circle (square^ hexagon." he used pilasters instead of columns. thus stressing the continuity classical of the wall surface." and the central olic plan alone permitted attainment of this aim. 127). had a new palace built for them in the 1440s (lie. Brunelleschi's death in fore Leone Battista 1446 brought to the whose career as Alberti. he studied the monuments of ancient Rome. 128). while the larger ones form what known as a "colossal" order including all is three So intent was Alberti on harmonious proportions that he inscribed the stories of the fagade. When the Medici. Begun 1444. each complete in itself: the lowest is built of rough-hewn. he could not yet cite any modern example. after his became widely known. the surface of unbroken. 40) as a precedent. Mantua S. On top of the structure rests. their architect. But the three graded sequence. produced a design recalling the fortresslike older structures (see fig. he accomplished a seemingly impossible feat: he superimposed a 127. em- the third is phasizing the finality of the three stories. Alberti was at first interested in the fine arts only as a theorist. he believed. He then started to practice art as a dilettante and developed into an architect of outstanding abilthe earliest treatises and began a third treatise. 78. "rustic" masonry like the Palazzo Vecchio. must be a visible embodiment of "divine proportion. the windows on the ground floor of the Medici Palace were added a century later). to the ideal Sant' shape of sacred buildings defined in Alberti's treatise on architecture. indented) joints.

the bronze equestrian and width. had requested such a statue in his will and. 1456. His crowning achievement. had left a sizable fortune to the Re- simplest possible ratio to those of the cube: their public of Venice. the single round opening in the center and the twelve on the perimeter clearly refer to Christ and the Apostles. Antonio Rossellino. has left us few monumental works. and Plan. A fine early example of this new class of "domestic sculpture" is the marble bust of Giovanni Chellini (fig. Maria delle Carceri. Prato with fine precision. the bronze equestrian statue had been reserved for emperors. London Art in the Renaissance 103 . who had commanded the Venetian army. 130) by Antonio Rossellino. Victoria & Albert Museum. they concentrated on works of moderate size and cost for individual patrons. Giovanni Chellini. By 1450 the great civic campaign of art patronage had petered out. This put the sculptors at a disadvantage. 129. Sta. Even he. such as bronze statuettes and portrait busts. By cutting into the corners of this cube. The only sculptor of the second half of the century to share some of Donatello's range and ambition was Andrea del Verrocchio. 46). The dimensions of the four arms stand in the monument of Bartolommeo Colleoni (fig. however.Giuliano da Sangallo. was commissioned by the city fathers of Venice. by way of encouragement. Colleoni. and Florentine artists had to depend mainly on private commissions. He 43. and since monumental tasks were few. the only surviving example. In Alberti's ideal: structure would fit height (up to the neatly inside a cube. Interior 1485-92. There can be no doubt that Giuliano wanted his dome to accord half their height. Marble. Comparing heads (see figs. whose personality at once sardonic and kindly has been observed — 130. far is it with Roman we find that the human warmth beyond any attained linked to his Roman in anprede- cessors only by the idea of portrait sculpture in the round as an effective stitute for the sitter's real and distinguished specimen is Santa Maria delle Carceri in Prato (fig. Giuliano has formed a Greek cross. not of Florence. the teacher of Leonardo da Vinci. 131). their width one They arc barrel-vaulted. since its dome) equals its drum of the length length is one half their width. near Florence. It represents a highly es- — teemed aged physician. a master who rose to prominence in the 1450s. 44. Florentine doctor radiates a and individuality cient times. the Marcus rests age-old tradition of the Dome of Heaven. the entire by Giuliano da Sangallo. 129). It —and enduring— sub- presence. height 20". the dome with the Roman times. and on these vaults. conforms closely to except for the dome.

discovering the True Cross and S. it was a special honor to be so commemorated. dates from the 1450s. Piero's most impressive work. 45).1455. —but — the first Christian emperor remained for the Early Renaissance to For a general like Colleoni. who came from southeastern Tuscany. Equestrian Monument of Bartolommeo Colleoni. the very embodiment of forceful dominance. had been the development Masaccio had died too young to found a "school. muscle. in fact. At the left they are being lifted out of the ground. Art in 132 shows Helena. for the most part. the crucified ther side of Christ (all three crosses Piero's figures have all the harsh grandeur of Masaccio's (see colorplate 13). after having been trained in of Florentine painting? 131. c. combines his influence with lingering elements of the International Style. Campo SS. radiates an almost frightening sense of power. c. Giovanni e Paolo. meanwhile. 132. Their work. which is not a the in figure bestriding it. Andrea del Verrocchio. There was.effectively contrasted with the rigid surfaces of armored Colleoni looms and one shoulder thrust forward. a fresco cycle in the church of San Francesco in Arezzo. His face. and sinew. 1 04 Florence he left the city for his home territory. Fresco. The Discovery and Proving of the True Cross. The section illustrated in the Renaissance figure two crosses of the thieves on eihad been hidden by enemies of the Faith)." and his style was too bold to be taken up immediately by his contemporaries. height c. and at the right the True Cross is identified through its power to bring a dead youth back to life. graceful and spirited. the saddle. only one painter who fully understood Masaccio's style and made it the basis of his own: Piero della Francesca. 1483-88. never to return. They seem to Piero della Francesca. is it revive the type. his legs straight true likeness but an ideal projection of the per- sonality Verrocchio associated with successful leadership in war. Venice Aurelius (see fig. the mother of the Emperor Constantine.13'. Bronze. Arezzo . Its many scenes tell the legend of the True Cross (the origin and history of the cross used for Christ's crucifixion). Francesco. and Verrocchio has made the most of his opportunity. The horse. was on display throughit was thought to repre- out the Middle Ages sent Constantine. What. its hide revealing every vein.

C. He realized that a full understanding of bodily movement demands a detailed mastery of anatomy. that classical at master to its solution. the primary purpose of the engraving obviously was to display Pollaiuolo's mastery of the human body in action. 134). 1917) Art in the Renaissance 105 . This was still a novel problem then. National Gallery of Art. It Piero's fame today is is own time. 1465-70. not by facial expressions. as if we may say that they were born of his passion for perspective. had been trained as a goldsmith and metalworker. simplifica- not surprising that greater than ever before. the Battle of Ten Naked Men (fig. so that the David seems to be in relief rather than in the round. both strong silent. he believed in scientific perspective as timony. D. but they are far from those of Masaccio. The ten naked men do indeed have an oddly "flayed" look. shows an indebtedness to both Castagno and ancient art.The Florentines must have regarded Piero's style as somewhat outmoded. His most famous print. Leather. they have a gravity. More than any artist of his day. We may call him the earliest ancestor of the' abstract artists of our for they. an arm. and he endowed the visible world with the impersonal clarity and permanence of mathematics. Engraving. While we do not know for sure. for in the 1450s a new trend made its appearance in Florentine We remarkable David by 133). Andrea del Castagno. and Pollaiuolo contributed more than any other — — 133. and to human This mathematical outlook work. beautiful and Their inner life is conveyed by glances and gestures. The subject undoubtedly a classical one has not yet been convincingly identified. and had worked also as a painter and an engraver. cones. in a treatise full of rigor- ous mathematics onstrated how — the first of perspective its kind —he dem- applied to stereo- metric bodies and architectural shapes. the basis of painting. probably in Ghiberti's workshop. Battle of Ten Naked Men. too. or a piece of drapery as variations or com- the permeates form. cylinders. with the forms now defined mainly by their undulating outlines. the modeling has been minimized. 1450-57. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 134. Antonio del Pollaiuolo. makes them kin to Greek sculpture. Antonio del Pollaiuolo. height ASVi". Above all. Washington. c. He saw a head. a work contemporary with Piero's Arezzo frescoes. and pyramids. windblown hair and drapery. It was to dominate the second half of the century in Florentine art. This dynamic linear style has important virtues. all his pounds of spheres. How did Piero arrive these memorable images? Using his own tes- physical and emotional. c. David. conveyed both by painting. (Widener Collection) belong to a — and heroic lost race. Solid volume and statuesque immobility have given way to graceful movement. Andrea del see it in the Castagno the pose and the (fig. down to the last muscle and sinew. he may well have been the first artist to dissect human bodies for firsthand knowledge of their structure (a practice then uncommon even in medical schools). cubes. New York (Joseph Pulitzer Bequest. work with systematic tions of natural forms. the most vigorous practitioner of this style. but it does not matter a great deal.

for all practical purposes.— 135. the forms used in classical art had become divorced from classical subject matter. Only toward 1450 did classical great Early Renaissance painter of Florence. they appear to float even when they touch the ground. This consisted of the patricians. Moreover. three-dimensional shapes. c. Equally novel are their facial expressions. whose best-known pictures were done for the so-called Medici circle. love. Botticelli's monumental image. revelation — . first Sandro Botticelli. were one.1480. the differences arc equally striking. His bodies are more attenuated. ethereal though they be. since from Roman times. The Birth of Venus. classical myths had at times been interpreted didactically as allegories of Christian ideas. 5' 9" x 9' 2". Yet subsequently. But to fuse the Christian faith with ancient mythology required a more sophisticated argument than such forced interpretations. of classical statues Venus. of course. was linked to forms an ornamental screen much like the grove on the right-hand side of the Venus. so that all from the Bible. Pollaiuolo's style strongly influenced the last bodies. Canvas. could be declared to signify the soul redeemed by Christ. How could such images be justified in a Christian civilization? In the Middle Ages. even solemn. or accompany. Plato. the picture does not look medieval: the myths was proclaimed that beauty. being phases of this circuit. Still. and scholars surrounding Lorenzo the Magnificent. or classical one. as strained as their their skin has bodily movements. Europa abducted by the bull. This was provided by the NeoPlatonic philosophers. pictures of the pagan gods were based on literary descriptions rather than classical images. shallow modeling and the emphasis produce an effect of low relief rather than of solid. and they enjoy movement. The kinship with Naked Men is unmistakable: (fig. the extreme physical action of Pollaiuolo's struggling nudes. both in — the we note an unconcern with deep space behind the Ten Naked Men thicket form begin to Venus is the rejoin classical content. but the emotional anguish they express does not arise from. they Similarly. literati. the head of the Medici family and. we voluptuousness. the on outline 135). Florence Uffizi Gallery. and emotion seems of motion The to integration have been his particular concern. Botticelli evidently does not share Pollaiuolo's passion God by anatomy. been stripped away to reveal the play of muscles underneath. to be found in earlier art. All this seems to deny the basic values of the founding fathers of Renaissance art. Contorted features are. including that of ing a spiritual circuit continuously ascend- and descending. Sandro Botticelli. for instance. the subject is clearly to be serious. who enjoyed tremendous prestige in the late fifteenth century and of meant They believed that the life of the man. During the Middle Ages. and drained of all weight and muscular power. To must consider the general use of classical subjects in Early Renaissance art. retain their full freedom of understand this paradox. Thus the Neo-Platonists could invoke the "celestial Venus" (the nude Venus born of the sea) interchangeably with the Vir- for 106 Art in the Renaissance universe. the ruler of the city. It was for one member of this group that Botticelli did his the nude goddess derived Birth of Venus Pollaiuolo's Ten in both. and beatitude.

his brother-in-law in Venice. a triumphal arch." and Botticelli's Venus would hardly be a fit vessel for them if she were less ethereal. Bellini was slow to mature. 131 ). We must." Botticelli's picture. Fresco. c. But the tense figures. such as the frescoes in the Eremitani Church in Padua. who had crowd of bystanders generates an extraordinary emoMantegna owed most to spent ten years in Padua. Florentine masters new the city style to only rather timid local responses until. it was said. his finest pictures. has a quasi-religious meaning.1455. which is based on the beholder's actual eye level (the horizon is below the bottom of the picture). fully capable at seventeen of carrying out commissions on his own. was a precocious genius. Padua (destroyed 1944) vanni Bellini. St. Masaccio. Its main feature. his desire for almost archaeological authenticity." so the birth of Venus evokes the hope for "rebirth" from which the Renaissance takes its name (see p. Next to Giovanni Bellini. and he. It developed only toward 1450. can also be seen in the costumes of the Roman soldiers. are clearly of Florentine ancestry. then. As baptism is a "rebirth in God. date from the last The is saint decades of the century or later. The scene shown in figure 136. 137). James Led to His Execution. such as St. 88). shortly before 1450. while her twin. and the great spiral banner echoes the turbulence below. James Led to His Execution. is the most dramatic of the cycle because of its daring "worm's-eye" perspective. "dwell in the sphere of mind. take a glance at painting in and around Venice. The Frick Collection. but they evoked centuries. Mantegna was the most important painter of the Early Renaissance.1485. The which erupts large in real physical violence on the far right. the young Andrea Mantegna emerged as an independent master. since the major works are by imported Florentines such as Alberti and Verrocchio (see figs. We shall leave aside North Italian architecture and sculpture between 1450 and 500. engenders "human love. All of them. Donatello. however. looks so authentic that it might as well be. Mantegna's devotion to the visible remains of antiquity. Panel. c. since the Gothic tradition was strong in this area. St. New York (Copyright) 137. although not a direct copy of any Roman monument. for during those years a great tradition was born gin celestial 1 there that was to flourish for the next three had been carrying Venice and the neighboring of Padua since the 1420s. the ordinary Venus. Ovetari Chapel. Andrea Mantegna. Thanks to the fluidity of Neo-Platonic doctrine. here so small in comparison to the Art in the Renaissance 107 .Mary as the source -of "divine love. — The architectural setting looms large. the possible associations to be linked with our picture are almost limitless. Mantegna's style impresses us with its dramatic force. Francis in Ecstasy (fig. as in Masaccio's Trinity (colorplate 13). tional tension." This Venus. dwells purely in the sphere of mind. St. too. Gio- curl of the If 136. 128. They were almost entirely destroyed in 1944 perhaps the most serious artistic loss during World War II. We must now turn to Early Renaissance art in Northern Italy. was a poet of light and color. Church of the Eremitani. 48V2 x 55". lean and firmly constructed. Francis in Ecstasy. however.

estimate of what. while in others it repre- sented a departure. is the earliest of the High Renaissance masters. however.— seems almost incidental. sculptor. Uffizi Gallery. yet his mystic rapture before the beauty of the visible world sets our own response to the view that is setting that he spread out before us. 1481-82. the High Renaissance. Bramante. size of area on beauty. That may be the reason why the great artists of the High Renaissance did not set the pace for a broadly based "period style" that could be practiced on every level of quality. The panel's remarkable painter . Belsurely lini knew and admired the work of the (Venice had strong trade links with the North).C. He has left his wooden pattens behind and stands barefoot on holy ground. only Michelangelo and Titian lived beyond 1520." 1 had a profound effect on the artists it spurred them on to vast and ambitious goals. The great masters of the sixteenth century Leonardo.24 x 30' (detail). — became synonyms of perfection. "Hellenistic" in the one case. some we still respects. it died with the men who created it. ample and intimate at the same time. Today we have a less assured. When they were finally rediscovered. and he shared Flemish great painters their tender regard for every detail of nature. Titian about 1490). Raphael. "Late Renaissance" in the also explained were so brief: if art other. for lack of a better term. but also a less arbitrary. In was indeed the culmination of call it the Early Renaissance. The High Renaissance produced very few minor masters. the classic phase. at the age of thirty he went to work for the Duke of Milan as military engineer. architect. like Moses in the Lord's presence (see p. we do not mean to deny its tremendous impact upon later art. This view why these two classic phases develops along the pattern of a ballistic curve. had been the privilege of God alone). Michelangelo. its highest point cannot be expected to last more than a moment. Certainly the tendency to view the artist as a sovereign genius was never stronger. the subjective standards rather than great personalities of the early sixteenth century loomed so large that their predecessors seemed to belong to a forgotten era. rely used to be taken for granted that the High Renaissance followed upon the Early Renaissance as naturally as noon follows morning." and "creative" (before 500. people still acknowledged the High Renaissance as the turning point by referring to all painters before Raphael as "the Primitives. and — — leaving behind unfinished a large Adoration of the Magi. 2. In pointing out the limited and precarious nature of the High Renaissance. as distinct from making. For most of the next three hundred years. 10). like architecture rendered by the rules of scientific perspective. or even before. he fine the beholder's spatial landscape. and their faith in the divine origin of inspiration led them to genius themselves: 108 Art in the Renaissance Florence of truth and on the universally valid rules acknowledged by the Early Renaissance (such as scientific perspective and the ratios of musical harmony). and must be followed by a decadent phase. despite the differences in age of the men who created them (Bramante was born in the 1444." One of the strange and compelling aspects of High Renaissance is the fact that its key monuments were all produced between 1495 and 1520. This cult of "divine. Adoration of the Magi shown c. but to have expressed them so completely that their names It Leonardo da Vinci. Unlike knew how rock formations the to de- relationship to the in the fore- ground are clear and firm. and were called "immortal. THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 138. Panel. Conditions in Florence did not favor him after he had completed his training under Verrocchio. of Renaissance art. Of the great personalities mentioned above. often unattainable. just as the architects and sculptors of Athens had brought Greek point in the later fifth art to its highest century B. though not the oldest of the group. They repre- sented the climax. Leonardo. creating. Titian were thought to have shared the ideals of their predecessors. tempera. Men of genius were thought to be set apart from ordinary mortals by the divine inspiration guiding their efforts. and their use of oil rather than the Northerners. however.

only afterward do we discover that this balance has been achieved by and the reconciliation of competing. We thus tend to see the setting almost entirely in relation to the figures. . 136).— — and way indeed. instead of acting as a physical and spiritual focus. even conflict- personality. Unhappily. Leo- method of painting to a fresco of the Last Supper (fig."). 139). but of three-dimensional bodies continuity as well: the gestures perspective. . has just spoken the fateful words. 1495-98. overpower the figures Leonardo. is it I?" But to view the scene as one point not of outlines. scientific tried to apply this is moment in a psychological drama hardly does justice to Leonardo's intentions. we see at once its balanced stability. Mural. "One of you shall betray me. And there is a comparable emotional crowd convey with reality of the miracle they have Toward come the' touching — the and faces of the eloquence the newborn Christ to behold. the insti. in contrast. Leonardo. 125. thinks it is painted. particular medium that did not adhere well to the wall. the mural began to deteriorate within a few years. "Lord. these shapes remain incomplete. its pediment acts as the architectural equivalent of a halo. And he took the cup saying. . that sets him apart from the rest. for . Milan Art in the Renaissance 109 . Viewing the composition as a whole. And the Apostles are this is my blood not merely responding. In this method of modeling (called chiaroscuro. figs. each reveals his own High Renaissance. their contours merely implied. chitecture made visible in varying degrees by light. the 138) shows the area to the right of center. In Early Renaissance art. which is more nearly finished than the rest. In the shadows. detail (fig. since the artist had experimented nardo The vanishing central behind the head of Christ in the exact middle of the picture. The Last Supper. Yet what remains is more than enough to explain why the Last Supper The gesture of Christ the Divine became famous tution of the Eucharist ("Jesus took bread with an oil-tempera Christ's as the first classic statement of main is and of will. Maria delle Grazie." and the disciples are asking. Sta. one of submission to offering. The Saviour. rather than as a pre-existing entity. We can test this by covering the upper third of the picture: the composition then looks like a frieze. end of his stay in Milan. . Drink ye all of it. Leonardo da Vinci. revolutionary Our — feature is began with the figure composition. the grouping of the Apostles is less clear. the forms seem to materialize softly and gradually. 139. tecture often threatens to (see said. "light-and-dark") the forms no longer stand abruptly side by side.) They exemplify what the artist wrote in one of his notebooks. never quite detaching themselves from a dusky realm. thus becoming charged with symbolic significance. own relationship to the Saviour. It hints at act at the Last Supper. eat. defiant profile of Judas. . this is my body. and the calm triangular shape of Christ becomes merely passive. unlike Castagno or Botticelli. c. and the arhad merely a supporting role from even though it obeys all the rules of the start. Take. . the archi- (Note the dark. his ing claims. Equally plain is the symbolic function of the main opening in the rear wall. presumably. the ideals of the .

the picture does not fit our expecta- The tions. or to paraphrase Leonardo's own words sight and insight. a superhuman power granted to a few rare individuals and acting through them. even more intriguing is her psycho- Why. The Louvre. 141) combines vivid observation with the clarity of a diagram. In 1499. A drawing such as the Embryo in the Womb (fig. yet the element of idealization strong that 140. and the eye was to him the perfect instrument for gaining such knowledge. the Mona Lisa (fig. 140). all the smiling faces ever painted.1510. How original he was BBS// still a matter of debate. But the fame of the Mona Lisa comes not from this pictorial subtlety alone. suggests elemental generative forces. Clearly. and as a timeless. Art and science had first been united in Brunelleschi's discovery of perspective. Leonardo da Vinci. has this one been singled out as "mysterious"? Perhaps because. as a portrait. the duchy of Milan fell to the French. The extraordinary scope of his own inquiries is attested by the hundreds of drawings and notes which he hoped to incorporate into an encyclopedic set of treatises. c. Paris it blurs the sitter's character. Leonardo devoted himself more and more to his scientific interests. Mona Lisa. among logical fascination. briefly a republic again. The chiaroscuro we noted in the Adoration is now so perfected that it seemed miraculous to his contemporaries. the Mona Lisa embodies a quality of maternal tenderness which was to Leonardo the essence of womanhood. painted his most famous portrait. may be read in two ways: as the echo of a mood. Even the landscape. c. Windsor Castle (Crown Copyright) Renaissance — . is so Once again the artist has brought two opposites into harmonious balance. features are too individual for an ideal type. symbolic expression. an es- as a scientist one field is his tool for anatomists and biologists. 1503-5. The artist. Panel. but in importance is undisputed: he created the modern scientific illustration. must know all the laws of nature. The concept of genius as divine inspiration. Leonardo da Vinci. The Medici had been was and Florence There Leonardo expelled. and Leonardo returned to a Florence very different from the city he remembered. In the later years of his life.highest aim of painting is to depict "the intention of man's soul" through gestures and the movements of limbs a dictum that rethat the — momentary emotional fers not to man's inner life states but to as a whole. Royal Library. The forms are built from layers of glazes so gossamerthin that the entire panel seems to glow with a gentle light from within. 110 Art in the in the Womb. Leonardo's work is the climax of this trend. 30V4 x 21". Embryo Ink. composed mainly of rocks and water. is nowhere sential — 141. too. The smile. he believed.

no authority higher than the dictates of his genius. Michelangelo's faith in the image of man as the supreme vehicle of expression gave him a sense of kinship with classical sculpture closer than that of any other Renaissance artist. Michelangelo was called to by Pope Julius II. the greatest and acteristically. Neo-Platonism. he believed. David. steeped in the idea of his genius as a living reality. are nine scenes from Genesis. for him. viewed him in this light. for whom painting was the noblest of the arts because it embraced every visible aspect of the more speworld. char- the civic-patriotic symbol of the Florentine re- Rome are fully present in the public (see fig. 97. and Donatello." analogous to divine creation. from the Creation of the World (at Art in the Renaissance 111 . as a Neo-Platonist. 142. accepted fully his admirers he himself. out- wardly calm. and architecture. Michelangelo had just spent several years in Rome. The unique of Michelangelo's qualities David art 142). muscular bodies of Hellenistic sculpture. Florence roundness of sculptured forms. The ceiling is a huge organism with hundreds of figures rhythmically distributed within the painted architectural framework. and had been strongly impressed with the emotion-filled. when the artist was twenty-six. the Pope changed his mind and set the reluctant artist to work on the ceiling fresco 143). however. he looks challenging not a victorious hero but the champion of a just cause. Commissioned in 1501. the huge figure was put at the left of the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio as taken for an ancient statue. Soon after. a (fig. standards. should imi"liberation" of real. the earliest monumental statue of the High Renaissance. cifically. Painting. — Donatello's bronze David (see 124). Nude. their superhuman beauty and power. for whom he designed an enormous tomb. Michelangelo was a sculptor to the core. dwarfing the earlier murals below of the Sistine Chapel by its size. the body "acts out" the spirit's agony. 36) and similar works. although he admired Giotto. Only the three-dimensional bodies from recalcitrant matter could satisfy the urge within him. Their heroic scale. and the swelling volume of their forms became part of Michelangelo's style. modern copy has now This role was a suit- replaced the original). vibrant with pent-up energy. while the David. Driven by his desire to resume the tomb project. able one for the David. was not a science but "the making — — of men. In the Laocoon (see fig. is both calm and tense. and traditions might be observed by lesser spirits. he boldly faces the world. must partake of the organic qualities of the human figure. and through him part of Renaissance art in general. surely. Without the head of Goliath. a carver of marble statues Art. subdivided by five pairs of girder arches. Marble. Yet. But the style of the figure proclaims an ideal very different from Donatello's.exemplified Not only more than in Michelangelo. Michelangelo finished the entire ceiling in four years (1508-12). 1501-4. although it seemed to him at times a curse rather than a blessing. he looked upon the body as the noble. he could acknowledge. He produced a masterpiece of truly epochal importance. Academy. After a few years. too. and still (fig. In the central area. This dualism endows his tate the — figures with their extraordinary pathos. but a earthly prison of the soul prison nevertheless. Michelangelo. more by its compelling inner unity. most ambitious of Renaissance popes. they seem stirred by an overwhelming psychic energy that has no release in physical action. Unlike Leonardo. Masaccio. height 18'. the David could never be like fig. Still. Conventions.

Blessed vitality of the ceiling fresco to the sion of the Last Judgment. 124). pleading for mercy before a wrathful detail of Sistine Ceiling. 144. Rome . 1508-12. the prophets and sibyls.What greater theme could he wish than the Creation. whom he sees. they a kind of chain linking the Genesis scenes. subject matter as a whole fits He and the his cast of mind so perfectly that his own desires cannot have conflicted strongly with those of his patron. the most famous of the major scenes. and Damned alike. it is overpowered by the wealth of expression Michelangelo has poured form into these figures. Art in the Renaissance illustration also important role in Michelangelo's design. We observe with shocking directness how the has changed as we turn from the radiant mood somber viMankind. shows the garland-bearing nude youths that accompany the main sections. How much responsibility did Michelangelo have for the program? was not a man to submit to dictation. yet their significance remains uncertain. The Creation of Adam. It shows not the physical molding of Adam's body but the passage of the divine spark the soul and thus achieves a dramatic juxtaposi- — — tion of artist. Man The and God unrivaled by any other relationship between the earth-bound Adam and the figure of God rushing through becomes even more meaningful when we realize that Adam strains not only toward his Creator but toward Eve. the Western world was gripped by the spiritual and political crisis of the Reformation (see p. Interior. Man's Fall. When Michelangelo returned to the Sistine Chapel over twenty years later. the far end of the Chapel) to the of — — but we know man and time and the its that it links the early history of coming of Christ. the scenes in the spandrels has not been fully explained. The Vatican. Are they images of human souls? Do they represent the world of pagan antiquity? Whatever their symbolic intent. 144). These wonderfully animated figures play an Chapel (showing Michelangelo's Ceiling Fresco and Last Judgment). Rome 143. Our in the shelter of the Lord's left arm. The Vatican. Fresco. we shall have to be content with the Creation of Adam (fig. the beginning of end (the Last Judgment on the wall above the altar). huddles together in tight clumps. 112 Michelangelo. The theological scheme behind the choice of these scenes and the rich program surrounding them the nude youths. and his ultimate reconciliation with the Lord? A detailed survey of the Sistine Ceiling would fill a book. the medallions. Sistine Drunkenness Noah. yet the sky unborn.

height of central figure 71". The Vatican. The design the setting 146 shows of the two allegorical figures mon- no in(Day on the strangely impersonal: there is Night on the left) recline on the sarcophand the statue of Giuliano.) What is the meaning of the monument? The question. the Medici church. bears no resemblance to the deceased. agus. however. In the brooding menace of Day and the disturbed slumber of Night. last reer. together with preoccupation.3 work was under way that the present state of monuments can hardly be the final solution: rather. Marble. The great triangle of the statues is held in place by a network of verticals and horizontals whose heighten the sharp-edged forms slender. but never executed. Lorenzo. Michelangelo. Art in the Renaissance 1 1 . the dynamic process of design was arbi- the Rome by halted trarily in 1534. Florence 146. Lord human the Apostle Bartholomew. ("A thousand years from now. Fresco. not for the curved lid of the present sarcophagus. 145). It work where remain his statues is planned specifically for them tomb ument is the scription. we must discuss briefly his most important predecessor. Donato Bramante." Michelangelo is said to have remarked. Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici. the artist's departure Day and Night were for certainly planned for horizontal surfaces. nobody will want to know what he really looked like. Michelangelo's plans for the Medici tombs underwent so many changes while the right. The Last Judgment 145. New Sacristy. The face on that skin is not the saint's. where Leo X had decided to build a chapel containing four monumental tombs for members of the family. Bramante had been working for the Duke of Milan in the 1490s. Michelangelo. Perhaps they were not even intended for this particular tomb. 1534-41. During the with self-portrait). the artist's only in (fig. architecture thirty years of his long ca- became Michelangelo's main In order to understand his achievement in that field. Giuliano's niche is too narrow and shallow to hold him comfortably. put countless times. of Giuliano). Sistine Chapel. 1524-34. Seated on a cloud below (figs. Yet the tomb of Giuliano remains a compelling visual unit. Other figures and reliefs were planned. in classical military garb. Rome (detail. completing the chapel and two tombs. God the 143. S. has never found a definitive answer. a skin to represent his In this grimly sardonic self-portrait the artist has left his personal confession of guilt and un- worthiness. Michelangelo worked on the project for fourteen years. The between the Sistine Ceiling and Judgment coincided with the papacies of Leo X and Clement VII. holding is martyrdom (he had been flayed). it is Michelangelo's own. both were members of the Medici family and preferred to eminterval the Last ploy Michelangelo in Florence. roundness and weight of the sculpture. the dualism of body and soul is expressed with unforgettable grandeur. His activities centered on San Lorenzo.

3941. Equally is the "sculptural" treatment of the walls: deeply recessed niches "excavated" from heavy masses of masonry." (See figs. These cavities are counterbalanced by the convex shape of the dome and by strongly projecting moldings and cornices. This plan laid down by tall corner fulfills all Alberti for sacred architecture (see p. The S.) Bramante's design is indeed of truly imperial magnificence: a huge dome crowns the crossing of the barrel-vaulted arms of a Greek cross.than in striking any fifteenth-century structure. The Tempietto is the earliest of the great achievements that made Rome the center of Italian art during the first quarter of the six- Most of them belong to the decade 1503-13. Giacomo della Porta. the Tempietto has a monumental weight that belies its modest size. and the severe Doric order of the colonnade. Rome 114 Art in the Renaissance of the Basilica of Constantine. view from west. 102). Pietro in Tempietto. Rome (after Geymiiller). cent as to overshadow ancient imperial all Rome. Its seems well deserved: in the three-step platform. Inside the church. the papacy of lulius II. 148). classical temple architecture is more directly recalled torio (fig. Peter's. he went to Rome. and there he became the creator of High Renaissance architecture. it is so rigidly symmetrical that we cannot tell which apse was to hold the high altar. of 1506. 147). 1502. 1590). After Milan fell. designed nickname. Donato Bramante. His design. "little temple." above: 148. based entirely on the circle and the square. Rome Leonardo. Original Plan for St. As a result. The the monuments task naturally of fell Bramante. which bears out the words Bramante reportedly used to define his aim: "I shall place the Pantheon on top to us mainly 147. St. Peter's with a church so magnifi- teenth century. Donato Bramante. with four lesser towers the filling demands domes and the angles. It was he who decided to replace the Early Christian basilica of St. The new is fully evident in his Tempietto at San Pietro in Mon- style soon after 1500. Montorio. the "sculp- tured wall" reigns supreme: the plan shows no . 1546-64 (dome completed by right: 149. is known to from a plan (fig. 1506 Michelangelo. Peter's.

Although each had his partisans. a powerful thrust that draws energy upward from the main body of the structure. only the in been built. wonder the construction of Peter's St. 148). the lo's dome Michelange- reflects Bramante somewhat the Pantheon. Its subject is "the Athenian school of thought". had planned like a stepped hemisphere. Although largely built using a colossal order to emphasize the pact after his death. for instance. the present appearance of the church (fig. his ingly effortless ism of Michelangelo. Raphael contributed less than either Leonardo or Michelangelo. yet he is the central painter of the High Renaissance. owes The School of then nearing completion. 149) is largely shaped by his tually the Michelangelo simplified Bramante's overcomplex plan without changing its basic ideas. and thereby given it different meaning. are now balanced harmoniously. he has absorbed it into his own style. But compared with the hall of the Last Supper. philosopher reveals "the intention of his soul. the Stanza della Segnatura. 1514. Michelangelo's conveys the opposite sensation. symmetrical design. it seems like an advance view of the new St. the — all tall ribs.— continuous surfaces. our conception of the entire style rests on his work more than on any other master's. purposeful clarity. Art in the Renaissance 115 . to match the tragic hero- success story. thus setting off the dome more dramatically. (fig. of his figures. Raphael belongs to the opposite type: the artist as a man of the world. and every member of this great assembly plays his role with magnifi- The School of Athens suggests the spirit of Leonardo's Last Supper cent. and the dramatic grouping Yet Raphael has not simply bor- the physical power. a group of famous Greek philosophers is gathered around Plato and Aristotle. for he evidently to Michelangelo the expressive energy. when Michelangelo took charge." of the formal rhythm linking individuals and groups. Raphael's classical edifice shares far more of the compositional burden. S. The high drum. San Lorenzo in Florence. campaign was carried out hesitantly by architects trained under Bramante. scribed by one critic as giant pieces of toast (T. combody of the structure. these. philosophy. No pro- At Bramante's death. Of Athens (fig. oddly shaped masonry "islands" of that In the have been well de- room the women come and go Talking of Michelangelo. four crossing piers had acFor the next three decades gressed at a snail's pace. continues in the ribs. ly character. Their actual can be visualized only if we compare the measurements of Bramante's church with those of earlier buildings. Raphael's frescoes refer to the four domains of learning — and the arts. This holds true of the way each (fig. ing 139) rather than that of the Sistine Ceil143). rowed the older master's repertory of gestures and poses. creating an art at once lyric and dramatic. he redesigned also the exterior. The logic of this design is so persuasive few domes built between 1600 and 1900 fail to acknowledge it. His career is too much of a work too replete with seemgrace. both enjoyed equal fame. each in a characteristic pose or activity. His genius was a unique power of synthesis that enabled him to merge the qualities of Leonardo and Michelangelo. At the time Michelangelo began to paint the Sistine Ceiling. the the raised curve of the cupola. Each arm of Bramante's Greek cross has about the size dimensions of the Basilica of Constantine. Peter's (550 feet). 95). Julius II summoned Raphael from Florence to decorate a series of rooms in the Vatican Palace. Inspired by Bramante. A new and decisive phase began only in 1546. while them to those in the rest of the building (the impulse of the paired colossal pilasters below is taken up by the double columns of the drum. lantern contribute verticality at the expense of the horizontals. which would press down on the church ideas in every important respect. As an innovator. law. Peter's (fig. including the authors of his- and fictionalized biographies. less than half the length of the new St. pictorially rich and sculpturally solid. action and feeling. dome the of have seemed to below. Body and spirit. Eliot) half-eaten by a voracious space. Yet the Florence effect dome is gives immensely different: the no hint of the internal Michelangelo finds a sculptured shape for these contending forces and relates stresses. is 268 feet long. of the centralized. Today our sympathies are less evenly divided that So do a lot of us. 150) has long been acknowledged as the perfect embodiment of the classic spirit of the High Renaissance. We may recall Brunelleschi's Florence Cathedral dome (see fig. from which Michelangelo clearly borrowed a great deal. whereas Raphael is usually discussed only by novels torical historians of art. If Michelangelo exemplifies the solitary genius. only great. and of the interdependence of the figures and their architectural setting. Raphael must have already seen the Sistine Ceiltheology. and culminates in the lantern). ing. In the first. the strongly projecting buttresses accented by double columns.

new had as long a career as Michelangelo's. Its composition reThe Birth of Venus (see fig. 116 Art in the Renaissance Rome and an artist of prodigious gifts. too. rather than perspective vistas. 1510-11. Vatican Palace. he on the movement of human figures. The School of Athens. so that it never detaches itself from the surface of the canvas. Raphael. is as striking in the High Renaissance. It. the subject is again classical Galatea. in Botticelli's picture. His Bacchanal. 135). Galatea. Fresco. in contrast to the austere idealism The School of Athens. 151). belongs to Greek mythology but here the gay and sensuous aspect of antiquity is — the nymph — celebrated. which Raphael knew from his Florence days. the outstanding Venetian painter of the style 151. the movement is not generated by the figures but imposed upon them from without. Raphael. Raphael never again chitectural stage. yet their of calls resemblance emphasizes their profound Raphael's full-bodied. .150. 1513. relied increasingly To set so Rome splendid an ar- create pictorial space. The distinction between Florence and Venice. painted about 1518 (colorplate 14). dynamic figures take on their expansive spiral movement from the vigorously twisting pose of Gal- very dissimilarity. In his Galatea (fig. Titian. Villa Farnesina. Stanza della Segnatura. vainly pursued by Polyphemus. atea. makes a telling contrast with Raphael's Galatea. Fresco. so marked in the fifteenth century.

Titian had already become familiar with the High Renaissance in Florence and Rome ous abandon through A engravings. icy frankly pagan." however subjective and fantas- above the twin authority of nature and the Its first signs appear shortly before 1520 in the work of some young painters in Florence. give mood. c. offers no century. Michelangelo. thought. the dark sky. His unlike the disquieting mysteries but a profound sense of the sitter's lost in individuality. Paris 152. hardly visible bebilities lights. number Bacchanal also brants in his ence of ancient proach sculpture. not and thus peculiarly fascinat- Mannermost discussed today. In Titian's hands. but we have to agree on a name for the seventyfive years separating the High Renaissance from the Baroque. poetic. — become fore. The figures of the Bacchanal are idealized just enough beyond everyday reality to persuade us that they belong to a long-lost golden age. the hint of melancholy in trait. the it a haunt- ing poetic appeal. the cold formalism of their work has been recogoriginal nized as part of a wider movement that placed "inner vision. The Louvre. Aside from all his other achievements. Canvas. expressed the attitude with full conviction in The De- scent from the Cross (colorplate 15). creamy highof oil technique dark tones that are yet transparent and delicately modulated are now fully realized. His landscape as deep. which was dominated by shallow imitators of the great masters of the previous generation and lasted until the Baroque style emerged at the end of the century. he visualizes the realm of classical myths as part of the natural world. 39 1/j x 35". In this respect. 152). Rosso Fiorentino. why should the span 1525-1600 be regarded as a period at all? Perhaps the difficulty can be resolved by thinking of it as a time of crisis that gave rise to several competing tendencies rather than one dominant ideal artists still — or as a time full unlike the present ing to us. 140). the young Casually posed and man seems quite un- aware of The dreamy intimacy us. Francis (see fig. even the Art in the Renaissance 117 . the separate brush strokes. inhabited not by animated statues but by beings of flesh and blood. soft outlines of this por- its and deep shadows. What hapHigh Renaissance? About fifty years ago the answer would have been: the pened after the Late Renaissance. By 1521. Nothing has prepared us for the shocking impact of this latticework of spidery forms spread out against Man with the Glove. congealed by a sudden. Mona Lisa (see fig. Any one label implies that the period had one style. that of significance of the term remain problematic: its meaning was narrow and derogatory. the possi- — rich. But if there was no single style. and nobody has succeeded in defining such a style. ancients. although the forms are now painted with far greater breadth and sensuousness. or Raphael. eccentric new member of this group. designating a group of painters in Rome and Florence whose self-consciously "artificial" style was derived from certain aspects of Raphael and Michelangelo. and warmly sunlit as that of Bellini's St. Titian. The rea- way ful state in a aricl that son for the difference is the heir artistic move is of not far to seek: Titian Giovanni Bellini. the most tic. increasingly free. 137). They invite us to share their bliss- seem cold makes Raphael's Galatea remote by comparison.1520. active and muscular. More recently. Titian seems infinitely more "modern" than Leonardo. inspired by an ancient audescription of such a revel. By this time. sonal rhythms of the mannerism and other trends. Today we take a far more positive view of the who reached maturity after 1 520. so that the per- artist's "handwriting" are an essential element of the finished work. and the thor's figures. as if The figures are agitated yet rigid. move with a joy- not unlike Raphael's. The scope and these trends. ism is the Among of inner contradictions. figures in a was the Titian also greatest portraitist of the Man with the Glove (fig. antiquity to Yet very is of the cele- reflect the influ- Titian's ap- from different Raphael's.

" but his relationship to these two masters. move with but effortless languor. was as peculiar as Parmigianino's was to Raphael. though real enough. Venice 118 Art in the Renaissance Eu- transubstantiation of earthly into . combining elements of both "anticlassical" and "elegant" Mannerism in his work. He had been deeply impressed with the rhythmic grace of Raphael (compare fig. what amounts to a revolt against the balance of High Renaissance art — In Venice. in the form of bread and wine. painted when the artist had returned to his native Parma after several years' sojourn in Rome. Tintoretto has given the scene an everyday setting. clutit with attendants. The Last Supper. Parmigianino seems determined to prevent us from measuring anything in this picture by the standards of ordinary experience. still occupies the center of the composition. embodying an ideal of beauty as remote from nature as any Byzantine figure. Renaissance. sharp-edged planes. 154). nightmarish effect of the scene. the first phase of Mannerism. visionary style that indicates a deep-seated inner anxiety. but now the table is placed at right angles to the picture plane. containers of food and tering and domestic animals. Tintoretto. is the violence seen in Mannerism appeared only toward the middle of the century. Tintoretto's main concern has been to make charist. 12' x 18' 8". Here we approach the "artificial" style for which the term Mannerism was originally coined. Florence below: 154. He reportedly wanted "to paint like Titian and to design like Michelangelo. willful. to His disciples. S. Tintoretto's last major work. elongated and ivory-smooth. Its leading exponent. so that His small figure in the middle distance is distinguishable only by the brilliant halo. — miraculously turns into clouds of angels that converge upon Christ just as He offers His body and blood. for there are also celestial atthe smoke from the blazing oil lamp tendants drink. 7' 1" x 4' 4". 139). he has transformed the older master's figures into a remarkable new breed: their limbs. Panel.1535. pect of the chological turmoil but less expressive of psy- equally far removed from the confident. Tintoretto. Uffizi Gallery. c. 151). is also his most spec- the tacular. was soon replaced by another as- movement. The Madonna with the Long Neck is a vision of unearthly perfection. its cold elegance — — left: 153. 153) by Parmigianino. the visible the institution of the Parmigianino. the acid colors and the brilliant but unreal light reinforce the Here is no less compelling than Rosso's Descent. with a gigantic and apparently purposeless row of columns looming behind the tiny figure of a prophet. stable world of the High We see it in The Madonna with Long Neck (fig. sic it denies in every possible way the clas- values of Leonardo's version of the subject (see fig. The Last Supper (fig. The Madonna with the Long Neck. This "anticlassical" style. was an artist of prodigious energy and inventiveness.a draperies have brittle. to be sure. classical profoundly disquieting. Canvas. Their setting is equally arbitrary. painted a century before. Christ. 1592-94. But this serves only to contrast dramatically the natural with the supernatural. Giorgio Maggiore.

the canvas fills one entire wall of its chapel. 16' x 11' 10". In 1576/77 he went to Spain. so that we must look sharply upward to see the upper half of the picture. carrying the figures along with it. Later. but their ideal of classical balance did not attract him. may account for the exalted emotionalism of his mature work. was a phenomenally gifted painter who spent most of his brief career in Parma. Domenicos Theotocopoulos. Spain St. 155). such as the nymph Io ecstatically swooning in the embrace of a 156). For the next century and a half. while the foreground figures appear as on a stage (note that their feet are cut off by the frame). nicknamed El Greco. he signed his pictures in Greek. although the spiritual climate of the Counter Reformation. he was admired as the equal of Raphael while the Mannerists. Leonardesque chiaroscuro. but in Venice he quickly absorbed the lessons of Titian. The Burial Canvas. of Count Orgaz. Stephen and St. limbs. His earliest training must have been under a local master still working in the Byzantine tradition. but toward 1600 his art began to be widely appreciated. The last and perhaps greatest Mannerist painter was also trained in Venice. and the Central Italian Mannerists. Correggio. El Greco represents the burial as a contemporary event. flamelike tant figure of Christ. If Mannerism produced the personalities that — today seem most "modern" El Greco's fame is greater now than it ever was before its dominance was not uncontested in the six- — century. draperies — takes part in the movement toward the dismore than in the various aspects of Man- sweeping. produces an effect of exquisite voluptuousness that far exceed Titian's in the Bacchanal (see colorplate 14). came from Crete. were now largely gio — forgotten. the huge canvas honors a medieval bene- missions factor of the church who was so pious that ants many of the local nobility and clergy. nerism fuse into a single ecstatic vision. had no immediate successors. Augustine miraculously appeared at his funeral to lower the body into its grave. which was especially intense in Spain. He absorbed the influence of Leonardo and the Venetians. combined with a Venetian sense of color and texture. El Greco's violent foreshortening is calculated to achieve an illusion of boundless space above. The contrast measures the dynamic evolution of Western art since the beginning of the Early Renaissance. settling in Toledo for the rest of his life. S. the in the armor and vestments could hardly be surpassed by Titian himself. Another trend that also emerged about 1520 anticipated so many features of the Baroque style that it might be labeled Proto-Baroque.— he Divine food. A third trend in sixteenth-century Italian painting emerged in the towns located in the Art in the Renaissance 119 . El Greco. he came to know the art of Michelangelo. his style had already been formed before he arrived in Toledo. Toledo. Its most important representative. Tome. Correg- cloudlike Jupiter (fig. Directly above. drama of Judas' barely hints the at human (Judas is the tiny figure to the rear on the near side of the table). so important before. El Greco's task may be compared to Masaccio's in his Trinity mural (see colorplate 13). The celestial assembly filling the upper half of the picture is painted very differently from the lower half: every form clouds. portraying among the attenddazzling display of color and texture 155. Yet he remained an alien in his new homeland. the count's soul (a small. cloudlike figure like the angels in Tintoretto's Last Supper) is carried to Heaven by an angel. even Tintoretto's art. The largest and most resplendent of El Greco's combetrayal — — — is The Burial of Count Orgaz (fig. Like an enormous window. and other Venetian painters. His art is filled with movement that sweeps through the composition. Here. Tintoretto. then of Michelangelo and teenth Raphael. Nor did he ever forget his Byzantine background until the end of his career. Raphael. in Rome. 1586.

according to Palladio. Veronese became. 120 Art Paolo Veronese. and . Veronese's dogged refusal to admit the justice of the charge. 154) with Veronese's Christ in the House of Levi ject. Verona worked artists in a style public. however "improper. only he had been summoned by a religious tribunal on the charge of filling his picture with "buffoons and similar vulgarities" unsuited to its sacred character. Palladio stands in the tradition of the humanist and theoretician Leone Battista Alberti (see p. The contrast is strikingly evident if we compare Tintoretto's Last Supper (see fig. 102). until the nineteenth century. is the entire visible world. Vienna . a true feast for the eyes. his buildings and theoretical writings soon brought him international renown. Ve- ronese paints a sumptuous banquet. with one important exception: Andrea Palladio.1532. Jupiter and are not even sure which event from of Christ he originally for he gave the canvas meant to depict. Although his career centered on his native town of Vicenza. The in towns like based on Titian's but with a stronger interest in everyday reality. Canvas. and in it he acknowledges no authority other than his senses. his indifference to the subject of the pic- ture spring from an attitude so startlingly "exit was not generally accepted troverted" that The painter's domain. at first the glance. Yet we miss one essential the elelike a — vated. his insistence on his right to introduce directly observed details. must be governed both by reason and by certain universal rules that were perfectly exemplified by the buildings of the Levi. 18' 2" x 42'. picture looks High Renaissance work born fifty years too late. Born and trained in Verona. which deals with a similar subVeronese avoids all reference to the su- 157. Venice . although utterly unlike in style. Christ in the Renaissance in the House of Italian sculptors and architects of the later sixteenth century in general fail to match the achievements of the painters. but not "the intention of man's soul. 64i/2 We life its present title after x27 3/4 "." 156. c. Architecture. this North Italian realism takes on the splendor of a pageant (see also pp. an architect second in importance only to Michelangelo. Kunsthistorisches Museum. 157). Canvas. Veronese seems to say. both found favor with the Alpine foothills.pernatural. after Tintoretto. Academy. 238-39). 1573. (fig. In the work of Paolo Veronese. . the CORREGGIO. ideal conception of the work of the man that underlies High Renaissance masters. the most important painter in Venice. not far from Venice." lo.

clearly recognizable stylistic tradition. The diversity of trends north of the Alps is even greater than in Italy during the sixteenth century. it had produced such important masters as Schongauer (see p. And its direct effects may be superficial or profound. about 1600. and Northern Renaissance art begins to replace Late Gothic. the struc- from Lombardy. Between 1475 and 1500. Mathis Gothart Nithart. where the main battles of the "war of styles" took place during the first quarter of the century. specific or general. however. High Renaissance. are an organic part of his design. then. THE RENAISSANCE IN NORTHERN EUROPE. must be oversimplified. perfectly illustrates the An The meaning of classicism. Alberti defined the ideal church as a comis pletely symmetrical. we may call them "classicistic" (to denote a conscious striving for classic qualities). (fig. As if a dam had burst. Nor does Italian influence provide a common denominator. 158. Begun 1550. while Griinewald remained so obscure that his real name. and its encounter with Italian art resulted in a kind of Hundred Years' War of styles which ended only when.ture an air of serene dignity that still and festive grace appeals to us today. North of the Alps. is almost entirely of our own century. they had looked to Flanders. for this influence is itself diverse: Early Renaissance. In any case. They lend is much less well defined than Late Gothic. the majority of fifteenth-century artists had remained indifferent to Italian forms and ideas. Venice. one of his most famous buildings. it Villa Rotonda 158). his has even It been said that Palladio designed only what was. Italian influence flows northward in an ever-widening stream. he probably persuaded himself that it was legitimate because he regarded it as desirable for both beauty and utility. which had a far more immediate impact on art north of the Alps than in Italy. The course of this "war" was decisively affected by the Reformation. But how could he justify the use of so solemn a motif as the temple front in this context? Surprisingly enough. this relationship had been loose and flexible. consists of a square block dome and surmounted by a faced on all four sides with identical porches having the shape of temple fronts. aristocratic country residence near Vicenza. the — — Art in the Renaissance 121 . for leadership. Yet Palladio's use of the temple front here was not mere antiquarianism. which refers to a single. the Baroque emerged as an international movement. the home of the Reformation. and Mannerist. 96 ). With Alberti. probably at about the same age. Matthias Griinewald and Albrecht Diirer. the porches of the Villa Rotonda. or indirect. His fame. if no longer dominant. Vicenza ancients. not Tuscany. whereas Palladio believed quite literally in practicing what he preached. Let us begin with Germany. perfectly correlated with the walls behind. he was convinced that Roman private houses had porticoes such as these (excavations have since proved him wrong). emphasizing the heroic phases of the struggle at the expense of the lesser engagements. Both died in 1528. the Late Gothic tradition remained very much alive. If the results are not necessarily classic in style. he alone overwhelms us in his main work. More- over. centralized design. sanctioned by ancient precedent. In Northern art of his time. toward the year 1500. Villa Rotonda. or Rome. Florence. He thus shared Alberti's basic out- look and his firm faith in the cosmic signifi- cance of numerical proportions. this is indeed the usual term for both Palladio's work and his theoretical attitude. each in some regional variant That term. Since the time of Robert Campin and the Van Eycks. They differed in how each man related theory and practice. Andrea Palladio. like El Greco's. Diirer quickly became internationally famous. but these hardly prepare us for the astonishing burst of creative energy that was to follow. Our account. in his view. This isolation ends suddenly. His architectural treatise than cal Alberti's huge success more — directly is — consequently more practithis helps to explain its while his buildings are linked with theories. Palladio evidently found in the same principles the ideal country house. The achievements of this period comparable in its brevity and brilliance to the Italian High Renaissance are measured by the contrasting personalities of its greatest artists. was discovered only recently.

its range matched only by the Venetians'. on the right. with something like the power of the Sistine Ceiling. 8' 10" x 10' 1". and this the Resurrection as spirit in striking these is the panels though it the — had a — celebrate events as jubilant austere. c. 102). when all the wings are closed. When the outer wings are opened. His color scale is richly iridescent. Grunewald's forms are soft. In one respect it is very medieval: Christ's unbearable agony. silhouetted is against a deserted. Anthony at Isenheim. shows The Crucifixion (fig. in accordance with the Gospels. gives Renaissance ^— . This union of time and 122 eternity. The same message is conveyed by the flanking figures: the three historic witnesses on the left mourn Christ's death as a man. in the rainbow-hued radiance of the Risen Christ. and the desperate grief of the Virgin. 159. while John the Baptist. Darkness is over the land. the Angel Concert for the Madonna and Child. but a mountain towering above lesser peaks." The first. The Crucifixion. f M l\ 3 - Isenheim Altarpiece (colorplate 16). and Mary Magdalen. ghostly land- scape and a blue-black sky. yet brilliant light bathes the foreground with the force of sudden revelation. His light and color show a corresponding change: commanding all the resources of the great Flemish masters. the mood of the Isenheim Altarpiece changes dramatically (colorplate 16). Colmar (for the second view of altarpiece. spiky contours and angular drapery patterns of Late Gothic art. with — countless lacerations.. How much did Grunewald owe to Italian Nothing at all. Musee Unterlinden. he employs them with unexampled boldness and flexibility. St. points with calm emphasis to Him as the Saviour. The Crucifixion becomes a lonely event its twisted limbs. in Alsace. Yet he must have learned from the Renaissance in more ways than one: his knowledge of perspective (note the low horizons) and the physical vigor of some of his figures cannot be art? . elastic. Most is movement pervading Crucifixion sense of everything twists and turns as life of its own. see colorplate 16) i j» 1-S w \ ^iB J. This vibrant en- ergy has thoroughly reshaped the brittle. it is now in the museum of the nearby town of Colmar. and on a heroic scale that raises it beyond the merely human: thus the two natures of Christ are revealed. John. The altarpiece has three stages. from The henheim Altarpiece (closed). most spectacularly. Panel. And his exploitation of colored light is altogether without parallel at that time. rivulets of blood. Grunewald's genius has achieved miracles-through-light that are unsurpassed to this day.1510-15. recall older devotional images such as the Bonn Pieta (see fig. Grunewald's Crucifixion its awesome grandeur. 159) probably the most impressive ever painted. Painted in 1509-15 for the monastery church of the Order of St. Even the background suggests this duality: this Golgotha is not a hill outside Jerusalem. we are tempted to reply. fleshy.I fuml 5 r Matthias Grunewald. In the luminescent angels of the Concert and. or "views. But the body on the cross. All three scenes in — second "view" the Annunciation. Art of reality in the and symbolism.

He visited Venice a young journeyman and returned to his na- different as tive Nuremberg with world and the a new conception of the it. he was also an and entrepre- architect. Diirer was in this respect more of a Renaissance personalto than any Italian. The unbridled place in artist's was to him "a wild. was psychological. he also adopted the ideal of the artist as a gentleman manistic scholar. In a word. it an authority beyond the range of ordinary portraits. Griinewald seems to have shared the free. Engraving. engineer. He was in sympathy with Martin Luther (who frowned upon religious images as "idolatrous") even though. but the solemn. 26V4 x 19Vi". Pinakothek. reflecting not so fact. 161. Most impressive. Instead. Munich the objective. Death. His earliest known work. frontal pose and the Christ-like ing. as a painter. him on his The Renaissance. which needed the discipline of fantasy of Griinewald's art unpruned tree" 160. rational standards of the Renaissance. is pictorially.: explained by the Late Gothic tradition. Albrecht Durer. We know little about his career. 1500. 1513. Self-Portrait. and peculiarly reveal- the panel he painted in 1500 (fig. And since he was the greatest printmaker of the time. idealization of the features assert quite The a secularized Durer's vanity as the seriousness with which he regarded his mispicture looks. such as Knight. liberating effect basic cast of his imagination. and he continued to produce them throughout his ity career. The daring of his pictorial vision likewise suggests a reliance own resources. is a self-portrait. in The didactic many of his aspect of Durer's art is evident greatest prints. then. in icon. of Fine Arts. Boston Museum Art in the Renaissance 123 . he depended on Catholic patronage. The first artist to be fascinated by his own image. Perhaps the most important effect of the Renais- sance on him. a drawing made at thirteen. neur who worked for many different patrons without staying anywhere for long. Albrecht Durer. the Renaissance held a and richer meaning. For Albrecht Durer. and Devil. individualist spirit of Italian Renaissance artists. Panel. he had a wide influence on sixteenth-century art through his woodcuts and engravings. which circulated throughout the Western world. 160) belongs to the Flemish tradition. but apparently he did not lead the settled of a life craftsman- painter controlled by the rules of his guild. Taking the Italian view that the fine arts among belong the liberal arts. had a on him but did not change the it helped to epitomize the expressive aspects of the Late Gothic in a style of unique intensity and individuality. mind he came techniques and By steadily and hu- cultivating his encompass a vast variety of subjects. like much sion as an artistic reformer. however. Knight.

