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Ward H. Goodenough, editor




Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney

Washillgton, D.C.

AmPricnn Anthrurwlogicnl Association

Copyri{:hl C 1969 hy the Amrrion Amhropol<'ric~l A~wci:nion. All right\ reserved. Contents
or by :~ny "'"'"' "'thoul prinr wri11en pcrrru~~ion from rh.- nublt.hc:r.


not be rcprinted in any form

This is an authorized facsimile. of the original book,

and was produced in 1977 by microfibn-xerography
by University Microfibns International
Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.
London, England

Nap: Southern Sal:ha.lin

142 E

144. E





f-lap of _southern Sakhalin






Five stories about Yayresu:co, the Sakhalin

Ainu culture hero.

Tale 1:
Tale 2:
Tale J:
Tale 4:
Tale 5:



i:lenenekavne (an aged person)

Tonkori oyasi {musical-instrument


Other stories


. .

. .

. . .

Unkavuh {man-eater demons)

Nuh~q oyasi (a 6ra~e demon)
ROn""f:.a::1i rnn:reh sirok8.:n1 m<:~.:reh {a
golden and a silver fish spear)
~~1 th

Et uh 1-::a uo
E::; -,:u;




. . . . . . . . 90
baby croH). . . . . . . . 90
oo (a young deity) . . . 109

Ainu texts


. . lJO
. . . . . 1)8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
T\oro stories about de!Ilons . . . . . 153
Tale 11: Three sisters .
. . . . . . . 156
Tale 12: A rat demon
. . . . . . . . . . 153

(a loom-rod demon)
oldest brother
residing at the rl verhead).
Tale 10: Gimalw.sne (1mr.1en "11ith teeth ln their





...... . .
Tale 1): The sea god who married an Ainu
l'lOutan . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 158
Tale 14: Iron forging. . . . . . . . . . . 161
Tale 15:
skills. . . . . . . . 162
Tale 16: Why the Ainu neither 1r:ri te nor use
coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Four origin _myths.





about the bear deities.

TRle 17: Proof



. 166

the bears return to the

. . .. .. . . . . .. 166
Hm'l.lhs i r.:a . . .
. . . 167
r:1arried a bea.r
An Ainu
deity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Bears -:.r1th clay on their body . . . . 171

... ..

. .

Tale 10 A suckl n.;--::>a~r story

Tale 19: T~c l:o:rld of the deities called

Tale 20:
Tale 21:



Four stories about the Oro!rs 172


. 2. 7


Tale 22: The Oro1c attack at P.q,rcisl-;:a

Tale 2.3: '!'he 1-:ar 2et:.-~een the ?.8~rclSk'3. Ainu
and TF~r?.y!-=.~ O:ro!cs

Tale 2~: Oro!~ sh:ulls

Tale 25: The Oro1-=. s"h...ull in the field

Seven riddles.


. .









The following presentation of Sakhalin Ainu folklore

contains ten tales l'Ii th Ainu texts in nhonem1c not at ions and
English translation, fifteen tales in English translation, and
seven riddles. I will refer to this material as folklore,
since tales and riddles are common forms of folklore (see A.
Dundes 1965: J).
All of the tales and riddles were dictated by a gifted
Sakhalin Ainu woman named Husko who l'ms born in 1900 and spent
the major part of her life on the northwest coast of southern
Sakhalin. I transcribed the material in 1964 and 1965 \rhen I
conducted my Ph.D. field l'lOrk on the l'IOrld view of the Ainu
on the north~test coast of southern Sakhalin.
The Sakhalin Ainu folklore l'ras handed dol'm from
generation to generation of the Sakhalin Ainu of the northl'rest coast of southern Sakhalin, and thus it should be
considered against the background of their culture. For a
long time, these Ainu have been in contact with Chinese,
Russians, Koreans, and other so-called primitive peoples on
the Amur River and on Sakhalin. It appears, however, that
the Ainu have retained much of their culture while selectively
incorporating foreign influences into it. Japanese influences,
l'rh1ch deeply undermined the traditional way of life of many
Sakhalin Ainu, reached the northwest coast
Ainu only
recently. Thus the Ainu retained much of their traditional
way of life until the beginning of \olorld War II (for a
detailed discussion of the culture of the Ainu of the northl'rest coast of southern Sakhalin and the culture history of the
Sakhalin Ainu, see Ohnuki-Tierney 1968.) Most of the Sakhalin
Ainu of Japanese citizenship were relocated in Hokkaido when
southern Sakhalin was claimed by the USSR at the end of \olorld
War II. Thus, the traditional Sak~alin Ainu culture now
remains embodied in individual Sakhalin Ainu scattered
throughout Hokkaido. Of these Ainu, I consider Husko as one
of the best, if not the best, informants. I am certain that
scholars of the Ainu 'l'rill readily agree. (For an evaluation
of Husko as an informant, see Ohnuki-Tierney 1968: 89-110.)
In using the term "northwest coast Sakhalin Ainu," I refer
to the Ainu l'rho in the recent past occupied the northwest
coast of southern Sakhalin, between the former Russo-Japanese
border and Rav~iska (see Map). The Ainu in this area
considered themselves to be closely related through kinship

ties, and they frequently moved within this general area in

pursuit of game, fish and plants.

My primary purpose in presenting this Sakhalin Ainu

folklore is to make lt available for others as ethnographic
data. As w. H. Goodenough most appropriately stated, it is
"the first duty of the anthropologist to make available to his
colleagues the detailed findings of his research" (Goodenough
1968: v). I do not intend, however, to make this publication
a linguistically definitive work. As indicated at the
beginning of several of the tales, I have tape-recorded them,
and invite linguists to use them for research.
1.2 A brief discussion of Sakhalin Ainu folklore and its
classification is necessary at this point. The north1-1est
coast Sakhalin Ainu divide their tales into four categories.
They are in order of importance: 1) hawki; 2) oyna;
J) u~askuma; and 4) tuytah.
I must refer to these categories
in Ainu terms since translation of these Ainu terms render
li~tle of the nature of the stories under each category.
The stories in the first two categories are called
sa:korone ("things to sing") since they must be told with
sa:kehe (a "~elody," "singing"). The subject matter of the
stories in.these categories always involves deities, or their
culture hero Yayresu:po, who is believed .to be a semi-deity.
Thus, these stories may only be told by male elders, who are
considered as closest to the deities. The Ainu have great
respect for them vrhether they are singing or listening. An
~lder ~ay take up to three days to sing a very respected tale.
He starts singing a story 1-1hile sitting on the floor, but at
the climax he may sing while lying flat on his back with his
arms waving.
Of the two categories, those which are called haw~i are
considered as the greatest or all stories, and oyna are
regarded as next in greatness. Although both of the stories
concern deities, the usually are battle stories, ~rhereas
the ovna are not. Although both types of stories are sung on
orqinary nights, the hawk! in particular are sung 1o1hen a
dreadful disease is present in the settlement, or when a
person in the settlement is seriously ill.
Another important feature which ch~racterizes the stories
in these two categories is the abundant use of onne itah
(language of the elders) and kamuy itah ( for the
deities). These are sets of vocabulary and grammatical usages
which are used exclusively by elders and areconsidered by them
as their privilege and duty. The Ainu regard them as politer
and greater than ordinary diction, which is called sukuh itah
(language of the young), and thus they refer to them as the
poro itah (big or great diction). The k8muv itah, in

particular, may only be used in addressing the deities, and
thus is only used by the male elders, because only they among
the Ain~ can directly address the deities. Although so~e and tuytah contain some onne 1 tah, they are small in
.Among the follo\'ring tales, Husko referred to seven of
them as oyna. They are the five stories about the culture
h~ro Yayresu:no (Tales 1 to 5) and two other stories (Tales
6 and 7). 'l'here is no example of hawki in my collection of
stories, although Busko stated that Tale 1 is similar to
h~l-~ki, because it is such a great story.
Although Husko was
female, her father, Nho related all of these oyna to her,
encouraged her to learn Ainu tradition, even such customs as
trapping, rm~in5 a boat, and remembering stories. Thus, she
learned these oyna from her father, although as an Ainu female
she was not permitted to sing them in public as did the male
In respect to her own Ainu tradition, she related
these stories to ne in narration rather than in singing. For
this reason, she ends all of her oyna with the statement,
"such and such ucas1cuma is finished." Although she lTas not
an orator in the traditional sense, because of her deep
interest in her culture, her exceptionally good memory and
especi~lly close relationship with her father who was a
renol;ned story teller, I thin1c that these oyna retain much of
what had been related to her by her father.
The tales in the last two categories, namely, ucaskuma
and tuytah are narratives.
Although the subject matter is
past events, they do not concern deities. The Ainu consider
them as light stories. The line of demarcation behreen these
groups of stories is unclear, and Husko merely explained the
differences by ir.~icating in which category her stories
belonged. ~orig the following stories, Tales 8, 9 and 10 are
ucask~a and Tales 11 and 12 are tuytah.
The above classification of Ainu tales by Husko duplicates
the classification l'thich P1lsudski learned over half a century
ago from the east coast Sakhalin Ainu (Pilsudski 1912: xv-xix).
There are, however, some minor differences in the characterization of the stories in each category. Chiri, too, discussed
various designations for and characterization of types of
stories among various groups of Hokkaido arid Sakhalin Ainu
(Chiri 1955: 251-261). Chiri's presentation differs
considerably from Husko's information.
A comparative
discussion of the folklore classification of different Ainu
groups is beyond the scope of th1s work, and thus will not be
discussed any further.
Published works on Sakhalin Ainu folklore are very few
1n number. They include B. P1lsudski (1912), K. K1ndaich1
M. Ch1r1 (1944~ 1955; 1956 (with Oda)). and

T. Ya=namoto {1944). Of these ;.rorks~ the one by Pilsudski is
the only publication in English and is the only one which
includes the Ainu texts in ohoncmic transcriotion. Kind~ichi's
work includes Ainu texts reproduced in Japanese "kana" and

translations in J.3.p3nese. Works by Chiri, an extrc::.ely

comoetent linguist who was a Hokkaido Ainu fro~ Noboribetsu,
contain translations in Japr-mese and valuable ~mnotations which
provide insl:;hts into S?..lchalin Ainu culture.
All of the five
stories presented by T. Ya~a~oto were collected at R~v~iska.
One of these ''!as related by Husko' s brother, Putuhk~, Hho nm'-l'
resides at Hidaka.
l.J For convenience, I have given titles to the tl'!enty-six
tales presented belo....,!. Only the first ten tales have Ainu
texts and En~lish translations. Of these ten tales, each is
arranged in the follo-;rins manner: a brief comment; subject;
synopsis; Ainu texts Hith sentence-by-sentence translation;
notes and in some cases remarks.
In the "brief cornments," I
primarily indicated the circu-rnstances in which the tale lras
transcribed. In so~e cases ethno~ranhic information essential
to the understanding of the tale is also included. The
"subject" briefly describes the content of the tale. The
"synopsis" outlines the story.
The Ai:nu texts normally are divided into sentences,
althouGh sose of the longer sentences are divided. ~ach
sentence, or in some cases phrase, is numbered consecutively
within the tale. Word divisions are difficult to deter~ine as
the Ainu language is so-called "polysynthetic." I have
divided the sentences as I consider aporooriate and tried to
be consistent. The phonemes used in the follml'ing transcription are listed and discussed in 1.4.
My translation ai!!ls at a mean betHeen a literal and a
free translation. A true literal translation bet~reen any tl'!O
languages is impossible, and even a fairly literal translation
often is very hard to understand.
On the other hand, a free
translation, l:hich is perhaps easiest for the English reader,
often docs not convey the flavor l'lhich is essential for an
appreciation of Ainu oral literature. Therefore, in many
instances I used my discretion in choosins bet,~een the clarity
of,English and the flavor of Ainu. To accomplish this, I used
in some cases two devices; the words in ~arentheses are
translations of Ainu texts but are redundant or rneaninsless in
the English translation; l'lords in brackets are my free
translations 1rhich I have inserted for clarity in English.
In translating these tales, I used tenses for ve~bs which
I considered as most an~ropriate in English, even tho~gh Ainu
verbs do not have tense.

Since this is not meant to be a linguistic work, I only
put the inter-linenr translations for the first five sentences
of the first story. This is intended to provide a sample of
the Ainu syntax.
At the end of each of these ten stories, there are some
notes which rep~esent annotations to the text. This is
primarily ethnographic information which is vital for understanding the tales. These annotations, however, are held to
a minimum, since a comprehensive discussion of the culture of
the north\lest coast Sakhalin Ainu in the recent past is
presented in my dissertation {Ohnuki-Tierney 1968), and I plan
to revise my dissertation for publication after completing
additional field work scheduled for the spring of 1969. The
numbers for the notes correspond to the sentence numbers in
the text.
Some nouns in Ainu have both an abstract form and a form
for person (cf. Kindaichi 1960: 32-41; M. Chiri 1956 : 179203). When these nouns appear in the "notes," the inflection
in some cases is indicated in parentheses, e.g.,~ {ha)
There also are remarks at the end of some of the tales.
These are discussions about the distribution of the sl~ilar
tales among other Ainu groups and other peoples.
I held these
remarks to a minimum, since I do not intend this publication
as either a comparative or distribution~l study of folklore.
The remaining tales, fifteen in number, are only
presented in English translation. They are unclassified and
less formalized tales and 1rere told to me in Japanese.
Although Husko started to learn Japanese in her forties, she
has 11ell masr.ered the Jauanese language. There also are notes
and remarks at the end of some of t.he tales.
Riddles, a favorite game for the Ainu, are also included
at the end (2.7) along with Ainu texts and translations.
Unless specified othe~rise, I used throughout this work
the term "Ainu" to mean the Ainu l-Tho lived recently on the
northwest coast of Salthalin.


Phonemic transcript ion: Unless specified otherl'rise, the

linguistic data used in this work are from Huska's dialect,
which belongs to a dialect of the northwest coast of southern
Sakhalin. This dialect is one of the six Sakhalin Ainu
dialects investigated by J~nanese linguists ar.d is labelled
the "Raichishika dialect" (Hattori ed., 1964: 18). My
interpretation of her jdiolect is as follot-rs:

a) Husko' s idiolect shows the

/1, e, a, o, u/






/p, t, k, ~.s, m, n, r, h, w, y/

b) The follorrlng four syllabic patterns were found:

as in /oha/ empty


as ln /ah/ 'Japanese wych elm' (cf. S.

