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ethod for the Synthes,js, of

'
Compoun
tary Drtferentlal Gear

Effici,ent

Trains for Mul- iple speed Ratio 'Generation
Cemil Bagci
Tennessee Technological University
Cookeville, TN

Abstract:
Thisartide presents an efficient and direct method for the
synthesis of compound planetary diff.erential gear trains for
the generation of specified multiple speed ratios. It is a trainvalue method that utilizes the train values of the integrated
train components of the systems to form design equations
which are solved for the tooth numbers of the gears, the
number of mating gear sets and the number of external contacts in the system. Application examples, including vehide differential transmission units, rear-end differentials with
unit and fractional. speed ratios, multi-input function generators and robot wrist joints are given.

for contact points A and C and solving them simultaneously.
Given the following criteria:
Wi

= wikis

angular velocity:

fi is the pitch circle radius of the
member 3 is the planet arm;

w3 ..
VB

jth

gear or member;

Wa;

= -

VA = -VAi;

Vc=

-Vei;

Vai; V AB = V ABi;and VCB=

-

VeBi

where
I

Introduction
simple planetary gear train each planet gear shaft car-

one gear; ina compound planetary gear train each planet
gear shaft carries two' or more gears connected to each other.
(See the simple and compound planetary gear trains in Figs.
1 and 3, respectively.) Plan t gears in a compound planetary
gear train cause speed reduction and change in direction of
rctatiore planet gears in simple planetary gear trains merely
cause change in direction ·of rotation. Synthesis of compound planetary gear trains C3.nbe done by the tabulation
method .•which utilizes relative motions of gears wi.th respect
'to'the planet ann. In general. it isan iterative process ..
Using the equations of motion of planetary gear trains instead of the tabulation method yields a very simple, direct
method for analysis as well as for synthesis of both simple
and compound planetary gear t:rains. The equations of motion for a simple planetary gear train, such as shown in Fig.
1, are formed by writing the velocity loop-closure equations
14 Gear Technology

The velocity loop-closure

v I2
A

=

equations are

(VB + VAB)14

vds = ('1

0

+ VCO)14

(1)
(2)

where the subscripts 2,. 4, 5 designate the contact points on
members 2, 4, 5, respectively. Equations 1 and 2. in terms
of rj and Wi. become
(la)
(2a)

4
~.

Ir'\'\\1I

y

... X

'---------1

x

( b)

:Fig. 1- (a) Simple planetary

gear train. (b] velocity vectors.

Eliminating "'4 in. Equations La and 2a we obtain the equations of motion relating speeds of gears 2, 5 and the planet
ann as

and synthesis. Thus, e is defined as

e

= (-l)q

l;PDVER

(7)

r;PDVEN

(3)

where q is the number of external contacts of the mi'ltin.g
gears. For the gear train in Fig. 1, e is defined as

with the constraint that
(4)

Substitute rs from (4) into (3) and note that rj = N/2P and
Wj = Tn,/30; P is the diametral pitch; niis the speed of the ith
gear in rpm; nill is the speed of the planet ann. Then the equation of motion in terms of tooth numbers of gears becomes

e

e

=

Nz

Ns
In thisequaHone

=

=

N2

(8)

Ns

with q = 1 for contact between gears 2 and 4. For the gear
train .of gears 2 to 7 in F~g. 2, e is defined with q = 3 as

e = (-1)3 N2N4NsN6 = _
N4NSN6N7

Nz
N7

(9)

where gear 6 is a double length gear to mate with gears 7 and

1

ns - na

K

"2. -

-

NzN4
N4N5

(5)
which is written in the form. of train va1ue as

-

(6)

n,

is the train value fanned as the ratio of the
products of tooth numbers of driving gears starting with the
input gear, EPDVER, to the products of tooth numbers of
the driven gears, and I:PDVEN, when the planet arm is considered stationary. The sign ·of e, however, is very important in order that. no error is introduced during the analysis

AUTHOR:

DR. CEMIL BAGG is professor of mechanical ellgilleeriflg CIt
Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN, wllere he
teaches courSes and conducts research in machine design,
kinematics and robotics. Dr. Bagd studied at Teclmiml Teachers
College, Ankara, Turkey and received his undergraduate and graduate degrees from Oklahoma State University. Stillwater, OK. He
is autharof aver 170 technical papers and the reeipien: of numerou.s
research awards. He is a member of AGMA. ASME ema seoeral
other technical societies.
July/August 1990
'.5

