Lecture on metal fatigue

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Lecture on metal fatigue

© All Rights Reserved

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Outline

Fatigue - Review

Fatigue crack initiation and propagation

Fatigue fracture mechanics

Fatigue fractography

Crack propagation rate

Example

Factors affecting fatigue

- Design factors

- Surface effects

- Environmental effects

90% of metal failures occur in fatigue!

Occurs in all kinds of materials

Usually breaks .; no, or

very little, observable plastic deformation

(some micro-deformation).

low

high

low loads long Nf (>105)

Dr. M. Medraj

Dr. M. Medraj

Nf = Ni + Np

Ni is the number of cycles to initiate fracture

Np is the number of cycles to propagate to

failure

high cycle fatigue ( stress levels):

most of the life is spent in crack initiation

and Ni is high

low cycle fatigue (.. stress levels):

propagation step predominates and Np>Ni

Dr. M. Medraj

component surface at some stress concentration: scratches, dents,

fillets, keyways, threads, weld beads/spatter..

On very smooth surfaces, SLIP steps can act as stress raisers.

Fatigue life:

Fracture Mechanisms

Three steps:

..

..

final failure (when area decreases

sufficiently)

steel shaft. When the crack

length exceeds a critical

value at the applied stress,

catastrophic rupture occurs.

Engineering of Materials 4th

edition by D.R. Askeland and P.P.

Phule.

stage I propagation

crack tends to grow initially along

crystallographic planes of high shear stress:

high stresses and notches tend to shorten this

stage.

It may only propagate over a few grains.

Length of stage I is controlled by presence of

stress raisers such as:

.

.

.

stage II - crack growth rate increases

(perpendicular to tensile stress direction)

Dr. M. Medraj

Fractography of Fatigue

Fracture Mechanisms

Fatigue crack propagation mechanism (stage II) by repetitive crack tip plastic

blunting and sharpening;

Double notch at crack tip,

extends along shear planes

zero tensile load or

maximum comp. load

blunts due to deformation

Compression closes crack and

shear occurs in opposite sense

with the naked eye

classical fatigue fracture surface (clam-shell markings)

always concentric with the fracture origin

caused by interrupted loading, e.g. machine being switched on and off

during stage II propagation

Origin

e.g. Beachmarks may

represent an 8hr daily

shift: for a shaft

operating at 3000

rpm, total number of

cycles per day is

maximum tensile load

maximum comp. load

Dr. M. Medraj

Sometimes this process leaves

markings on the fracture surface;

Beachmarks and/or Striations.

Indicate position of crack tip at

some point in time.

indicate the crack growth

per stress cycle.

Final failure

Dr. M. Medraj

Fractography of Fatigue

Fractography of Fatigue

electron microscope (SEM) to observe them

Beachmarks and striations will

not appear on that region over which

the rapid failure occurs.

thousands of striations

results from incremental advance

of the fatigue crack during stage II

propagation region of crack is

usually relatively smooth and

often discoloured in relation to the

final fracture

either ductile or brittle;

- evidence of plastic deformation

will be present for ductile failure

and absent for brittle failure.

This region of failure may be noted

in the following figure.

- If the stress increases, the spacing usually increases.

- Can count striations/mm to get ESTIMATE of crack growth rate.

Dr. M. Medraj

Dr. M. Medraj

Fractography of Fatigue

the life of a structural component may be

related to the rate of crack growth.

During stage II propagation, cracks may

grow from a barely perceivable size to

some critical length.

Experimental techniques are available that

are employed to monitor crack length

during the cyclic stressing.

Data are recorded and then plotted as

crack length a versus the number of cycles

N.

Figure 6.47 Fatigue fracture surface. (a) At low magnifications, the

beach mark pattern indicates fatigue as the fracture mechanism. The

arrows show the direction of growth of the crack front, whose origin is at

the bottom of the photograph. (b) At very high magnifications, closely

spaced striations formed during fatigue are observed (x 1000). From

The science and Engineering of Materials 4th edition by D.R. Askeland

and P.P. Phule.

