Controller Tuning Process Control

© All Rights Reserved

7 views

Controller Tuning Process Control

© All Rights Reserved

- Kendali on Off&PID
- L-30(SS)(IAC) ((EE)NPTEL)
- 080824_WBF_Batch Reactor
- [CCA06] Adaptive Control of Hydrodynamic Loads in Splash Zone
- Adaptive Controller
- Smith Predictor Desc En
- An Introduction to Feedback Control Systems
- Application of MRAC Techniques to the PID Controller for Nonlinear Magnetic Levitation System Using Kalman Filter
- Modeling and Position Control of Mobile Robot
- ch01a
- ABS Case Study Session 4
- Systems and Control 1
- onoff (3)
- Complementary PID Controller to Passivity-Based Nonlinear Control of Boost Converters With Inductor Resistance
- 3 Ch 4 Introduction to Automation
- Self-tuning Adaptive Control for an Industrial Weigh Belt Feeder
- Control Theory
- handout11_blockdiagram_
- exothermic cstr
- 11-441-1-PB

You are on page 1of 5

TUNING FEEDBACK CONTROLLERS

Tuning is adjusting the feedback controller parameters to obtain a specified closed-loop response. There are a variety

of feedback controller tuning methods. Probably 80 % of all loops are tuned experimentally by an instrument mechanic

and 75 % of the time the mechanic can guess approximately what settings will be by drawing on experience with

similar loops.

The controller parameters that must be tuned are as follows:

1. Proportional Controllers Kc

2. Proportional Integral Controllers Kc, I

3. Proportional Integral Derivative Controllers Kc, I , D

Cases:

Some process loops do have relatively fast responses, but many processes take even hours before results can be

observed. This makes tuning feedback controllers performed by Trial and Error which is a tedious and time-consuming

task. This is the method most often used by control and instrument engineers. A number of procedures have been

developed but one should bear in mind that no one procedure will give the best results for all process control

situations.

Method of Quarter Decay Ratio Response by Ultimate Gain (Ziegler Nichols Method)

This is a closed-loop or on-line tuning method proposed by Ziegler and Nichols (in 1942). The controller settings given

by this method are easy to find and easy to use and they give reasonable performance on some loops. They are often

used as first guesses, but they tend to be too underdamped for most process control applications. Some on-line

tuning can improve control significantly but the Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) method settings are useful as a place to start.

The ZN method consist of first finding the ultimate gain K u, the value of gain at which the loop is at the limit of stability

with a proportional feedback controller only. The period of the resulting oscillation is called the ultimate period, P u

(minutes per cycle). The ZN settings are then calculated from K u and Pu by the formulas below for the three types of

controllers.

Parameter

Kc, proportional

gain

I , Integral time

D , Derivative time

P Controller

PI Controller

Ku

Ku

2

2.2

Pu

1.2

PID Controller

Ku

1.7

Pu

2

Pu

8

Steps:

1. Determination of the dynamic characteristics or personality of the control loop.

2. Estimate of the controller tuning parameters that produce a desired response for the dynamic characteristics

determined in the 1st step. This is matching the personality of the controller to that of the other elements in the

loop.

The dynamic characteristics of the process are represented by the ultimate gain of the proportional controller and the

ultimate period of oscillation of the loop. These can be determined from the transfer function of all the components of

the loop. Most often, they are experimentally determined.

Experimental Determination of Ku and Pu:

1. Switch off the integral and derivative modes of the feedback controller so as to have a proportional controller

only. Some controllers have Integral mode which cannot be switched off but it can be de-tuned by switching

I to its maximum value or by setting the integral rate to the minimum value.

2. With the controller in automatic (i.e. the loop is closed), increase the proportional gain (or reduce the

proportional band) until the loop oscillates with constant amplitude. Record the values of the gain that

Prepared by: Brenda D. Coloma, ChE

produces sustained oscillation as K u ultimate gain. This step is carried out in discrete gain increments

bumping the system by applying a small change in setpoint at each gain setting.

3. From a time recording of the controlled variable, the period of oscillation is measured and recorded as P u the

ultimate period.

C(t)

Pu

Time

A

For the desired Closed-Loop Response:

Decay Ratio = 1 = B

4

A

C(ts)

; B=A

Time

Quarter decay ratio response is very desirable for disturbance inputs because it prevents a large initial deviation

from the setpoint without being too oscillatory. It is not desirable for step changes in setpoint because the new setpoint

in each deviation is the preceding maximum deviation from the new setpoint in the opposite direction. This difficulty

can easily be corrected by reducing the Kc (proportional gain) from the value predicted by the formula as given in the

table.