Also. velocity loopclosure equations for A and Care VAI2 = (Va + VAB)14 (20) V c 16 = (VB + V CB) 15 (21) which reduce to (15) (22) defining n4 in terms of nz. and e is written correspondingly. e is defined with q =4.Simple planetary gear train with idler planet gears. eFpand . The 16 GearTechno. respectively. Equations of Motion for Compound Planetary Gear Trains Two compound planetary gear trains are shown in figs. either substituting e and n2 from Equation 6 and N:z from Equation 14 into Equation 13. 4. Then it adds to that speed their individual speeds relative to the planet arm. or considering Equation 2a. Thus. and the last gear tooth number in the train is the last number in EPDVEN. between gears 5 and 4.first gear tooth number in EPDVER is the tooth number of the first gear of the train. we obtain Note that the coefficient [(-1)1 n2/n4] of (02-na)' in Equation 15 is the train value e24 between gears 2 and 4. we obtain (16) (2'4) defining n4 in terms of ns· The train value defined by Equation 6 is written in general form as Noting the following equation of constraint r2 e = nL-na. Equations 15 and 16 can also be written in the following general fonns: vVl!wrenp is the designated speed of the planet gear. idler gears do not affect the speed ratio. upon substituting rj and Wjin terms of N. 2 . we obtain (23) Noting that WS=W4 and eliminating them in Equations 22 and 23. In (a) the last gear is an internal gear. Equations 17-19 are also the equations of motion for all compound gear trains.. For the gear train of gears 2 to 8. Similarly. Subtract Equation 1 from Equation 2 to have (11) or (12) which.. and ni' gives the speed of the planet gear 4 as (13) Either substituting e and ns from Equation 6 and (14) from Equation 4 into Equation 14. Equations of motion for the compound gear train are written in the same manner as for the simple planetary gear train . (19') 8. whichever end of the train one starts with. as if they were ordinary gear trains whose frames were fixed to the planet arm. nr-na (17) where nF and nL are the speeds of the first and last gears in the train considered. the coefficient [( -1)0 Ns/N4l of (n. Equations 18 and 19 form bases for the tabulation method to define the speeds of planet gears. as shown in Fig.eLp are the train values between the first and planet gear and last and planet gear.na) in Equation 16 is the train valueeg. or considering Equation la. but their number defines the sign of e. e = N2 (10) Ns As observed in Equations 8-10. /' ! ( \ (18) fig. . bevel gear planetary gear trains and differentials. 3(a) and (b). in (b) it is an external gear. As shown in the following section.I'ogy + f4 = t6 - rs or Pij defining diametraJ pitch between gears i and N2 + N4 = No - 2P24 Ns 2Pso (25) i. (26) . This method simply assumes all moving members are fixed to the planet arm rotating with the arm speed.

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Velocities in the compound planetary gear train. Caution: For ordinary gear trains in which the planet arm is fixed. respectively. PLANET ARM or n6 by Equations 22 or Bas (0 I (29) or (30) I . the equation of motion " into Equation 24. Fig. Hence.. (b) with all external gears.B". the ordinary gear train must beanalyzed first to determine the input speed to the planetary gear train . which are also in the forms of Equations 18 and 19. n4' is defined in terms of nz This is in the form of Equation nl =n". we have ~LAST GE. NL=N6' The speed of the planet gear... (bl Fig. NF=N2. nil =0 and e = nL = 1 (31) indi. 4 .'4U1.na ---:=. I 1B Gear Technology T = In (34) . respectively. rnput~utput Torque Relation The power equilibrium of a gear train defines the torque multiplication factor (or the mechanical advantage) the planetary gear train generates..s TIa - (28) 17 with q = 1. 3-Compound planetary gear trains. Tin Win + Tout Wout = 0 (32) or Vce=-rSUl4 Tout = _ nin Till l10ut = - SR (33) where the subscripts "in" and "out" designate "input" and "output".OR INTERNAL GEARI (27) which.and substituting rZ+rS=r6-r4. in terms of nj and N. (a) with internal gear.cating that the train value for ordinary gear trains is the inverse of the speed reduction ratio SR generated by the gear train.AR (RlNG. when a planetary gear train is driven by an ordinary gear train. Thus.. nF= n2. becomes NzN n6 --- N4N6 nz . Considering the mechanical efficiency of the gear train as 'l/f' input torque required to generate an output torque is V.