Dr. M. Medraj

Dr. M. Medraj

crack length

but increases with increasing

..

(2) growth rate increases with

increasing applied stress level

and for a specific crack length.

prior to final fast fracture

logarithm stress intensity factor range for

a NiMoV steel.

da

= A( K ) m

dN

and then taking logs of both sides :

result when log(da/dN)-versus-log

K data are plotted

the slope and intercept

correspond to the values of m and

log A, respectively.

da

log

= m log K + log A

dN

gives straight line of slope m

and intercept, logA

sizes, pre-existing cracks will not

grow with cyclic loading.

Dr. M. Medraj

Dr. M. Medraj

Example

One goal of failure analysis is to predict fatigue life of a

component, given its service conditions.

We are able now to develop analytical expression for

Failure by integrating in this linear region:

da

which when integrated gives :

A(K ) m

Limits are initial flaw length, ao which can

Nf

ac

da

be determined by NDT, and critical crack

Nf =

dN =

m

length ac, which can be determined from

a0 A( K )

0

fracture mechanics

compressive stresses of magnitudes 100 MPa and 50 MPa, respectively. Prior to

testing, it has been determined that the length of the largest surface crack is 2.0

mm. Estimate the fatigue life of this sheet if its plane strain fracture toughness is

25 MPam and the values of m and A are 3.0 and 1.0 x 10-12, respectively, for

in MPa and a in m. Assume that the parameter Y is independent of crack

length and has a value of 1.0.

dN =

ac

a0

da

A(Y a )

1

( ) m

m2

Y

ac

a0

da

am 2

this results when assuming that K and are constant (which often are not)

Also ignores the time needed to initiate the crack.

This analysis is only an estimate.

Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University

Dr. M. Medraj

Dr. M. Medraj

Design Factors

component design is important

notches or stress raisers act as

crack initiation sites for fatigue:

grooves, scratches, keyways,

threads, corrosion pits etc.

discontinuities

all increase the stress

concentration

in stress reversal, m= 0

changes of diameter occur in

shafts

lower values

Surface polishing improves the fatigue properties

Dr. M. Medraj

Surface Effects

mean stress level

geometrical design

surface condition

metallurgical structure

environment

Dr. M. Medraj

Surface Treatments

Surface Treatments

Case Hardening:

Surface hardening through

carburizing or nitriding increases

surface strength and hardness

iron carbide or nitrides (hard)

form in the surface layer to

~1mm depth or greater

increase in hardness increases the

resistance to fatigue.

compressive stress in case

hardening also generated due to

difference in volume of case layer

using small steel balls (shot) impacting on surface.

It increases the fatigue properties significantly

(aircraft components etc) also increases yield

strength, hardness and fatigue life.

work hardening occurs in the surface

surface hardness

introduces a residual ..... stress

Surface burnishing

Dr. M. Medraj

Environmental Effects

elimination of restraint and temperature gradients (use

expansion gaps)

consideration of physical properties, (materials CTE, k)

Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University

Environmental Effects

Thermal Fatigue

created at high temperature by fluctuating thermal stresses (t )

restraint in thermal expansion/contraction during uneven

heating/cooling

t = E l T

l is the linear thermal expansion coefficient

E is the modulus of elasticity

T is the temperature difference, l T is the thermal strain t

Dr. M. Medraj

Dr. M. Medraj

Corrosion Fatigue

simultaneous effect of cyclic stress and chemical attack

formation of pits leading to stress concentration on surface and

nucleation of fatigue cracks

corrosion can enhance crack growth rate

prevention is by:

protective coatings (painting, galvanizing)

selection of more corrosion resistant material

reducing the corrosive environment

Dr. M. Medraj

Next time:

Creep

Dr. M. Medraj

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