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awkward engagement
2. phony (hohohoh) feeling
3. mechanical use
4. automaticity

1. clear operational statement of outcomes

2. measure for the outcomes
3. factors that contributed to success and failure

course of developing automaticity:

evaluation must include:

1. discussing quality of process

2. reflecting on effectiveness
3. setting goals for improvement

how members continually improve group

1. empirical validation of knowledge

2. past experience in conducting and helping reflections
3. clear explanations
4. self-awareness

the considerations in the coordinator skills,

knowledge, and need:


engaging in behavior
assess consequences through reflection and feedback
reflect on effectiveness and refine action theory
implement revised action theory

examination of coordinator-participant relationship and motivations

specification of outcomes
detail session constraints and limits
generate alternatives for unforseen changes
make a tentative design
commit to the final design and assign responsibilities if more than 1 coordinator is present
assess how you function as a staff if there is another coordinator

1. informed consent
2. activites
3. coordinator knowledge, skills, and needs

introduction of coordinator, warm ups, and expectation forming

exercise conduction
conceptualization, analysis, and summarizing of exercise experience
integration of theory and cognitive framework to participant statements.
discussion of application
overall success evaluation based on objectives

1. observing
2. give/receive feedback
3. reflecting and setting improvement goals
4. modifying behavior for the next meet
5. repeat the cycle

1. opportunity to define goals

2. goals are based on central needs and values
3. opportunity to define path to goal accomplishment
4. a realistic level of aspiration

process of experiential learning:

how to design a skill training session:

ethics for experiential learning can be

found in:

typical skill-training session:

steps in developing competence in

participant observer studies

Lewin's criteria/evidences for one to

experience psychological success

1. organiz ation of materials , proc edures , and fac ilities

2. introduc tion, c onc lus ion, and tie-in
3. s idetrac k prev ention
4. res tating and c alling attention the main learnings
5. s etting an open, warm and ac c epting ex perimentation c limate
6. anc hor for res pons ibility , k nowledge, and trus t
7. modeling the s k ills
8. following general outline of ex periential learning
9. being enthus ias tic
10. k nowing and unders tanding the material well
11. mak ing s ure ev ery body els e unders tands
12. being s ens itiv e to differenc es
13. remaining flex ible
14. enjoy ing thems elv es for the c oordinator to learn as well

1. preparation: planning and choosing participant observer

2. watching and recording member's behaviors
3. observes the frequency of engaging in specified behaviors and assessment of
function effectiveness
4. summarizing
1. res pec t freedom of c hoic e
2. ex plain the objec tiv es
3. k now limits
4. pres ent relev ant theory /res earc h
5. c ons tant awarenes s of own behav ioral s ty les and pers onal needs
6. as s es s all ex perienc es
7. nev er initiate c onfrontation
8. ens ure c onfidentiality
9. rec ogniz e s y mptoms of ps y c h s tres s
10. s olic it feedbac k
11. c onduc t follow-up interv iews

1. scaffolding
2. using skills while articulating and explaining them to coach (internalization
3. independent practice
4. decontextualize (generalize)

1. streamline the processes

2. error proof the process
1. unders tand it's importanc e and v alue
2. unders tand what it is , c omponents of behav ior to engage, and when it's to be us ed
3. find s ituations to do it repeatedly with a c oac h to guide y ou
4. as s es s how well it's implemented
5. dev elop automatic ity
6. load prac tic e towards s uc c es s
7. get friend's for enc ouragement
8. help others learn the s k ill

responsibility of the coordinator

steps in observation:

when conducting activities, the coordinator


levels in step 3 of steps in developing a skill

reflection of group processing has goals to:

steps in developing a skill:

action theory (AT)

theory as to what actions are needed to

achieve a desired consequence in a given

alter cognitive structures

modify learner's attitude
expend behavioral skills

the purpose of action theories

cognitive structure

a set of principles and processes that

organizes cognitive experience


the direct expression of one's view of the conflict

and one's feeling about it and at the same time, an
invtation to the opposition to do the same


the subject that is being discussed within

the group

content and process

a distinction is made between ______ in a

group work.