Therefore.97 and 0.-na With the tooth numbers shown it reduces to (35) 0. NON you can see the differenoe in expansion arbors and chucks. 7.Composite planetary gear train analyzed. Eliminate losses and down time caused accidental actuation that effect products [A]I MDT or leaking by seals of lesser quality. 5 . HDTmanufactures a superior selfcontained hydraulic work holdingltool holding system designed for your needs. gear 9 is Fixed. Since in this arrangement.260587 rpm Following is the analysis needed to find the input torques required for each output shaft operation. in the planetary gear 'train of Fig.Gear train mancfacturers'" suggest that the mechanicalefficiency of two well-lubricated. for this train we have e4-9 = (_1)2N4N6Ns = NsN7N9 n9-na n4. and n9=0.a_ Reduction in efficiency due to energy loss in bearings should also be considered. if there are R sets of gears in a gear train.5(R-l)] looking for is of gears 4. the sub-planetary gear 'train we are N. Compound Planetary Gear Train n.93. respectively. 5.96.Hence. loo!3-Na and Example of Analysis of a. It is np=100/3 rpm. Band 9 with nL=n9=O. 17) contains three shaft speeds. =-0. its mechanical efficiency may be approximated by l1t = (0.98) [1+0.luI¥!August 1990 '19 . 5.. Then.6. The gear train shown in Fig. This train generates the speed of the planet arm. DON'T sstus FOR LESS THAN HOT COMPARE OUR FEATURES . The input shaft of two-lead-wonn rotates at 1000 rpm.::. we must find a sub-planetary gear train receiving two input speeds. mating precision gears is about 0. for two and three stage speed reductions.98. it can only be solved for one speed when the other two speedsare specified.. it is about 0. Gears 2 and 3 form an ordinary gear train generating the input speed n4 of the planetary gear train . Mechanical efficiency of the system is 0. Since the train value equation (No. 5 is used to lift 10(%£ load where the lift ropes wrap around 10" diameter drums. n4 =nF must be determined first. which is one of the output speeds. .m 2 LEFT HAND Fig.00766 = __ -_n. Thus.

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Its sign. 12 and 13.4. A right hand rule can be followed. 7 and 12 are determined using Equations 18 and 19 as "12 = na. 6 . Its equation of motion is O-n a 1 4 and generating speed reduction. 18 N" '" 54 Ns"" 72 rpm N12 Ns = 22 N7 = 32 Input torque required to lift the load by the planet arm shaft is Fig. 6. 11. 10. generating a speed reduction ratio of SRI = n2 =- input rotation.5 3837. however. retaining the planet arm fixed. .498 = na The second sub-planetary gear train in the system is of gears 4. The equation of motion for the 'train is given by Equation 19 as = . 6.73 1113 Speeds of gears 5.. 5.7.The planet arm is rotating in the direction opposite that of gear 4.Compound bevel gear planetary To lift the load by the shaft of gear 13 it is Bevel Gear Planetary Gear Trains The value of e is determined as shown above. 7 or e = 0. gear train. 4. For the planetary gear train of gears 2. 6.00703 + 0. 7 . A bevel gear planetary gear train with only sun and planet gears is shown in Fig.Planet gear motion generator. consider the planetary gear train of a robot joint shown in Fig.260587 n13 = -0. - N13 (n13-na) = -1. must be determined by releasing all the gears. where for the planetary gear train of gears 2.40946.N2 (n2 -n a ) N4 N2". Thus.4414 ..024422 and rpm and SRZ = n13 = ~ generating a speed increase (over drive ratio).. 7. and observing the direction in which the last gear rotates relative to the direction of the 22 GearTechnology Fig.260587 100/3 + 0.