Hattori does not include this pattern
(Hattori 1961}: J4}).
as in /kaco/ 'drum
as ln /kimun/ 'mountain'
Where c1

= p,

t, k,




n, r, h, w, y

Where Cz = s, m, n, h, w, y
c) Vo1-rels:


A high front unrounded


A mid front unrounded


A central low unrounded voxel.


A mid



rounded VOloJel.

/u/ --A high back rounded vo1-rel.

d) Length:


I heard clear contrast betl'leen short and long

VOliels. s. Hattori also interprets length as
phonecic in the Rayciska dialect {S. Hattori,
ed. 1964: 42). M. Chiri, however, claims that
length is not nhonemic in all the Ainu dialects
(Chiri 1956: i2J).
e) Consonants and other phoneces:
/p, t, k/ -- Bilabiel, alveolar, and velar stops.
They have both voiced and voiceless
allophones, perhaps in free variation.

In oy analysis, there is a tendency for
the stops at the initial ?Osition are
more often voiceless, but this is merely
a tendency. By usage, in some l'Tords
they are pronounced usuall: as voiceless
and in some as voiced re~;~dless of the
position. For example, lkahke~ah/ 'wife
of a great person l!as al~ays [ gahke:nah],
and /putuhlca/{a nersonal r::allle) as
[butuhka], whereas /kaama/ to set a
trap as [kaama] and /pu:rl/ 'custom' as
[pu:ri]. There also are xo~cs that are
pronounced either with a Toiceless stop
or a voiced stop. For e~~2ple, /tonkorl/
is pronounced sometimes as [tonkori] and
other ti~es as [donkorl]. On the whole,
words with a voiceless stop at any
position outnumbered those with a voiced
Ch1r1 states that the voic~less allophones are the more standEL-d
pronunciation and that the voiced ones
are used more often by Japanized Ainus
(Chlri 1956 : 124-125). s. Hattori
states that the stops are usually
voiceless at the initial position,
especially at the beginnin~ of an
utterance (Hattori, ed. l964: J4). In
Tae Okada's excerptions fro~ the second
volume of the Japanese Lano~ages of the
World books [sic], it is stated that in
the Hidaka dialect of Hokkaido Ainu at
the initial position the voiceless are
used, with free variation else'frhere
(Raun, et al. 1965: 124).

A predorsal affricate. ~e variation

with a voiced allophone [j].


Voiceless alveolar spirant in free

variation \'rlth an alveopalatel spirant.
The former is more frequent. It is
highly palatalized before or after /1/,
as in /sis/ eye.

/m/ & /n/

Bilabial and alveolar nasa1 resonants



A short voiced alveolar flap.


A voiceless glottal spirant. At the

final position, it is a very soft
voiceless suirant with the same
articulation as that of the preceding
e.g., /ahkas/ to ~1alk' = [a~kas]
/ohkayo/ man'


/w/ & /y/ -- Bialabial and alveopalatal resonants

In my analysis, accent is not phonemic in Huslro' s idiolect.
Hattori, \'those l>rork is based on Husko' s idiolect, is of the
same opinion and considers accent as non-phonemic in the
Bihoro and Ravciska dialects (RllSko' s idiolect belongs to
the latter), but phonemic in all the other Hokkaido dialects
(Hattori, ed. 1964: .35}. Chiri, ho:-rever, argues that accent
is phonemic in all the Ainu dialects including the Sakhalin
Ainu dialects ( Chiri 1956 : 142-142) .
Hattori includes / ' / ([?] at the initial position and simply
a tension in the throat bet1:een t different vo-,.rels)
(Hattori, ed. 1964: 34). I did not hear such a sound. Moreover, in Hattori's notation it is predictable, appearing
either at the beginning of a 1-10rd "'rhen the next {in his
interpretation) uhoneme is a vowel, or bet1reen t-.;qo successive
vowels \rhen the tl'ro VO'tsels are different (Hattori, ed.: 1964).
Therefore, I do not consider it necessary to postulate this
Both [~] and [1] may be phonemic. Each l'ras heard only in
one word, however. [~] was in the Ainu pronunciation of a
Gilyak personal name [koy,ahte], and [1] in onomatopoeia
of the cry of a crow [holowlmrlo.,.r] with the same pronunciation as the English dark /1/.
The most important works by linguists on sakhalin Ainu are
those by K~ Kindaichi (Kinda1ch1 1911; 1960: 337-362},
RPilsudski (Pilsudski 1912), M. Chiri (Chiri 1942; 19531962 (Dictionary); 1956 } , and s. 'Hattori (Hattori 1957;
1961; Hattori, ed. 1964; Hattori and Chiri 1960). \lorks
by Pilsudski and Kindaichi are based on the dialects on the
east coast of southern Sakhalin. Chiri 's \'rorks include
dialects as far north as Ustomonayuo, but the dialects in
Husko's area are not included. Hattori's l>rork, as noted,
is based also on Husko's idiolect (;,.rhich he calls the
Ray~iska dialect), although I differ in my phonemic
interpretation of her idiolect on a few points.



Five stories about


the Sakhalin Ainu

culture hero
The following five tales relate the combats of
Yavresu: uo, the Ainu culture hero, v.~l th various demons.
with the help of the deity of the sky and his guardian
deity, Yavresu:uo was able to kill these demons and thus
protect his people, the Ainu.
The Ainu regard Ya:vresu:no as having lived in the
beginning of the universe, and consider him as so great
as to be semi-deity. They characterize him primarily as
the protector of the Ainu from the demons, and as the
teacher of knowledge which is necessary ror life, e.g.,
how to make a fire.
He is believed to have h9.d a sister. The only
information v-rhich Husko remeli!bered about this sister is
in the first few lines of a song. In thts song, the
sister goes to gather reeds {su~kl)(Phra~~ites communis
Trin. {Chiri 195): 227)) and a man \rho likes her v-!atches
as she works.
The first story tells that "lfrhen Yavresu :no 1t1as still
a S!:all baby, he ,.!as the sole surv1 vor of tv-ro adjacent
settlements which had been attacked by a pair of demons.
lie was saved and raised by Kanto Knro K~.muv, the del ty
of the sky. Husko exnlained that this deity is greater
than ~irikiva.nlmh, "!.<!ho appears in the other tales in
this section. He is the deity of both Yavresu:no's
settlement and the adjacent settlement. Busko described
him as an elderly man with a white beard.

An interesting note in connection with this is that

Ch1r1 reports that the original meaning of the term
ya.;<rresunoo [sic] is "the child -vrho brought 1 tself up,"
hence, an "orphan." F.e further explains that am~ng the
Sakhalin Ainu it orig-inally meant "the child who brought
itself up because a deity was looking after him," and the
term later became the nroper name for the culture hero.
(Chiri 1944: 26). Tale 1 seems to explain how the
culture hero received this name.


The rest of the tales relate how Y~yresu:no man~ged

to chase off or kill various de~ons because of ins~ructions
which his guardian del ty Girl 1-:i YCJ.n1wh had sent to him in
Chiri records the n~me of th~s culture hero variously
as Yayresup:Jo [sic] ( south\'restern Hoklc3ido} ~ Y:=~.yresuxoo [sic]
(also east coast of Sakhalin), and Yayresupu [sic](west
coast of Sa1challn) (Chiri 195!~: 497). A better !cnown name for
the culture hero amon~ the Holckaldo Ainu is Ainu rakkuru [sic)
( Chiri 1944: 4), B.nd he is \':ell described by Kindaichi
(Kindaichi 194J).
Tale 1:

Wenenekaype (An aged person)

Brief comment:
Huska learned this story from her father, Ciyetu:ka.
She repeatedly stressed that this story i'ras the g:reatest in
her repertoire. Eence, she was very selective in deciding
l'rhen to recite this story. She sald that she could only
recite rJhen she felt \rell; otherwise the power of the story
would over11hel!TI her. It sounded as though she would be
punished by the deities unless she prouerly reci~ed it.
She first recited the entire story on November 24,
startin;; entirely in Ainu am: later s~ritching back and forth
between Ainu :;md Japanese. She recited. the entire story in
Ainu on November 27, and I recorded it on tape. The Ainu
text giv~~ here repres~nts her recitation on April 4
and 5, 1968. Each-time the wording was slghtly different,
but in my opinion all of the i~?ortant details and the basic
structure of the story were consistent. Details in other
versions which were absent in the ADril version are added
in the appropriate notes at the end.of the tale.
She classified this tale as an oyna, but she stressed,
as mentioned in the Introduction, that its greatness makes
it close to a hawki.
Subject: Yoyresu :po first appears in the story as e. baby who
'ffras the only survivor of tNo adjB.cent settle::nents which were
exterminated by a de~on couple, husband and ~rife. Thanks
to the ~elp of Kanto Koro K3muy and a fem~le deity,
Yayresu:po grew to :nanhoocl, killed the demons a!'ld reuo!)ulated
the two settlements. He begot a boy and a girl by his wife.
Upon death, he wer.t to the settle~ent of the deities. Re
later heard ne"t:s fror.1 the 'tTorld of the livln.s Ainu, ar.d
learned that his children had becooe even greater than he.

Svnonsis: Lonp a~o there was a bi~ settlement. One day a
demon with one eye, which ~as a~ big as a full moon,
attacked the v111Rge and ate all the peoole.
Kanto Koro
Kamuv, del ty of the sl{y, later came dm-7n to the settlement
to investigate and found at the end of the settlement a baby
boy crying in a house.
In order to save the baby and raise
him, he stayed at th!s settler:1ent in the Ainu lorld, singin
lullabies and coo~lng . The boy, however, kent crying
incessantly, exce~t during the meals. One day the deity
identified himself as a deity to the boy, and told the boy
that he was there only to raise him. He explained to the
boy what had happened to the settlement where he was found.
He then t-old the boy that because of the contiP-uous crying
of the boy, he became tired and thus decided to go back to
his home in the sky. He then pre~ared the last meal,
explained to the boy that the boy had to kill the deity so
that he could go ~ack to the sky and that the boy should
grow up by himself and try hard to rebuild his settlement.
Th~ boy naturally l'!as ~eartbroken and cried even harder.
After finishing the meal, the deity took out a bow, quiver,
sword, and
golden soear from the uDDer side of the house
(l-~here the Ainu Dlace .. their treasures.).
He also took out
clothi!"!g for the boy and clothed the boy for wa.r. The deity
himself changed to a good outfit and told the boy where the
big demon lived -- 1!Go up a dirt road lrhich rum along a big
river in
settlement and at the end of the road
there is a big mountain ~here the demon lives.'' Challenged
by the deity's harsh scolding, the boy finally managed to
summon u~ his courgge and killed the deity with the golden
spear. Then the boy heard the sounds of the deity's voice
and those of his shamanistic rite as his soul returned
the sky.


The boy made lunch of dried trout, and for the first
time in his life went out of the house to see his settlement.
He followed the directions given by the deity and reg,c.hed
the demon's den, in front of l'lhich he found nothing but l'lhi te
human bones in a pile. The demon smelled human flesh and
came out of the den. His one eye was as big as a full-moon,
his upper jal'T reaching the sky and lo..,rer jal'r digging into
the ground. The boy jumped into its mouth l'Ii th only a sword
in his hand. He riu~ed the stomach of the demon to pieces
from the inside and-kill~d the demon. Coming out, he sliced
the flesh of the demon and distributed its meat to the trees,
grass, earth, rivers and all other beings of the universe.
The boy returned to his settlement and after staying
there overnight, he set forth to investigate the next
settlement. As he l-Tent alon~ a dirt road to the next
settlement he found that the road shol'led signs of the demom' s
work just as in his settlement.

At the tar end of the settlement, however, there was a
grass hut from which smoke x~s comln& out throu~h the skylight,
thus show1n~ sizns of hu~an occuoation.
there was an elderly l~dy, a female deity, ~ho told him to
come in. She cried with joy at meeting him. She cooked
and then prepared his bed.
He thought that she had brou5ht
in fresh sedge and nettle; however, the next mornin~ as he
woke U?, he found th~t they h~d turned into a fine finished
mat and nightware. After the morning meal, she orepared
dried trout for his lunch. She told him that there was a
big dirt road along a river in her settlement and that a
demon 11ved in the mountain at the end of the road.
The boy found the demon, which was the wife of the demon
that had been at his settlement, and killed it in exactly
the same manner as he had killed the other. When he went back
to the deity grand~other, she was very pleased with his
After returning to his settlement and soend1ng several
days there, the boy a~ain went on a trip.
Fro~ one settlement he brought back some oeonle to fill his e~otied
settlement. He also filled the adjacent settlement with
Later he got married and had two children, a boy and a
girl. He lived lon~ and died in his old age. Later when
he heard ne.-Ts of the world of the living Ainu, he learned
that his children "tlere doing better than he had done.
Ainu text and translation (Tale









(The aged man, the old ?erson)







an lmanu:


(on the shore) (settlement) (was (narticle

for affirmation)

(Long ago, there was a settlement on the shore.)






(Was) (narticle indicatlns (very} (people) (!Lany} (settlement)



(see 1. 2)

(It was a settlement 1dth very many people.)






(11 ved)

( Nhile} {one)


hem::1 t a.ka


(day) (some kind of)


(sound) has} (see 1.2)

{And lll'hile they lived in this manne:!", one day there l'Tas a
strange sound. }





lnukara~1 hi

(people) (l'lent out)





re :'koh


(indeed) (very)

r.e: !manu:

(big) (demon) (something) (1..-as)

(see 1.2)

(And the people went outside to look about and, inde~d,

there was something which looked like a demon.)


Sis ~ korone sikari cuh ~ kanne ~ sis koro ovas1 ne:


(The [only] eye was like a full moon; it was a demon with
a large eye.)


Ne :teh oro'l-ra kesukuran

oyl'lsi san 'l!lanu:

(Thereafter the demon came out every night.)


Nevke nean Kotan

avnu kavki okore ruhna:ke tuvoawa

isan manu:
(And it tore apart and S\'Tallowed all of the neonle of the
settlement and they [people of the settlement] l'rere gone.)



~ A.ynu'k~

Poro kotan sisteh K?.!1ne

o'kore ruho?.:ke tuyna

{[Although] the settlement was full of people, it tore

apart and swallowed all of the peonle.)