when the person being influenced behaves

in the way that the influencer intended


the process of determining how successful

a group was in achieving it's goals or

ex pec tations
ex perienc e
relev anc e
relations hip
v ital data
motiv ation
rec ruitment

what information is needed to be known

from the participants?


learning that generates an action theory from

your own experiences and then continually
modifying it to improve your effectiveness


information that allows individuals to

compare their actual performance with

if then form

the form which all action theories share.

causal relationship


____ is a rational for change, but it is not

sufficient to motivate a person to change

experience based on a theoretical system
skill mastery

interplay of 3 outcomes of action theory

that are integrated and cannot function
without the other 2


dude who greatly influenced the use of

experiential procedures to learn about


plateaus are not so common in skill

learning? yeh/nah?


describing and recording as something


p1: effective experiential learning affects the

learner's cognitive structures (AT), attitudes, and
values, perceptions, and behavioral patterns

states that to be a more effective decision maker, one should develop:

1. a knowledge on decision making
2. AT concerned with decision making behavior must lead to effective group decisions
3. positivity towards new decision making procedures
4. beliefs that new decision making actions are appropriate for the situation and that one is capable of doing
5. behavioral skills to perform decision making actions

p2: people believe more in knowledge thy

have discovered themselves than
presented by others

states that people should test alternative behavioral

patterns in controlled conditions themselves. push the
importance of inquiry and discovery on motivation and
commitment conclusions in the future

p3: learning is more effective when it is an

active process

state the importance of actually doing things to

fully integrate the lesson by combining it with
past learning. effect more retained material

p4: new AT, attitudes, and behavioral patterns cannot be

accepted by a piecemeal approach; the entire cognitiveaffective-behavioral system has to change

states that change doesn't come through the modification

of just 1 part in a system. push the consistency and
coherence of a system. only when the system changes can
new learning be accepted and integrated

p5: it takes more than information to

change AT, attitudes, and behavioral

states that it takes more than the need and

desire to change. information can only
generate interest for change

p6: it takes more than first hand

experience to generate valid knowledge.

states that first hand experience does not fully evoke

understanding. experience must be backed by a
theoretical system tested by experience and reflection

p7: behavioral changes are temporary

unless AT and attitudes underlying them

states that new behavioral skills practiced and

mastered without changes in one's AT and
attitudes will allow the new behavior to fade away.

p8: perceptions of oneself and one's social

environment must change before changes
in AT, attitudes, and behavior do

- social environment
state that AT, attitudes, and behavior are guided by perception.
learning means believing you can actually do something and
seeing that actions are appropriate to the situation

p9: the more supportive, accepting, and caring the

social environment, the freer the person is to
experiment their AT, attitudes, and behaviors

- social environment
state that decreased need to justify and protect the self
from rejection allows for more learning opportunities. the
need for a safe environment

p10: in order for changes in behavior patterns,

attitudes, and AT to be permanent, the personal
and social environment need to change

- social environment
state that team training is more effective that individual
training because it changes 2 factors which effect
behavior permanence: the person and environment

p11: it is easier to change a person's

attitudes, AT, and behavioral patterns in a
group context

- social environment
state that groups with new role definitions and
expectations for behavior are helpful educating tools. the
power of socializing and norm acceptance.


a person who is skilled enough to both participate

in grp work and observe the group process and
functioning by a participating member of the group

practice and mastery

skill _____ and ______ are required and

not just engaging is required for effective
action theories


learning conceptually what the skill is, when it should be

used, how to engage with it, and practicing until error is
removed. automatic level of mastery attained


an identifiable sequence of events taking

place over time

role playing


-a tool for bringing a specific skill and its consequences into focus, and thus vital
for experiential learning.
-a way which one can experience concretely the type of interaction under
examination. An imaginary life situation is set up in which one acts and reacts in
terms of assumptions one is being asked to adopt based on the character to play

support in the form of reminders, prompts,

and suggestions that help approximate the
expert use of a skill

socializing agents

who teaches us action theories?

team training

teaching team members the taskwork and

teamwork skills that optimize efficiency,
effectiveness, and improvement


novices find it helpful to observe a master

of a skill while being guided step-by-step
on it. yeh/nah?


first hand experience is not sufficient to

generate valid knowledge. yeh/nah?