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2.1 Introduction
Sub-base soils are a very essential component of the road pavement and as such,
inadequate Sub-base performance is the cause of many premature pavement failures. The
quality and stability of the Sub-base soil is a major factor responsible for the adequate
performance and service of the road during its lifespan. The physical properties of the
Sub-base soil determine the total thickness requirement of the pavement structure which it
supports and the life of the structure in good working conditions. Generally, Sub-base
performance depends on three basic characteristics:
1. Strength. The Sub-base must be able to support loads transmitted from the
pavement structure. This load-bearing capacity is often affected by degree
of compaction, moisture content, and soil type. A Sub-base having a
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of 10 or greater is considered essential and
can support heavy loads and repetitious loading without excessive
2. Moisture content. Moisture tends to affect a number of Sub-base properties,
including load bearing capacity, shrinkage, and swelling. Moisture content can be
influenced by a number of factors, such as drainage, groundwater table elevation,
infiltration, or pavement porosity (which can be affected by cracks in the
pavement). Generally, excessively wet Sub-bases will deform under load.
3. Shrinkage and/or swelling. Some soils shrink or swell, depending upon their
moisture content. Additionally, soils with excessive fines content may be
susceptible to frost heave in northern climates. Shrinkage, swelling, and frost
heave will tend to deform and crack any pavement type constructed over them.

Whether it is a temporary access road or a permanent road built over a soft Sub-base,
large deformations of the Sub-base will lead to deterioration of the paved or unpaved
surface. Clay Sub-bases in particular may provide inadequate support, especially when
saturated. Soils with significant plasticity may also shrink and swell substantially with
changes in moisture conditions. These changes in volume can cause the pavement to shift
or heave with changes in moisture content and may cause a reduction in the density and
strength of the Sub-base, thereby accelerating pavement deterioration.

It distributes the imposed wheel load to the pavement foundation. Sometimes. Base: The base course serves as the principal structural component of the flexible pavement. and giving suitable light reflectance for night-time driving.The available soil need not always have adequate strength to support the wheel loads. . Subbase: The subbase protects the sub-grade from significant deformation due to traffic loading and also against environmental damage. thereby increasing its strength. It provides adequate support for the surface layer and provides a stable construction platform during pavement surfacing. such as Portland cement or bitumen. which generally fall into two main classes: stabilized and granular. Subbase and Subgrade. 2. withstand the stresses produced in the base itself. Generally. Such surfaces are provided either by a bituminous film coated with stone (called a spray-andchip seal) or by a thin asphalt layer. The base course must have sufficient quality and thickness to prevent failure in the subgrade and/or subbase. this can be rectified by borrowing soil having better strength characteristics from nearby sites and replacing the weak soils or by improving the available soil with or without help of admixtures. The materials composing the base course are select hard and durable aggregates. the performance of the stabilized material should be at least equal to. The quality of the base course is a function of its composition. physical properties. generating minimal noise in urban areas. and resist volume changes caused by fluctuations in its moisture content. and resist vertical pressures that tend to produce consolidation and result in distortion of the surface course.2 Road pavement The layers of a road pavement are divided into: Surface. and/or the subgrade. the subbase. There is substantial history of the use of soil stabilization admixtures to improve poor Sub-base soil performance by controlling volume change and increasing strength. stiffness and Another function of the subbase is to provide adequate drainage for the infiltration of rain water through cracks and joints. Surface: The surface course of a flexible pavement protects the underlying base course from traffic and water while also providing adequate tyre friction. and compaction of the material (http://theconstructor. Base. if not better than that of a good quality natural material. The stabilized bases normally consist of crushed or uncrushed aggregate bound with a stabilizer. The main objective of stabilization is to improve the performance of a material by increasing its strength.

