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Doc.No.

KK-12152

Inverter Drive Torque/Power Constant Control


for High Specific Speed Pumps

K. Kawaguchi, Dr.Eng.
Ex.CEO, Ebara Hatakeyama Memorial Fund
Ebara Corporation

In order to utilize available capacity of the motor to drive high specific


speed pumps effectively against changes in operating head, variable speed
inverter drive is incorporated. Speed control shall be such that the motor be
operated at a prescribed current value, resulting in enhanced pumping
capabilities particularly during reduced head operation.
In standard inverters available in the market, voltage to frequency ratio
(V/f) supplied to motor is kept constant in frequency range lower than the
primary power frequency, whereas in higher frequency range the secondary
voltage is limited to the primary voltage.
In the range of constant V/f ratio, the motor output torque is kept constant
when the motor current is maintained at a prescribed value, since:
T = K(V/f)I where T: motor output torque, K: constant
V/f: voltage to frequency ratio, I: motor current
In the range of higher frequency than the incoming, the motor output
power is substantially kept constant when the motor current is maintained at a
constant value, since: Lm = 3 "V " I " Em " cos#
where Lm: motor output, V: voltage, I: motor current
Em: motor efficiency, cos!: power factor
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Motor output Lm, Torque Tm

Tm

Lm

V o , fo

fo
V, f

Output voltage V

Vo

V/f pattern

fo
Output frequency f

Fig. 1 Inverter V/f Pattern and Motor Performance


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Fig. 2 shows the current constant control diagram using an inverter


incorporating a simple feedback control scheme.

Fig. 2 Constant Current Feedback Control Diagram


Source: Kawaguchi, K., et al, US Patent No.5,563,490 (1996)
Pump system with liquid cooling operation
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Pump characteristics change in accordance with the affinity law:


Q/Q = N/N, H/H = T/T = (N/N)2, Lp/Lp = (N/N)3
where Q, Q: capacity at speed N and N, respectively
H, H: total head at speed N and N, respectively
T, T : torque at speed N and N, respectively
Lp, Lp: shaft power at speed N and N, respectively
Pump performance exhibited by motor current constant control thru
variable speed drive is shown in Fig. 3 for a high specific speed pump.
When the operating head is higher than the rated, the speed is lowered to
maintain the rated torque, whereas for lowered operating head the speed is
increased maintaining the rated power.
Performance given by the motor current constant control is particularly
advantageous in providing larger capacity at lowered heads often encountered
in drainage services. At higher head operation, overloading of the motor is
avoided. Start and stop of axial flow pumps with discharge valve closed can be
made possible, which is useful at the time of flap valve failures.
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Fig. 3 Inverter Drive Constant Current Pump Performance

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Fig. 7 Pump Performance under Constant Current Control


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Fig. 8 NPSHR under Constant Current Control


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Further enhancement of the pump performance can be effected by


applying the the motor rated current as the set value for the control
In Fig. 4, H-A87% shows the motor current set at 87% of the rated often
applied for normal constant speed operation, whereas H-A100% shows the
current set at the motor rated current, which can be applied to utilize the motor
capability fully while avoiding overloading.
The system head curves, Hr max and Hr min, are entered to check for the
operating range often encountered in drainage services. The area to the right of
H-N const shows the enhanced capacity to provide shortened drainage time.
(The insert on the left shows the corresponding V-f, T-f and Lp-f patterns for
the operating range. Pump speed may be limited to 120% of the rated.)
Since the motor efficiency maintains its maximum at or near the rated,
energy saving can be effected by operating the motor at or near the rated
current. In so doing, the capability of existing pumping units can be upgraded
without replacing them with larger units.
Furthermore, downsizing of the pumping unit can be realized to attain the
same capability as constant speed operation, contributing conservation of
resources.
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Fig. 4 Pump Performance by Constant Current Control

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Example of Drainage Simulation

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Fig. 5 Pump Performance for Drainage Simulation

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Fig. 6 Results of Drainage Simulation


Source: Kawaguchi, K., Proceedings of 5th AICF (1997) , Seoul
Constant torque control on high specific speed pumps14

GE>H=II/ F: /1-$C-,>3

Based on the assumed run-off Qd and discharge water level Hd , changes of


suction water level are calculated for respective cases, as shown in Fig. 6, i. e.,
N const: constant speed operation
A 87%const: motor current set at 87% of the rated
T 87%const: torque set at 87% of the rated as for engine drive
A 100% const: motor current set at 100% of the rated
w/t: without pumping
Compared with constant speed operation requiring 72 h to reach the suction
water level of 2 m, drainage time required to reach the same is reduced to 60 h
with motor current set at 87%; further shortening of the time down to 54 h can
be realized by motor current set at 100%.

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References:
1. Kawaguchi, K., Proceedings of 5th AICF (1997) , Seoul
Constant torque control on high specific speed pumps
2. Kawaguchi, K., et al, US Patent No.5,563,490 (1996)
Pump system with liquid cooling operation
3. Kawaguchi, K., et al, Proceedings of 19th IAHR Symposium on
Hydraulic Machinery and Cavitation, (1998)
Variable Speed Full Power Control for Turbo Pumps

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