in order to retain nA2 = 0.1 = -- na Fig. With nA]-O. These two July/August 1990 23 . SRl is always the smallest forward reduction when e<1.r' verted ordinary gear train.1 576 577 (39) It can..nput case with two inputs forms the fourth type of speed gen ration.effector. 7 and ann A2• Its train value is N4 .contact ratio. The three speed reductions a compound gear train can generate with single input speed are z SRI - nF - . 5. The speed ·of the end-effector 1 is N2 Ns N7 N9 ---= 576 RS = _ N. which defines speed of ann A2• Substituting n4 and n7 from Equations 36 and 37. SRl is the smallest reduction. By Equation 17 1 nl-n a e---= nF-na 1 nF .of Compound Planetary Gear Trains As observed in the examples for analysis of planetary gear trains. 11"2 is defined in terms of the input speeds as nA2 - e -577 1 1. It has three input shafts. ge. must satisfy . 8 shows another bevel gear planeta-'Y gear train used in robot wrist joints. 8. 0 = (I-'e). During the synthesis one should keep in mind that the tooth ratio between any two mating spur gears and straight bevel gears should be retained 'below 8110 assu re proper contact. if e>O. shafts of arm All gears 2 and 8.~ = n7 - . (36) and (37) provide input to the planetary gear train of gears 4. Arm Al rotates the joint to reposition the z-z axis about which the arm A2 rotates when gear 2 or 8 or both retate. their tooth numbetsalld th number of external contacts 'q to yield the value of e.0 Robot Wrist Joint U mg Planetary Gea:rTrains Fig. must bean internal gear.. SR2>Oand largest. larger tooth ratios may be tolerated For internal and helical gears due to increased .2. nL =0 e roll.~d into N4NS NsN. SR1>O and largest. nOJ.e . N4 N6 N8 The last gear in el.. = -. SR. Inversion generating SR2is 3. SR..itch and twist motio!lS nF 1 SR2 . either SRI or SR2is the forward and the largest reduction.2<Oand intermediate. For example.Synthesis .t( ) I1Az . in e2.02 and "8 (41) N4 N6 Nil NlO or e2 - - (~)(~H~) = "-1)3 N2 Ns N. be factor. sufficiently large contact ratio and low noise level. Equation 17 can be salved to generate only one shaft speed by a sub-planetary gear train. n. SRI and SR2are Iarge speed reduct ions.. The shaft of gear S is the lend-.a:r8 must be an external gear to generate q'" 3. Depending on th sign of e.. p.. if e<0. n4l-n"2· - (40) Ns As observed in Equation 39'.l~O and in.. The objective of synthesis is ee find 'lhe number of mating gears inthe train. 6. (42) . gear 10. Example: Let us synthesize a compound planetary gear train (38) to generate a speed reduction ratio of + 577 from the plan t ann shaft with fll =0.:.PlaMlary gear train ~Iing of a robot wrist joinl.oAz Ns N7 OA2 r14 - nL SR3 OIl nl I 118-Ns 1 + N4N6 - n2 N7 NzN6) (44) The split i...termooiate.

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NlO=192 In terms of center distance vectors The second form of synthesis yields costly systems. N8=216 which must satisfy (b) which demands that and must be satisfied. where Ui] is the unit vector. one notices the unbelievable gear size: Nl = 5520. 10 let N2=20. N7=24. requiring shifting of gears. N8=72. Form 1. Ns=20.=18. In Fig. 9 and 10..Ns:.r9) UZ9. N4=160.5 simultaneously. Porm 2. Ng=24. peed reduction July/Auaustl990 25 . No=80. The planet armand the planet gears must be balanced. 9Iet N2=20. -4 and 2. Ns=20.NlO-Ng must be satisfied. N4=120. + N7 + Ns:. ratio of 577 with eight gears. 10.NlO-N9 and Ns . Only one desired speed reduction is generated at a time. which is commonly achieved by mounting symmetrical planet gears. N. . All the desired speed reductions are generated simultaneously. To generate this speed reduction an ordinary planetary gear train will require NL/NF=278.gear trains are shown in Figs. Multiple Speed Reduction Generation Synthesis of a compound planetary gear train is performed in two forms. (See Fig. releasing and activating clutches.) Considering the same diarnetral pitch for all the gears. 9b. This defect with ordinary planetary gear trains is minimized by forming series-connected ordinary planetary gear trains . + Ns + No + N7 + Ns~ NlO-N9 Nz + N4 + Ns + Nb - Nz + N4- N. The largest reduction is generated by SRI or StU. without requiring shifting for geaearrangements within the gear train. since it requires complex mechanisms. connections and clutches to shift the gears and change the shalts. (a) must be satisfied when mounting the planet gears on the planet arm. In general it requires a series connection in which the output of one unit is used to drive the next unit. In Fig. dl = 920".. In a compo und planetary gear train it is a preferred trade to retain the and CZ9 = (rIO . With NF=20. depending on the locations of shafts of gears 5 and 7. Fig. Nz + Nt. respectively. Example for form 1Synthesis Let us synthesize a compound planetary gear train to generate the speed reduction ratios. Nb=120.N. P=6. Equation (a) demands that. 9-Compoulld pl netary gear train generating.