The decay ratio is a direct function of the Kc and can be adjusted at anytime by simply changing the gain. If the

quarter decay ratio response is too oscillatory, reduction of the gain will smoothen out the response.

The ZN parameters produce fast response for most industrial loops.

Controller - Tuning Problem:

Given the characteristics equation of the continuous stirred tank, determine the quarter decay ratio tuning parameters

for a PID controller by the ultimate gain method (ZN Method). Also calculate the roots of the characteristic equation for

the controller tuned with these parameters and calculate the actual decay ratio.

Transfer Function:

Feed

C(s)

G1G C

G2

R(s)

F(s)

1 G1G C

1 G1G C

Ku = 10.4% CO

% TO

Ti , F

; Tu = 4.6 min

Steam , T st

Where:

G1

1.984

%TO

.

(0.2s 1)(8.34s 1)(0.502s 1)(0.75s 1) %CO

Prepared by: Brenda D. Coloma, ChE

The Tyreus Luyben method procedure is quite similar to the Ziegler Nichols method but gives more conservative

settings (higher closed-loop damping coefficient) and is more suitable for chemical process control applications. This

method uses the ultimate gain Ku and the ultimate frequency u. The formulas are given in the following table.

Parameter

Kc, proportional

gain

I , Integral time

D , Derivative time

P Controller

PI Controller

Ku

3.2

2.2 Pu

PID Controller

Ku

2.2

2.2 Pu

Pu

6.3

The use of PID controllers in process control is limited, primarily because of problems with noisy signals. The

derivative action amplifies this noise and gives a poor performance in some applications.

Prepared by: Brenda D. Coloma, ChE

CHARACTERIZATION OF PROCESS RESPONSE

The transfer function is a characteristic of the process. The important information about the process response can be

obtained from the roots of the transfer function and it is not necessary to obtain the exact solution to each problem.

Is the process stable? If so, what will be its final steady state value? Is the response monotonic or oscillatory? If

monotonic and stable, how long will it take for the transients to die out? If oscillatory, what is the period of oscillation

and how long will it take for the oscillation to die out?

Output Response:

Y (s)

X(s)

n

n1

ans an1s ....... ao

When the denominator is factored out:

X(s) ; r1 , r2, rn roots of characteristic equation (poles)

an (s r1)(s r2 )...(s rn )

Y (s)

where X(s) depends on the type of input (step, pulse, ramp, sinusoidal, etc)

Expand:

Y(s)

A1

A2

An

.........

[ terms of X(s) ]

s - r1 s r2

s rn

a) Without repeated roots, the inverse is:

b) With repeated roots, m times: its coefficient is replaced by a polynomial in t of degree m-1

All real roots:

If all roots are real, the equivalent response are simple exponential functions of time that low only grow with

time if the roots are positive or decay to zero if the root is negative.

Real roots cannot cause the response to oscillate.

If any roots are (+), the response will grow exponentially without bound, so it will be unstable. If the root is

zero, it is still unstable!

If all the roots are real, then

1. the response is monotonic (non oscillatory)

2. it is stable only if all the roots are negative.

Prepared by: Brenda D. Coloma, ChE

roots w/ negative real part

The response is oscillatory and the oscillation grows with time (unstable) if any of the pairs of complex roots

has a (+) real parts.

Expanded output is:

With s

Y (s)

(A A 2 )(s ) i(A 1 A 2 )

A

A

....... 1

.....

s i s i

(s )2 2

(s )2 2

Y (s)

B(s )

C

2

2

(s )

(s )2 2

= :

The result is:

tan1

B

C

d) Frequency of the sine wave is equal to the imaginary parts of the roots.