Durer's own convictions were essentially those of Christian humanism. that such an image was the record of a scientific experiment. 161 ). ject. the other man marks where the string passes through the vertical frame (the picture plane) and makes corresponding dots on the drawing board hinged to the frame. art his doomed by the spiritual leaders mation. More often than not. although. who looked upon them ence. poised and confident like an equestrian statue. Often. and Devil beautiful tried the to create a Protestant monumental but faith. Moreover. such as the gifted Bavarian painter Albrecht Altdorfer. Death. embodies an ideal both aesthetic and moral: he is the Christian Soldier. . more embodying efforts were of the Refor- with indiffer- often. 124 Art Woodcut in the Renaissance the lute as it would appear to us if we looked at it from the spot on the wall marked by a little hook. Italian Renaissance form. characteristically Northern significance. steadfast on the road of faith toward the Heavenly Jerusalem and undeterred by the hideous horseman threatening to cut him off. and Devil seems to have been derived from a book called the Manual of the Christian Soldier by Erasmus of Rotterdam. these were based on literary classical subjects to rather than visual sources.(fig. 1525. so that the classical content was not cast in classical form. but this required him to adopt a bird's-eye view in the sky. not a work of art. another symbol of virtue. His work includes a treatise on geometry based on a thorough study of Piero della Francesca's discourse on perspective. 163). Demonstration of Perspective. The same is true of his contemporaries. The subject of Knight. Durer was a pioneer also in transplanting Northern soil. see the Hellenistic representation of the same subject.devoting a good part of his final years to this. (fig. the greatest of Northern humanists. the soldiers' armor and the town in the distance are unmistakably The picture might well show some contemporary battle. like Griinewald. is the first step toward the principle of the pho- ested in tographic camera. however. 240). he continued to work for Catholic patrons. 50). Durer thus turned to the theory of art. fig. he invented. In the 1520s he Dcntli. he went beyond his Italian sources. a device for producing an image by purely mechanical means. The knight on his mount. from the artist's treatise on geometry. or by the grotesque devil behind him. The dog. Durer knew. united with the heritage of Late Gothic symbolism (Whether open or disguised). Two men "draw" Albrecht Durer. here takes on a new. whereby the two protagonists are lost in the antlike mass of their own armies (for contrast. 162). for instance. Yet his device. Altdorfer has tried to follow ancient descriptions of the actual number and kind of combatants. loyally follows his master despite the lizards and skulls in his path. to demonstrate the objective validity of perspective 162. they made him an early and enthusiastic follower of Martin Luther (see also p. outright hostility. or. of course. nor was he really inter- making pictures without human skill and judgment. the string passing through the hook substitutes for the visual rays. who did the impressive Battle of Issus (fig. except for one of the sixteenth century. The man on the left attaches the end of the string to successive points on the contour of the lute. however clumsy. Unless we read the text on the tablet suspended we cannot possibly identify the subAlexander's victory over Darius.

Hans Holbein the Younger. The celestial drama above a vast Alpine landscape. shares the rigid frontality of Durer's self-por- 160). for in the religious wars following the Reformation. 1529. the human The figure incidental to its tiny soldiers of the Battle of Issus have their counterpart in his other pic- and he painted tures. in Switzerland. but its purpose is to convey almost divine authority of the absolute trait (see fig. with no figures at all — at least one landscape the earliest example of "pure" landscape. The Netherlands in the sixteenth century had the most turbulent and painful history of any country north of the Alps. In 1526. Altthe scene to the cosmic level. Panel. His portrait of the king (fig. obviously correlated with the human contest below. On Albrecht Altdorfer. create an overpowering sensation of the monarch's ruthless." decided whether his subjects were to be Catholic or Reformed. 32Vs x 29". when Basel was in the throes of the Reformation crisis. raises feature: may be viewed as a later. a city in South Germany particularly open to Renaissance ideas. Such "class-conscious" portraits were gaining international currency at the courts of Europe during the second quarter of the century. perhaps the rapid decline of German art after Durer's death was due to a failure of ambition among artists and patrons alike. Although greatly gifted. was an architect. as "Defender of 164. If they owe something to the icons of religious art. Altdorfer and his German contemporaries evaded the main challenge of the Renaissance that was so bravely if not always mastered faced by Diirer: the image of man. Their style. They were then part of the far-flung empire of the Hapsburgs under Art in the Renaissance 125 . set the pace for dozens of lesser masters. although he. and lesser. his paintings show the unruly imagination already familiar from the work of the older master. Pinakothek. well acquainted with perspective and the Italian stylistic vocabulary.the spectacular sky. the display of precisely rendered and gold embroidery. too. the ruler: the immobile pose. 62 x 47". Altdorfer dorfer makes spatial setting. he went to England. that is perhaps less surprising than it might seem. his return two years he saw fanatical mobs destroying religious images as "idols. unlike Griinewald. 1540. the air of unap- proachability. 164) later. Younger than Diirer by twenty-six years. Griinewald. antimonumental and miniaturelike. The Battle of Issus. it was the sovereign who. VIII. commanding presence. and then became the leading artist of Basel. with the sun triumphantly breaking through the clouds and "defeating" the moon." and in 1532 he settled permanently in London as court painter to Henry VIII. But. The career of Hans Holbein the Younger the one painter of whom this is not true confirms the general rule. Munich — — court of 163. Henry Panel. Rome the Faith. Holbein grew up in Augsburg. National Gallery. and Holbein's are the most jewels impressive examples of their kind. hoping for commissions at the — — Henry VIII.

^F^B| . they have given up all ambition. in the shape of a great wheel turned on its side. was not completed until more than a century later. the traditional religious themes. the farmer his flail. the only genius among these painters. ^^ <*VW : : '-***• w Vj . barely begun at the time of his death. Netherlandish sixteenth-century painters had one main concern: to develop a repertory of subjects to supplement. shaped less by indi- vidual achievement than by the need to cater to popular taste as church commissions became steadily scarcer." by inviting Leonardo to France. all self-respect.? ih 1 •£Mmif^M 165. the Netherlands produced the major painters of Northern Europe. with a new and much larger structure on the same site. who had shown his admiparadise. proves that he must have thought his subject serious and important. it took the northern countries longer to assimilate Italian forms than in painting. 1567. It shows a fool's paradise where tables are always laden with tasty dishes. the Louvre (see fig. houses have roofs made of pies. decided to replace the old Gothic royal castle. peasant life. but from a genuine syn- distinctive quality superficially thesis of the traditional Renaissance palace. by Pierre Lescot (fig. France. more closely linked with Italy than the rest (we recall the French conquest of Milan). Between 1550 and 1600. while the southern ones (now called Belgium) remained in Spanish hands. they absorbed Italian elements more steadily than did Germany. is the finest surviving example of Northern Renaissance arration for Italian art earlier chitecture. provinces (today's Holland) gained their independence. 166). "it's more dangerous than hell because people like going there. 112). of course. The religious and political strife might have had catastrophic effects on the arts. are the n .aur*^ Gothic castle with the Italian. and pigs and chickens run about roasted to a turn. The Reformation quickly became powerful in the Netherlands. By becoming slaves to their stomachs. they are simply not wise enough to know what is best for them. and eventually replace. Pieter Bruegel. who was also king of Spain. The project. Bayerische Staatsgemaldesammlungen. did had no pioneers of the Northern Renaissance comparable to Durer. astonish- not happen. for the — sake of a kind of animal happiness the knight has dropped his lance. here is The lesson Bruegel teaches us philosophical rather than religious: the men under the tree are not sinners in the grip of evil. but its oldest portion. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. like those in Bosch's Garden of De- *2JLflfi^&r lights (see fig. Panel. While the Netherlands ingly. The Land of Cockaigne. yet we would not mistake it for an Italian structure.Charles V. "Beware of the fool's Bruegel seems to say. and moral allegory. such as The Land of Cockaigne (fig. yet this. explored landscape. The process was gradual. who paved the way for the great Dutch and Flemish masters of the next century. In 1546 King Francis I. Its comes not from Italian forms applied. 2OV2 x 30%". Munich tfljV if^ ! &%&> ^^^^^HP^ 126 Art in the Renaissance . In architecture and sculpture.«. and the attempts of the Crown to suppress it led to open revolt against foreign After a bloody struggle. The details of Lescot's facade are derived from Bramante and his successors and have an astonishing classical purity. 121). 165). was the first to achieve an integrated Renaissance style. the northern rule. Apart from the assimilation of Italian art. and the scholar his books. their most troubled time." And the monumental design of the painting.

Sta. 1425.Colorplate 13. Florence . The Holy Trinity. Maria Novella. Fresco. Masaccio.

Bacchanal. Titian. Madrid 5' 8% x6'4' . c.1518.Colorplate 14. The Prado. Canvas.

Panel.Colorplate 15. Volterra . 1521. . 11' x 6' 5Vi" Pinacoteca. Rosso Fiorentino. The Descent from the Cross.


Angel Concert for the Madonna and Child (center) The Resurrection (right).Colorplate 16. second view of the Isenheim Altarpiece. 1510-15. The Annunciation (left). c. Panel. center 8' 10" x 11' 2Vi . side wings each 8' 10" x 4' 8". Matthias Grunewald. Musee Unterlinden. Colmar .

1719-44.'ZJ&Z Colorplate 17. Wiirzburg . Episcopal Palace. m Balthasar Neumann. The Kaisersaal.

The Prado. Diego Velazquez. 1656.Colorplate 18. . Canvas. Madrid. The Maids of Honor (detail).

New c.Colorplate 19. Rembrandt. The Frick Collection. York. Canvas. The Polish Rider.1655. 46 x 53". .

Goujon's figures combine classical de- Equally reflecting the centralized state ruled wall surface of the third story. had already done its work by 1600 (for its effect on music. during the reign of Louis 1520s. their effect reinforced row windows. the absolutist state. and it him to share. and the steep roof is also traditionally Northern. Pierre Lescot. XIV. the new style penetrated the Protestant North so quickly that we must be careful not to overstress its Counter Refor- mation with a delicate slenderness that gives them a uniquely French elegance. or intellectual de- new style was born in Rome around 1600. of the period — Its original meaning — questionable is the "the style of absolutism. The pa- pacy once again patronized art on a large scale. was not simply the systematic for lus. Rome became the fountainhead of the Baroque.166. 112). as it had of the High Renaissance a century earlier. gravitation. Interconnections we do not surely existed. Square Court. What remains under dispute is the impulse behind it. Until we do. Besides. have been much restored. the finest French sculptor of Paris had been in the making since the Moreover. let us think of the Baroque style as one among other basic features the newly fortified Catholic faith. Unfortunately. "irregular. 236). yet the Counter Reformation. The vertical accents thus overcome horizontal the ones (note the broken traves). Baroque art flourished in bourgeois Holland no less than in the absolutist monarchies. a dynamic movement of self-renewal within the Catholic Church. There is also general agree- result of religious. ergo sum could not stir his imagination. These reliefs. Begun 1546. Like Lescot's architecture. classicistic kind of Baroque. they aspect." by an auAlthough absolutFrance in the later ism reached its climax in seventeenth century. the mid-sixteenth century. tails is tocrat of unlimited powers. nar- the rich art were known for worldly splendor rather than piety. the Louvre. aiming to turn Rome into the most beautiful Art in the Renaissance 135 . There are similar difficulties if we try to relate Baroque art to the science and philosophy of the period. THE BAROQUE Baroque has been the term used by art histo- rians for almost a century to designate the style 1600-1750. abstract. floor. Such a link did exist in the Early and High Renaissance: an artist then could also be a humanist and scientist. and the new yet understand — role of science — that distinguish the period 1600-1750 from what had gone before. then. now grotesque" is largely forgotten. see p. by gathering artists from other regions to perform challenging tasks. political. ment that the Baroque style expresses the spirit of the Counter Reformation. claim that Baroque sculptural decoration covering almost the entire admirably adapted to the architecture. are by Jean Goujon. The princes of the Church who supported the growth of Baroque velopments. But now scientific and philosophical thought became too complex. the window frames. superimposed classical orders. and neither side any longer had the power that the to upset the new balance. Thus it has been claimed but contorted. Baroque art. Protestantism was on the defensive. calcuand Cogito. 3. and pedimented the arcade on the ground But the continuity of the facade is interrupted by three projecting pavilions which take the place of the castle turrets (compare fig. them fully. and the style officially sponsored under Louis XIV was a notably subdued. Equally by the un-Italian is archi- tall.

not only for but for smaller churches as well. is the strong beam of sunlight above Christ that illuminates intellectual — — who was the greatest religious artist of the Protestant North. In architecture. borrowed from Michelangelo's Creation of Adam (see fig. Foremost was a so natural yet so charged with symmeaning the picture would lose its magic. its power to make us aware of the Di- painter of genius. some armed what appears to with in tavern. Matthew. well overlook." untouched by theological dogma. aerial view. in 1603 he was given the task of completing. the beginnings of the Ba- roque style cannot be defined as precisely as painting. designed 1657. but with a dramatic emphasis on the portals. whose bare feet and simple garments contrast strongly tioningly at with the colorful costumes of companions. S. "naturalism. 144). Rome right: 168. including The 167). called Caravaggio after his vine presence. Hence his profound though indirect influence on Rem- so entirely in terms of contemporary low brandt. Canvas. however. through an inward experience open to all men. St. Peter's cade as one continuous wall surface with the SV^TK^: j^T^ •'<*ff -^A 5p i < above: 167. who did several monu- this light — bolic direct form an attitude shared by some of to mental canvases for the church of San Luigi dei the great saints of the Counter Reformation: The Calling of St. Caravaggio. the Mannerists of feeble late campaign soon attracted and hand in the gloomy interior. pilasters turn into columns. at long last. 1597-98. Without his face — ambitious younger masters.! y^*| fil spy . an inconspicuous gold is his religious qual- one of the not the Saviour's band that we might Our eyes fasten instead on His commanding gesture. Caravaggio here gives moving. thus carrying His call across to Matthew. 168). the church of St. it replaced the traditional notion of the church fa- St. This quickened rhythm became the dominant principle of Maderno's facade designs. after the pope had decided to add a nave. he points ques- himself as two figures approach from the right. on hand were artists At first." is needed to distinguish it from the earlier kind. They were the ones who created the new of the entire Christian world. His paintings have a "lay Christianity. converting Bramante's and Michelangelo's centralplan building into a basilica (fig. (fig. In the vast church-building in program under way in Rome toward 1600. 11' 1" x 11' 5". The Calling of St. the birthplace near Milan. Francesi. its realism is so uncompromising that a new term. Nave and facade by Carlo Maderno. Peter's. in ity this Why Matthew and do we sense a scene? What figures as Christ? Surely identifies it halo. Matthew shown in this extraordinary picture is remote from both Mannerism and the High Renaissance. They are poor people. Luigi dei Francesi. Contarelli Chapel. Rome 1 36 Art in the Renaissance •*» JMb fjfc ** 'in ]m iiiimiin. c. Peter's. Never have we seen a sacred subject depicted that the mysteries of faith are revealed not by speculation but spontaneously. There is what can only be called a crescendo effect from the corners to- ward the center: the spacing of the colossal order becomes closer. Matthew men — be a style the tax gatherer sits evidently his agents common Roman — life. colonnade by Gianlorenzo Bernini. that appealed to Protestants no less than Catholics. 149). and the facade wall projects step by step. which bridges the gap between the two groups. Mader- that got no's design for the facade follows the pattern established by Michelangelo the for exterior (compare fig. but distinction. Most important of all. 1607-15. the most talented young architect was Carlo Maderno.

Bernini Art in the Renaissance 137 . Bernini's conceived not as a self-contained figure but as "half of a pair. that Baroque art acknowledges no sharp distinction between sculpture and painting. lifesize. both may be combined with architecture form a compound illusion. Because of this "invisible complement. attempting illusionistic effects that are outside its — province." Baroque sculpture has been denounced as a tour de force. 170). in the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria. Did the artist. the simplest answer would be: his (fig. Sta. but at the same time I felt such infinite sweetness that I wished the pain to to stage. Marble. Gianlorenzo Bernini. Borghese Gallery. had described how an angel once pierced her heart with a flaming golden arrow: "The pain was so great that I screamed aloud. for illu- motherly. Caravaggio had achieved it. Bernini. Rome below: 170. degrees of illusion as less legitimate than others. Theresa of Avila. 244-45). sion Such a charging of space with active energy a key feature of Baroque art (see also pp. or. like that of the was at his best when he could merge all three arts in this fashion. one of the saints of the Counter Reformation. lifesize. It is true. we wonder. If we 169) with Michelange(see fig. first impulse Baroque is to get sculpture. the It greatest sculptor- was he who molded open space in front of the facade into a magnificent oval "forecourt" framed by colonnades which Bernini himself likened to the the formidable fighter. His masterpiece is the Cornaro Chapel. Matthew. 142). If we is the basis of every artistic experience. The Ecstasy of St. in his St. however.left: 169. years. David. not only in sculpture as well. Rome "facade-in-depth. for his David tells us clearly enough where he sees the enemy. 1623. Theresa. Theresa (fig." his entire action focused on his adversary. Gianlorenzo possibilities implicit fifty Bernini. Thus between David and his invisible op- the space ponent is it "belongs" to stand directly in front of this charged with energy: the statue. containing the famous group called The Ecstasy of St. more precisely. plan a statue of Goliath to complete the group? He never did. then. implied David is presence of Goliath. Maria della Vittoria. architect of the century. The new concept were not to be exhausted Maderno's work Peter's facade was completed by hundred and on the St. Bernini was a master of in architecture compare lo's ni's the but David it. out of the line of our fire. Marble. all-embracing arms of the Church. with the and we cannot very well regard some kinds or is aid of a sharply focused beam of light. and ask what makes BerniBaroque. The two may enter into a symbiosis previously unknown. eschews the self-sufficiency of Early and High Renaissance sculpture for an illusion the illusion of presences or forces that are implied by the behavior of the sculptured figure. The accusation is pointless. 16451652." dynamically related to the open space before in this for a it.

easily much A similar "explo- and hence more photographed) may be seen on the nave sion" (on a larger scale vault of the church of II Gesu (fig." Opera by G. designed to overwhelm the beholder emotionally. which come from a source high above the altar: in an illusionistic fresco on the vault of the chapel. their gleaming whiteness. Such displays. A. causing the turbulence of their drapery. Harvard University. its it frame. Rome last forever. 171) — fur- ther evidence of Bernini's imaginative daring.Giovanni Battista Gaulli. Mass. the glory of heaven is revealed as a dazzling burst of light from which tumble clouds of jubilant angels. It is figures 172. 138 Art in the Renaissance this celestial "explosion" that gives force to the thrusts of the angel's arrow and makes the ec- stasy of the saint believable. for Vienna. 171. Ceiling fresco. although his role was only advisory. 1662 (engraving by F. are lit (from a hidden window above) in such a way as to seem almost dematerialized in physical. Hoftheater. less equally important." Bernini has made this visionary experience as sensuously real as Correggio's Jupiter and Io (see fig. Houghton Library. would be indistinguishable from Cupid. Theater Collection." both in spirit and in some of the devices employed. Stage Design "La Zenobia di Radamisto. then turning into is clear that the concep- must be Bernini's. assistant. 1672-85. may well be termed "theatrical. Cambridge. his young protege. is The "invisible specific than com- David's but the force that carries the heavenward. 156). his talented Antonio Raggi. Boretti. Its nature is suggested by the golden rays. van den Steen). Lodovico Burnacini. The beholder experi- ences them as visionary. The commission for the fresco went to Giovanni Battista Gaulli. II Gesu. and the saint's ecstasy is palpably Yet the two figures. in a different context. did the stucco sculp- As we see the ceiling fresco spilling so dramatically over sculptured figures. the angel. Bernini himself had a passionate interest in the theater. plement" here. Triumph of the Name of Jesus. on their floating cloud. tion . ture.

expansive withstood. as had been drawn on rubber. we sense its Gesu and the Cornaro Chapel (see also pp. detail. Bernini himself agreed nade of St.Looking at a typical Baroque stage with all its such as the one in figure kinship with the ceiling of II illusionistic devices." wrote the head of the religious order for which the church was built. 246-47). Francesco Borromini. Characteristically. "pulled out of shape" by pressures that no previous building could have cave structure a personality type. San Carlo alle established Borromini's local highly individual vocabulary. Facade and Plan. As Quattro Fontane (fig. a monk whose architectural genius was deeply grounded in philosophy and mathematics. The not unfamiliar. In the facade. he died by suicide. which became the creative center of Baroque architecture in Italy toward the end of the seventeenth century. however. In these countries. there was little building activity until near the end of the seventeenth century. the church of if it is Greek cross. In 1666. Both exemplify the climax of Baroque architecture in Rome. but the syntax is and disquieting. the exterior of the building to the last is ornamental entirely of brick. Art in the Rome Renaissance 139 . was ally unstable genius. Francesco Borroand emotionsecretive a opposite: the mini. that architecture must reflect the proportions of the human body. 174) repeats on a larger scale the undulating movement of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. these pressures and counterpressures reach their maximum intensity. Guarino Guarini. enshrined in Renaissance theory and practice. that city attracted Borromini's most brilliant successor. 173). unified. 172. Bernini represents the man of the world. His design for the facade of the Palazzo Carignano (fig. the ceaseless play of con- San Carlo alle vocabulary new is and convex surfaces makes the entire seem elastic. yet Bernini's design for the colonis dramatically simple and Borromini's structures are excomplex." The wealth of new ideas introduced by Borromini was exploited not in Rome but in Turin. His The plan a pinched oval suggest- self-assured. ravaged by the Thirty Years' War. in Austria and southern Germany. out the testimony of their contemporaries. "can be found anywhere in the world. it incorporates sculpture and even a painting. The down ultimate de- velopment of the style invented by Borromini. The temperamental contrast between the two would be evident from their works alone. the capital of Savoy. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. "Nothing similar. designed almost thirty years later. borne aloft Quattro Fontane and international fame. We understand this accusation when we look at Borromini's first project. 1638-67. took place north of the Alps. even with- ing a distended and half-melted great in rival architecture. using a by flying angels. while travagantly with those Peter's who denounced Borromini for disre- garding the classical tradition. Incredibly. Baroque was an imported 173. S.

of art his more boldly than any Italian Baroque architect. St. like those of Roman ceilings (compare fig. The structural members. The meminent. the exterior of St. however. ribbonlike moldings. invented in France about 1700. pilasters. Borromaeus. in the of Roman elastic Fischer von imperial curvatures Erlach expresses. deserve to be remembered until the as lavish patrons of the arts. and most refined. Tiepolo blended the tradition of High Baroque illusionism with the pagistic . Venetian by birth and training (see also p. 174. among Neumann was prom- Balthasar the most favored a tendency toward lightness and elegance. which is here happily combined with German Late Baroque architecture. Here the last. Vienna 140 Art in the Renaissance Charles way to illusion- openings of every sort that we no longer feel it to be a spatial boundary. curling motifs. 176). This repertory of lacy. With these elements inflexible embedded church. stage of illusiohistic ceiling decoration is represented by its greatest master. and architraves. The whom architects of the next generation. Johann Fischer von Erlach. and pastel shades the favorite color scheme of the mid-eighteenth century. Charles Borromaeus in only Vienna 175) combines reminiscences of and the portico of the Pantheon with a pair of huge columns which (fig. but blue sky and sunlit clouds. such as columns. 1690s did native designers come to the fore. the power of the Christian faith to absorb and transfigure the splendors of antiquity. a great oval hall decorated in white. 251). 171 ). Not practiced mainly by visiting Italians. We must be content with a small sampling of these monuments. windows and vault segments are framed with continuous. are minimized. Neumann's largest project. reveal avalanches of figures propelled by dramatic bursts of Peter's here substitute for fagade towers. is linked most directly to the Italian tradition. There followed a fifty-year period of intense activity that gave rise to some of the most imaginative creations in the history of architecture. Only along the edges are there solid clusters of figures (fig. gold. Johann Fischer von Erlach. includes breath-taking Kaisersaal (colorplate 17). the first great architect of the Late Baroque in Central Europe. the Episthe copal Palace in Wiirzburg. generally speaking. and the white surfaces are spun over with irregular ornamental designs. Turin — branelike ceiling so often gives 175. 153). These openings do not. His design for the Church of St. 1716-37. and an occasional winged creature soaring in this limitless expanse. is the hallmark of the Rococo style (see p. Palazzo Carignano. erected for the glorification of princes and prelates who. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Guarino Guarini. Begun 1679.

the widow of Henri IV and the mother of Louis XIII. 1622-23. and the work of Caravaggio. the masterpieces of the High Renaissance. Queen of France. a special and his walks down the gangplank. the Baroque style soon became international. Trained by local painters. Munich eantry of Veronese. 1751. Everything flows together here in swirling movement: heaven and earth. In the Wiirzburg frescoes his powers are at their height. he went to Italy.— 176. He was afterward invited to decorate the Royal Palace in Madrid. The most famous. glorifying Marie de' Medici. and remained a devout Catholic all his life. 126). Wiirzburg (see colorplate 17) 177. he was valued not only as an artist but as a diplomat. Ceiling Fresco. and could well have made Antwerp He chose instead to settle down as court painter to the Spanish re- appointment that exempted him workshop from local taxes and guild rules. the young queen landing in Marseilles. Marie de' Medici. Fame flies over- head sounding a triumphant blast on two trumpets. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. and for private patrons. Rubens grew up in Antwerp. color. career in Italy. in fact. the capital of the "Spanish Netherlands" (see p. In the 1620s. Panel. and Neptune rises from the sea with his fishtailed crew. Kaisersaal (detail). history and allegory Art in the —even Renaissance 141 . with the best Italians of his day his on even terms. two years later. Episcopal Palace. Landing in Marseilles. During his eight years' stay he eagerly studied ancient sculpture. probably. he became a master in 1598. the grace in His mastery of light and and felicity of his touch. Figure 177 shows the artist's oil sketch for one episode. so that he had entree to the royal households of the major powers. but developed a personal style only when. It might be said that he finished what Diirer had started the breaking down of artistic barriers between North and South. Among the artists who helped bring this about. Rubens thus had the best of both worlds: at court. Pinakothek. they rejoice at her arrival. is the cycle in the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. 25 x 19%". Peter Paul Rubens. having guarded the queen's journey. while he was also free to carry out a vast volume of work for the city of Antwerp. for the Church. Hardly an exciting subject yet Rubens has turned it into a spectacle of unprecedented splendor. where he spent his final years. made him famous far beyond his home territory. Although Rome was its birthplace. the great Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens holds a place of special importance. ab- — sorbing the Italian tradition far more thoroughly than had any Northerner before him. Rubens' dynamic style reached a climax in his huge decorative schemes for churches and palaces. As Marie de' Medici gent. He competed.

for pictures became an important commodity in . Holland had many flourishing local schools: besides Amsterdam. where he befriended the recently appointed court painter. The comparison is not far-fetched. 178. just as millions of Americans played the stock market in the 1920s." for Velazquez shows himself at work on a huge canvas. of Velazquez' fascination and varieties of direct The Maids of Honor and the artist challenges are expected to match the the paintings on that wall. was Rubens' most precious legacy to subsequent painters.drawing and painting. 1656. Not until two centuries later shall we meet painters capable of realizing the itself implications of this discovery. The side lighting (from the right) and the strong contrasts of light and dark still suggest the ture" of the man in the influence of Caravaggio. us to find them: we mirror image against and against the "picopen doorway. Diego Velazouez. For Velazquez. he preferred to de- sign his pictures in terms of light and color from the very start. for Rubens used oil sketches like this one to prepare his compositions. liance. which is both a group portrait and an evcycle. and the Reformed faith was its official religion. Unlike Flanders. and brushwork even freer and more sketchy than that of Titian or Rubens. in the center is the little Princess Margarita. Soon after completing the Luxembourg Rubens spent more than a year in Madrid. There was no shrinkage of output. we find important groups of painters in Haarlem. the commercial center. the Dutch public developed so insatiable an appetite for pictures that the whole country became gripped by a kind of collector's mania. Holland produced a bewildering variety of masters and styles. catching time on the wing. This unified vision. farmers. but Velazquez' tech- nique is far more varied and subtle. where all artistic activity radiated from Antwerp. colorplate 18). No picture displays Velazquez' mature style more fully than The Maids of Honor (fig. The new nation was proud of its hard-won freedom. and seafarers. 10' 5" x 9'. light creates the visible world. and other towns. Everyone invested in paintings. appear in the mirror on the back wall. the private collector now became the painter's chief source of support. As a 178. to see the scene exactly as we do. The Maids of Honor. Have It stepped into the room. thus Dutch artists lacked the large-scale public commissions sponsored by State and Church that were available throughout the Catholic world. with deli- cate glazes setting off the impasto of the highlights. The superbly gifted young artist had been deeply impressed with the style of Caravaggio. the king and queen. Holland was a nation of merchants. on the contrary. Rubens helped him to discover the beauty of Titian and develop a new fluency and richness. Utrecht. Madrid (see colorplate 18) 142 Art in the Renaissance consequence. In contrast to Flanders. where painting was overshadowed by the majestic personality of Rubens. his aim is to show not figures in motion but the movement of light in and the infinite range of its effects on form and color. several factors encouraged the rapid growth of Dutch artistic traditions. approached but never fully achieved by the great Venetians of the previous century. among her playmates and maids of honor. might be subtitled "the artist in his studio. Diego Velazquez. ors. The Prado. Delft. eryday scene. Though the cultural links with Flanders remained strong. who has just posed for him. Leyden. Unlike earlier artists. or does the mirror reflect part of the canvas presumably a fulllength portrait of the royal family on which they just — — the artist has been working? This ambiguity characteristic The light. Canvas. The col- have a Venetian warmth and brilYet Velazquez does not seem interested too. The faces of her parents. in is with reflected light are almost limitless.

will paint as they please and rely for support on the discerning minority. and from Rome. artists "for the market" instead of relying but there are advantages in this as well as drawbacks. deceptive. He was born in Antwerp. works by artists now regarded as mediocre may once have been overpriced. Rembrandt was at this time an avid collector of Near Eastern paraphernalia. however. Hals spent hours. Everything here conveys complete spontaneity: the twinkling eyes and the halfopen mouth. 1627. highly valued today. To subject the artist to the pressure of supply and demand is not necessarily worse than to make him depend on the favor of princes. on this lifesize canvas. Art less sudden romantic admirers Still. sharply lit. even those who believe in timeless values in art will concede that these values cannot be expressed in money. His mature style. heightening the drama. through the work of Rubens. but he maintains the illusion of having done it in the wink of an eye. seem once to have sold too cheaply. the great portrait painter of Haarlem. The mechanism of the art market has been said to raise a barrier between artist and public. although the from public favor was and catastrophic than would have us believe. He was now Amsterdam's most sought-after portrait painter and a man of considerable wealth.came an outpourcomparable only to Early Renaissance Florence. was also stimulated at the beginning of his career by indirect contact with Caravaggio. split-second technique. The impression — — of a race against time is. Rembrandt. From the collector's mania in The Baroque style came to Holland from Antwerp. The market does form a barrier between artist and public. This prosis perity petered out in the artist's fall 1640s. The 31% Jolly Toper. side). the 1640s were a his in the Renaissance 143 . taste of the moment. a full-blown High Baroque style. combines Rubens' robustness and breadth with a concentration on the "dramatic moment" that must be derived from Caravaggio. specialists. his earliest pictures are small. 180) shows us the Old Testament world in oriental splendor and violence. although many Dutchmen were lured into becoming painters by seventeenth-century Holland ing of artistic talent hopes of success that failed to come true. however. some of whom were Dutchmen. supply and demand. One of the first to profit from this experience was Frans Hals. the raised hand." With this open. and to falsify the "true worth" of the work of art. Yet the system that prevailed in antiquity and the Middle Ages. Canvas. or run a small business on the but less secure. Yet they survived the — freer. while perhaps braving economic hardship. and what little is known of his early work suggests the influence of Rubens. Rijksmuseum. Because the art market reflects the dominant. the completed picture has the immediacy of a sketch. of course. and way of setting down the forms. others. the teetering winemost important of all the quick glass. each so clearly visible as a separate entity that we can almost count the total number of "touches. 179). not minutes. From these he developed. x 26 1/4". and intensely realistic. Hals works in dashing brush strokes. was hardly fairer in rewarding aesthetic merit. are unrealistic: the true worth of a work of art is always unstable. Such charges. which serve as props in these pictures. when artists were paid on standards of craftsmanship. The Blinding of Samson (fig. 179. cruel yet seductive. in the 1630s. and depends on (time and circumstance. and their trade followed the law of Many produced on commissions from individual patrons. seen in such pictures as The Jolly Toper (fig. Frans Hals. through direct contact with Caravaggio and his followers. Amsterdam Holland. Even greatest masters were sometimes hardpressed (it was not unusual for an artist to keep an inn. The lesser men will tend to become producing their marketable artists of independent spirit. steadily pictures. the greatest genius of Dutch art. The sudden flood of brilliant light pouring into the dark tent unabashedly theatrical. rather than the most discerning.

Rembrandt scratch a design into the resinous ground period of nal crisis. 1636. The chief virtue of etching is its wide freer tonal range. an easier task than cutting it is. O. etches ("bites") the lines into the copper. Rembrandt's.1652. Canvas. 161)." is preferred etching. as it were. c. ist's 1 8 1 ). To of into the copperplate directly. By the Rembrandt. and Devil (see fig. This subtle — imbalance implies a space far vaster than the of the picture and stamps Rembrandt's work as Baroque. etching made by coating a copperplate with make an acid-resistant "ground. Durer's horse- man. the differences between the painting and the serious. Etching. Is not the Polish Rider another Christian Soldier bravely making his way through a perilous world? The dangers in this case are ours to im- — 144 Art in the Renaissance — resin to through which the design is scratched with a needle. but the rider's alert glance suggests unseen threats. Frankfurt 180. The Blinding of Samson. Knight. is balanced and stationary like an equestrian statue. No etcher ever exploited this quality more subtly than Rembrandt. Christ Preach- compass Rembrandt. despite the absence of the more obvious hallmarks of the style. Death. by the light from the left. pictorial ideas from the Northern Renaissance. full of the art- deep feeling of compassion for the poor and outcast who make up Christ's audience. slightly foreshortened and off center. is in motion urged on. including velvety dark shades not possible in engravings or woodcuts. The plate is then bathed in an acid that course. as in The Polish Rider (colorplate 19). With such a relationship of form and content. H. The creative printmakers. it is the magic of Rembrandt's his light that endows Christ Preaching with spirit- ual significance. troubles. they were often models. nor is Rembrandt's exact purpose clear. as the heirs of the Biblical past and as the patient victims of persecution. But Diircr's famous engraving. As in The Polish Rider. The curving path he follows will soon lead him beyond the frame. such as the etching. in a very personal way. the techniques of woodcut to reproduce other works. and engraving were employed mainly An including Rembrandt. 1929) seventeenth century. But we must add a word about his medium. Most art buyers in Holland preferred subjects within their landscapes. own experience scenes of everyday life. We cannot be sure that the rider is Polish the title was given to him later although his costume is of the kind worn by the local troops then fighting the Turks in eastern Europe. although we get no more than a hint from this single example. hence an etched line is and more individual than an engraved line. his style eschews the rhetoric of the High Baroque for lyric subtlety and pictorial breadth. . which Rembrandt surely admired. Stadel Institute. Christ Preaching.— agine in the gloomy landscape. Rembrandt had a special sympathy for the Jews. (Bequest of Mrs. Much the same may be said of the religious scenes that play so large a part in Rembrandt's later work. print make a rewarding study. still lifes. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. This print strongly suggests some corner in the Amsterdam ghetto. ing (fig. In his later years. 93 x 119". Havemeyer. Rembrandt's religious pictures demand an insight that was beyond the capacity of all but a few collectors. may be the key to the picture. often adapted. of inner uncertainty and exterRembrandt's outlook changed profoundly: after about 1650. Rembrandt's importance as a graphic artist is second only to Durer's. boxed into the composition. laying bare the metal surface underneath. It is a quiet scene. New York 181.

Steen tells this story with relish.1655. Art in the Renaissance 145 . c. The Jewish Graveyard. Of all the Dutch paint- he was the sharpest. This view of man's impotence in the face of natural forces has an awe-inspiring quality on which the Romantics. leaving toys. 17 x 22*4". was not the virtuosity "story. Willem Heda. Canvas. embroidering it with many delightful details. were to base Even still life their concept can be tinged with a melancholy sense of the passing of all Jan Steen. whoever 182. and water grind all to dust. Here the disguised symbolism of Late Gothic painting (see p. Ruisdael's signaon the gravestone nearest us is a final touch of gloomy irony. Perhaps the richest of the newly developed "specialties" was landscape. or by more and ex- subtle means. both as a portrayal of familiar views and as an imaginative vision of nature. 32V4 x 27%". the feeble works of man as of earth. Still Life.earthly pleasures. of the Sublime. Food and drink are less emphasized than luxury objects crystal gobcarefully juxtaposed for lets and silver dishes — — their contrasting shape. the "breakfast piece. the artist tells us — and rocks. color. table has suddenly sat at this been forced to abandon his meal. c." the objects. so that we can here illustrate only a small sampling. But only aim: his context of these grouped suggested by the broken glass. Boymans-van Beuningen Museum. 183. deserted mountain valley. Rijksmuseum. 182) by Jacob van Ruisdael: the thunderclouds passing over a wild. candy. the half-peeled lemon. 184) by Jan Steen is midway between these extremes. everybody is jolly except the bad boy on the left. Amsterdam 184. 183) belongs to a widespread type. Nothing endures on this time. 90) lives The on new form. St." showing the remnants of a meal. Nicholas (fig. The curtain that time has lowered on the scene. is human and artist's texture. 1660-65. The Eve of St. Of the latter kind is The Jewish Graveyard (fig. To supplement his 1634. in- Jacob van Ruisdael. The Eve of St. Dresden vests the objects with a strange pathos. well as the trees ture a century later. sometimes through such es- symbols tablished death's-heads as tinguished candles. who has received only a birch rod. ers of daily life. 32 x 37 1/2". Nicholas. in a pictures of everyday life (also known as "genre" pictures) range from tavern brawls to refined domestic interiors. the torrent that has forced way between ancient graves. Panel. all create a its mood deep melancholy. the overturned silver dish. Rotterdam These were produced in ever greater volume and variety by specialists. good-humored. and most observer. Nicholas has just paid his pre-Christmas visit to the household. the medieval ruin. as it were. Canvas. State Gallery. wind. Our example (fig. and cake for the children.

while his storytelling stems from the tradition of Pieter Bruegel (compare fig. As we The Letter. The Louvre. the left is cool. such as Louis Le Nain. seemingly calmed by some magic and sculpture in these counhave no basic importance for the history of art. In the genre scenes of Jan Vermeer." The distinctive . and there are no "holes. Paris had replaced Rome as the world capital of the visual arts. These interlocking shapes give to Vermeer's work a uniquely modern quality. by conSingle trast. there is hardly any narrative. but by that time French The spell. for Louis Le Nain. plains his keen insight into Spain.1640. beautiful as we have never seen it before. No painter since Jan van Eyck saw as intensely as this. "classic" suggests qualities of balance the style of Louis and restraint. "classicistic Baroque" or art.earnings he kept an inn. French humanism. This is true of the climactic phase of Louis' reign. the everyday world shines with jewel-like freshness. cycle. In France. militarily and culturally. with its intellectual heritage of reason and Stoic virtue. How did he acquire it? We know little about him except that he was born in Delft in 1632 and lived and worked there until his death at forty-three. Our discussion of Baroque art in Flanders. perhaps as a mosaic of colored surfaces more accurately. 165). or the age of Pericles in Greece. ing. we are tempted to think of French art in the age of Louis XIV as the expression of absolutism. the "classicism. c. 179). The Dutch followers of Caravaggio had influenced him but this is hardly enough to explain the genesis of the picture surface. however." 146 Art in the Renaissance And reflects Italian since the Style of Louis Baroque XIV however modified. It sprang. Paris style." This classicism was the official court style by 1660-85." it implies that modified 185. so daringly original that his genius was not recognized until a century ago. architecture tries seventeenth-century art had already formed XIV corresponds to the High Renaissance in Italy. has three meanings: as a synonym for "highest achievement. often they also describe the art and literature of the period as "classic. How did this astonishing change come about? Because of the Palace of Versailles and other vast projects glorifying the king. to them it is the Style of Louis XIV. and Holland has been limited to paint- His sense of timing often reminds us of Frans Hals (compare fig. figures. Peasant Family. when two are present. everyday tasks. These factors retarded the spread of the Baroque in France and Rubens' Medici interpretation. we feel as if a veil had been pulled from miracles our eyes. Rectangles predominate. The second and third of these meanings describe what could be called. But Vermeer." but also as a — a "field" composed of smaller fields. in the 1620s. Some developed astonishingly original styles. perceives reality or. the situation is different. which in France was more intimately linked with the Italian Renaissance than in any other Northern country (see 126). rather. Under Louis XIV France became the most powerful nation of Europe. his style. engage in simple. as in The Letter (colorplate 20). from the persistent tradition of sixteenth-century art. which perhaps exhuman behavior. Classicism was also nourished by p. whose Peasant Family (fig. 1660-85. In his day he was soon forgotten. unlike his predecessors. had no effect on French art until the very end of the century. Yet Louis Le Nain. had to be rediscovered in modern times. working its look at upon all the objects in its path. by the late seventeenth century. like Vermeer. term. We see The Letter as a perspective "window. so used. finally. 185) has a human dignity and a compassion for the poor that seem akin to Rembrandt. we must label it either "Baroque classicism. They exist in a timeless "still life" world. its example. AAVi x 62Vi". clear light that filters in from the only active element. more accurately. Canvas. they no more than exchange glances. the young painters in France were still assimilating Caravaggio. carefully aligned with plane. he translates reality into a mosaic as he puts it on canvas. the term also refers to the emulation of the form and subject matter of ancient art." no undefined empty spaces. its Frenchmen are reluctant to call this style Baroque. but its origin was not political. like those of the classic styles of High Renaissance and of ancient Greece. usually women.

Canvas. a good painting. nor — — put it into practice so single-mindedly. and he was no classicist. Nicolas Poussin. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The highest aim of painting. Campagna. spent almost his entire career in Rome. the great French landscapist If Poussin. Poussin strikes us as a man who knew his own mind only too an impression confirmed by the numerous letters in which he expounded his views. Behind Hellenistic sculpture them. and relate them to the event depicted.— — left: 186. in such pictures as the Sabine Women. and explored the countryside nearby the Campagna more thoroughly and affectionately than any Italian. Museum. but as they would have happened if nature were perfect. well. 1946) below: 187. London British because from about 1650 on classicism was supreme in France. Claude Lorraine brought out its idyllic aspects. Emotion is abundantly so lacks spontaneity that it fails to touch us.1650. is to represent noble and serious human actions. New York (Dick Fund. and the earliest French painter to win international fame. Countless drawings. 61 x 82V2"." Rape likes statues. and stresses form and composition. c. 1636-37. Wash drawing. Its qualities are well displayed in The of the Sabine Women (fig. To this end. he believed. too. View of the Claude Lorraine. 186): the strongly modeled figures are "frozen in action. The greatest French painter of the century. All sensuous appeal has been consciously suppressed from the severe disciin evidence. There he formulated the was to become the ideal model for French painters of the second half of the censtyle that tury. The artist who did most to bring about this change of taste was Nicolas Poussin. he suppresses such trivialities as glowing color. the artist must strive for the general and typical. 36). appealing to the mind rather than the senses. — Art in the Renaissance 141 . The Rape of the Sabine Women. These must be shown in a logical and orderly way not as they really happened. yet it pline of an intellectual style. c. Poussin nevertheless spent almost his entire career in Rome. The Rape of celebrated the heroic aspects of antiquity. Poussin has placed reconstructions of Roman architecture that he believed to be archaeologically correct. These ideas were not new we recall Leonardo's statement that the highest aim of painting is to portray "the intention of man's soul" but before Poussin no one had made the analogy between painting and literature so close. the beholder should be to "read" the exact emotions of each In able figure. He. and many are in fact derived from (compare fig.

bear witness to his extraordinary powers suggests the These sketches. Colbert invited Bernini to Paris. and turned over the problem to a committee of three: Louis Le Vau. built the administrative ap- paratus supporting the power of the absolute monarch. yesterday. aimed at subjecting and actions of the control from above. and recessing the upper two behind the screen of the colonnade. but one to select those features of clas- architecture that would center pavilion a is skillfully resolved its by the treating fame. and Claude Perrault. who now became royal art patronage. The man to whom he really listened was not an architect. To modern eyes. many of which convey a sense of immediacy so striking that they seem to have been made only temple front. XIV's choice of classicism was deliberate we know from the first great project of his reign. meanwhile. and Baroque features reappeared in the king's vastest enterprise. were only the raw material for his paintings. the Louvre. He became a superb decorator. link with the glory of the Caesars and yet be com- brun. although Perrault is usually credited with the major share. In this system. 188). and craftsmen for ensembles of unheard-of splendor. such as the Salon de la Guerre at Versailles (fig. sculptors. his court painter. Paris each made on the spot. 189). Baroque in architecture became classi- the official "royal style" when young Louis XIV took over reins of government in 1661. East Front. and the wings look like the flanks of that temple folded outward to form one plane. close the court Louis Roman 166). than Bernini. In France cism itself. Bernini submitted three designs.a 188. schemes of the Roman Baroque must also have impressed him. who had worked on the project before. hoping the famous master of the Roman Baroque would do for the French king what he fig. the the king's chief adviser. these pictures have far less appeal than the drawings. utilizing the combined labors of architects. the The ground story as the base of the temple. if . what remained to be done was to on the east side with an impressive fagade. After much argument and intrigue. Claude Perrault. yet the Louvre had three stories of observation. but Church. not a professional architect. 1667-70. painters. Charles Lebrun. itself Lebrun went less far p. Colbert. he nevertheless drew freely on Baroque (see 249). The temple theme demanded a single order of freestanding columns. The design in some ways mind 187. all on a scale that would have dwarfed the existing parts of the palace. power that for all supervisor of all the As chief dispenser of he commanded so much was the Lebrun had stud- practical purposes he Rome. Work on the palace had proceeded intermittently for over a century. Louis XIV rejected these plans. echoes of antiquity. which do not aim at topographic exactitude but evoke who knew how the poetic essence of a countryside filled with patible with the older parts of the palace. however. along the lines of Lescot's design (see sical of an archaeologist. Perrault soon faded from the architectural scene. exemplar of classicism proved too pure. Louis XIV himself was less interested in architectural theory and monumental exteriors than in the lavish interiors that would make appropriate settings for himself and his court. but the painter LeIronically. the Palace of Versailles. his court architect. the completion of the Louvre. this great dictator of the arts in France. such as the miraculously fresh and example sensitive in figure (fig. All three were responsible for the structure that 148 Art in the Renaissance was actually built ied under Poussin in the great deco- rative subordinate all the arts to a single goal XIV —was — in here. The entire design combines grandeur and elegance in a way that fully justifies had already done so magnificently for XIV — difficulty king's artistic projects. the the thoughts strict the task of glorifying the entire nation to had That Louis visual arts king. To who was the glorification of Louis a student of ancient architecture.

at either end. Palace of Versailles. lated with the plan of the palace that comes it be- a continuation of the architectural space.memories of Rome. 1669-85 (Gardens by Andre Le Notre. Palace of Versailles. just over eleven from the center of miles with gardens. in 1663. intended as the principal view of the palace. clipped hedges. founded in 1648. geometric regularity imposed this countryside than entire it is in the palace itself. Its by Andre Le Notre. and Antoine Coysevox. After his Paris. The Salon de la Guerre seems in many ways closer to the Gesu ceiling (see fig. he established a rigid curriculum of compulsory instruction in practice and theory. so that the facade severe variant of Perrault's Louvre colonnade. cade. this set the pattern for modern all later academies. the famous Hall of Mirrors. 189. aerial view from west. Charles Lebrun. when Lebrun became its director. The Garden Front. In antiquity and the Middle Ages. of Painting and Sculpture in Paris. Much of this body of doctrine was derived from Poussin's views but carried to rationalistic The Academy even devised a extremes. under Jules Hardouin-Mansart. these acad- emies took some functions from the was limited and far Such was the Royal Academy over guilds. Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart. was vastly expanded to accommodate the ever-growing royal household. based on a system of "rules". but their teaching from systematic. The whole center block contains a single room. and this timehonored practice still prevailed in the Renais- But artists gained a liberal-arts 100). status knowledge. the art schools of today. The Palace Le Vau. looks repetitious and out of scale. less (fig. 190). were meant to provide an appropriate setting for the king's appearances in public. as in so many Italian Baroque inte- separate ingredients are less impres- riors. they seem to have been private associations of artists who met cal "art periodically to draw from the model and dis- cuss questions of art theory. Like the interior of Versailles. the sive than the effect of the whole. 237). 171) than to Perrault's Louvre fa- his And." patterned after the academies of the humanists (the name is derived from the grove of Academe where Plato met with his disciples). including their successors. and statuary. Salon de la Guerre. as (see p. Art academies first appeared in Italy (see also p. The spirit of absolutism is even more striking in upon an of Versailles. the Salon de la Paix. Later. with the Salon de la Guerre and its counterpart. Apart from its magnificent interior. they founded academies. artists had been trained by apprenticeship. educating it also included a artists in the officially new system of approved style. basins. is so strictly corre- in figure design. 1664-72) Art in the Renaissance 149 . was begun by death. these formal their terraces. they wished to supplement their "mechanical" training with theoreti- sance. For this purpose. Jules Hardouin-Mansart. the entire project. the most impressive aspect of Versailles is Garden Front the park extending west of the for several miles (the aerial view 190 shows only a small portion). was stretched to enormous length a design. Centralized control over the visual arts was exerted by Lebrun not only through the power of the purse. Begun 1678 190.

soon after Louis XIV's death. and its subject did not conform to any established category. Begun 150 Art in the Princesse. or comedy theater and so that no clear distinction can be 192. of the less to say. need- began came Raphael and Poussin. who overemphasized color. 1732. Canvas. ranked low. in parklike settings. This picture violated all academic canons. method of tabulating. Pilgrimage to Cythera. while the latter advocated color as being more true to nature. Salon de Hotel de Soubise. system produced no significant artists." The former defended Poussin's view that drawing. for it pro- claimed the layman to be the ultimate judge of artistic values. Paris Renaissance la He actors. from the history (classical or Biblical) at the top to life at still the bottom. expression. as a liberal art. A Antoine Watteau. The and proportion. now very accommodating. was superior to color. acteristically interweaves char- real life made be- tween the two. Paris W. the "Rubenistes" scored a final triumph when Antoine Watteau was admitted to the Academy on the basis of A Pilgrimage to Cythera (fig. The Pilgrimage includes yet another mythology: these element. in numerical grades. 51 x 76 The Louvre. the merits of artists past and present in such categories as drawing. The term refers less to this one canvas than to the artist's work in general. could be appreciated only by the educated mind. the members Academy formed two warring factions to decline. Germain Boffrand. admittedly based on reason. appeals only to the expert few. over the issue of drawing versus color: the conservatives (or "Poussinistes") against the "Rubenistes. Subjects were similarly classified. whereas color appeals to everyone. then Venetians. and challenged the Renaissance view that painting. In 1717. But the Academy. Its absurd rigidity generated a counterpressure that vented itself as soon as Lebrun's authority ancients received the highest marks. classical . which mainly shows scenes of elegant society. invented for Watteau the new category of fetes galantes (elegant fetes or entertainments). and the Flemish and Dutch lower still. 191). 1717. which appealed to the mind. This argu- ment had revolutionary implications.191. It is hardly surprising that this strait-jacket Toward 1700. They also pointed out that drawing.

Jan Yermeer van Delft.Colorplate 20. Amsterdam I7U \ 1514 . C anvas. 1666. Rijksmuseum. The Letter.

Colorplate 21. Joseph M. W. Turner. The Slave Ship.
35% x 48". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

1839. Canvas,

young couples have come

to Cythera, the is-

land of love, to pay homage to Venus (whose
garlanded image appears on the far right). As
the enchanted day draws to a close, they are

about to go aboard the boat, accompanied by
swarms of cupids, and be transported back to

The style at once recalls
Rubens' (see fig. 177), but Watteau adds a
poignant touch, a poetic subtlety of his own.
His figures have not the robust vitality of Ruthe everyday world.

bens'; slim



so superbly that they touch us


graceful, they

studied assurance of actors

with the

play their roles

more than


ever could.

Watteau signals a shift in French art and
French society. After the death of Louis XIV,
the centralized administrative machine that Colbert had created ground to a stop. The nobility,


hitherto attached to the court at Versailles,



freer of royal surveillance.




them chose not to return to their ancestral
homes in the provinces, but to live in Paris,
where they built themselves elegant town
houses, known as hotels. Because these city
sites were usually cramped and irregular, they
offered scant opportunity for impressive exteriors; the layout



and decor of the rooms became
main concern. As the state-

sponsored buildings became fewer, the field of
"design for private living" took on new importance. The hotels demanded a style of decoration less grandiloquent than Lebrun's
an intimate, flexible style that would give greater
scope to individual fancy uninhibited by classi-



dogma. French designers created the Roresponse to this need. Rococo was

style in

a refinement in miniature of the curvilinear,

Baroque of Borromini and Guarini,
and thus could be happily united with Austrian
and German Late Baroque architecture (see p.
140). In France, most examples of the style,

such as the Salon de la Princesse in the Hotel
de Soubise, by Germain Boffrand (fig. 192),
are smaller in scale and less exuberant than
those in Central Europe; the ceiling frescoes



churches are

that in



unsuited to




domestic interiors,


must therefore remember
France, Rococo painting and sculpture

less closely linked

with their architectural

and Germany,




Etienne Maurice Falconet.

Equestrian Monument of Peter the Great. 1766-82.
Bronze, over lifesize. Leningrad

statue of Peter the Great, made for
Catherine of Russia by Etienne Maurice Falconet (fig. 193), recaptures the essence of Baroque movement and grandeur. Bernini had
proposed such a monument to Louis XIV, who
turned him down because he found the rearing
horse incompatible with royal dignity.

French Rococo painting follows the "RubenWatteau, intimate in scale and deliriously sensual in style and subject, although
iste" style of

without the emotional depth that distinguishes
Watteau's art. Yet there were other painters
whose style can be termed Rococo only with
reservations, such as Jean-Baptiste Simeon
Chardin. The "Rubenistes" had cleared the
way for a new interest in the Dutch masters as

and Chardin was the finest painter of still
and genre representing this trend. His still
lifes eschew the "object appeal" of their Dutch
predecessors. In the example shown in figure


194, we see only the common objects that belong in any kitchen: earthenware jugs, a cassepot, a piece of raw meat,
two eggs. But how important



though they reflect the same taste that produced the Hotel de Soubise. Characteristic of



Rococo sculpture

the rest, each so worthy of the artist's

setting than in Italy, Austria,


are small, coquettishly erotic

groups designed to be viewed at close range,
playful echoes of the ecstasies of Bernini. Monumental commissions were few, but the eques-


they seem, each so firmly placed in relation to


our scrutiny! Despite his concern with formal
problems, evident in the beautifully balanced
design, Chardin presents these objects with a


in the



an amateur architect. But after that catastrophe
he was named to the royal commission for rebuilding the city, and a few years later he
began his designs for St. Paul's. On his only
trip abroad, he had visited Paris at the time of
the dispute over the completion of the Louvre,
and he must have sided with Perrault, whose
design for the East Front is clearly reflected in
the facade of St. Paul's. Yet, despite his belief
that Paris provided "the best school of architecture in Europe," Sir Christopher was not indifferent to the achievements of the Roman Baroque. He must have wanted the new St. Paul's
to be the St. Peter's of the Church of England,
soberer and less large, but equally impressive.
England never accepted the Rococo style in

French Rococo painting, on the
though unacknowleffect across the Channel and helped


Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin.
Kitchen Still Life, c.1730-35. Canvas, HVi x

other hand, had a decisive



Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

to bring

about the


school of English paint-

subject matter, Chardin

that had more than
The earliest of these painters,
William Hogarth, made his mark in the 1730s
with a new kind of picture, which he described
similar to repreas "modern moral subjects

Le Nain than


ing since the Middle

respect close to reverence.




More than

him symbols

textures, they are to

of the

common man.



spirit, if


not in

is more akin to Louis
any Dutch painter.
We have not mentioned English architecture
since our discussion of the Perpendicular style
(see p. 72). This insular form of Late Gothic
proved extraordinarily persistent; it absorbed
the stylistic vocabulary of the Italian Renais-



local importance.


on the




He wished


be judged

as a dramatist, he said, even though his "ac-

dumb show." These
and the engravings he made from

tors" could only "exhibit a

sance during the sixteenth century, but as late
as 1600 English buildings still retained a "Perpendicular syntax."


was the influence of Pal-

ladio that finally brought this lingering Gothic
tradition to an end, replacing


strong allegiance to classicism.

with an equally


can see


some parts of St. Paul's Cathedral
195) by Sir Christopher Wren, the great

classicism in

English architect of the late seventeenth century: the dome looks like a vastly enlarged version of Bramante's Tempietto



(see fig. 147).
otherwise an up-to-date Baroque

design reflecting a thorough acquaintance with

contemporary architecture

in Italy and France.
Christopher came close to being a Baroque
counterpart of the Renaissance artist-scientists.


prodigy, he studied anatomy
then physics, mathematics, and astronomy, and was highly esteemed by Sir Isaac


Newton. His serious interest in architecture did
not begin until he was about thirty. There is,
however, apparently no direct link between his
scientific and artistic ideas. Had not the great
London fire of 1666 destroyed the Gothic
Cathedral of St. Paul, and many lesser
churches, Sir Christopher might have remained


in the



195. Christopher Wren. Facade,
Paul's Cathedral. 1675-1710. London


for popular sale,


in sets, with details

recurring in each scene to unify the sequence.
Hogarth's "morality plays" teach, by horrid ex-






a country girl

tations of fashionable

London; the

rupt elections; aristocratic rakes



who succumbs

to the


evils of cor-



for ruinous pleasure, marrying wealthy



of lower status for their fortunes (which they

promptly dissipate). In The Orgy (fig 196),
from The Rake's Progress, the young wastrel is
overindulging in wine and women. The scene is
so full of visual clues that a full account would
take pages, plus constant references to the adjoining episodes. Yet, however literal-minded,
the picture has great appeal.


of Watteau's


Hogarth combines
with Jan Steen's

and so entertains us that we
enjoy his sermon without being overwhelmed
by its message. He is probably the first artist in
narrative gusto,

history to




a social




196. William Hogarth. The Orgy, Scene
from The Rake's Progress, c.1734. Canvas, 24V4 x 29 1/2".
Sir John Soane's Museum, London



remained the only constant
source of income for English painters. Here,
too, the eighteenth century produced a style
that differed from the Continental traditions
that had dominated this field ever since the
days of Holbein. Its greatest master, Thomas
Gainsborough, began by painting landscapes,
but ended as the favorite portraitist of British
high society. His early portraits, such as Robert

Andrews and His Wife (fig. 197), have a lyrical charm that is not always found in his later
pictures. These two people, members of the


tiously, at




in their setting.

and unpreten-



although derived from Ruisdael and his school,
sunlit, hospitable air never achieved (or
desired) by the Dutch masters; and the casual

has a

grace of the figures indirectly recalls Watteau's

Gainsborough's great


on the Lon-

don scene was Sir Joshua Reynolds, the president of the Royal Academy from its founding
in 1768. Like his French predecessors, Reynolds formulated in his famous Discourses
what he felt were necessary rules and theories.
His views were essentially those of Lebrun,
tempered by British
Lebrun, he found it


theories in actual practice.
said of



And, like
up to his
The best that can be

difficult to live

that he almost succeeded in

making painting respectable
liberal art

in England as a
(he received an honorary doctorate

from Oxford), but at what cost! His Discourses,
which soon became standard, inhibited the visual capacity of generations of students in England and America. He was generous enough to
give praise to Gainsborough, whom he outlived
by a few years, and whose instinctive talent he
must have envied.