J.o".~ stWTS INTERNAL & EXTERNAL I e v ' STAlE OF THE ART HEAT TREAT FACILIlYONI 1 l - I ~ s E l s T PREMISES 1 10 el 1 - 1 10 Using four gears.R1. planet arm active.. we (c) which states that gear 6 is an internal gear" This portion of the gear train is shown is Fig.n. y 07432 201-4<15-2413 Mounlain p. Hence... ~ _OEAAS.181D1 717-474-5«0 (b) 9 contact.8EVRS.. N'4 =3. 10 . EXECUTIIVE QFcI'ICES M'ANUFACTURINGFACIUTY 181 G . lo=el-l (a) el and 1 9 GEAR GRIND 'F'ACLJTY • COfM'LETE GEAR BO~ ~ RU~P!\0DUC1lI:)fl· SINGlE GEARS s p I R AMERICAN STANDARD A l s p E C or I A 1OPI. _ A.· SBlMeHfS SPlINES ~CI!.. N's=l.... l1(a).... ~. So let 5R1 in Equation 42 generate speed reduction 10.. N'6=3. N.nnsyl\lanll.(0) [ til Fig.Compound planetary gear train generating speed reduction ra tio of 577 wi th six gears.~.."""" "'dian<! Pall<.. p. the constraint equation CIRCLE A·ll ON REAIDER REPLVCARD (d) 26 Gear Technology .. Considering N'z=l..r Top.IJST'ERS.. the first two havingexternal form C_I.

N6=240. we have 1 + 3 = 6-2 (0 defining N'2=1.Multiply by 40 (or 20. the other two speed reductions are generated. letting a==I. Gear IHoningw/Crowning. Grinding.=120.. Tooth numbers in (h) must satisfy and Hence. 160 5. (g) 3 '12 10 where 14 ~=. N's=2.. both sides of (f) are multiplied by the same number to define the actual tooth numbers . 240 and 160>C(7+6-2-2) and 9<C< 17 BUFFALO. by Equation 18. Broaching.. To use the same diametral pitch a.0.10 = _ = . Tooth Cha_mferingand Rounding Supplied complete to print Finishing operations on your blanks Grind teeth only _N2=_~ N4 3 must also exist in the sub-gear trains.24. Preolslon Gear Manufacturling to AGMA Class 15 including . Now. NY 14217 FAX (7116). Using the same planet ann. (1+3) (e) b(3-1) 2a = b = Reishauer RZ300E Ellectronica'ny ControUed Gear 'Glrinders Commercial &. Ns=80. N4.0. or two sets of external gears. N'4=3. where a =_1_.1 Sprockets • 1 Grinding to 12·111. C (2 + 2 + 7 + 6) 5. gear 8. 1 36 1-- (_!).) to have N2= 40. speed reduction ratio ( . and 1. and N'6=6. Keyseating• Turning and Milling.874~900'3·PHONE (716)874-3131 1 CIRCLE A-12 ON READER IREPlY CARD .1 Splines and Pulleys Serrations .. 12 Its positive sign requires another internal gear. b=~ 2Pso.4) is generated by 1 1 4 14 . 2PZ4 Ge~ Geinding Specialists.0. 3D.2" Diameter 'Hobbing to 24" Diameter . (14). 941G IMILIITARY RD. and noting that • Spur I • Helical • Internal I • Pump Gears . h=2. etc. Thus. Choosing the latter.must he satisfied.

