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Running Head: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION

Illegal Immigration:
Forcibly Displaced, Not Illegals
Ruviri, Tulinabo
University of Texas at El Paso

Running Head: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION

References
Anderson, L. (2016, August 26). Fort Bliss complex to house immigrant children.
El Paso Times. Retrieved from http://www.elpasotimes.com
Anderson not only describes how 48,311- 68,500 forcibly displaced people are (illegal
immigrants) are detained, but also how they are provided basic services such as
transportation, TB test, pregnancy test including emergency housing. Fort Bliss houses
them for 35 days on the installation with 1,200 beds, while they await deportation and
asylum proceedings. It relates to forcibly displace people because, although they fled
poverty, wars, and crime, they were still deported back to danger after 35 days. Its
important to national security, which is why Fort Bliss utilized military resources to
improve immigration relations between the United States and Mexico.
El Paso Public Library. Adult Basic Education. GED: High school and technical development
resources. Retrieved from http://www.elpasolibrary.org/explore/adult-basic-education
Forcibly displaced Latin Americans start life in poverty as soon as they arrive in El Paso.
Majority of them are unable to obtain a secondary education, let alone speak, read, or
write English on an academic level. El Paso Public Library accommodate them in their
quest to emerge from poverty with these goods and services: (1) elimination of library
material late fees;(2) one stop location for passport; (3) General Equivalent Diploma; (4)
and access to actual High School Diploma. However, these goods and services are only
offered to documented immigrants. Latin Americans who have been labeled illegals
remain in poverty until the government recognizes that, they have been forced out of
Latin America against their will. Its important for the city of El Paso to correctly
identify them as secondary education in America is free and available to all.

Running Head: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION

Fix, M., Paradementiou D., & Sumption M. (2013). Immigrants in a changing labor market.
Washington, DC: Migration Institute.
Illegal immigration goes hand in hand with U.S. border economy. Forcibly displaced
Mexican have been supporting the U.S economy since 2012, but they compromised 40%
of the unemployed for 4 months. US labor market relates to them because they were on
top of the layoff lists. Its relevant especially to the El Paso- Juarez region since the issue
is as recent as 2012.
Guillermo G., & Macqueen, A. (Writer), (2015, July 21). Drug lord: the legend of El
Chapo Shorty (Motion Picture). Frontline (Producer). Arlington, Virginia: Public
Broadcasting Stations (PBS).
El Chapo was one of the most notorious cartel to caused mass forced migration of
Mexicans. Those he forces out of the country were forced to turn into drug mules,
smuggling mainly through the El Paso- Juarez region. Smugglers hide in cars, attempt
entry into the US, but only to be caught by ICE, and Border Patrols. Its a very critical
situation because smugglers become part of the illegal immigration issues in El Paso area.
When these drug deals go wrong, Mexican youths forced out of their country die while
attempting to make a better living denied to them by El Chapo.
Khasnabish, A. (2008). Zapatismo beyond borders: New imaginations of political possiblity.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Mayan peasants organized the Zapatista Army of National Liberation to rid themselves of
500 years of banksters and corrupt government. They recognized that the freedom to
choose is not freedom at all because the upper class kept Mayan peasants poor to function
as labor force, while the Mexican middle class consume the goods and services. Mayans

Running Head: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION

are related to forcibly displaced Mexicans for the following reasons; (1) they recognized
displaced people from other ethnicities and continents; (2) they stood in unity against
neoliberalism a modern form of terrorism; and (3) their struggle begin with against
American imperialism.
Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2011 (2011). Retrieved from
https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CRPT-112srpt96/pdf/CRPT-112srpt96.pdf
112th Congress gathered to amend the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000
(TVPA) to refer to forcibly displaced Mexicans as potential slaves, thereby reinstating the
Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2011 (TVPRA). More
importantly, it authorized public-private business community to provide youth
employment through the report of Department of Labor Bureau of International Labor
Affairs. TPVRA matters in that it resolved the mislabeling of immigrants, and it created
a task force of Peace Corps and Department of Defense to discourage illegal business
practice. Its extremely relevant to the El Paso- Juarez for the following reasons: (1) the
Wilberforce Act was improved and it remain in effect; (2) federal resources and agencies
were diverted to improve the lives of immigrants; and (3) unaccompanied were granted
employment and residency within the US.
United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Hearing Committee on Homeland Security,
House of Representatives, One hundred Fourth, second session. (1996, September 24).
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrants Responsibility Act of 1996. Improvements
to border control, facilitation of legal entry, and interior enforcement [Title I], [sect. 101106]. US Government Printing Office. Washington D.C.

Running Head: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION

The intent of the report was to refer to forcibly displaced Mexicans as illegal and
aliens, thereby allowing the US Attorney General to construct a 14-miles fence from
Pacific Ocean to interior of California between 1997- 2001. The report also called for
annual hiring of 1,000 active duty Border Patrol (BP) agents, in order to deter displaced
Mexicans. In addition to 1,000 BP agents, it mad provisions for 300 more agents to
match the frequency of illegal entry. Section 101 (Border Patrol and Support Personnel)
provided 12 million dollars from 19991- 2001 for the fence, BP agents, and equipment.
Its relevant in that it failed to allocate equal provisions of 12 million dollars for forcibly
displaced Mexicans.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2013). Children on the run: Unaccompanied children
leaving Central America, Mexico, and the need for international protection. Retrieved
from http://www.refworld.org/docid/532180c24.html
Mexican children between the ages of 12- 17 years old escaped from Mexico, El
Salvador, and Guatemala because of warfare violence, human trafficking, and domestic
violence. UN data clearly does not distinguish Mexican children from its refugee data.
The US housed 84% of them between 2011- 2013, although it also detained 17, 240 of
them. Children on the run and their need for international intervention relates to the label
illegal because they are detained, then deported back to their countries despites their
undying request for asylum. Its significance on humanity as a whole is that, children of
these ages should be in school, at home- not jumping international borders, which is why
only 13% of them were deemed displaced enough for asylum.
United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Hearing Committee on Homeland Security,

Running Head: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION

House of Representatives, One hundred Thirteenth Congress, second session, June 24 and
July 3, 2014 (2015). Unaccompanied minors. US Government Printing Office.
Washington D.C.
On Southwest region the US federal government estimated that 150, 000 unaccompanied
children illegally crossed in the US. They attempted to across through the Rio Grande
valley, despites George Bushs William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection
Reauthorization Act of 2008 (Text of H.R. 7311 (110th). Furthermore, 90,000 of these
children still continue to be forcibly displaced from their homeland. Its relevant to the
Rio Grande valley in particular due to cartels recruitment and public humiliation.
William, P., & Cortes, R. (2011). Undocumented Latino college students: their socioemotional
and academic experiences. El Paso: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC.
In 1996 then-President Bill Clinton initiated the exodus of expelling illegals from high
education with the passing of the following acts; Personal Responsibility and Work
Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), and Immigration Reform and Immigrant
Responsibility Act (IIRAIRA). However, in 2001 Texas and New Mexico in particular
counter Clintons acts with their own in-states tuition assistance. These measures proved
that Mexicans, El Salvadorians, and Guatemalans were forcibly displaced from their
homeland, thus granted them asylum in the US. Its very important because it showed
that, America recognized their value as an educated labor force.