Thomas Gainsborough.

Robert Andrews and His Wife.
c. 1748-50. Canvas, 27 V4 x 47".

The National


in the










era to which

yet acquired a

ourselves belong has not


own. Perhaps


does not strike us as peculiar at first, but considering how promptly the Renaissance coined
for itself, we may well ponder the fact
no such key idea has emerged in the two
centuries since our era began. Perhaps "revolution" is a suitable concept, because rapid and
violent change has indeed characterized the
modern world. Our era began with revolutions
of two kinds: the industrial revolution, symbolized by the steam engine, and the political
revolution, under the banner of democracy, in
America and France. Both revolutions are still
going on; industrialization and democracy are
goals all over the world. Western science and
Western political ideology (and in their wake
all the other products of modern Western civilization, from food and dress to art and literature) will soon belong to all mankind. We tend
to think of these two movements as different
aspects of one process
with effects more farreaching than any since the New Stone Age revolution (see above, p. 5)
yet the twin revo-






modern times


not the


he had hoped. Modern civilization thus lacks
it no longer proceeds by readily identifiable periods, nor are
there clear period styles in art or in any other
form of endeavor. Instead, we find another
kind of continuity, that of movements and

the cohesiveness of the past;

countermovements. Spreading like waves, these
"isms" defy national, ethnic, and chronological
boundaries; never dominant anywhere for long,
they compete or merge with each other in endlessly shifting patterns. Hence our account of
modern art must be by movements rather than
by countries; for, all regional differences notwithstanding,




art is as international as


modern era was born

in the


Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution
preceded by a revolution of the mind that
had begun half a century earlier. Its standardbearers were those thinkers of the Enlightenment in England and France Hume, Voltaire,
Rousseau (see p. 258), and others who pro-

claimed that all human affairs ought to be ruled
by reason and the common good, rather than
by tradition and established authority. In the

The more we try to define their relationship,
the more paradoxical it seems. Both are
founded on the idea of progress, and both command an emotional allegiance that was once reserved for religion; but while progress in science and industry during the past two centuries
has been continuous and palpable, we can
hardly make this claim for man's pursuit of
happiness, however we choose to define it.
Here, then, is the conflict fundamental to our
era. Man today, having cast off the framework
of traditional authority which confined and sustained him before, can act with a latitude both
frightening and exhilarating. In a world where
all values may be questioned, man searches

own identity, and for the
meaning of human existence, individual and
collective. His knowledge about himself is now
vastly greater, but this has not reassured him as


constantly for his



in the

Modern World


Jacques Germain Soufflot. The Pantheon
(Ste.-Genevieve). 1755-92. Paris


Thomas Jefferson.

Garden Fagade, Monticello.
1770-84; 1796-1806.
Charlottesville, Va.

200. Karl Langhans.
The Brandenburg Gate.

1788-91. Berlin

arts, as in




movement turned


religion, this

against the pre-

and aristocratic
went out for a return to reason, nature, and morality in art, and
to the mid-eighteenth century this meant a return to the ancients
after all, had not the classic philosophers been the original "apostles of



Baroque-Rococo. The


reason"? In 1755, when the


art histo-

and critic Johann Winckelmann published
a famous tract urging the imitation of the
"noble simplicity and calm grandeur" of the

Greeks, the




of the


was begun in Paris: the Pantheon (fig.
198) by Jacques Germain Soufflot, built as a


church but secularized during the Revolution
(see also p. 262). The smooth, sparsely decorated surfaces are abstractly severe, while the

huge portico






precise Neoclassicism


on ancient

distinguishes this cool,


earlier classicisms

appearance than its motivation; instead of merely reasserting the superior
authority of the ancients, it claimed to be more
rational, and hence more "natural," than the

less its external

Baroque. In England and America, the same
trend produced the architectural style known as
"Georgian." A fine example is Monticello, the
home Thomas Jefferson designed for himself
199). Executed in brick with wooden
trim, it is less austere than the Pantheon, except for the use of the Doric order. Jefferson
still preferred the Roman Doric, but the late


eighteenth century

to favor the heavier

and more "authentic" Greek Doric, in what is
known as the Greek Revival phase of Neoclassicism. Greek Doric, however, was also the
least flexible order, and so was particularly difficult to adapt to modern tasks even when combined with



rarely could


or Renaissance elements.
furnish a direct



Neoclassic structures, as in the Brandenburg
Gate in Berlin (fig. 200), derived from the
Propylaea (see fig. 30).
In painting, the anti-Rococo trend was at first
a matter of content rather than style. This accounts for the sudden fame, about 1760, of
Jean-Baptiste Greuze: The Village Bride (fig.


like his other pictures of those years, is a
scene of lower-class family life. In contrast to

Art in the Modern World


earlier genre






has a contrived, stagelike character, borrowed

from the "dumb-show" narratives of Hogarth
(see fig. 196). But Greuze has neither wit nor
satire. His pictorial sermon illustrates the social
that the poor,
gospel of the Enlightenment
unlike the immoral aristocracy, are full of "natural" virtue and honest sentiment. Everything
is calculated to remind us of this, from the declamatory gestures and expressions of the actors to the hen with her chicks in the foreground: one chick has left the brood and sits
alone on a saucer, like the bride who is about
to leave her "brood." The Village Bride was
acclaimed as a masterpiece. Here at last was a
painter who appealed to the beholder's moral
sense instead of merely giving him pleasure like
the frivolous artists of the Rococo! The loudest
praise came from Diderot, that apostle of Reason and Nature, who accepted such narratives
as "noble and serious human action" in Pous-


sense (see p. 147). He modified his views
when a far more gifted and rigorous

"Neo-Poussinist" appeared on the scene
Jacques Louis David. In The Death of Socrates
202) David seems more "Poussiniste"
than Poussin himself (compare fig. 186); the
composition unfolds like a relief, parallel to the
picture plane,


and the

Yet there


one un-

figures are as solid

as statues.

expected element: the lighting, with its precise
is derived from Caravaggio (see

cast shadows,

1 67 )
and so is the firmly realistic detail. In
consequence, the picture has a quality of life



201. Jean-Baptiste Greuze.
The Village Bride. 1761.

Canvas, 36 x 46Vi".
The Louvre, Paris



in the

Modern World

rather astonishing in so doctrinaire a statement
of the new ideal style. The very harshness of
the design suggests that




was passion-

in the issues of his time, artistic

as well as political. Socrates, about to drain the

poison cup,


shown here not only


an exam-

ple of Ancient Virtue but as a Christ-like figure

(there are twelve disciples in the scene).

David took an active part in the French Revand for some years he practically controlled the artistic affairs of the nation. During

time he painted his greatest picture, The
(fig. 203). David's deep emotion has made a masterpiece from a subject

Death of Marat

would have embarrassed any lesser artist:
one of the political leaders of the
Revolution, had been murdered in his bathtub.
A painful skin condition caused him to do his
paperwork there, with a wooden board for a
desk. One day a young woman named Charlotte Corday burst in with a personal petition
and plunged a knife into him while he read it.
David has composed the scene with a stark di-


for Marat,

rectness that


truly awe-inspiring. In this can-

memorial to the martyred hero,
devotional image and historical account coincide. Because classical art could offer little
guidance here, the artist has again drawn on
the Caravaggesque tradition of religious art.
Later on, David became an ardent admirer
of Napoleon and painted several large pictures
glorifying the emperor (see also p. 268). But
as the chief painter of the Napoleonic myth he
was partially eclipsed by younger men. His
vas, a public

rather." despite the presence of . 59 x 78". process 203. redolent with the enchantment of the Thousand and One Nights. which Ingres professed to de- Nor does spise. rigid now congealed into dogma. so does Ingres' Cherubim (fig. Canvas. nude embody a this Her classical proportions. 1787. 153). The harsh realism of David's Marat proclaims this standard of unera. New York (Wolfe Fund. the last great professional in a field soon to be monopolized by the cam- Although photography became a practical only about 1840. The subject itself. Museums of Fine Arts. we realize character interpretation the portrait Art in the Modern World 159 . History painting as defined by Poussin and David remained Ingres' lifelong ambition. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 162). He always held drawing was superior to painting. it gave him which he pretended to dislike. Brussels finally descended upon a pupil. was his strongest gift. Only after his return did he become the high priest of the Davidian tradition. The impulse behind these experiments was not so much scientific curiosity as a quest of the True and Natural. The Death of Socrates. endorsed by the government and varnished truth. yet in a canvas such as his Odalisque (fig. Never an enthusiastic Bonapartist. its experimental background goes back to the late eighteenth century. ideal of beauty. her strange mixture of coolness and voluptuousness. deceptive. 1793. 205 ) which at first glance looks like a kind of "superphotograph. He was. Jacques Louis David. Fortunately. Canvas. What had been a revolutionary style mantle only half a century before. If faintly we comic But this disregard the in- allegory. Ingres' pictures were far less doctrinaire than his theories. The Death of Marat. of Parmigianino (see fig. Jacques Louis David. 65 x 5§ l/i". the Muse behind impression is congruous and how much the composer. while portraiture. remind us. in fact. is characteristic of Romanticism (see p. 204) he sets that off the petal-smooth limbs of this oriental Venus ("odalisque" is a Turkish word for a harem slave girl) with a dazzling array of rich tones and textures.202. JeanAuguste Ingres. Ingres went to Italy in 1806 and remained for eighteen years. but great trouble. 1931) backed by the weight of conservative opinion.

in vain competition with the camera. 35V4 x 63%". When a painter renders anatomical detail. and the classical drapery enveloping the famous sage said. Canvas. 262). Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres. (since Winckelmann) to ancient statues. for he wears casually as a dressing gown. Paris contains (see p. Jean Antoine Houdon. Paris 160 Art in the Modern World — is not incongruous. As we might deduce from what has just been proved the most viable field most distinguished practitioner. which everyone acclaimed as the acme At the same time. Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres. Its — to stress his equivalence to ancient philoso- phers 205. The Louvre. The development of Neoclassic sculpture follows the pattern of architecture and painting but is less venturesome than either. or furniture with photographic precision he pro- duces not a duplicate of reality but a representation of it. The more it as doctri- naire Neoclassic sculptors often adopted a less happy solution by portraying their sitters in . clothing. uncompromising realistic of sculptural achievement? the new standard "truth" of embarrassed the sculptor. has an acute sense of individual character. portraiture for Neoclassic sculpture.204. while to do so in sculpture comes dangerously close to mechanical reproduction — a handmade equivalent of the plaster cast. The Louvre. Odalisque. His fine statue of Voltaire (fig. Sculptors were overwhelmed by the authority accorded racy. Canvas. Luigi Cherubini and the Muse of Lyric Poetry. 1814. how could a modern artist compete with these works. 1842. Only Ingres could so unify psychological depth and physical accu- His followers concentrated on physical accuracy alone. 41% x 37". 206) does full justice to the sitter's skeptical wit and wisdom.

not in the figure itself 2. lifesize. mattress. but in the pillows." for front and back view only. Borghese Gallery. Jean Antoine Houdon. Napoleon's sister Pauline Borghese permitted Canova to sculpt her as a reclining Venus (fig. and her very considerable charm comes almost entirely from the fluid grace of her outlines. Pauline Borghese 206. the problem of representation versus duplica- tion. 207). more classically ers of Ingres' Odalisque (see fig. Not to be outdone. shared the revulsion against the established social order and religion against established values of any sort could — — either try to the found a new order on their faith in power of reason. we recognize it as a precursor. produced a colossal nude statue of Napoleon. The statue is so obviously idealized as to still any gossip. paradoxically. Art in the Rome Modern World 161 . height 47". Those who.classic nudity. France as Venus. Fabre Museum. in the mid-eighteenth century. Terracotta model for marble. 1808. Here we also encounter proportioned. She is designed like a "relief in the round. 204). Voltaire. inspired by portraits of ancient rul- whose nudity indicates their status as divinities. it helped to of emotionalism that last for the better part of a was to century and came to be known as Romanticism. Montpellier. find release Antonio Canova. Strange to say. ROMANTICISM AND IMPRESSIONISM The Enlightenment. 1781. The most famous of them. Marble. liberated not only reason but also create a new wave its opposite. Pauline Borghese seems less three-dimensional than the painting. and couch. or they could 207. Antonio Canova.

seen in this context. Their common denominator was to Nature. or preclassic ancient art. Neoclassiis no more than an aspect of Romanticism. the most personal and private of the visual arts. wild and ever-changing. the great Romantic poet. it must come from some phase of the past to which he feels linked by "elective affinity" (another Romantic concept). with William Robinson and Twickenham. (It has motivated some of the noblest and vilest acts of our — 209. Yet the opposite is true.) 'No artist. To cast his experience into the Romantic permanent form. sublime and picturesque. Strawberry Hill. and the revival work than styles persisted longer in their in the other arts. not of one style. the Middle Ages. In the name of nature. 1749-77. Begun 1836. Welby Pugin. they also started a Gothic revival. we might expect the range of revival styles to be widest in painting. London 162 Art in the Modern World — revived medieval art. and least wide in architecture. revivals — the redis- covery and utilization of forms hitherto ne208. If man were only to behave "naturally. Architects were not subject to this limitation. evil would disappear. while the Ro- mantic worshiped her as unbounded. In fact. Given the individualistic nature of Romanticism. at the time they launched the classic revival. as it was in the development . and they never really degree." the Romantic believed. the most communal and public. power. At its extreme. of styles. glected or disliked —became a stylistic principle the "style" of Romanticism in art (also. Charles Barry and A. can be a wholehearted Romantic. this cannot be the established style of his time. in literature cism. said of poetry that it is "emotion recollected — — in tranquillity" applies also to the visual arts. England was in the lead here. for the creation of a work of art demands some detachment and self-awareness. love. to a and music). although actually he exalted emotion as an end in itself. but of a potentially unlimited number artist needs a style. England others. the Greeks. But since he is in revolt against the old order. violence. What Wordsworth. Romanticism thus favors the revival. Painters and sculptors were unable to abandon Renaissance habits of representation. then." The a desire to "return rationalist acclaimed Nature as the ultimate source of reason. in a craving for emotional experience. Horace Walpole.: era. not through works of art. giving his impulses free rein. Characteristically. this attitude could be expressed only through direct action. he exalted liberty. or anything that aroused his response. The Houses of Parliament.

which lingered on past 1900. 211. favored the "native" style. There. The most important was iron. the middle of the nineteenth century. facade. like the oriental tales of the Thousand and One Nights. same time a focus of patriotic feeling. — Paris Henri Labrouste. country playful interiors Strawberry (fig. set the example for the others when. The Opera. and Germany each tended to think that Gothic ex- pressed its particular national genius. newly rich and powerful. is summed up in the Paris Opera (fig. designed by Charles Gamier. who saw themselves as the heirs of the old aristocracy and thus found prerevolutionary styles more appealing than classic or Gothic. stores. It reflects the taste of the beneficiaries of the in- dustrial revolution. the aissance favor. 157). By Ren- and then the Baroque returned to bringing the revival movement to full phase of Romantic architecture. the rebuilding had to be done in Gothic style (fig. its while. the choice between the classic and Gothic modes was more often resolved favor of Gothic." its luxurious vulgarity so naive as to be disarming. Horace man of letters and an amateur of the arts. Thus. pre- it symmetry governs the main body of the structure. 1843-50.-Genevieve effect Art in the Modern World 163 . when a spectacular fire gutted the Houses of Parliament in London in 1834. never before used as an actual building material. iron columns and arches had become the standard means of supporting the roofs over the large spaces required by railroad stations. As 210. exhibition halls. This last the paired columns of "quoted" from the Louvre (see the lary: combined with a smaller fig. for England. Reading Room. 188). Within a few decades of its first appearance. 210). in the world of commercial architecture. Nationalist sentiment. Hill. in strengthened in the Napoleonic wars. its dainty. 208) look almost as if decorated with lace-paper doilies. influential as a house. and city apartments that formed the bulk of building construction. and public libraries. and sents a curious mixture "picturesque" irregularity repetitious silhouette. or the medieval romances (such as the legends of King Arthur) that were being revived in the "Gothick" novels of the time. Gothic here is still an "exotic" style. but at the Charles Garnier. order. are in Italian Renaissance fashion (compare fig. After 1800. 1861-74. we find soon after 1 800 the gradual introduction of new materials "architecture — and techniques that were to have a profound on architectural style by the end of the century. Its Neo-Baroque quality stems more from the profusion of sculpture and ornament than from its architectural vocabucircle. Bibliotheque Ste. he began to "gothicize" his of Romantic literature Walpole. A noted early example is the Bibliotheque Ste. This of conscious display" was divorced from the practical demands of the industrial age the factories. France. 209). warehouses. Paris the seat of a vast government apparatus. The whole building looks "overdressed. It appeals because it is strange.and painting.-Genevieve. the stylistic alternatives Mean- were continually increased for architects by other revivals. in 1749.

212) on sculpture Within the Romantic movement. Many had a strong interest in art criticism and theory. and provided them with a new range of subjects. 164 Art in the Modern World 212. space-filling reality. 213). By the Baroque revival 1830s. its solid. in turn. and William Blake cast his visions in pictorial as well as literary form. . on a par with poetry and second only to music. two methods were open to him: he could give a factual account with the maximum of historic accuracy. by Francois Rude. there revival. some were capable draftsmen. since no American painter had appeared in Europe before. It is no coincidence that two Americans working in England were among the pioneer Romantic movement in Benjamin West. La Marseillaise. columns (fig. was no more congenial to the Romantic temperament than the laborious process of translating a sketch into a permanent. built in room reading in the row of a 211). It was Rude who inspired the generation of French sculptors that decorated the facade of the Paris Opera. 1833-36. to The the first of these. long before the in architecture. but the Genius of Liberty above them the imparts her great forward-rushing movement to the entire group. with the figures in "timeless" classical costume. c. With the arches. The Death of General contributors painting. remains the greatest creative achieve- ment of Romanticism in the visual arts. We can sense this in his most famous work. Instead. and by no means one-sided relationship. Literature. Paris. as was no Gothic we suggested earlier. both past and present. Although he had absorbed the influence of the Neo-Poussinists in Rome. Neo-Baroque had produced a masterpiece in the splendidly rhetorical Marseillaise (fig. he did not follow them here. their collective ef- importance. belying their is material permits. even after he had settled in London. When West decided to paint it. it at least lets columns are as slender iron as the new fect that of a space-dividing screen. now became a more important source of inspiration for painters than ever before. to the Gothic revival. even though La- structural brouste has tried to putting them on tall make them weightier by pedestals of solid masonry. 169. finished work. some isolated we find a re- turn to the emotionalism and theatricality of the Baroque. two systems. She would not be unworthy of Bernini (see figs. Painting. he has perforated them with lacy scrolls as if they were pure ornament. Romantic poets. fully integrate the them The coexist. chose leave to this iron skeleton uncovered. and Henri Labrouste Paris. FRAN90IS Rude. Instead.42 x 26'. he knew the American locale of the subject too well for that. Wolfe's death in the siege of Quebec. emotions. Arc de Triomphe. or he could idealize it in the manner of the "Neo-Poussinist" painters. despite essays in that direction. Wolfe (fig. volunteers of 1792 rallying to defend the Republic. He relished his role of frontiersman and always took pride in his New World background. often saw nature with a painter's eye. had aroused considerable feeling in London. The unique virtue of sculpture. he merged the two approaches: Arc de Triomphe in Paris. This aesthetic use of exposed iron members has a fanciful and delicate air that links it. came to Rome in 1760 from Pennsylvania and caused something of a sensation. In sculpture. and to face the difficulty of relating it to the massive Renaissance revival If his solution does not style of his building. are still in classical guise. cast-iron supports two barrel roofs resting on cast-iron Labrouste arches. in contrast. during the French and Indian War. indirectly. 170). subtle. where he succeeded Reynolds as president of the Royal Academy. Romanticism produced few memorable works in sculpture. Labrouste has gone to the other extreme: since there was no way to make them look as powerful as their masonry ancestors. Stone. painting and literature had a complex. The soldiers.

Watson and the Shark (fig. while making use of all the resources of Baroque painting to invite the emo- tional participation of the beholder. 72V* x 90V*". is also the most important as a model of Romantic imagery. The Death of General Wolfe. artists using after Copley's it them as models.left: 213. is so revolutionary that seems to belong to a different era. the shift from religion to nation- his picture had countless suc- of emotional allegiance cessors during the nineteenth century. Copley. poetic quality that for Cozens was the essence of landscape painting. in emotional and symbolic entirely characteristic of landscape rather than in history painting that Romanticism reached its fullest expression. following West's example. could produce only stereotyped variations on standard themes. a young Englishman attacked by a shark while swimming in Havana harbor. and with the trappings of a real event. The direct study of nature could not be the new starting point. Museum of Fine Arts. Benjamin West." attitudes and expressions are The composition indeed recalls an old and hallowed theme. 59V4 x 84". and the nude youth flounders helplessly between the forces of qualities salvation. gruesome experience. since it did not supply the imagi- native. Watson. Ottawa below: 214. his figures yet of the all "heroic. This charging of a private with of the myth is Romanticism. Boston wear modern dress. John Singleton Copley. National Gallery of Canada. He thus developed what he called "a new method of assisting the invention in drawing original compositions of landscape" which he published. 215) by Alexander Cozens. with illustrations such as our figure 215. done only a few years Watson. Cozens had tired of traditional landscapes. The Landscape (fig. Canvas. 1770. Already an accomplished portrait- London he now turned to history painting in the doom and manner of West. however. has made every detail as authentic as possible (note the Negro. Watson and the Shark. 1778. It was. and the conspicuous Indian places the event in the New World. The shark becomes a monstrous embodiment of evil. He created an image that expresses a phenomenon basic to alism. Canvas. had been dramatically rescued. West thus endowed the death of a modern hero both with of "noble and serious the rhetorical pathos human action" as defined by Poussin. dramatized by Baroque lighting. No wonder modern times. many years later he commissioned Copley to depict this adventure ist. he felt. the lamentation over the dead Christ (see fig. the man with the boat hook resembles an Archangel Michael fighting Satan. who serves the same purpose as the Indian in West's picture). John Singleton Copley of Boston moved to just two years before the American Revolution. 214). His first work in that field. Perhaps he thought that only a painter from America could do full justice to the exotic flavor of the subject. shortly before his Art in the Modern World 1 65 . 116).

" even though his point of de- The large pic- tures of Constable's final years retain more and parture was the exact opposite. an essential between who raries. Trying to record these effects. if nothing else. but these could hardly have been understood by his contempo- atmosphere. of course. John Constable admired Ruisdael (see fig. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. There is. had observed that an artist could stimulate his imagination by trying to find recognizable shapes in the stains on old walls. The two greatest masters of Romantic landscape in England. to be used in death. The sky." All his pictures show familiar views of and Cozens' the English countryside. thought the "blot-master" ridicu- Yet the "method" was never forgotten. chief organ of sentiment". must be based on observable facts. free. it should aim at "embodying a pure apprehension of natural eflous. William Turner had meanwhile arrived above: 215. however much they differed in other ways." The the final versions in his studio. why not produce such chance effects on purpose. Landscape painting. John Constable. was "the key note. the standard sunlight. and the scale. John Constable and William Turner. more of the quality of his oil sketches. while thinking generally of the landscape. he developed a technique as broad. a highly individual graphic "handwriting. The Art Institute of Chicago 166 Art in the Modern World at . Canvas. They show. Aquatint. blot it with ink. them by making countless oil sketches out of doors. smooth it. using as scious control as possible (figure little con- 215 shows an "ink-blot landscape"). in Stoke-by -Nay land (fig. In these he was less concerned with concrete detail than with the qualities of light and theoretical as well as practical. from Alexander Cozens. Landscape. Cozens noted. 182). Stoke-by-Nayland. the better to grasp infinite its variety as a mirror of those sweeping forces so dear to the Romantic view of nature. and to elaborate them into a finished picture. Although he painted methods: the blots are not a work of nature but a work of art. fect. its memory kept alive by its very notoriety. yet he strenuously opposed all flights of fancy. he prepared difference Leonardo's Cozens method has far-reaching implications. he believed. A New Method the Invention in of Assisting Drawing Original Compositions of Landscape. 216) the earth and sky seem both to have become "organs of senti- ment" that pulsate with the artist's poetic sensibility. he studied it with a meteorologist's precision. same way? Crumple a sheet of paper. The next step is to pick out representational elements in the configuration of blots. New York (Rogers Fund. then. and personal as Cozens' "blotscapes. 49 V4 x 661/2". 1906) right: 216. 1836. 1784-86. to Constable. both profited from its liberating effect. so that the land often serves as a mere foil for the ever-changing drama of wind. and clouds.Leonardo da Vinci.

Jesup Fund. lost in the seething violence of nature. 217 George Caleb Bingham.a style which but deprecatingly Constable. one of Turner's most spectacular visions. "Fallacies of Hope. changed became quite landscapes When are exhibiting them. even though he was a court painter. Canvas. but not by disease. 217). in his large pictures he often these views so freely that they unrecognizable. slave and death. New York (Morris K." Would The Slave Ship arouse the intended emotions in a who did not know the title? The Romantic view of nature as embodied viewer in English painting and poetry soon spread to the charming Continent and across the Atlantic. however. softly exciting character. American example. Turner would add appropriate quotations from ancient or modern authors to the catalogue. or rank disease. two trappers glide downstream in the misty sunlight. They remind us of how much Romantic adventurousness went into the westward expansion of the United States. and not with the king of Spain. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. reflect the influence of who had joined other monarchs in war against young French Republic. we must take account of the great Spanish painter Francisco Goya. Tiepolo and the French masters (Spain had produced no important painters for a century). 1933) c. or he would make up some lines himself and claim to be citing his own unpublished poem. In Goethe's Color lighten the ship)? Is the Theory." Originally entitled — Throwing Overboard the Dead and Coming On." but the tiny figures. suggest the ultimate defeat of all endeavor "the fallacies of hope." Yet these canvases are the opposite of history paintings as defined by Poussin: the titles indeed indicate "noble and serious human actions. Fur Traders on the Missouri. a black fox chained to the prow of their dugout canoe. During the 1780s. Turner also thought of a passage from James Thomson's The Seasons. in a delightful late Rococo vein. shows how he transmuted his literary sources into "tinted steam. called "airy visions. painted with tinted steam." But what is the relation between slaver's action and the typhoon in the painting? Are the slaves being cast into the sea the against the threat of the storm (perhaps to typhoon Nature's retribution for the captain's greed and cruelty? Of the many storms at sea that Turner painted. acutely. it has to do with a specific incident Turner had read about: when an epidemic broke out on a Slavers — Typhoon Dying ship. or the sites of historic events. enjoy the tinted steam for its own sake. In part. made copious studies from nature (though in water color. not merely the slaver but the sea itself with its crowds of fantastic and oddly harmless-looking fish. Many of his linked with literary themes." The Slave Ship (colorplate 21). 29 x 36". unreservedly. A cosmic catastrophe seems about to engulf everything. While we still feel the force of Turner's imagination. is George Caleb Bingham's Fur Traders on the Missouri (fig. not oils). which describes how sharks follow a slave ship during a typhoon. Before we pursue Romantic painting in France.1845. too. although less daring than A either Constable or Turner. he surely sympathized with the Revolution. but he chose scenery that satisfied the Romantic taste for the Picturesque and the Sublime —mountains. When Napoleon's armies occupied Spain in 1808. the painting compounds several levels of meaning. the sea. Goya and many of his countrymen hoped that the conquerors would bring the liberal reforms so the badly needed. In the silence of these vast. a genius." while orange-red suggests "warmth and gladness." Turner. the captain jettisoned his human cargo because he was insured against the loss of slaves at sea. His early works. rather than as a vehicle of the awesome emotions the artist meant to evoke. most of us today. then recently translated into English. "lured by the scent of steaming crowds. perhaps with a twinge of guilt. none has quite this apocalyptic quality. wide-open spaces. Perhaps Turner himself sometimes wondered if his tinted steam had its intended effect on all beholders. The savage behavior Art in the of Modern World the 167 . Goya absorbed the libertarian ideas of the Enlightenment. David's contemporary and the only artist of the age who may be called. he could have read that yellow has a "gay.

a sympathetic response throughout Western Europe (the full title is Scenes of the Massacre at Chios: Greek Families Awaiting stirred 218. The year 1 824 was crucial for French painting. he went into exile in France. The Prado. but the Massacre conservatives lished — called it acclaimed "the it massacre of painting. An early admirer of Gericault. commemorating the execution of a group of Madrid citizens. who felt revival among the style of the younger David too confin- ing for the excitement of the age. Goya created an image that has become a terrifying symbol of our era. Like West's Death of General Wolfe (fig. Canvas. and their executioners are not the agents of Satan but of political tyranny a formation of faceless automatons. and The Massacre at Chios (fig. 218). The Louvre. 220) estab- — Eugene Delacroix as the foremost NeoBaroque Romantic painter. Francisco Canvas. dominated the artistic scene in Paris. 1808 (fig. For Gericault. who said that the ideal style would be a combination of Mirepression. 1814-15. Mounted Officer of the Imperial Guard. into a private chelangelo's art with Goya's. and dramatic nocturnal light are clearly no longer Rococo but Neo-Baroque. 9" x 13' 4". leon. in 1824. and their polarity. imper- — vious to their victims' despair and defiance. The Third of May. Eugene Delacroix. 213). 219. Officer of the Imperial had given Guard The Mounted (fie. The same scene was to be re-enacted countless times in modern history. Theodore Gericault. 168 Art Goya. With the clairvoyance of genius. But Goya's influence in France began only Meanwhile. its its adventurous con- quests in remote parts of the world. 9' 7" x 6' 4V2". The greatest reflect is The Third of May. broad fluid brushwork. and generated a popular resistance of equal savagery. After the defeat of Napoleon. 219). Here the blazing color. with glamour. Finally. based on Velazquez and Rembrandt. he and Ingres were acknowledged rivals. 1812. yet these martyrs are dying for Liberty. Paris painted by Theodore Gericault at the astonishing age of twenty-one. 1808. which tation. Many this works from 1810-15 of Goya's bitter experience. the restored Spanish monarchy brought a new wave of and Goya withdrew more and more world of nightmarish visions. fostered by partisan critics. Gericault died (in consequence of a riding accident). His importance for the French Romantic painters is well attested by the greatest of them. where he died. not the Kingdom of Heaven. rise Baroque to a painters. the reign of Napo- after his death. the Massacre was inspired by a contemporary event: the Greek war of independence against the Turks. Ingres returned home and had his first public success. Madrid 8' in the Modern World . All he — campaigns was the thrill irresistible to the Romantic of violent action." others enthusiastically — made his repu- For the next quarter century. renders a vision of the Romantic hero with Rubens-like energy (see fig. Delacroix had been exhibiting for some years. Goya arrived from Spain. 177). politics no longer had saw in Napoleon's the force of a faith. the first showing in Paris of works by Constable was a revelation to many French artists.French troops crushed these hopes. The picture has all the emotional intensity of religious art.

63 x 38'/4 ". Canvas. The Fifer. Paris . The Louvre. Edouard Manet.Colorplate 22. 1866.

The Art Claude Monet. Canvas. The Institute of River. Chicago (Potter Palmer Collection) .Colorplate 23. 1868. 32 x 39Vi".

221). Yet its power is derived from this very freedom. very freely. Delacroix. and for that reason Daumier cannot be labeled a (fig. we cannot help feeling was no basic disbetween Greeks and Turks both belong to the exotic world of the Near East. cating mixture of sensuousness and cruelty. we do not quite accept the human experience as authentic. Canvas. consumed by the fire of his genius (see p.Death or Slavery). he when portraying at ease only his personal friends and fellow felt "Romantic agony" such as the composer Frederic Chopin (fig. Canvas. Eugene Delacroix. A biting political cartoonDaumier contributed masterful satirical ist. The Louvre. He turned to painting in the 1840s. While we revel in the sheer splendor of the painting. Originally. the one great Romantic artist who did not shrink from reality. 274). Delacroix rarely painted portraits on commission. Daumier's mature paintings have the full pictorial range of the Neo-Baroque. arranged his first one-man show. with its dramatic contrasts of light and shade. Only a few friends encouraged him. and. drawings to various Paris weeklies for most of his life. it realist. we react. the like that the Turkish earlier picture. 18 x 15". aimed than at recapturing a He shows us an intoxi- at "poetic truth" rather specific. Paris A rt in the Modern World 183i 171 . much as we do to Turner's Slave Ship (colorplate 21). violent. but the subjects of many of them are scenes of daily life like those he treated in his cartoons. It is ironical that Honore Daumier. the back- ground of the Massacre was probably of Gericault^s horseman However Mounted directly that may recalls be. Ingres had celebrated the same environment but how different the result! The same contrast is found in the portraiture of these that for Delacroix there really — tinction — 220. and seductive. The Louvre. 11' 7". actual event. but he does not succeed in forcing us to suspend our disbelief. Here is the Romantic hero at his purest. The Third-Class Carriage 222) is such a work. Officer. however. Paris perennial antagonists. 204). In his Odalisque (fig. a year before his death. 1822-24. One reason may be the discontinuity of the foreground. in other words. but found no public for his work. his concern is not for the tangible surface of reality but for the emotional meaning 221. and the luminous sweep of the landscape (which Delacroix is said to have hastily repainted after seeing Constable's work). Painted must have seemed raw and "unfinished" even by Delacroix's standards. The Massacre 13' 10" x at Chios. Eugene Delacroix. Turner and Delacroix reflect the attitude that eventually doomed the Romantic movement: its growing detachment from contemporary life. alien. Frederic Chopin. remained in his day practically unvictims of the Polish known as a painter.

Such a work is his view of Papigno. and Poussin and Claude. an obscure little hill town (fig. however. what Claude recorded only in his drawings the quality of a particular place at a particular time Corot made into paintings. small canvases done on the spot in an hour or two. "the lonely crowd" composed of people who have nothing culiarly in common apart from the fact that they are traveling together in one railway car.O. France did. 1849. Canvas. c. His feeling for the dignity of the poor also suggests Louis Le Nain (see fig. Formerly State Gallery.O. 1826. right: 224. who had recently been rediscovered by French critics. whose work he revered. In size and immediacy. Yet he. 13 x 15%". 26 x 35V4". In this picture. New York (Bequest of Mrs. yet they stem from a different tradition. Fritz Nathan. The H.behind it. Zurich Gustave Courbet. Papigno. Camille Corot. which emphasizes the sky as "the chief organ of sentiment. Landscape in French Romantic art was of importance than in English art. Dresden (destroyed 1945) 172 Art in the Modern World truth of the moment". Honore Daumier. In 1825." derives from Dutch far less 222. Havemeyer Collection) — seventeenth-century — landscapes. 1929. they take no notice of one another —each is alone with his own thoughts. If Constable's view of nature. H. insists his exactness of . produce one great landscapist.1862. Daumier explores this state with an insight into character and a breadth of human sympathy worthy of Rembrandt. like a latter-day Claude Lorraine (see fig. he captures a pe- modern human condition. Though physically crowded. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Canvas. these pictures are analogous to Constable's oil sketches. 185). stinct for architectural clarity calls on "the above: 223. The Stone Breakers. Canvas. Corot's in- stability re- too.Havemeyer. The Third-Class Carriage. 187). 63 x 102". Camille Corot. But he did not transform his sketches into pastoral visions. Corot went to Italy and explored the countryside around Rome. Collection Dr. whose early work has an important place in the development of modern landscape painting. 223).

The Morning Bell A rt in the Modern World is — heroism of modern life" building to the left is a cannery. under the impact of the revolutionary upheavals then sweeping Europe. he must be a Realist. only one painter was willing to make an artistic creed of this demand: Baudelaire's friend Gustave Courbet. his sweeping condemnation of all traditional drawn from subjects religion. 24 x 38". servatives' rage at him as a dangerous radical is understandable. the first canvas fully embodying Courbet's programmatic Realism. then worked as a pictorial reporter during the Civil War. Yale University Art Gallery. they do not turn to us for sympa- Courbet's friend. strong links with the Caravaggio tradition. and its tolls to announce the working day. allegory. was denounced for its sup- posed vulgarity and lack of spiritual content. Clark Collection) and his readiness to seize any view that attracted him during his excursions. 225)." he said). The fresh delicacy of the sunlit scene is reminiscent of Corot. the socialist Proudhon. Yet the con- thy. The storm broke in 1849 over The Stone Breakers (fig. but had not dared to put into words. where bolic status. For Courbet. "Can Jupiter survive the lightning rod?" asked Karl Marx. tribute to "the a the bell 173 . the old one's half hidden by a hat. like he painted them lifesize. As an admirer of Louis Le Nain and Rembrandt he had. show the same commitment experience that we to visual direct find in Constable. Canvas. Courbet's Realism. Endowed with the dignity of their sym- factly. anced by the descending Despite its idyllic air. The modern artist must rely on his own direct experience ("I cannot paint an angel because I have never seen one. but by 1848. "realism" is not very precise.1866. 224). it meant something akin to the "naturalism" of Caravaggio (see page 136). not long after the middle of the century. the young man's face is averted.Winslow Homer. likened them to a parable from the Gospels. Winslow Homer was a particularly fine representative of this trend in America. its upward slant bal- line of the treetops. and history only spelled out what many others had begun to feel. observation. The Morning Bell. After 1850. The French poet and art critic Charles Baudelaire was addressing himself to the same problem when. As a descriptive term. whether or not they were familiar with his work. was a revolution of subject matter more than of style. He had seen two men working on a road. — realism. and his work. Caravaggio's. mythology. 225. he had come to believe that the Romantic emphasis on feeling and imagination was merely an escape from the realities of the time. c. In the 860s he also did some of his most remarkable paintings. then. and the picture has an extraordinarily subtle design as well: the dog and the group of girls turn the 1 footpath into a seesaw. solidly and matter-ofwithout pathos or sentiment. Proud of his rural background and a socialist in politics. the other too young. in 1846. Courbet had begun as a Neo-Baroque Romantic. New Haven (Stephen C. and had asked them to pose for him in his studio. in fact. such as The Morning Bell (fig." At that time. Realists sharing all or part of Courbet's convictions appeared everywhere in the Western world. He visited Paris as a young man in the late 1850s. he called for paintings that expressed "the heroism of modern life. Yet he cannot have picked them casone ually: their contrast in age is significant is too old for such heavy work.

Painting needed to be rescued from competition with the camera. this "pictures of pictures" — their they translate modern terms those older works into that particu- challenged him. They would be more at home on a flat in the unit almost as screen than they are in their Courbet-like land- scape setting. Courbet is Looking at remarked said to have pictures net's attention were as The flat as Done Luncheon. like the cut-out shape of a stencil. he gave no name to the style he had created. Perhaps he was impelled to create the new style by the challenge of photography. less obviously. to put it another way. for the scene fits neither the plane of everyday experience nor that of allegory." but a screen made up of patches of color. open technique. first loyalty is and to his canvas. What brought about this "revolution of the color patch"? We do not know. 1863. otherwise. 162). hardly any modeling. if the fifer stepped out of the picture. rather than the things they stand for. which shows a nude model accompanied by two gentlemen in frock coats. Manet himself disdained controversy. In retro- p. Luncheon on the Grass (Lc Dejeuner sur I'Herbe). not to the outside world. asserting the painter's privilege to combine whatever elements he pleases for aesthetic effect alone. but it established a standard of representational accuracy that no handmade image could rival. above all. a tribute to the older when Manet artist. the Luncheon tells us that the world of painting has an internal logic Hals. Edouard Manet. 7' x 8' 10' The Louvre. but other things. Here begins an attitude that was to become a bone of contention under the slogan "art for art's sake" (see 176). and Manet himself surely did not reason it out beforehand. he would leave a hole. Yet the group has so formal a pose that he could not possibly have intended to depict an actual event. lest els. a surface covered with pigments that we must look at it. This Manet ac- complished by insisting that a painted canvas is. Velazquez. His paintings have an emotional reticence that can easily be mistaken for emptiness unless we understand its purpose. not through it. the three main figures form a shadowless and stencil-like as the fifer. The cause its later looks three-dimensional only becontour renders the forms in realistic foreshortening. Canvas. since his painting gives no hint of a "higher" signifi- cance. we distinct from the that the painter's logic of familiar reality. did so. Manet eschews all the methods devised since Giotto's time for transmuting a flat surface into a pictorial space. are the artist's primary reality.impressionism. Luncheon. The "pencil of nature" had vindicated the objective truth of Renaissance perspective (see fig. Paris 174 Art in the Modern World themselves Impressionists. and Goya had come He admired closest broad. Manet was the first to grasp Courthe Luncheon is. but his work attests his lifelong devotion to "pure painting" the belief that brush to strokes and color patches. their preoccupation with light and color values. Many of his canvases are. Courbet's art helps us to understand a picture that shocked the public even more than any of his: Edouard Manet's Luncheon on the Grass (fig. Unlike Courbet. spect.can see what he meant. he caused a scandal. Among the old masters. when his followers began calling — 226. The word was coined in 1874. in fact. The nudity of the model is "explained" by the contrast between her warm. painting without is a (there are a few. he found that — figure realize that the revolutionary qualities of Manet's art already appear. then. he refused to accept the term for his own work. among bet's full importance — Renaissance masters had often juxtaposed nude and clothed figures in outdoor settings. The gray background seems as near to us as the figure. it that playing cards. to ideal. and no depth. 226). after a hostile critic had looked . and just as solid. Here. it three years after the shadows takes a real effort to them). creamy flesh tones and the cool black-and-gray of the men's attire. Yet he always filtered out larly the expressive or symbolic content of his the viewer's mod- be distracted from the pictorial structure itself. Or. The Luncheon is a manifesto of artistic freedom. but find Ma- Fifer (colorplate 22) we. the canvas itself is no longer a "window. Perhaps the meaning of the canvas lies in this denial of plausibility.

Monet's painting is a "playing card". the theater were — favorite subjects for Impressionist painters. even though both share the same on-the-spot immediacy and fresh perception. The design of this picture. In work of color patches. flirting 227). at first glance. 228). 223). the this flickering net- on the reflections water are as "real" as the banks of the river Seine (see also p. 283). filled his with the joie de vivre of a singularly happy temperament. 1876. Canvas. and it certainly fits Monet better than it does Manet. radiate a The Galette (fig. Edgar Degas makes us look steadily at the disenchanted pair in his cafe scene (fig. out of the corner of our eye. This inner coherence sets The River apart from earlier "impressions" like Corot's Papigno (see fig. Paris a picture entitled Impression: Sunrise by Claude Monet. the thing has been as made that the zigzag of snapshot. light so bright that It flooded with sun- is seems as longer we unstudied look. that of the casual stroller. Monet had adopted Manet's concept of painting and applied it to landscapes done out of doors. 36 x 27" The Louvre. Canvas. 1876. were it not for the woman and the boat in the foreground. such as The at River (colorplate 23). so to speak. cafes.— — Auguste Renoir. role of life as he passes. Edgar Degas. Auguste Renoir. but. couples in Le Moulin de under dappled the la pattern of human warmth shade. The Louvre. even though the artist permits us no more than is this slice Our who takes in By contrast. Even more than The Fifer. Paris A rt in the Modern World 175 . Compositions as boldly calculated as the luckless conservative critics claimed it made their eyes smart. another important member of the group. Scenes from the world of entertainment dance halls. 228. 51V2 x 69". 227. sunlight that is and utterly entrancing. concerts. a fleeting glance at any of them. a more we to empty yet the realize that every- dovetail precisely tables between us and couple reinforces their brooding loneliness. the picture could hang upside down with hardly any difference of effect. Le Moulin de la G alette. The Glass of Absinthe.

Whistler. Impressionist works entered public collections in the United States. the Im- among itself During words that fit The Falling Rocket especially well: "I have perhaps meant rather to indicate an artistic interest alone in my work. form. who had London in 1859 for the rest of his his setlife.. he was a masterful portraitist. The future belonged to the "Post-Impressionists. At a time when no French museum would have them. It is an arrangement of line.ogy that would have dismayed Whistler. they were not "anti-Impressionists. It is difficult In to find a more descrip- term for them. last phrase is particularly sig- since Whistler 31). Arrangement in Black and Gray: The Artist's Mother. Courbet. 229). and I make use of any incident of it which shall bring about a symmetriaims 229. this set sionists. people with whom he had emotional ties. and color. directions. The Detroit Institute of Arts it. international recognition their first responding to the new style more readily than Europeans did. 23% x 18 3/s". tled in was the earliest followers of Manet and James McNeill Whistler. more than any other. His profound sense of human character lends weight even to seemingly casual scenes such as that in figure 228. it would seem that what he really liked was not the tinted steam but the Romantic sentiment behind the subsequent libel suit. if it were not for the explanatory subtitle. he had gained more Americans were among slowly. that of prompted the John Ruskin British critic to ac- cuse Whistler of "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face. since they did not share a common goal. Art in in the Modern World nificant. 1882 Manet was Legion of Honor by the made a chevalier of the by now was Impressionism government. A witty and sharp-tongued advocate of "art for art's sake. Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket. the oldest Post-Impressionist ." Far from trying to undo the effects of the "Manet Revolution. enjoyed considerable fame and influence abroad." This colorless label designates a group of artists who had become dissatisfied with the limitations of Impressionism and went beyond it in various post-impressionism. he wanted the canvas to be appreciated for its formal qualities alone. acknowledges that in utilizing chance effects he does not look for resemblances but for a purely formal harmony. No Frenchman had yet dared to produce a picture so "nonrepresentational." The boldest of these is Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (fig. . and American painters were patrons. In any event. Whistler stated his in Degas apart from been trained in the tradition of Ingres. colorplate 21)." he thought of his pictures as analogous to pieces of music. reflects the influence of Manet in its emphasis on flat areas." A pressionists circle. Post-Impressionism though a very is in essence just a later stage of the development that had important one begun with such pictures as Manet's Luncheon tive — — on the Grass. but it had ceased to be a pioneering movement. It was this painting.1874. His statement reads like a prophecy of American abstract painting today (see colorplate his fellow Impreswealthy aristocrat by birth. we would have real difficulty making it out. Paul Cezanne." Since Ruskin had highly praised Turner's Slave Ship." they wanted to carry it further. Like Ingres. during his later years. French gaining wide acceptance. M. touch with the rising Impressionist France during the 1860s. Panel. often calling them "symphonies" or "nocturnes." so reminiscent Cozens' blotscapes and Turner's "tinted steam" (see fig. whom he greatly admired. although he portrayed only friends and relatives. James A. Its rise to fame as a symbol of our latter-day "mother cult" is a paradox of popular psycholin close movement 176 The cal result. first. His best-known picture. c.. divesting the picture from any outside sort of interest. 215.

Canvas. the sphere. and by the early 1870s he had become an Impressionist. he believed. and his achievement just as astonishing.painter. his qualities — bowl fruit slightly off center. Paul Cezanne. too. One motif. and Apples (colorplate 24): every brush stroke is like a building block. Otherwise. but the forces at work 230. The actual result. are based on the cone. as is if the oval aim to and durable. for which he made endless series of preliminary Georges Seurat Cezanne's shared make Impressionism "solid This painstaking method reflects his must be based on a system. studies. Not since Chardin have simple everyday objects assumed such impor- not really explain his pictures pictorial architecture. also notice another aspect of Cezanne's mature style: the forms are and outlined with dark deliberately simplified. like the art of the museums. the more we realize the Tightboth the fruit ness of these When Cezanne apparently arbitary distortions. simple contours and the relaxed. however. but he had to interpret it to fit the separate. subdued by the greater power of the artist's will. the scene is alive with movement. firmly placed within the here have been brought into equilibrium. contours.1898-1900. all artists that rather. and the cylinder). seemed almost to obsess him. he lived in isolation near his exploring its environs. its craggy profile looming against the blue Mediterranean sky appears in a long series of the distinctive shape of a compositions. subject of A of genius. Sunday Afternoon on (colorplate 25) Jatte ers. but. impersonal dots of intense color which were to merge in the beholder's eye and thereby produce intermediary tints more luminous than those obtainable from pigments mixed on the palette. This procedure he called Divisionism (others spoke of Neo-Impressionism. the firm. explain — Impressionist paint- Impressionist. however." What he meant by this can be seen in Fruit Bowl. especially Delacroix. Toward the end of the decade. and the perspective is "incorrect" for bowl and the horizontal surfaces. near the Mediterranean coast. The longer we study the picture. imbued with enthusiasm for the Romantics. are the brilliant colors and the effect of intense sunlight. 132). Even the brushwork shows Seurat's passion for order and permanence. But he soon discovered Manet as well. mountain called Mont Sainte-Victoire. Seurat's theories the it long been popular is The Grande that had the of the sort among do the pic- is theories. infinitely remote yet as solid and palpable as the shapes in the foreground. Seurat devoted his main efforts to a few very large paintings. Looking at the Grande from a comfortable distance. He came to Paris in 1861. immobile figures give the scene a timeless stability that recalls Piero della Francesca (see fig. were expanding toward the left. he set out "to make of Impressionism something solid and durable. We tance in a painter's eye. the mountain rises in triumphant clarity. was born in Aix-en-Provence. To the apply this From 1882 home town. His career was as brief as that of Masaccio. and the colors are deliberately controlled so as to produce "chords" of warm and cool tones that reverberate throughout the canvas. For all its architectural stability. which seem to slant upward. in response to the pressure of the other objects. the picture is the very opposite of a quick "impression". however. Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen from Bibemus Quarry. we find that Jatte the mixture of the colors in the eye is still shape of the bowl. This order underlying the external world was the true subject of his pictures. method challenge greatest to landscape became Cezanne's career. One detail of our painting is particularly instructive in this respect the stem of the ity. takes these liberties with real- purpose is to uncover the permanent beneath the accidents of appearance (all forms in nature." but he went about it very differently. c. Glass. work in figure presence here such as the monumental late 230. of on. There are no hints of man's —houses and roads would only disturb the lonely grandeur of this view. the canvas is covered by systematic. or Pointillism). did not conform to the theory. belief that art as with tures. Above the wall of rocky cliffs that bar our way like a chain of fortifications. 25V2 x 32" The Baltimore Museum of Art (The Cone Collection) A rt in the Modern World 177 . closed world of the canvas.

It was there. To investigate this spiritual reality with the new means at his command. he worked for a while as a lay preacher An among intense poverty-stricken coal miners. 22Vz x 17". the dots are clearly visible. and imbued with a strong sense of mission. like the tesserae of a mosaic. In his Wheat Field and Cypress Trees (colorplate 26). he went to Aries. lier had opened his eyes to the sensuous beauty of the visible world and taught him the pictorial language of the color patch. Offerings of Gratitude.incomplete. Vincent van Gogh pursued the opposite direction. New York right: 232. and Mrs. Like Cezanne. Collection Mr. Dutch master since seventeenth century. and the hills and clouds heave with a similar undulant bility — above: 231. believing that Impressionism did not provide the artist with enough freedom to express his emotions. Vincent van Gogh. Profoundly dissatisfied with the values of industrial society. the first great p. While Cezanne and Seurat were converting Impressionism into a more severe. John Hay Whitney. since he died only ten years later. Seurat. He is sometimes called an Expressionist. not architectural sta- and permanence. both earth and sky show an overpowering turbulence the wheat field resembles a stormy sea. but the term ought to be re- served for certain later painters (see Van Gogh. 1889. 184). Paul Gauguin. but painting continued to be a vessel for his personal emotions. the trees spring flamelike from the ground. and other leading French artists. he came to and met Degas. and Paris even tried the Divisionist technique of Although this Impressionist phase was vitally important for Van Gogh's development. Seurat — must have liked otherwise he would unexpected effect have reduced the size of the dots which gives the canvas the quality of a shimmering translu- this — cent screen. between 1888 and 1890. sympathy for the poor pervades his early paintings. His early interests were in literature and relithe artist until gion. he Seurat. Their effect on him was electrifying: his pictures now blazed with color. he now devoted his main energies to landscape painting. Woodcut 178 Art in the Modern World . Canvas. c. but the sun-drenched countryside evoked a very different response in him: he saw it filled Paris with ecstatic movement. he had to integrate it with the style of his earyears before his genius could fully unfold. Self-Portrait. did not become an 1880. 189 1-93. his career was even briefer than Seurat's. classical style. in the south of France. that he produced his greatest pictures. however. In 1886.