-4 and 2. where the planet arm drives the last gear.44.Choose the following products: (:J (e .l1(b). Thus.5 may be generated similary using split inputs nll = n2 and nL = 1/10.28 Gear Technology (el .4) could also be generated. N13 = N13 = 80. -4 and 2.: _ ~o ( .5. three products of speed ratios are formed using the forms of speed reductions in Equations 42 . 11(c). or only one unit may be driven by simply using an external clutch coupling or shaft splines shifted axially as shown in Fig.~:) ec = = .5) is generated by Thus. 49 1 1 2. Nn = and N12 = 80 e3 = The final form of the gear train is shown in Fig. As noted.Compound planetary gear train synthesized to generate speed reduction ratios 10. 1 40 NIl 2 80 N13 10 yielding a simple planetary gear train as the third unit with NIl = 40. 243 other combinations are possible. Since d=80. The gear train may drive three units with the three speeds it generates.This sub-train expands the gear train to the form shown in Fig . Let us generate speed ratios 10. forming a gear train that uses n7 = n2 and the planet speed (1/10) of the first reduction as the split inputs.10• In this case the planet arm of the first unit must drive gear 10. Form 1 synthesis is a stepwise synthesis for simultaneous speed reduction generation. It may be a much larger and more costly large drive system compared to the solution in Fig. N12= 20. Since there are three speeds to be generated. = gear 12 being an external gear... which satisfy (r7 + fa) = (r9 + rIO)with P79 = P9. One can form 729 combinations of three products of SRlt SR2 and SR3'considering each unit causing speed reduction. requiring a more complex shaft arrangement. Speed reduction ratio (+2. The new solution has three planetary gear train units with three planet arms and more complex shaft connections.]1. ll(c). with the possibility of two overdrive units out of three units. Example for Form 2 Synthesis In this case three gear trains in series will be formed with different shaft connections for each speed reduction generated. Ng = 49 and N10 = 70. = ( -~)( 70 -i) 10 where ec yielding a second compound planetary gear train with N7 = 34.1) r2~1) 1 r 1 e~ 10 (a) -4 (b) = l)(:J(~) = (c) I I Fig. gears 7 and 8 being the same size. ( b) ( 0) 1 4 10 10 1-2. 11c. simultaneously by form 1 synthesis. Ns = 85. Speed reduction 2.1) (1) (1-e3) el ez = 2 (c) . . Noting that the inverse ofa speed reduction is an overdrive condition. It should be noted that the second speed reduction ( .

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(b) and (c) simultaneously one finds ez = Then. N'6 = 144 for unit 2. whose arm is fixed. whose planet arm drives the first gear of unit 3.. Thus..1390.In (b) and (c) the arm shaft of unit 1drives the sun gear of unit 2. Consider the second solution. it drives the last gear of unit . for unit 2 e2= N'.004. Valuese. N'5 = 72.5 and e31 = el2 1.· 30 Gear Technology Observing the sizes of gears in unit 3. Several clutches and shaft coupling units are needed to form the shaft arrangements in this case.3661 1 (-2·1)(1) 1 €Jz= 0. (b) and (c). and The number of gears.2= in which gear 6 is an external gear.1-.3129 = 3.. and satisfying The three gear trains with their shaft connections to generate the three speed ratios are shown in Figs 12(a). Unit 1 does not change its fixed shaft condition. satisfying For unit 3 e32 =- 0.1959 "'" 1. Solving (a).4 and 2 one at a time by form 2 synthesis. its planet arm drives the first gear of unit 2.and e3 are satisfied approximately. whose last gear drives the first gear of unit 3 in (b).5).Nil:)(N" W: ) in which gear 6 is an internal gear.2 N' 5 N'4 N'b e5 .0.1) = (Nil . the system generates: 10. .. N'4 = 18. and its last gear generates SRI =10 in (a). and noting the existence of three planet arms and several dutch and coupling . For unit 1 = -0..where the last gear of unit 1is fixed. a=3.) (. N'z= 54.7315 1 1 . b=8.01. (. the first gear being fixed. With the approximated e3 and el.Compound planetary gear train synthesized to generate speed reduction ratios 10. leading to two solution gear trains with ell = -0. -4.5 =0 or the two values of e3 as e32 = 0.eJ .039.3661 . and 2.5 (~3) (\5) = and N'b must be an internal gear.. fig.'2 .3129 -1.3...6·· = 3.3661 = _ 1. 12 .3 in (c). Satisfying N'2+N'4 = N'6-N'S' a (3+1)=b(3-1. their tooth numbers and the value of q for each solution unit is determined independently of the others. 1__ 2.