- Kendali on Off&PIDUploaded byMalik Muchamad
- L-30(SS)(IAC) ((EE)NPTEL)Uploaded byMarvin Bayanay
- 080824_WBF_Batch ReactorUploaded bykumar_chemical
- [CCA06] Adaptive Control of Hydrodynamic Loads in Splash ZoneUploaded byBernard How Voon Ee
- Adaptive ControllerUploaded bynnikog
- Smith Predictor Desc EnUploaded bytalljat
- An Introduction to Feedback Control SystemsUploaded bypandey99
- Application of MRAC Techniques to the PID Controller for Nonlinear Magnetic Levitation System Using Kalman FilterUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Modeling and Position Control of Mobile RobotUploaded byAmin Eslami
- ch01aUploaded byjunaidkhattak10
- ABS Case Study Session 4Uploaded byLakshmi
- Systems and Control 1Uploaded bystephendix
- onoff (3)Uploaded byscualoboy2010
- Complementary PID Controller to Passivity-Based Nonlinear Control of Boost Converters With Inductor ResistanceUploaded byRaveendhra Iitr
- 3 Ch 4 Introduction to AutomationUploaded byjchuy10
- Self-tuning Adaptive Control for an Industrial Weigh Belt FeederUploaded bymohammad.z
- Control TheoryUploaded byAnonymous E4Rbo2s
- handout11_blockdiagram_Uploaded byTintin Brusola Salen
- exothermic cstrUploaded byJavier Fontalvo
- 11-441-1-PBUploaded bykkaytug
- IMC_PIDUploaded bybmaulana52
- 08-aug-2015Uploaded byRajabSaputra
- Automation FMSUploaded bySudhakar Formwork
- Prototyping a Three LinkUploaded byMuss777
- Control System Designer Tuning Methods - MATLAB & SimulinkUploaded bydisposable505
- Increasing accuracy and reducing time of face recognition with Euclid normUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- PID ControlllllllUploaded byChristian Jomar Atiga
- FKEE - AQEEL SAKHY JABER %28CD8892%29 - CHAP 1.pdfUploaded byVignesh Ramakrishnan
- Ch13 Closed Loop ControllersUploaded byRay22
- 8faff22b2f1916c433a0c04c7c35b2ae06c7Uploaded byHossamKamal

- StoichiometryUploaded byDanang Satriya Putra
- 248327899-Preboard-Answer-Key-1.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- ECPay Collection PartnersUploaded byDoc Prince Caballero
- waste water treatment flow diagramUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- OLEFINS PRODUCTION.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- P Handout#02Uploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Linde FinalUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- organic chemUploaded bytyron9520
- profile2008-2009.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Scc Innovasia FinalUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Data Analysis-pivot TableUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Controller TuningUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- gas absorber calculationsUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- MathUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Ethics notesUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- EthicsUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- che corse: how to sell oneselfUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- che corse: employment coachingUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Breach of ObligationsUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Christmas SongsUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Instrumentation & Process Control.docUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Philippine Water Supply Sector Roadmap 2nd EditionUploaded byybbob_11
- Davies Paints Philippines FINALUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Union Galva Steel FinalUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Balita 3rd Qtr 2013Uploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Design, Construction and Operation Details-Biomass BriquettiUploaded bySamanway Das
- Overview_of_shielding_gases_60734_1217_82202.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Precipitation GravimetryUploaded byAnonymous 0zrCNQ

- Fundamentals of Radio Spectrum ManagementUploaded byTrần Châu Thông
- Certification of WAINRIGHTUploaded byIssa Aquino
- QPM-010Uploaded bysaininavdeep077
- Unitronics Catalogo General 2011Uploaded byJosé Ignacio Redondo
- Analysis of Element Shape in the Design for Multi-band ApplicationsUploaded byesatjournals
- Manual Operatico Guillotina Hidraulica QC11Y (4X16)Uploaded byorchidpunk
- Mule High AvailabilityUploaded bySrinivasa Helavar
- BI Project Calculator AdvancedUploaded by'SudarshanRai
- Mysql Interview Questions and AnswersUploaded byjethik
- Advantages of Keshe Tech.Uploaded bymsngr00
- Gsa Lte Ecosystem Report 231112Uploaded bySunil Sharma
- j Ira Intro GuideUploaded byShahid Farooq
- Data Mining 1Uploaded byRitu Kushwaha
- MBAFB Textbooks P1P4 SepOct12 v4 000Uploaded byJill Hoang
- gelcasting1-s2.0-S0955221996001471-mainUploaded byJulio A Petriccioli C
- Borgwarner Diesel Cold Start EnUploaded bymageshbabud81
- Dsm Ecu Extended Map GuideUploaded byJohn Mongiello
- Mis Practice QuizUploaded bykmuthukaruppan
- Resume-Deepak Kumar Singh (1).pdfUploaded by9899245187
- e14717.pdfUploaded byPaul Dfouni
- akola_octoberinputfeedback.xlsxUploaded byrichashyampatil
- ADL TIME 2013 TelecomDistributionUploaded byhashaamsohail
- Revit - Orion IntegrationUploaded byMohd Faizal
- Siemens_AR2012_FinancialReport.pdfUploaded bymahesh_khebade
- CCNAExplor3Chap4 VTP CompleteUploaded byThomas Stine
- Case studyMarketing Plan.pdfUploaded byKashifntc
- [IJCST-V6I6P25]:Anjali MehtaUploaded byEighthSenseGroup
- Turbo Application CatalogueUploaded byharneak
- TEI of Syncsort DMExpress - FINAL 091208Uploaded byramesh158
- PongXNATutorialUploaded byBrandon Spaulding

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.