Self-Portrait We (fig. and the Far East. we can feel the influ- ences of the native art of the South Seas and of other non-European styles. simpler. that determined the expressive content of his pictures. is meant to re-create in black. At thirtyfive. but an incisive graphic gesture. lumiburning eyes set off against a 233 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. At the time of this Self- he had already begun to suffer Portrait. Gauguin went to live among the peasants of Brittany in western France. Although his desire "to exaggerate and to leave the obvious vague" look arbitrary by Impressionist standards. his emaciated. 1892. for he felt that difficult for alone made his life worth living. he became convinced that he must devote himself entirely to art: he aban- doned his business career and his family. and of his mystic faith in a creative force animating all forms of -life. Offerings of Gratitude (fig. not the form." having forced men into an incomplete life dedicated to material gain while their emotions lay neglected. The renewal of Western civilization." They speak to us of that "kingdom of light" Van Gogh had found in the South. Here religion was still part of everyday life. mental illness that made fits of painting increasingly him." This style. though less intensely personal than Van Gogh's. Gauguin believed that Western civilization was "out of joint. but not from faith. he nevertheless remained deeply committed to the visible world. Gauguin believed. Yet we sense that Gauguin did not share this experience: he could paint pictures about faith. and by 1889 he was the central figure of a new movement called Symbolism. Yet none of his South Pacific canvases are as daring as those he had painted in Brittany. The missionary had come a prophet. direct faith of country people. was an even bolder advance beyond Impressionism. To rediscover for himself this hidden world of feeling. 48 3/s x 55Va". and its ultimate source is the age-old dream of an earthly paradise where Man had lived and might live again in a state of nature and innocence. colorplate 24). His pilgrimage to the South Pacific symbolizes the end of four hundred years of colonial expansion which had brought the entire globe under Western domination. His style. It stems from the Romantic myth of the Noble Savage. At the Moulin Rouge. The Art Institute of Chicago (Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection) whirlpool of darkness. must come from "the Primitives". ancient Egypt." once — Art — in the Modern World 179 . and an amateur painter and collector of modern art (he once owned Cezanne's Fruit Bowl. Paul Gauguin. He began as a prosperous stockbroker in Paris. Canvas. Two years later. he committed suicide a year later. and more vibrant than those in Monet's The River (com- the essential makes his colors pare colorplate 23) but in no sense "unnatural. inspired by folk art and medieval stained glass. Despairing of a cure. In white-on-black pattern. The quest for religious experience also played if not in the an important part in the work art life — — of another great Post-Impressionist. and of Western art. but with the image of a local god replacing its frankly "carved" look and its bold Christ. Modeling and perspective have given at last way to what is flat. nous head with its see him now be- in that role in the 231). The dynamism that is in every brush makes of each one not merely a deposit of color. This idea itself was not new. and in works such as The Yellow Christ (colorplate 27) he attempted to depict the simple. His strongest works of period this are woodcuts. simplified shapes outlined heavily brilliant colors are equally "unnatural. however. But no one before Gauguin had gone so far in putting the doctrine of primitivism into practice. Yet to stroke Van Gogh himself it was the color. Gauguin's search for the unspoiled life led him even farther afield. 232) again presents the theme of religious worship. Here no Romantic painter had achieved: a style based on pre-Renaissance sources." to learn from the natives instead of teaching them. he advised his fellow Symbolists to shun the Greeks and to turn instead to Persia. The colors of Wheat Field are stronger.motion. He voyaged to Tahiti as a sort of "missionary in reverse. and the both the imagined reality of the Crucifixion and the trancelike rapture of the peasant women. The "white man's burden.

pation with decadence. gay surface of and customers reflect the influence Modern World A few years later. Munch this experience without the aid of frightening apparitions. Picasso and his friends discovered a painter who until then had attracted no attention. a folk artist of genius. 155). called Blue Period (referring to the prevailing 234. Museum. color of his canvases as well as to their 1893. ungifted reasoned fear we feel in a nightmare. and his the Rouge (fig. Here at last is that innocent directness of feeling which Gauguin thought was so necessary for the age and had traveled so far to find. the terrifying. smoothly curving outlines 180 Tou- their character the tiny bearded one flat of life".The visualizes rhythm of the long. The Scream (fig. a Norwegian who came to Paris in 1889 and based his starkly expressive style on Toulouse-Lautrec. and Gauguin. but perhaps for that very reason its magic becomes unbelievably real to us. he next to the very The tall large areas of is Art in the man in the background). was becoming unbearable. ing board of terror. he was an artist of superb talent louse-Lautrec (note the smoothly curved contours) imbued with the personal gloom of a twenty-two-year-old genius. 228). How else could he have done a picture hibiting since 1886. Canvas. color and the emphatic. They revered him. He was a great admirer At Moulin of Degas. 235) outcasts or victims of society whose pa- — thos reflects the Yet these own artist's sense of isolation. and the attenuated grace of his limbs reminds us of El Greco (see fig. Although Toulouse-Lautrec was no Symbolist. Picasso and his friends were the first to recognize this quality in Rousseau's work. although he had been exHe was Henri Rousseau. Oslo National so cheerfully —and ruthlessly — shouldered. The aged musician accepts his fate with a resignation that seems almost saintly. figures The Old Guitarist Mannerism and the is a strange art of amalgam of Gauguin and Tou- escape analyzed their predichorror. he came under the spell of the same artistic atmosphere that had generated the style of Munch. Yet this very awareness proved to be a source of strength (the truly decadent do not realize their plight). we can only regard Something of the same macabre it as a quality pervades the early work of Edvard Munch. The Scream. 36 x 29". as . justifiably. Van Gogh's and Gauguin's discontent with the spiritual ills of Western civilization was part of a sentiment widely shared at the end of the A nineteenth century. Rousseau is that paradox. physically an ugly dwarf. because none is possible. Even who saw no those mood) consists almost entirely of pictures of beggars and derelicts such as The Old Guitarist (fig. viewing performers with a pitilessly sharp eye for club (including his own. His sopicture. 233) recalls the zigzag composition Degas' The Glass of Absinthe (see fig. But this view of the well-known night of is no Impressionist "slice louse-Lautrec sees through the the scene. the Moulin Rouge that he shows us here has an atmosphere so joyless and oppressive that place of evil. convey poetic melancholy more than outright despair. 234) shows the influence of all three. The most remarkable instance of this strength was Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. like The Sleeping Gypsy (fig. Edvard Munch. vaded the and artistic self-conscious preoccuevil. it is an image of fear. 236)? What goes on in the enchanted world of this canvas needs no explanation. and his achievement is the more persuasive for that very reason. and darkness per- literary climate. wavy lines seems to carry the echo of the scream into every corner of the making earth and sky one great soundWhen the young Pablo Picasso arrived in Paris in 1900.of Gauguin. who retired ament fascinated in led a dissolute the nightspots of in life Paris and died of alcoholism.. Van Gogh. a customs collector who had started to paint in his middle age without training of any sort.

he modeled in wax or clay. he did not follow these artists' lead. x HVi". originally conceived as part of a large Hell. The Museum of Modern Art. The Sleeping Gypsy. Canvas. New York A rt in the Modern World 181 . it is often said. The Gates of and wrinkles of the vigorously unfinished project called The welts creased surface produce. in doing so. How indeed could the effect of such pictures as The Fijer or The River be reproduced in three dimensions and without color? What Rodin did accomplish is strikingly visible in The Thinker (fig. sculpture no less than painting. 1903. How could he calculate in advance the reflections on the surfaces of the bronze casts that would be made from these models? He worked as he did. Auguste Rodin. ever. Pablo Picasso. Panel. The Old Guitarist. fiercely tural energy. redefined sculpture during the Monet same years that Manet and how- redefined painting. But is this borrowed from Impressionist painting? Does Rodin dissolve three-dimensional form into flickering patches of light and dark? These effect exaggerated shapes pulsate with sculpand they retain this quality under whatever conditions the piece is viewed. an ever-changing pattern of reflections. 236.the godfather of much of. 237). we must assume.twentieth-century painting. The Art Institute of Chicago (Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection) 235. in polished bronze. For Rodin did not work directly in bronze. the first sculptor of genius since Bernini. revitalized The claim is at once true and misleading. 51 x 79". Impressionism. 47% Henri Rousseau. 1897.

physically and spiritually. shroudlike cloak. Bronze. form and meaning are one. carver. like the names for the styles of . Post-Impressionism. From this mass the head thrusts upward with elemental force. The Thinker. THE TWENTIETH CENTURY In our account of modern discussed cism. the man of genius towers above the crowd he shares the "sublime egotism of the gods" (as the Romantics put it). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Actually. not a for reveal their full strength only when we his in plaster casts originals. These "isms" can form a serious obstacle to understanding. Paris Modern World tant "isms". partly Prometheus. despite tity. we can disregard all but the most impor- — 238. tremendous admiration Rodin was a modeler. There are many more to be found in twentiethcentury art so many. Rodin Museum. and partly the brute imprisoned by the passions of the flesh. of art we have already "isms": Neoclassi- Realism. 1910) made directly rather than Monument (fig. New York (Gift of Thomas F. the process of "growth" — the miracle of dead matter coming to life in the artist's hands. Auguste Rodin. for the statue fits no preconceivedidenis In The Thinker. The Balzac 238). Like a huge monolith. in fact." he rescued sculpture from mechanical verisimilitude just as Manet had rescued painting from photographic realism. As the color patch. As we approach. 182 Art in the (portion). But. 1892-97. many years. no doubt. is the primary reality. it has the overpowering presence of a specter.for an entirely different reason: not to capture make emphatic but to elusive optical effects. The figure is larger than life. Rodin wisely refrained from giving him a specific name. Balzac Plaster. height 21 Vi". we become aware that Balzac is wrapped in a long. Auguste Rodin. Divisionism. entire height 9' 10". When we are close enough to make out remained in plaster for the committee that — we sense beneath the disdain an inner agony that stamps Balzac as the kin of The Thinker. By insisting on this "unfinishedness. Rodin has minimized the articulation of the body so that from a distance we see only its great bulk. his most daring creation. 3. 237. as in Michelangelo's superhuman bodies whose action-in-repose he shares. a succession Romanticism. the features clearly. so are the malleable lumps from which Rodin builds his forms. that nobody has made an exact count. Ryan. His see works them from the clay bronze. 1879-89. Symbolism. they make us feel that we cannot hope to comprehend the art of our time unless we immerse ourselves in a welter of esoteric doctrines. in Michelangelo. Impressionism. Who 1 The Thinker } Partly Adam. for Manet and Monet. rejected by had ordered it.

but Matisse carries it a great deal further. it was not a common program that brought them together. so far as concerned." morbid mood of the 1890s were profoundly impressed. is the rhythmic arrangement of line and color on a flat plane. and some of them developed a radical new style." began with the Post-Impressionists and have developed greatly since then: Expression. to have begun five years late. a label they wore with pride. we cannot do without "isms" Still. but their shared sense of liberation and experiment. appearance. without some degree of order. This is true of many "isms" in contemporary art. sive. is The young painters who had grown up in "decadent. and the group dissolved after a few years. without feeling. Thus Fauvism comprised ics that they 239. but to gen- The primary concern stractionist. the structure of reality. full of violent the color and bold distortions. Equally bold but perfectly readable is the view of a garden with flowering trees. and imagination are all present in every work of art: without imagination. Moreover. currents. Oil on paper. Among gether. yet the scene retains the essentials of plastic form and spatial depth. from the realistic to the completely nonrepresentational (or nonobjective). It has always been easier to invent a new label than to create a new move- number earlier periods. are shall find them not mutually interrelated in exclu- many ways. but it is not only that. and of the Fantasy. Harmony in Red (colorplate shows what made him so revolutionary an 28) art- omission. that The Abstraction. yet he distinist: his radical simplicity. artist of human may be said. Painting. founding fathers of twentieth-century painting. Actually. of the Ab- the is to specific styles. twentieth-century alto- the international trends art. Provincetown A rt in the Modern World 183 . Georges Rouault. Head of Christ. they are a us put things in their proper place. Walter Chrysler Museum. But we must not forget that feeling. has been left out or stated by implication only. it would be chaotic. 45 x 31". These it therefore. . the labyrinth of the individual mind. and the work of one artist may belong to more than one current. Cezanne had pioneered this integration of the "2-D" and "3-D" aspects of painting (see colorplate 24). the formal structure of artist's the work and the of art. how far can the image of nature be pared down without reducing it to mere surface ornament? Thus he spreads the same blue-on-red pattern on the tablecloth and on the wall. in On their first public 1905. order." Everything that possibly can be. the movements they designate either cannot be seen clearly as separate entities or have so little importance that they interest only the specialist. pressionist of the Ex- human community. first stresses the emotional attitude toward himself and the world. we need not bother with it. seen through the window. Between 1901 and 1906. Gauguin. the house in the distance is painted — — would leave us unmoved. Thus these three currents do not correspond eral attitudes. third explores the realm of the imagination. We of the of loosely related individual styles.merely labels to help If an "ism" fails the test of usefulness. it would be deadly dull. they so shocked the crit- were dubbed the Fauves (wild beasts). 1905. and Cezanne were held in The twentieth century painting Paris. especially its spontaneous and irrational qualities. we main cur- find three of each comprising a number of "isms. rents. several comprehensive exhibitions of the work of Van Gogh. his "genius of guishes the horizontal from the vertical planes with complete assurance. each current embraces a wide range of approaches. the second.and Fantasy. Its leading member was Henri Matisse. Matisse seems to say. the oldest ment that truly deserves one.

the greens of the foliage. yet the expressive effect is hardly diminished. 240) clearly reflects the influence of the older master. . whatever their subject. violent brush work in The Dead Fowl (fig. however. we realize with sudden horror its close resemblance to a human shape. Georges Rouault. 239). "What I am explained. "the passion mirrored upon a human face". Soutine has no equal of Plato's less among modern artists. . would have disagreed. Matisse once [But] expres- sion does not consist of the passion mirrored upon ment a human my face. he shared Rouault's predilection for religious themes. of a society called Die Briicke bridge). 32VS x 4\ 3A". a group of like-minded painters (the who Dresden in 1905." For his power to transmute sheer anguish into visual form. The whole arrange- Another Fauves group. Canvas. But the of member picture is expressive. It was in Germany that Fauvism had its most enduring impact. . Dead Fowl. The Art Institute of Chicago 240. as it had in the past." . and the bright yellow spots all recur in the foreground. expression still included. an immigrant from Eastern Europe. Neukirchen. 1909. Rouault's Expressionism was unique among French painters. Likewise the blue of the sky. Emil Nolde. As we look at the plucked. His pictures. above expression. it is no longer a recognizable image. Emil Nolde. . although he was a far less arlived in ticulate painter. It evokes the earthward plunge of Icarus.1926. Here. are ardent statements of that hope. perhaps. or it is. hoped for spiritual renewal through a revitalized Catholic faith. The Last Supper. Germany . the dead bird is a terrifying symbol of death. Canvas. . The only artist in Paris to follow his lead was Chaim Soutine. and is thereby brought into relation with the rest of the picture. (Joseph Winterbotham Collection) same bright pink as the interior.) Rouault is the true heir of Van Gogh's and Gauguin's concern for the corrupt state of the world. One Briicke artist. especially among the members Chaim Soutine. he the makes ment. Stiftung Seebiill Ada und Emil Nolde. For him. The savage. (If the upper third of the picture. Matisse's "genius of omission" is at work: by reducing the number of tints to a minimum. 38Vi x 24Vz". "is after. c. 241) make it clear that Nolde rejected all pictorial refinement in favor of color an independent structural ele- Harmony has such importance that It Red would be meaningless in a in black-and- white reproduction. older than the rest.quently of the we cover up artist's range and compassion. too. The thickly encrusted surfaces and the deliberately clumsy draftsmanship of his Last Supper (fig. stands somewhat apart. Although the picture belongs conventionally to the class of still life. He. all. The tempestuous. we need only look at his Head of Christ (fig. creamy-white body. a cruelly direct image definition of Man as a "featherbiped. slashing strokes of the brush speak even more elo- 184 Art in the Modern World 241." of the expressiveness does not reside only in the "image quality" of this face.

since it is necessarily though no one would deny its evocative power. who did not become an Expressionist until after he had experienced the First World War. 1913. it. x 39V4". center panel 84% x 45 3/s". the Austrian painter is His works outstanding World War not a Oskar are his his splendid Self-Portrait (fig. A more robust descendant of the Briicke artists was Max Beckmann. 32 x 19Vi". Museum of Modern Art. The Museum of Modern Art. 243).of primeval. a portraits painted before I. the subjective. a direct Gauguin. the hypersensitive seem lacerated by a great ordeal of the periences features It may not be fanciful to find in psyche an echo of the cultural climate that also produced Sigmund Freud. Their symbolism. expression inspired by artist of highly individual related to the Briicke although member of Kokoschka. Like Van Gogh. which left him with a deep despair at the state of modern civilization. 1932-35. witness to the truth and reality of his inner ex(see fig. under Nazi pressure. Departure (fig. full of mutilations and meaningless rituals. however. The wings of his triptych. New York Departure. In the hindsight of today. seems to 242. are a nightmarish world crammed with puppetlike figures. Another talent. 122). this tortured more difficult to interpret. New York (Anonymous gift. 231). completed when. is even imagination. Canvas. The 243. by exchange) . Canvas. 84% Self-Portrait. he was on the point of leaving his homeland. such as 242). Oskar Kokoschka. side panels each Max Beckmann. Kokoschka sees himself as a visionary. topsy-turvy quality of these two scenes. as disquieting as Bosch's Hell (see fig.

But what nudes! The three on the left are angular celona. nor does it matter whether this theory is right or wrong. goes into the making of any work of art. he created a completely nonobjective style. These works have titles as abstract as their forms: our example. Picasso started the picture. however. refers not to the town of that name but to Avignon Street in a notorious section of Barreal creator. and a radiant freshness of ing that impresses us even though we feel- are un- what exactly the artist has expressed. had spoken of "divesting his picture from any outside sort of interest". Perhaps we should avoid the term "abstract. Whistler. Did he create a viable style? Admittedly. Cezanne and Seurat revitalized this approach and explored it bound to be some sort of further. Beckmann spent the final three years of his career in America. who used primitive art . Les Demoiselles d' Avignon ("The Girls of Avignon"). 6. is called Sketch I for "Composition VII" (colorplate 29). the while the vio- and bodies of the features barbaric qualities of Following Gauguin. paint ten apples will find artist who sets out to no two of them yet he cannot possibly take account of differences: trayal even these of the all alike. The possibility was implicit in Fauvism from representation his voluntary the — start. The title. since it places ten apples in one class. the sphere. his work demands an intuitive response that may be hard for some of us. — Kandinsky's or any other artist's ideas arc important to us only if we are convinced of the importance of his pictures. their most painstaking por- particular pieces of fruit is an abstraction." which is often taken to mean that the artist has analyzed and simplified the shapes of visible reality (note Cezanne's dictum that all natural forms are based on the cone. Literally. but he viewed these masters very differently. 105). The process was not conscious and controlled. Picasso gradually abandoned the melancholy lyricism of his Blue Period for a more robust style. was Pablo Picasso. in contrast. but he distortions of classical lently dislocated figures. But the most daring and original step beyond Fauvism was taken in Germany by a Russian. to be a temptation scene. 244) so challenging that it outraged even Matisse.have the force of prophecy. and then separate the ten from the apples. with its ex- panse o\' sea and its sunlit brightness. Whatever traces of work contains are quite inaim was to charge form and color with a purely spiritual meaning (as he put it) by eliminating all resemblance to the physical world (see p. whether the artist knows it or not. Using the rainbow colors and the free. stimulated both by the Fauves and by the great Post-Impressionists. But it was the liberating influence of the Fauves that permitted Kandinsky to put this theory into practice. How valid painting and music? is the analogy between When Kandinsky carries it through so strictly. About 1905. Rouault's his as shown Head in third of the picture our experiment with when the upper Christ: of is covered. to abstract means to draw away from. under the most trying conditions. when it was ended up with a composition of five nudes and a still life. If we have ten apples. the leading member of a group of artists in Munich called Der Blaue Reiter (the blue horseman). to separate. without regard for their The individual qualities. After living through the Second World War in occupied Holland. had discovered the aesthetic appeal of African and Oceanic sculpture. the proof 186 Art in the Modern World of the pudding is — in the eating. we get an "abstract number. conveys the hopeful spirit of an escape to distant shores." too. dynamic brushwork of the Paris Fauves. one of the most striking." a number that no longer refers to particular things. yet it was Pithe Fauves casso. The stable design of the center panel. Abstraction. Wassily Kandinsky. he produced a monumental canvas (fig. in 1906-7. is an abstraction. Kandinsky abandoned representation altogether. the rest becomes a nonobjective composition strangely similar to Kandinsky's. too. until the Renaissance. 283). when artists first analyzed the shapes of nature in terms of mathematical bodies (see p. then. But why should the "musical" content of nonobjective painting be more desirable? Is painting less alien to music than to literature? The case is difficult to argue. of our main currents is the one we called Abstraction. and the cylinder)." which limits him even more severely? Kandinsky's advocates like to point out that representational painting has a "literary" content. 7). he even anticipated Kandinsky's use of "musical" titles. does he really lift his art to another plane of freedom? Or could it be that his declared independence from representation now forces him instead to "represent music. and to deplore such dependence on another art. yet the painting here reproduced has density and vitality. they are the direct ancestors of the abstract movement in twentieth-century art. not the recipe. He shared Matisse's enthusiasm for Gauguin and Cezanne. rather than they. Its however. After 1910. This was not the method of Kandinsky. But certain The second "apples. other two have all primitive art (see figs.

Rene Lecomte. Fruit Bowl. Canvas. 18 x 21V4' Collection Mr. and Apples. and Mrs. Paris . Glass. Paul Cezanne. 1879-82.Colorplate 24.

Canvas.Georges Seurat. A Sunday Afternoon on the Grande Jatte. The Art Institute of Chicago (Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection) Colorplate 25. 6' 9" x 10'. 1884-86. .

Vincent van Gogh. London (reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees) Colorplate 26. 28Vi The National Gallery. x 36". . Wheat Field and Cypress Trees. Canvas. 1889.

Paul Gauguin. 1889. The Yellow Christ. Canvas. Buffalo. New York .amVI Colorplate 27. Albright-Knox Art Gallery. 36 3/s x 28 3/4".

Leningrad Colorplate 28. 71V4 x 96%". Harmony in Red (Red Room). Canvas. The Hermitage Museum. .Henri Matisse. 1908-9.

Sketch I for "Composition VII.Colorplate 29. Canvas. Wassily Kandinsky. Collection Felix Klee. 30 3/4 x 39%". Bern . 1913.

Armand P. Blue. and Yellow. Piet Mondrian. 1930. 20 x 20". and Mrs. Composition with Red. Canvas. New York . Collection Mr. Bartos.Colorplate 30.

Canvas. One (detail). New York . The Museum of Modern Art. 1950.Colorplate 31. Jackson Pollock.

but the organic integrity and continuity of the human body are denied here. analogous to nature but built along diftire in ferent principles. The Museum of Modern Art. Pablo Picasso. and Picasso had been joined by other artists. — — is will note. the Demoiselles can no longer be read as an image of the external world. Nevertheless. who saw only the prevalence of sharp edges and angles. 230). 245). Picasso had studied Cezanne's late work with care (see 245. 1909-10. Canvas. They constitute a unique kind of matter. 284). The link is clearer in Picasso's Vollard (fig. some look like chunks of solidified space. with whom he collaborated so intimately that their work at that time is hard to tell apart. Contrasts of color and texture are reduced to a minimum. but he still needs it to challenge his creative powers. so words of one critic) "resembles a field of broken glass. hard to describe. Unlike Matisse's Harmony Red. the facets later: more like are now prisms. others like fragments of translucent bodies. The early critics. 96 x 92". is dubbed the new style Cubism. portrait of Ambroise painted four years small and precise. These. has destroyed a great deal. But its distance from observed reality has not signifiPicasso may be playing an cantly increased elaborate game of hide-and-seek with nature." Picasso. struction is we begin to see that the dequite methodical: everything the figures as well as their setting we into angular facets. flat. finding in its abstract treat- ment of volume and space the translucent structural units from which he derived the facets of Cubism. its world is its own. That the Demoiselles owes anything to Cezanne may seem hard to believe. Moscow fig. Bliss Bequest) as a battering ram against the classical concep- tion of beauty (see also p. 1906-7. then. so as not to compete with the design. as evidenced by Braque's he Courrier of — Art in the Modern World 195 . Not only the proportions. Both of them initiated the next phase of Cubism.244. Cubism here has become an abstract style within the purely Western sense. And the structure has fully become so intricate a web that it would seem wholly cerebral if the "imprismed" sitter's face did not emerge with such dramatic force. and the canvas has the balance and refinement of a mature style. By 1910. which was even bolder than the first. as against the "barbaric" distortions of the Demoiselles. notably Georges Braque. The nonobjective realm held no appeal for him. 36 x 25 Vi". Pushkin Museum. then or later. what has he gained in the process? Once we recover from that the canvas (in the apt the initial shock. which imposes a new kind of integrity and continuity on the en- canvas. but shaded in a way tain three-dimensionality. are that gives We broken up them not a cer- cannot always be sure whether they are concave or convex. Pablo Picasso. Ambroise Vollard. Cubism was well established as an alternative to Fauvism. New York (Acquired through the Lillie P. Les Demoiselles d' Avignon." compounded of voids and solids. Picasso's revolutionary "build- ing material. Canvas.

offers a basically new space concept. then. A tray. he was working simultaneously in two separate styles: collage Cubism and a tors 246. they have been shaped and combined. space is created not by illusionistic devices. Philadelphia Museum of Art (Gallatin Collection) 1913 246). then drawn or painted upon so as to give them a representational meaning. and a part of a tobacco bit of newsprint made into a playing card (the Neoclassic style of strongly modeled. but they retain they found the best their original Thus their function identity as scraps of material. more than tween the defined in is actually on it. on the contrary. however. By now. both to represent (to be part of an image) and to present (to be themselves). . Georges Braque.view. but sculp- and even architects. Why did Picasso and Braque suddenly prefer the contents of the wastepaper basket to brush and paint? Because they had come to think of ace of hearts). 20 x llVi". is a self-con- tained area. heavybodied figures such as his Mother and Child (fig. Collage. Canvas. yet the theme is This technique came to be known as collage (French for "paste-up"). this seemed a kind of betrayal. 1913. Pablo Picasso. the first since Masaccio: it is a true landmark in the history of painting. the painted sur- face acts as a window through which we still perceive remnants of the familiar perspective space of the Renaissance. it may contain objects that are hidden from our 196 Art in the Modern World 247. Hillman Corp. the picture space lies in front of the plane of the "tray". Collection the Alex L. the picture surface as a sort of tray to "serve" the life still on which and to the beholder. the "art of the museums. half the masthead of a newspaper. unlike a painting. detached from the rest of the physical it cannot show The difference betwo phases of Cubism may also be terms of picture space: facet Cubism world. was already striking out in a new direction. wrapper with a contrasting stamp. we to imitation of wood graining." The figures in Mother and Child have a mock-monumental quality that suggests colossal statues rather than flesh- and-blood human beings. they endow a collage is with a self-sufficiency that no facet-Cubist picture could have. Collage Cubism. This space lies behind the picture plane and has no visible limits. 247). Mother and Child. but by the actual overlapping of layers of pasted materials. after all. To many. with only a few added lines recognize strips complete the design. In collage Cubism. 38 x 28". By 1920. Picasso himself. way to explore this new concept was to put real things on the tray. The ingredients of a collage actually play a double role. such as modeling or foreshortening. he needed to resume contact with the classical tradition. retains a certain kind of depth. (fig. but in retrospect the cause of Picasso's doubletrack performance is evident: chafing under the limitations of collage Cubism. Le Courrier. Picasso was internationally famous. Cubism had spread throughout the Western world: it influenced not only painters. 1921-22. In the latter role. composed almost It is entirely of cut-and-pasted scraps of material.

Their output was more original in sculpture than in painting (see fig. New Haven (Collection of the Societe Art in the Anonyme) Modern World 197 . Their original identity no longer matters — breasts may turn into eyes. Collection the Artist ] tragic. 262). He came to Paris in 1912 ture Expressionist in the tradition of as a ma- Van Gogh and the Fauves. 249). Strong echoes of Futurism appear in Brooklyn Bridge (fig. instead of cutting and pasting. the nude. and crystalline "cells" of space. 244). Canvas. it conjures up a vision of mechanized Utopia. macabre. Three Dancers. the canvas even shows painted imitations of specific is materials — patterned wallpaper. 84 x 76". the artist has imitated the appearance of collage with his brush. however. not unlike the way a collage is put together. Brooklyn Bridge. in 1910 founders issued a manifesto violently rejecting the past and exalting the beauty of the machine. They are "visual puns. Cubism offered a formal discipline of subtle balance. however.— treated with surprising tenderness. making an extraordinary synthesis that has been the basis of his art ever since. ideas underwent a complete change. are carefully dovetailed within the frame. The forms. however. The Three Dancers of 1925 (fig. Piet Stella. 1917. saw in the new style a special affinity with the geometric precision of engineering that made it uniquely attuned to the dynamism of modern times. Canvas. may be found in the work of a Dutch painter nine years older than Picasso. Joseph Stella. even though. Human anatomy is here simply the raw material for Picasso's incredibly fertile inventiveness. grotesque. by the Italo-American Joseph its maze of luminescent cables. the picture pure collage Cubism. Under the impact of Cubism. in an endless flow of transformations. portraiture. The short-lived Futurist movement in Italy exemplifies this attitude. But the figures. profiles merge with frontal views. 1925. A few years later the two tracks of Picasso's style began to converge. a wildly fantastic version of a dance. The most radical extension of Cubism. 248) shows how he managed this seemingly impossible feat. As originally conceived by Picasso and Braque. even 248. vigorous diagonal thrusts. 84'/2 x 56 /2". used for traditional subjects still life. are an even more violent ason convention than the Demoiselles a" Avignon (fig. with its Mondrian. and faces are handled with the same sovereign freedom classical sault as the fragments of external reality in Braque's he Courrier. Pablo Picasso." offer- ing wholly unexpected possibilities of expres- sion — humorous. breasts. and vice versa. Other painters. and within the following decade he developed a his 249. and samples of various fabrics cut out with pinking shears. limbs. Yale University Art Gallery. Structurally. shadows become substance.

Blue. thoroughly as Braque pets of pasted paper in How did he go about his he transforms them as transformed the snipLe Counter (fig. Our minds are controlled" built on the same basic pattern. and wanted no distracting elements or fortuitous associations. which hint at some degree of relationship with observed reality. the unconscious mind does not usually reproduce all as they actually happened. tion is his And own is The one common is thing all the be- more important than the since every artist's imagina- private domain. Mystery and Melancholy of a Street. At night." since it depends on a state of mind more 198 Art in the Modern World 250. 1914. whose own inner world is not the same as the artist's? Psychoanalysis has taught us that we are not so different from each other in this respect as we like to think. instead of recognizable frag- ments of everyday materials. and Mrs. by establishing the "right" among relationship bands and rectangles. follows a course less clear-cut than the other two. Strange as it may seem. Mondrian arrived at all the rest "by feel. task. But. unless he subjects process of selection. If we begin When we to realize we measure its infinite consider his complexity. However. lyrical emotion. are most likely to be sensitive to this quality. be admitted into the conscious part of the mind in the guise of "dream images" in this form they seem less vivid. the various units in Composi- Red. or whenever conscious thought relaxes its vigilance. constantly faced the dilemma of unlimited possibilities." and he defined this as equilibrium "through the balance of unequal but equivalent oppositions. Collection Mr. Composition with Red. He could "given" extent not change the relationship of the bands to and the rectangles without changing the bands rectangles themselves. New Canaan . we find that only the proportions of the canvas itself are truly rational. whether we want to remember them or not. and the same is true of our imagination and memory. and we can live with our memories more easily. the ingredients are to some than on any particular style. at thus eliminating ever) possibility of representa- works Yet Mondrian sometimes gave his such titles as Trafalgar Square or Broadway Boogie-Woogie. This digesting of experience is surprisingly alike in all of us. although the process woTks better with some individuals than with others. his goal. was "pure reality. ored rectangles. But them to a deliberate how can such "unimages have meaning to the beholder. apart from his self-imposed rules. Canvas. 34'4 x 2%V%". 246). and totall) Yellow (colorplate 30) shows Mondrian's style he restricts his design to its most severe: horizontals and verticals and his colors to the three primary hues. and Mondrian has had a greater influence among them than among painters (see fias. Mondrian. Mondrian did not strive for pure. he asserted. plus black and white. Mondrian's exquisite sense of nonsymmetrical balance is so specific that critics well acquainted with his work have no difficulty telling fakes from genuine piction with Designers who work with nonfigurative such as architects and typographers. shapes. He was interested only in relationships. Blue. an exact square. 270-72). Stanley R. which we termed Fantasy. The third current. our They experiences will often — by chance. Unlike Kandinsky.nonobjective style that he called NeoPlasticism." and must have undergone agonies of trial and error. Giorgio de Chirico. painters of fantasy have in lief that imagination outside world. our experiences come back to us and we seem to live through them again. tures. and Yellow. They belong to the unconscious part of the mind where experiences are stored." Perhaps we can best understand what he meant if we think of his work as "abstract collage" that uses black bands and coltion. discovering the "right" And how did he determine the shape and number of the bands and rectangles? relationship? In Le Courtier. the images it provides for him are likely to be equally private. Resor.

would be very dull in the matter-of-fact language of a news report. This large and deserted square with its endless receding arcades. The power of nostalgia. the full sense of that term it is "ominous" — everything 251. the cleavage that developed between reason and imagination in the wake of rationalism. The Museum of Modern Art.—— Hence we things. which tended to dissolve the heritage of myth and legend that had been the common channel of private fantasy in earlier times. the artist's greater free- dom — and giving him insecurity — within the social fabric. Canvas. Watercolor. the girl with the hoop that trouble and fascinate us. the Roman- emotion that prompted the artist to seek out subjective experience. A rt in the Modern World 1 99 . they were so important to him that his imagination shaped and reshaped them for years without diminishing their persistence. we The same is true of paintings The Sleeping Gypsy by Henri Rousseau (fig. 75V6 x 59'/2". Jewish proverbs. second. plain the incongruities in these paintings the empty furniture van. such as Mystery and Melancholy of a Street (fig. also dominates the fantasies of Marc Chagall. 16V4 x 12". 1922. 251) is a Cubist fairy tale that weaves dreamlike memories of Russian folk tales. New York (Mrs. 250). a sense of isolation and favoring an introspective attitude. Marc Chagall. / and the Village. and the Russian countryside into one glowing vision. it became a major one. we recall be several interlocking causes: first. Pall Klee. has all the poetry of Romantic reverie. fantasy was In still nineteenth-century a art. as in many later works. 236). The Museum of Modern Art. After 1900. Later on he adopted a conservative style and repudiated his early work. Twittering Machine. Simon Guggenheim Fund) in suggests an omen. and to accept tic cult of its validity. finally. But it has also a strangely sinister air. a portent of unknown and disquieting De Chirico himself could not ex- significance. New York ink. for example. / and the Village (fig. Chagall relives the experiences of his childhood. What happens in a fairy talc. a Russian Jew who came to Paris in 1910. The heritage of Romanticism can be seen most clearly m the astonishing pictures painted in Paris just before World War I by Giorgio de Chirico. as if he were embarrassed at having put his dream world on public display. and. but when it is told to us as it should be told. are always interested in imaginary provided they are presented to us in such a way that they seem real. The Paul "fairy tales" of the German-Swiss painter Klee are more purposeful and controlled than Chagall's. so evident in Mystery and Melancholy of a Street. Here. private minor current. illuminated by the cold light of the full moon. But why does private fantasy loom so large in present-day art? There seem to arc enchanted. 1911. although at first they 252.

we enanother painter of fantasy. by superimposing successive phages of movement on each other. During the First World War. 1912. Marcel Duchamp. a delicate pen drawing tinted with water color. mocking our faith in the miracles of the machine age as well as our sentimental appreciation of bird song. without stopping to ponder their shape. France 254. as in multiple-exAlmost immediately. The title. To him art was a "language of signs. as if they might entrap real birds) thus condenses into one striking invention a complex of ideas about presentday civilization. yet also to share the quality of "triggers. however. with a few simple lines. posure photography. he has created a ghostly mechanism that imitates the sound of birds. Succession Arp. Meudon. ." of shapes that are images of ideas as the shape of a letter is the image of a specific sound. too. or an arrow the image of the command. Klee wanted his signs to impinge upon our awareness as visual facts. The Bride. needs the picture the witty — — 200 Art in the Modern World Max Ernst. and the drawings of small children. The title has an indispensable role." on the eve of World War I. does not reveal its full evocative quality unless the artist tells us what it means. This interdependence is familiar to us from cartoons. he molded from these disparate elements a pictorial language of his own. 252). held an equally vital interest for him. marvelously economical and precise. Klee. we automatically invest them with their meaning. the Frenchman Marcel Duchamp. however visually appealing. the instant we perceive them. Twittering Machine (fig. Klee lifts it to the level of high art. yet retains the playful character of these visual-verbal puns. 34% x 2\ XA" The Philadelphia Museum of Art (Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection) / I concept of a twittering machine does not kindle our imagination until we are shown such a thing. Cloth 2 Calipers Copper Plate J Zinc Plate 1 Rubber Drainpipe Telescope.253. Duchamp's art took a far more dis- . 1 Piping Man. The little contraption (which is not without its sinister aspect the heads of the four sham birds look like fishermen's lures. "This way only. 1920. 12 x 9". After basing his early style on Cezanne. may strike us as more childlike. had been influenced by Cubism. in turn." But conventional signs are no more than "triggers". Collage. demonstrates the unique flavor of Klee's art. Canvas. counter still dynamic version of facet Cubism. it is characteristic of the way Klee works that the picture itself. similar to Futurism. he had initiated a In Paris. but primitive art.

on ready-made objects such as bottle racks and snow shovels. often combined collage with "frottage" (rubbings from pieces of wood. moral or had been rendered meaningless by the catastrophe of World War I. . which created simply by shifting their con- from the tainly utilitarian to the aesthetic. Dada preached non-sense and anti-art with a vengeance. from the exercise of reason and from any aesthetic or moral purpose. With a number of others who shared his attitude. of wet paint to the canvas from some other surface). Cer- they are extreme demonstrations of a 255. the picture may be the negative counter- its vas). New York Art in the Modern World 201 . In its calculated irrationality there was also liberagoggles. In Totem and Taboo (fig. pressed flowers." Surrealist theory is heavily larded with concepts borrowed from psychoanalysis. entitled Portrait of Cezanne. Max liciting and Ernst. Dada has often been called nihilistic. is largely Cubism poses: figure 254. etc. he launched in protest a movement called Dada (or Dadaism). Copley. exhibiting them as works of art. and its declared purpose was indeed to make clear to tionary. Dada's successor. — But the very principle that artistic depend on manual craftsmanan important discovery. by "analyzing" the bride until she is reduced to a complicated piece of plumbing? If so. the most inventive member of the group. in 1924. and Ernst has certainly found and elaborated upon an extraordinary wealth of images among his stains. who stare at us blindly through their on the left a postwar version Duchamp's Bride. During its short life from 1916 to 1922. Surrealism stimulated several novel techniques for soexploiting chance effects. . one of them exhibited a toy monkey inside a frame.The Bride turbing turn. 1941. what we see is a mechanism — part distilling apparatus. and the only reality that of their own imaginations. it is beautifully engineered no purpose whatever. and its overwrought rhetoric is not always to be taken seriously. 28 x 36". Collection William N. intended to the true process of thought . creation does not from illustrations of machinery. This is the message of Duchamp's the artist text Ready-Mades. In (fig. Max Ernst. part of that glorification of the machine so stri- dently proclaimed by the Futurists. did not work out in practice. the antithesis of Klee's twittering machine. by the Ernst. Nevertheless." Actually there are two figures made of piping. They defined their aim principle. they adopted the aesthetic.during that World War organized should have the I Duchamp to despair. some of his fellow "chance-takers" founded. Duchamp ship is himself. 255) he has obtained fascinating shapes and textures by "decalcomania" (the transfer. ." was reportedly picked at random from a dicdriven word" movement. Totem and Taboo. by pressure. The term. This procedure is in essence akin to those recommended by Cozens and Leonardo (see p. 253) we will look in vain for any resemblance to the human part motor. to serve Its title causes has emphasized right onto the can- (Duchamp us real perplexity importance by lettering it Did he intend to satirize the scientific view of man. some degree of control was simply unavoidable. technique of collage an composed associate of cuttings of — as "pure psychic automatism express . but as an infantile "all-purpose it perfectly fitted the spirit of the the public that all established values. the process we all know from the children's — pastime of rubbing with a pencil on a piece of paper covering a coin). . 166). The notion that a dream can be transposed directly from the unconscious mind to the canvas. Surrealism. Duchamp put his signature. the one of a voyage tion. Canvas. Yet Dada was not completely negative. . Not even modern art was safe from the Dadaists' assaults. creative mind. . On the other hand. form. The end result does have some of the qualities of a for their own purGerman Dadaist Max Duchamp. and a provocative title. bypassing free the conscious awareness of the artist. to unknown provinces of The only law respected by the the Dadaists was that of chance. . The caption pretends to enumerate these ingredients. which include "1 piping man. having made this point. French for "hobbyhorse. soon withdrew from artistic activity altogether. It is mass hardly surprising killing .

They seem to change before our eyes. in a frenzy of psychophysical action. for the strict control implied by abstraction is just what Pollock gave tler of up when he began to dribble and spatter. Surrealism. but they do not sufficiently account for his revare indeed the olutionary technique and the emotional appeal of his art. did the One (fig. to be more abstract than his predecessors. "Biomorphic concretion" might be a more suitable name. has a more vigorously imaginative branch: such works by Picasso as the Three Dancers (lig. 248) have affinities with it. and the Surrealists' exploitation of chance effects. suggests both Kandinsky and Max Ernst. The result suously rich. is well worth the risk. Joan a dream born of a strikingly it Romantic imagination. however. Jackson Pollock. the speed and direction of canvas. by "aiming" it at the canvas instead of "carrying" it on the tip of his brush Pollock does not simply "let go" and — — leave the rest to chance. Wadsworth Atheneum. its its impact upon the interaction with other layers of pig- ment. 8' 10" x 17' 5Vi". Hence . His style has been labeled "biomorphic abstraction. yet the exhilaration of this contest. surely. for the shapes in Miro's dream. He does not always stay in the saddle. who painted the striking Composition (tig. often applied to the style of painting that was dominant on both sides of the Atlantic during the 1950s. expanding and contracting like amoebas until they approach pictures human enough to please Their spontaneous "becoming" is the individuality closely the artist. and he "rides" them as a cowboy might ride a wild horse. 257) mainly by huge picture entitled pouring and spattering his colors instead of applying them with the brush. Hartford right: 257. points up the main difference between Pollock and his predecessors: his total above: 256. 5114 x 6V/2". more plausible explanation is that he came A to regard paint itself not as a passive substance to be manipulated at will but as a storehouse of pent-up forces for him to release. Equally misleading is the term Abstract Expressionism. One. Kandinsky's nonobjective Expressionism. but have their own vigorous life. if you will. 256). main sources of Pollock's work. The when viewed cially at close range result. One of its originators. 1933." since his designs are fluid and curvilinear rather than geometric. the American Jackson Pollock. espe- (colorplate 31). The actual shapes visible in our colorplate are largely determined by the internal dynamics of his material and his process: the viscosity of the paint. Canvas. He is himself the ulti- mate source of energy for these forces. But when he releases the forces within the paint by giving it a momentum of its own or. although Miro's formal discipline is no less rigorous than that of Cubism (he began as a Cubist). that is a surface so alive. Canvas. Art. Joan Miro. which strains every fiber of his being. and its greatest exponent is another Spaniard. though crude. 1950. Why in the public's did Pollock "fling a pot of paint face" (as Ruskin accused Whis- doing)? Not. so sen- all earlier painting looks pallid by comparison. The Museum of Modern New York 202 Art in the Modern World commitment to the act of painting. Composition. Our simile. very opposite of abstraction.

by Roy Lichtenstein. Paradoxes of this kind abound in Pop Art. too." the term coined some years ago for this style. For the Pop artist. conveys its essence far better than does Abstract Expres- his preference for "field of combat" large — — it absolutely resists repro- and thereby proclaims all its uniqueness. unaf- by the "Manet Revolution" and its consequences. shows one frame from a comic strip. Roy Lichtenstein. for Pop Art has borrowed many the "outrageous" tricks of Dadaism." if by art attempt to rehabilitate representation. admiring the simplified Greek might lead to the death of by starvation. and just as he was on that to eliminate art But were sophisticated enough to realize that the "how" of representation no longer could be a challenge to anybody. painstakingly reproduced by hand on a huge scale. although he did not share Gauguin's anti-Greek attitude. the fool creature died. its problems had all been solved long ago. began as a Symbolist painter. While painting has been the richer and more adventurous of the two arts. also suggests the "pop" in popgun. Lichtenstein's work when reproduced on a book page simply reverts to being a comic strip frame. course of Pollock represents the avant-garde of the 1950s. Here is a painting that claims importance by its large size and yet makes it impossible for us to analyze it in terms of any of those values of form and color which the "Manet Revolution" has trained us to expect. he rejected The Seated Woman (fig. Modem World 203 . Pop the artists greatest challenge duction. If "pop music" (popular music as against highbrow music)." The term. three currents may be found we have traced in painting also in sculpture. evokes memories of the Archaic Art in the style (see figs. Maillol might be called a "classic primitivist". At the same time and this is perhaps its the point of success. Unlike 258. Figure 258. they are likely have a profound effect upon the future to sionism. to them. "Action Painting. New York huge canvases that provide a enough for him to paint not merely with his arms but with the motion of his whole body. should not be overstressed. its leadership has not remained unchallenged. Sculptors of a younger generation had by then been trained unism. It reminds us of "dada. The parallel- however. and thus gives us no clue to what the artist has actually done to his model. that of the 1960s is a movement called "Pop Art. but the savage satire of Dada is missing in Pop. Pop Art is an "anti-art. this meant fected that representation was the very essence of art. The finest of these. Aristide Maillol. coined in analogy to The art. Canvas. was like the man who said he had been teaching his horse not to eat. including every single dot of the screen pattern in which colors are printed by newspaper presses. The Abstractionist. 1963. what might be called lowbrow art photography. of is we understand Abstraction and Expression. and sculpture has often followed its own path. 68 x 48". 259) strength of early its later phases. picture strictly advertisements. Whatever the ulti- mate results of the movement. It. Rather." and thus provides a clue to our understanding of the nature of the movement. implying basic questions not only about the nature of art but about the nature of thought. — magazine strips. What fascinated them were the purposes of representation. the other illustrations in this book. postcards — had representational of all comic course re- along. and how representation was determined both by its "message" and by the reproduction techniques that fed the insatiable imagehunger of the man in the street. Tendencies equivalent to Post-Impressionism do not appear in sculpture until about 1900. mained illustrations. Private collection. der the dominant influence of Rodin. Girl at Piano. and were ready to strike out for themselves.

" structurally balanced like a piece of 24. Winterthur. executed in 1908 as a funerary monu- ment for Montparnasse Cemetery in Paris (figure 260 is a small version of the work). Seated Woman (MecJiterranee). Maillol later called it Mediterranee the Mediterranean to suggest the source from which he drew the timeless architecture. Constantin Brancusi. New York (Anonymous 204 Art gift) in the Modern World coherence of primitive carvings than in their savage expressiveness. Brancusi has a "genius of omission" not unlike Matisse's. with none of the restless. height 41". volumes also recall Cezanne's statement that all natural forms are based on the cone. self-contained repose. to which it is related much as are the Fauves to Post-Impressionism. But the most notable quality of the figure is its harmonious. 237). Bird in Space. 259. Marble. Maillol thought. Switzerland and Praxiteles. Collection must represent a state of being detached from the stress of circumstance. the sphere. height 54". height 22%". But he was more interested in the formal simplicity and sculptors. 1908. Oskar Reinhart. This is evident in The Kiss. Bronze. thrusting energy of Rodin's work. The compactness and self-sufficiency of this group is a radical step beyond Maillot's Seated Woman. Aristide Maillol. that is — — serenity of the figure. c. A statue. 1901. 2t> The ) rather than of Phidias clearly defined right: Constantin Brancusi. the Seated Woman is the exact opposite of The Thinker (sec fig. The Museum of Modern Art. a Rumanian who came to Paris in 1904. and the cylinder. 1919. Stone. to . The Philadelphia Museum of Art (Louise and Walter Arensberc Collection) far right: 261. since the rediscovery — rather sur- of primitive sculpture by the Fauves might have been ex- pected to evoke a strong response among Only one important sculptor shared in this rediscovery: Constantin Brancusi. Expressionism was a far less important cur- rent in sculpture than in painting prisingly. must above all be "static. The Kiss. In this respect. 260.

however. of to 262. height 39 3/b". New York . height AV/i" of Modern Art. Its it is is flight itself. innocent and anonymous." where the body has become a coiled spring and the legs resemble piston rods. and he disturbs this basic shape as little as possible. The Museum (Lillie P.— within and the free space without. Brancusi began to produce nonrepresentational pieces in marble or metal. Bronze. Other sculptors at that time were tackling the problem of body-space relationships with the formal tools Cubism. made disembodied quality is — — visible and emphasized by the high polish that gives the surface the transparency of a mirror and thus establishes a new continuity between the molded space 263. The former fall into two groups: variations on the egg shape. 1914. and the pure dynamics of the creature released from this shell. The Art Institute of Chicago (Gift of Miss Margaret Fisher) Art in the Modern World 205 . motor cars (in 1913. Brancusi has at times been called the Mondrian of sculpture. with such titles as The Beginning of the World. a monument an upright slab. He was fascinated by the antithesis of life as potential and as kinetic energy the self-contained perfection of the egg. and soaring vertical "bird" motifs (Bird in Space. Bliss Bequest) quasi-mechanical shapes have a dynathat is more persuasive if less picturesque than that of Boccioni's figure. Because of their very remoteness from their anatomical model. The Great Horse. Bird in Space is not the abstract image of a bird. the figure remains concealed behind its "garment" of aerial the turbulence. Umberto Boccioni. is an example). which hides the mystery of all creation. Boccioni has tried to represent not the human form itself but the imprint of its motion upon in its medium in which it moves. they seem more primeval than primitive. not relationships. Bronze. Unique Forms of Continuity in Space. He began with abstract studies of the animal. the comparison is misleading. Because he concentrated on two forms that have such uncompromising simplicity. The statue recalls the famous Fu- statement that "the automobile at full speed is more beautiful than the Winged Victurist tory. is as breath-taking complexity as Bird in Space is simple. concrete. streamlining was still come). figure 261. The running figure entitled Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (fig. but his final version is an image of "horsepower. Raymond Duchamp-Villon. by the of Futurist Umberto Boccioni. for Brancusi strove for essences." although it Winged Victory obviously owes more to the 35) than to the design (fig. reserving his "primeval style" for wood and stone. Dada uncompromisingly rejected formal discipline in sculpture. an elder brother of Marcel Duchamp. as it did in the other arts these mism him. 262). Raymond Duchamp-Villon. About 1910. symmetrical and immobile. 1913. The embracing lovers are differentiated just enough to be separately identifiable. a timeless symbol of generation. achieved a bolder solution in The Great Horse (fig. 263). rather.

1943. This technique. One of these was Alberto Giacometti. The Head (fig. and at 4 A. It was taken up by Picasso. tiny tabletop with Surrealism that made him realize the poetic possibilities of "natural" as against fully controlled 265. is the three-dimensional equivalent of a Surrealist contribution to sculpture is Surrealist picture.— perhaps more. and numerous younger sculptors have explored it since World seat War especially in junk-ridden America. Although he was a friend of Brancusi and Picasso. 266) combines extreme economy of form with an anatomy aggressive reinterpretation of derived from Picasso (see fig. even since only objects in become Ready-Mades. a Swiss sculptor and painter working in Paris. (fig. wire. taking advantage of the very difficulties that had discouraged its use before. especially head of the dancer on the left): the mouth an oval cavity with spikelike teeth. It was his contact breath of air. ishing sculptural imagination of Julio Gonzalez. as if the violence of their working process mirrored the violence of modern life. It was he who established wrought as an important medium iron for sculpture. II. from models to the huge Lobster Trap and Fish Tail (fig. How indeed could solid. unlike earlier pieces of sculpture. New York (Purchase) . will disappear before long. durable materials be given shape without the sculptor being consciously aware of the process? Thus. The early 1930s. Wood. in wrought iron and welded steel. it creates clings to its own spatial were protected from everyday visible environment that as though this eerie miniature world it glass bell. or whose Bull's Head (fig. he produced no work of any consequence until the 1930s. Bull's Head. 267). The Museum of glass. Duchamp's examples three dimensions could the sculpture consist of these "assisted" jects. Calder had made motor-driven mobiles." Similar gruesomely expressive metaphors have since been created by a whole generation of younger sculptors. 264) is made up of the and handlebars of a bicycle. an airy cage made of wood. string. recently baptized "assemblage. The space mysterious and corrosive. the mobile sculpture mobiles. few sculptors were associated with the movement. height \6V»' Collection the Artist 206 Art in the Modern World wrought-iron craftsman from Catalonia who to Paris in 1900. movement. 265). The Palace 1932-33.M. found ob- of combinations of part in Ready-Mades approach three-dimensional collage. produced another important development. that is 248. 264. wire. Dada. but still harder to live up to it in sculpture. which brought Giacometti and Gonzalez to the fore.M. and string. At first. hinged together and weighted so as to move with the slightest — — They may be of any size. Pablo Picasso. These are delicately balanced constructions of metal wire. for short of the American Alexander Calder. height 25". Modern Art. the of status constructions. a had come when suddenly came into his creative energies focus. Surrealism may also have contributed to the aston- forms until only their skeletons are left. the eyes two rods that converge upon an "optic nerve" the is linking them to tangled the mass of the "brain. they. glass. The harder to define: it was difficult to apply the theory of "pure psychic automatism" to painting. apart from the devotees of the Ready-Made. he borrowed biomorphic Alblrto Giacometti. it reality by an thus trapped gnaws away inis at the Even we feel." has proved to have unlimited possibilities. Handlebars and seat of a bicycle. The Palace at 4 A.

He had cepts regarding form and function. outside the range of traditional build- For more than a century." The external walls do not pretend to support anything. to redefine the traditional con- architecture (stores. was Chicago. The search for such a style the analogue of Manet's achievement in painting began in earnest about 1880. Julio Alexander Calder. in offices. c. first indisputably modern architect. the architect breeze.1935. Such the broader role of architecture in society. as leaders of in an essential element of their structure. Within linked with ideas of social reform. illustrates dictum that "form follows function. the best work of the time has both individuality and high distinction. as well as istically modern The architecture have character- been vigorous and articulate thinkers. they have been reduced to a "skin" or sheathing over the steel beams. comapart- ments). will recall. it is it is not a skyscraper at least a poten- one. marine animals floating in the sea. since they no longer do. New York (Gift of Advisory Committee) 267. The authority of historical modes had to be broken if the industrial era was to produce a truly contemporary style. It demanded more than a reform of architectural grammar and vocabulary: to take full advantage of the expressive not merely the utilitar- the architectural wisdom freely interpreted. Yet styles" (see p. 8V2 x 9V2' The Museum Modern Art. a steel frame. and began to think of moflowers of organic structures on swaying stems. whose minds architectural theory is closely It is equally movement began significant that the mercial thing. Wrought iron. The Museum of Modern Art (Purchase) 266. with most of the surface given Art in the Modern World 207 . — ian — — qualities of the new building techniques and materials that the engineer had placed at symbol was the skyscraper. Chicago was the home of Louis Sullivan. If by present-day standards. embodies the same principle on which tial the much taller skyscrapers of today The Carson Pirie Scott store also Sullivan's are built. architecture had been dominated by a succession of "revival The use of this term. 162). of .— Gonzalez. 268). His achievements are summed up in the department store of Carson Pirie Scott & Company (fig. 1939. for its structural skeleton. mobiles are infinitely responsive to their environment. Unpredictable and ever-changing. however proved in the long run to be inadequate for the needs of the present. they incorporate the fourth dimension. that and that its its birthplace firm allegiance to the styles of the past. we does not imply that earlier forms were slavishly copied. which he designed shortly before the the turn of the century. Lobster Trap and Fish Tail Wire and aluminum. they are than any other man-made more truly alive ophy. — biles as similes their limited sphere. time. foliage quivering in the his disposal. from the mid-eighteenth to the late nineteenth. of the past. height 17%". then a burgeoning metropolis not yet encumbered by any ing types. Head. needed a new philos- shapes from Miro. c.

and garden. and the entire complex enters into active and dramatic relationship with its surroundings. international. Here the white terracotta sheathing emphasizes the horizontal continuity of the flanks as well as the vertical accent at the corner subtle differences in spacing If great disciple. a 269. 1899-1904. represents Cubist phase. terrace. analogous in their way to facet Cubism in painting.of suburban houses in the Chicago area. This is certainly true of his between 1900 and 1910. & Company. composing the ICB3I IFJ3 :\m nccDcy :pa n :pa nrrcnn mrimrun the chimney. Louis Sullivan. Yet Sullivan's dictum meant not rigid dependence but a flexible relationship capable of a wide variety of expressive effects. 1909. horizontal lines were meant to blend with the flat landscape around them. whether or not he consciously assumes this responsibility. Among the first Europeans to recognize Wright's importance were some Dutch archiend of World War I. J 268. which had vast international influence. The controlling factor here was not so much the individual client and his special wishes as precision. tecturally Wright's conviction that buildings profoundly influence the people who live. He even took command of the details of the interior. yet all and are defined with equal Thus the space that has been archishaped includes the balconies. decade. Robie House. Its "Cubism" is not merely a is. Carson Pirie Scott Department Store. but of Wright's handling of space. 270). Wright did not aim simply to design a house. but to create a complete environment. 269). matter of the clean-cut rectangular elements structure. Frank Lloyd Wright.) During that first some of the blocks are closed others are open. its by detail. so that the architect is really a molder of men. I I 11 mi m m nnormn ntnnriririliT IEB3 JEEfll '-£ "S. or worship in them. at the forces with Mondrian. and most accomplished. The last. (His late work. will be omitted from this account. Chicago over to huge windows. example is the Robie House (fig. beginning with the 1930s. Chicago 208 Art in the Modern World . It is designed as a number of "space blocks" grouped around a central core. the Post- modern architecture. as well as the. these were known as "Prairie Houses. as Impressionist stage of and Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright's main activity was the design example of this "International Style of the 1920s" is the group of buildings created in 1925-26 by the German architect Walter Gropius for the Bauhaus at Dessau (fig. designing fabrics and furniture for it. it were. positions" fully compatible with Wright's archi- was so pervasive that became The largest and most complex tecture. his Sullivan represents. work. joined They found his principle of "the balance of unequal but equivalent optects who." because their low. court. Their influence the movement they represented soon brilliant early style. house itself: voids and solids are seen to be equivalent.

we are still in communication with the outside world (views of the sky and of the surrounding terrain are everywhere to be seen). the Savoye House at Poissy-sur-Seine (fig. precise shapes of machinery." Gropius frankly acknowledged. 272. 1929-30. Sullivan had approached it. ple Art in the Modern World 209 . The flat. A if maximum quarter-century later. 1958.— 270. which may light consist entirely of glass is desired. The most dramatic is the shop block. realize that this sim- "package" contains living spaces that are open as well as closed. the Bauhaus. square box resting on stilts pillars of reinforced concrete that form part of the structural skeleton and reappear to divide the "ribbon windows" running along each side of the box. that in modern architecture the wall is no more than a curtain or climate barrier. it resembles a low. a term meant to suggest his admiration for the clean. Le Corbusier. how the we then box is subdivided." Bau. Such is indeed our impression as we approach the most famous of them. Dessau 271." Le Corbusier called them machines a habiter (machines to be lived in). at last." Perhaps he also wanted to convey that his houses were so different from conventional ones as to constitute a new species. the most distinguished representative of the "International Style" during the 1920s was Le Corbusier. Shop Block." To we must enter find out it. At that time he built only private houses from necessity. Savoye House. 271). 1925-26. but he could not yet free himself from the old notion of the window as a "hole in the wall. New York Poissy-sur-Seine whose curriculum embraced by the root concept of "structure. and Philip Johnson. linked a continuous surface of glass. separated by glass walls. smooth surfaces stress Le Corbusier's preoccupation with abstract "space "Prairie blocks. not a desire for "mechanized living. daythe was used on a much larger scale for the two main faces of the great slab that same principle houses the Secretariat of the United Nations in New York. Indoors. not choice but these are as important as Wright's — — Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Houses. a four-story box with walls that are famous all art school the visual arts. This radical step had been possible ever since the introduction of the structural steel skeleton. Walter Gkopius. Seagram Building. In France.

Instead. Gropius. Interior. 274). his former colleague at Dessau. since an ob- server on the ground cannot see us unless stand next to a window. then. he showed a growing preoccupation with sculptural. is America. is a measure of its Modern Man greatness as a work . view from southeast. Le Corbusier must have felt that this was the primeval task of architecture. South Wall. it has a design so irraThe massive walls defies analysis. and to pass through them is much like entering a secret and sacred cave. The doors are concealed: we must seek them out like clefts in a mountainside. the ziggurats of Mesopotamia. cuts widening paths through the thickness of the wall. but also a strangely disquieting quality. Le Corbusier. and the overhanging roof suggests the brim of a huge hat. Ronchamp thus mirrors the spiritual condition of which of art. 1950-55. despite its position of leadership at lagged behind in the 1920s." came to this country stimulated the development of greatly American architecture. Le Corbusier. in contrast to Mies van der Rohe. whose work Hitler confirst. tional that it 273). There is a conscious evocation of the dim. Notre-Dame-du-Haut yet we enjoy complete privacy. His severely elegant Seagram Building in New York (fig. even His anthropomorphic effects. There is true magic in the interior of Ronchamp. the best German architects. the Savoye House. channeled through windows so tiny that they seem hardly more than slits or pinpricks on the exterior. and the Greek temples. Le Corbusier. Not until the very end of the decade did the impact of the "international Style" begin to be felt on this side of the Atlantic. sign for living. The light. placing him in a direct line of succession with the men who had built Stonehenge. Hence. asked to create a sanctuary on a mountain top. Ronchamp right: 21 A. had an important educational influence. 272) exemplifies his dictum that "less is more. Notre-Dame-du-Haut." The functionalism we of governed by a "denot by mechanical efficiency." Mies van der Rohe is the great spiritual heir of Mondrian among present-day designers.— above: 273. pre- seem slant historic past here. settled in Chicago as a practicing architect. abandoned the geometric purism of the "International Style" in his later years. possessed of the same "absolute pitch" in deter- mining proportions and spatial relationships. pect — a nostalgia for the certainties of a faith that is no longer unquestioned. to obey an unseen force that makes them and curl like paper. demned and as "un-German. Only inside do we sense the specifically Christian as- — — of Ronchamp. appointed chairman of the architecture department at Harvard University. he also avoids any correlation between exterior and interior. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. church of Notre-Dame-du-Haut at Ronchamp in southeastern France is the most revolutionary building of the mid-twentieth century. Rising like a medieval fortress 210 Art in the from the Modern World crest of a mountain (fig. or the bottom of a ship split lengthwise by the sharpedged buttress from which it is suspended. and thus becomes once more what it had been in medieval architecture the visible counterpart of the Light Divine (fig. A few years later.