• . Here.1 . A smaJlerdrive with at larger speed error may be formed. N6-40._36). 'e B=l-e A p]a_netary gear train can be synthesized to generate a function .2.. Consider the foUowing example.2898 .. it is in general called a "differential gear train".. Readers should form solution gear trains for e31 and en.03. x and ybeing the input functionsnL= x.5 (48) e = 4/5 is generated by four external gears Itosupply y. Differential GeM Trains 'A1hen a planetary gear train is driven with two inputs to generate the third speed (split input drive).5. to generate the function where 1 A=-.-'N.. find e being sure that the other coefficient. the input to. 13(a). Some differential gear trains were already synthesized in the foregoing compound planetary gear train examples.FAX 81 8: 442'.. In this case. Ns=30. try where m= N":2) (N"s) .N~6 N" andN":z = 30. E e.of the form z . the last gear of the train must be supplied as x/m * SPEC * USER FRIENDLY * VERY FAST FL!EXIBLE *MIL QUALITY JA.9547. 1-e .. Ns=32. 36 40' N4=36.EN'G=-IN. generating the speed reduction ratios as 9. Equation 17 may also be written to generate z by the shaft of the last gear.(_NS) N4 . B Dr A.2 synthesis.-'G=-.00216. Booth #&228.311 . NU. Rewrite Equation 17 for the planet arm as n. Other products of el2 should be searched. Example: Let us generate z Comparing Equation4S = 2x -4y (47) and 47 we have 1 e A=-=2.. synthesis as in form 1 is more economical and advantageous. EI Monte'.74 See I l 1I1Dt IMTS '90. we use B to finde as 4 5 which yields A=5 Therefore. N6 5 (- = ~= 2. ax+by (46) by the planet arm. ential gear train is shown in Fig. Thus.MES. e =~= = Arormed = . . = .= Anl . supplying x on the arm shaft. we will see how a differential with two inputs can be synthesized to generate the sum of two variables as a mechanical computer. where N7=20.. Cali~omia 8J8 442~.units and shifting or actuating mechanisms within the system in form..=z. The desireddffferandN2=36.Bnf (45) ~esired 2 (_N2) .. is larger 'than its r-equired value so that an overdrive unit is not formed. - --- --- -- '- -- ---- --- - "- 1170'7 McBean Drive.(. In that case. np=y and na. For example.. as (49) with D= (I-e).(_32)·. N"6 = 216.B=-=4 l-e l-e Using A or B. A-15 ON' READERR£~LYCARD JUIV/ August 1990 . y on the first gear shaft.-EER-=-. NUs = 13. N9=50.98188. -3.51.

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Bevel gear planetary gear train differential for vehicle rear-end withe=-l. where planet gears FIg. 13 (b).S and nF=y. 15. A bevel gear train generating z for this case is shown in Fig. nz = 0. na=x/2 . where e= -4 = z Ns _N N4 N6 = _ (. e~ -] . so that when the vehicle is making a turn without the planet ann rotating.is driven by the universal shaft to supply the input by the planet arm. and gear 5 is lifted for balancing.. e= -4. i - CONN[CHD TO tHASll (0) (aJ (b) I~-=!:=~+ ~Y function generating planetary gear differentials~1 I fig. nF=4yas overdrive. one observes -1 = ns-na I '--PLANET ARM n 5 =2n ---a - -na Vehicle rear-end differentials can also be formed using spur gears. provided e = -1 is maintained. Fig. July/ AIJClJsn9903 3 . where gear 7. 14 shows a commonly used bevel gear rear end differential. 14 . N4 is of any suitable number and e = -1. When gear 2 is held stationary.40) (20) 80 ·40 The reader should form another gear train using e = -1 supplying na=x.in Equation 47. Figures 15(a) and (b) show two such rear-end differentials. Nz=Ns. V:ehide Rear End Differentials The objective in designing a vehicle rear end differential planetary gear train is to generate e = -1. the outer wheel goes one unit rotation forward as the inner wheel goes one unit rotation backward.Rear-end differentials formed of spur gears.