10. K1: yayne


kotan sisteh kanne


o~ore ~ ~


{While doing so, it ate all of the neoole who filled the
settlement and [then] they [people- or".the settlement]
were gone.)
11. Neyke ne :ra

aynu sahteh

else sovliekehe 1{av'k1 onnavkehe ka.vk1 annene



{And at whichever house [all the houses][both] outside

and 1nside there [indeed] 1,-1ere only dried up bones.)
12. Tani

kotan annene oha kotan



{Now the settlement had become completely empty.)

lJ. Ne:teh orowa sineh to: rikun kamuy n1s'kuru oro,;a
henke hTo:neka

~ ~




{And one day the deity of the sky, the grandfather deity
of the sky, went do~n to the ground to investigate.)

14. Ne:teh



erieteh <Hse okore oro-...~a ahkaswa. a~oene oha


([Thereupon] he walked around all of the houses and found

that they were empty.)

15. Rukumihi orm.o:a ehor9.h c1seka !!..!! manu:

(There were houses lih1ch were falling dol-m.)

16. Okore horah ciseka


(There were houses which had fallen.)

17. Ne :teh ormra tan1 kotan kes ohta o!Danteh suv sineh ehorah
an manu:

([Thereupon nmr] at the end of the settle!Ilent there \oras

another house which was falling do~~.)

~ ~ise

18. Neannehe kusu

ohta ahun manu:

(Then he went into the house.)

19. Ahun ID3nuyke lnkaraha neanne cise siske11: ohta cise ovsuhtA.
sineh "V!en non tennehno ante1v3.nnene cisK:usu


(As he 1-mnt in and looked about, a very small child tras

crying hard in the corner of the house.)
20. r!eannehe "kusu uhtra nul{arR.ha nP.anpe re :koh nir1 k3 ohi<a:vo

~ ~anu:

(Hhen he p1c1~ed it up and looked at it, it was a very

good-looking baby boy.) .
l{USU ~ ~ ~

21. Neanpehe


I thus [as fol1o-Ns] thought.)

22. Tan s1neh

anah nah ..!!

hekacino taah


ka henne an


~ ~

( .. At least I -v;ant to save the 11 t tle boy," he thus thought.)

2). Tani

~ ~

tennehno uhteh unci sanketa

san manu:

([And] he picked up the little boy and trent to the side

of the hearth.)
24. Teh oro~!a tani ~ henl<e un~1 ~ manu:
(Now the grandfather made a fire [in the hearth]).

25. Ne :teh oro"'l'ra tani


((Thereupon] then he went out (of the house].)

26. Asinteh


oro~ra enisk~an

else ohta orn<lrmwa :nukaraha neanne

ohtaka ctse sovketal{a aynu non1 nateh okav

(After he l'rent outside he went to various houses and
looked about; outside of every house there indeed were
only human bones.)


Ne:teh orow3.

~ ~ K:~n~a

hos1.n1. manu.:

(Then he went again back to that house.)


Nee. :2.2r! tennehno ohtH ~ ~ise ~ tani ~ henke ~


ohta sirena: manu:

(The grandfather then arrived at the house occupied by

the little child.)


Ne:teh orot-.ra tani

un~i ~manu:

((Then) he made a fire [in the hearth].)


Unci a:reteh

~ ~

En tennehno


reske nanu:

(After making a. fire, he fed that tiny little boy.)


Neyke annene an



ki: manu:

(And even then he cried very hard.)


E.2!! tennehno

t~ni ~

hen"ke ene i ve:


(The grandfather then said to the little boy thus [as

foll 0'J.'S] )

nea.nne avnu ka ~=~==-..;..;
hanne hk8. an ne:
==~ ~:..;:;..;:;;.;.;..;:...;;.. ~ (I am not a human being.)


Anoka neanne kamuy hen'ke ~ m:_:_ k:usu tani

etura te:ta

ku anm-1a ecireske nan'koh" nah lye: manu:

(Since I am a grandfather deity, and am here with you,
I shall raise you," he said (thus).)


Nea kamuv henke anoka neanne


rehe -wenenekavne

~ ~

("I am the grandfather deity and my name is '\'renenekavne

(aged man) sarnenekayne (old person).)


Neyahka ~ ereske kusu iki: ~usu hanka mas~in nu:ri


kanne anmra" ns:J.h ive: manu:

(Even then I will raise you,. and therefore don't cry so

hard," he (thus) sa1d.)


Ne: teh oro"1A.

henke t:1n1 i{e manu:

(The erandfather then





a lullaby.)

ki manu:

(I sarig a lullaby in this way [as follows].)






semenekavne; An

ehunke kusu nevke nirika rrQ


neyke oirikarmo mokorol'lU"

("[I am] the aged elder, old elder; I shall
lullaby; listen Nell and sleep ""Vrell.")



you a

tennehno --cis nu:ri kara --ki: ---~~manuvke ne:ra


Pir1ka 1hunke ankoh




nu:r1 kara ki:an1 nateh

nu:ka etunne ani annene


(Even then the little boy cried very hard; he heard me

sing a nice lullaby a~d even then he kept crying very

41. "Henenekavpe !!!1

korol{a 1hunke konno an1{ah stsohs 1soh

hemata pateh enu:rusuy kusu


I am an aged man, I sing a lullaby l'lhile srraying

my body right and left; what do you want to hear?)


Wenenekayne samenel<:avne

nevahka tani orowa an

ereskel.a okayg,n kusu ik1

(Although I am an elder, and very old, I look after you

and raise you.)


Ekoro kotanuhu ~ ~ ovanruru 'kotan ne:;.ra kavki hettata

oyasihihe kot::tn wenteh a.vnu ruhna :ke



(Your settlement l'1BS a very large one on the shore, but

some kind of demon damaged the settlement and ate all
of the men.)



Okav avnukR okore ruhnn:ke

tuvn~~a is~m

(Although there were many neople, (the demon] ate all

of them and now they are go~e.)


Eani sineh nehka nateh

ovasi ine kesne


hokure Y3:rtu: naw:t oc is kanne tu: nas norm.,.a

(You are the only one left now; you are the left-over
of the demon s food; groTtr up by yourself and quickly
groN up to be blg.)



oro .2.E.. Rvnu oyasl okore ruhna:ke tuynawa e :tra

isam y::1.hka hokure

1~\"DmoJa 11

(Although the demon ate all of the people at your settlement, "'rork hard l')


Kunneka to:noka nea ihun1:<:e an ki: manuvke nea an res'kev?:

mih annene


-- --- --

nu :ri kara ki: ani an manu:



(I sang lullabies night and day and I raised him; but the
grandchild ke?t crying hard.)


Nevke tant otuna: kasu okayan P3hno hennah ~ kavkl

annene an iclsat-re _ekovk1 k1: ani tani hennah na:ka an
so:nosore ki:


(And (not-d two years went by and then many years had
passed, and he [still] kept crying; I spent many years
lin this way] )


Neyke ~ reraruhuka okore ane;.;ente"tra amekihpal<ra nea _ cis

pu:rl kara k1: !{esto asinko kesna aslnko ne :l'ra anne he
ki: manuvke ano1-::a kayki tanl re :koh sin"ka rai!lka
yo :nosna ara


(And he scratched and cut my chest [with his nails] very

badly and he ke?t crying hard every day and every year;
and I (noN) felt very tired.)






iamekisn'3. ki: m8nuyke


rerar::1hr:t k::is'l(eheka

nmekisna ki: manu:

(And while he l'Jas scratching, the surface [skin] of my

chest became extensively scratched and cut.)






ne8MPe tan1 ohah naykoh

~ ~

(And my old scars no1-r became shallol:r rivers. )


As1r1 mac1ri neanne oho: nsvkoh ne anmra an reraruhuka

(Ne"'T scars beca~e deep rivers and much blood flowed.)




na:ka oka:-n:m m'

( ( Nol'r) many years have passed.)


Neyke ~


reskeva an micihi kavk1 tani ahruri:ne an

ohkavono ne: manu:

(And that grandchild of mine whom I raised has become
a big boy.)



sineh to: henneh kavki arahal,o!sah


har.nehka ki: manu:

(Hm-rever, he did not keep quiet for even a day.)


Ne:teh O!'O";-ra tani ihun1{e kayki tan1 henoah na:ka nea


ki: mar.uvke

ihunke an hal'rehe else onnavka

anoene konenumne ne:no an manu:

((Thereupon nmT) I sang lullabies, and for many years I
sanrr lullabies; the lullabies I resonated inside
of the house.)
57 . Cise etunohJ'Ca . ani kRv ~ uturu mahka ani kav


~ ~



nosnare ki:an1

1hunke ankdt nusamahldl-ra ankch s1sohs1sohw~.

k1: manu:

(The lullabies I sang went through the ends of the roof,

flew through the beams of the house and went throuJ?;h the
rafters of the house, and I kept swaying my body ri~ht
and left.)


Ne:'l'<a anoehe ftn ki: yayne tani "Vren sinka ra'l!ka yo:oosp9.:Wi

(While doing so I became very tired.)


Ne:teh oroHa sineh to: tani ene

~an m1.~1h1.

onne avve:

(Therefore, one day I said (thus) to my grandchild.)

60. "Tani ohkavo nahno e

kun ohta tuh aynu

kusu tanto: noro

~ ~

nu:ri kara ekivehe



ani ku iuel\ara

enu:rusuv kusu ene



you have almost become a man; today I will cook

in a big oot and t.o of us will eat. What do you want
to hear and why do you cry so hard?")


Nah avve: teh orm-!a ~ ~ .::e2.!:Q ~ ~ sankeyke oha':rhe


kara1~a un~i

oro-:..ra !!.!! ahteh

(I said that and then I pulled out a very large pot, put
broth [in it] and hooked it over the fire.)


Ne :teh ormano slneh tetara ~ tanara !!:!! sankevk.e nea

su: onnean kutata ne: teh


tani an suke manu:


(Thereupon I took a sack of rice, poured it into the pot,

. and (thereupon now) cooked.)


An suke~ra ~ suke"Tr!a o:nantene ~ asinanuvm .El ohta

rikioanteh slneh nise


ranan manu:

(I cooked and coolted; (then) I 1rent out [of the house]

and climbed up [the ladder of] the storage house and
came down l'rith oil in one stomach bag [a bag of oil].)


Ne: teh orot-ra

tetara ine


se ohta tura ahananteh ormra


~ ~

avvanke manu:

I went 1nto the house w1th [the oil] and

picked un the rice 'IThich I cooked.)


kuf;a manu:

(After picking up [the oot] I ooured the oil from the

stomach bag into the ~reat btg pot.)








tan1 an

e: kuni :ne an ka:rateh orovra t::tni rokan m"lnu:

(Thereupon I mixed and mixed, and just as I was ready
to eat, I sat down.)


noka'!1teh tani an k1 sirihi ohta tanoaku an arr.f'i"tra an ku:


(I sat doNn, and then I put tobacco in my pipe and


An ku: ra:ookeketa tani

~ ~

cis nu:r1 kara an micihi

avve: manu:

(While I was smoking, I said (thus [as follo\'1S]) to my

grandchild "rho was crying hard .>



"Cikoro micihi hemata enu:rusuy kusu ~ ~ cis ou:ri

kara ekiyehe hetaneya:
( "~y grandchild
cry so hard?)



do you want to hear and t'l'hy do you

Hanka cis kanne tani henke suke tetara ioe cisahsuke

iue tuh aynu

l l ro"

(D,on't cry; now let the two of us eat.the rice I cooked.")


Nah 1ve:teh tan1


tuh itank1 sanke manu:

(After I said so, I took out bowls, ttoro botils.)


Sanke manuvke tari1

karaya iue


21 manu:

(As I took [them] out, I put the cooked rice in the



Tani ohcike tuh ois



ttanki kasketa

nea 1tarld ohta amateh ecipe


(Then I took out two trays and ~ut the bowls [on them];
I took out spoons and put [them] in the bowls.)



Ne:teh orowa nea mi~ihi ko:re manu:

(I then handed it [bm-rl l'rith rice in it and spoon on the
tray] to the grandchild.)



Cimicih1 hsnka cis kanne henKe tura

(My grandchild did not cry [stounec crying] and ate with
his grandfather [me].)


"Tani uahno henuah i~an ~ kayki ~ ereske nevahka tan


nu :ri



he~aka ~

kamuv kotan

8~i ~ ~

tan1 anuene hen'ke 1-:ayki

~ n~ni




~ he~~e



hokure e:vaytu:ua.

esiyunul'ra tan ekoro OYet.nruru kotan ohta




("I have raised you for six years and still you cry and
cry; since your grandfather has become co~nletely tired
and has gradually aged, today your grandfather is going
back to the settlement of the deities; therefore '!!Ork
hard; at your settlement on the shore. lmrk hard.")


Ne:teh or01'-'a an koro henkehe kamuy henke



~ ..!!


~ .:!:!!


kusu na:ruv cis

(Because my grandfather deity said this I beca~e sadder
and cried harder.)


Neyke ~ ireskeya: ..,.renenekayue samenekayue henke tani

pahno iye: ya;vstnkare,:a ireske o'!nantene ihohuavlce temana.
yaykara anmra
(And grandfather Wenenkayue S'3.i!!ene1<avue, \Tho raised me
until this ti~e, told me that he ..,.:as tired from taking
care of me and lias going to leave me behind; how can
I live alone?)



neanue nah



~e;koh ~

(When I thought about [what he told me], I cried harder.)


N~yke ~an

koro 1'::1.:":1UY henke re:koh


1koki:vahse manu:
(And my grandfather deity shouted and scolded me harshly.)


"Nah kanne eou :r1 kara kusu

o~is ~

kor01ra te.n1 tuh aynu

11c1: enuene kusu sh<uUrla


ro 11 nah lye: manu:

("Since you have been crying hard, 1-1ork hard and have a
strong mind, and no"K' let the t1-1o of us eat," thus he
said to me.)


An koro kamuv hen1':e neanuehe kusu auweomanteyke re :koh

ram an koro manu:

---- ---- ---o~is


(Because of my grandfather deity I understood [the

situation], and I received a strong mind [I started to
feel stronger].)


Neanuehe kusu ta~i ~is anihika ~ hemakareteh ~ gn koro

henke kara

tani tura

l l manu:

(Therefore I stopped crying and I ate together [l'Tith him]

the food 't'o'hich my grandfather had prepared.)