BOOK TWO MUSIC tfi t$ ^7? by Joseph Kerman .

. and contained in the record by the Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft that is designed to accompany this book. NOTE ON THE RECORDED EXAMPLES The Recorded Examples mentioned throughout the text are listed on page 293. Where no recording numerous choices at his disposal. the reader many will find cases.NOTE ON THE SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Specific recordings are cited in is mentioned.

Twentieth-century music will be a relatively simple matter for historians of the future to study. There are various avenues of assistance in this matter. may be compared to the architectural plan of a medieval monastery that has long since been destroyed (such as that of Gall. the recorded examples accompanying this book give as good "reproductions" of music as do our colorplates of the visual artifacts themselves. the history of music has never made as strong an impression on musicians as history has done in such fields as poetry and sculpture? Tradition can be helpful. 68). When we get back to the ancient Music in the Ancient World 213 . ventured have to but possible the who when we it ask: Beethoven? It will be well to take up some of these questions at the outset of our study of music history. for a notated short of being a work of art. incomplete way. accounts of performances. dangers in this approach are obvious. indeed. such as the examina- tainly the most important of of the tion of ancient instruments themselves with the dance. and painting are the most permanent of the arts. The further back in history we go. so long as it is in- — terpreted with great care. Music and dance are the most perishable. know how a Beethoven and they may indulge in fine points of criticism we should — sound to preserve as primary source material analogous Thanks artistic to the technical advances of the last few decades. this preservation can now be carried out with amazing fidelity. such as religious music handed down from one generation to another by communities of monks. to yield up the work of art. Neither of these documents means anything to a non-expert. actual off the for centuries. and the more we have to rely on all forms of secondary information. the less we know of the actual sound of music. score in latter items a very real falls far count as secondary sense. With a little (and. who was a student of a student of Beethoven. The score of a medieval Mass. musical in- struments can be as permanent as pyramids but one still has to learn to play them. Is it surprising that the study of music history is a late and a speculative development that. are ancient instruments Among in these sources various states of preservation. "still" pic- figs. Cave paintings and pyramids survive. they have to be reconstructed by St. Tradition may count for more in certain other situations. or folk music preserved in relatively sources. have a Even where we great deal of material. the application of imaginative scholarship. fig. If we want to find out how Beethoven might have expected sound. luck. musical scholars in a fairly — on secondary sources written or not "sounding" ones and they have had to develop sophisticated techrely — sources. 111. It can be known only approximately. the examination of tures and statues of dancers: see colorplate 14). 17. in order to understand some of its problems and peculiarities. One of the most important branches of musicology —perhaps one — all. but the music and dance of the ancient „world are lost completely. and cermost difficult and controversial is that concerned with translating written scores into sound. Only very recently have recordings (for music) and movies (for the dance) made it tually Not many years ago. treatises about music. but the tas to listen to unspoiled tradition extending back But in general. niques of interpretation. How did acHow do we know? of someone's performance of stop to think.— PART ONE MUSIC IN THE ANCIENT WORLD Architecture. of which the actual sound has vanished. But the music of earlier centuries cannot be known to us in the way it actually sounded to its composers and their audiences. scholars beaten track in the Appalachian Mountains could still hear folk songs isolated regions. through notation and tradition and through reconstructions based upon these means. sculpture. we "have" it in a with the music of strikingly much later times. People think they sonata should sound. Even these phe- nomena. we can his sona- performances of them by students of Paderewski. and of course items in actual musical notation: musical scores and separate vocal and instrumental parts. physical it to to existing art objects.

and of the philosophers Socrates and Plato. for in certain carefully delimited areas. the Renaissance. the era of Phidias and the architects of the Parthenon. scholars have managed to piece together an account of music history in ancient times. to expand and refine musical enjoyment is just one good reason to study music history. associated with the strident aulos or reed pipe (a sort of double already in pre -Classic times. Furthermore. Music history is a part of history at large. Until recently. orators. even when we cannot hear the music of a certain people. lyres. we cannot know the music of this period or of earlier ones neither the music of the bards who chanted Homer's Iliad. It was not the actual music of the Greeks that was so influen- — . paradoxical as this may appear. And The Greeks were to become great and writers about music. it should remembered. and brass cymbals. analogies can be drawn be- tween ancient cultures and ones that still exist. and even later. and dramatists. From all this evidence. the victorious David is feted "with tabrets.d.C. the Renaissance. the age of the history of music (like everything merges imperceptibly with myth. that — in the other fields of true in 214 human endeavor. nor that of the Athenian citizen-choruses declaiming Greek tragedy. From this period on. nor of the lyric poets Sappho and Pindar when singing their odes and dithyrambs. and is simply no musical nota- early Greece. Notation was developed later. be flourished for the better part of a millennium. is shown in colorplate 2). Homer. as well as representations of them in art (see the Sumerian harp inlaid with musical scenes illustrated in fig. 17). theorizers other subjects. The importance of music is sufficiently indicated by the fact that the god of music was Apollo. The reader whose main interest is in musical enjoyment can hardly be blamed for finding it bloodless. extending all — way hymn frayed. the Middle Ages.C. players of harps. Their work has been aided by anthropological studies. not the only one. the These are reasons why it is important to study the music of ancient Greece the earliest music that will be treated in this book. We shall see. in fact. Music appears to have reached Athens (c. the else) god of light and order. and a remarkable tribute to the seminal force of Greek civilization. These civilizations left fragments of instruments. with joy. They have little to do with the powerful influence exerted by ancient Greece on music at the time of the Early Christian period. This is spite of the extremely tenuous state of Music in the Ancient World a high stage of sophistication during the Classic Period of of the to a Christian of the third cen- Greek repertory remaining is the extent to us. the Middle Ages. or at least to Greek ideas about music. upwards of a dozen pieces and fragments have been preserved. and with instruments of musick" (I Samuel 18:6). 500-350 B. They also left documentary information about music. Palestine. of the great historians. However. during the Hellenistic period. But there was also another. long lists of names are given for temple singers. But since musical notation was not yet in use. as well as their directors (I Chronicles 15:16-28). even if sometimes it is sadly and notation: a remarkable situation. we may need to understand music history at one period in order to understand another period in which music may be better preserved or may command more intrinsic interest. as witness the numerous references to music in the Old Testament: Gideon foxes the Midianite army with the help of three hundred trumpets (Judges 7). cannot be understood properly without reference to Greek music. Apollo practiced and patronized the disciplined music of the kithara and the smaller lyre (harplike instruments: a Greek kithara of the fifth century B. that of Dionysus. as about all speculation. flowered.). Egypt. tradition of Mesopotamia. and at points beyond they were not even known before the Renaissance. The fact remains that most of the music itself cannot be pieced together and so a very natu- — ral question arises as to the real value that is to be derived from music history of this sort. and during this time an entire musical culture evolved from primitive beginnings. that the heritage of ancient Greece is as impressive in music as it is in the arts and tury a. In a thousand years. there tion to reconstruct from. there were Jewish tribes living in the Yemen desert under isolated conditions little changed from those of Biblical times. and decayed. music was the subject of highly interesting formal oboe). The course of Western music history in the Early Christian era. unrestrained kind of music. the god of orgies and wine. GREEK MUSIC Ancient Greece. knowledge of their attitudes toward it and the role it plays in their life helps to complete our picture of the culture as a whole. but a conscientious analysis of them would be somewhat beside the point. In the early period. We shall speak of these fragments in a moment. History is a continuous thread.

perfect). two octaves higher. There is an important lesson contained in this strange historical phenomenon. and Keats spoke truer than he knew. as the reader will admit if he tries to compare era music with Japanese music. Thus the phenomenon of musical consonance was evidence of a rhyme and reason within the physical world. Pythagoras also claimed that numbers controlled human psychology (a claim that may yet be borne out. Music in the Ancient World 215 . "Heard melodies are sweet. we would and number sive lay at the heart of a philosophical scheme not call this music. So also it the is case that at times in certain certain music are almost as important unding" music itself. but number mysticism. Magical—that * The term is the way it really seemed to "fifth"' is used in music to refer to the or difference in sound. the note produced by plucking it on one side will be a fourth higher than the fundamental. drawn from their theoretical and other writings. Thus for Pythagoras. if when or note. the theory seems preposterous (the to us. considered the least important or "real. Of course. But given the medieval system of values. Nor did thinkers of the Middle Ages. the human harmony of and actual "sounding" music (both vocal and instrumental)." unlucky. which could be checked by the mind. Pythagoras was the first to think seriously about the musical notes produced by places. though not quite a perfect one. comprehenembracing mind. he conjectured something of the kind. Each category was supposed to obey the same numerical la which could be tested in the case of the third category. light waves. and so on. the trini: mental observations of strings. in a sense. with things of the world placed below things of God. A "fourth** (see next sentence.* on the other side an oc- string the tave and a fifth higher —and again there is an numbers (i. he said. in a sense. matter. so that divides in the proportion duced by plucking it it 1:1. moved on the surface of huge spheres whose sizes were determined by the same perfectly blended proportions as those of the strings. musica humana. Encouraged by his experi- caught at a different point so that it divides in the proportion 1:3. If the fundamental note is C. but reduced to its barest essentials mathematics makes order out of the physical world it is not strange at all. all making an elaborate and. or any sophisticated music with that of aboriginal tribes.e. the note pro- (on either side) will be exactly an octave higher than the fundamental note. but the Greeks no or at made distinction. or to and the two notes seem to blend perThe two notes are said to be consonant make a consonance or concord. planets in their orbits. but their ideas and ideals of music. the way up through And the proportions. The planets. a fifth higher is G. own brand the string number the inventor of a theory and inclined to mystical notions about excellent blend. by modern re- — search into the physical bases of brain procThe consonant blendings of string esses). To limit the study of music history to music as we would define it according to our familiar listening habits would be to limit it to the span of a very few centuries in a very few lands. gives out a A is pitch certain Then called the fundamental note. matched to simple numerical proporserved as a model for the balanced human personality.* according to John Keats in his Ode on a Grecian Urn. If the is caught at a point so that it divides in proportion 1:2. the note produced by plucking it on one side will be a fifth higher than the fundamental. or symphonic music with rock-and-roll. popularly known for his theorem about the right-angled triangle. all obey mathematical laws too. but with a bold leap of the imagination. This he called "music of the the universe spheres'' or "the harmony of the unive: Greek word harmonia meant a "tunin r Taken literally. and musica instrumental! by which they meant — the divine order of the heavens. best the physics of sound. string taut string. in their ahead other side. the same caught exactly in the middle. musica instrumental^ was the soul. an almost magical numerical system." The reader will now see the point of our lengthy discussion of acoustically oriented philosophy. " interval. Pythagoras had no way of knowing that falling bodies. above) is the interval between C and F. so on. he claimed that was governed by number. but those unheard/ 1 Are sweeter. and the universe. of Pythagoreanism. sounds. What people mean by music differs vastly between one age or culture and another. music tions. plucked. strings. If who was Pythagoras. fectly. briefly to this. The most striking Greek notion about music was developed by the pre-Socratic philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras.. We may look The Middle Ages con- ceived of music in three strictly analogous categories: musica mundana. and on the is thirteen For it appeared that the tuning of which could be checked by the senses. ideas of strings of various lengths. is was related to simple numbers. between a note and the one that is five notes (inclusive) higher or lower.— s rial.

and could inspire men to heroic or vile actions. and the harmony of the welltuned soul and of the state. a rhythmic sense. Pythagorean ideas persisted The until late in the scene of Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. mana were not concerned with comperformance. In Shakespeare's time. Conversely. Plato was also an impressive witness for the deep conviction among the Greeks that music possessed near-magical healing powers. will make an ugly discord in his whole soul. He will probably commit treason. fit himself. the high position that all the writers granted to music with words for all the fragments are vocal pieces. (No doubt there were awesome deeds done in the trancelike states induced by music at the dance rites of Dionysus. half sung influential modern greatly appealed to the very composer Richard dictatorships such Wagner. points about "sounding" music. perfectly harmonious island where Portia makes her home. Two final points should be made about Greek music.) This conviction was expressed in Greek mythology. . pasRenaissance. could sway the emotions. . In the nineteenth century. rather than about philosophies. Purely instrumental music was considered a lower form. which was never the case with painting. as detrimental to the At great common good. This beautiful scene brings together all the elements of Pythagorean doctrine: the celestial music of the stars in their spheres. In a famous passage. last removed to an idyllic. He did so for the practical reason (as he saw it) that music tunes the soul correctly. persists about an today affinity in a common to Pythago- superstition between musical and mathe- matical talents. stratagems. it must surely seem an exaggerated importance. he actually means it literally. though memorialized in such The curriculum was position. takes place away from that discordant. When Lorenzo says The man that hath no music in Nor is not mov'd with concord Is for treasons. In medieval universities one could study for degrees in music. and the great musician Orpheus. To return to ancient Greece: a background of Pythagoreanism helps explain the great im- portance attached to music by Plato in such deeply influential books as The Republic and the Timceus. His reference is musica humana: the man whose soul is not "tuned" to the proper numerical proportions. unruly. several critical junctures in the history of Western music." and mathematics. and spoils. which goes back ras. those of the music they are hearing. The result was the foundation of opera. a mortal whose singing first charmed stones and wild animals and finally prevailed upon the King of the Dead himself. of sweet sounds. That this world view did not altogether satisfy Shakespeare is suggested by his complex characterization of "the man that hath no music. all symbolized by actual sounding music played by musicians on stage. we may recall. unfit for the best musicians. But when Plato insisted that 216 music must be primary Music in the in the education of Ancient World — today he did so might be nice for young men to enjoy playing or listening to music. — this at Plato's door. who was half divine anyway. and indeed. or aesthetic matters still less with music history or "appreciation" but rather with studying mathematical proportions. . a laborious branch of arithmetic that is now obsolete." namely Shylock but that is another to — story. or a social attribute. associated with certain Greek races. — terms as mean" and "harmonic The connection between music "harmonic progression. sionate city. half spoinspiration. first of all. one of the — . the idea of Greek drama a sort of intense civic ritual. treating the subject of Orpheus in a musical style vaguely modeled on what they knew of Greek music. musica nuimhma and musica huconsiderably respected. The ideal was music sung with the kithara to lyric or dramatic poetry. at last. Most Greek writers repeat a to only number of supposedly historical facts strating the demonpower of music. as Nazi And Germany and Soviet Russia have also banned certain sometimes along racial lines though it would probably be unfair to lay varieties of music.— the medieval system did was to put "sounding" music into a decidedly inferior young — What the all not because position. the two lovers. What can we tell from the surviving Greek fragments? They confirm. This so concerned Plato that in The Republic he specifically banned certain varieties of music. which might be called an "untuning" of the state. where the feat of going down to like the three R's it Hades and rescuing a dead spirit was credited two persons: the great hero Herakles (Hercules). it is having eloped there. To us. or to gain dexterity. contemplate the planetstudded heavens on a beautiful evening while they hear sweet music. the reputed emotional power of Greek music provided composers with practical mumore passionate means of expression wrote a new kind of play. Italian sicians in search of a — — ken.

The Syrian. scenities of the stage. but a few minutes with Japanese or aboriginal music will remind us that out of the continuum the notes of pitch frequencies a great many different se- can be made for different bodies of music. The selections made by the Greeks are carefully recorded by writers on the theory of music who had the method to specify pitches lections — in their They well-developed study of string lengths. worked powerfully to turn man's feelings toward worship. rites. The music of Dionysus. made certain parts of the seem more impor- equivalent to the series of white notes on the services could be modern piano (C. in the form of singing holy texts. The technique of Greek music would certainly strike us as elementary. Constantine removed the capital Roman Empire to Byzantium (renamed Constantinople) in the East. through which the holy words could be heard. tell existed: us that in Plato's time. Apart from psychological reasons. By thers of the it. though we know less about them than about the longer-lasting Byzantine and Western ones.from a tragedy was written later than the play). sensual element the sensualities of dancing. The other is that it was the Greeks who employed by Western music up point fixed the scale to the present day. god of light. The rhythm of this vocal music follows the poetic meter slavishly. And it was many more centuries before the orgiastic. 254). In 323 of the a. in spite of the enormous power and prestige attributed to idently because of its associations with pagan and the obmight be said that Christianity converted the music of Apollo. and fragments consists of six lines — by Euripides (Orestes the music indeed helps to bring out the intricate metrical in which Greek poetry was so rich. god of wine and orgies. Besides contributing to clarity others. third-century Christian hymn which Greek remains uses the diatonic the we gather that by then all come obsolete. roughly — means of greater or less elaboration in the style furthermore. reason. and some much more Oriental-sounding. Once again music history has to rely largely on in this case. and modified according to the standards of the Greek culture which dominated the Mediterra- nean basin and the Near East. As the Early Christian sects developed intricate to the systems of services. as may well be supposed. It — would reassert itself powerfully in Western music. We may be inclined to take on the piano keyboard for granted. Thus began an alliance that was to be basic Early Christian era and far beyond: the alliance between music and Christian liturgy. And for such "sounded repetition. music also provided a strong means to decorate and shape the services. The Fathers of the Church took it for granted that music. Instruments simply schemes played along with the voice. if we can believe the vivid painting by Jerome Bosch more than a thousand years later (fig. B). they encouraged the singing of Psalms. into the music of Christ. of singing. several scales one called the diatonic scale. However. an appreciable body of information gleaned from secondary sources points to the high prestige of music and its important place in Early Christian services. Armenian. and order. in their influential writings from 200-400 a. So very basic sense the language of Western music can be said to be Greek.d. This was part of their Greek heritage. was very deeply buried or consigned to hell.. and other sacred songs. the rhythm of song (even when it is comparatively free) keeps everyone together and allows for audibility. F. hymns. they discouraged instrumental music. Coptic. A. D. mouthed.. Not to mention the tediousness of communal speech. But the tant than others. the others modifications (see this is the scale that is still in use. With some p. and the melody of song helps one remember the words. they developed associated musical repertories that were equally rich and intricate. E. Some elements from ancient Jewish services seem to have been taken over. 2. 122). in a among is and had be- scale. the FaChurch had also practical ones to encourage singing. Basic to the idea of communal worship is the repetition of devotional texts not silent repetition (few could read) but sounded repetition. This action was as important for the history of music as for the Music in the Ancient World 217 . primitive.d. G. on sources ilsecondary sources — lustrating the histories of the various liturgies. with which music was so closely associated. EARLY CHRISTIAN MUSIC The music of Christianity during its first few hundred years is no better preserved than Greek music itself. and absorbed by all. ev- to and memory (and keeping awake). As for the kithara or the lyre. for the Greeks never developed polyphony or harmony (in the modern sense) to vie with the main interest of the sung part. we have no independent parts for them. Just as emphat- naturally ically." singing has always seemed more natural than speaking. and Ethiopian Christian churches all had their own bodies of music.

" We must approach the plainsong repertory through the liturgy it served. More than twenty items have to be sung or chanted at Mass. such as existed in the West from early times. It includes the alleluia Dies sanctificatus {The consecrated day). the reading of the Gospel at Mass and the recitation of the numerous Office Psalms. 218 Music in all of them sung the Ancient in part. The monastic life — involved a heavy. in pieces called graduals and alleluias. the music includes not only "chant" recitation on a repeated monotone with only slightly complicated beginning. chant for the routine and "ordinary" parts of less important ones. "plainsong. ending. The best-known Office Service is the evening Vespers and the largest is the midnight Matins. for the ensuing split between the Eastern and Western churches inevitably led to a major split in Christian music. a brief dialogue between the priest and the choir. some of them remaining the same every day (called the "ordinary" items) and some varying from day to day ("proper" items) in the order to tie the service in with the time of year or the feast of a particular saint (Christmas. In principle. is only Gregory was a late figure in the development. monks with musical training to to take over the particularly com- plex middle section. Like Greek music. There were no church organs. by the priest. World The greater differences. later than the time we believe composition began." there much ing. St." Certainly this was firmly enough established by the year 800 so that Charlemagne. In the Western orbit there were in fact sev- church-music repertories. These activities took place much later than the time of the actual composition of Gregorian most important was the Mass. or at least. hence the term "Gregorian chant. What determined the musical style of a particular plainsong was not the wish of the composer or the meaning of the words. no fewer than eight other services called the Canonical Hours. Although the role of the organ and other instruments in early Western church art. the al- chant. it seems clear that without instruments to help the sing- polyphony and harmony would never have evolved according to the lines that we shall ers along. which is chanted ning was the Word. Roman and codifying the Roman chant. One or more Masses were — and in addition. These center around the chanting of Psalms. which had become more and more important after the time of St. Vespers survives as Evensong." slightly better. a feature taken over from ancient Jewish services. they are tion tween the very simple pieces called antiphons sung at the Office with each of the Psalms. For many centuries. As we have just seen. the celebrated daily entire Psalter of 150 Psalms is to be sung through every week. In the category of "song. which was extended to a complete ban on instrumental participation in Eastern services. and punctuating formulas but also "song" which rises to amazing flights of rhapsodic elaboration that can scarcely be called "plain. made a point of suppressing other repertories and prescribing the Roman as the of- church music of the Holy Roman Empire. The most elaborate songs of all come at the high point of Mass. even stagnant. the Byzantine branch devel- oped its own musical traditions. Song tended to be used for the climactic and "proper" parts of more important services. such as that be- : . As the liturgies drew apart. monasteries were to be the ficial great centers of artistic cultivation and learn- were also centers of musical composiand theoretical writing about music. sung by the choir and a solo singer. Whereas any priest could learn to chant the Gospel in this simple manner. There is even a slight but clear distinction made between the kind of chanting used for. the term Gregorian chant is a misnomer on two counts its — and — the alternative term. leluia required lead it and . Gregory the Great (Pope from 590-604) is eral distinct the St. In the Anglican and Episcopal liturgies. in consolidating the Roman Church in northern with credited gathering Europe. important contributing factor was the prejudice against instruments held by the Fathers of the Church."). trace in the next chapter. for example. Whitsun). but the po- — sition it was to — occupy in the service. say. It was nurtured particularly in the monasteries.— history of art. Stephen. or Office Services. and then the start of the Gospel reading for the day (St. Benedict (died c. In any case. and the lengthy Matins responsories. of which proved to be the most important. Furthermore. carefully prescribed schedule of daily services. Grego- . Our first example (recorded example 1) is one continuous segment from the third (and main) Mass for Christmas Day. Like Byzantine Byzantine music grew static. 547). which centers on communion of the celebrants at a symbolic enactment of the Last Supper. An music cannot be traced at all precisely. which besides "ordinary" Psalms includes up to twelve "proper" Lessons with elaborate musical numbers following them called responsories. which in- fluenced the West only slightly. John 1 "In the begin. and Matins combined with elements from the Mass as the Morning Service.

highly developed Gregorian chant as represented by graduals and alleluias goes far beyond most later music. phons fall into a Thus the simple Office antinumber of recognizable types. and does not follow the accent of the words. The melodic "line" may mount up. What is most impressive is the fact that this repertory has remained stable throughout the centuries. as we shall see. — — Notice that the choir of monks sings the section of music both before and after the soloist's section in the middle of the alleluia. that tle — the detailed requirements of the services. but unlike Greek music. Gregory's music was in their ears day in and day out. or "form. Christmas Day DGG-ARCHIVE Music in the Ancient World 219 ." as the Church official and music of the Catholic until the present day. Such an arrangement." in fact. Indeed. recipient of the devotions. to God. prescribed the Roman plainsong as the official church music for the Holy Roman Empire. almost all musicians grew up in the Church as choirboys and then spent their lives working for the Church. plainsong formed the underpinning for church music. is The lack of har- likely to puzzle us at too. corruptions. involving exand other products of a rich plainsong repertory. turns. begin to appreciate the melody itself. most of the words of the alleluia Dies sanctificatus are obscured by coloratura pas- each one changes a litfrom one day of the year to the next. year in and year out. and much later in some countries. reminds us (cor- Near Eastern singing. we can appreciate the extent. albeit with many modifications (see pp. 264. just as artists speak of balance between areas of space. for instance) recalling all this. 247. consciously or unconsciously. and then respond to them aesthetically. Recalling that there were at least nine dis- same — — services also characteristic that the type of plain- It is individual piece. too. In plainsong came to form an impressive. once we have got over the accompaniment or harmony. according to nan chant sages consists of a single voice-line with —many tended runs. Charlemagne. But rectly) of rhapsodic Oriental or tinct services daily. It is of course a welldeveloped memory that allows us to perceive such balances. complexity. to judge from its employment all through the history of music. with everyfact. Hence the basic importance of plainsong to the history of later music. ultimately. Musicians speak of a balance between sections of time almost as though in physical terms. Different musical material is provided for every occasion. each type containing melodic formulas that are repeated from one antiphon to the next. and refinement of the notes to a syllable. surviving additions. wonderfully controlled train of notes which song assumes almost more importance than the seems to trace endlessly complex intertwining a moving line patterns. the clear tradition. rather than of the more restrained Western music with which we are familiar. it is completely free in rhythm. The process of composition was less a matter of free invention than rearrangement of cell-ideas and variation upon standard types. as we have already seen. characteristically medieval system. "reforms. 269). the long. The most important aspect of an "ear for music. rhythm coloratura. And for centuries. At least until 1520. or swoop quietly down. virtuoso singers' mony and first. or wind its delicate and intricate arabesque around certain central foci. we can and arranged in a hierarchy according to the and the church year all pointing." is usually designated by the diagram A B A and a very satisfactory form it is. and that there are even some differences year by year (if Christmas Eve falls on a Sunday. SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Third Mass for Christmas Day {Tenia missa in Nativitate) DGG-ARCHIVE Second Vespers. they adopted its accents into their own music. In terms of purely melodic subtlety. is memory. thing precisely distinguished and categorized.

To be sure. They needed another kind of music. for But also the process of addition allowed some individuality — if not personal individchurch. This started out as a modest plainsong treating a small Biblical scene (say. the commentaries on those time-honored words. A trope may have six hundred new notes for the sixty of the original plainsong. appendages.d. but we may suppose that this essentially Mediterranean repertory presented real to the Germanic and Celtic difficulties peoples. plainsongs. likely with the participation of instruments. and clear rhythmic scansion based of another on strong and weak accents. the plainsongs composed by Frankish monks differed from strictly Gregorian plainsongs in important ways. These characteristics are not found in classical Greek or Latin poetry. the versus. interpolations. with (c. the medieval musician decorated the in all ages encouraged even was com- not to this is has always been the only music sung people would never have stood for The Catholic Church categories. No longer bound to the words of the Bible and the Church Fathers. These centuries saw the evolution of the kind of verse familiar to us. And whereas the old Gregorian texts were in prose. and incrustations of text and music. with one or two singers assuming different roles. for authorities periodically felt it wise to "purify" the services by banning additions. Charlemagne had established the Roman chant in the Holy Roman Empire. as Christianity turned its face increasingly away from the Near East and to- ward the North. The liturgical plays Daniel and Herod have been revived recently. and the energies of the age found an outlet in a great new wave of musical composition. These are the actual beginnings of European drama. and very processions services. at least that of a particular astery. a —and with it. and new words to match: a case of the tail wagging the dog. indeed. and one could not compose substitutes for the Gregorian chant. and last a full hour. One new plainsong type was the trope. music of the But at services. which by then were codified for all time. but the age had a passion for extending them with commentaries. 1150) great success. they would now have been sung in the churchyard with dramatic action of some sort. simple stanzas. in a confus- and an A second difference in the new plainsongs concerns their texts. The conductus. posed over a period of several centuries. Music in the In the visual arts suggests A itself: this Middle Ages spirit. After about 800 a. the new ones came ultimately to whence the be written in (Latin) poetry texts are — name musical type. this elaboration was regarded as unofficial. verse with rhymes. we have made the point that Gregorian and chant was is the official Church to the present day. as spirit of flexibility parallel the Bible. they have obviously broken free of an actual service. It was subject to change and.. enormous body of new ing array of types In discussing the music of the Early Christian era. activities lay in the simple expedient of adding to the official services. another type. say that it and ated has tolerother kinds of we quickly discover on entering any American Catholic church at Mass time. the three Marys at the Tomb. that. with while the medieval miniature painter decorated music. 220 or monastic order. Generally speaking. insertions. Somewhere along the line. was designed to accompany the colorful which enlivened many medieval Perhaps the most fascinating type of all was the liturgical drama. to censorship. rich outlet for religious for artistic We would consider that nine a day was already exhausting enough. A first difference was in function. and they have an important bearing on . A was already abroad in the Carolingian era. one could not tamper with the services. services. as an addition to an Easter service).— PART TWO MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES EARLY MEDIEVAL MUSIC 1. a piece which hooks directly onto (or into) an established plainsong such as a responsory or a Mass section. fervor However. Later liturgical dramas have half a dozen characters. mon- uality.

which found a regular place in the Mass. E. it concludes with a very satisfying ending formula. up or down. But musical centrality and function. one after another. however. but they cannot easily be heard to do so. and the Episcopalians have kept it in their current hymnal {Come. Holy Ghost. or sequence. for even with melodies built around F. and neatly balanced. the shown such — hymn Veni creator Spiritus. recorded example 2: this adheres to the general features of Carolingian style even though it was probably composed much later). a process known as "texting. Another famous Whitsun piece." Texting of alleluias led to a very popular musical type called the sequentia. Now perform the experiment of playing Yankee Doodle starting from G. Instead of rhapsodic coloratura swamping the few words. Melodies built like Yankee Doodle are called tonal. both — 1 Music in the Middle Ages 221 . Phrases of melody are often repeated a welcome feature for the ear to catch hold of. black or white. or cadence: the note B progressing to the note C (B —> C). the notes do not relate functionally to the central note. the progression of notes E -» F was carefully avoided as a cadence. We feel something arbitrary. So does a great deal of later medieval music. each sung twice before the next tune is used. poets sometimes took it on themselves to add words to the long coloratura passages of Gregorian music. has a timeless attraction that Martin Luther no friend of the Catholic liturgy! appropriated it for a Lutheran hymn (Komm Gott Schopjer). plus -» G. This strikes us at once if. the seem in to modern new plainsongs ears just as remote as the old: a peculiar vagueness that has to cially with the do espe- endings (cadences) of the pieces or the sections of pieces. Perhaps these plainsongs can be seen to gravitate around a central note. directly after listening to the Gregorian alleluia. F-sharp it consists of two semitones. Incidentally. and they built plainsongs around D. using only white notes. and G. scale (plus B-flat under certain conditions). vigorous musical phrases are neatly separated from one another. B has the "funcIn the real version of note C tion" of strengthening dence B —> C. In all this. Corresponding to the lines of poetry. Medieval composers used only the diatonic. Some Frankish plainsongs have survived to the present day even without the protection of the Catholic Church. With melodies built around D. we listen to the famous Whitsun sequence Veni Sancte Spiritus (Come Holy Spirit. musical rhythms and phrases began to run parallel to the new poetic ones. This tune has all the firmness and clarity that plainsong lacks in particular. the note B sounds definitely subsidiary. the sounds very central. something unsatisfactory and flabby about the points of stopping. we can detect Mediterranean and Near Eastern their musical features giving so to — what was native music of the Franks the ancestors of French and Germans who have contributed in the the way much to modern music. there is now usually but one note to a syllable. This is called a semitone cadence. One could quickly learn these tunes and enjoy singing them much in the spirit of a modern hymn.) Yankee Doodle. so that the text the poetry is clear. F-sharp —> G would sound fine. our souls inspire ) In one respect. and because. ends it. The new musical style brought the art of melody much closer to what we now understand by the term. Both the alleluia Dies sanctificatus and the sequence Veni Sancte Spiritus (recorded examples and 2) are built around D." it has a sense of shape or form: see especially the second stanza. and G only. C by means of the ca- each note of the scale has its special character or "function" in relation to that central-sounding C. because the critical semitone cadence is not available. The trouble with Yankee Doodle starting on G is that the note F does not support G. On the other hand. What is it that is actually troubling us? This can be explained if the reader has acand can pick out a simple tune like Yankee Doodle (start from C). in fact. there is no possibility of having the semitone cadence and in any case this seems to have been disliked. F. and occurs throughout more often than any other note. Almost every one of the forty-odd lines of Veni Sancte Spiritus has this character. Since the melody itself has a lively sense of "up" and "down. that F strikes us as somehow too independent. not —» G amounts to F —> F-sharp. Heavy musical stops bring out the rhyming words at the end of every third line. The final cadence (F —> G) sounds cess to a piano — flabby because (F one.— . the new musical style. Melodies built in this way are called modal. E. a semitone being the (equal) distance between any note on the piano and the very next one. The piece consists of five well-balanced little tunes. in spite of (or perhaps because of) — — — elementary rhythmic shape. many folk songs are modal (and very old). or white-note. in a more general sense. after the leisurely and rather unpredictable rambling of Gregorian chant. C begins the piece.

It is well to make a clear distinction between composed polyphony of this kind and the older improvised kind. beyond a general great quickening of activity and broadening of artistic horizons. and vice versa). the service music of the medieval monlater of expressed modern the in times." a special process which fortunately left clearer traces than most early medieval music. the existence of two simultaneous notes what we now may also be struck by a means harmony. Or more correctly. one or two authors give rules for such improvisation: it was a simple business. About 900. however. and harmony is expect of music. What might be lyphony during the its existence (c. The tonal system slowly asserts itself dominates and determines music. using "faburden. which has been discussed on pages 57-67. after 1500. for organum became so complex over the years that it is hard to think of singers managing it unaided. We do know that organs were in use in the Western church. stage still consists mostly of its first note-against-note writing. the new voice takes on genuine independence and interest. in which it is hard to draw any meaningful analogy between the two major movements in art and music. this is the date at which polyphony begins to be written down in sources that have been preserved and can be deciphered.d. the Latin word for organ. We close chronological parallel with the evolution of Romanesque art and architecture. as a result." The practice surely did not stop about 1000. for the Dead LONDON The Play of Daniel DECCA 2. long before appears that singers in some areas used to improvise extra polyphonic voice-lines to go along with the standard plainsongs. people tend to keep careful records about them. and some of these early records are preserved. This is one case. We shall have more to say about this matter as we approach each of these dates. from the Mass DGG. and some is a voice going ingenuity is required to adjust it smoothly to . (English monks were still doing this late in the Middle Ages. Musicians of early medieval times saw little need to write down even Gregorian chant. Are we to understand that this music was performed with the help of the organ? We do not know. But we are very incompletely informed about the practice." besides). Even before 1000 — — it indeed. and one of the last to evolve from that remote ancestor of modern music. after 1700. Great advances were made by composed po- tonal system one of the most sophisticated of musical concepts. ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC MUSIC The year 1000 a. since organs are large and expensive items. as in bar- bershop harmony. when a more sophisticated form of polyphony first makes its appearance in a few scattered manuscripts. it SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Plainsong hymns Sequence Dies irae. is a convenient one from which to date the serious development of polyphony that is. the plainsong and the added voice moving together note by note in "parallel motion. music consisting of two or — more simultaneous voice-lines rationally or- dered together. In 956 at WinEngland. with first two hundred years of 1000-1200). by the same token. is asteries.) This improvisation was similar in spirit to singing in thirds today. they were in no hurry to write down something that 222 Music in the Middle Ages was easily improvised on the basis of chant (and that was "unofficial. although at the time both manners went under the name of organum (plural: organa). But there called good deal of "contrary motion" (one up when the other goes down. and it fades away in advanced music after 1 900. The importance of this development for the history of Western music hardly needs to be stressed for the modern reader. but that is what we would be inclined to guess. one note of the new voice to each note of the plainsong. we read of an instrument 400 pipes and 26 bellows.

which we may regard as the later phases of Gothic music. ishly. represented by a few manuscripts stemming from the pilgrimage center of Santiago de Compostela in northern Spain and from St. 1160) is the first composer in the history of Western music whom we know by name. depending on the location. pipe drones. complements that of the "new plainsong" development which.) At first the fixed rhythms of polyphony were very simple: only a few different note-lengths arranged in regular patterns. typically (but not always) performance on the organ. He thus seems to be the first composer to face the problem of combining two different rhythms. the tinued to flourish alongside of polyphony. Therefore composed polyphony dealt with those parts of the service traditionally reserved for trained singers. His successor. the plainsong may actually slow down to a succession of drones. and its outgrowths.) Leonin also practiced a more modern kind of organum: here the plainsong moves in a definite rhythm that is only slightly slower than that of the added voice. (Or was fixed rhythm already being used for plainsong. and indeed. lasted until 1400 or. sixteenths). which it no longer follows slav- In general. adorned the gradual for intended for processions. tive quality organum was drawn out more notes than ever for each plainsong (These long drones seem tailor-made for the older dronelike with larding the official service-music. (This is major movements in not to say that Gothic music can be ranked with Gothic art in aesthetic terms. A second stage can be discerned after 1100. Music Stephen's in the Day (December Middle Ages 223 . along the famous pilgrimage route through France. such as J J J J J J It was not even necessary to make up a notation for rhythm at least in . It is no accident that a trope book. composers tried to arrange things so that the notes that sounded simultaneously were consonant (see p. Once again. The new voice was still in the free rhythm of melody ning to plainsong. only to the solo parts of The choir of monks would continue to sing in just one line until the point where the solo singer would formerly have 63. the so-called Winchester Troper. A strongly construc- was evident from the first. (We have mentioned the role of this pilgrimage route in the develop- interesting process of selected to be turned obvious that composed polyphony. 220). 215). In Leonin's hands. dated 1 1 99. Certain selected plainsongs addition of polyphony were elaborated by the — a sort of vertical ex- tension comparable to the horizontal extension — — Mass for St. independent pieces were written to be inserted into the services the polyphonic conductus. fixed rhythm at last entered Western music. tropes and organa were two sides of the same coin. But in addition to organa.) these plainsongs. the composer simply indicated which of the few standard patterns were to be applied. for in order to accommonew voice. abstraction may be ment of Romanesque sculpture. Master Perotin "the Great. as late as 1550. The function that music of the Notre-Dame School filled was one of building up or inter- in. who was now said to have^set in. Master Leonin of Paris (c.the plainsong. NotreDame organa were restricted to the rich plainthe graduals songs we have spoken of above is — and Mass and alleluias of Each Matins. (such as half-notes. quarters. it is important to stress. and this soon turned to technical virtuosity and elegance as phases of development followed one another in a markedly logical sequence." sometimes added a third voice which more than tripled the technical problem. a very coherent repertory established itself at Paris and then spread like wildfire over all of Europe. con- accomplished by tropes (see p. the tail is beginwag the dog. ful and in this case there are analogies to be meaning- drawn between the two art and music. without its the responsories of now often new voice. emanating from the Church (later the Cathedral) of Notre-Dame in Paris. One of these. which astounded his contemporaries and remained unmatched for over a century. any obvious way? This is a difficult and much-debated problem. The Notre-Dame repertory itself dominated the musical scene for more than a century. as against improvised. page plainsong note in the organum is fitted with more than one note in the An Which plainsongs were into organa? It being indicated in the manuscripts. like bag- come date the singing in polyphony. should also be one of the main sources of early polyphony. the patterns rhythmic modes. as well as two different melodies. Perotin even experimented with some four-voiced compositions. This function note. Rhythm of this sort is called modal rhythm. which can scarcely be grasped as Dame a at all. But in a highly important third stage after 1160.) In both art and music. depended on trained singers who could read music and hold to their part while the next man was singing something else. Martial at Limoges. replaced by two soloists The time and place of origin of the NotreSchool coincide with those of Gothic ar- chitecture.

they wrote both the words and music of their songs. too. French found court. from the French mot (word). in the plainsong slows down. for Perotin was getting farther away from the plainsong as actually sung. Each new century saw the growth of great new monastic orders. with modal rhythms (as in Notre-Dame organa) and with orderly. and we with rhythms that are significantly plex than them more comfind modal rhythms. — it for the consisted sim- ply of tunes admirable tunes. and were soon being composed freely that is. ing to — see. this has a significance is radical indeed. and sometimes with texts instead of Latin ones. though perhaps for the latter they may have accepted some anonymous help from their jongleurs the court musicians who performed these songs. had 26). urban life grew more vigorous. or debating fine points of chivalrous behavior. In our recorded section. poems were set in organum style directly. modal rhythms fitted well with Latin poetry. Besides this expansion in the technical range of polyphony. and sections of organa were fitted with new poems commenting on the words of the underlying service piece. Clearly Gothic polyphony was now directed to the court as much as to the Church.{The princes sat in famous organum draws out the with French words. well-balanced phrases (as in organum. This had never been necessary for plainsong.d. some of them. in the period after new It is strik- 1250. process of "texting" took place. these characteristics was The first of reflected in the grad- ual working-out of a real notation for rhythm. This that two-minute original plainsong to fifteen minutes. for example. given the steady expansion over these centuries of the range of artistic activities of every kind. 89). we will per- haps detect features analogous to Gothic architecture: a "weightless" quality and an effect of powerfully ordered intricacy. once again. Included among the — and names were some of the greatEleanor of Aquitaine. If we imagine this music in its original setting. King of Navarre. but from now on rhythm and its notation become more and more of a preoccupation with medieval musicians and theorists. As for the existence of mo- 224 Music in the Middle Ages way its out of the Church and into the The step was not unexpected. This resembles the latest style of Gothic architecture in such tendencies as exaggeration and virtuosity. Such pieces were called motets. the versus). after around 1300. or lamenting their coldness. in the form of the motet. We can speak now of a final phase of Gothic music. motets were the main type of music being cultivated. and was crossed with an older tradition of courtly music. and the courts of kings and great barons began to develop the arts with some regularity. He was interested in giving himself the framework for longer pieces. in such characteristics as fantastic lacework and a feel- . As of later secular song. Again we can speak of a process of abstraction. he was also interested in seeing what would happen when the plainsong was put in a different rhythm the second time. frag- ments of trouvere tunes finding their way quite openly into polyphonic motets. but after 1000 a. For it tells us that polyphonic music. and adjusted differently to the upper voice (or two upper voices. Then added voices modal rhythm. and this expressed a rich tradition of courtly songs long before the appearance of polyphonic motets in court circles. So far as we know. ladies est their suitors of Europe: — and with music. there A was also a widening of the text repertory. the trouveres in northern France around 1150-1300. and in the plainsong organa. without being adapted to actual already-existing (p. — After about 1250. all achieved by an increasingly impressive technical command. the plainsong can first be heard moving in regular notes while the three twine around it more rapidly. An interesting development at this time conof building sisted plainsong polyphony on sections of arbitrarily repeated several times. Motets became very popular. Then it freezes solemn drones. Sederunt principes tets council). sonorously echoing throughout the into a series of choir of Notre-Dame Cathedral (the section beyond the transept. Then the choir takes over to conclude in ordinary Gregorian fashion. and the minnesingers in Germany around 1150-1400. These noble poet-composers wrote works praising their ladies' beauty. or narrating the knight's encounter with a shepherdess and there were a number of other standard subjects. which comprises only the very end of it (recorded example 3). The verse forms of troubadour and trouvere poetry formed the basis of later European lyric poetry. was not polyphonic. it it. the crusader-king Richard the Lion-Hearted of England. nor for modal rhythms. The Age of Faith was also the Age of Chivalry. and Thibault. as was now usual). see fig. comparable to that mentioned in reference to the Carolingian sequence 221). This was the tradition of the troubadours in southern France (Provence) around itself in 1050-1200.

as compared to the situation after 1400. It will be recalled. Naturally. In most medieval polyphony. because the thing that seems very peculiar to us: they used modal rhythms are absolutely different the two added voices are steady. sharply marked of the time. with various the voices being kept essentially distinct from one made another. a term used by musicians to refer to the "weave" polyphonic music to the relationship of among the simultaneous voices (or "threads") and the way they are combined. the weave can be described as — loose and heterogeneous. this phase was from the past by musicians who proudly contrasted their ars art) with the ars antiqua (old art) Music historians have generally tended to agree with them. but the re- — the sensuous quality of the combined sound of the voices at any instant was a secondary consideration. like this: DIAGRAM TWO Y7\r^AAMr\rzr\r^ww soprano tenor (plainsong) contratenor Music in the Middle Ages 225 . that the voices are quite different also in their melodic character: the plainsong is in the rhapsodic coloratura style of the Gregorian alleluias. nova (new off To be sure. it was carried to the extreme. sonorous texture. An early NotreDame organum or motet might be represented like this: DIAGRAM ONE added voices tenor (plainsong) The plainsong and in- medieval motet composers that they did some- dicated by lines in a steady pattern. the voices were together. However. sulting sonority to fit on the main beats. But each has a different pattern to show that the rhythms are different. Frankish style close to that of the sequences and other "new plainsongs. while the added voices are in a neat. Musical texture now looks ody. And individuality was still the keynote after 1300. became more and more differentiated in rhythm. We shall attempt to clarify musical textures by means of line-diagrams. indeed. which those of the 1250s. Individuality of the voices was the keynote." Utter individuality of the voices appeared so natural to poems (sometimes even different in simultaneously in the two added voices. comprehensibility of the languages!) words was now secondary to the separateness of the various voices. meland range. Like sonority. musicians could not foresee.— ing of unsubstantiality. novelties in music nificant than its the undeniable around 1300 seem strong ties to less sig- the past. This is particularly true if attention is focused on the important matter of texture. In the ars nova music the process started earlier after — 1 300 — the voices indeed. and even in the geographical fact of diffusion away from the original center at Paris. a fundamental step had been taken toward the Renaissance and the modern conception of music. at least sonance (see p. where con215) was the rule. fur- line thermore. When after 1400 a reaction set in at last in the direction of a more homogeneous.

French. comit is perhaps not surprising that in 1324 the new polyphony was banned by papal edict from actual church services. called the contratenor. and isorhythm was the rule. the popes had set up a brilliant and somewhat secular court at Avignon in the south of France. chaut. As for the dotted line in diagram 2. (Pope John XXII was only too familiar with advanced French music: driven out of Rome in 1309. a refine- ment that the 226 made the distinction in the role of voices so sharp. rather spiky. little polyphonic song by Guillaume de Machaut (c. was the other main form of the time. a fine local variety of this late Gothic music flourished. named Francesco Landini (1325-97). these are different as to their actual notes. we have. Besides the inevitable love songs. of together. But its awkward and subsidiary quality also shows that say. now each voice around 1390 music was being written with a rhythmic virtuosity that was not matched until the 1950s. The great development of rhythm led to a remarkable compositional principle known as isorhythm ("same-rhythm"). twenty measures. and the contratenor is played on a lute (a widely used guitarlike instrument). as puis trop bien. Music in It is the Middle literally Ages true that more ingratiating and music was closely bound up with it. about 1350-75. the piece of plainsong (or according to the scheme laid Perotin. ner- quality of the texture cent of Late Gothic art. The tenor does not carry a Gregorian chant. elegant. illustrates this texture. melodically and less learned than the ahead for a moment the charac(turn to diagram 3 on page 234) teristic texture of music involved voices all of the same smooth rhythmic and melodic nature. voices are rhythm. Whereas in earlier polyphony the voices occupied the same range and often crossed one are placed another (thus the lines in diagram right next to one another). The foremost composer was the blind organist of Florence. and often curiously perforated. Petrarch . This was the great age of Italian The tenor poetry. an honored contemporary of Chaucer and Petrarch. vous. the tenor is played on a medieval fiddle (forerunner of the violin). weaving in texture this in discussing the music of the Renaissance. the melody angular. Largescale motets were composed in several distinct tends to gravitate to a distinct section of the vocal range. was tenor slowly repeats concern remained an afterthought.1300-c. the over-all rhythmic plan of the sections can be a fantastically involving up to tern ied in completely other notes." when it represents a special new type of voice-line whose special destiny hop around between the tenor and the other voices. that identical or almost identical in over-all rhythm. was also the leading poet of France. meanwhile. into a polyphonic composition of considerable we have seen in Machaut's Je Words and music were thought and it is worth noting that Ma- complexity. Je puis trop bien (I can right well. there was no harm in excess brilliance. The presence of the contratenor shows that the medieval composer was concerned with sonority at least to the extent of filling in spaces. or below the tenor. The poem develops a favorite trouvere theme the coldness of the singer's lady but the actual sound of the words interested Machaut so little that he often put lengthy coloratura passages on unimportant prano is — — syllables. In Italy. What was after chiefly new in the Gothic ars nova 1300 was refinement of rhythm. to complex pat- seventy-five other melody) down by its the embod- Meanwhile.The added no longer regular in more slowly. The courtly French love song. About 1500 to look — another voice along with equal and out of one another in a beautifully balanced way. the greatest composer of the century. This explains how the word sections or blocks of. We shall return to is just partners. stiff way that had been developed for chant. recorded example 4). In view of the increasingly rarefied and plex tendencies in musical composition. Appropriately enough. Descended from the trouvere song and the ars antiqua motet. but In some voices. — notes: basic rhythm returns again and again. or chanson. or the signing of a peace For such occasions. chace in one or two musical settings of great successors. originally applied to the plainsong held (Latin: tenere) drone notes in organum. poems by his and Boccaccio. The rhythm is intricate. although no original music has survived for the sonnets and other lyrics written by Dante about 1300 (which he himself traced back to those of the troubadours). came to refer to a particular voicerange. such as the dedication new of a cathedral.1377). but it treats its original material in the slow. an interesting minor type was the caccia in Italian. the harmonies pungent. The is reminisperhaps: vivid. and the plainsong goes much 1 "tenor. the ars nova chanson developed treaty. the performance involves different kinds of sound this A in the different voice-lines: the top line or so- sung or occasionally played by a recorder.) Motets in the new polyphonic style tended to be used only on special festive occasions.

and their entire way of life was directed de contemptu mundi. It is not easy for us to grasp this fundamental frame of mind. gets its Each polyphonic own individual in- strument. etc. birdcalls. But the casualness of medieval musidown details in this area. reminds us that their interest was not centered on the sensuous quality of sound. God's order in the fully) universe. perhaps. 114). believe. — At the center of their interest men of the Middle Ages were always being told was God. on the road to the afterlife in Christ. if not dangerous temptations. pp. a doctrine that amounted to disdain for the music of this world. 221).under certain conditions to supply sharps that were not noted in the manuscripts. 87). or else they tone cadence. Organum Sederunt principes Troubadour and trouvere songs and motets of the 13th century ON SAME RECORD: DGG-ARCHIVE Guillaume de Machaut. But like under a certain blanket of disapproval. "Sounding" music justified itself by leading man first to the harmony of the soul. and because musical scenes in paintings often show singers together with players. This we can tell (even though the composers say nothing whatsoever about it) because the manuscripts have pointedly left out the words for certain voice-lines. There were always authorities to remind them of the Pythagorean doctrine (see discussion. without any thought of blending. Significantly. only a concession to sonority but also a first step in the direction of the tonal system of later — — That instruments participated in secular motets and chansons is quite clear. As we have seen (p. and on the other a small pipe organ. Either instru- some of the voice-lines enour Machaut example. particular instruments were never specified. singers are on one side panel. pop musicians of today. They also gave only scant indication of a very signifi- described by theorists of cant practice that is the time under the name music" — of musica ficta ("false notice the tone of apology or right disapproval). but we must reckon with it in trying to understand medieval music. sometimes by another. toward disdain for this world. Chansons and Notre-Dame Mass DGG-ARCHIVE Francesco Landini and others. all took honest pleasure we do in their — music. while mentalists took over cians in writing tirely. this type of cadence gives music a clearer sense of centrality. Organum Judaea et Jerusalem Perotin. and the jongleurs and fiddle players. Composers seem to have been content to hear their pieces performed sometimes by one group of voices and instruments. so as to produce the "smooth-sounding" semi- French. a sudden flash of the vivid naturalism we know from late International Gothic painting directed (see p. we of the violin). 215-16). doubtless Machaut and Landini. music was no mortal sin. This was devoted to descriptions of the hunt a "chase" which probably had erotic overtones. they labored (however cheer- just as in ours. down- Singers and players were same time they were developing the art of rhythmic notation to a dizzy state of complication. To be sure. especially the highly unsingable tenors and contratenors. and another forerunner thread. which in some ways is closer to the Orient than it is to the Western world since the Renaissance. as in at the played along with the singers. SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Leonin. for example (fig. Caccie and other works DGG-ARCHIVE Music in the Middle Ages 227 . it is usually a mixed group that is shown: in the Ghent Altar piece by the Van Eycks. Earthly sights and sounds were transitory phenomena. The voices were made to echo a great profusion of hunting cries. and secondly to the music of the spheres. the practice of musica ficta was not music. a harp. But in the music of this time. This and exaggerates the indecorresponds with — — pendence of the threads which we have traced on purely stylistic grounds. and a viol (a descendant of the medieval fiddle.

Most often. It is from these that the lineage can be traced. Gregory. Gregorian chants and Frankish sequences were sung. without any polyphonic decoration at all. we expose the gap that separates our attitude from that held in the Middle Ages. . they were sung alone.And all through the Middle Ages. on polyphonic chansons and large isorhythmic motets composed for festive occasions. This was the essential music of the Middle Ages: essential. But in looking at medieval music in this way. music sounded hourly to the glory of God in monasteries and cathedrals. This gap opened up in the era of the Renaissance. sometimes decorated by sophisticated forms of polyphony. toward we cannot help concentrating on the advanced secular developments of later medieval music. because the chant was supposed to have come from St. to the music of the modern world. ultimately. In innumerable Masses and Office services. who was supposed to have had it — — 228 Music in the Middle Ages from show the Holy Spirit (medieval miniatures the saint receiving a music scroll from the Dove). and more often decorated by primitive even improvised forms that in some cases had been invented hundreds of years before. Since our eye ranges restlessly the future rather than the past.

to find meaningful analogies in painting and architecture for every im- influential last century were concerned with the Renais- sance. and revival of. Greek music itself had not sur- admiration ideals vived. the seeds grew rapidly enough. In tracing the course of this revolution over we the following pages. and therefore to spec- what we now call historical much later. and in literature. not expect. as we observed on page 88. One is the state of classical remains or rather. condirection of the Renaissance in his cept. for a variety of reasons. texture. manners. This is simply not in the nature of things. we have seen its far-reaching effects in architecture. Then. The distance from Machaut to Haydn and Mozart is certainly as great as that from Giotto and Duccio to J. But once planted. two such factors deserve special mention. the most signal and monuments of art scholarship in the other aspect of life. however. The other reason is the seemingly endless fascination we find in the riant story of the birth of tions. that are unique to the evolution of any art. sculpture. Graeco-Roman and achievements was a major feature of the Renaissance. In music. There are physical and geographical conditions. Renaissance ideas at first made their way slowly. and the artists could gaze upon statues and friezes and ruined buildings. One reason for this is simply that it has been studied for so long. and these conditions may cause such serious differences that they outweigh the influence of a common climate of ideas. his attitudes art modern man — his institu- and frame of reference. among other factors. the Renaissance was the first period to think of itself as a historical entity. Much ingenious work. The — for. The result was the invention of opera. was devoted to interpreting these reports in the light of Renaissance musical realities around 1600. a much newer field which in many ways followed the lead of art history. his and music. the absence of classical remains. and every are faced with a revolution in music in the visual arts. style. the musicians could only puzzle over tantalizing reports about Greek music. ists sic historians hailed Music this in as the Renaissance the Renaissance 229 . philosophy. By 1500 the music of Perotin and Machaut had been forgotten. rather than with the Middle times. in the Renaissance or at any other time. form. In the fourteenth century the striking individualism of Petrarch so characteristic for the early — — found little echo esteemed contemporary Guillaume de Machaut. But whereas the literary humanists could read ancient plays and works of moral philosophy. Only after several generations of humanist thought did this begin to affect the actual composition and performance of music. and the next century saw a transformation in every aspect of medieval music: sound.— PART THREE MUSIC IN THE ERA OF THE RENAISSANCE Perhaps no period of cultural history has stim- more ulated historians to brilliant and diverse thought than the era of the Renaissance. But of course the longevity of Renaissance studies is only one reason for their luxu- development. But when some nineteenth-century muuntil finally. To speak only of music in the early Renaissance. how some of the shall attempt to same guiding music and ideas show were reWe must ulate about itself in flected in terms. David and Goya. and painting. The same held true in Ages or later the nineteenth century for music history. science. L. against great odds. a group of humanmade an impressive attempt to create a modern parallel to Greek dramatic recitation or singing. — By 1750 if we include the Baroque within the broad "era of the Renaissance" —we no less decisive than that in the visual arts. portant composer and musical phenomenon.