In (a) chain drives the planet arm. such as e = . gear 3 is held stationary and clutches G and H are open. Fig. 16- Cross section of General Motors 41. are used in order to generate stabilizing traction torque that tends to retain the vehicle on the straight line.0. and P.8 for a race car to rotate the outer wheelless than the inner wheel. 17. In that case. Input is supplied through one or two fluid couplings (torque converters). = -0. I. Small converter B-C is empty. It has three clutches at G.988 Hydramatk Division. 16 shows a Hydramatic 4L60 (THM 700-R4) automatic transmission by General Motors that generates two forward and one reverse speed reductions. All Rights Reserved" T OUTPUT SHAFT 34 Gear Techno'iogy . CJ.60 (THM 7()().8 should be satisfied instead of -1 as done Automatic Transmissions An automatic vehicle transmission in general has two or more simple planetary gear trains whose shafts can be coupled or held stationary to form different arrangements.R4) model automatic transmission. In (a) -1 = (-~:) (~:) = (-:~) (1~~) In (b) -1 (-N:2)(-N:S)(~:7) (~~O)(~~?)(~~O) = = Differentials for fractional values of e. Observe its operation: Neutral position. The skeleton of a five-speed automatic transmission with three simple planetary gear trains driven with two torque converters is shown in Fig. in (b) bevel gears do the same. e above. The planet N VALVE ASSEMBLY Fig.are symmetrically mounted for balancing. GMC. and O. H. four sprag overrunning clutches at 1.

Ontario.. D rotates E and gear 4. by introducing above worm-gear sets in a compound planetary gear train. N. and ~:. and N4 e2= --=N6 with 'ez = with O-nL (b) n4~nL -0. J is engaged and IlJ =0. Johnstown. August 12. Vol. B~C is empty. B-C is full and nM = nL . and from (h) Conclusions Offered in the foregoing with illustrative examples are efficient methods of analysis and synthesis of compound plan- etary gear trains and planetary differentials. Thir:dFonoard Reduction.. P is open. P is open. B-C is empty." . n1. G. except that P and 0 are engaged and N is open. I is open..243n1· Second Forward Reduction. 1.V. Clutches G. . The methods use the train values ofwmponent planetary geartrains. (a) for el. 18.P. Low-Low Foruiard Reduction. n1 = n3 = 1\4 = nD. = -1.3 and no=O. 54.. As expected. 0 are engaged. PLANTARY GEAR REDUCERS. P are open.. In this case the entire gear train rotates as one body at the engine speed nl' 1. .arm D rotates freely rt4 = no = rI6' and shaft L idles. Small converter B-C is full driving gear 3. PA. L I retain nJ = n6 =0 . / ~ \ TECHNICAL \::. and nL=n6' P and 0 are open.7143 and nM =nL =0. very large speed reducrionscan be generated with fewer number of gears in the train.R. N.nD=nE' Then from (a) above nM = nL = nD= Referenoes 1. 0. Canada . are engaged. N is engaged. Manufacturing 2. Crichton Co . 0 areengaged. Il4 = no.S.. to AGMA. Gand H are engaged. n7=~and nM=O. No. G. From the train value of the third gear tr ain with na = 0. From train 1 Fourth Forward Speed.- - N3 -- nl-nO . __ el no = -el-l nl Reverse Reduction. C'IRCLE A-J17 'ON READER REPLYCA!RD (703) 684-021I July/August 1990 35 . P is open.J ) MEETING Toronto. i o el Nl _ O-nD = . MACHINE DESIGN. and lead to very simple design processes. E are open. N. 1982. 1990 .October 29-31.5833n1 FALL .. [ are engaged and ~ =0'. 0' are engaged. Hi N. B-C is full and the system is engaged as for the fourth forward speed.55. p.5833Il1' In train 2. H.