~ ~

hemaka manu:

(I ate and two of us finished all of the food in the very

large pot.)


Ne:teh ormm !m koro henkehe

E!2l 1ku: manu:

(Then my grandfather smoked.)


Ne :teh oro"m suy aulreo~anteh yayne su:v ~is !m manu:

(Then I again thought [about the situation] and I again


Be:koh ~is ~manu:

(I cried very hard.)

88. "Inunukare

iresket:a cis



h.enkehe tRni uahno sinka

:!! hawesunkm-la okayan amren henkehe


ne~nto ta~l







onne ihohpate ---amqn ---kusu


kusu na:ruy re:koh cis.:.!:!

(Then I cried as I thought, "Hy poor grand father del ty,

he raised me when he was tired; but I kept crying with
a loud voice; today my dear u,randfather is going back
to the settlement of the deities and will leave me



~ ~ ~

kamu:v henke re:koh lruska manu:

(And my grandfather deity scolded me very hard.)


Iruskavke re:koh kusu

ikoca:ranke1ta isiko yaytu:nare,:a

re :koh hanna sa..,rre 1k1: rr.~nu:

(He harshly scolded me and angrily told me to gro\'r up
by myself.)


Ne :teh oro".ra nea henke

cahoare'lta ormra emus

oysuhta I!lakanuwa si noh


oro;.Ta tani nea emus

1sanketa ama manu:

(Then the grandfather went to the [upper] corner [of the
house], opened a i'Tooden box, took out a sword and then
placed it in front of me.)


AMateh aroNa tani ku:

amateh orol'ra

ikayuh tura sankeNa isanketa

E!:!1 yo:mah sanke".oTa tsanketa


(After placing [the sword] he also took out a bow with

a quiver and placed them in front of me; then he took
out a spear and placed it in front of me.)

9). Ne :teh orm-ra nea henke suy tan1 oysuhta makanteh tan1
kosonto asinte !!!anuvke

"\'TO: vaan

tumi si n1n1h1 sahte1-ra


(Then the grandfather again went to the [uoner] corner

[of the house] and took out a silk garment; he took out
various clothings for war and placed them in front of


orowa tani 1sivuhte manu:

(He clothed me [he put these clothes on me].)

9 5.


Isivuhte rnanuv'\J:e sonno kusu an tumi koroJm


(Having dressed me, he well prepared me for war.)


Ne: teh orm..Ya tan1

henke ani hi lea re :ko!'l

kite ormra tBn rorunso:ta a:te



ive: k1:manu:

(The grandfather himself dressed 't'rell and sat on the

upper side, and then told me.)


"Keh he!llakari ku micihi tani pahno eciresket-la o:nantene


eanika e.vnu pahno ohkavo na.hno eoman

henke kayki


tani tanto

kote.n onne hosi ni kusu iki"



(He said to me, "Well, !!lY grandchild I have raised you
until no"~ and you have become a man; today [your] grandfather is returning to the settlement of the del ties.")


Ikoca:ranke manu:
(He scolded me. )


Neanpehe kusu na:ruv



Q kamuv henkehe ~ oskoro kusu

rna.nuvke hanna sa:t-rre



(Then I felt sorry for my grandfather and I irritated

him more by crying harder.)
100. Nea henke tani re:koh




isikose!:lhm iki: manu:


(Then grandfather harshly scolded me

challenged me.)




kanne cis pu:ri kara. eki: ~ tan1 oro"t>ra sineh nehka

eanu1-ra eshmu ]{anne eanuwa hokure ya;vtu :na

~ ~


("You have been crying so much; after I am gone you will
be alone; try hard and graN up by yourself.")
102. Tan ekoro oyanruru kotan dhta.



(There is a big river at your settlement on the shore.)


(Along the side of the river, there 'sa very big dirt
road, going un [toward a mountain).)
104. Hek1mo mak3n


(It goes up to a mountain.)

105. Nea ru: ka:ri


kusu nevke ta: nay etokota poro

nunuri an m'lnu:
{You go along the road, and there is a big mountain at
the head of that river.)
106. Nevke

nunuri ohta

~ ~

ovasi kas kamuv ovasi

!:!! kusu ta: ovasi ne :ra1ca ekarawa

oyasi eravki kusu

nevke nirika
(And in that mountain, there is the very large demon,
demon-deity; it will be splendid if you someho"
kill the demon.)


107. Nah ive:vm

~ ~

henkehe re:koh 1l{oc::t:ranJce


{That he said and my grandfather harshly scolded me.)

108.-Neyka tani nea

kamuy hen'kehe


{And then my grandfather deity said to me.)

109. "Nah kanne !m nu:ri kara ekine
enc1wwa yo:mah ani


enkara kusu neanah


~ ~

henke chrr,ra

avnu kihne neh hannehka

kotan onneka ku

ku kovavkus

1kt hemakari enc hnra

(Since you cry so hard, stab your grandfather, stab me

with a S?ear; unless I am killed, I cannot go to the
settlement of the deities; stab me quickly.")
110. Neannehe kusu

henkehe na:ruy

eramu karg


auweomanteh inunukare kamuv henkehe tani nahno

lye: yaysinkare"ra 1reske !!.!:! kamuv henkehe !!2 oka ankiri


n::l:ru;y_ cis an
(Then I
I stab

thought ag~in about my grandfather; poor granddeity, he raised me with much trouble; how can
him intentionally; how can I kill him: as I
thought I cried harder.)

111. Nevah]{a nea e.n henkehe re:koh irus':<a"'lm ikoca:ranke

tani cis ani hi ne :l:'a 1cnv1d re :koh ocis ram

koro manu:

(Since my grandfather had become angry and scolded me,

I nevertheless stopped crying and my mind became strong
[I started to feel very strong].)
112. Neanoehe lmsu nea

koro hen'-cehe re:koh islkomet:e kusu

eramu tasas1{e kusu



vo :mah


karire manu:
(Then my grandfather challenged me so much that I got
mad, and Nith a cry tooK: the spear in my hand and swung
it around.)
11). Ne :teh

o-ro~:a ~ ~

re:koh cis turano

henkehe rerA.ruhu nosl<:ekehe an :r.u1<:arateh

henke reraruhu vo:mah ani


(Then I looked (aimed) at the middle of my grandfather's
chest and, l'Thile crying hard, I attempted to stab my
grandfather in the chest.)
114. Neyke

henke esi:s1 manu:

(And my grandfather ducK:ed)

115. Esi:sike henke


omay koc1h1 an ciw manu:

(Because my grandfather ducked, I missed him and hit the

place where he -.,.ras sitting.)
116. Ne:teh

an henkehe na:ruyka re:koh ikoca:ranke

isikosemhm iki: manu:

(Then my grandfather scolded me harder and challenged me.)

117. NeanPehe kusu suv ~ henke ~ nuk~rateh suv ~ konka:n1

yo:rnah ani



~ ~iw



rerara noskike Pohka


~ nu~ara

nee.npe tan1 U"-'3.Si


c1w manu:

{Then again I looked (ai~ed) at my grandfather, Rga1n I

took the golden spear and while aiming at the center of
the ~andfather's chest. I stabbed; as I stabbed, this
time -I stabbed him in the center of his chest.)
118. Ne:teh



ta:ta kuhtoka



{Then my grandfather fell on his back.)

119. .;..;..;;~~=..;:;.
NeanPehe -an
nukara kusu
suv re:koh nea
an henkehe
-- ~
- --

kasikiketa siuirike anu::-?. cis


{As I loo!{ed at him, I collapsed on my grandfather and

120. Ne:teh tani




an ra:pol-.:eketa ina.:kari

ki manu:

{And while I cried and cried, I thought about various

121. Omantene tani

~ ~ ~


(While being so [during this time], I thought thus [as

122. Nah .!!!! kamu:v henkehe an ravkhm hemaka ranKe



hannehka nah

~ ~


..2z:2 .2 ikayuh .lli!:.l

1konteya ku: na:

~ ~


!:!! nahka

~ ~is


anihika an hemakareteh ormr:3. nea an h:r.kehe

!!:,!! sitomusteh oroHa




oro~H~. ~



~ ~

anoateh asinPan manu:

{I thought that even if I cry, my grandfather deity Hhom
I killed 'irould not beco!l!e rev1 ved, and so I stopped
crying; then I wore the swo~d which my grandfather gave
mej I (also) put on my back the arrows apd the quiver
I \also). took the spear; and I went out of the house j.)

12). Soyta aslnanteh inkqra an\h\ nPannc sonno kavki re:koh


kotan --ne:





(When I went out and looked about, the settlement indeed

seemed to be very large.}
h8.l..,.~he n~si<:uru

124. Ne:teh orm-Ta tanl an henkehe

niskuru onne


konko hum tura


.2..!2!! an kusu

rav'kiva an '!t:arr.uv henkche

~ ~

hum tura tusu haHehe tur::1 nisko

sikiruwa rikinihi an nukara manu:

(I then heard the voice of my grandfather in the sk~ and
thus looked at the sky and sa'~-<r my grandfather deity whom
I killed going up in sky accompanied by the sound of a
bell, the sound of a drum, and his voice of a shamanistic
125. Inkara anlhi neanoe else soyketa

~ EQEQ ~ ~


(As I looked, there Nas a very large storage house outside

the house.)
126. Neanoehe kusu n~

nu: oht-:3.

ri ki naniht anahR ::m cahke-:ra

ohta ahaoan inkara Bnih1 neanne annene




~ ~

k~nne ~ ru~rehe

ine nateh

an manu:

(Therefore I cli~bed ~he ladder] to the stora~e house and

opened the door~ as I o~ened [the door], and-I looked
about, I found that the storage house l<~as (very) full of
various kinds of food.}

127. Neannehe kusu sahne


~ ~

uhteh tarah

kokarikartteh an eslcuh muve manu:

(Therefore I took a couple of dried trout, tied them
together with a rope, and tied 1t to my waist.)
128. Ne:teh oro ..ra tani .E.!!!. oro"to..a


(Then I came down from the storage house.)

129. Ne:teh ormra

enis~a ~

E!:2 kota!l

ihuvmanna an1h1 neanne re:koh

ru;.rehe !m manu:

(Then I looked around in various directions and it

anpeared to be a very large settlement.}

130. Ne:1. <1n

henk~ he

1. ve: he nc: no 1. nk.'1r:1. nnl< o h noro rn,y s.<ln

(Like my grandfather told me, I saw a big river coming
down [from a mountain].)

neanoe sonnoka wen

hekirno rnakan



nea nAv

ca :~e'<c


an manu:

(And as I 1rent alonp; the side of the big river, I smr a

very large dirt rosd along the river leading uo [to a
mountain]. )

inkara anl<ohl<i sonnol<3 1.:en no:::-o nunuru an msnu:

(Then as I kept going along the road, I saw an extremely
large mountain.)

lJ3. Ne :teh orm-1a t3ni nea

ka :ri makapqn anavne

nunuru sanke keta makauan manu:

(Then I went along the road and came to (the front of)
the mountain.)

1)4. Ne:teh inkara ankoh wen EEQ tuhso nea nunuru tunkeke ene
ahun ruwehe an


(I saw a very large cave which seemed to go far into the





tuhso ca:keke ene inkara anihi neanne nea tuhso

kAvki anuene avnu sah poni uateh ukoovhe an manu:


--- ----


(And when I looked into the cave, I sa.-1 at both sides of

the cave [entrance] nothing but piles of dried human

1)6. Ne:teh orovra tani re:koh hemataka humihi nee tuhso


re :koh hemataka humihi anmra as in humihi an manu:

(Then there was a loud sound~

from the inside of the den.)

(thus) a loud sound came

31 .
137. Neannehe lmsu "Tcm"lna
hetaneva," n9.h

~ ~

oyasthe hematahe as1n kunne

kanne nea tuhso oateh inkara

an manu:
(Therefore I gazed (only) at the den and thought, "What
kind of demon is coming out,"

138. Neyke

tuhso aoacara ohta okavanteh an eyo:ko !Ilanu:

(I stayed at the den entrance and prenared (for the demon

to come out).)

139. "Temana gn oyas1 asir.. kunnehe," nah


tuhso onnavkehe


!"3-:!l.U kusu re:koh

oateh 1nkara ar- :nanu:

(I stared at the inside of the den and thought, "~.Jhat

kind of demon is to come out.")

140. Neyke nea tuhso onnavke ene hemataka sikihi an nukara
(And I Sat'l" something like an eye inside of the cave.)
141. Neyke ahsikikoro oyasi ne: sirir.1


(And 1t looked like a one-eyed demon.)

142. Neannehe kusu


(Thus I thought [as follows].)

143. "Temana vavkara ani :ke anevavka. :rnesu kunnehe," nah !!!:!

~ kU~

aoacroa ohta

nukare raye vavne tani


oyas1 saoaha 8Sin manu:

(I stared [at the cave] and thought, "1-.'hat should I do to

save my life," and then the demon's head appeared at the
entrance of the den.)

144. Nevke

nukara rnanuvke sisnekorone sikaricuh ne: kanne


(And as I looked at it, the eye was as big as a full


145. Ne: teh

orol'~a ~arane korope

etn nukarn.ha neanne kanna

pa:kehe en1skuru kerotoho ne:no


oa:kehe ctoy

kerorowa asin manu:

(Then, as I looked at its mouth, it appeared that the
upper jarr reached the slty, and the lower jaw was coming
out of the ground.)

146. Neannehe kusu re:koh an ek1rnateh kusu





~ oy~s1

temana Qn kara ike



rayki kunneka an

eramu eskar1 manu:

(Then I worried very much; I thought, "What should I do
to save my life," I did not know.)

---- ---- ----

147. Ne:teh tani avnu hura rah manuvke re:koh hannah



iki: manu:
(Then the demon

148. Neanoehe}:u3u

smelled the human smell and became very

!!.. yo:mahouhu an kuNehe ika:vuh ~ ~

asinketeh orm-ra !!!!

(Then I took out an arrow,a spear and my bow and quiver

and put them down (on the ground].)

149. Ne :teh ormra



henkehe ikonteva


taa nateh an ann?.teh

ka :r1 tuhse anu"tora

(Then I held only the sword which my grandfather had given

me, and I jumped into the mouth of the demon.)