Italians greatly admired Northern painting. most of the famous musicians of the time came not from the present century Netherlands (Holland) but from Flanders Belgium) and the northern part of France. In his sharp awareness of the novelty of the music of his own time and his contempt for the Middle Ages. They were also able to offer the Continent something in return. who was then serving in the Papal Chapel at Rome. as we shall see. at the perimeter of one point in England exerted a serious influence on the course of European music. is. but not to the same extent. Italian music had actually lost ground. — — tional plainsong. a date well after the periods referred to as the Early and High Renaissance until in the visual arts. so English their own distinct dialect of contemporaries. But it is very striking that he gave credit for the revival of music not to Italy in the south. too. but to a land northern Europe. and in absence of vital new schools of poetry. Music a radical in the in sensuous quality of musical the Renaissance figs. When Renaissance Florence dedicated Brunelleschi's great cathedral dome in 1436 (fig. In the older histories of music. Strictly speaking. generally in league with the Burgundians. however. so was the court of Burgundy. (In fact. Renaisrinascita sance was originally an Italian concept. all. just below the Franco-Flemish border. under the powerful dukes Philip the Good and Charles the Bold. The lack of genuine. conflicting claims of — about 1530. Guillaume Dufay. such as that by the composer-mathematicianDunstable (c. who declared roundly in 1477 that "although it seems beyond belief. music and the words to which it was set were bound together very closely. 93) had made in- dividual interpretations of Continental Gothic composers developed Gothic music. but they were content to import their principal musifrom the North. Dunstable was in the the service of the Duke of Bedford. we shall trace among other things a new attitude toward the tradirents in music. cians After the glorious century of Dante. To the Italian Renaissance mind. Back in the fifteenth century. a question of geography. As a result of an insular style of improvised polyphony called faburden (see p. an increasing interest meaning of mental of ture. Petrarch. and Boccaccio —from around 1300 to 1400 nearly another century elapsed before poets of comparable rank emerged again in Italy. Brunelleschi. Italy did not grow prominent on the European scene THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 1." the only music worth listening to had been written in the last forty years. Donatello. for the promising development begun by Landini and his predecessors (see p. the fifteenth used to be divided up into several "Netherlands Schools" of composers. in great numbers. 222). Many opportunities arose for exchange of ideas. In music. 1370-1 453)." in the famous phrase by the historian Jakob Burckhardt. local Italian music during the fifteenth century has never been adequately explained. called the Van Eycks. England. His date of 1437 is not far from the beginning of the significant activity of the first Renaissance artists: Cam- (now pin. Just This brings us. meaning. the is sound. 92. The Cathedral of Cambrai. the problem has never been adequately studied. In the rapidly crowding canvas of music history from 1400 to 1600. however. and Masaccio.— music in — — two hundred years after the advent of the Renaissance in art! an analogy with Then there little —they were drawing all spirit of the of these features we can detect the Renaissance at work. it we must continue to look is to the North that for the central cur- and for evidences of "the discovery of the world and of man. 95). that 230 in the and the and most fundachange in musical tex- literary quality texts set to music. a growing respect for the indi- vidual act of musical composition. strange phenomenon: the Ital- ians did not suddenly turn unmusical. 226) found no native A continuation. controlled much of this territory. Perhaps the music of Landini fell out of fashion along with the poetry it accompanied. in fact. These centers supplied all Europe with singers and composers. unusually rich and sonorous accents found their way into written English music. brother of . Johannes Tinctoris. to the history at which the as the architects of the cathedrals of Salisbury there and Gloucester (see However this may be. the music for the occasion was written not by a Florentine but by the most celebrated Northern composer of the time. the Italian Renaissance flowered in the fifteenth century. because the English were then spending much time in France waging the Hundred Years' War. was no impetus for new schools of music. which. It was a Flemish composer and musical theorist. was an important musical center. ) A contributing factor may be found in the literary situation. Tinctoris sounds very much like the contemporary Italian humanist. astrologer John which in turn made its mark upon his French architecture. In North and South.

among whom he worked for a number of years. They dedicated motets particularly to the Virgin Mary (Marian motets). Whole repertories her honor. and rhythmic displacements in much the same way that a jazz musician decorates the notes of a melody on which he is improvising. Ave Regina coelorum heaven). Not unnaturally. (It illuminated manuscripts patterned after the private prayer books called "books of hours" that were fashionable at the lected in richly time (compare fig. and a growing respect for the calling in the world at large. 110. well matched to the elegance of art. however. colorplates 10." is highly significant for the frame of mind at the time of the dawning Renaissance. 102. that is. Dufay's little personal prayer set the words in a very clear fashion. composers also began producing small-scale sacred motets in chanson style for in the wake of the new modesty of musical idiom. For the plainsong was now being thought of as a thing of beauty." By medieval standards. enjoyed great popularity in the religious life of the period. incidentally. re- corded example 5). 113. Dufay placed the plainsong in the soprano voice. runs. Also. 104. regent and was under Bedford's rule that Joan of Arc was burned. not in the tenor. Dufay learned something about texture from Dunstable and the English. The chanson developed into a very sophisticated and delicate art form. great care was now devoted to the molding of long plastic melodies. who was thought of as the very human — agent who could intercede for mankind with Christ her Son.) Partly as a result of this influence from England. his composition." This resembles English faburden. costume. Though the polyphonic texture still holds to the heterogeneous type illustrated in diagram 2 (p. he included himself in it. plainsong remained the essential music of the Church.' called "paraphrase. The Renaissance did not abandon plainsong. a fascinating combination of innocence. and Music in the Renaissance 231 . and modernized to fit in with the polyphonic piece as a whole. the performance can appropri- employ more blending instruments: the tenor and contratenor are each played on medieval fiddles. but since the is much more ingratiating Machaut chanson (recorded sonority as a whole than in the example little 4). The text in praise of Mary is often swamped by graceful vocal decorations. We have al- of Latin poetry grew up in ready observed the effects of the cult of Mary the numerous Annunciations.Henry V and. while the sung soprano is douately bled by a fiddle. this humble act was also an arrogant one: Dufay not only signed fifteenth century brai (c. In Dunstable's intimate ciosa facta es {Fair hast Marian motet Spe- Thou been made. Mary. This motet incorporates a Gregorian plainsong. Perhaps it is no accident that we find Burgundian chansons colchief prosecutor of the war. We have a greater amount and variety of music by him than by any earlier composer. 11). Dunstable did not pay much more attention to the words than did Machaut. music increasingly found its way back into the Church (modern polyphonic music. and Madonnas of the fourteenth and in fifteenth centuries (figs. notice the almost chordal passage around the words "filiae Sion. a clear intention to balance the sound can be detected. the chansons composed by French musicians after 1400 were much simpler in rhythm than those of Machaut and Landini. Nativities. Attention centers on the soprano melody. 112). turns. Queen of life. and markedly more sonorous in texture. The desire for modernity grew so strong that ultimately a Renaissance pope authorized a new edition of the complete Gregorian plainsong repertory. Guillaume Dufay. in which Mary is asked to intercede on behalf of "Thy dying supplicant. rather than as a structural or doctrinal element. Around this time. and he decorated it with extra notes. Among his compositions is a touching Marian motet written toward the end of his (Hail. and with them. however. it may not be fanciful to feel some of the same tenderness that is evoked by an Annunciation such as that of the Merode Altar piece (colorplate 11). Unlike Perotin and Machaut. and he learned something about melody from the Italians. Composers were still not specifying instruments. The main composer of the early and middle was Guillaume Dufay of Cam1400-74). and manners for which the Burgundian court was renowned all over Europe. In addition to chansons. intricacy. This bespeaks a new self-awareness of his role as a composer. purified of its medieval "barbarities" and revised according to current canons of melodic beauty. Pietas. composed late in the Middle Ages. plainsong had never left the Church). we begin to find elaborate musical elegies composed to commemorate the deaths of famous composers. it was placed where it would be clearly heard. some new plainsongs. 105. This kind of plainsong treatment. after Henry's death. then. 225). following the regular procedure in sacred music since the beginnings of polyphony. and limpid grace. so that the Virgin (or his fellow singers at Cambrai?) would be sure to get the message.

the Renaissance, for

mained an



pagan interests, removement, not

essentially Christian

a nco-pagan one. But the Renaissance did view


in a significantly



Dufay's principal successors were Johannes
Ockeghem (c. 1420-95) in Antwerp and Tours;




1430- 1505)



Bruges, and Ferrara; Josquin Desprez (c.14401521) in various Flemish, north French, and

towns; and Heinrich Isaac (c.14501517) in Brabant, Florence, Constance, and
Vienna. The international range of their activity

should be noted. These composers carried forward the work of Dunstable and Dufay in the
area of intimate chansons and motets, and also
in another area initiated by the older masters,
that of large-scale compositions belonging to
a markedly constructional type.

Here the prin-

new form was the polyphonic Mass.
As explained on page 218, the liturgy of



Mass, the most important of the daily services,
contains many items sung in plainsong or
chanted. Some of these are "ordinary" (the
same every day) and others "proper" (varying
from day to day). Composers at this time
began to make polyphonic settings of the five
main ordinary sections of the Mass: the Kyrie,
Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei. This
was certainly a reasonable idea, in that such
settings could be used again and again. But
when, in addition, composers began to unify all
five sections by musical means, this was a very
unreasonable idea, at least from the liturgical
point of view
for the sections do not follow
one another in the service, they do not fulfill


all, and they difform, and even language (the
Kyrie is in Greek). The concept was a purely
technical one, and would never have occurred
to men of the early Middle Ages, with their
deep concern for liturgical propriety. Neverthe-


religious function at

fer in length,



has held good through the centuries:

Palestrina, Monteverdi, Bach, Beethoven, Liszt,

and Stravinsky have all composed five-section
Masses which are unified works in one sense
or another.



the favorite

means of musical


cation was the use of a single slow melody in
the tenor voice as the structural basis for each

Hence the terms "tenor
Mass" or "cantus-firmus (fixed-song) Mass."
For the tenor melody, either a secular song or
a plainsong drawn from another service was selected
it is hard to guess which would have
astonished the early Middle Ages more, the use
of secular songs in the Mass or the mixing up
of the Mass with other services. When we obof the five sections.




the Renaissance

more than twenty composers basing
Masses on one and the same melody, the famous L Homme arme (The Man of Arms, a
satirical song about the marauding armies of
the Hundred Years' War), we gather that a
technical, individualistic, competitive spirit was
definitely in the air. By comparing the various
L'Homme arme Masses, music historians can


fine discriminations of style, just as art

by comparing successive treatments of the same subject (see figs. 124, 142,

historians can


Composers developed highly ingenious decomposing Masses, as though trying

vices in

outdo one another

They could




turn the basic melody upside down,

it down, or present it in canon
one voice would start the tune and
then another would sing it simultaneously but
staggered, starting a few beats later and perhaps also a few notes higher or lower. A round
such as Three Blind Mice is a simple sort of
canon. They were not above devising riddles to
tell the singers how to perform these technical
feats ("canon" means a rule or direction). In
Josquin Desprez's L'Homme arme Mass, one of
his most brilliant, he directs the singers with
a mild canon using the words "Sancta Trinitas,
salve me" (Holy Trinity, save me) to perform a
certain section as a three-voiced canon
they will also have to figure out for themselves that each one must sing in a different
time-signature before the day may be called


up, slow




Furthermore, Josquin's tenor voice
sometimes presents the melody of L'Homme
arme backward, and he starts it on different

notes of the scale in each of the five sections.

like playing Yankee Doodle
song about soldiers starting first from
C on the piano, its proper place, and then from
D, E, F, and G without using any sharps or
flats.) Something of the same mentality can be
observed here that led to the esoteric symbolism that characterizes Flemish painting from
Campin and the Van Eycks to Bosch.
The polyphonic Mass, with its five great sections all unified according to some musical
scheme, constituted the most impressive form
of sustained musical thought that had yet been
produced. For us, unfortunately, it is less easy
to appreciate the beauty of this music than to
observe its preoccupation with technique and
the necessary underpinning for
beauty. This preoccupation persisted in the old
complex ways of the fourteenth century, which
Dunstable and Dufay were deserting in other
aspects of their music. As late as around 1450,



old-fashioned isorhythmic motets were still in
demand for special festive occasions (such as,

Dufay's case, the dedication of the dome of
Florence Cathedral), and Dunstable and Dufay
could turn them out with the best. The difference is that the music of the later fifteenth century cultivated complexity of combination,
rather than complexity of rhythmic differentiation, as in the fourteenth century. The musical

was growing constantly smoother and
more sonorous. The device of canon, as the



may have

realized already, links voices

tury found nothing but scorn for these Northtechnical devices, which they cheerfully
confounded with Gothic elements in art and



To men

steeped in Cicero's Latin prose

and Petrarch's Tuscan poetry, the very names
Ockeghem and Obrecht were an object of fun,
and seemed to sum up a crabbed, unmelodious
concept of the art of music. In actual fact, the
Italians had profited deeply from these technical advances. And as the sixteenth century progressed, Italy
which we tend to think of as
the "land of song"
assumed the dominant

polyphony so that they cannot be distinguished in quality. This marks an important
step toward a genuinely homogeneous musical

position in Western music, for the

Europe turned



ideas about music. Italy

in the

However, the

Italians of the sixteenth cen-


was here rather than




to Flanders

for singers, composers,


position for two hundred years or more.


Guillaume Dufay, Chansons
Johannes Ockeghem, Chansons

Robert Fayrfax, Tecum principium Mass



The musical Renaissance


Frenchmen who



in Italy


began, para-



the late fifteenth century

overran the Papal Chapel and the brilliant
courts of the Medici, the Este, and the Sforza.

As Northern musicians came

in contact with
humanistic ideas and Italian popular
music, a distinctive new musical style which
may be called the "High Renaissance" style
came to fruition simultaneously in the North
and in the South. It will be simplest first to describe and illustrate this important style, and
then to trace aspects of it that show the influence of Italy.


in the music of the late fifteenth century. The
slow tenors started to move faster
even in the
tenor Masses
and in order to match them, the
intricate, wide-ranging sopranos proceeded in a
slower, more stately way. As composers developed in technical skill, contratenors were made
to fill in the gaps without awkwardness and to
move as smoothly as the other voices. Indeed,
the function of the contratenor as a filler disappeared, and the contratenor was itself replaced

by two

voices, in the middle

(bass) ranges.


and low

The standard medieval grouping

Now, however,

of three voice-lines was felt to be too thin;
composers preferred four voice-lines, each occupying its own particular segment of the available sound range.
And since the voice-lines were now very similar in melodic and rhythmic quality, their actual sonorous quality was required to be similar
also. The colorful mixed vocal-plus-instrumental ensembles of the Middle Ages no longer
suited the balanced, relatively bland musical
texture. Typically, the voice-lines were all
sung; the standard choral grouping of today



The main

distinguishing feature


change from the Middle Ages




matter of musical texture. In discussing medieval polyphony on pages 225-26, we pointed
out that the fundamental concept involved
highly individualized voice-lines, analogous to
multicolored threads in a heterogeneous weave.
the voice-lines grew to resemone another so closely that the whole texture became essentially homogeneous.
The change-over can be traced step by step


tenor, bass



origin in

High Renaissance style. Or else the voicelines were all played on instruments of the same



the Renaissance





or trombones.

on a group of recorders,



angels in Matthias Griine-

wald's Isenheim Altar piece, dated c. 1510-15,
are all playing on viols of different sizes (albeit
fantastic viols

see colorplate 16).

The voice-lines also came to employ the
same melodic material. It was no longer the
case that one of them carried the most interesting melody, and the second an altogether different plainsong melody, while the third served

merely as an unmelodious filler. Even in the
tenor Masses, as time went on, portions of the

small melodic fragment was introduced in one
voice (it did not matter which, for all were
through the others. The writing of canons
tenor Masses, once again
had prepared the


But whereas the whole
keep going rigorously
throughout a long melody, fugal imitation was
applied freely to small fragments of melody
only. A sixteenth-century Mass, motet, or chanson would consist of a whole series of different
for this technique.













basic tenor tune began to be echoed by the


1500, composers
standardized the technique of fugal imitation

The new texture can be expressed by a linediagram as follows (compare diagrams 1 and
2, p. 225):

other voices. Finally, about

(often called simply "imitation"), in which a


Fugal imitation was the great technical invention of Renaissance music. It can probably be
singled out as the earliest compositional device
that has enjoyed uninterrupted vigorous life
from early times right down to the present day.
The name reminds us that fugal imitation led to
the fugue of later centuries (see p. 250), but it
should be understood that a Josquin motet has
numerous separate small fragments of melody
treated successively in imitation, whereas a
Bach fugue typically has only one, which is
extended at considerable length throughout the
entire work.


further characteristic of the imitative style

has to do with the treatment of words. In medieval polyphonic compositions, the text generally

go on


a single voice— or else several

by voice. In Renaissance compositions, each voice has the entire
words; each point of imitation has its own small
portion of the total text and passes this through

at once, voice

Thus homogeneous texture imhomogeneous setting of the words. Since
the voices are staggered, often enough the
words in the soprano are obscured by what the

the voices.


alto, tenor,


or bass are singing.



Still, if

the Renaissance



tener misses the words the first time, at least he
has several more opportunities to catch them in
another voice; and each verbal phrase has its

own melody which comes
so characterizes


again and again and


In comprehensi-

marks a decided advance

bility of the text, this

over the Middle Ages.


new style is a segment
work— probably c. 15 15-20— by Jos-

illustration of the

of a late

quin Desprez, the Pange lingua (Let the
tongue record) Mass (recorded example 6).


five sections of this


are unified by

the use of a single tune, the plainsong


Pange lingua (a fine tune of Carolingian origin,
to which words were later added by St. Thomas
Aquinas in building his service of Corpus
Christi. Josquin's Mass would therefore be
especially appropriate to this Feast). But the
tune does not go into a structural tenor voice,
as in an isorhythmic motet by Dufay or in Josquin's earlier L'Homme arme Mass, mentioned
above. Instead, lines of the hymn are paraphrased (see p. 231) so as to provide frag-

ments of melody to




Mass." But even


up successive points


this relatively loose

tion with the plainsong

quite free to drop



often broken; Josquin

for long periods,


posing as his fancy directed him. In our recorded segment, only the musical phrases with
." and "Crucithe words "Et incarnatus est
fixus etiam pro nobis" refer to the melody of
the hymn, in each case to its first line. There
are about a dozen points of imitation (which
do not, however, necessarily run through all
four voices; this segment is from one of the
more wordy sections of the Mass, the Credo,
and composers tended to hurry through it).
Fugal imitation is perhaps easiest to hear at the
words "Crucifixus," "et resurrexit" "et ascendit," and "vivos et mortuos."
Very different from this, and very striking indeed, is the treatment of the opening phrase of
." This is
our segment, "Et incarnatus est






setting of a self-conscious simplicity,

four voices singing together to form block
chords, and all speaking the words at exactly


same time



as clearly as possible.


Josquin intended to give special
tender emphasis to these words, dealing once
again with Mary's role:

"And He was


by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary: and
was made man." Surely he also intended to
bring out the meaning of the text by means of
his relatively harsh, angular music for the word
"Crucifixus" (He was crucified) and his joyful
upward line for the words "et ascendit in caelum''' (and He ascended into heaven). The recorded performance is by an unaccompanied
choir, a very suitable arrangement given the


in Josquin's

time some instru-

ments might well have played along with the

In what features of this High Renaissance

can we trace an Italian influence? On the
first of all, in the musical style

simplest level,





Et incarnatus

setting in block chords



derived di-

Secondly, the whole concept of homogeneous musical texture, with its qualities of rational order, evenness, and balance, owes a
great deal to the classicism of Italian humanist
thought. The perfect division of the sound
range and the even distribution of labor among
the voices; their beautifully

calculated inter-

and counterpoise; the general calm,
smooth momentum without any abrupt surprises to attract undue attention
all this rerelation

calls the earlier



Renaissance ideal

what may

aspect of this music,


in the visual

strike us as a negative

lack of interest in bril-

and color, it reminds us of the "harmonious grandeur" of Bramante's architecture or

the restraint of Raphael's early paintings (figs.

147, 150). The crucial step, before this ideal
could be realized, was that of cutting down the
tenor voice. It could no longer enjoy the pri-

macy and the authority granted it by the composers of tenor Masses in a direct line from the
composers of isorhythmic motets and organa.
Josquin's evolution from the L'Homme arme

to the

Pange lingua Mass





a type of construction in which the basic mel-


is isolated in the tenor (tenor Mass) to one
which the melody is evenly distributed
throughout a homogeneous texture (paraphrase


Thirdly, there


the matter of the treatment

of words in relation to musical expressiveness,

which we have already touched on in reference
and will see growing more and more
important in the later Renaissance. This was
the favorite subject of the humanists who restudied Classic writings about music. What
struck them particularly were reports of the expressive nature of Greek music and its extraordinary power in moving men's emotions (see
pp. 215-16). Why should not music of their
own time do the same? Politian, the great humanist at the court of Lorenzo de' Medici, wrote
a celebrated play on the subject of Orpheus, the
mythological figure who more than any other
to Josquin

from a contemporary Italian practice.
During the 1480s, an unassuming popular or
semipopular musical style grew up for settings
of equally unassuming Italian poems; two
forms were the lauda (praise), a popular religious song, and the secular frottola, which
means something like potpourri. Trivial in
themselves, these pieces seem to have fascinated Northern musicians by their straightforward harmonic texture. Josquin, who wrote
one or two frottole himself, developed the tech-

golden age.

nique in a more sophisticated context. This is
the first time in the history of music that we
can speak of "chords" or a real "chordal conception" of music.

to do this was with
Greek theory stressed the
intimate association of music and words; this
seemed only natural to the humanists, who


symbolizes the power of music. (The play was
accompanied by music that unfortunately is
lost, though a stage design for it by Leonardo
da Vinci has been preserved.) As more and
more Greek documents yielded to humanistic
scholarship, the burden of advanced thought
pressed upon musicians to recapture an expressiveness similar to that reported of the Classic

The only apparent way

the help of words.



the Renaissance


were above





First of




never had been in the Middle

to hear the words when they were sung,
have them declaimed correctly (i.e., to adjust rhythms and pitches to the various syllables in a way that corresponds to normal
speech). Beyond that, words could be illustrated by musical means. Certain melodies,
rhythms, or combinations could sound tender,
harsh, or joyful; and gradually composers such
as Josquin learned to match the words that
they were treating to music of an appropriate



sentiment. Previously word-illustration of this

had been employed only tentatively. Later
was greatly refined and indeed exaggerated,
we shall see, in the development of the



Italian madrigal.

most far-reaching human discoveries, the significance of this one took some
time to sink in, from its first intimations to its
universal acceptance. But a discovery it was
for in fact Greek music had not achieved its
expressiveness in this way at all. Only the animating idea was Greek, filtered through the
minds of the humanists. The particular implementation could only have occurred at this parLike



ticular stage of musical evolution, with


his generation.



we have


said, fugal

imitation counts as the great technical invention of the Renaissance composers, then

may be judged


their great expressive


Josquin himself was considered pre-eminent
his contemporaries
the notion of artistic
genius was just developing (see p. 110)
also by musicians for many years after his
death. This was an unusual tribute; remember
Tinctoris' opinion of all music composed forty
years before the time he was writing. What
contemporaries admired especially was Josquin's range and intensity of expression, though
they also appreciated his technical virtuosity
and his unprecedented boldness. They pointed


to specific pieces of his that






and huto

morous. Modern criticism would confirm contemporary opinion in this case. Josquin seems
to us perhaps the first composer in the history
of music having the comprehensive mastery
shown by a Bach or a Beethoven in later times.
We are also in a position to see how over his
career Josquin grew less interested in the Mass,


fixed liturgical text,

and more


found a real outlet for the individuality that is
so charactertistic of the Renaissance frame of
mind. The range of the Latin motet spread to
include humanistic poems, fragments of Vergil

and Horace, and certain highly emotional sections of the Bible that have no liturgical position whatsoever in the services. There was a
corresponding expansion of range in Italian
texts. Whereas the medieval composer was by
and large confined to certain parts of the liturgy and to secular poems of stereotyped form

and content, the Renaissance composer had, as
it were, discovered the whole world.
Modern attitudes began to emerge with
Josquin, even in respect to "artistic temperament." He would appear to have caused his

princely patrons almost as much trouble as
did his younger contemporary, Michelangelo.


exists a letter in

which an

Italian recruit-

ing agent advises his master to hire Heinrich

even though Josquin is admittedly the
available, because Josquin has
the reputation of being difficult, composes only
when he feels like it, and commands an appreciably higher salary. But this advice was not
followed; Josquin occupied positions all over
Italy, including almost a decade at Rome in the
Sistine Chapel (during the time the building
was being decorated by Botticelli, Ghirlandaio,
and Perugino). In this important musical establishment, heavily supported by such artloving Renaissance popes as Sixtus IV, Julius
II, and Leo X, his music and that of his countrymen made a lasting impression.
The High Renaissance style proved to be so
fruitful that for several generations composers
of sacred music could occupy themselves by
exploiting it and refining it. The harmonic style
became smoother, the fugal imitations were
made to sound regular and effortless. As more



and more


was developed, the number of

voices was increased from four to five or six as
the norm, with a resulting increase in richness

of texture. Indeed, things began to run in a pat-

and by 1550, motets and Masses had berather predictable entities, whether they
were composed in Italy or in the North.
The celebrated Roman composer Giovanni
Pierluigi daPalestrina (c. 1525-94) standardized
the style to such a degree that his music lived
on as a model for the study of counterpoint,
which is the technique of combining polyphonic


voice-lines. Students labor over "counterpoint

even today. This gave

ested in the motet, where he could choose the

in the Palestrina style"

words himself and set them in an appropriately
expressive manner. In choosing texts to set
to music (or "subjects" to treat), composers

Palestrina an exaggerated reputation in later
centuries, as did also his well-publicized role in




the Renaissance

the Counter Reformation as a result of









Called to rally and reform the Catholic Church
after the staggering blows it had received from
the Reformation, the Council decided among
other things to "purify" Church music: most

221) were now
ejected, polyphonic Masses based on secular
tunes such as L'Homme arme were condemned, and simplicity and comprehensibility
of the words were demanded above all. Palestrina's best-known composition, the Pope MarMarcellus II was Pope briefly in
cellus Mass
Carolingian sequences (see


1555 was an effort to fall in with these demands.
While we may admire the limpid perfection
of Palestrina's technique and the purity of his
melodic invention, we


also regret a certain

hundred-odd Masses that
he composed, and miss the force and variety of
repetitiousness in the

the previous generation. Nor is it pleasant to
read his public recantations of his youthful secular compositions (madrigals). Especially in


the Counter Reformation exerted an inon music as on the visual arts.

hibiting force

Josquin Desprez, Pange lingua Mass
dgg; decca; music library

Josquin Desprez, Motet Tribulatio



history of music in sound

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Pope Marcellus Mass

William Byrd, Mass

for Five Voices

William Byrd, Motets

the madrigal. More vital developments occurred outside Church music. The most forwardlooking music was Italian, for after the time of
Josquin, the French chanson assumed a relatively bland and stereotyped form. Around 1530,
a genre called the madrigal sprang up in Northern Italy. Humble in its beginnings, it spread all
over Europe as the most important and characteristic musical form of the late Renaissance.
The early madrigal was closely tied to a resurgence of Italian poetry. The sonnets of Petrarch, the great humanist and poet who had
prefigured the Renaissance in the fourteenth
century, now— some two centuries later—enjoyed a remarkable revival and produced many
imitators. Important new figures emerged, including Ariosto and Tasso, whom the Italians
rank with Dante and Petrarch as the four members of their poetic Parnassus. From the beginning, the madrigal movement was as much a
literary phenomenon as a musical one, and it
owed much of its impetus to literary societies
with a humanistic orientation, called academies
see p. 149). Academies
commissioned books of madrigals, debated fine
(for art academies,

points of musico-literary relationship in them,

and sometimes even engaged
In musical

style, the

staff composers.
madrigal stemmed from


High Renaissance motet, with a passing

reference to the simple-minded frottola of the



madrigal was


moderately short

piece for four voices (and later, for five or six)

and seccompared to the sacred music, the techniques were
applied in a lighter, more informal way, and
much more attention was paid to the words.
This was the key feature. If Josquin's generation had learned to declaim the words of Latin

consisting of sections in fugal imitation
tions of





motets correctly, the madrigalists strove to declaim Italian verse beautifully, subtly, or dramatically. But over and above this, the main
point of madrigal composition was not simply
declamation but expressive illustration of the
words. In this, the madrigal realized the aspirations of the humanists better than any other
music of the time.
Innumerable rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic devices were developed to mirror the
meaning of individual words and phrases. Some

of these devices strike us as farfetched: using

only two voices when the word "two" appears;
using the notes G-A (sol-la) when the word
"sola" (alone) appears. Others have a psychological aptness that has kept them in service to
the present day: using repeated



upward melod-

the Renaissance





for the expression of joy or ex-




expression of trouble or uncertainty.



that inspired madrigals





were playful,

others were intense, passionate, meditative, re-

the entire spectrum of lyric poetry lay
composer's disposal. The academies that
sponsored madrigals encouraged composers to
set the same famous sonnets of Petrarch in

at the




L'Homme arme






competition, the Flemish

posers had tried to outdo one another in technical ingenuity, but the madrigalists now tried
to excel in imaginative expressive effects.
In the early decades of the madrigal development, after 1530, Northern composers dominated the field (still!), but later in the century
Italians took it over. The most famous of them,
Luca Marenzio (1553-99), wrote twenty-three
books of madrigals (with about twenty madri-

book) which went


cialty with

Prince Carlo Gesualdo of Venosa
1560-1 61 3), who made a sensation of one
sort by murdering his wife and her lover in
bed, and of another sort by daring to use the
most astonishingly modern-sounding chords in
his madrigals. Contemporary critics were astonished, but they did not go out of their way to
criticize the Prince. Late madrigal poetry is full
of complex, contrived "conceits"; the music
relies also on exaggeration and distortion of
normal musical procedures normal according
to the standards of the High Renaissance style.
As musical contrast was pushed to extremes in
order to match the eccentric poems, formidable
technical skill was developed to make the con(c.

hold together. All this suggests Mannerism in the visual arts, and the mood of certain
Mannerist artists finds parallels in Marenzio's

mercurial, nervous elegance and in Gesualdo's
barely controlled hysteria.

over Europe, including some with English and German translations. Marenzio was a
composer of the greatest sensitivity, even hyper-

At the opposite extreme, many subclasses of
short madrigals grew up, often with parodistic or erotic texts. These pieces naturally
inclined toward simple harmonic setting, rather

a sixteenth-century counterpart to

than intricate fugal imitation. The best-known

gals per






in the

in the nineteenth century or


much on the relabetween words and music, the best example for our purposes will be one with English words
not by Marenzio, but by one of
his English admirers, Thomas Morley (15571603), a member of Queen Elizabeth's Chapel
Since madrigals depend so

Royal. In the madrigal Stay, heart, run not so

(recorded example 7), Morley projects
words with a nice sense of their natural

speech quality throughout. Furthermore, the
music is constantly bringing out sentiments latent in the text

halting at the



heart"; lighthearted at "then let her go"; hurried at


after her


run"; pathetic or

pathetic at "Flora, farewell!";

haps, at "I care not."
in the



scolds the



ironic, per-

the second speaker




a sud-

den change of harmony mirrors the sudden
change of attitude (on the word "O" in "O vile
wretch"). The words "sharp disdain" give rise


-sharp, incidentally
a musical
pun. The six-voice texture, typical of the late
madrigal, with its half-harmonic and halfto the

handled so skillfully that it all
sounds quite airy, swift, and delicate
as is apimitative style,













madrigals by

trivial verses,






Intensely emotional



of these subclasses


serious effects than

the Renaissance

were a spe-


the ballett, or fa-la, so

was intended to accompany or
suggest dancing and because it involved recalled because






frains set to nonsense-syllables such as "fa la la




eth are

as Morley's


Maying and







bonny lass she smilpopular today, and may give the

impression that

all madrigal music is light
and dancelike. But Marenzio, Gesualdo, and
their contemporaries in Italy and England also








power and psychological penetration. The madrigal owes its position as the most impressive
musical form of the sixteenth century to its
great range of style, scope, and sentiment.
A tendency toward harmonic setting can also
be observed


another important development

of the late sixteenth century, that of Venetian



special feature


the manipulation

two or more
and for this, once again, harmonic setting was more suitable than fugal imitation.
Music of this kind sounded especially splendid
in the Basilica of St. Mark, with its two widely
of grand "stereophonic" effects for

separated choir




a musical center,


to the fore as the century progressed,

chapelmaster and organist
Mark's were regarded as the most prestigious in Europe. The most famous of the organists were the Gabrielis: an uncle, Andrea
(1510-86), who also played a key role in the
madrigal development, and a nephew, Giountil the positions of

at St.

if six voices are involved. also pioneered line in musical effects that we call "colorful": mass instrumental sounds. it may have come to Europe in early medieval times (Renaissance lutes are shown in figs. But the triads do not seem to support a central one. The chief of these. The main feature of cornetti (not cornets.— (1557-1612). rich sonority of the triad. In general. Mark's from 1565-90. 221) occur and make for a satsound on the momentary level. organ. a famous etiquette book of 1514. and the restricted essentially to vocal music. and for this reason Morley's madrigal still has a vague. and then again the next note but one: C E G or D F A. Castiglione's The Courtier. A triad consists of a note. nor to gain meaning themselves from their position dences (see isfactory — — in reference to a center. but sixteenth century that made them it was the into the basis of harmony. 227 was still left largely to the singer). Giovanni Gabrieli called for a chorus of ten voice-lines. A guitarlike instru- ment of Islamic origin. The familiar — sound results chords are from the fact that most of the form of the triad (sometimes in the chord"). These chords called "the came up in common medieval polyphony. The vanni brilliant of chapelmasters culminated in Claudio Monteverdi. chapelmaster at St. we have come to a point in the music at which particular instruments began to be specified with some regularity. music advances during area foundations ments that were for instruments made signal the sixteenth century. Our discussion of Renaissance music has been music with words. and two itself. to refer to plainsongs mand late The de- sixteenth century. Many currents. four trombones. bassoon. the lute. were leading toward a more purely harmonic concept of in the Each sound too independent. meanwhile the French chanson evolved in the direction of a plain tune with chordal accompaniment on the lute or guitar. This emphasis on harmony. as we would call them today. as in Morley's madrigal). of course. who experimented with vocal-instrumental combinations. a position they continued to occupy up to the beginning of the twentieth century. the humanists shared the Greek prejudice against instrumental music. we refer to sixteenth-century harmony as modal harmony. the tonic triad. rather than on of the Counter Reformation for the polyphonic or "linear" aspects of music. recommends that gentlemen learn to sing to Music in the Renaissance 239 . Plenty of semitone ca- p." an ordering of the triads so that each has its triad. Gioseffe Zarlino. and also for certain favorite solo instruments. caps the Renaissance tendency toward a sensuous. is something like curved recorders with trumpet mouthpieces). and frequently did. 245). Venice. unsettled sound our ears. we will doubtless agree that the harmony sounds more familiar and yet it is than that of any earlier music still not quite "right" to our ears. triad tends to ity. the modern tonal system. heart (recorded example 7). a need was felt for something more idiomatic that is. composers regularly used sharps and flats for this very purpose (though musica ficta see p. was a wide- spread. as well as the double-choir style effects. in England books of madrigals were often advertised as being "apt to voices and viols. but obsolete instruments music particular role or "func- tion" in reference to the centrality of one chief in spite of its liveliness. main composers were interested first and foremost in the relation of words and music. Instruments could always play polyphonic vocal pieces. In this were laid for later developbe of the greatest impor- to modern music. comprehensible words led to simple harmonic setting in Masses and motets. The most influential musical theorist of the time. At last of history What had not yet evolved was a concept of "functional harmony. and the notes can be duplicated at will in other octaves (can and must. made a special point of the full. Nevertheless. 122. solo and choral combinations. etc. home of the most notable colorists in painting of the time." However. in addition to the madrigal and the Venetian double-choir style. For one of his celebrated motets or sinjoniae sacrae (sacred symphonies). the foremost figure of the early Baroque period (see p. harmony like? What was sixteenth-century Listening to the Morley madrigal Stay. all-purpose instrument as popular as the piano in later times. the feeling of central- not yet present. Benvenuto Cellini mentions in his autobiography an occasion when he and some friends played motets for Pope Clement VII on an ensemble of wind instruments. the next note but one. 162). something designed to fit the peculiarities of the various instruments and to show off their tance for the history of — capabilities. Composers began to write special pieces both for chamber-music ensembles. That accords with the humanistic bias of the time. pleasurable quality of musical sound. and it marks an important step toward the modern world. Just as we and some old folk songs as modal melodies.

221). a cittern (see colorplate 20). who on occasion decorated instruments lavishly with paintings on the wood. Idiomatic music also was written for the keyboard instruments: for the organ (here the leading role was played by the Venetians mentioned above. in the work of the greatest Lutheran composer. Switzerland. as a former monk. . — although in the sixteenth century. which plucks its strings with sharp quills (a harpsichord can be heard in recorded example 12). losses. Thus the old musical traditions of tenor construction and paraphrase technique gained under Lutheran auspices. for the quiet clavichord. and even one French Protestant Psalm The on claim"Orlando di Lasso." — Lutes.— own accompaniment on their the lute. and with them. In some denominations. The same violin their family is — greatest true of the count of his beautiful voice and taken to Italy. namely Psalms. could grow very skillful in all the dialects. insisted as Music in the Renaissance lieved firmly in the importance of music and was a special admirer of Josquin Desprez (who was still alive in 1517 when Luther's ninetyfive theses were nailed onto the church door at Wittenberg). Each country developed its own "di- the — alect" of the central language. The Calvinists of France. harpsichords. the nerve-center of Flemish music for a hundred years. musicians were able to recoup some of their but only viola. be- items lar religious The central language of Renaissance music High Renaissance style of Josquin and his contemporaries. and the Low Countries were stricter. The devotional songs were of two types. the various violin. and for the brittle-sounding harpsichord. such as the Gabrielis). After spending time also in London and Antwerp. A composer such as Roland de Lassus ( 1532-94). a small instrument which hits its strings with little levers. wood inlay. musicians could travel from post to post more easily than in earlier times. In place of all this. Latin Masses and motets. Born not far from Cambrai. these were newly written religious poems. Calvin took pains to establish a regular series of tunes to which the metrical Psalms should always be sung. That so many Renaissance pictures have instruments in them can be explained partly by the fact that Renaissance instruments were such beautiful objects. insisting on the Word of God. The Lutherans in Germany and Scandinavia opted for hymns. Italian madrigals. lute music of considerable subtlety and intricacy. which however they did not mind rewriting as wretched rhyming jingles. and with them almost every note of the Gregorian chant to say — nothing of standard polyphonic church music such as the Masses and Marian motets of Josquin and his contemporaries. sometimes practiced by painters and other artists. Music printing flourished after its introduction at Venice about 1500. viols. older semi-popusongs were pressed into service. the later Italian madrigal. Neither of these two forerunners of the modern piano had much and therefore that range in volume of sound new instrument of the eighteenth century would be christened pianoforte. in fact. in Eliza- bethan times barbershops furnished their customers with a cheap variety of lute. for less complex music. set to tunes assembled by Luther's musical advisers from a variety of sources. who was a Fleming. and fewer musicians. period came caution in musical Instrument making was a minor art. ing 240 him Italians. the Reformation naturally had a serious closely ing on bound effect Depend- Protestant churches jettisoned most or all of the Catholic services. as well as the most international. later. and other instru- ments were perfected especially in members of the cello Italy. We two centuries later. on the to the Catholic liturgy. or metal etching. hymns and metrical Psalms. at the price of considerable style. issuing quantities of French chansons. and the idioms of instrumental music spread very effectively throughout Europe. Besides composed on the spot. Johann Sebastian Bach. or chorales (the German word Choral means hymn). German polyphonic songs. Great lute virtuosos came to the fore. Luther himself. music circulated freely. to keep them occupied while waiting their turn. but it also meant that there was need for quantitatively less music. In northern Europe. art of music. along with some secular songs and even some pieces filched from Catholic plainsong (see p. in the famous a new stay of life shall see the effects of this. he settled down in Munich as the honored director of the palace chapel of the dukes of Bavaria. By temperament he was inclined to encourage polyphonic settings of the chorales. so their individual orientations. or "soft-loud. This meant that church music really touched the people. he was thrice kidnaped as a child on acsetting. the new churches fostered congregational singing of simple devotional songs in the language of the people. not in Latin." for he was probably the most impressive and productive composer of the time. Venetian dialogues. They objected to freely invented poems (hymns).

S. there was also an attractive repertory of relatively simple songs with lute accompaniment. after the and so the only music on board was a book of Psalms with their Mayflower the tunes: the Ainsworth Psalter. And the first book printed in the Colonies was the Bay Psalm Book of 1640. so that many French and German composers of this and especially music for harpsichord. Madrigals. This contained only the words of the Psalms. writing many polished verses for his own and other people's songs. are now widely performed in church and concert hall. and Sir Francis Drake was also a golden age of music. Shakespeare. the greatest of Baroque composers. Music in the Renaissance 241 . must be remembered that France and half level. Sinfoniae sacrae vox 3. A mighty fortress is our God is the famous chorale written (and composed. and the physician Thomas Campion (1567-1620) was well known also as a literary figure. which seems to confirm that the general level of musical sophistication in those days was high. some were written. secular as well as sacred. named after the divine who had retranslated and re-rhymed the texts. However. Among the composers of these lute airs. hymns preserve present-day original Lutheran and Calvinist melodies. In England. Bach. THE BAROQUE One of the marked changes in musical taste over the last few decades has been a general growth in interest in Baroque music. The Golden Age of Queen Elizabeth. but he did not encourage rich polyphonic settings of these tunes. as is shown by the little annotations provided in all modern hymnbooks. the main variety of which was called (for some ob- of scure reason) the virginal. Tunes such as these have been sung and loved from one generation to the next. It the is likely that the English will interest us the most. SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Luca Marenzio and Gesualdo da Venosa. they have supported four centuries of Protestant worship. Nonetheless. analogous to polyphonic Masses and motets but composed in a very much simpler style. characteristically. and Dances" DECCA Giovanni Gabrieli. Madrigals DGG-ARCHIVE "Elizabethan and Jacobean Ayres. Germany remained Catholic. and have become deeply imbedded in the musical consciousness of at the Dowland (1562-1626) excelled also as a lute virtuoso in great demand abroad. Of the various Northern "dialects" of music. Sir Philip Sidney. since evidently one or two wellknown tunes sufficed for Puritan services and it would not have been worth while to print them. a tune once sung with Psalm 100 ("Old Hundredth"). Catholic church music was written in a defiant spirit French Psalter of 1564. Byrd's three surreptitiously published Masses are perhaps the most beautiful examples of the later Renaissance style that can still be heard with some frequency today. References to music in Shakespeare's plays we discussed vinist views. music from the period c. the Anglicans later centuries took a position somewhere between the Catholic and Protestant extremes. page 216 are frequent and often highly technical. William Byrd (1543-1623). Works of J. without music. although it probably does not really stand out over the others. 1600-1 750. Besides hymns and Psalms. record listeners have established a vogue for such lesser lights as Vivaldi and Telemann. it is said) by Luther himself. the Irishman John one besides music. the English Puritans held Cal- of the Catholic Reformation by the greatest composer Elizabethan period. Many rite. All people that on earth do dwell is from Calvin's French Psalter. Playwrights employed songs and instrumental pieces with an excellent sense of their dramatic effect. As we noted in reference to recorded example 7. The colonists had other things on their minds it — beginning of this study. on the French model. Instrumental music reached a very high nations. polyphonic services and anthems were allowed.— continued to produce music for Even in England. there was a lively English madrigal school founded by Thomas Morley on the Italian model.

Its power. and the very condition of musical that its — — development for five hundred years struck Camerata as impersonal and artificial (and.and even Baroque operas —once considered — have re"impossible" for modern audiences cently been revived at important festivals. one singer expressing himself to the accompaniment of the lyre or its equivalent. Their ideal was to imito declaim — tate the accents of passionate speech. as the Greeks had insisted. of a kind that had figured all through the later sixteenth century in connection with the madrigal development. whose son was the astronomer Galileo Galilei. un-Greek). obscure maturing of a new style in the 242 Music in the Renaissance part of a long Renaissance tradition. they felt. How different this sort of activity is from the slow. (We have met it once before. we meet the slogan "new music" as soon as we start to study music around 1600. — ideas. the necessary sacrificing other musical elements. to say nothing of fugal imitation. with the Gothic ars nova after 1300. Indeed. (One of the best of them was a peppery composer-theorist named Vincenzo Galilei. they must be accorded the credit for bringing this tradition to a rousing climax. Is it music so firmly parallels between music hands of professional church musicians such as Dufay or Josquin! Music history was certainly happening in a new way. perhaps significantly. of course. Characteristic Baroque instruments such as the recorder and the harpsichord are enjoying a new wave of popularity one can even buy a — do-it-yourself harpsichord-building made kit. too. turn more and more to the music of this period. recitatives . though the adjective was borrowed from art history only in fairly recent times. is it best thought of as the end of "the era of the Renaissance" or as the beginning of "the modern world"? On the side of modernity. Even the name for this style. They in the entire his- called themselves the "Camerata. put on theatrical performances. comes from the word "recite. they proposed to stress the natural declaiming of words. our first impression is of its deep roots in Renaissance musical thinking. This far earlier composers had not been prepared to go. Indeed. and gossipy public letters to explain and promote their as poets. for one respect they were really prepared to go the way with Greek music. We know about them because they were natural publicists. a humanism musical ideal on a single free agent rather than on the anonymous "harmonious" cooperation of a vocal or instrumental ensemble. The madrigalists' devices to reflect the meaning of words and phrases struck them as childish and unemotional. The borrowing has occasioned a good All this has deal of debate the term among music historians. The Camwas in fact another humanistic society. The Camerata scorned melody as such. Amateur chamber-music players. issuing numerous treatises. recitative. Though erata the Camerata turned sharply against the madriwe shall not be wrong to regard their activ- really wise to hitch the star of gal. Seeking a new way of matching music to the words. so much so that while motets or even madrigals can be played with good effect on a group of instruments. the kind of excited sing-song which a great orator or actor begins to use at moments of highest intensity. which typically served for fugal imitation. For their essential goal was far from novel: it was simply to recapture the emotional power that music and words had achieved together in classical Greece. no composers of the first rank. humanist scholars. prefaces." Everything depends on the words. Polyphony the condition of that cooperation. are we really dealing with a unified period of music history? How single should we balance in our minds (and in our terminology) those stable features that distinguish the music of this hundred-and-fifty-year span from that of earlier and later times. and infiltrated various influential musical positions. even ity as and art seem if to be especially impressive in this period? Indeed. "Baroque music" a familiar one. but when we examine the actual program of the Camerata. This was muin all sical humanism with formed a difference." because they met "in camera" (behind closed doors) at the palace of Count Giovanni Bardi of Florence. could only be regained if modern music restored the Greek condition of individuality. as against the features that change and develop and do so more seriously in the music than in the fine arts of this period? And if the period — should indeed be thought of as unified.) It was coined by a member of a group of selfconscious innovators who stimulated one of the most interesting movements tory of music. to the fine arts. tracts. the member- ship included several wealthy dilettantes as well and singers but. We have seen that Josquin learned if — words consistently his generation was the first to do so and that Marenzio and Morley labored to declaim them more and more subtly. theorists.) The Camerata worked out musical experiments together. or academy. but these composers always fitted the words to recognizable fragments of melody.

The chords did not need to be specified exactly. Sections of block-chord writing were familiar in Masses and motets. share the same musical material. yet we also remember that many currents of Renaissance music had been leading in this same direction. background harmonies filled in by a chord in- the material of the main lines. While the Camerata never meant to revive Greek drama as such. Some analogies may be suggested between Baroque musical texture and the treatment of light and space in Baroque art. — — due course see in are hensible (and boring) words or at least all equally incompre- we do not follow the an English translation along if with the music. lute. typically it moves at a steady pace. Cephalus. 9. The "theatrical style" demanded a completely new musical texture. and. and to even more (Gabrieli). Continuo texture constituted the main feature common to Baroque music over its whole span of a hundred and fifty years. Hence the term "figured bass. in ones Or- names musica music. With all attention focused on the individual singer. To help him." "thorough" being — of this trio texture. and soon moved on to real theater pieces plays set to music all — the way through. This "trio texture" is represented by diagram 4 on the following page. from them consisted of the main line. The English translation was "thorough bass. sung in They occupy are identical in nature. as we have said. with- veloped. (The Baroque period in music used to be called simply and quite reasonably the "basso continuo period. —one singer The new style was called the stile rappresentativo. predictably. and 14 however different they are in other respects. to five or six (Marenzio). In both recorded examples 8 and 9. or theatrical style. how- sometimes share recitative. a strictly subsidiary bass line acting ever. the brief sections played by the violins employ a simple form line was furnished with figures that indicated the correct harmonies in a generalized short- hand way.") The texture was harmonic in orientation. a span during which other features changed very considerably. the basso continuo does as a prop for it below. work in shortened to plain "opera. everything else had to be minimized. From opera and other "theatrical" music. as it were." Opera was the great invention and Baroque period and its main fascination of the musical form. church music (where the chord instrument was the organ). in the Baroque. which was essentially harmonic in ori- — — tends to differ (a cello) in quality. Whereas in the High Renaissance. they tended to coagulate. were based on Greek myths pheus. fill-in chords." the usual English equivalent for the term basso continuo (continuous bass. or organ fills in the gaping space strument such as a lute or a harpsichord. — The emphasis on individuality led naturally toward the stage. the singer had to be given great latitude in such matters as slowing down and speeding up. they could be improvised by the player. they acknowledged its inspiration and they did indeed mean to imitate the musical style of the Greek theater. as we shall generate them. Mass. into a harmonic mass. keeping one eye on the singer and the other eye on the bass line of the score. As polyphonic piece increased from a normal number of three (Dufay) to four (Josquin).) The harpsichord. and provide a very convenient technique for composers and performers in the figuring of basses and the improvising of chords with the help of these figures. dramma per musica and (drama music) for — were or through ultimately The the original opera — first (Daphne. the bass between the treble and the bass as is indicated on the diagram by shading. They started out composing short dramatic monologues. and often work in fugal imitation or in parallel motion. fugal imitation kept all the voice-lines in perfect balance. The favorite instrumental texture involved not one but two main lines above the basso continuo and a also in using notes quite unrestrainedly. The two main lines (most frequently played on violins) the in the treble. and instrumental music. thus setting up a rhythmic framework analogous to the harmonic framework derived from the figures. in the interests of expressivity. one or two lines were strongly highlighted and Music in the Renaissance 243 . same range the basso continuo It the voice-lines in the out worrying about clashes with other polyphonic lines. comparable in importance to the motet.make no sense at all without the words that The recitatives at the end of our recorded examples 8. So a flexible new texture was deentation. Ariadne). we need to discuss the change in musical texture that prepared the way for it. Before speaking of the actual development of opera. the basso continuo spread rapidly to madrigals. (In some styles. Acting as a support. and to the symphony later. such as laments. and madrigal in earlier times. What the continuo idea did was to systematize all these harmonic tendencies. Songs with a simple chordal accompaniment for lute had been known for decades. and certainly new. and an old form of "through" or "throughout "). between them.

that they of had been freed from the keeping in line with other responsibility polyphonic Baroque piece. DIAGRAM FIVE n_n_n_r "i_n ~i_n trumpets organ ?<^X^X?W>^ violins voices basso continuo (cello plus double bass) 244 Music in the Renaissance . now (fig. the "space" could be crowded with a complex array of musical lines and colors. superimposed one on the other from the lowest depths to the strands. the even Matthew The Call- 167) as contrasted to illumination of Early Renaissance painting.DIAGRAM FOUR :w^Wx?<^ via l ins- harpsichord basso continuo (cello) others placed in the shade. we can think of the "theatrical" lighting of Caravaggio's ing of St. to the limits of hearing. We can also think of the basso continuo as generating a sort of harmonic "space" (or "space-time") within which the singers or the solo instruments could trace patterns that were increasingly brilliant and elaborate. In a fully developed dizziest heights tended through — for the chords could be ex- all the octaves.

others emple lines the phatic. Monteverdi enriched opera by drawing on the full range of the music of his time. D of ordering polyphonic lines. Josquin. who has been called "the last great madrigalist and the a neat epithet first great opera composer" which reminds us that Baroque opera came as — a culmination of the expressive tendencies of Renaissance music. harmony came about as the result of the combination of polyphonic lines. 255). as they swirl around the clouds and drapery on a great Baroque ceiling under which. god of light and order. in all Baroque music can be occupy a range between two diametrically opposed musical forms. harmony was a primary element providing the channels in which the polyphonic lines could be traced. But these sections were now subdivided into arias a reflection of the Baroque fascination with opera and late sisted of the — — choruses of various kinds. remark that Pity and Love have triumphed). It proceeds to a brief recitative (a Spirit announces that "the gentle singer" is leading his wife back to the upper world). As a madrigalist. and uses the minor scale (however. notably in the madrigal. Indeed. replied that since he and others were composing an altogether new type of music with expressiveness as its one goal. In 1600. we may perhaps see a renewal of Greek "archetypes" here: the music of Dionysus. speaking like a Greek chorus. as basso continuo. As for the qualification "in B minor. who Camerata members in propaganda. And his first opera. for both styles were prominent in both periods. boldness. opposed to the music of Apollo. showed what a composer of genius and experience could do with a form invented just a few years earlier by the intellectual dilettantes of the Camerata. an interior section. and Palestrina (see p. Then. highly individual way of expressing emotion. Monteverdi surpassed even Marenzio and Gesualdo in expressive power. polyphony still played a key role in fully developed Baroque music (and even in the trio texture. with its tendency ries of the toward fugal imitation in the two main lines). 236). 232).* As the voices and instruments pursue their multisome of them rhapsodic. hurt the innovators. the trio texture." this is a way of referring to pieces and distinguishing them from others that came into use with the development of the tonal system (see p. In about a dozen books of madrigals and related forms. how extreme and seemed rarely to uncommon and which unsettling the tell in us innovations the conservative older generation. the Mass still consame five "ordinary" sections as it did for Dufay. we can sical trace the gradual transformation of the old style into the new. fugue was the pow- the fugue. and flair. Monteverdi started composing in the chief muform of the time. the new way Baroque composers. Taking a cue from the Camerata. indeed. recitative and fugue. Thus a figure such as Bach owes his outstanding position among late Baroque composers both to his profound sense of harmony. Diagram 4 can be filled up as in diagram 5 (see preceding page). Besides writing recitative that is infinitely more moving. Monteverdi. — Notice that in spite of the classicizing theoCamerata. he imported recitative. 1607). written in his fortieth year. Whereas in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. said to erful * new For constructive principle. This appears in a short continuous ex- comes near the dramatic climax of Orfeo (recorded example 8). and also his unparalleled mastery of polyphony. is in the tonality of major). this music would have been performed. The leading figure of the early Baroque was Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643). holy. a notorious attack was leveled Monteverdi's license with respect to counterpoint in the Palestrina tradition (see p. published between 1583 and 1638. Orpheus cerpt that Music in the Renaissance 245 . Recitative within a harmonic texture was the new unrestrained.The most magnificent example of this is the Sanctus section (1724) of the famous Mass in B minor by Johann Sebastian Bach (the beginning is heard in recorded example 10). The passage opens with a brief madrigal-like chorus (the inhabitants of Hades. in the Baroque. of God Hosts!") ("Holy. less angels singing praises to Lord God holy. We cannot draw any simple distinction between Renaissance and Baroque music on the basis of polyphonic versus harmonic style. which are not the annals of music history. but all intricately bound together — — space almost seems to sway with the change of framework harmonies determined by the We can well imagine number- the basso continuo. in a book with the amusingly stuffy title On the Imperfections of Modern Music. as the long journey begins. the trawas as skillful as the ditional restraints simply did not apply. god of wine and orgies. the Sanctus section. and much else into name the pieces until they were madrigals in only. The Bach Mass begins on the note B and on the B-minor triad. La Favola d'Orfeo (The Fable of Orpheus. The difference lies in the fact that Baroque polyphony works against a background of chords predetermined by the basso continuo. the madrigal. At- against tacks of this sort.

