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Agenda 10/21/16

- Next week
- Ch. 9 Linear Momentum
- Ch.10 Rotation

Next week
-

Chapters 10 and 11

Recitation: Quiz 6 on Chapter 9, hand in written solutions to


HW07

HW08 (LON-CAPA) due online on Sunday, Oct. 30 at


11:59pm

Physics Exploration Center No new activity next week

Lecture will be back in Alumni Hall

Elas%c Collisions in 2 Dimensions

9-8 Collisions in Two Dimensions


l

Apply the conservation of


momentum along each axis
Apply conservation of
energy for elastic collisions

Along x:

Along y:

Energy:

Chapter 10
Rotation

In pure translational motion,


all points on an object travel
on parallel paths.

The most general motion is a


combination of translation
and rotation.
An object can move AND rotate.
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

The Rotational Variables


A rigid body is defined as one that can rotate with all its parts locked
together and without any change of its shape.
A fixed axis means that the object rotates about an axis that does not move.
We can describe the motion of a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis by
specifying just one parameter. Consider the rigid body of the figure.

s
=
r
Note:
The angle is measured
in radians.

PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

t2

t2

t1
t1

Angular Displacement
Between t1 and t2 the body undergoes an angular displacement = 2 1.
All the points of the rigid body have the same angular displacement because
they rotate together.
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

Angular Velocity
Average angular velocity for the time interval ( t1 , t2 ) is defined as the ratio:

avg =

2 1
t2 t1

The SI unit for angular velocity is radians/second

The instantaneous angular velocity is defined as the limit of


d
=
t 0 t
dt

as t 0
t

d
=
dt

= lim

Angular Acceleration

The average angular acceleration for the time interval ( t1 , t2 ) is defined as the ratio:

avg =

2 1
t2 t1

The SI unit for angular velocity is radians/second 2

The instantaneous angular acceleration is defined as:


d d 2
= lim
=
= 2
t 0 t
dt
dt
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

d
=
dt

Angular Velocity Vector


The angular velocity vector is defined as follows:
!
The direction of is along the rotation axis.
!
The sense of is defined by the right hand rule (RHR).
Right hand rule: Curl the right hand so that the fingers point in the direction
!
of the rotation. The thumb of the right hand gives the sense of .
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration


The equations for rotational motion with constant angular acceleration may be
derived in the same way that the equations for constant linear acceleration were
derived. Here the equations for constant angular acceleration are written side
by side with the equations for constant linear acceleration.
Translational Motion
x

v
a

v = v0 + at
at 2
x = xo + vot +
2
v 2 vo2 = 2a ( x xo )

Rotational Motion

= 0 + t
= + o t +

(eqs.1)

t2
2

(eqs.2)

2 o2 = 2 ( o )
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

(eqs.3)
10

Relating the Linear and Angular Variables


Consider a point P on a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis. At t = 0 the
reference line which connects the origin O with point P is on the x-axis (point A).
! and covers a distance s.
During the time interval t, point P moves along arc AP
At the same time the reference line OP rotates by an angle .
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

11

Relation between angular velocity and speed


The arc length s and the angle are connected by the equation:
s = r
where r is the distance OP.
ds d ( r )
d
The speed of point P: v =
=
=r
= r
dt
dt
dt
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

v = r
12

The tangential speed of a point on the outer


edge of the tire is equal to the speed of the car
over the ground.

v = r
Rolling without slipping.

a = r

PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

13

s
A

circumference 2 r 2 r 2
The period T of revolution is given by: T =
=
=
=
speed
v
r

T=

1
T=
f
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

= 2 f
14

r
O

v
2
ar = = r
r

The Acceleration
The acceleration of point P is a vector that has two components. The first
component is a radial componet pointing towards point O along the radius.
In Chapter 4, this component was called centripetal acceleration.
The magnitude is:
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

15

r
O

at = r

The second component is along the tangent to the circular path of P and is thus
known as the tangential component. Its magnitude is:
dv d ( r )
d
at =
=
=r
= r
dt
dt
dt
The magnitude of the total acceleration vector is: a = at2 + ar2
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

16

10-3 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables

10-3 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables

Answer: (a) yes (b) no (c) yes (d) yes

r
vi
mi
O

ri

Kinetic Energy of Rotation


Consider the rotating rigid body shown in the figure. Divide the body
into parts of masses m1 , m2 , m3 ,..., mi ,...
The kinetic energy of rotation is the sum:
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
K = m1v1 + m2 v2 + m3v3 + ... = mi vi2
2
2
2
i 2
PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

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r
vi

1 2
K = I
2

1
K = mi vi2
i 2

mi
O

ri

The speed of the i-th element


1
1
1 2
2
2 2
vi = ri K = mi ( ri ) = mi ri = I
2 i
2
i 2

The term I = mi ri 2 is known as rotational inertia or moment of inertia.


i

It describes how the mass is distributed about the rotation axis.

I = mi ri
i

I = r dm

PHYS 0174 Chapter 10 Fall 2016

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