. Figure 1 2. the location of suitable materials for road construction is becoming increasingly difficult as convectional high-quality materials are depleted in many areas. It may be omitted when there will be only foot traffic on the pavement. The engineer is trying to build a problem-free pavement that will last for its intended design life for the most economic price. The cost savings associated with stabilization can take many forms such as reduced construction cost. stabilization will usually result in cost saving. One solution to this problem is to improve the locally available materials that presently may not conform to the existing specifications. ranging from lack of good quality materials to a desire to reduce material usage by reducing the thickness of the pavement layers. Also. should be capable of sustaining the applied loads without significant deformations and should retain its strength and stability indefinitely. For stabilization to be successful. the best materials for road construction are those that derive their shear strength partly from friction and partly from cohesion.3 Stabilization in road pavements There are many different reasons for stabilization of materials for road construction. From the point of view of bearing capacity.. i. Additionally. on which the base course layer is located.e. the costs of hauling materials from farther away add to the cost of construction. the material should attain the desired strength. Ultimately.Subgrade: is the layer of aggregate material laid on the subgrade. reduced maintenance costs throughout the life of the pavement or even an extension of the normal pavement life. but it is necessary for surfaces used by vehicles.

The blended materials are then spread and compacted to required densities by the conventional methods (Gordon R. which then crystallize and bind the materials together. most of the strength of a cement stabilized material comes from the physical strength of the matrix of hydrated cement. produces a hydrated calcium aluminate and silicate gels. this type of stabilization is achieved in the absence of any chemical reaction. OH ¿2 Ca 3 SO 2+ H 2 O=Ca3 S 2 H 3 +Ca ¿ OH ¿2 Ca 2 SO 2+ H 2 O=Ca3 S 2 H 3 +Ca ¿ Generally. b) Cement stabilization The addition of cement to a material. The mixing/blending of the two or more materials may take place at the construction site. a) Mechanical stabilization Mechanical stabilization of a material is usually achieved by adding a different material in order to improve the grading or decrease the plasticity of the original material. in the presence of moisture. a central plant or at a borrow area. The reaction can be represented in the following equation. are well understood and so they will not be discussed farther in this project.3. The benefits and limitations of mechanical stabilization. 2. each having its own benefits and potential problems. 1994). Research has shown that if a Sub-base has a CBR value of less than 10.Spangler (1982) noted that it is crucial for highway engineers to develop a Sub-base with a CBR value of at least 10. Some of the most frequently used types of stabilization include the following. Sullivan. the sub base material will deflect under traffic loadings in the same manner as the Sub-base and cause pavement deterioration. however. Normally.1 Types of stabilization There are a number of different types of stabilization. A chemical reaction also takes place between .

to trigger an exchange of cations that eventually result in a decrease of the plasticity of the soil. with examples of lime stabilization being recorded in the construction of early roman roads. .calcium oxide (CaO) 2. d) Pozzolanas A pozzolan can be defined as a finely divided siliceous and/or aluminous material. The lime can added in solid form although it can also be mixed with water and applied as slurry. c) Lime stabilization The stabilization of pavement materials using lime is not new. leading to a farther increase in strength. the strengthening effect of lime is significantly less than an equivalent quantity of cement. Generally. Slaked or hydrated lime. especially soils with high clay content. The cemented products are calcium based hydrates which are basically the same hydrates that form during the hydration of Portland cement.1994).It is also important to note that only quicklime and hydrated lime are used as stabilizers in road construction.the material and lime. Carbonate of lime-calcium carbonate (CaCO3) 3. Attempts to use lime as a general binder in the same way as cement will therefore not be successful (Watson. Hydrated lime is used extensively for the stabilization of soil. Small quantities of lime may result in small increase in CBR strength although no significant increase in compressive or tensile strength should be expected (Paige-Green 1998). the term ‘lime’ is broad and covers the following main types. Since this project does not focus on the use of cement in stabilization. Examples of pozzolanas include fly ash and Rice Husk Ash. Its main advantage is raising the plasticity index of the clayey soil.calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) Lime stabilization will only be effective with materials that contain enough clay for a positive reaction to take place. Quicklime. Generally. which in the presence of water and calcium hydroxide will form a cemented product. 1. especially clayey soils. unless the host material contains very high quantities of clay. the benefits and limitations of cement stabilization will not be discussed farther. Lime stabilization involves the addition of lime to the soil. Lime is produced from chalk or limestone by heating and combining with water. which is released as the cement is hydrated.