. tative. The domination of great virtuoso singers. nor the chords filled in by the harpsichord above it.000 could support seven opera houses. the fact it is basso continuo (in a characteristic steady motion) and the chords are identical each time. whereby a single element a tune." But a crucial step was taken in 1637 for example. who at very much in evidence as chapelmaster of St. responsive to the wishes of the public and the pressures of the box office in a way that church junction music. Both opera and the movies were and are deeply popular arts. Large and small melodic intervals. are handled with great awareness of their affective power. ment changes from the bright harpsichord to somber organ an early instance of the use the (fig^ was also celebrated in an opera promoted by the Camerata at the Florentine court. Notice also the harmonic wrench at the very end of the ex- eration. wondering whether perhaps the Spirits mean to trick him. in praise of the power of his lyre. The result is an astonishingly lifelike portrayal of an impetuous and passionate perin sonality. example of this style in its early from the pen of its greatest master. a bass is repeated a number of times with some changes that modify its nature in interesting ways without entirely obscuring it. Mark's Cathedral. Venice with its population of nearly 140. the more were written by composers harpsichord has been used throughout the opera as the instrument of the upper world. but it grew more and more important in the instrumental music of the Baroque and later periods. In fact. and cliches. any more than movie theaters generally run last year's movies (though today." "amata" "luci" "io pur" (alas. which we have seen celebrated in Rubens' series of paintings glorifying her life Monteverdi. This is a simple example of an important musical 246 Music in the Renaissance less enthusiastically over many new gen- operas. routines. heart 238). of a by musical centers Italy. Like the movies. even though the conmay seem surprising. All through the Baroque period. or. had been pioneered in the sixteenth century. But as he himself would have said. the age of seventy was still contributed several excellent of orchestration for dramatic effect. is horrified to see Eurydice enveloped in a cloud and taken from him ("M« quel ecclisi . The wedding of Marie de' Medici. — cerpt as Orpheus and actually looks back. its trio texture). — — fine sets of variations for virginals were written by the Elizabethan composers. an example followed only the expressive end. as here. but the vocal melody changes somewhat. At the point of crisis. consisting of long drawn-out notes. we feel a sense of tragic inevitability when Orpheus yields to his feelings. too. The sequence of chords resembles one that comes at a semidramatic place we have mentioned Morley's madrigal Stay. Sometimes he speaks a great emotional rush. opera performances were considered obligatory for royal weddings. extreme means seem perfectly justified by in (p. with the opening of public opera houses in Venice. from the surrounding tuneful nature. variation technique was little used for opera arias. recitative coherent bass tuating instrumental sections (in little all manded clearly its a the is that new Later in the century. and coronations. both musical and dramatic. 177). opera houses did not generally present last year's operas. and looks back. beloved. by its punc- and by the that line. All interest focuses on Orpheus' reciting line. has any character worth mentioning. The earliest operas were private court entertainments. opera depended critically on stars. eyes. the organ as the instrument of Hades. After Monteverdi. exthe at- As for the set off little aria Qual onor. and consonance or lack of it with respect to the accompanying harmony. This section is handled in flexible recienlivened by instrumental interludes. Opera became the rage not only with the aristocracy but also the middle classes and. at other times he pauses tenderly on certain key words "ohime. I now). the gondoliers. overcome by anxiety and desire. but Monteverdi's effect is much more cruciating. this aria a sprightly tune is He breaks off dramatically at the end. . and some instructive can be drawn between Baroque opera figures theaters in a parallels and the movies of today. he decides to look back at Eurydice in spite of Pluto's injunction not to do so until they are out of Hades. Neither the basso continuo line. and to this day opera carries overtones of "high society. which followed naturally from the emphasis on individuality in came to the original thinking of the Camerata. birthdays.— sings a regular song. made up of three poetic stanzas with parallel music. the chord instru- technique known as variation. fresh entertainment all The public de- the time. is not. opera houses seem to be repositories of the past). Most operas were hastily put together out of a stock of facile formulas. is it said. or aria. and he uses technical means of very sort that laid him open to conservative tacks. . These would be about right for movie modern city."). This technique. In these. a fine period.

the singers developed the art of improvising vocal variations during the — trills. at the 1650. costume. and accompanied only by basso continuo and harp- — Music in the Renaissance 247 . scene painting. and colorada capo aria form became another device to show off the stars. the dance realized one tendency of the Baroque even more fully than did the great ceilings. For seventeenthcentury opera developed fantastically in the direction of scenic effects of a highly spectacular sort. little book). they were less like dramas than great rambling extravaganzas. as in figure 172. an unusual center.— be a characteristic (or a curse) of opera up to And the present day. the most important was Alessandro Scarlatti ( 1659— 1725) of Naples. passion. gods and goddesses descended from the heavens on illumoving platforms complete with sionistic of the di's — sunburst. and (for a time) even instrumental parts. with its ated gesturings right —and has just its made of important — note the figures on the far Marie histrionic timing (clearly a dramatic entrance). Declamation. Baroque opera was not so far from the movies. and painting blend to create an illusion of constant movement. Seventeenth-century Italian opera plots were incredibly involved. second A-section tura passages. and especially the stage designers. But the form was admirably calculated for purely musical expansion. decoration. church music could also become thoroughly operatic: we two shall see important religious offshoots of opera. sculpture. Theresa (see p. Scarlatti's Fugge I' aura (Fled's the breeze. Quite apart from the frankly theatrical conception found in Bernini's Ecstasy of St. choruses. making a special point of multiple disguises and subplots. Baroque art was also looking in that direction. in the same way that movie directors take second place to the actors. collaborated in operatic productions. It also approached the visual arts of the time in an unusually close way. using moving scenery and stage machinery most ingenious manufacture. again. the development Baroque opera after the time of Monteverdi was remarkably rapid and diverse. The lessons learned from Renideals of the of an — aissance experimentation in musical expressive- were ness standardized into by which fective formulas a series of ef- arias could express As rage. which was a major operatic 1 5 operas. of the music. we almost expect stage machinery to swirl the clouds. the great change in emphasis from began recitatives to to dominate After arias. the recitatives grew simpler and more perfunctory. or rapture. a character could hardly say anything without being obliged to return to the same words a little later. 170). 177). Of later Italian opera composers. after the Italian libretto. And if reli- as theatrical as in Bernini's St. figures. was In Italy. Thus the recorded example 9) is a typical small da capo aria relatively short and vigorous. and all the other Camerata were forgotten in face overwhelming interest in virtuoso singing. repeated twenty or — an evening. roulades. Besides the main Italian variety. drama. For at the same time that opera was bringing Baroque music into the theater. fear. Furthermore. Even historians who are most inclined to view the Baroque as a single unified period must admit that opera in 1700 wears a very different aspect from that of 1600. artists and architects. MonteverEurydice was doubtless whisked away from Orpheus in an elaborate machine. there was a distinctive French offshoot of centered at the court of Louis gious sculpture could become XIV. a rigid which both text ABA structure in and music of the A-section re- turned verbatim after the different. and drapery up to extraordinary new spatial vistas. the oratorios of Handel and Bach's church cantatas. numbers grew more elaborate and impressive. the authors of the words (librettists. poetry. disdain. A number including Bernini himself. But these plots did maneuver the characters into a great variety of situations allowing them and it to express various sentiments in arias was the arias that showed off their voices to the best advantage. its self-conscious choreography and posed attitudes of anguish. Arias became standardized into the da capo ("from the musical these 1 beginning") form. tenderness. The ambitious blending of the arts movable architecture. But — stagecraft has not survived as well as ceilings have. vocal and instrumental music. The result was a sharp dualism that imposed an artificial "stop-andgo" quality on the dramatic action. in which architecture. 137 and fig. Obviously this form. Looking at figure 176 and colorplate 17. or Rubens' Marie de' Medici (fig. on the basis of "still" pictures like figure 172. He wrote some number even in those facile times. To speak and now it. with its exagger- 186). We can only imagine descriptions. contrasting and the Atext and music of the B-section section could last as long as five minutes or more. expense of arias recitatives. there is something distinctly stagy about such paintings Rape as Poussin's Women of the Sabine (fig. Theresa. In this spectacular tendency. opera composers often took second place to the singers. made a shambles of thirty times in the dramatic illusion.

however. was the only nation besides Italy to translate this fascination into its The founder of own national style of opera. These two works. These choruses. Settling in London. and they should not make us forget that oratorio in England was actually a local reflection of the universal Baroque fascination with opera. Richard the Lion-Hearted. they bought printed translations of the libretto — together with candles.* own subject. sometimes even overshadowed the dramatic action. all which were way from the Tamerlane. After two centuries of neglect. composed by Handel with particular power and imagination. who became an influential figure at the court of Louis XIV. for concert presentation. In Italy he met Alessandro and also Alessandro's son Domenico 260). and the architects and painters of Versailles and the Louvre. beautifully the melodic Handel's years of apprenticeship were passed in the opera houses of Hamburg. after The original he was naturalized a Friedrich Haendel or Handel. words are Above it lost in the fluid how notice all. We meet the further curious phenomenon of major Italian opera theaters flourishing for years in places as remote as London. Handel produced about forty Italian operas there "produced" in both senses of the word. Messiah. Words are repeated as many times as necessary to allow the music to round out its fertile. Handel's operas are full of beautiful music and great patterns have been calculated to suit and flatter also create a powerful impression of characteri- the soprano voice. After about 1720. Handel's most famous work. — as impresario as well as composer. though it contains many beautiful and well-loved arias in addition to choruses. Our excerpt also includes a fragment of the decidedly routine recitative following the aria. Petersburg. the other countries of Europe were entranced by Italian opera. When his various opera companies at last failed. like group. in the eighteenth century. an extremely influential poet-librettist. ranged blossom in — — — by the same composer. also lacks a regular cast of characters." Yet undoubtedly this very fact contributed to its success abroad. spelling. or else an anonymous commenting arias. response to them. and Venice. 248 Music in Brit- German form was Georg the Renaissance The subjects.) the melody is does not sound unduly complex because it is shaped into attractive and easily grasped phrases. and St. which represented the people of Israel or their enemies. along with the playwrights Moliere (with whom he collaborated) and Racine. (One thinks of the vogue for foreign movies today and the subtitles. (It should be understood that operas of the time also included much larger. With the important exception of France. some of them several times typical of the times. and a very good one. French opera was a Florentine dancer and violinist. as we have said. coloratura passages. ) Italian opera became the common musical language of Europe. Metastases librettos. the oratorio Israel in Egypt involves scarcely any arias and scarcely any story. which seems positively to zation and drama. Standardization and a modicum of order and elegance was also applied to the opera plots. Vienna. involving noble Roman types caught up in high-minded and neatly balanced conflicts between love and honor. many actually very long. expansive form. these works are finding performances today. are exceptions. Stories mostly the Old Testament. The characters held forth in recitatives and opera characters. Florence. for he acted Scarlatti (see p. slower arias. Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-87). were set again and again some of them nearly a hundred times in all. and Alexander the Great to the myth of Jupiter and Semele — his single quasi-operatic venture in English. and they show how a composer could overcome rigid formal conventions and the tyranny of the singers. Pietro Metastasio. But unlike opera. oratorio found a large place for the chorus. and that the singers unlike the singer on our recording improvised vocal variations during — — Though the second A-section. This secco (dry) recitative causes an abrupt change of style as well as an abrupt lowering of musical interest. Julius Caesar. as those of were expanded to provide extra roles. More single-mindedly than elsewhere Europe. written in English and designed neither for the stage nor for actual church services but from Samson. sung in Italian by Italians. and the most impressive was Frideric * ish composer German working a His in of Italian opera England. Hamburg. a religious offshoot or analogue of opera. and so on.sichord chords. or Jephthah. provided to help audiences follow the action. the on resourceful composer concentrated oratorio. accompanied by full orchestra. France. opera in France served and cele- in . develop a love interest. such Saul. This curious phenomenon shows the extent to which the dramatic aspect of Italian opera was secondary to what someone later called "concert in costume. cut down the fantastic adventures that delighted the seventeenth century into something closer to the "classical" French drama of Racine. George Handel (1685-1759).

for to us Music in the Renaissance 249 . Nevertheless. and careful declamation. less emotional. unnatural ornamentation. and for some two the English were thereafter. His operas held the stage for an entire century a very unusual situation at that time and later composers felt obliged to duplicate his patterns. and which to some extent has held true through the istic difference and Italian centuries. Jean Philippe Rameau (1683-1764). Act V OISEAU-LYRE instrumental music. he produced music of great beauty and distinction. By the time Han- fugal one. to the advanced spirits of the day his operas For sisted — — seemed impossibly stilted. hundred years brated Basically. without words. Messiah. "ARIE MUSICALl" George Frideric Handel. Dido and Aeneas Jean Philippe Rameau. The best of them. consisting of a solemn. miniature opera combining French and del came to London in 1710. a type of orchestral piece used to open operas and other works. and reasonable. Rameau particularly developed orchestral and choral effects. and the French would not tolerate the pica- resque stories of seventeenth-century Italian librettos. This led to a character- emphasis between French which formed a favorite topic of smart conversation at the time. choruses.the monarchy. This was a reflection of the very significant development of instrumen- music in the Baroque period. was an organist and important musical theorist who turned to opera composition only after 1730. content to import foreign musicians. Act III OISEAU-LYRE George Frideric Handel. French opera reany serious innovations. for he would not follow these composers in sloughing off recitatives and staking everything on arias. the first period music history during which purely instrumental music began to approach vocal music in quality and importance. Orfeo. A and much less well sung. arias in opera. high-flown section followed by a faster. 148) also contributed to a particular rigidity and pomp in Lully's style. French opera was more spectacular. as the ians had done during the fifteenth century. Though Purcell ranks as one of England's greatest composers. the French stressed the ballet. subtle. while the Italians stressed and beautiful singing. But it was quite another problem for composers to know how to make an entire instrumental piece of some sophistication stand by itself. but less melodious. seem simple and obvious enough. Lully held to the ideals of the Camerata rather than to those of his Italian contemporaries. In brief. As compared to Italian opera. Act II DGG-ARCHIVE Claudio Monteverdi. and Scarlatti's use of a string postlude in Fugge I'aura. it cannot be said that musical standards in general were kept up to the level of the Elizabethan era. The atmosphere that produced the "royal style" in the visual arts (see p. instrumental passages played an integral part in opera. Madrigals CAMBRIDGE RECORDS. By the time of Handel and Rameau. once a successful standard mold had been established by Lully. Italian characteristics. but leaning toward the French. To understand the problem takes some effort. This is most familiar to us through the so-called French overture. comparable in quality to that of his contemporaries Handel and Bach. tal in Monteverdi's use of brief string interludes in Orpheus' aria Qual onor. SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Claudio Monteverdi. is Dido and /Eneas (1689) by the English composer Henry Purcell (1659-95). Ital- a variety of reasons. Hippolyte et Aricie. and overloaded by heavy. old-fashioned. Semele. pompous. Part I (note French overture) Henry Purcell.

the Renaissance Mass and of a piece.1750). 1626-61) and Francois Couperin (1668-1733). the lively — — courante (running dance). A toccata plus a fugue made a well-contrasted combination). which form a well-contrasted set. Fugues sometimes have the reputation of being dry and mathematical. that was handled whole extent in various ways throughout the relatively long polyphonic way. Baroque instrumental music stemmed directly from the Renaissance. This is an early Bach fugue (before 1708). became a specialty with French composers. however. In this motet led ultimately to the fugue. To lis- the and seventeenth centuries. presented in a somewhat disorganized. and the rapid gigue to compose Music became customary these stylized dances in a group. called "prelude. First of all. The third possibility lay in instrumental copying vocal adapting the style dominated all vocal without words. In instrumental music. rhapsodic way. the slow sarabande. but in to hear just — . fugal imitation was typically limited to a single me- lodic fragment. dominating the European dance scene until the rise of Russian ballet in the nineteenth century.) The idea of "stylized" dances has a long history after the Baroque period. the composer could divert or dazzle the listener by special idiomatic effects peculiar to the instrument in question. In essence each was well understood by the sixteenth century.— nothing seems more natural than writing or tening to a piece just for instruments. This amounted to of fugal imitation which sic's music of the time. Even interplay of instrumental same melodic fragments gave and gave the the listener something to follow. and perhaps bold effects of harmony and volume. when. The writing of suites. and the Roumanian Dances of Bartok. The stands out subject dozen-odd appearances in the course of the work. composer something that might be described as a principle of purely musical organization. older types such as the pavane and galliard gave way in popularity to the stately allemande (German dance). however this may be. These highly sophisticated pieces suggested particular dances by using their general rhythm. to a madrigal poem. Simple music for dancing was of course the original and eternal province of instruments and the original source of the antipathy toward instruments on the part of the Fathers of the Church. which simulates the standard Renaissance texture of four "voices. Louis (c. perhaps in the "bass" (the pedals). However. with what accompaniments. with no noticeable break around the year 1600. concise short. In the decades following 1600. the actual dances suggested were of great variety. They feature rapid runs. as we know from the minuets of Haydn. broken chords. 250 (jig). to touch). A fugue for organ by Bach. then. a process that arose in vocal compositions in order to differentiate successive portions of the text being set to music. (When a great jazz player or group gets to work on a well-known dance tune today. the parts carrying the mu- music. is our recorded example 1 1 (without the short toccata. there was no longer any reason to keep changing the melodic fragments." clearly at each of We follow it its with considerable interest. how could the composer sixteenth hold the listener's attention? There were three ways of solving this problem. called the fugue subject. the so-called Cathedral Fugue in E minor. or to a libretto. both for harpsichord and for orchestra. Renaissance composers began to write what we may call "idealized" or "stylized" dances. The second possibility issued from the dance. of whom the most famous were an uncle and nephew. on what principle should one note or one section of music follow the next? If there were no words. called a suite. Though these pieces may in- all — deed seem very flamboyant and exciting witness Bach's well-known Toccata and Fugue in D minor for organ the genre does not allow for much development. No longer disturbed by this antipathy. mood. it was probably French in origin. one of the most characteristic and important forms of Baroque music. waiting how. Of these. the mazurkas of Chopin. and added a few miscellaneous lighter. what was "natural" was music with words music tied to a liturgical text from the church services. more modern ones. for the French were the ballet masters of Europe." that was composed to go with it. but they grew much too subtle to serve for actual dancing. the minuet enjoyed special popularity (and we shall see that the minuet also played a unique role in music after c. In Baroque times. If there was no line of thought established by a verbal text. Works produced on this principle are generally called toccatas (from the Italian toccare. The first minuet is said to have been danced by Louis XIV to music composed by Lully. and pattern of repeats. It Baroque in suites generally the Renaissance made a framework out of the four dances just named. and in which part of the range the subperhaps in the "soprano" (the ject will return top of the keyboard). forthright and fugue relatively simple. everybody stops dancing and listens.

other fugues sound fact they brilliant. and its crisp. both during and after the Baroque period. cello. and three trumpets. and on the basso continue) cellos. and faster. but not quite: timpani (kettledrums). Whereas Corelli and the Italians preferred to make their solo group out of the standard triosonata combination two violins. a good choice would be one of the famous set of six Brandenburg Concertos by Bach (dated 1721. as the sound. The different played a principle which fully doubtless the developed concerto grosso is most impressive instrumental form of the Baroque period. oboes. which we recog- volume levels. contains only movements. along with a greater sense of tightness. three oboes. as we shall see. containing see p. One type of sonata was equivalent to a dance suite. and harpsichord. and idiomatic music Baroque period. The the oldest Western instrument in its high organ. It shows more any other how far purely instrumental music had advanced in little more than a hundred years. cello. 3. Some organs were small and even portable. but which has proved to be endlessly fertile. after Vivaldi. to sound. these certainly produce better results with Baroque organ music. had become almost standardized to three: fast. reached its peak of development during the Baroque period. pipes. (see p." some of them always in fugal style. both for clarity of polyphonic texture in the fugues and for bril- liance in the toccatas. in G major. only one set of pipes (for an early example. see 114). horns. Many organ firms nowadays are building instruments on the Baroque model. notably in Germany. Here the orchestra alternated and con- trasted with Solo harpsichord music lute declined sharply in popularity took from position in the sixteenth century. and intellectual fascination. acerbic accents form an es- component sential the "Baroque typical . There was also the solo concerto." some of music combination of the time grouped two violins.1675-1741). general. recorders. workmanship. The reader should hear one of these works all the way through. and as compared to usual church in all organs. But wealthy churches ordered instruments with several dozen different sets of fig. the main form was the concerto over grosso. The Fugue in E minor sounds sturdy and responsible. for nine string instruments. our recording employs one originally built for Hamburg in 1695. bas- soons. Keyboard instruments. the harpsichord written for them. a solo violin holding its own against the orchestra. both of them Music in fast. and especially of the violin family. the Renaissance 251 . still-unequaled violin maker (1644- Antonio Stradivari or Stradivarius 1737) of Cremona. double basses. the organ further reinforces the bass and fills in chords above it. and the "solo" and sonata. Each Brandenburg Concerto features a different and very original combination. which. and "trio" from the fact that there were three main lines. and bassoons. The favorite chamber- Brandenburg Concerto No. dedicated to the Margrave of Brandenburg). and harpsichord) Bach seems to have had the idea of demonstrating the whole spectrum of instrumental possibilities in his set. A number of Baroque organs are still in working condition. called "movements. trumpets. and in the next by the Venetian Antonio Vivaldi (c. Almost. slow. and also of the Baroque period in clearly than — — three flutes.) Less variety is shown in the number and order of movements. use (it is and Carolingian times: still documented in Roman 222) as well as the most grandiose. another type consisted of a rather loose number of miscellaneous musical sections. powerful. and could be groupings or combinations derived from up to three separate keyboards plus a pedalboard (a keyboard for the feet). This was the great age of the violin. these provided a great variety of timbres and nize as the characteristic trio texture 243 ) of the characteristics of lute music. harpsichord. such as that required for Bach's Mass (recorded example 10). two Perhaps Bach expected a slow movement to be inserted or even improvised in the middle. A members large orchestra of the late Baroque period. a single violin supported by cello A major role in establishing the Baroque sonata and the concerto grosso was played in one generation by the great Roman violinist Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713). might employ upper range violins and violas. pieces written for this combination were called trio sonatas ("sonata" from the Italian suonare. And the more powerful rhythms are underlined by in the smaller group of soloists — may seem simple enough. the age tyj? of the masterly. For orchestra. although four in- struments were required in all). The important instruments were orchestral and chamber-music flutes. or deeply serene.a convey as wide an expressive range as any other Baroque music. (A somewhat encyclopedic turn of mind is characteristic of Bach. solemn. 240) were much cultivated. flourished in the served very widely as a chord-filling instrument. The clavichord and the harpsichord (see p.

the nobility of of usual. plus string orchestra. and it does not play at all during the second. TURNABOUT 252 Music in the Renaissance move- it form meant the da Baroque period. like movements US No. another dignified chamber-music piece with the orchestra silent. the regular way. nfS No. rousing orchestral music at the beginning very typical of the returns with a concerto grosso as a genre sichord. in ing of two G 2. basso continuo. and harpsichord.movement is a fine spirited fugue. Johann Sebastian Bach. in B-flat major. which were then still current in conservative circles). bassoon. and the left hand of the harpsichord the right hand of the harpsichord filling — in feeling as —whether is ment t$ No. has a solo group consistand a violin. in D major. quite systematically. for the harpsichord. 2) Suites for harpsichord mace. as well as a harmonic one. and also the other movements thorough. violin. Brandenburg move- chamber-music piece. Christmas Concerto Johann Sebastian Bach. for a special type of high obsolete). — solid effect to brisk. Typically first toccatalike cadenza. the in steady. The third. Toccata and Fugue Six (esp. for in projected. or free improvisatory pas- "wrap up" the end of the moveHowever. a form that deed. once again. In the second movement. recorder. but with con- Francois Couperin. chords as needed. This is another example of instrumental music copying vocal music. it never shares their melodic material. the basso continuo provides the upper instruments with an absolutely regular rhythmic framework. music library Henry Purcell. major. and harpsichord plus string orchestra. 4. cello. and two viola da gambas (forerunners of the cello. style of Corelli as of a suite. 6. Trio sonatas BACH GUILD. almost relentless way in which the feeling with sharply sorrowful. however. the second movement trio-sonata — is is brightness the Concerto No. a serious for two violas. is the most brilliant its and fascinating combina- V$ No. F Bach sometimes employs the part of the orchestra. The second movement amounts to a piece of expressive chamber music in a fugal style for three of the soloists plus basso continuo and harpsichord a "quartet-sonata" movement for violin. recorder. As is often the case. violin. — all the other instruments stand by. three oboes. in D minor for organ Brandenburg Concertos Concerto No. in F famous of the major. In the slow movement. ABA the SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Arcangelo Corelli. capo aria form of Italian opera. and oboe (the noisy trumpet takes a rest. but from flute. as' . has a couple of minuets and other dances tacked onto the end of the regular three movements. Nothing could contrast more — Baroque Bach was one of the first movement includes a long sage. has a strong tendency to lapse into a solo concerto for harp- and oboe movement. has a curiously "dark" solo group consisting of two violas. a fugal As has the lilt ment of a The suite. rather than as solo instruments. the customary last does not follow the customary form of the gigue but instead is a literal form. movement ABA flutes telefunken last of a gigue. violin 1 . frequent solemn alternation between solo and orchestral forces comes as near to the older any music in the Brandenburg Concertos. or joyful. The to employ. violin. while triumphant fugue played all the way the orchestra has a through by the solo group much less functional role. 2. The upper instruments do share material. flutes and two horns plus string orchestra. along with the orchestra). as here. in- tion of high trumpet.a ^ No. in the third movement ment. the major. for flute. In the two forces alternate first in a fairly each tends to play its own separate musical material. Fantasias for strings VANGUARD Antonio Vivaldi. in (now siderable subtlety. The loud. with set. a trio texture is created not — — from the usual two violins and cello. 5.

which Luther himself had said might well be incorporated into full-scale musical pieces ring in and Bach's career was as humdrum and provin- cial as that of his great contemporary Handel was glamorous and cosmopolitan. definitive way. Around 1700. He settled in Leipzig as cantor of St. Venice. like Josquin Desprez. Bach composed many magnificent organ chorale-preludes as well as five different plete cycles of cantatas for all the com- Sundays and So at least we are told. recitatives. Cantatas by Bach generally end with a simple harmonic simple so setting of some appropriate chorale — that the congregation could either sing along. Both were operatic analogues. choruses were often (not always) added. for Bach. Concentrating for his last twenty years on purely instrumental music. or the voice of Jesus answer inquiries from a re- — pentant sinner. Composers learned to enrich the hymn tunes with their own musical comments. in the Catholic world a hundred years earlier. the cantata was "proper. For the Lutheran Church. these passages were sung during Holy to a Gregorian chant-formula. as many of Bach's ancestors had also been. while the congregation found their religious experience enriched by a reference to a familiar tune and a well-remembered pious thought. and Pilate. That it should have done so is inevitable. the cantata same spot was in liturgical. four of his sons grew up to be composers. and as musician at minor courts. unspecified Christians meditated or theologized in the recitatives and agonized or affirmed their faith in the arias. like a fragmentary opera. — vived. though. forming only a fraction of a Good Friday service that counted as long even in Week those pious days. Peter. Scarlatti. Now. the Biblical text was troped (see p. but even casts new light on some aspects of sixteenth-century music as deed. it could be fitted into a highly complex chorus at the beginning of a cantata. We can see that in externals a Lutheran cantata resembled a short Handel oratorio. a service for which he was sometimes paid with a cord of wood or a barrel of wine. The chief music that Bach was employed to provide for the Lutheran services was the Sunday cantata. and most other opera composers wrote dozens of cantatas. he issued one great collection after another in which he seemed to treat a certain kind of music in an exhaustive. composers naturally liked to in- corporate chorales into their cantatas. the tunes were familiar enough to make an effect even without the words. Bach raised an enormous family. He rarely traveled except to consult on the purchase of new organs. while one singer presented the words of the Evangelist in recitative and others took the roles of Jesus. Matthew lasts three and a half hours. Like the alleluia. As the greatest composer of Lutheran church music. Mark's. In- The name work not only helps to clarify all of Baroque music. converse with one another. recent research has sug- ment gested that this was not at the heart of his interest. and arias. or chorales. together with two Passions settings of passages from the Gospels telling the complete story of the last days of Jesus. in compositions for organ called chorale-preludes (because originally they were played just before the singing of the chorales). In the Catholic Church. Between him and the Leipzig bureaucrats there was little love lost. But whereas the oratorio was an informal religious presentation in concert. only about two hundred Bach cantatas have sur- feasts of the year. or even into an aria. It filled ex- the Lutheran Sunday service that the Gregorian alleluia did in the its text to the feast or the perhaps (see p. chorale could also be incorporated in a much more subtle way. Since the Lutheran Church had a long tradition of proper hymns. well. cantata was originally an Italian term (meaning "sung") for a brief chamber-music piece for voice and instruments a few arias linked in a semidramatic way by recitatives. seems to sum up his entire era. Notwithstanding Bach's impressive achievein church music. Bach's highly dramatic and moving Passion According to St. such as Hope and Fear.of Johann Sebastian Bach ( 1 685— 1750) has already figured largely in our discussion of Baroque music. Occasionally cantata librettos had symbolic figures. furthermore. the prestige of Italian opera was such that some Lutheran pastors imported the cantata form boldly and frankly into the church service. His years of apprenticeship were passed as church organist in sleepy towns and villages in central Germany. actly the Mass (see p. Thomas' Church a high position in the Lutheran world. analo- — gous to chapelmaster of St. Handel. his church season quoting the particular Gospel reading of the day. Sometimes de- Music in the Renaissance 253 ." referCatholic 240). representing the Christian world at large rather than any individual communicants. and he would doubtless have preferred a great court position. or at least feel that they had a part in rizing the A little drama they had summa- just witnessed. 220) with plenty of chorales. To this operatic framework. Generally. 218). Indeed.

rather. How exactly were the triads related to the "vanishing point" and to one another? This can be explained in general terms if the reader has an approximate idea of musical notation. we are hardly surprised to read that he made a "modern" transcription of a Mass by Palestrina a century and a half after it was written. and he understood better than any other composer how to manipulate the new principles of "functional harmony." The point in singling out C.) We may say that the tonal system provided the Baroque composers with a method of ordering "soundspace" by setting up a "vanishing point" the tonic triad against which every aspect of the composition was reckoned. did 254 Music in the Renaissance in all related to one another such a way that each had tion in a total system beautifully elaborate system system. by the generation into its own of some of his Fugue was rejected Bach. In the didactic works. thing. with its strong systematic tendencies. It was this that the Baroque period. In a and chords were not four-volume serial publication of Clavieriibung {The Use of the Keyboard)* Bach spoke his last word on the harpsichord suite. for this technical matter was * Engraved on copper. We have seen that the Renaissance had established harmony based on sions of chords that remain the basis of Baroque music. It was only during the Baroque period that the major scale (and the minor scale. Anne Fugue). The notes mous work also demonstrated the feasibility of a new tuning system closely resembling our modern equal temperament (see p. in a very beautiful hand. 221). both were abandoned about the same time. The preludes are generally toccatalike. flexible means of organizing works of art during a long period of history." Bach did not introduce functional harmony it had grown up slowly. two in each of the existing major and minor tonalities. and did not come containing The Art after of until the twentieth century." It is important for us to end our study of Baroque music with a brief discussion of functional harmony. clavichord). At the other. but new way of looknew way of hearing a them. the organ fugue (the St. that could substitute for the old reliance on words to provide the essential line of Like perspective. Note that the process (see Synopsis of Terms) involved tracing the music backward. Line (a) of diagram 6 shows the C-major scale. is that a semitone cadence between the notes marked 7 and 8 supports the tonic (see p. rather than some other note as in medieval music. 100). The comparison between the tonal system and perspective has some validity in terms of technique and aesthetic principle. . Bach. The reader will do well to review our discusmodal melodies in the Middle Ages (pp. and a new way of juxtaposing them to encourage this kind of "relational" hearing. these were intended less as teaching material for the young than as encyclopedic examples for the learned and —one nity. just as they learn to write "counterpoint in the Palestrina style. the organ chorale-prelude. In The Art of Fugue. spite greatest music. and accordingly numbered "1. and — was already fully conversant with it but he exploited its possibilities so profoundly that his work remains a model in this respect to the present day.— scribed as "didactic" compositions. even though it has little or none in historical terms. rather feels The best — known as is monuments for eterThe Well-tempered Clavier. 217) with the note C singled out as the tonic. 221-22) and modal harmony in the Renaissance (p. forty-eight preludes and fugues for harpsichord (alternatively. basis of all music. but had not treated them in what triads. a series of nearly twenty different canons and fugues all based on some variant of a single eight-note fashion to a feeling of centrality for one triad. Bach was the most powerful writer of emotional recitatives since Monteverdi. This fa- perhaps as crucial for the future development of music as was a technique such as perspective for the development of painting (see p. a craftsman in every- some of his own engraving. which is simply the diatonic or white-note scale (see p. he had almost completed The Art of Fugue. 255). diametrically opposed pole of Baroque music. developed into a In subject. Here at last was a — — rationale that could serve purely instrumental music. Bach summed up the forms of Baroque music in an almost self-conscious way. and the variation set (the Goldberg Variations). however. The triads them — particular func- known had been there now composers developed ing at its and contributed or. the tonal system proved to be a rich. oriented around A) finally replaced the medieval modes as the thought. the fugues were composed with masterly care and with an astonishing expressive range. a in its own as the tonal all along. he seems also to have reached back to the spirit of Flemish polyphony of the early Renaissance. 239). At his death in 1750. (The tonal system evolved several hundred years after perspective. Music students are taught to emulate the harmonic settings of chorales at Scarlatti the end of Bach cantatas. the we describe as a "functional" way.

mark (x) has been added came to be seen triads that the to A 1(8) 7 . it became a matter of some interest to see the consequences of deliberately shifting the centrality from one tonic to another. but also the five sharps and flats. To make the entire space negotiable. Furthermore. cadence can be made out and 1. For this reason. 5. D. or conversely. left the sharps and flats badly out of tune with one another. in order to suggest some of the complexities that come up as soon as we get past the fundamentals. but it has something to do with the semitone cadence between certain notes of the triads (B —» C. being designed for the diatonic notes only. however. a change from the galaxy of relationships around one tonic (a set of lines converging toward one vanishing point) to another such galaxy. shows the two basic "relation- tance to the tonic: Line (c) ships" of tonality. a particularly con- fore 1 clusive. The "natural" basis for this leading quality is a large question. as it were. is The function of the 5-triad to lead strongly to the tonic triad (the 1- played it seems to lead or pull toward 1. _ By exploiting these subtle relationships. and 7 j * ^ l many more. etc. the octave had to be divided up absolutely evenly between the twelve notes C. special notes and as next in impor- G (5) and F (4). our from piano allows us to build exactly similar (and. When this occurs. and also more importantly leads to 5 and 1 — . the triad 2 underpins 6. respectively. once a clear sense of centrality was established. Our "diatonic ran into difficulties. We have allowed line (d) to become rather complex. D-sharp. — Composers investigated this process not only with respect to the seven notes of the diatonic scale. composers developed a powerful one chord to the next. again. ' again. slightly off tune. C-sharp. there is said to be a change of tonality (or key) that is. C-sharp. but between themselves they exhibit a two-way "leading-and-underpinning" relationship. Theretriad). E. This is in fact how the modern piano keyboard is tuned (but Renaissance harpsichords were not so tuned). They because the tuning that was in use for the notes of the scale. indicated by a dotted line on the diagram). Thus the tonal system be- came a guiding principle of composition. Music in the Renaissance 255 . even one whole movement to another movement. tool for relating not only but also one part of a movement to another. and indeed. only slightly off tune) scales on B. has a tendency to pull toward 4. scale" starting from Pythagoras' C is standpoint. 4 has the solid quality of underpinning 1. — thence indirectly to the tonic. Also. as though changing the location of the vanishing point. The triads 3 and 6 act as way stations between 5 and and 1 and 4. Again. the relationship between 1 and 4 is equivalent to that between 5 and 1 because in each case the triads are a fifth apart. every time 5 is . satisfactory of the triads 4.DIAGRAM SIX The Tonal System -*#- i (a) 3IT 1 (b) j i Line (b) i j n i shows the C-major scale with the triads built on each note.

both theoretical and practical. the operas of Wagner. etc. DGG-ARCHIVE Johann Sebastian Bach. and the twelve-tone compositions of Schoenberg. statement should other unusual tonality. 5. Only this modification made possible the most impressive landmarks of music in the modern world: the symphonies of Beethoven. For the modification of the diatonic scale into equal temperament had far-reaching implications. in J. able to write a The point is not so much to be Mass in B minor or in some music can be said to be Greek. and ough demonstration came tempered Clavier. Jesu. Perhaps this now be qualified to say that after the late Baroque period. The tuning system called that provided for equal temperament. as to be able to change tonalities within the course of a single work. The Art Music in the Renaissance Matthew. its this first is thor- Bach's Well- Referring to the establishment of the diaon page 217.and all the rest. Johann Sebastian Bach. (Sleepers. Part I Clavier (on harpsichord or clavichord) of Fugue. we remarked that the basic language of Western tonic scale in ancient times. Passion According Johann Sebastian Bach. The Well-tempered Johann Sebastian Bach. awake) Kommst du nun. Cantata No. for organ: Wachet auf Wachet auf. contrapunctus 4. and 7 . the language was Greek with a modern accent. SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Johann Sebastian Bach. BACH GUILD 256 to St. Chorale-preludes 140. S.

for roots from empirical England. tury to the a so-called The new style was to crystallize in Austria. while the Austrian Empire reached its peak under the somewhat less enlightened Maria Theresa. ENLIGHTENMENT AND REVOLUTION from about 1550 1750. the Enlightenment caused a reaction against the aristocratic Baroque style. when they were bringing Baroque music to a brilliant summation. and the poets Goethe and Schiller. certainly. and. his music went un- derground. for composers. for nearly a century until rediscovered by musicians of the Roit was mantic era. After Bach's death. nature. the center was France. Indeed. in art the reaction led to a fairly lengthy period of diffusion and uncertainty. Modern music. too. is. initially at least. Herder. began with a rapid reversal of taste and style a "revolution" comparable to the one that we have seen in the visual arts. and during the last decades of the activity of these composers. but also played the flute patronized many German and even composed tolerably well. In music. and called for the rule of reason. and Rameau all end of their long careers. were not evoking or reinterpreting any earlier style." as we have called it (p. whose great practitioners were Haydn. 1730 music had begun to take new for after paths. 156). The positive program of the Enlightenment and the artifice. therefore admirable quality of folksong was especially important. These included Winckelmann." a term that we continue to use. Germany. flowered in France with Voltaire. who developed a new interest philosophy in in folk culture. 157). The groundwork for a united northern Germany was laid by Frederick the Great of Prussia. and the Encyclopedists. We may regard it as symptomatic that Frederick himself not only It that the music generously. time. In the Middle Ages.PART FOUR MUSIC IN THE MODERN WORLD 1. Flanders took the lead. For a it will be recalled. who "discovered" Greek antiquities (see p. and Beethoven. more Whereas fruitful. the great philosopher Kant. They worked for precision — Music in the Modern World 257 . in music it led as early as the final third of the eighteenth cen- powerful new synthesis. German-speaking countries grew important in the political sense. as it were. established authority. to yielded to Austria and sult of yielding intellectual In the 1750s Bach. They were developing an entirely fresh one. 157). too. and came to fruition with an impressive group of German thinkers. architecture. the dramatist and aesthetician Lessing. The Viennese style that grew out lightenment is En- of the called "Classic. as in art. was during the eighteenth century. paint- and poetry as parallel mani- festations of a single basic artistic impulse. during the eighteenth century a shift can be discerned in the geographical center of musical thought and activity. unlike the artists of the time. common good in place of tradition. and they did indeed pay much attention to form and structure more attention. They might well have looked back over the musical came to the scene with astonishment as well as nostalgia. critics already regarded their work as old-fashioned and out of sympathy with the times. was the revolu- intellectual precursor of the industrial and the great political revolutions in America and France. to think of music. Mozart. Herder's emphasis on the natural -and — — to the period. than did the Romantics. a model of an "enlightened" ruler. This was Viennese Classic style. the effects of which still define and control the modern world. even though admittedly it confuses as many issues as it clarifies. who were the first to apply the term "Classic" to the Viennese composers. the Enlightenment took its Now Italy partly as a re- leadership too. Rousseau. Italy. And Lessing deserves mention in a book of this sort because he was the first we do today — way to think of the arts in the that ing. Handel. There shall can be no analogy here to Neoclassicism (see p. and then. as did a great princes. For the history of music. This "revolution of the mind. Comtion parable — — but more drastic in the case of music.

The ters as analogy was irresistible. at this time). point was in very bad taste. in the incessantly brittle and lighthearted tone. 244) has three. the "buffo bass. and balance.) At all events. Modern World 1 10. trasted themselves with the earlier generation.and clarity. also see diagram 5. composers concentrated on catchy tunes. kind of opera could flourish only at a time when the dignity and heavy elaboration of the Baroque was being replaced by a new simplic- ity. no musician today thinks that music such as Mozart's is any less emotional for being perfectly constructed. short piece well suited to opera workshop productions. p. the German. From the point of view of the influential philosopher Rousseau. but it number of separate melodcombination. the piece was scandalously naive. 1733) stands out as the most famous work. Le Devin du village {The Village Soothsayer). There is a not uncommon misconception that an emphasis on form. people would no longer tolerate a heavy self-serious pose. or counterpoint. all the arts obtain "conthrough the construction of "forms. Difficult. 248)— now called opera seria with its earnest Roman heroes speaking in rhetorical figures. life They contrasted the vivid simplicities of Pergolesi with the pompous artificialities of Rameau. among others. learned Not — all counter- Baroque pally for a distinctive type of blustering bassvoice character. artists should "please" a favorite slogan of the time — — impress or instruct. the French proclaimed a new and un- selves on their emotionality above all. In this. The in eighteenth-century became evident plots often in Italian amounted panded vaudeville wisecracks." whether they be in space or time form is content. solemnity to amusement. more suggestive than precise. contrived. but that was just the point. then the leader of French Translated into technical terms. In arts is a false one. and clarity must stem from intellectuality and the absence of emotion." The performers thought of themselves primarily as actors music depends so heavily on counterpoint as a or the ) Bach fugue (recorded example Sanctus of his Mass in B minor (recorded ex- and comics. Another catchword of the time was "good taste." which meant moderation in all things except. the appeal definitely lowbrow. naturalness. with its impudent servant types speaking the dialect of Naples or the Veneto. 249). Singspiel). characterization. The tone was light. learned. and that is what they thought they saw in the Baroque. this attitude led to a reaction against polyphony. but. or opera buffa (the French term is opera comique. Rameau immediately stepped and writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau actually composed an opera comique himself in the same year. "natural" pace for the ac- affected feeling (their ideal in every area of opera (see short and unassuming. The difference between serious Italian opera of Metastasio's kind (see p. Art was asked to appear sophisticated rather than elevated. to artifice nature. and opera buffa. p. Obviously. and even a so-called solo sonata has the violin line . rather than — The musical numbers were tion. but more than little involving vivid ex- horseplay. like the grouping of figures and distribution of planes in a well-structured (The dichotomy that is sometimes referred to between "form" and "content" in the painting. But on the contrary. who prided them- In the early history of opera buffa. may have meant to suggest this when they con- ideal for music: simplicity. facile and a more or less to acts. and amused their audiences with a new style of casual patter singing. symmetry. Above all. Complexity was — way to give to directness. La Serva padrona is the earliest opera that can still be seen with some regularity today. When and how a theme comes back in a Mozart symphony a matter into a lively journalistic controversy with the of form. precision. more its pas- sions in a A new mood music first comic opera. and whatever the Romantics may have thought. secondarily as ample this all singers. designed princi- p. Giovanni Pergolesi's La Serva padrona (The Battista Maid Made Mistress. 258 even to the point of Music in the frivolity. Comic opera around 1730 resembled "grand opera" much less than it resembled modern musical comedy. Le Devin du village stayed in the French opera repertory for seventy-five years.) With their instinct for formulating what the rest of Europe was just coming to realize. or structure — — is a real part of the feel- ing of the work. the manipulation of form is one of the chief means by which emotion in the arts is created. like much Romantic thought. sixty-seven-year-old Rameau. The Romantics. the Romantics sensed a spiritual affinity with the ideals of the ancients as newly expounded by Winckelmann and Goethe. marks the difference of attitude very clearly. partly because of the sensation it made when it played in 1752 to audi- (A ences in Paris. perhaps. it embody often seems to feeling genuinely than some music that parades more obvious way. for tent" : fact. The omnipresent trio includes a certain ic lines in texture (see diagram 4. and they greatly refined such mat- musical articulation. 1 244).

with chords filled in a more even sound was cultivated. tenor. Even this much polyphony was resented by the mid-eighteenth century. committed to a scientific inquiry into all phenomena. untidiness. Undoubtedly the sound-quality of Baroque music had tended toward thickness.on top worked in with the basso continuo line on the bottom. More of decorative frosting. In place of a real melodic line on the bottom. in a middle range. 263). and. the basso continuo texture the basis of music for a hundred and fifty years was now abandoned. The violas found a respectable role in the middle. alto. as well as strengthening the string sages. oboes. in Not for the top melody. Simplification of harmony and texture led to impoverishment. and cellos (with double basses) became the standard framework But the man who instituted the real study of harmony. there is As the term "choir" an analogy here with the — evenly distributed vocal texture soprano. in the space between the violins on top and the cellos (with double basses) on the bottom. — With strings as a framework. bassoons. rather than on the vertical results of the combination of several horizontal voice-lines. and crystalline. Instead of the polarity of Baroque texture all tops and bottoms. woodwind in- struments were added on the outside. In short. and (later) clarinets served to provide variety in certain melodic passages. bass established in the Renaissance. It is surely no accident that this was the first age to produce a coherent "science" of harmony based on the concept of actual chords. As abandonment of the basso make-up of the orchestra a result of the continuo. violas. However. And sounds in loud pas- brass instruments were added the inside. as it on were. In this connection. Once the harmonic style was made so simple. limiting their activity to occasions when the harmonies needed to be made especially clear. some compensations began to appear. The Encyclopedists. a so-called harmonic bass was now used merely as an underpinning for the succession of chords that provided harmony p. ticular instrument of precise. was Rameau. for the 239). and a great deal of very trivial music was listened to in those days. a pioneering role must be credited to the Renaissance theorist Zarlino (see p. generally in the highest range. composers found it easy enough to replace the improvised filling-in of chords at the harpsichord or organ (see p. The trumpet could manage only Music in the the fanfare Modern World 259 . 243) by the specific allocation to a par- of Classic orchestration. from the new point of view. in comparison with the Baroque. And if the dots appear to occupy only a few different levels. Pairs and trumpets served as solid support main harmonies. or less in the spirit pairs of flutes. Things now became much more lucid. since the contratenors of the Middle Ages (see 226) had there existed anything so lifeless music. each note in each chord. p. in several important treatises written around 1730. — — suggests. This worked only because harmonies were now simple. DIAGRAM SEVEN melody harmonic bass The dots on this diagram are meant to suggest chords having no real "linear" connection. divided into two groups. — — A four-part "choir" consisting of violins. the changed very considerably (see diagram 8. that is because few different chords were used. eighteenthof horns century brass instruments could not play many different notes. since the finger keys that later enlarged their range had not yet been invented. debated Rameau's theories with great thoroughness and interest.

the harpsichord. Especially noted as a composer for keyboard instruments. if some- times tender. pomp and a bright. along with the aristocratic society it served and celebrated. it is clear why the string quartet (violin. Pianoforte. were taboo. with its noble Romans now expressing themselves in a new language of elegance and insipidity. which he wrote in great numbers. By 1750 all these stylistic features were eat- away at music of every variety. 263) developed into the main chamber-music combination of the time. Brilliantly written for the most brilliant-sounding of musical instruments. went out of fashion as a beginning number for operas and other large works. who became leading composers in their own right when their father had been forgotten. and texture as — well as in — harmony in order demanded by "pleasing variety" to obtain that the taste of the was thought inexpressibly dull for anything to go on for very long in the same vein. but later for the purpose of developing new expressive resources. at first for contrast's sake. E. and concerti grossi became progres- sively lighter in tone with each successive gen- eration. and organized some of the first European public concerts an activity with some prophetic significance. Johann Christian Bach (1735-82) developed the light style to an extremely graceful but ulti- mately vapid stage (the term Rococo is sometimes applied to music in this style. Now that the harmonic style was so simple (not to say bland). which should have made good sense to Rousseau. . Active in northern in the Germany. His older brother. especially on Haydn and Beethoven.) Composers developed new skill in manipulating time. a new kind of piece with no pretensions other than that of (see p. melody. viola. There was another compensation for the simplification that took place in harmony and in musical texture. Bach's Concerto was written close to the very end of his career. An unusual Double Concerto for Harpsichord. also a Bach displays with in special clarity the difference tone quality between the harpsichord and sounded rather thin and improvements were lifetime. Domenico (who was the son of the opera seria composer Alessandro Scarlatti) achieved less European fame than two of Bach's sons. of which the beginning is heard in recorded example 12. cello: diagram 8. From the opera buffa they spread to the opera seria itself. and was the horn similarly restricted. was a more substantial and imaginative composer. which hollow before technical made during Beethoven's can discern the reverse influence of the humorous Haydn in orchestral tune and in the re- peated use of short musical motifs throughout. p. concertos. is assign- role in Classic ment of the brass to a supportive orchestration. with his call for unaffected feeling. it must be said. these small works often seem to incorporate echoes of Pergolesi and the other tunesmiths of the opera buffa.notes available to the bugle then and now. From work at the centers of musical activity. as we shall see. musical contrast of every kind was pursued eagerly in rhythm. The an elegant case of mak- the above discussion. (It sharp contrasts. Fugues. even slightly unusual chords could produce unusual effects by contrast with their surroundings. Johann Christian moved to London in the 1760s. To speak of individual composers: one of the most accomplished was Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757). see This combination is a miniature version of the basic framework of the Classic orchestra. and Orchestra by C. Indeed. we the early piano. From this de- veloped the symphony as we know it. P. humor. The French needless to say. have a deftness. forceful noise. His harpsichord sonatas. sometimes stormy. and did not Modern World —who perfectly attuned to the ideals and a sophisticated structure well of the in ad- vance of them. We shall see this tendency culminate in the sonata-allegro form (pp. overture with its circumstance. with some show of reason). Opera seria neving ertheless managed to stay alive until the time of the French Revolution. ing a virtue out of a necessity. The string quartet is obviously a much more intimate medium than the full orchestra. Carl Philip developed an emotional somewhat disorganized style of writing. For these instru- sive clavichord ments. seemed more incongruous than ever. Carl Philip Emmanuel — Bach (1714-88). where he spent many years service of Frederick the Great. in the last movement. But since he worked in Lisbon and Madrid. an older man he was actually a — close 260 contemporary of Bach and Handel Music in the polish time. Sonatas. succeeded Handel in one of his court positions (as though to symbolize the change in taste). he did not favor the harpsichord as much as the expres- — and the new pianoforte an instrument that was even more expressive. 263-65). with its range of loud and soft. which. violin. and was replaced by the Italian sinjonia. Carl Philip was major influence on the constellation of great composers centered at Vienna in the south. strong feeling of aristocratic making 249). then. and in the hands of the Viennese composers it proved to be extraordinarily flexible and expressive.

Vienna is a cosmopolitan center near the hub of Austria. that Viennese As strides. lucid. or to those in Florence under the Medici. as the southernmost German-speaking large city. By means Orpheus lamenting the loss of his wife and Alcestis resolving to die for her husband become characters as moving and real as any in the whole range of opera. Naturalness was served by Gluck's boldest reform of all. ful consciously to accomplish an anti-Metastasian operatic reform. the ruthless limitation of the singers' role. Other reforming features are all related to music made its first important but not in any kind of opera that Metastasio could take comfort from. and Orfeo ed Euridice treats the same beautiful legend that attracted Monteverdi and the inventors of opera. The challenge was issued under the familiar banner of simplicity. perhaps. nonesuch Domenico Scarlatti. played after our Baroque recorded examples 9-11. indeed. musicians can point to the flowering of Viennese music from about 1760 to 1825 and compare it to the extraordinary achievements of literature and art in Athens under Pericles. Christoph Willibald von Gluck (1714-88) set out very central Germany and traveled extensively. vox. a dramatist as a musician. Sonatas (on harpsichord) Frederick the Great. naturalness. Symphony in D major DGG-ARCHIVE Jqhann Christian Bach. the influential way they represent as sharp a reaction against opera seria as those of the opera had done even sharper. Hungary. The Italians a flair contrib- uted a flair for opera. the Austrian court poet — in a poet writing for a Italian! —was librettist of It was opera German-speaking court Metastasio. He cut out coloratura passages and replaced the elaborate. Hungary. grace- SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Giovanni Battista Pergolesi. traditional — buffa composers and unaffected feeling.) The North Germans and the highly musical Bohemians contributed for instrumental music. Nothing was allowed to interfere with the stately progress of the seria. something Modern World 261 . Gluck was as much drama. Vienna has always had a special fondness for opera. In their own for unaffected feeling. for Germans — — in Italian. Thus his Alceste comes from the ancient Greek play by Euripides. stilted da capo aria form by plain songlike structures. written by a German. These are very serious works. they seem almost dangerously fragile. where in the 1760s he produced the famous reform operas Orfeo ed Euridice and Alceste. his Preface to Alceste. around 1600. but he always seemed to gravitate back to Vienna. This composer was born in whole enterprise possible.More (which come and neat in the extreme. of which Vienna was the capital. Gluck turned away from the intrigue-ridden Roman plots of Metastasio to austere subjects taken from Greek mythology. Geography plays a part in these phenomena. of mid-eighteenth-century style piano and harpsichord sections typical are the solo in that order). in the field of serious opera. Bohemia (Czechoslovakia). and parts of northern Italy were within the Austrian Empire. They sound ful. in that they challenged opera seria on its own ground. (Bohemia. the single great appeal to "a beautiful simplic- Gluck put it in a telling manifesto. La Serva padrona dgg-archive. Concerto in F major for two harpsichords and orchestra HARMONIA MUNDI Vienna. and Italy. For half of the eighteenth century. only Gluck's talent made for wonder- noble directness of expression his of Gluck's music. 1767. With pardonable pride. With the assistance of an excellent librettist. Thus the chorus as- ity." as sumes a large and impressive Music in the role. Concerto in B-flat major for bassoon and orchestra DGG-ARCHIVE Carl Philip Emmanuel Bach.

opera composer Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842: see this 157— of musical fig. Gluck's follower seems utterly crushed by frigid tradition as imparted by his Muse. The third is a minuet the one stylized dance that remains as a relic of the many different items in the old dance suite. The fourth is again fast and lively. and Napoleon proved hospitable to classic evocations of every sort (see pp. Gluck proposed to use instrumental effects only for dramatic purposes. Indeed. The term "sonata" was henceforth restricted to The pieces written for one or two instruments. he retired in Vienna. Alceste was produced when Winckelmann's writings about ancient Greek art were enjoying their greatest influence. very fast dancelike composition to which he gave the name scherzo (jest). he had far surpassed the one in polish and the other in emotional power. such as a French overture. A powerful composer for the orchestra. was used for the Classic concerto." "quartet. perhaps. but also for sonatas and for the various chamber-music combinations that became established in this period. that of Johann Christian Bach and more tightly than that of Carl Philip. Beethoven could easily transform the minuet into a rough. second movement of a symphony is slow and lyric. by the 1770s. and placed all the action in the same musical new for for Italian opera Rameau in — framework a decided gain in naturalism. Incidentally. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). and later the Paris of J. This particular plan of four movements was used not only for symphonies. a city which at this time was a great consumer of German music.) The same basic movement plan.(though not at all new France). or to the group of players. To return to Vienna: the 1760s also saw the first compositions of a young musician from the neighboring region. Gluck took the decisive step of eliminating secco recitative (see p." and on up to "octet" may refer to the combination of instruments. There in the 1770s he rewrote Orfeo and Alceste in French versions. the latter story from Euripides — also — again formed the subject of a celebrated play by Goethe. written for full orchestra. in extraordinary (and unconscious?) piece of music criticism. the favorite solo instrument came to be the piano. of Iphigenia in Aulis on the Greek and Iphigenia in Tauris. almost all of them masterpieces. sometimes raucous. service which often brought 262 Music in the Modern World south him in and after he was pensioned. Haydn's earliest instrumental music is already more purposeful than to the metropolis. the leader of liter- ary classicism. terms "trio. sometimes earthy. (See diagram 8. chestra plus Here the Baroque scheme of or- group of was a small soloists standardized into the Classic orchestra plus a single soloist. the Viennese found Gluck too demanding and gratefully returned to Italian opera buffa. Gluck's music was always unpretty. L. never for mere decoration. This pan accuracy by — like David's variety academicism with the is indicated with dead- Ingres' portrait of the Italian- born. he also had the idea of making the overture anticipate the mood (and some of the tunes) of the opera to come. David. Most of Haydn's life was spent in the service of a court forty miles to the of Vienna. This went far to minimize the artificial "stop-and-go" quality of opera seria. the minuet car- — ries suggestions of Rococo elegance and exag- gerated formality. The symphony as Haydn standardized it was work consisting of four more or less independent movements. at least those written from the 1770s on. that after listening and applauding. It new soon instru- should be understood that names. Gluck's operas provide the one strong link between Classic music and contemporary Neoclassicism. He achieved more lasting success in Paris. To us. in this it may be conwith a typical Baroque piece. faster and lighter than the opening movement. minus the minuet. But Gluck's and literary — had own combination classicism congealed into next generation. Small wonder. Sometimes it ends up not far from a Viennese waltz. 59). With this enormously impressive repertory Haydn played the major part in establishing the Viennese Classic style. Ingres. The first is typia substantial and forceful. or to the piece of music written for them. the Classic in spite of the similarity of . At a time when Johann Christian Bach was weaving endless pretty nothings out of the orchestra. the favorite ment of the day. austere. 248) so that the orchestra plays throughout the opera. and strong. Over the span of his career Haydn produced besides controlled great quantities of other music —over — a hundred symphonies and over eighty string quartets. which cally lively trasted likes to put its best foot forward with some- The thing solemn. and he produced new operas. to the great approval of such veteran opera enthusiasts as Rousseau. even more subjects flexible in style. 205). but it is fascinating to watch Haydn play with this dance he wrote hun- — — dreds and make it sometimes witty. In the next generation. but French-domiciled.