150. Ahananteh oro1ra

!!!! emusihi ani
!!! nayna . . ra

ovasi honihi onna.vketa ahananteh

o:vasi hon1hi onnavkehe an kahkaNe\m

!tl. manu:

((As I entered} I went inside the demon's stomach, and I

poked and cut the inside of the demon's stomach with the

151. Neyke


ovas1 re:koh

~ ~ ~

~-ml3nuyke ~


nuour1ka emuyke okore

horahtewa hemaka manu:




{And the demon Yri~~led ha~d, s~ung his tail [caudal fin],
and smashed and completely knocked do~n the very large

152. Ne:teh ormJa nP.::l. ovasi stmovaka 't:9.!!nehl<R k1; kusu, honihi
emus ani an

nasakehe ka :ri tuhse amn,ra asi nanteh an nukara

kohk1 ravwa



({Then) since the demon did not move, I hooped out of the
stomach where I had cut with the sord; when I came out,
I looked and found that the demon had died.)

15). Ne:teh kernv

~ ~

evaynume sararekane


{Thank goodness, I was saved.)

154. Ne :teh ormm nea oyasi !!!! emusihi


kara"t-TB eneteh ni: eneteh !!ill..!! toy

gn tata'khra nohne

nav na: okore ane

imehkara manu:
(Therefore I struck the demon ~!ith my sword, sliced [its
flesh], and distributed [the meat] to all the trees,
grass, earth, and rivers.)


tani an eramu si: r.eteh ormra nea an

155. Ne: teh oro..,ra ---~~~

ikayunihi !!.f!.!_ !!..!! ku"t-rehe




an vo:mahnuhu na: an annateh

hos1u1 an :nanu:

(Then I relaxed; I {also) took my quiver, my bow, and my

spear, a.nd headed back.)

156. HosiP1 ani:ke nea

koro oyanruru kotan ohta


((Heading back), I went dm-1n to my own settlement on the



~ ~ ~1sehe ~


un~i ~


oro-wa tan1 1nekslra an manuy'ke iue anteh orowa tani reNs1



(When I arrived 1 I went into my house, I made a fire;

then I preparea a meal and ate; then I stayed overnight.)

158. Ne:teh ormm tan1


~ m~nu:

(Then I thought thus [as followsl.)

159. "Auru !! oyanruru

~ ~ ~
~ ~

kot~n ~



kusu tqni yaysiyuhteh anteh

~ ~


ikayuuihi na:

~ ~


seteh asiuan

("You should go to investigate at the next settlement on
the shore," I thought [to my self], and then I prepared.
On my back I put the arrol'T, the spear, the bmr, and the
quiver; and I went outside.)

160. Asiua ani:ke 1nkqra



~ ~



~ ~ ~anu:

(When I went outside, I looked around, and found a huge

dirt road going to the [next] settlement on the shore.)

161. Neanuehe kusu nea ru: ka:ri


(I went along the road.)

162. Paye



1nkara ankohk1

!n ruwehe

nea ovanruru kotan ohta sireua an

ran~aka ~ ~


oyanruru kotan ne:no


(After travelling, I arrived at dusk at the settlement

on the shore; as usual, I looked around, and it looked
like my own settlement.)

16). Neanoehe kusu euiskaene 1nkara an1hi neanue annene .Q1E.


nateh okay manu:

(As I looked in various directions, I saw only empty


164. Neyke kotan ohon kes

1nkara an1h1 neanne s1neh mun


(And \'Then I looked at the far end of the settlement,

there was one grass hut.)

165. Nea :ill!:!!!

ku~~ oro'"1a ~ nuvnuyseh kusu an manu:

(And at the grass hut a thin stream of smoke was coming


kusu --neR ---kucA- sanketa ~
n::tTe -an
166. Neanoehe ---(I then . . rent to the side of the grass hut.)

167. Ne:teh

nea kuca

sanketa nave anteh 1hevnu:re an1hi


neanue r:e: a ...~nu hm<Ika :t sam manu:


(Then l'Then I came to the side of the grass hut, I

listened, and heard no human voice [from inside the

168. Nevahka

~ ~

inkara ani hi neanue nuv ormra. ranmaka

uecan na:uo uuvnuvseh kusu an manu:


(Even then as I looked at the skylight . a little smoke

was still co~ing out (little by little from the skylight).)



kusu cise soyta okavanteh sionkere ~ manu:

(Then (outside the house) I cleared my throat.)

170. t-!evke c ise O!!:!"laYke Dohk::t

~ ~ ~



an manu:

(And inside the house a voice spoke to me.)


"Nah~<Ta ~ ~

sineh nehka

avnu tani uak:!.: ta ahk8sihi hetaneya ahunmra


ahunu,m," nah




(From '\:here are you and l'Tho are you 1-rho tralked [came] at
this late hour lof the day]; come 1n, come 1n by yourself; the voice said to me.)

172. Neannehe

~~su a~auan


(Therefore I entered.)

173. Ahunteh


an1h1 neanne annene sanahaka ohkore tetara

ahci s1neh ner.ka

kusu !m manu:

(As I went 1n and looked, I found an_elderly woman with

completely ~h1te hair alone.)

174. Neannehe kusu t'3.n1 rorunso:ta sapanteh rokan manu:

(Then I went to the upper side [of the house] and sat.)

175. NeyK:e

nhci cis tura 1K:as1osmmra i'ko


1t9.h manu:

(And the grandmother, while crying, collapsed on [my back],

and told me in tears.)
176. "Ene kanne ..!!

~ E!:2.



kas ksrnuy irnhna :ke tuvna"'ra


avnuka okore ruhoa:ke tuyn8.wa

("Some huge deity cut [the people] ln pieces and swallowed
them; so all of the people who were in my settlement on
the shore were cut in pieces and swallowed, and they are
177. Teh temana evavkara>\'a tani nah1ra eehteh te: ta eekihi
(Why are you safe; where did you come from?")
178. Nah 1ve :1!a re :koh


ienunte manu:

(She thus said to ~e and then she kissed me many times

and was very ~appy.)
179. Ne:teh aroNa tani





(Then the deity grandmother cooked.)

180. Inekara manuvke re:koh nirika


iecaruovki "!

(I ate and found out that she had coolted very well; it
was a treat for me.)
181. Ne:teh tani

ine 1tank1 oroo:teh

oh~i'{e ~


sankeyke kasketa a!lla.teh ormra tani le :re manu:

(And then she placed the rice bm'Tl on the tray, took out
a spoon and placed it over the bm-11, and then she told
me to eat.)
182. Tan

~ ~

1kotu:rir1 manu:

(She extended [the tray] from below [the floor].)

18). Ne: teh orol,ra tani 1ne anehci
(Then we [both] ate.)







(It was a very tasty food.)



an lne an o:nantene heTTiakate

oko:!"e nea ka:nuv


an ovueuihi

okore '1-ro:mare hemA-ka manu:

(I ate and ate; when I finished, the deity grandmother

cleared away the tableware.)

186. 1\Te: teh


tan1 okavan tnni ankes koornan kanne ~ ah~1

asin manuvke mun nehsamus ne :1ra hav tura




omavehe kara manu:

(Then {v!hlle be 1ng so, it was) after midnight , the

grandmother. \'l'ent out and later ca!ll.e back holding sedge
grass and nettle; she made my place to sleep [bed].)

187. Neyke nah an


(And I thought thus [as follm-1s].)

- --


188. "Ene an hu: nehsn:.m.s ne :-vm _......

hav tura ~..;.;..;...;..;;..._;;..;...
nonnol{a an teki hi
kayki kotahmayke re :!{oh 1r:tava.:va hav," nah

~ ~


an nukara m?nu:
(I remembered, "When my hands even slightly touch raw
[fresh] sedge and nettle, they become very itchy," and
I looked at [the plants].)

189. Tan1 ahc1

lye: manu:

(Then the grandmother said to me thus [as follo~rs].)

190. "Ku m1cimic1hi hetake emokormra," nah lye: manu:

("f-ly grandson, go to sleep quickly," she told me.)

191. Neannehe kusu


moko~o ~



ne :,.. a hay



{Therefore I slept on the fresh sedge and nettle.)

192. Nevke ikaske:a :my

~ ~

hu: hav ne :wa hu: nehsamus tura

i'kamure manu:
{And I thus covered myself

l'ti th

fresh nettle and fresh

19). Ne:teh orowa tHn1 molwro an manu:
{Then I slept.)

194. }bkoro anayne tant

an'!{oh hemnah sisto:nOlva hemaka

rm-:ehe an !llanu:
{I slept a.n:llater a\1oke, and found that the day seemed
to have already broken.)

195. Neanuehe kusu honemnateh tant navlti .!!!! manu:

{Therefore I was surprised and arose.}

196. Nevke

an OT.8.Vhe an nuka.ra koh'ki re:koh an n1r1ka

atunne omay iekarakara rmrehe an manu:

{And \'lhen I looked at my bed, it looked as though she had
made my bed out of extremely fine mats.)



hu: --mun --ne: ---kuni -an ---ramu


arnneka an nulwra kohki


re:koh an nirika saranue imi utah



~ ITI3.!1U:

(When I looked at those which I had thou~ht to be fresh

grass,they looked like very fine clothes.)

198. Ne:teh orol'ra tani suv

~ ah~i

inekara manuyke itura e:

{Then the grandmother again cooked food and ate with me.)

199. Ne:teh ormra

~ ah~i

tani asin manuvke nu: orm.,.a ril{ln

ni:ke sahne tenkoro karateh ahun manu:

{Then the grandmother went out, climbed [the ladder] to
the storage house and [later] came back in [the house]
carrying dried trout on h,er arms.)
200. Teh oro':ra

~ a.h~i

sahue enaah sahne noni :he karateh nah

iye: manu:
{Then the grandmother boned a couple of dried trout and
said thus [as follows].)
201. "Ku

mi~imi~ihi ~

sahne harunekoroteh

neyke tan oyanruru kotan ohta E2!2 nay

orm'l'a easin kusu



{"My grandson, you take a lunch of this dried trout and

then go out; there will be a big river in this settlement. )

202. l\Teyke


nq.y c8 :kenok::i lJen n0ro ru: hekimo




on the side of the river, a large road goes un to

a mountain.)

20J. l'iakan kusu ol<a :k~ra e:r.akanmra eink:1ra oka: nevke




nunuru an l!lanu:

(As you go, you will see a big mountain along the upper
reaches of this river.)


neq_ nu-ouru ohta

1?.2!:2 kas kamuy


korohteh an manu:
(And in this big mountain a very large demon lives alone.)

205. Ne: kusu

enukara olea," nah ive: manu:

(Hhen you go up [to the !D.ountain], you l'Till see," she

said to me.)
206. Nea~nehe kusu tan1 ~ ahci harune ikonteh sahne tura
tarah an kokar1 karl tm

esicuh muveteh tani asi ~?-!1 manu:

(Therefore l>~ith a rope I bundled the dried trout 1-;:hich

the grand!D.other had given me for lunch, tied
them to my waist and tTent outside.)
207. Nevke

ah<Si sovta nahno iolca.inkara kusu as in


(And the grandmother came outside to see me off.)

208. Iokainkara ani anoka

~ ~


oka:kara rnakanan

(After she saw me off, I 1-1ent along the big dirt road. )
209. Nevke makanan makanan ya;vne inkara ankohki sonnoka w-ren

2!2 nunuru an manu:

(And while [as] I went up and up, I looked around and
found a very large mountain.)
210. Neannehe kusu
oka :kara



~ ~

nay ca:kenoka an


(I went tm:ard the mountain on the road along the river.)

211. Nevke t::1nt




::~.nuer.e et::ml~eno



{And then I . .1ent up very close to the [foot of the]

mount2.1n. )

Inlwr~ ankoh~{1 ~ E2E.Q

tuhso neB. nupuru tunke

~ ~

{As I looked around, I sa'r a very large caYe going far
into the mountain.)
213. Ne: teh tant

in 1 c~r:1 .~nihi

neaue rnnm::1ka

an J.:otanuhu

{Then I saw in the cave living alone what looked like the
demon deity at my settlement.)
214. Nev1~e t?.ni re :~-::on :hem"lt?.ka humihi I:Q .n2.vne ~ tuhso

ovasi su:v ne8. tuhso oro,.ra :::tsin


{And then there 'Jas a strange loud sound and a demon in

the cave, which ~as like the demon deity I killed the
day before, ca~e out of the cave.)

(As I looked, it l-:as another one-eyed large demon.)
216. Tani neannehe kusu ~ !l seYa ikayuh ~ gn 2.sinketeh

~ ~ ~ ~

!!!:! amateh orml:''\

'kmrehe na: :.!! yo:Irahouhu na:


an emusihi u2.teh an asinkevke an

anua.teh okaY an 1!13nu:

(Therefore I took out the quiver l:hich I had on my back
a.nd put it do~m; I also put dmm my bow and s~ear; and
then I took out the S't-rord and held it [in my hand]. )
217. Neyke

ovrtsi ran!!l!i'k9.

oyas1 ne:no



nu:r:1.~n ~

kotanuhu ohtq

n8.:l<:ehe_ etoy sororo l{anna



as in manu:

(The dem~n ca~e out; just like the demon ~hich ~:::ts ~t my
settlement durl~s the night before and which I killed,
the demon's lower jaw touched the ground and the upper
jaw pushed the sky.)



218. ~~~~
Neannehe kusu ~
suv --nea





nu~Rra orn~ntene ~Aruhu

honihi ohta ahaoan



(I again looked at the mouth, and jumped into the mouth

and went into the stooach.)
219. Ne:teh orm-m nea honihi onnR-vkehe


~ ~

ru"kunnmra nah


emusihi ani an


i oa:

humorokehe n navne tani siroma humihi an manu:

(I poked, tore and split the inside of the stomach with
my sword; (while doing so), I listened to the sound of
the demon writhing [in pain]; it ihen became quiet.)
220. Tani simovmaka


ki:hi kusu

nasava: usikehe ka:ri tuhse

an nu'k:ara kohki







ravki rmrehe an manu:

(Since she did not move anymore, I carne out, jumping from
the place in the stomach where I had torn with my sword;
after I came out I looked around and sav1 that I had
killed the demon.)
221. Ne:teh orotm an nukara kohki rav hemaka manu:
(Then as I looked around, [I found that] it was already
222. Neanoehe kusu suv gn tata'k1t.,.a nohne
a'Y)le :neka n1.;_ nah

iye :oel<:a o1<:ore

karav!a !!!!!!:!.


eimeh1<:arav!a .ill} k!_:

Ul-rctsiri re :koh an eya;vkonuouru re :koh an

eramusi :ne
{Therefore, I struck the demon and sliced 1t into pieces;
then I distributed all [her flesh] to the grass (all
that are called grass ) and trees ( all that are called
trees); after I finished this I was very hapny and much
22.3. Ne: teh oro;.ra tan i. kanna hosi n1 anu..,ra hosi ni an manu:
(Then {1n order to go back) I headed back.)