The reaction produces calcium-silicate hydrates and calcium-aluminate hydrates. MDD of the soil-quarry dust mixes decreased. which are essentially the same as the cemented products responsible for strength and durability of convectional cement. (Sabat. shear strength parameters and durability of an expansive soil stabilized with optimum percentage of quarry dust (40%). −¿+ soluble silica=calcium−silicate hydrate ¿ Ca2++OH −¿+ soluble aluminate=calcium−aluminate hydrate Ca2 ++OH ¿ 2.4 Quarry Dust The quarry dust is obtained as an aggregate waste. (Das. (Sabat. (Sabat. From the study it was concluded that with increase in percentage of addition of lime. 2005 ) identified that quarry dust manifest high shear strength and is beneficial for its use as a geotechnical material. 2012) conducted compaction. 2014) studied the effect of granite dust on significance decrease in the expansive . (Soosan. (Mishraet.The lime added were 2 to 7 % at an increment of 1%. compaction(modified proctor). 2009) had stabilized expansive soil using quarry dust and lime for strengthening the sub grade of a rural road for low volume traffic. 2012) had developed statistical models for prediction of plasticities of expansive soil(Bentonite) stabilized with quarry dust and lime by correlating the percentage of stabilizers. The stabilizer strengthened road was found to be cost effective for low volume traffic. The effect of 7 and 28 days of curing were also studied on shear strength parameters. Though MDD decreased but it was greater than the MDD of the virgin soil at 5% addition of lime. tri-axial and durability tests on lime stabilized expansive soil-quarry dust mixes. Addition of lime had made the soil-quarry dust mixes durable. 2012) had investigated the effect of lime on Atterberg’s limit. the reactive silica from pozzolanic materials such as Rice Husk Ash and fly ash. Various researchers have been done on Quarry dust for stabilization of Expansive soils. MDD.e) Lime-pozzolana stabilization A pozzolanic reaction occurs when lime reacts with soluble silica from the clay or if the material does not have adequate pozzolans. The pozzolanic reaction can be illustrated by the following equations. during period and activity. during crushing of rubble to obtain aggregates. Curing had positive effects on shear parameters and had maximum values at 5% addition of lime and 28 days of curing.

(Kalantari. which changes with their moisture content. respectively if Black Cotton Soil is blended with 5% lime and granite dust from 0% to 30% by weight of Black Cotton Soil. With the increase in the granite dust percentage the liquid limit values decrease from 57% to28%. These clays are often referred to as “active clays” due to their behavior. compaction(modified proctor).The lime added were 2 to 7 % at an increment of1%. . plasticity index and optimum moisture content decrease by adding stone dust which in turn increases usefulness of soil as highway sub-grade material.2% to 3. 2013)) conducted consistency limit. (Satyanarayana. This moisture variation has a detrimental effect on the properties of the clay as a construction material.1%.45% to 4. the clay exists in unsaturated conditions due to the deep laying water table. 2013)had investigated the effect of lime on Atterberg’s limit. on engineering properties of an expansive soil.80%. In particular. In arid and semi arid regions. compaction and strength tests on gravel soil with various percentage of stone dust and found that by addition of stone dust plasticity characteristics were reduced and CBR of the mixes improved. The optimum proportion of fly ash –quarry dust mix was found to be 45%.C. 2013) conducted plasticity.15% to 18% with the increase in granite dust.S which are optimum percentage. shear strength parameters and durability of an expansive soil stabilized with optimum percentage of quarry dust (40%). plastic limit. differential free swell decreased drastically from 56.(Bose. standard compaction test.5 Red Clayey Soil Extensive areas in the world are covered by clay soils of high swelling potential. shrinkage limit values increases from 8.behavior of the Black Cotton Soil as the liquid limit and plasticity index decreases from 37% to 28% and 17.7%. Addition of 25-35% of stone dust makes the gravel soil meet the specification of MORTH as sub-base material. 2.6% to4. As a result. They also indicated that the liquid limit. the volume stability and shear strength properties of clay are among the most important properties that may be adversely affected. Red clays belong to this group of active clays. (Bose. unconfined compressive test and CBR test and concluded that there is remarkable influence on strength and CBR value at 1% lime + 6% waste stone powder for CBR and 7% lime + 6% waste stone powder for U.(Bshara) reported the effect of stone dust on geotechnical properties of poor soil and concluded that the CBR and MDD of poor soils can be improved by mixing stone dust. 2013) had studied the effect of fly ash –quarry dust mixes with fly ash: quarry dust as 1:2. plasticity index values decrease from 37. the clay tends to change its moisture content with seasonal climatic changes or as a result of placement of a relatively impervious covering layer.