Piano Quartet violin. DIAGRAM EIGHT The Main Instrumental Combinations Music of Classic (The most important combinations are in small capitals. piano string quartet viola. mention should be made of the serenade and the divertimento (entertainment-piece). from two to nine instruments. clarinet. one ground plan or form looms very the level of individual particular large in the late eighteenth century. cello. viola. perhaps. piano String Quintet or: Woodwind Quintet (Numerous less flute. cello. It is called the sonata-allegro form. Contrast —another Music in the Modern World 263 . cellos. On movements. or sonata form. and practically every other respect. In particular. their "pleasing variety" comes through the use of smaller. often combining wind instruments with strings and piano) symphony the Classic orchestra: and double basses string choir violins 1 woodwind choir 2 flutes. cello violin. as its march at the beginning and and sometimes a whole little con- implies. 254 for a definition of tonality). All forms normally have four movements. style. cello violin. less taxing movements and more of them. but because they are very typical of the spirit of the time. cello bassoon frequently used combinations. 2 clarinets. not hard to see what is meant by conthematic material. violas. simply by the juxtaposition he will get an effect of contrast. and quartets. certo in the middle. symphonies. unless otherwise indicated. because of in the lively its regular (Italian: allegro) employment opening move- ments of sonatas. violin. Piano Quintet violin. the sonata-allegro form exploits contrast of thematic material and con- This trast of tonality (see p. 2 bassoons brass choir 2 horns. viola. and It is trast of directly afterwards go into a long suave tune "theme". cello violin. has a at the end. viola. viola. name A serenade. oboe. 2 trumpets percussion 2 kettledrums concerto for piano (or violin) 2. being outdoor music. cello. horn.) piano sonata [2—4 movements] Sonata for Violin (or Cello) and Piano [2—4 movements] Piano Trio violin. viola. A composer might start a piece with a "theme" consisting of nothing more than a few memorable rhythms. [3 movements] the Classic orchestra (as above) plus the solo instrument Not because they are very significant. 2 oboes. violin. and two contrasted slow movements. piano String Trio viola. cello. A divertimento has two fast movements. These are lighter forms than those listed above. violin. violin. violin. two minuets.: :: : sonata and concerto departed from the Baroque sonata and concerto grosso in form (as we have just indicated). is the form that exploits and systematizes the new interest in manipulating contrasts of all kinds. larger than any such form in the music of any other period.

ated . Soon after the main theme is well established. more a is the reader will go If con- difficult back and pick out Yankee Doodle on the piano. or a group of small phrases that sound as though they want to grow into a tune. How does a composer obtain such a feeling.of tonality. devel- of the sonata-allegro — — opment. weighted balance. "set" in new themes. modulation: one of which may be de- feel- ing of a purposeful search for the proper posi- After a time built — usually after the tension has up considerably — the last modulation in the development section leads back to the tonality. themes of the exposition recognizably Hence the name is first or at least in their like original for this third section: the recapitulation. in texture. With a we hear come back order. constant change of tonality. Stability of tonality very welcome after the instability in the de- 264 Music in "K" numbers. This tends to work with or "develop" fragments of earlier themes and motifs. This coda (tailpiece) is generally subsidiary sonata-allegro form begins first now material and quite brief. and good taste that eighteenth-century musicians worked for. start of the exposition amounts stance. and what is section moves constant modulation. A simple example of a movement in sonataform —simple because of the kind of an outdoor serenade is the first movement of Mozart's well-known Eine kleine Nachtmusik {A Little Night-Music). such numbers form a rough by no means infallible guide to the chronology of abbreviLatin for "work" is composition. another section will be added at the end. tion. who was able to publish very little. works with similar or identical titles (Symphonies in D major. the Modern World are With composers who publish most or much of their output while they are alive. have adventures. we almost feel that the themes are like people to whom things are happening. the old is new Thus the strong feeling of balance between the exposition and the recapitulation (A B A) is a look. K. The composer make to tries change not too smooth. however. for the second A-section has now achieved a new solidity. the this main theme the way the melody and rhythm. To new themes usually contrast with some tension in the end. there comes a change in tonality. as though delivering concluding remarks on the subject matter of the movement. intelligence. placed next to Mozart works only. mere difference: it implies a feeling of active between the two tonalities. grow. it may be a regular tune. In the matter of development the tonality. at least during the eighteenth century. In the velopment section.* This crystalline little piece seems to sum up all the charm. cept. harmony. the first tonality is G minor) a main theme is presented. now the new tonality. and melodic structure. * tion for the music. and determining their chronology. technically known as a tonality — modulation. as well The end of the exposition section as in tonality. musicological scholarship was faced with the task of assembling his 600-odd pieces from scattered manuscripts. The first theme allegro music it at the — is. As we have said. so that there the will be to be introduced. and use opposition it for aesthetic purposes? A movement in called the is (which is that of the piece as a whole: in Mozart's Symphony in G minor. in But contrast means more than tonalities sense. 269. nothing goes on for too long.) But with Mozart. numbers assigned in a chronological catalogue compiled by the musicologist Ludwig von Kochel." this called by unfriendly critics in was nineteenth the century). there has a slightly more. for example) are distinguished by "opus" numbers assigned at the but time of publication. which are shown new contexts and combinations. Studied simplicity is Mozart's aim. for a use of this abbreviation. In a complex Classic piece. as compared to the "architectural" quality of Baroque music. But this fanfare stands in distinct contrast to the themes introduced after the two suave little tunes. or even less extended material small "motifs" of a memorable rhythmic character.". sorting out the genuine ones from the fakes. with a large section of music that exposition. (Opus — — — — "Op. They seem to change. and to react in relation to other themes. Everything is easy to listen to. for in- no more than an elegant fanfare. is in marked by an emphatic of repeated series closes or cadences ("presenting arms. recapitulation resembles the terminology of the drama. If even more solidity seems to be needed. see p. The following section is called the development. something is an important now remains in the same tonality). he will satisfy him- tune can indeed be played in self that a single different some — which sound different. first using white notes starting from C and then using black notes starting from F-sharp. It has been well observed that Classic music has a "dramatic" quality. to section. and the tunes tickle the ear with a grace unknown to music before or after. 525. We have the Perhaps it is no accident that the terminology form exposition. But there difference: everything tonality (the first real sense of relief or resolu- the in their original order. around unexpected and often exciting in restlessly.

148. It an no imagination than does the prescription that a play should have a beginning. Furthermore. a hundred miles west of Vienna. delicate counterpoint. this is no longer simple entertainment music. sensitivity — — to the eighteenth-century distaste for this tech- nique? The answer is that Haydn found it necessary to restore vigorous contrapuntal action in order to obtain the effects of subtlety that he saw the new style could provide. and especially with Mozart in the various musical numbers of both serious — and comic opera. What has happened too for the mind. The ABA balance looser in this piece than in Eine kleine Naehtmusik. which also modulates several times. The listener may be interested to find the point in the exposition section from which the three-note up-the-scale motif is derived. 3 (recorded example 13). the end of the fanfare modulates to another tonality. Sonata-allegro form occurs in most opening movements and many slow movements and last movements of Classic sym- phonies and quartets. he determined to strike out for himself as an independent musician in the capital. tragic. and an end. But rankling under court service. except of course for the fact that everything remains in the ity first tonality. the term "Classic period" is really less apropos than "sonata period" or "period of the sonata style" would be. the tonal- of the beginning of the piece. running through tonalities. the we should be satisfied that Classic accommodate ciently generalized to ideas — more all kinds of light. The development section opens with the fanfare theme. We will find the most striking difference between this movement and the Mozart in their development sections. In the quartet. various breaking and so on and so on. there is an element in the quartet especially in the development section that was scarcely present in Eine kleine Naehtmusik: counterpoint. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-91) wrote most of his important music after coming to Vienna.'" There is much Observe the greater and responsiveness of the quartet texture. stopping. all themes and motifs are given an irascible first exhaustive workout. and the contrast of tonality ABA strikes the ear more decisively. Then the recapitulation section which begins with an interesting rhythmic apart. As — a result of sturdy flexibility. theme (someone nicknamed this quartet The Horseman) almost seems to be mocked by the debonair theme in the second tonality. If a label has to be found for the music of this period. since this is the de- velopment section. however. in the decade of the 1780s. as opposed to that of Mozart's string orchestra. yet there is an element of subtle wit in the fact that both themes include some of the same rhythmic motifs. There follows the theme with the tic. no mere "divertimento. the other as having a rather high-strung tic. — surprise — follows the course of the exposition section only rather freely. backtracking. sonata-allegro form served music for nearly two hundred its years. shooting off in fresh directions. The whole structure is thoroughly rich and intricate. for a time the graceful works of Johann Christian Bach seem to have struck him particularly. he soaked up impressions of the entire range of contemporary music. No. This section duplicates the exposition measure by measure. a delicious sliding figure which has not been heard before converts what might have been a mechanical balance between exposition and recapitulation into a vital and delightful relationship. And comparing Mozart and Haydn exform is not a rigid mold into which the composer may dutifully pour ready-made themes.— scribed as having a sly lilt about it. 72. They make an intriguing set of protagonists for the action that is to come. Finally. 74. The ground plan of sonata-allegro form is suffiamples. it spread to every conceivable kind of composition. or the tradition that the plan of a church should incorporate the shape of a cross (a requirement that represses artist's would seem to have left architects plenty of leeway compare figs. The driving. Ten years later. Taken all over Europe as a child prodigy. a middle. Clear traces of it are to be found in church music. thereby changing its mood considerably before preparing the recapitulation. pathetic. expanding upon a three-note up-the-scale motif that was first "developed" in the development section. But it is a wonderfully light. intellectual. Beethoven would be Music in the Modern World 265 . with nothing ostentatious or heavy about it. In the eighteenth century. and 173). Obviously. and even in some minuets. the coda seems to balance the development. the themes contrast still more sharply than in Eine kleine Naehtmusik. In fact. Afterwards he attempted to settle down in his home town of Salzburg. Op. and see whether his pleasure in the piece increases is with the discovery. In the last movement of Haydn's String Quartet in G minor. As a coda at the very end. Late Classic symphonies and quartets yield up much more complex sonata-allegro forms than do modest serenades. the coda here assumes real importance. but.

and to set them in vivid relief. like a recapitulation He brave all perils. but his G last three — the Sym- major and the are very famous. or more characters simultaneously. even a leap geranium bed. having heard him through the door. By nature he was not a reformer of the music of his time but a quiet perfecter of it. which is a special tour de force matched to the dramatic situation. in tive. however. Matching the music to the situation. He worked in the currently popular types of comic opera. three. mostly for his own use as a piano virtuoso. is what Mozart was always able to do section).successful at this. rapid orchestral motif all through the number catches the sense of desperate hurry. and the two of them scurry his lets around frantically looking for a Countess' The suite. in is in the embryo back of a de- in sonata-allegro form. aprite" ("Quick. his part remarked quite simply that Mozart was the greatest composer he had ever a Haydn on met. of their preoccupation with contrast. "Aprite presto. Cherubino. On commission. operatically speaking. building dramatic structure. This is an extreme example of the Classic composers' interest in phonies in minor and E-flat — the lightest sort of musical material. and casting an aura of intelligence and humanity over all his trasts. so-called Jupiter Symphony In the first movement of the Jupiter. an unusually dignified first theme is followed by an unusually jaunty opera buffa tune borrowed from an actual opera buffa. constantly. he even wrote an opera seria on a libretto by Metastasio in 1791. 266 Music and often incorporated some dramatic action ensemble came to be an extremely subtle form. not all ensembles are as minuscule as this one. and of their ability to make even the most sharply contrasted material hold together through the skillful manipulation of musical form. and so was Mozart). a real dinosaur {La Clemenza di Tito). Susanna." recorded example 14). the music modulates breathless patter singing of the depicts their confusion in a most As they search for exits. alternating with this. is Out terri- —— young hero me ("lasciami! lasciamif" a "let go. music is Mozart's best instrumental a set of six string quartets issued with moving public dedication to his older friend. Seventeen piano magnificent concertos were composed by Mozart in Vienna. grace. In some ways. farcical action. the Italian opera buffa and the German Singspiel (for Vienna was bilingual. tions felt operatic figures. Mozart had a unique talent for delineating character through music. he snatches a lady kiss from the completely flustered Susanna. He has somehow got himself locked into her dressing room." in the first tonality. In addition to the aria. and they influenced each other's music to a significant extent. the ensemble. there was another kind of musical number. Our recorded excerpt includes a few measures of the secco recitative which follows. He wrote fewer symphonies. Within a single ensemble. 201) but in general the plots were still farcical and undistinguished. we may take a tiny duet from Mozart's opera The Marriage of Figaro. As an example of an opera buffa ensemble in which characters are drawn and contrasted. Susanna Cherubino quite resolved fied. Some sentimental subjects were treated they satisfied much the same taste as did the painttoo — — Greuze (see fig. so well calculated for the manipulation of con- he was able to depict conflicting emoby different characters at the same time. Mozart did not try to follow Gluck's lead. with the recitative. the Count. As an opera composer. while Mozart showed Haydn something about lyricism. therefore it took account of their interaction. more elaborate ones. to show how ensemble and recitative alternate in this kind of opera. will . open. the it. Cherubino out. has grimly left with ful enough the scene just long and to fetch a crowbar sword. while the two characters amusing way. open up now. a page boy about fourteen his voice has not changed is in a state of puppy love — — all women but especially with the beautiCountess. Using all too. down into the — brilliantly. in the Modern World the resources of the sonata-allegro form. and in which dramatic action takes place (and at that). he could depict changes in people's attitudes as a result of unexpected dramatic events. furthermore. way out of the repetition of a very small. but difficult time of Mozart had an extremely Mozart and Haydn knew each other well enough to play in an amateur string quartet together. ings of Most of the action took place in secco recita- which gave the actor-singers plenty of scope for comic acting business. they sang simple tuneful arias or. very much velopment section the window manner the only way. the Countess' maid. Naturally. the sentimental scenes. and delicacy of harmonic Among effect. Haydn showed Mozart something about the power of thematic manipulation. since he received no commissions for them. for the sake of his and just before jumping. that alternated The ensemble included two. Especially in Mozart's hands. opera buffa had not changed — much in the fifty years since Pergolesi.

On the other little play about high hand. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart." along with the contemporary plays of Richard Brinsley Sheridan (The Rivals. buffa reverted to it its since the original play that he used is much less but it is not altogether unfair. 74. shallow creature in comparison with Mozart's memorable Countess. 3 dgg. Act II minor. vanguard Franz Joseph Haydn. Rossini's heroine is a brittle. The comparison is not altogether fair to Rossini. too) had done much same thing with eighteenth-century instru- tic.491 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. whereas Mozart's warm sympathetic streak. Most impressive of all. The sparkle the chatter of his music is hard to resist. a gripping scene in which Don Juan is dragged down to hell rather than repenting and so denying his authentic commitment to the life of the senses.525 in C minor for piano and orchestra. 104 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Mozart's Cosi duct. perhaps. K. not only their intrinsic quality but also the artistic principle they illustrate: the idealization of a simple and rather low style. must be confessed. either. too. and Beethoven complained about the low taste of his city's music lovers. his strong his really vivid sense of fun. Included are crude slapstick scenes which look back to Pergolesi in concept. Orfeo ed Franz Joseph Haydn. After Mozart. the chief opera composer of a later generation. they make serious points about human con- We can think of them in a category of "high comedy. even today. K. This becomes clear if we compare two famous operas based on stage plays having the same cast of characters: Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro (1786) and The Barber of Seville (1816) by Giacomo Rossini. And Figaro the familiar Figaro of "Largo al factotum" seems like only a boisterous chatterer next to Mozart's very human also reveals a — Rossini's figure with his feelings. The career of the compulsive se- ducer of "a thousand and three" women carries with it an inevitable aura of obscene farce. but they are not all for fun. Die Zauberflote (The Magic Flute: a German Singspiel) makes something very movFickle: ing out of a theatrical hodgepodge including such low-comedy features as animal acts and audience-participation gags. Vienna succumbed to it. Rossini captivated all Europe from about 1815 to 1830 (when to everyone's astonishment he gave up composing operas and lived on his fortune for his nearly forty remaining years). String Quartet in G Euridice. we might notice the current estimation of opera general. opera old farcical and rather brainless ways. The Mozart operas occupy a high place in and music in For our purposes. No. K. In their urbane way. Or so at least Mozart's music makes us feel. fan tutte (freely paraphrased as Females Are an Italian opera buffa) makes something very touching out of a refined and witty society. and Mozart does not gloss over this. Op. the mental music. 258) bullies and fumes fine.551. Symphony No. Act Music in the II Modern World 267 . Jupiter Marriage of Figaro. and — good and bad points. London Eine kleine Nachtmusik. and gets his comeuppance. — — SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Christoph Willibald von Gluck. Symphony No. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The School for Scandal). if not in musical style. into something highly artis- Haydn (and Mozart. an Italian opera — buffa with a difference. Concerto in D major. is Don Giovanni. as well as religious scenes of an austerity that Gluck might have envied all in the service of a parable about young people growing up. His buffo bass (see p.His operas are always amusing. at the hands of a great composer. then. based on the old legend of Don Juan. The 41 in C major. But there is also an aspect of grandeur to the outcome.

one can hardly use any other term than revolution. (At that time Haydn. The balance between large sections is more monumental. that devit astating political left and moral upheaval certainly a profound impression on him. thirty-three. That symphony. The tjjj? first movement lasts for fifteen as long as an average minutes. From Bonn. but especially the development section. After studying briefly (and not very hard) with Haydn. of taking oneall this self seriously. In forcefulness. today we might rather say a breakdown) and gave it the name Sinfonia Eroica ator turned out to be a tyrant. in a passage of apocalyptic sound without any themes at all. Beethoven worked within the spirit of Classic form and he still found the sonata-allegro form to of these — be the best tool for him. and Mozart. Beethoven was eighteen years old. but with Beethoven. was preoccupied with Vienna. much symptom a of them. emotion. until after 800 he produced a seof 1 works that may fairly be said to have transformed the art of music.) The coach taking Beethoven to Vienna had to dodge invading French troops. Themes and motifs are not merely "developed": they seem to be transformed. revolutionized. Beethoven provided a point of departure for Richard Wagner. only to tear up the dedication in a rage when the liber- was an outspoken democrat all his life. one was more serious and intense than anyHaydn or Mozart would have wanted. things come so close to breaking down completely. The contrasts between themes (and between tonalities) are usually sharper than in the work of the earlier composers. and finds more dramatic contexts and combinations in which to present them. as the Bastille his losing battle for survival in — (Heroic Symphony. a town far to the west Germany. whether operatic or symphonic. and any kind of excess has disappeared. Some suggested examples for listening: that thing In the first movement of the Eroica Symphony. was no longer very impressionable. As the reader will see. One should not be too quick — in attributing the cause of this French Revolution. Might of which new change to the all was as after attitudes as a source not be just as correct to say that new attitudes such as Beethoven's caused the French Revolution? Nonetheless. 1803). he wrote it as a result of a spiritual crisis (as the nineteenth century would call it. almost noise that Beethoven felt the need to introduce a — very striking — new melody. Indeed. twice Haydn symphony move- ment and four times as long as our example from Eine kleine Nachtmusik. momentousness." the dislike of earnestness. During the next decade Beethoven followed up the Eroica with a series of symphonies. and "pleasing variety. the leading musical figure of the mid-nineteenth century. it was unlike any symphony known at the time. as it had been for Haydn and Mozart. All of these extensions of Classic form. All the sections are expanded. he modulates farther. as in the case of Haydn's symphonies and quartets seems to refer more to the composer's selfimage than to his idea of Napoleon. Beethoven became more and more of an original. style not a comedy. If we spoke of an exhaustive workout in a Haydn development section. Characteristically. transfigured. ecstasy. Beethoven 268 Music in the Modern World — piano sonatas that firmly established the new aesthetic position. they actually occupied the city on two later occasions. Beethoven dedicated a symphony to Napoleon. the scope of the sonata-allegro form is greatly expanded (and the other movements of the symphony are stretched to match). In a famous and characteristic gesture. concertos. Ludwig van Beethoven (17701827) came to Vienna in 1792 because Vienna was where an ambitious young musician simply had to go.beethoven. the revolution consisted of a radi- ries of new cally Classic Beethoven saw in the means of creating high seriousness. In a word. and have said. heroism. charm. In this. served a new we expressive vision. or reinterpreted it in some other imaginative way. the wheel has turned full circle from the point early in the eighteenth century where this chapter began. With Haydn and Mozart. The premium on simplicity. both as an artist and as a person. much to his discomfort. and living not so very far from the French border. again. When was stormed by the citizens of Paris in 1789. of and power. just beginning his career. But Beethoven expanded it. chamber-music works. In all of them. was in fact Beethoven's most revolutionary composition. we should have to speak of a definite struggle in this one. The process that Haydn had worked out for development sections becomes especially exciting in Beethoven's hands. and sheer length and loudness. but an astonishing instrument for the expression tragedy. This title his own. one can speak of evolution of the Classic style. fifty-seven. his third. The reader should listen several times to one compositions. the liberator of mankind. breaks the themes down in more radical ways. not nicknamed by somebody else. the most lyric mel- .

it it has we can ob- not surprising that serve Beethoven taking a cue from Gluck in people began comparing compositions like this though such works had making the overture look forward to the opera This was his only opera. was originally called Leonore. personal heroism and political freedom. the obstacle is finally overcome. an extensive coda 263) serves to balance the long development section. Already in the first few meassound quality and contrast seems to strain past the frail bounds of the piano. the range of ^P The Fifth Symphony shows that Beethoven soon grasped the possibility of getting powerful results out of sonata-allegro form by compression. as grown The like plants third from a movement single seed.ody Within the middle of not destroy. 3. but according to reports Beethoven — actually said it. t$? In the A conclusion of the Leonore Overture No. or dungeon. it tells of a heroic wife rescuing her husband from an oubliette. the brooding first theme is forced to modulate wildly. treats another Classic form in a new way. Set in some unspecified revolutionary atmosphere. t$ With {Impas- the so-called Appassionato sioned) Sonata in F minor. As is frequently the ter of a in the entire piece. one gets the distinct impression that Beethoven was trying to turn the piano sonata into an orches- symphony. This theme always starts out with determined energy. perhaps. The — helps to fanfare on the brass in- struggle has not been in vain. Carrying over themes from one was nies. and the theme blares out as a triumphant — indeed. but after a few moments it seems to hit some kind of obstacle. this was a great novelty. It appears everywhere. with a melodramatic stroke that amazed Beethoven's contemporaries. Beethoven it haustible It is to living organisms. at At its the original mood. the balance. One feature that movement together niche. Then. Some the fateful of quality comes from the urgent rhythm of the motif and which it is first played (though hardly from its melody as such: Beethoven could be as strong and unpretty as Gluck). 57. first theme itself. though it certainly does p. mysterious of the early 1800s. Beethoven might have learned from Haydn and Mozart to use such material. namely. as though really earned its gloom. and the loud chords that smash into the main theme at its second playing this is contrast with a vengeance and without any regard for the Classic canons of good taste. especially the somewhat primitive piano tral ures. 262).) The exciting modification of the loud chords in the recapitulation section to mention only one detail out of many illustrates how Beethoven could manipulate Classic form in order to provide variety within the ordinary balance. contrasted. of the Fifth an inspired scherzo (see Symphony. Fidelio (1805. 3"). as well as by expansion. and the coda provided that case with this (see p. The impression is confirmed when we hear the theme of the third movement actually return at realize that the the other all end of the development section of the fourth. a "heroic" struments. But the quality comes more from a prime feature of formal manipulation. The brooding. (The striking new melody from the development probably required another niche in the form. movements have been leading up to this as a consummation. after suspense has been built up to an more mysterious-sounding passage. to become movement to another Romantic symphoBeethoven's time it was a great but in typical of novelty. sometimes held to 'ts original shape. a fourth and last movement emerges having the charac- unprecedented level. In the development section. however. ABA itself. but the vision of tragic energy in it was strictly his own. second minuet. for vivals of the work. Op. after an even a development section. the saturation of the entire movement by the motif. exact repetition of the first minuet. political prisoners. but he presents the second "A" in a ghostly new orchestration which completely changes. sometimes murmuring in the background.) hold this lengthy is the treatment of the first theme. composer. We now triumphant military march. this point. Classic minuet movements all follow a balanced plan: first minuet. the recapitulation begins. but more often "developed" in apparently inexthe uninhibited with force new ways. with a highly dramatic effect. "Here Fate knocks at the door!" the phrase may be hackneyed. The famous theme at the beginning of the first movement amounts to little more than a rhythmic motif. the sinister rhythmic motif Symphony. In the coda. eventful coda. wrote several different overtures for various rehence "No. Slow music. (Haydn never quite approved of Beethoven. modulating for an impression Music in the Modern World 269 . Then. sounds gloomier than ever. but in the recapituthat recalls the Fifth — — — ABA lation section free it returns to variant recurs long. Beethoven starts from this model. The story of Fidelio brings together two of Beethoven's favorite ideas. sometimes blustering.

the Archduke Trio. As a matter of fact. and Beethoven from 1800 to 1827. But even without this advance information. 67 Op. Ludwig van Beethoven. String Quartet ROMANTICISM AND AFTER No. the overture sounds excellently dramatic: the a prayerful passage follows the trumpet. closer this and so on. and. In the opera this constitutes the signal for the rescue itself. All the 270 Music in the arts. Just as this is reaching a climax. Indeed. already bodes well for the outcome of the drama. If now we also add the name of Franz Schubert. Sonata in F minor 5 in C for piano. known as the Missa solemnis. not just by adoption). and the villain must rush off leaving his nefarious deeds undone. and while this certainly did not inhibit his composing there was nothing wrong with his "inner ear" it certainly did cause him as a personality to turn inward upon himself. greatest of string quartets. Symphony No. the last five piano centric. but he also has his gentle. which becomes more introspective and visionary in plative. and became a noted Vienna ec- — — emanating an almost Michelangelesque Though not always well understood at the time. 16 lieved. 135 have one essential function: praise of cism and music was an in Op. minor. however. for it is so intensely dramatic that it spoils the opera to come. Haydn —was the age of in the 1770s. sonatas. contemand mystical moods. the Sixth (Pastoral) Symphony. dealing with some of Beethoven's most characteristic works from 1800 to 1810. Gluck in the Haydn and Mozart 1780s. an effect that results naturally from an intensification of the regular technique for such sections. the Ninth Symphony. Op. Appassionata Ludwig van Beethoven. written in In music summary: — the the last five golden age of Viennese the "Classic period" or the "period of the sonata style" 1760s. — good Minister is arriving. 2. and orchestra. all. ways strong. or the gratification of the senses might have been claimed at earlier times but the expression of human feeling and inner ex- . That a special affinity exists between Romanti- article of faith Romantics themselves.gloom and duress. offstage. This is not the case. Beethoven is al- we find ourselves belatedly well into the tide. suggests a death struggle between antagonists. then yields to a fast movement in sonata-allegro form. in the These comments. or the imitation of the external — — as world. 55. Symphony No. this fine piece of music turned out to be a revealing failure as an opera overture. Op. there is a sudden surprising halt for a trumpet call. Such moods occur frequently in his later music. as is shown by many compositions written in the same decade: the Fourth Piano Concerto. He never married. for solo singers. After the recapitulation section. and other less famous works. or titanic emotions. in G major. Leonore Overture No. Haydn again in the 1790s. Ludwig van Beethoven. and replaced it by a more modest piece. Mention should be made of the Mass in D major. known as the Fidelio Overture. Ludwig van Beethoven. a real Viennese (by birth. Modern World with the they be- F 3. character. we find ourselves at the brink of Romanticism. 1824-26. terribilitd. may give the impression that his music invariably summons up tragic. The first theme. all the characters (and the composer) at the outcome drama of the — the freeing of a whole chorus of political prisoners. 57. of an irresistible avalanche of sound. 72a major. SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Ludwig van Beethoven. heroic. Beethoven realized this. Eroica not the God. It is well known that Beethoven's hearing failed progressively after about 1800. chorus. Op. 3 in E-flat major. Beethoven's late music is now regarded as his greatest. a dazzling coda depicts the rejoicing of time. the trumpet sounds once again. The development section.

and an amazing proliferation of literary associations with music of all Like painters of the time. Medieval subjects were chosen for operas and songs. his folk songs could foster nationalism as well as naturalism. freely. Yet the century also witnessed a great upsurge of song and opera composition. or evocation of folk songs and on the rhythms of national dances. instinctive springs of emotion. Thus Romanticism hastened the long historical process whereby instrumental music. As we have observed (p. or to words and statements. The Romantics felt that symphonies could ex- — — press the noblest feelings and truths in a direct. music was taken more seriously in the nineteenth century than in any other period since the Middle Ages. Indeed. Performers and composers no longer regarded themselves and no longer allowed themselves to be regarded as servants or craftsmen serving society. the things. Music gained enorand status ("All art aspires to the condition of music. many of them fancied themselves as writers. a much-read German philosopher who influenced composer Richard Wagner at a critical pelife. and was exiled for his pains. planned his operas to be used as propaganda in the struggle for Italian liberation. enthusiasm for folk culture had arisen in the Enlightenment as part of the new emphasis on "nature"." wrote a famous later nineteenth-century critic. The was the one function most deeply and representation Music seemed the perfect outlet for an age that insisted of to be on the high value of individual emotional expression. too. like the painter's." Beethoven is supposed to have said. It found a definitive formulation in the works of Arthur Schopenhauer. Some leading composers took part in revolutionary movements with democratic or nationalistic aims. riod of his The artist came to be a sort of hero in the vanguard of spiritual movements. "My nobility is here. It gained in significance during the Ba- roque period. as mous prestige without words. Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde.perience. Since the Romantics set such high store by individuality. Beethoven was their shining example. However. And that could freely. a key work in the history of Romanti- glorification of personal feeling naturally entailed new prestige for the artist himself. and revolution in the arts were now considered to mirror these cism. by musicians as well as other artists and thinkers. but since the natural man sang with the accent of his particular country. Many composers built on the use. these were not so many that we are impelled to speak of "revival styles" in music. 257). because the musician's imagination is not tied down like call the to matter-of-fact the poet's. practically spells out Schopenhauer's phi- we shall see. The pianist-composer Franz Liszt started his career playing in drawing rooms where a silk cord separated him from the noble listeners. only in the late Renaissance did idiomatic music for instruments arise beside the predominantly vocal music of the time. imitation. as we do in art. because music is closest of all to the subjective. we shall take them at their word their styles to a considerable degree Music in the Modern World 271 . Richard Wagner delivered speeches from the barricades during the Dresden uprising of 1849. but rather as free spirits expressing their own souls with a genius not granted to the common run of mankind. and stylistic elements of Palestrina and Bach were echoed in not a few Romantic compositions. Emotion was sought on every side. affected music appreciably though not to the extent that it affected art (see p. music fulfill this Deeply. Freedom. in the age of the Vinot ennese Classics. and folk music in turn proved to be a useful adjunct to nationalistic ideology. so much the better. now it was revered as the most effective and thrilling language of man's innermost emotional life. Another important Romantic current. 157). but he lived to be sought out by those same people on terms of — equality. composers were inspired by and attracted to literary "subject matter". until finally. instinctual way that did not require any verbal explanation of what was being expressed. pointing to his heart. the emotional effect of a piece of music. Nationalism in the nineteenth century encouraged a widespread interest in folk music. sonatas and symphonies stood out as the main works songs or operas of composers such as Haydn and Beethoven. old music was revived. qualities in the wider human sphere. For his efforts he became a national hero and an honorary dep- — — uty in the first Italian parliament. and if poetic associations could deepen sorts. often flouting society by his actions and attitudes (and dress). This general view was widely shared and widely expressed. — Liszt's well-publicized several high-born ladies may be liaisons with regarded as a the symbol of the change. But whereas music then had commanded respect as a manifestation of the divine order of things. of all the arts. Giuseppe Verdi allowed and to some extent. Walter Pater). became self-sufficient in artistic terms. what we now unconscious. As we have seen. music losophy. progress. the new interest in the past.

Woodland Sketches) or else more specific (Dream of Love. rhythm. and in the great outpouring of lyric poetry during this period on the the advantage other. We say that such music follows a "program" set forth by the verbal title. For the first time in Western music. or to put it another way. emphatic. Nocturnes. Romanticism lent new dignity to very small compositions of an inti- mate nature.— — and survey the period man by man a procedure that might not be so suitable in other periods. these composers shared some concerns. At the other extreme. 1824 and a full chorus (they thunder out a hymn which is both revolutionary in sentiment and folklike in tone). 254-55) than for the sake of their momentary effect. mathematical exercise but may offer the means for power and coherence. and inner suffering. Beethoven's younger contemporary and neighbor in Vienna. For Chopin or Berlioz. but in one sense they seem to have applied their instrumental "colors" as a last touch. such as Impromptu (Improvisation) and Moment Musical. too. Rustle of Spring). they Modern World tions. of course. In their common search for momentary sensation and expressiveness. structural perfection was neither the main interest nor the main strength of many Romantic composers. as were so much shall see. and the other private. notably in the areas of harmony and instrumental color. opulent sounds. In reto pure sonority. Harmony could tional" quality in the contribute potently to those mysterious. over and above the real foundation of notes and structure. and grandiose emotions. the listener being impressed by a combination of great thoughts. Bach and Beethoven wrote carefully for the various instruments. The Poet Speaks. bold exploration of musical horizons. however. in to Classic structural principles and the small attention he paid to novel harmonies or instrumental effects. and operas. and grandiose. For the present. and form. and an even greater number of songs with piano accompaniment . This is generally not so with the Romantics. the harmonic exploration led exhaustion of to a veritable crisis at the beginning of the twentieth century). This did not prevent them from planning bigger and bigger symphonies. either of a general nature (Songs without Words. He composed numerous short piano pieces with characteristically Romantic names. moods that greatly enjoyed at the time. let us make the point that in mapping out their compositions. ethe- rapturous. 272 tion. isolation. At the same time he was writing intimate piano one of pieces he called Bagatelles (Trifles them is only twelve measures long). coaxed new sounds out of old instruments. Franz Schubert ( 1797— —introducing the Ninth solo singers — 1828). These works always run the danger of seeming windy. emotional effect of his pieces. he produced one enormous symphony — and last. and in any case. But definitely yes. When the Romantics neglected (or even ignored) structure in favor of momentary sensa- Music in the sometimes expressiveness lost control they that were over the very pursuing so strenuously. the Romantics stepped out onto new territory. highly emphatic works in which the continuity was hopefully aided by literary factors. the concept of program music was enormously popular in the Romantic period and was by no means restricted to small compositions. Since piano pieces of literary had not they associations. piano sound or orchestral sound is primary. and in the almost mythical circumstances of his in the shattering in his life: his eccentricity. on a level with melody. and intimate. in particular short piano pieces and songs. cantatas. It must be remembered that form in the arts need not be a dry. his deafness. influence lasted long into the nineteenth century. Beethoven even provided a precedent in the matter of grandiose and miniature composi- ticular sonorities. They invented new instruments. For all their individuality. Fascinating untried chords and sequences of chords were explored. should also be thought of as a transitional figure. Their music can no longer be thought of in abstract terms apart from the parThis cultivation of sound quality was often gained at the expense of logical continuity. the Romantics showed two rather strikingly opposed tendencies one — impressive. were often furnished with evocative titles. Was Beethoven his commitment a Romantic? Definitely not. miniature. less for their "func- scheme of tonality (compare the discussion on pp. his democratic stance. On these grounds the Romantics could fairly claim him as one of their own. the sensuous quality of sound may be said to have assumed major artistic importance. the individuality we of Romantic composers personalized harmonic us- of the can be laid to their ages (and. and combined sounds in unprece- spect dented ways. Indeed. all of them tended to make striking innovations in the quality of musical sound. or sultry real. Though in most of his late music he still held to Classic proportions. Song composers found ample inspiration in folk song on the one hand.

Dying in 1828 at the very early age of thirty-one. ' . The gap between "Philistines. and form (with some qualifications). Weimar. Romantic music had its first great flowering around 1830. he nonetheless left a dozen large insymphonies. 168). though not liberally endowed with long life (see diagram 9).: : . Later he wrote some songs in sets. Margaret at the Spinning Wheel.: - -j----j-----f 1870 1880 1890 1900 1850 Music in the Modern World 273 . roughly chamber-music works. Rome (Paris) Dresden. : *. but like Beethoven. twenty-odd pieces linked together by means of a vague narrative thread a loose form of literary continuity which. Munich m WAGNER j' l ' . the Paris of Delacroix (see p. ' . ' j ' i 1 Italy (Paris) f?T7f BRAHMS Vienna 1810 1820 1830 ~l 1840 1 > : : : : : •• . If any doubts lingered as to the direction being taken by the young. Schubert was a superb melodist. and strumental works composed. SCHUMANN Dresden 11 CHOPIN Paris Paris BERLIOZ Paris. They range from simple but (such as unforgettable folklike evocations Hedge-Rose and The Linden Tree) to powerful dramatic or psychological studies (Erlking.:. is characteristically Romantic. or speaking. among Beethoven's in manner — that are the most impressive in the literature. he too held to Classic principles of harmony. at the hands of a generation liberally endowed with genius. sonatas. — Paris.1 more than six hundred." new polarity in musical "avant-garde" musical composition and conwidened during the nineteenth century. And it is a mistake to categorize Schubert solely as a miniaturist. The Phantom Double). song cycles.. half of them written during his teens. once again.: :::: \" 1860 7r"T^" : : . instrumentation. and the greatest of all song writers. the composer Robert Schumann helped dispel them by editing a magazine devoted to propaganda for the "new music. and is a real breach in the twentieth. — servative taste DIAGRAM NINE Time Chart of with some Earlier the Romantic Composers and Later Nineteenth-Century Figures 1800 1770 1780 1790 I Vienna 1850 1810 | 1820 1830 1840 I Life BEETHOVEN 1 1 iii SCHUBERT Vienna Span 1 :•:•: Activity as Composer MENDELSSOHN: Leipzig Leipzig." In writing fancifully about a "League of David" doing battle against the musical Schumann described a significant life. Vienna was replaced as the center of musical activity by Germany and shortly afterwards.

though a very attractive one. and of Florestan and Eusebius composer's private names for the two sides of his personality. perhaps. in the Fifth Symphony and elsewhere. a peer rather than merely an accompanist. some the reader will doubtless know. he concentrated on small pieces: Nocturnes (Night Pieces). what would now be called his id and his superego. Robert Schumann (1810-56) was another very original composer for the piano. but something of his ostenta- see chestral tricks) left a — — in the tiousness (as well as — cham- a favorite concept a age of Darwin. Schumann devoted a good leuchtenden (A lustrous summer morning. began his career with two sensational program symphonies. hectic — —Chopin would say) "poetry" in he had to transform that is. In conveying melancholy. at the Sommermorgen recorded example 274 too pleased to play others for him. who lived from 1803 to 1869 but wrote his most influential music before 1850. 210. Writing almost exclusively for the piano. but more significantly. and Mendelssohn were happiest when composing in the intimate vein. his spirited. in his First. The voice line is cunningly con- Music Unlike Chopin. it also reveals Chopin's interest in piquant rhythms and harmonies that could be deal of attention to symphonies." as he himself liked to put it). and other large works. he frequently carried themes over from is unmatched. Romantic compos- refined of the Frederic Chopin (1810-49: see was also most limited the in 221). Notable here in addition to the poem. The Fantastic Symphony (1830) purports to depict the experiences on an opium "trip. so that it sometimes wanders off by itself into long expressive passages of a meditative nature. Second. themselves its — a reflection of the garish.The most ers. delicate sentiments ber-music pieces. Schumann was also a prolific writer of songs. of the famous violin virtuoso Paganini. experimented more cautiously Felix along similar lines. languorous. fugues. or- Hector Berlioz. In these.cycle Dichterliebe (Poet's Love). Schumann. large works built upon a loose literary continuity. In Schumann's output. derived from Slavic folk music. In these. like a meditative recollection in the Modern World of the earlier song)." and Harold in . Chopin's fundamental concern with this problem is shown by his famous Etudes (Studies) which the nineteenth century his music. luxurious quality of Parisian bourgeois life. Mendelssohn (1809-47). notably mazurkas dance. and elsewhere (the piano passage concluding leuchtenden Sommer- Am morgen also returns later in the cycle. Included are musical portraits of Chopin." They "innig. Chopin. This kind of grouping re- — calls that of the song-cycle. 15). a song from Schu- mann's song. of Pantaloon and Columbine. sections little later. We may say that they were seeking cohesiveness of a different sort from that provided by Classic structural principles. as we shall see. but its belied by the magical chords introduced to set the mood at the beginning and to simplicity is illuminate the words "sprechen die Blumen" (the flowers speak) and "blasser" (paler re- — Keats's "palely loitering").) The better composers despised Meyerbeer. such as those underlying the sonata-allegro form. some of his impressive mark on them. certain obvious fig. a practice that was to become increasingly common and important. (Again. and Fourth Symphonies. by the important German poet Heinrich Heine is the characteristically free broken-chord style of piano writing. create To achieve exquisite this. The grandiose side of Romantic music found partly. composers hoped to make large works in several in Paris. generally come in large sets loosely grouped to- gether according to some literary thread or program.) By this means. and his pianist friends will be only use of this dance reflects the Romantic nationalism of the time. and often even more introspective (or "inward. of two women friends plus "Coquette. and Berlioz had systematized the practice in a literary context. the piano becomes a sensitive partner for the singer. Chopin was a Pole who made his home — trived to sound like a simple folk song. — mood-pictures even they as train the pianist's fingers. This happens end of Am more "organic" there are interesting cases in his well-known Piano Concerto. Schumann's friend and a paler personality. there is an altogether new quality of intimacy and (as one movement to another. Beethoven provided some precedents. in reimpetus in Paris sponse to the bloated and very successful French operas of Jacob Meyerbeer. Ballades." of the League the of David. which sounds as though the player were making it up out of his fantasy as he goes along. Features such as these can be multiplied in Romantic songs call and piano pieces. such as the masked ball which is supposedly documented by the 22 pieces of his Carnaval (1835). ways. and various "styla Polish folk ized" dances. His piano pieces are a little heavier than Chopin's. he had to the sheer sound of the piano revolutionize the technique of playing it. (Another reflection was the Opera House built for those very operas: fig.

his nies. Even more important. tubas. His highly charged orchestral writing borrowed much from Berlioz. so Berlioz wrote a revolutionary treatise on orchestration. (large clarinet English horn* (large oboe). Soon Berlioz felt the need for even greater scope. brasses assumed richer. but generally cast in one long continuous movement. symphony movements. p. for example. and double bassoon — and work does. even —Childe fickle one Harold. Schumann. one). in point. they had been quietly working their way in for years) trombones. compelled to compose Etudes for piano. a lethal dose. Here in this case Byron's how one is of Berlioz' Childe Harold. that offended many musicians . or supplied them after composition. also different sizes of the standard instruments: an E-flat clarinet (small clarinet). brass instruments were fitted with finger valves that at last enabled them to play all the notes of the scale (compare p. own programs reads: programme of the symphony. and Wagner. such a thematic transformation could obviously mirror some aspect of the program. And as the wind instruments improved. might be made to sound restless by having its rhythm stiffened and its harmonies changed a little. said Liszt. Liszt a force in nineteenth-century music. and especially Berlioz' idee fixe. The Paris of His exuberant. and produced lengthy symphony-cantata-oratorios on such and (small piccolo technical manufacture of sonality . sentiments. Herder. The woodwinds and ticular quality of each mous by care. the com- poser "reproduces his impressions and the adventures of his soul in order to communicate them. it is this instrument represents neither English nor a horn. Tasso. Liszt. chestra: he transformed it dium for the expression of And as all into a powerful me- Romantic emotion." To narrate these soul adventures. or the opium-eater's beloved. the baseless depression and before he saw the object of his adoration. then the volcanic love which she instantly inspired in him. The beloved herself has become a melody which he finds and hears everywhere as an idee First fixe. his aimless passions. Chopin and Berlioz made a very deep impression on the young Hungarian piano-virtuoso and composer Franz Liszt (1811-86: he was also active in Germany). Music in the Modern World utter 275 . despite a streak of vulgarity in his musical per- still tried-and-true total or contrabassoon (large bassoon). —and so on through a total of five full-length Romantic subjects as Romeo and The Damnation of Faust* None of these works makes much sense as a Juliet when a single tune runs through the various movements as an "idee fixe" (fixed idea) standing for some person musical structure. What Chopin did for the piano. his consolations of religion. Berlioz and Liszt sometimes changed literary programs for their pieces. the strings were no longer invariably the basis of orchestral sound. First movement: "Reveries. bass Chopin felt * Goethe's Faust also inspired important pieces by Schumann. a with Hungarian nationalist inspiration. Berlioz studied the parall instrument with enorand produced novel solo effects and fresh composite sounds. 263. exaggerated all added several of of Chopin's innovations his — Lamartine. 259). harps.: Italy the (1834) traces the adventures of one of gloomy heroes so beloved of Romantic writers. He carried forward Berlioz' ideas by composing symphonic poems orchestral pieces again loosely organized around literary programs. he developed an important technique of transforming a small number of musical themes in various ways a technique with roots in thematic practices of Beethoven. A serene theme. many kinds of percussion. New instruments were added to the Classic orchestra (compare diagram 8. Hugo. Passions. he falls into a long sleep in which he has the strangest dreams. in fact. Schiller. In the symphonic poem. wherein his feelings.) In his harmony and piano is a case style. note note. To run through the names of the poets who inspired Liszt's symphonic poems in the 1 850s is to draw up a typical Romantic reading list: Dante. (His familiar Rdkoczi March. the as limelight. Incidentally. Liszt and own. and memories are translated by his sick brain into musical ideas and figures. Shakespeare. after and one presented in a breath-taking new orchestral sound. Not having taken sician of tion is in love. more flexible roles. his delirious ago- which he elation felt recovered love. The last important composer of — * The name of confusion. well as made a highly lifelong imaginative instinct for talent. Byron. After this. Berlioz did for the orvivid surprise after another. . But Berlioz' works do contain marvelous idea another. flute). A young mumorbid sensibility and ardent imaginaand has poisoned himself with opium in a fit of desperation. his jealous rages. rather as Turner occasionally did for his paintings. Goethe." he remembers the uneasiness of mind.

star- were Carnaval. In a remarkable way. Composers now invented all kinds of melodramatic musical effects. but in the learned indeed. and ensembles. Op. just as in the days of Baroque opera seria. Op. with its sensational scene of devilish conjuration in the ghostly "Wolf's Glen." As a true Romantic. not broken into arbitrary numbers such as arias and ensembles. displays of virtuoso singing still remained to plague the dramatic continuity.. Jacob Meyerbeer (1791-1864) was by no means the first to cultivate flashy orchestral tricks for theatrical purposes. 163 Frederic Chopin. Der Freischutz (1821. Concerto in A minor for piano and orchestra. Nocturnes (piano) Robert Schumann. 89 C String Quintet in major. forerunners of those used in this century as back- ground music for silent movies and television shows. Symphony Harold in Franz As may the reader well suppose. he castigated the popular French and Italian opera of the time as artificial. operatic structure was be- coming more flexible as a result of the examples of Gluck and Mozart. In this area the back to the 1790s and includes Maria von Weber (1786-1826). was end of the nineteenth century (see p. tendencies of Romantic music was not in the program symphonies of Berlioz or the sym- recalling those of Liszt at the phonic poems of man who had operas of a much from both genres: Richard Wagner (1813-83). and Strauss abandoned symphonic poems Richard Strauss. 282). a garbled tale of chivalry and true love. — — — — The dramatic continuity. Tales of cliff-hanging rescues. as they did on Berlioz in Paris. Faust posers had a field-day in the early nineteenth century." and Euryanthe (1823). and knightly derring-do enthusiastically wildly popular. Instead he conceived of a highly serious dramatic art-form integrating vocal and instrumental music. in addition to the music) should be decidedly "literary" in tone. and set to music with enormous care for correct declamation. The stories should narrate myths. and what he called a Gesamtkunstwerk stagecraft (combined-art. tradition goes several important operas by Karl freely rendered as The Magic Bullet). Franz Schubert. the stories could not be taken seriously. drama. But by that time. however much the style of singing had changed. Robert Schumann. all and proved these subjects were compressed into the standard operatic framework of recitatives. opera com- crossed young lovers. Hector Berlioz. only after a long. emphasis on virtuoso singing turned the whole enterprise into a "concert in costume. arias. Op. The breakdown of the dramatic action into recitative and aria was stiff and childish. though to be cessful. Wagner's life and works summed up the the genre quite early in his career. undramatic. And Liszt. up taken In general. poetry. All the composers mentioned in the previous section (except Chopin) tried their hand at opera. but without success. he was the most prolific and pretentious writer.) With some justice. But the "tyranny of the prima donna" continued. Winterreise (song-cycle). Op. The words (which he himself wrote. 9 much 54 and orchestra. Wagner proclaimed. philosophy. the fulfillment of the grandiose artistic intentions of the Romantic era. Mazurkas. made an impression on all German musicians. and artistically shabby. (Of the many literaryminded Romantic composers. taste was turning away from so literary a conception of musical continuity. should be unbroken. because myths embody the most profound human truths in symbolic — form and the myths should be German for good measure: then the Gesamtkunstwerk would express the very spirit of the German . Op. Wagner thought it outrageous for music to be used for mere "trivial entertainment" when it could be expressing the noblest aspirations of mankind. like life itself. SUGGESTIONS FOR LISTENING Franz Schubert. 16 Symphony — Wagner's successful operatic formula suchowever. 276 Music in the Modern World Italy for viola Liszt. tenacious struggle was worked out by him in a long series of books and essays.

" and "in Sehnsucht"). As Parsifal speaks of "compassionate power" and the "timid Fool. Wagner is the least susceptible to illustration through small excerpts. Of all composers. in Wagner's superior from the characteristic his The 16). or it could be altered very slightly to reflect a subtle one. is Wagner's basic technique and the one that gives his operas their peculiarly supercharged skill Besides "telling a story" in the orchestra. it will be noted that the essential continuity is provided by the orchestra. in order to concentrate on emotion. piling one gorgeous harmony and instrumental sound upon another. is now more regard the stage. wielded by a knight of perfect innocence and purity. and noble. (The Italians never forgave Wagner for this. can give some idea greatest role. The Berlioz idee fixe in the almost infinite and its leitmotif differs from the brevity and flexibility. They enacted myths as a kind of Athenian folk ritual. Dense "symphonic" development of leitmotifs. with the emotion that adheres to that object. not the singers. greatest art would be produced by the number of components. better. They were serious. and imagination with the technique. recognized as a version of the universal fertility myth of the Fisher King. awaiting the fulfillment of the prophecy that says he can be cured by a touch of the selfsame spear that wounded him. little happens on cidentally the inventor of several methods and also of of his which is related to the Celtic medieval legends of King Arthur and the Round Table. In our recorded excerpt. The entire community languishes. The role of music in all this was the emotions of the participants — — new instru- ments as well as one of the best conductors of it is the orchestra that really carries operas along. story of Grail so-called cycle. and in- object. In his most intensely emotional scenes. atmosphere. — — redeeming act and assumes the priestly office as Amfortas' successor. or idea. better. the somewhat sanctimonious leitmotif played by the brass instruments inevitably makes one think of the Grail itself. The passage is Music in the Modern World 111 . and is associated with some his time. until there is a burst of knightly music characuniversal — terizing finally knight More Parsifal. not the voice. But it appears transformed into a serene new version. person. Thus at the opening of the excerpt. and therefore Wagner could recklessly compare them to operas. developing a distinctive manner of continuously surging up and up and apparently never stopping. example to express the highest according to Romantic doctrine. leading motif)." an important leitmotif used in relating the prophecy surges up in the orchestra. just before "Der deine Wunde. hovering in however much happens in the souls and especially in the orchestra. Parsifal (1882). Greek plays had been sung. It could sound in the orchestra to suggest a character's unconscious thought without his even mentioning it. of his actors Wagner's typical surging passages. including himself.— Romantic Back of all this lay a vague but potent Romantic conception of Greek drama. However. So with for consistency than for the patience of his audiences. Amfortas suffers no more. Wagner cut down the dramatic stage business as far as possible. This can become boring it was but at its best criticized as "endless melody" it can create an overpowering impression of churning emotions. in the manner of a Beethoven development section. Wagner was a magnificent orchestrator. his — — — associated or. Amfortas. a small orchestral fragment that recurs over and over again in an opera. person. A leitmotif could be transformed in Liszt's manner to reflect a major turn in the drama. ) He took plenty of time with his orchestral music. The idea of the Gesamtkunstwerk found a sympathetic echo in the Romantic imagination. these motifs provided the necessary material for agony between life and death. in number of times it is used. an agonized one associated with the spear itself (four ascending notes. The listener must try to imagine that the associations of all of the leitmotifs have been drummed into his ear during the four hours of the opera that have already passed. he cannot perform the rites of the Grail. has sinned carnally and been wounded. An expressive descending leitmotif that has been associated throughout with Amfortas' suffering now appears before the words "Sei heir (be cured) and then four times more modulating each time during the next lines. Was not every song or program symphony a combined-art-work in embryo? The grandiose tone (recorded instincts of the age rallied to the notion that the this folk (another emphatic reflection of nationalism). or idea opera. As far as method is concerned. it will be remembered. Wagner's most famous innovation was the leitmotif {Leitmotiv. passionate." "ihm seh' ich. The priest-king of the Knights of the Holy Grail. Parsifal (Sir Percival) performs this healing or. reveals of the In this way the orchestra or confirms that the innocent prophecy is Parsifal leitmotifs follow. high-minded. a passage from near the end of his last opera.

Wagner's music can sometimes be blatant as well as powerfully sensual. This was carrying Schopenhauer's almost mystical glorification of emotion and music (see p. Taking a medieval tale of love and adultery and plunging it into music. in Tristan und Isolde (1859) Wagner compressed saga material that was equally diffuse into an intense. one of the most influential philosophers of the century. after the model of Greek drama. Each Wagner opera was a major undertaking. too. Probably the most graphic evidence of this is that Friedrich Nietzsche. dabble in statecraft. and promote a monument to the arts that probably counts as the most astonishing ever erected. surely marks the climax of the grandiose tradition. depending — on how they are counted. 278 seems uncharacteristic Music in the at first glance. But this is some extent. a realistic comedy full of local color and German the ultimate statement of the history. The Mastersingers of Nuremberg (1867). to look a little ludicrous in the cold light of day. For his composer produced his semiopera Parsifal. continuous modulation. —and felt then. however. As ruthless in self-interest as his own Nordic supermen. national myth): gods and goddesses. of most great Romantic art. wrote his first book as a kind of glorification of Wagner heart. scenes at the bottom of the Rhine. who was steeped in the Greek classics. Wagner fell over all in the later nineteenth century. we must not neglect the "message" though nowadays we may find it hard to take for this was central to Wagner's conception. as he saw it. the ritual Wagnerian religion. what often less important than the In tone. Wagner compels us to see individual emotion as more important or "real" than worldly convention. but in the mysterious depths of the Bayreuth Theater one is likely to be swept away by the hypnotic power of his "combined-art-work.— quite unlike a traditional opera aria. If. and relentless forward drive. sultry sound. the flesh. impelled after a great two write to nouncing him as a symbol of all change of de- tracts was corThis seems that rupt in nineteenth-century culture. slow-motion vision of the triumph of human passion. designed exclusively for Wagner festivals (the rest of the time the theater was dark). the same characters and leitmotifs run through all four operas. which require an unprecedented force of performers: a cast of 35. but there are grounds for it. 271) to its logical conclusion. and this may true. On the other hand. a work lasting four long evenings. And since his . Parsifal seems to present a cloudy allegory of the corruption of modern life and its need for orchestral — — renewal through a sort of hero-religion which. magic swords plunged in trees. Nietzsche. reason. Wagner conceived it as a trilogy with an introduction. dragons guarding treasures. One side of Romanticism deals with our private emotional fantasy world. for Parsifal sings is sound simultaneously leitmotifs that chestra. He incorporated plenty of the apparatus found in his literary source. like a strong line to take." and one can take it all very seriously indeed. singleminded. Wagner's identification with his own heroes grew almost ominous as the years went on. and in his fully mature period he wrote no more than four of them or seven. His personality was so forceful. is the sheer variety and opulence of with Parsifal is no spear leitmotif. in central Germany. The work ends with the chief warrior-maiden riding her steed onto a funeral pyre as the whole world collapses. While some of his contemporaries laughed. Fieven nally. walls of fire. in 1883. he was able to exert influence over the slightly deranged King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Tristan is Romantic creed. Bayreuth was beginning to take on the aspect of a temple devoted to a new last festival. though Christian in name. ings that certainly some foundly destructive of the The lengthening shadow aspects of musical Plato's warnmusic are pro- remembered of varieties life common of good. When he died soon afterwards. love potions. The Ring of the Nibelung (1853-74). and musical stance so uncompromising. dwarfs turned into toads. Characteristic. Modern World But below the surface is it another turgid alle- Romantic music and its and another celebration of gory. make off with other men's wives. one begins to submit to Wagner's illusion not in the cold light of day. This was a special opera house in the tiny town of Bayreuth. no musician or artist has ever — had such an impact upon artists and thinkers in every area. the brassy music in the or- Philistine associated the than the harmonies. a famous Germanic saga (or. many others submitted. blood. an orchestra of 105. is vaguely pagan in locale and disturbingly so in emotional quality. this time about enemies German — artist-hero. that people found themselves almost driven to take strong positions for or against him. and finally life itself. with their constant heroics and endless emoting and strained stage effects. qualities cultivated by the Romantic composers for half a century. with less characteristic its rich. The operas are perhaps easy to laugh at today.

instrumental music on the model of Beethoven was his ideal. Others shrank from the naive. The most impressive of these composers." In the wake of this interest. even if unconsciously. We have mentioned that Johann Christian Bach organized concerts in eighteenth-century London. Dvorak. incidentally. Tchaikovsky. Rachmaninoff. even though this had been pioneered by his older friend and mentor. which had existed from time immemorial. RimskyKorsakov.Wagner insisted on identifying his work as "the Music of the Future. that he should actually be praised for the effort." the judgment spoke worlds for the attitudes of the 1870s. Whereas previously all the music that was performed was more or one. Franck. and the "classics" were not known even in the classroom. Schumann. One is simply the growing prominence of old music. Strauss." Bach as "the first great German master. MacDowell. Yesterday's concert life was — — appreciation. heady expansiveness of the early time and returned to St. that an artist-hero like Beethoven should loom as a sort of timeless standard all of this would have been unthinkable in an earlier period. concert life fell right in with the interest in older. and familiar to those who know older symphony programs and courses in music Most people know a good amount of late nineteenth-century music. Bach. iod in music was actually a relatively stagnant There are other important respects in which musical life of today was prefigured by the later nineteenth century. Mendelssohn created a sensation when he "discovered" Bach's was new or recapturing the fine flush of the early Romantic spirits. the poet Tennyson. firmly established music. Mahler the list is a long one. As a consequence.Wagner per- a disturbing feature of today's musical scene. and C. Wagner reand Gluck. at all events in terms of craft he was one of the greatest musical craftsmen of all time went so far as to sign a foolish manifesto condemning the avant-garde music of Liszt and Wagner. and the closest he ever came to a literary program — in his many fine orchestral — and chamber-music already conservative. but it found its way back as a humanistic one. Matthew. without finding part of the even older musical principles. compositions was the single word "tragic" in the title of his Tragic Overture. It seems to be a fact that whereas the taste of the aristocracy tends to be capricious. an example that was soon followed in all the main cities of Europe and America. Bruckner. we can see that Wagner had carried ing and succeeding periods. In fact. Mozart. When Brahms's First Symphony was hailed as "Beethoven's Tenth. music of this posers explored his in the medieval universities as a mathematical or speculative discipline (see p. Sibelius. It was also part of the Romantic worship of the artisthero: Palestrina was hailed as "the savior of Church music. Significantly. the history of music was for the first time seriously studied by analogy to literary history. alongside those of Grieg. sential for musical reactionary to adventurous. to match another composer sixty years his senior. Brahms helped make scholarly editions of the complete works of Handel. Each Music of these late Romantic com- own channel in the of emotional- Modern World 279 . paid public concerts replaced the private court performances of earlier times. is now period probably occupies a larger place in people's consciousness than is warranted by its historical importance or actual aesthetic worth. This state of affairs arose partly in order to meet the demand for new emotional experiences." a new split became evident between freshly composed "avant-garde" music and the established "classics. post. Brahms's is a distinguished voice. which has a parallel in the numerous revival styles in the visual arts of those same years. Brahms is not notable for his instrumental sound. ranging from main show-places for music. music about as far as rection —and it could go in a certain di- composers hesiSome composers fol- that for a time cliff. however. and to art history. P. This has something to do with the conservatism of today's concert The life. Brahms's music has a nostalgic quality comparable to that of another master craftsman of Victorian times. 227). century. Rarely did he engage in the Romantic practice of carrying themes over from one movement to another. according to the Romantic fashion. split. the taste of the middle clas