~ kann~

hosin1 anmra


(In order to return to the house of the deity grandmother

I went down [the mountain).)
225. Nevke nea

--- ----





ahauanteh an ekoenekere neanue


ne:no ickonunteh


(And the grandmother came out of the house, e.nd, l'Then I

told her the story, she cried with joy.)
226. =..;::....;;..=..:..:.
Ne :teh -'-0:.--.:.."'oret!l?l suv t:?.: tR



anteh ormra

anteh ormra tant s1 nkevkehe

~ ~

- -

kotanuhu ovanruru kotan

hosi Pi an manu:

(Then I again stayed there overnight; at sunrise the

following day I ate, and then returned to my settlement
on the shore.)
22?. Hosini anayne onu:man tura an kota.nuhu ohta hosipi an

((Heading backJ I returned to my settlement in the early
228. Ne:teh ormra

.1E:. an karavke

henpah to: ka okavanteh

~ ~ ~

e:teh relrsi an tani


(I cooked my meals, ate and slept; I spent several days

this way; I then thought [as follo\'TS]. )
229. Neyke

sineh to: suy tan1 omanan


(And then one day I travelled again.)

2)0. Omanan yayne sineh kotan
kotan !l.!U rul>rehe

naye an re:koh ayrru okay


(As I travelled, I came to a settlement which looked like

one with very many people.)
2)1. Ne:teh orm\'"a tani ta:ta okayanuwa hennah to: ke. ta:ta

okayante h orm:a avnu He: ka: ri ka _g.n ki: te h ormra

yaykotan kohos1ni an ki: manu:

((I was there, and) I was there for several days; I
assembled some peo?le and [we] headed back to my


kotan kn:r1 ahkas::tnm<fn V3Vuta 1:c:knr1ka

ki: manu:

(And I l>~alked around the settlement to assemble people

to populate my settlement.)
2JJ. Ne: ..m anuehe n ki: vavne
kotanka avnu sisteh kanne

an koro .:2.2l:Q o.ranruru



((While I c~ntinued to do so,) I assembled enough people

to fill my large settlement.)
2)4. Orowa suv ne :t-ra ~ avnu lre :karika ~ ki: vavne nea ~

Bn ovanruru kotanka avnu sisteh kanne an hernaka


({While I assembled more people,) I asse~bled enough

people to fill the next settlement.)
2)5. Ne :teh orma anoV.a kayki tani !!!ah !!U_ ankoro,.ra tani



~ ~


(Then I married a woman and later (while living [in this

manner], I) had a boy and a girl.)

2)6. Ne:teh oroHa tant okavanayne u!!lurehno: ..!! koroteh oka:van

(I lived in this manner l'Tith my boy and girl.)
2)7. Ne: teh orm:a okavan o'kavanavne anl<:oh he kaye hokusteh

hemaka manu:
((While living my life in this manner,) I
and (completely) died.)
2)8. Tan to:no



orm,ra kamuv kotan onne tuoan

very old


{I moved [my residence] from this world to the country of
the de1 ties.}

239. Ne:teh orm-:a so:ka.


inu: !!!! koh1<:1

~ ~

re:koh mankah<$1N-3 unununtehciwa


to:no mosiri ohta okavan1h1 kavki ahkartno manka

we:uekerehe so:ka




(As I later heard the news from the \'rorld of the 11 ving
Ainu, I learned that my children were very strong and
vigorous, as I used to be in the world of the living
Ainu; they had become even greater than I ; I thus
heard the news of the "Vlorld of the living Ainu.)
240. Ne: teh


tan otRnne


!2121 rayohtehnono hemaka

(Now this long story 1s finally over.)

Notes (for Tale 1)

1. The story starts by referring to the deity of the sky as
"the aged person... According to Busko the terms l<renene and
samer.e are synonymous ar.d mean .. extremely old. Husko
explained that kavne means kewsuhke, ~hich 1s a term of address
and reference for an aged and respected person, male or fe~ale.
I have not found any reference to any of these three terms in
published literature.

2. The phrase husko ~ is usually at .the beginning of

tales which tell of events thst occurred in the beginning of
the world. It corresponds approxim~tely to the English ohrase
"a long time ago."

The term kotan may be translated as a village, commu~ity,

or a settlement. It has a bro~d meaning of ~~~ P1.ace where
people live," and it does not desi~nate any specific nolitical
unit. A kotan may consist of only a sin~le individual, or may
consist of thousands of peo1;>le. Exce-pt for a few larp;er
settlements, such as Tarantomari and Sakaehama in Sakhalin and
the settlements in the Saru River Valley of Hokkaido, the
populatio~ of most Ainu settlements l'Ias very small.



As indicated explicitly in 1. 141, the demon has only one

lJ. The term henke is used either as a kinship term for one's
grandfather on elther side, or as a term for any resnected
male elder. It is used both for address and reference. The
Sakhalin Ainu usually address or refer to a deity as hen~e,
because of the belief that even among the deities the elders
are more 'Powerful than the your.g, and hence they should deal
with the elders. The use of this term does not imnly any
kinship tie between the deities and Ainu in discussion.


This is Huska's translation.

rukum1.hi means.

I do not know what the term

22. The term otusmah means to save a person by providing

general care.


For the meaning of these two terms, see note for 1. 1.


From this line on.

the deity tells the story.

41. From this line to line 46, the deity talks to the baby.
Sisohsisoh means to sway one's body in an effort to put a
baby to sleep.
The thinking behind the description about the continuous
crying of the baby (cis nu:ri kara) is that he is crying
because he l'tants to say something. Hus'\<_o s comment on these
passages was: "The baby must have been a son of a great person,
since even as a baby he thinks deeply and hence cries hard."
47. As in the case of the use of the term henKe {grandfather),
the term mih {grandchild) does not imply any specific kin
relationship. The Ainu customarily refers to the ceities as
henke and conversely call themselves as mih or m1cihi in
relation to the deities.


This sentence and the next, Hhich describe the condition

of his chest, by analogy, relates the scars to rivers and the
blood to water in the rivers. The term ngv~oh means "a dried
up river," namely, a ditch where there used to be a river.
Since the rivers are extremely important for the riverine
fishing Ainu, even old rivers are recognized, and Ainu place
names often include this term.


In the November 24th version, the lengt_h of time is

specified as i1~an ~(six years), although the Ainu usually
use the number six to represent "many." The term hennah
literally means "how many."


She further explained later that the deity almost lost

his voice, and that the boy's eyes l'rere swollen and almost
closed from crying continuously except during the meals.

60. In this April version, the time is indicated simply as

tanto: (today). But in the November 24th version, it is
specified as one day in the be~inning of sak1:ta (summer), and
Husl~o exnlained that it was in June.
As noted earlier, the
reasoning behind the deity's question is that the boy crles
because he t'lants to hear something.
62. Tetara ~ ("white food") is ric~. Rice was introduced
by the Japanese, but like other imported goods, the Ainu
treasured it and eagerly sought to barter for it. Although
rice later became a common daily food, in the beginning it
was a treasured food used only on special occasions. As it

will be clear shortly, the meal l'lhich the del ty is about to
prepare is the last feast before he deoarts for the settlement
of the deities. Therefore he used rice.
Since rice vias introduced by the Jaua.nese, Husko wondered
l'lhy it appeared so ofter. in old tales.
(It appears also in
Tale 7). :"erhans before the introduction of rice another
treasured food took the place of rice in these stories.
A tapara is a bag or sack woven with uehsgrnus (sedge)
(Carex disoalate Boott (Chiri 195J: 217)) and used to store
food as a supply for winter. This term may be a loan word from
Japanese; in Japanese "tm"'ara" is a stral'r sack for rice and
other food.
Busko explained that there was abundant food in the
settlement because all of the people were killed by the demon
and thus left their food behind.
The Ainu storage house, called El, is a separate
structure built a fel'r feet away from the house and connected
by a path betl:een the t'!o; thus mice cannot ju1np onto the
storage house from the house.
It stands on four stilts and a
ladder is used to go up and down.


The Ainu extensively use the oil from the tul'.:ara (harbor
seals)(Phoca vitu3lts (Chiri
1962: 159}) in cooking. When
a seal is caught, the Ainu se~arate the fat from the skin and
meat, slice the layer of fat into thi~ slices and then melt
it. The melted fat is first cooled conpletely in a wooden
container, and then transferred to a bag ~reviously made from
the stomach of a seal. The Ainu make these bags by v!ashing
the stomach inside and out, turning it inside out, then drying
i t and sewing to~n parts. The Ainu stock many of these

bags for this purpose. The seal oil in these bags is then
kept in the storage house as the winter supply.


Here again Husko explained that the description ~ suke

tetara iue cisahsu'ke (the rice I cooked) indicates abundance
of food-.-Ord inarily the Ainu cannot afford to use cool{ed rice
and therefore use teta~a iue ohaw ("rice soup"), which is rice
cooked in a large amount of water in order to increase the


Here the gesture of mixing indicates that he is making

cikarioe, a favorite dish of the Ainu.
The dish is similar to
fried rice ann consists of three ingredients mixed in seal
oil: starchy stanle (rice or root crous); klto (leek)
(Alliu~ Victorllllis var. nlatvohyllutn Ilakin"'("Chiri 195J: 195));
and fish or fish eggs. There ar.e various kinds of c i kari oe
depending upon the ingredients.

?J. ohci~e is an individual tray with short legs. Prepared

dishes arc placed on lt and then it is placed in front of an
individual during the meal.
76. As indicated ln the note for 1. 5J, six years means many
years. On November 24, 1965, Husko exnlained that if the boy
had not cried that hard, the deity would not have been tired
and would have raised him longer.

77. From this line on, the boy tells the story in the first
person singular.

As indicated ln the note for 1. 1, Henenekavne Samenekavne

is the name for this deity.

84. In the November 24th version, at this point they also

drink water fro~ a niatus (birch-bark container).
91. The use of the term rnal{an in m:::~.lcanuNa in this statement
is an illustration of the Ainu view of the house as a
miniature universe. Thus, althou~h a house is located on the
shore, the part of the floor nearest to the mountains ls
considered the mountain slde of the house, and the verb makan
(to be at or to go to\'rard the mountains) is used when a person
goes to the mountain side of the house from other sides. (See
also the note for 1. 96.) The e~us (s~ords) are one of the
main ite~s of Ainu treasure, and thus are placed on the upper
side of the house as offerings to the deities.
93. The kosonto are Japanese silk garments quilted with cotton,
which the Japanese call "kosode." They were one of the
treasures which the Ainu eagerly sought to exchange their
goods for.
96. The rorunso: (upner side) is the most sacred of the four
sections of the floor-surrounding a square hearth in an Ainu
house. It is the section nearest the mountains. Hence, on
the west coast of Sakhalin it is on the eastern side, and on
the east coast it is on the western side (fo~ information on
the east coast, see Y. Yamarr.oto 194): 58-62). In this section,
the male elders are seated. Here also are placed all the
Ainu treasures, which are at the same time offerings to the
dieties. 'l'he sacred window is located by the northeast corner
of the wall of this section1 the meat of the dead bear deities
has to be brought into the house through this sacred window.
101. From here to 1. 106, the deity talks to the boy.
102. Here the deity is describing. the boy's settlement, since
the boy had never gone out of the house and hence had not seen
his own settlement.
lOJ. This tov ru: (dirt road) indicates that it is a road made
by a demon~e to its walking. The toy ~ contrasts with

!!!.!!.!! D!!. (grass road) of hu:nan beings since men as they ,.,.alk do
not wear the grass from the ground as the demons do.
105. The nunur1 are .the inner mountains away from the shore,
in contrast to the kinir1, which are hills near the shore.
The Ainu consider the nunur1 to be the most sacred area of the
universe, while they give relatively little attention to the
kiP1r1. The mmur1 are the hooe of all the kimun ka:nuv
(mountains deities}, i.e., the land mammals which are considered
to be deities. This includes the bear who is the most im~ortant
deity of the Ainu. The kc.~uv ov~:akusi (the world after death
for the deities) is also located in the mountains. Even the
auru un kotan (the l'10rld after death) for ovneh (kitchen
utensils) is in a small lake high in a nuPur1.
106. The term ~tas kamuy is reco~ded by Chiri
"soul" or "sPirit possessor" found among the
and Kussharo: both-in Hokkaido.
Chiri, too,
the meaning of the term~' and ~~ites: kas

as the tero for

Ainu at Horobetsu
is not sure.of
(of the surface?).

The demon is referred to here as lmmu:v (del ty) because of

the Ainu belief that if the Ainu shmr resnect to the deoons by
addressing or referring to them as deitie~, they will be
inclined not to harm the Ainu.
Out of politeness to the beings
of the universe, the Ainu often refer to non-deities as deities.
On November 24, 1965, Busko explained here that the deity
grandfather \'rarned the boy that the demon would come out of the
cave when he smells aynu hura (human smell; smell of the human
---109. Here the 1eity is begging the boy to kill him, since the
Ainu believe that only through death, may a person, or more
precisely, a person's soul, go to the world of the dead (in
this case, the world of the dead deities) and become
124. A kaco is the drum used by the Sakhalin Ainu in their
shamanistic performances, called tusu. The Hokkaido Ainu do
not use a drum. Hov:ever, the Gilyaks and Orqks, the neighbors
of the Sakhalin Ainu, use a drum similar to the one used by the
Sakhalin Ainu.
127. The sahpe are dried trout (hemoy)(Oncorhnchus ~orbuscha
(Walbaum), Salmo gorbusch8. (~lalbau.ll) (Chiri 19o2: 55
Ainu often carry them for lunch or supper when they go on a
trip. Tarah is the rope used to tie the bundles which the
Ainu carry on their backs.


& lJl. The terms san and ma.kan contrast to each other.
means to go do'im from a mountain to\<rard the sea, whereas
makan means to go up toward a mountain.