Other residual clays are those that are developed from igneous rock such as basalt and volcanic rocks. The leaching of top soil through the removal of soluble salts and colloids and the disposition of these materials in the sub soils causes the development of layers. by abrasion. topography.2 The clay profile Residual and transported clays are constantly undergoing changes in physical and chemical properties as a result of weathering.1 Clay types and origin Clay is formed from rock by mechanical disintegration. The parent material is sedimentary rock like dolomite.3 Clay minerals The predominant clay minerals are i) Halloysite . The combined mechanical and chemical process is called weathering. chemical decomposition.5. hard limestone and calcareous shale and they possess significant amount of clay minerals. 2. cation exchange capacity and potassium selectivity. . Diversity also characterizes their chemical composition. 2. termed as horizons. climate.2. thawing and freezing. Mountain soils are typical example of these clays. Important factors in the development of the pedological soil profiles are the parent material of the clay profile. Disintegration may result from the action of running water. Those clays that are developed by disintegration and decomposition of bedrock in place are termed as residual clays. Decomposition. on the other hand. They are frequently brown to black in colour and possess a high percentage of colloidal material. are those that are formed from transported sediments. The complete cross-section of a soil material from the surface to its parent rock is called the pedological soil profile. is associated with oxidation or hydration. Their texture can be predicted reasonably well from knowledge of the environmental conditions and the type of rock from which the soil was derived. or both. Another category of clays.Halloysite clay minerals are ubiquitous in soils and weathered rocks where they occur in a variety of particle shapes and hydration states. from the viewpoint of origin and formation. vegetation and time of weathering.5.5. They are usually brown to red in colour and highly plastic.

and liquors and for removing colour from mineral and vegetable oils. they are also used as catalyst supports and absorbents in petroleum refining.5. causing the clay to swell. The montmorillonite minerals are products of volcanism and hydrothermal activity and are composed of hydrous aluminum silicates in the form of extremely small particles. glycerols. iii) Montmorillonite . and change the interlayer spacing according to the mineral variety. Montmorillonite swells with the addition of water. These minerals are used as bleaching earths for clarifying water. Illite contains more water and less potassium than true micas. iv) Kaolinite . In addition to being involved in inorganic exchange reactions. without structural substitutions) is (OH)4Si8Al4O20·nH2O.This is of a group of mica-type clay minerals widely distributed in marine shales and related sediments.4 Problems associated with red clays  Swelling of the clay due to wetting . In Kenya. causing swelling.. the Red clayey soil is found in most parts of Nairobi and central Kenya. (Britannica) The individual crystals of montmorillonite clay are not tightly bound hence water can intervene. glycols.Montmorillonite is the clay mineral and their chemical varieties that swell in water and possess high cation-exchange capacities. The theoretical formula for montmorillonite (i. They take up water between their layers. it is the most common highway material in these regions. juices. they react with and absorb some organic liquids. The amount of expansion is due largely to the type of exchangeable cation contained in the sample.ii) Illite . They usually occur in areas of poor drainage. As such.e.The Red clayey soil belongs to the kaolinite group of clays as far as clay mineralogy is concerned. and other polyhydric alcohols. but it has mica like sheet structure and is poorly crystallized. Montmorillonites expand considerably more than other clays due to water penetrating the interlayer molecular spaces and concomitant adsorption. 2. such as amines. The water content of montmorillonite is variable and it increases greatly in volume when it absorbs water.

 Shrinkage of clay due to drying  Development of swelling pressures in clay which is confined and cannot swell  Decrease in strength and bearing capacity of clay as a result of swelling. This often leads to cracks. .