151. Although not always, the term ~~rAkuh(-pihi) often means

the caudal fin of a fish as ooo~scd to o~KArq(-hq, -ihi),
which is the tall of a mammal. If the term s8.r~uh as used
in this state~ent refers to the caudal fin, it su~~ests that
the demon is part fish even though it lives in a mountain.
The t~rms snrAkuh and oh~Qra, however, do not always have these
polar meanlncs. For exa~plc, among Huska's peonle s8.rakuh also
means a dog with a tall. Dogs with ~ails are rather unusual,
hm:ever, as the Sakhalin Ainu, '1.-lho use male dogs for ~ (dogsleds), cut the tails of all the m~le dogs when they are still
puppies; they believe that dogs without tails pull the sleds
more powerfully because tails use some of their energy. Since
dogs also are a ~elcome ~ource of food and hides, there are
few female dogs, although some of them are kept for breeding.
Chiri reports two additional cases which contradict the
dichotomized use of these terms discussed above. In an epic
poem of the Horobetsu Ainu of Hol{kaido, the term sar-etonsi
[sic], which contains the term~' means the tip of the tail
of land mammals (Chiri 1954:84). Conversely, the term oh~ara
is used as the designation for the caudal fins of trout (Chiri
1962:45). Chiri does not specify the locality where he found
this usage.
152. In the November 24th version, he comes aut when the demon
is about to die, instead of after it dies. He then strikes
the demon's eye, since the skin is so hard that no sword would
penetrate any other parts of the body.
154. The Ainu believe that the destruction of a dead body and
the consequent consumption of it by the-beings of the universe
ensures the extermination of the soul and hence prevents the
revival of a demon. Thus, every time an Ainu kills a demon,
the story is concluded by the symbolic gesture, as l'!e shall see
in a few other stories in this l~ork.
16o. The dirt road (tov ~) indicates that a demon had
travelled from his settlement to the next one. See note for

1. lOJ.
162. Onu:man is early evening before sunset.
164. A ~ kuca is a tipi-shaped (conical) temporal hut made of
branches and grass. The Ainu construct these for use ~rhen they
are travellins, hunting in the mountains, attending a person
suffering from~ araka (bad diseases), housing a person
injured by a bear deity, and housing the family and relatives
of a person missing in the sea until he is found.
Here, as we
shall see shortly, the deity grandmother is using the kuca,
since she is staying in the world of the Ainu only temporarily
in order to help the boy.
169. Sionkere is the gesture of clearin~ one's throat, or
coughing a few times. This is required etiquette for a visitor,

especially one from a distant settlement, when arriving at the
host's house. The stonkcre is the first of many acts in the
highly ritualized etiquette used when visiting.

171. Husko exolained here that the speaker (the deity grand-

mother) meant--to tell him to come in alone, since the speaker

was too old to walk over to the entrance to shOI'! him in. (~le
see shortly, however, that she can walk to fetch grass, etc.)

175. The term ahci may be usee either as a kinship term in

referring to both the maternal and oaternal grand~other, or
in referring to any elderly wo~an, whether or not related.

176. Husko explained t1-:ice that this demon is the nahteku 1>::as

kamuv {a female de~on) ~ho is the wife of the demon who

attacked the boy's settle~ent. She referred to the pair of
demons as umureh kas ka~uv, husband and wife demons. As
discussed in the note for 1. 106, the demon is referred to as
a deity out of politeness.

179. Here the l'roman is specified as a deity, although the

listener is supposed to have knmm all along that she is a

182. The verb ikotu:rlri (i(me) + ko {to, particle) + tu:riri

(to extend) = extend to me) describes her manner as being very

polite; thus she slmrly and politely handed him the tray rather
than abruptly giving it to him.

186. Pehsamus is sedge (Carex disnalata Boott (Chiri 195.3:217)).

The Ainu use this grass to t-:eave mats, called rusa, trhich are
used for various purposes including as a spread on the ~
(raised platform along the l':all for sleeping.). For sleepinJ;
on the seh, they first spread grass called tokoki (I have not
been able to identify this grass), then spread rusa (mats),
and then finally spread reindeer skin for the adults and rr:usk
deer skin fer the children. They t-rear mokoro imi ( sleeu~:ear),
but they ordinarily do not put anything over themselves.uhile
sleeping. Hav is nettle (Urtica T::1kedan2; Oh~:i (Chiri 195.3:
162}). The Ainu use ..........hav to weave threads for kar~ents.
the process in~ of hay involves considerable 1-1ork and time,
garments made exclusively of hav are called tetaraoe (";hite
garments) and only respected ~ers l'TOUld l-tearthem on a daily
basis; others would l'tear them only on special occasions.

188. The leaves of hay (nettle) irritate

one's skin making it

very itchy. Thus the Ainu gather hay stalks to make thread
only after the first snox has fallen and therefore after the
leaves on the hay have fallen off.

192. Although this verb 1kamure {i(rne) + kamure (VT, to cover))

indicates that he covered h1mself-H1th sedge and nettle, the

Ainu usually do not cover themselves ~rhen they sleep (see note
for line 186). The use of this term may indicate the introduction of Japanese sleeping habits.

194. Sisto:no is the time


after sunrise.

195. Pavki means to arise from a prostrate position whereas

irl""l:-194 means to a\-:ake.


196 & 197. The literal meaning of these two sentences is that
during his sleep the fresh sedge and nettle, raw material used
respectively for mats and garments, had turned into finished
products of exceptional quality.
However, I believe that the Ainu interpretation is that
during the previous night he was too hu~an to recognize fine
mats and garments, and hence thousht thRt the grandmother had
brought in the grass. However, by the following morning he had
gained super-Ainu.power and was able to recognize them as mats
and garments.
Although Husko did not specifically offer this interpretation in reference to this sentence, elsewhere her interpretation of similar situations suegests this line of interpretation. For exam~le, she explained that while for ordinary
Ainu sea mammals look like non-human animals, they appear as
fine looking men to nunuru a:-:nu {men lri th suner-Ainu PO\'ler).
We see this in Tale 7 (see the note for 1. 6)). Also, in the
explanation of a place name called Icara, on the northv1est
coast of southern Sakhalin, Hus~o said that an elderly lady
v:ho acquired super-Ainu poKer through pra;rers v1ould offer to
guests items Hhich appeared to ordinary Ainu as being maggots
and grass, but were rice and fine mats to those with superAinu power.

An atunoe in 1. 196 is a rusa (mat) of especially good

quality including many designs:--They are distinguished from
ordinary mats.
In 1. 197 hav (nettle) is referred to simply as mgn (grass).
Saranoe is the general term for the best-quality garments.
Examples of saranne are kosonto (silk garments bartered from
the Japanese) and tetarane (garments made exclusively of nettle
This sentence indicates that the ravr nettle is turned into
a fine sleepv.ear (mokoro irni). Ordinarily, hm.. ever, the Ainu
use the skins of dogs exclusively in making sleenwear; they do
not even use the skins of seals since these are not \orarm enou,gh.
The Ainu sleepvrear are made in the same shane as clothes for
daytime ;use but are made somewhat larger. 200. Eoaah means two or three.
Busko explained that it is taboo
to give someone only one dried trout.
201. Lines 201 to 205 are the deity's conversation to the boy.
The term haru in h~runekoro can mean food in general, but
here 1t1s used as lunch. Thus the phrase reads: ~{lunch)

+ ne (particle) + koro (to r.ake).

For various usages of the

term haru, see Ch1rr-195J: 267-268.

205. As indicated in the note for 1. 176, in the November 24th

version the deity also explained to him that the demon in the
mountain behind her settlement was a female and the wife of
the demon which he just killed.
208. A dirt road is one made by a demon.
1. 10).

See the note for

2)4. He is talking about the settlement where the deity grandmother was.

2)5. The term umureh means a male-female couple: a man and a

woman, or two siblings, male and female.
Here it is used in
the latter sense.

237. The literal meaning of the term hokus(teh) 1s "to fall

down on one t s back," but it also is used asapoli te expression
for death. I inserted the term "completelyP {died), since the
term hemaka indicates the completion of behavior. The Ainu
also believe in so-called .tenporal deaths and often stress what
we simply describe as deaths to be the complete deaths.
2)8. Ordinary Ainu at death go to the country of the dead Ainu,
which the Sakhalin Ainu call auru un kotan (its literal meanin~
is "the next o!' adjacent settlement," cf. lines 159, 160 & 2J4).
Here the boy (Yavresu:no) states that he went to the country of
the deities. It may be that since he is considered by the Ainu
to be a semi-deity, they believe that he joined the deities.
2)9. The term unuuun(tehci,ra) seems to have a more snecific
meaning than "to have each other," i.e., to have sexual intercourse, although Husko translated it simply as "to do as I did
when I was young." I suggest my interpretation because of the.
Ainu emphasis on reproductive capacity. The Ainu believe that
the more children one has, the better it is for the narents,
since the children are considered as gifts from the deities and
additional children usually guarantee additional security for
the parents in their old age. Besides; in the polygynous Ainu
society men who have capacity to support more than one wife
and their children receive more esteem.

Tale 2:

Tonl{Or1 (!'!lus1cal-1nstru~:Jent der:1ons)

'OMT "'

=="'""'=""' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Brief CO!:l."nent:
This is a favorite story of Busko's father, Civetu:ka,
which he often told to her. She classified this story as an
She told this storv twice: on November 21, 1965, partly in
Ainu and partly in Japa.nese and on }iarch 29, 1966, entirely in
Ainu. The latter is recorded here. There was little
discrepancy bet11reen the t1:o versions.,.rer, there are some
details 1rhich are in the March recitation and not in the
Nove!llber recitation, and vice versa.
In my opinion, the
versions augment each ot~er, and I see no basic discreuancies
in the structure of the tale. Infor~atlon presented in the
November version but not in the Narch version l.s presented at
the end of the story.
Along with its im~ortance as a story about the culture
hero, this story also 1llust~atcs an i~portant belief of the
Ainu. The Ainu believe that certain objects of material
culture, such as household objects and tools, "t-rill become
demons if their o"t-::ners leave them behind intact at the time
they move to another place. The Ainu believe that they should
always be broken into pieces. This belief is based on the
Ainu concent that in order for a so~l to rest in neacc in the
world of the dead, the body should receive proper-treatment
a:fter death; otherllise the soul "t-rill Kander about.
Thus, for
the soul of a household 9bject to rest properly in the world
o:f dead household objects, the object should be broken into

Thus, in Tale 2, tl-TO ton'kori ( f1 ve-stringed musical

1nstrunents) left intact by the o1mer turn into two male
demons. The tuki noh (lmoden frames for carrying a load on
the back) is also believed to turn into a male demon.
tonkori and tu~{inoh are used by men a!1rl 1romen. The objects
which turn into female demons include hank!.?.ta (l:ooden box for
food) and 1tes~n1: (rod for loom), both of which are used by
.Ainu females. Tale 8 tells of a story of a rodfor loom which
turned into an old female demon.l
It lTas important for the Ainu to :remember this taboo
re&Ulation, since their life involved much moving. Up until
the turn of the tl'rentieth century, they moved between their
Sllmffier settlement on the shore and their winter settlement in
1 The theme that deserted objects ~ay become demons is shared
both by the Orok and the Kiren (T. Hattori 1941 b:20-21, 52-

54, 56-57).

the hills. Even without this seasonal migration, they still
moved quite frequently in search of good cat6h of fish. Since
the shore or a river where herring, salmon,and other important
fishes came in abundant num~er differed from year to year, the
Ainu moved wherever the catch was good for th3.t year, although
their movement waF conf~ned to the general area where people
closely related to them lived. Durin~ these moves they ofter..
had to leave bulky household objects and tools behind.
Subject: Yavresu:uo, the culture hero of the Sakhalin Ainu,
was able to save himself and the people in his settlement fro~
attack by two musical-instrQ~ent demons~because of the
instructions which his guardian deity, Cirikivankuh, delivered
through a dream.
Synonsis: Ciri 1{iyankuh, the guardian deity of Yavresu:no,
lived on an inner ~ountain ~hich had trees even on its top.
His daily routine was to come out of the house, put his chin
on the lower edge of the roof and look toward the settlement
where Yavresu:no was chief. He did so in order to watch over
Yayresu:no and his people. The deity also had a pair of birds:
a husband bird of a golden color and a wife of a silver. They
constantly looked around, and cried noisily when they detected
something wrong at Yavresu:no's settlement so as to inform the
One day the deity had a dream that some unidentified
creatures were about to attack Yayresu:no's settlement. He
therefore informed Yavresu:no through a dream of the arrival
of the demons. In the dre~ the deity also told Yavresu:no
that when the demons asked their identity, he should reply that
they were the children of tonkori (five-stringed musical
instruments); otherllise the demons would become angry and kill
him and his people.
The next day the birds cried noisily and so the deity
decided to look at Yavresu:no's settlement. As he was coming
down from the mountain, the deity 1-ms so large that short
trees barely reached his ankle and lon~ trees reached only to
the half of his legs. As he "\'Talked, his legs created a strong
wind causing the trees to swi~ back -and forth.
As he looked
at the horizon, he saw the typical fog of blood there (demons
usually come "'lith a fog of blood). Then he went back to his
home on the mountain.
Right after the dream, 1-1hich 1-1as caused by the del ty,
Yayresu:no fell asleep soundly. He woke up early the next day,
and as he made a fire in the hearth, the day broke. He then
went out and saw a fog of blood forming on the horizon.
As he
went back into his house, he heard the voices of the two demons
who were coming up the road to th~ settlement. They came to
his house and at the entrance they started to talk to
Yayresu:Po. They sat at the upper side of the house and talked

as though they h3.d 'knmm htm for a lonp; time. . When they asked
about their birth, Y~vresu:no reolied that although he knew
very little about it he thou~ht they were children of musical
instruments. When he thus renlied, the demons disappeared
instantly and all that remained were two musical instruments
lyinc; on the upper side. Y::lyresu:no took them outside the
house, and struck them into pteces vith an axe. Then he
distributed the pieces of the body of the demons to all the
trees, grass,and ground


Ku:oa:hayken Cirikivankuh
(Cirikivankuh deity.)


Huska ohta oyanruru kotan nuourihi

{Long ago, he lived
on the shore.)





on an inner mountain of a settlement


nuouri neanne niusi nuour1


(This inner mountain of grandfather Cirikiyankuh deity,

however, was a tree-growing mountain [had trees even on
its top].)


Ne :teh orol-ra tani


C1r11{1vankuh henke

ki: manu:

(Grandfather C1rik1vanlmh deity did thus [this is how

grandfather <:!ir11-c1vs..nkuh deity lived].)


To:no ornanko asin ran"l{e else tahka:ha note omare ranke an

(When daytime came, he l!ent outside and put his chin on
the lower edge of the roof.)


Suv to:no omanko suv asin ranke nea ~isehe suy ~ omare
ranke nah k1l manu:
{\olhen daytime came ap:ain, he (again) went outside and
(again) stuck out his chin on the house [roof]; he thus
lived [he lived in this manner].)


Neyke konka:ni




hu:sa else etuookihi

eyaynuountereh manu:
(And a golden bird and a silver bird at both [opposite]
ends of the.roof watched.)


tah1u:h::J note


r:1n1-::e cnis1<n.

ihu:v::.ann.q mar.u:

(And one day Hhen ~randfathcr Cirl"ll:.i'.r~.nlcuh c8.:ne out, he

put his chin on the lo~er edge of the roof and looked






cise oht8. ahun nanu:

(And after st9ylng outside for a while, he went back into

the house.}

10. Ney}te ta:




u1mr::~ni kehe

hen:<e mo':<oroteh



that night Grandfather, while sleeping, dreamed.)

Sinma neanto: tu-.;:!la oy.'lnruru kot:=.1n ohta



\!entek ihci .qni

ahk:~s<:hc i





(He drea2ed, "Tomorro:! from a d ist:::mt settle;::e:nt on the

shore, some demons or deities [creatures -:;rhich nobody
can identify] -:;-;ill co!!le and 1;alk .around the settlerc.ent
[of Yayresu:uo], danagins it."

12. Ne:teh


tani ,!ayresu:uo1(e. ot8.1<a un 1{otP.n


kotan ean manu:

(Yayresu:uo had a settlement on the shore, settlement
among crass on the shore.)

13. Yayekot::m~co:-oteh':Jehe kusu :nea Ciriki v~mkuh henke


Yayres'.l :uo esi taka!1te1tara. manu:

(While staying in his mm settlement, srandf!3-ther

Ciriki v2m~m~ caused Y:3vresu: no [on the shore] to drearc.. )

14. "Simna




ne:roh oyasi

1<::otanuhu tar. oy.?..nruru kotan ohta


artkihci kusu 1.<8.rahc1 manu:


To:110rro\r those de!D.ons are going to your settlement, to

the settle~ent on the shore.)

Nea!'lnehe lmsu s1!1::J.--=t tan e'koro ovanruru kot::1.n oht?. :ne :roh
oyasi ut::\ra sirenahci kusu


ihi kusu oirikanno ekoro

kotanuhu kas1ov1tha kqsimesu kun

(Since tor.10rro:r those demons e;oing to your settlement

on the shore, you should orotect your settle~ent very well.
Thin1{ thus [thin."!.{ about Nhat I say].)


16. Neyke

o;yasi utah s1reollhc1

ahaoahc1wa y8.;vous1 nu:rusuy

neyke ecise ohta



(And, the demons \';ill arrive, enter your house and ask
about their birth [they want to knml the identity of
their parents].)

17. Ne: kusu nevke nah eve: kusu nevke u1r1ka kusu iki:
(Therefore, if you tell them 1-1hat I tell you, everything
will go well. )

18. Tanaka ovasi utara nearme tonl<ori ovasi utara ne: manu:
(These demons are musical instrument demons.)

19. Nah

kusu nevke

yayousi nu:rusuv kihei kusu nevke

ohta nah eye: kusu neyke uirika

(When the demons ask about their birth, tell them what I
told you, and things \'Till go '\'1ell.)
20. Nevke eei eyavka:mesu eyaska;v 11
(Then you 11ill be spared [by the demons] and thus you will
be saved.")
21. Nah ~ Cirikiyankuh an kamuv henkehe ene an

e 1s1 takantek?..ra


(Thus grandfather C1r1kivankuh deity caused me to dream.)




vavkoua:karire ani okayan manu:

(Therefore I spent my time thinking seriously about it.)

2J. Ne:teh or01-:a tani


Cirikivankuh henke kamuv henke

n1sahta nurr.ama nuyke suv asinteh ormm

note omareteh

cise tahka:ha


(Then grandfather Cirikivankuh, the deity grandfather,

awoke at sunrise; he again went out and put his chin on
the lower edge of the roof.)
24. Neyke

else etuuohka OkRV konka:n1 cikah s1roka:n1

cikah lTO:yaan urel{ute koyki kihei

(And at the upper ends of the roof th~ golden bird and
the silver bird shouted to each oth~rln various ways
(made various noises to warn the deity].)

25. Ne:teh

orow~ t~ni ~ hen~e

nis otnkara kusu san

eyayukorayeua manu:
(Then the grandfather orepared to go down to look at the

26. Neyke tani henke km-Iaha uhteh tani



a.sin manu:

(Then the grandfather took a cane and went out of the

27. Asin manuvke tani

oka: kara san manu:

(After going outside, he "t;ent dmm [to the shore] along

the road.)
28. San manuvke nea kema okoh


ni: kayki okore



(As he travelled, the wind made by his legs caused all

of the trees to sway.)

29. An manuyke rihne: ni: konno siya:kemanuyke re:koh




(And even the strong trees swayed as the \'rind blew.)


JO. UtankitayenaWi
cicarhra: nevke

nt: konno cikehkeNa !:X nis

henke kern!:!. suye manuy"k:e tanne ni:

kerca suye..:'a: otahkon ni: ki ta,rke ':)Olea kema

(The trees swayed in every direction and the fragile trees
broke and were scattered, when the grandfather moved his
legs. His legs moved at the middle of tall trees; his
legs moved at the top of short trees [the tall trees
reached to the 'knees of his legs, and the short trees
did not reach his ankles].)
Jl. Tanne 1 :ka !!.!! ki :"ra

urenkarel'ra ni s oinkara

urenkareNa otahkon i :ka


kusu sanan manu:

(I counted my long steps and short steps, as I went down

to look at the shore.)

32. Nevke


!>inruru SA.n'ke a:nkoh

l{~f!l"l vo~tere,:a

(I placed one le~ on the inner shrub field and the other
on the near-shore shrub field.)

33. Sap? ururu


sanan mRnu:

{I came dmm to the shore.)

34. Ne:teh




ousi kene ihuv

an ehenive usihteh

m~noa amr~ra:


tani atuv

inkara an manu:

{I put my chin on the cane and looked tol';ard the horizon.)

35. Nevke in'kara anihi


sinovewa vansirihi

atuy ousi 'kel'ra kern u:rara re:koh

nukara manu:

(And then I sa~r on the horizon a curl-like fog of blood

coming tot,mrd the land.)

36. Ne:teh orowa tanl kanna hosini an manu:

(Then I went back)

37. Anteh orm-ra tan1 cise ohta siren9an manu:

(I arrived at my house.)

38. Orm-1a suy tani

~ ~

eyohtekara okav

ctse tahka:ha an nohkirihi an


{I egaln put my chin on the lower edge of the roof of my


39. Nevke ne:roh

kamuy cikanuhuhc1n re:koh


hal're 1k1hc1 manu:


my sacred birds cried and shouted to each other.)

40. .Ne: teh t1r1i ormra

1 taka: ta oyanruru kotan eana

Yayresu:po tan1 slrirnan mokoro anihi

([On the other hand,] Yayresu:no at the settlement on the
shore dreamed last night (as folloNs].)

41. 'Nea oyas 1. utah si nn~ neA-nto: tan


streoahci kusu karahct tem~n~ ~ kl:~e tan ovast utah

ankoh itakahct kun-:Je hen1c::L"..!l erame eskarl re:koh


("Tomorrow the demons are coming to my settle~ent; when

they talk to oe, I do!'l't know rrhat I should say to them."
I [later] thou3ht about 1t seriously.)
42. ~~~
Ne a1a

ann~ he


an --ki:

vavne mokohsuvtehtch an rna:-m:


. (While I was thinking, I fell asleep.)

4;. Neyke ~ ~ kRmuv henlcehe Ciri'kiyankuh kamuv henke ~




{And my grandfather deity CiriV.lvankuh caused me to dream.)

44. 'Sinma neanto:

tan ovanTuru kotan ekoro kotanuhu

ovas1 utara arikihci


neyke lro:vaan ya;vous1 nu:ru suv

kihei kusu iki: manu:

("Tomorrow the demons l'lill co:ne to the settlement on the
shore, toyour settlement, and ask about their birth an
various ways).)

45. Ne:

neyke niri'kano eina:kari"t:-a eitah kusu neyke

pirika tanoka oyasi utah neanne yayousi nu:ru suy yahci



(Since the demons will ask about their birth, you should
think about it well.)

46. Ne: kusu nev1{e nah eye:

neanne tonkori oyasi utara

ne:vke pirika tanaka ovasi

kusu yayous1 nu:ru suv vahci


nevke ecioka neanne, 'T onlt;:ori orovra ec1s1kahoene:;

(Therefore, when the musical instrument demons ask about

their birth, tell them: 'You were born of musical


'.onkori po: eci ne:,' !!!!!1 ~ kusu neyke P1r11{a"

(All will be well if you say, 'You are the children of
musical instruments.'")


48. Nah ~

1csj_tak~ntckAr8. manll:

kamuy{ehe Cir1k1v::inkuh


(Thus my grandfather CirH:tvan1wh deity made me dream.)

49. Ne:teh orowa tant



(Then I woke tip.)

50. Tani oayki a!'lteh unci an a:re;ra okay

nq:,rne sisto:no rn::inu:

(After arising, I made a fire, while the day broke.)



Neanoehe ---kusu asioanteh atuv onne inkara anihi neanoe






kar.m:v henkehe iesi ta'knntek<lraha ne: no atuy ka :vra

re:koh ovasi

~ :EQ

cis kern u:rara s11cono:vhe ne:no

yansir1hi an manu:
(Therefore I went outside and looked at the sea; as my
grandfather deity had sho~:n me in the dream, on the sea
there was a large denon boat [boat of the demons], with a
curl-like fog of blood, coming tmrard the land.)


i~eanu~he ~

nukarateh orm"a cise ohta




(After looking at [the demons arrival], I went into the
house and stayed there.)

5J. Ne:vke o1cay .ill! na:vne otHka


nayne tan1 rucsan


re :koh



nea ovasl utara makan

halrehehcin an m!lnu:
(As I stayed at home, I heard on the beach voices talking
noisely, and then I heard the voices of the demons \'rho
were coming up the road.)

54. Ne:teh ormra anoka neanoe else ohta okayanteh re:koh

l'ro:yaan vavko1oa:kA.r1

ki: manu:

(As I stayed at home, I thought in various ways [about the

arrival of the demons].)



ovas1 utah ahaoahcl


(In the meanwh1le, the demons arrived.)


56. Ahanahci:ke re:koh


orm<Ta 1koitg.hlc8.hc1wa



saoahci :ke hennara orOl!a hcka hran tchcih1 ne :no re :koh

1koitahkahci manu:
(As they arrived, they talked to me from the entrance; they
came to the upper side and, ir.deed, talked to me as though
they had known me for six [many] years.)

57. Ne:teh oro1ra tani

vavousi nu:kihci manu:

(Then they asked about their birth.)


Kihei kusu anoka



(I answered [as follows].)

59."Anoka ecivavousi nu:ru suv kivahka anoka neanoe ne:ra
anoeka an era111e eskari ne :xa kavki kuye :lIa ecinu:revan
("You ask me about your birth; I do not know much, but
I will tell you 't'rhat I knm;.)

60. Neyke oirikano nu:yanm1a

(Therefore you should listen closely.)

61. Anoka neanne ne :ra anneka an erame eskarihi ne :ra kavki

e~1oka neanoe tonkori orm-ra ecisikah tonkori po: ecine :kun

(Although I know very little, I think that you were born
of the tonkori musical instruments, you are the children
of the musical instruments.")

62. Nab ayye: turano nea ovasi utara ne: sahno isamahci manu:
(As I told them, the demons suddenly disappeared.)

6J. Neanoehe kusu oirilcanno rorunso: ene inkt:tra anihi neanne

husko tonkori tuhnls ta:ta rorunso:ta hq:c1riteh an m::1nu:
(Therefore, when I looked clo$ely at the upper side, I
saw that the two old tonkor1 (the Ainu musical instruments
with five strings) were lying on the upper slde.)

64. Nean'Jehe Jmsu


tonkori .:2.!2 uhteh an annm-1a sovta tura

aslnan manu:
{Therefore, I carried those musical instruments with me
and l'lent outside.)


Ne:teh oroNa ~ ~ tonkori utara okore rnukara ani ~

tatakhm nohne .!:!


an rnesnaNa

(Then I struck the musical instr~~ents with an axe, sliced

and shredded them into pieces.)

66. An k1:teh

oro~'>'a tan1 eneteh ni: na"'l avve:ue mun nah avve:ne

.!:Y, nevahka okore

.e1II!ehkare.1:a !!!! k1: tan1 heJ:aka manu:

(I then distributed [the flesh (body) of the musical

instruments] to all of the existing trees, grass,and even

67. Nea

~ koro ka~uv henke evsitakante kusu ka~~e kerav kusu

evavka:mesm-ra :!! koro kotanuhu1ra utarihil\:a an eka:mesukara

ki: tah


my grandfather deity caused me to dream, thank
goodness, I was able to save my settlement and my people.)

68. Ne :teh tani tonkor1 oyas1

u~asl{uma nah teteh he!i!aka

(Now the story of the musical-instrument demons is ended.)

Notes (for Tale 2)

1. According to Husko, Ku:na:havken
is a meaningless
phrase sung in order to ~aintain a beat at the beginning of
the recitation.
The literal meaning or the na!:D.e ~ir1k1;v::mkuh may be "Tall
deity on land" (~lrlki = ~i {me) + rll~:tn (to rise) - to
elevate oneself, i.e., heightened, tall; yan =~(land) + n
(on); kuh = kur (person).)
2. The nunurl (hi) are the mountains a\-TaY from the shore, in
contrast to the kinirl which are hills near the shore.
explanation, see the note for 1. 105 or Tale 1.)

The literal oeanin~ of the term niusi nunur1 (ni (trees) +
nunuri (inner mountain)) is "a tree-groHing inner
mountain," i.e., an inner mountain Nhere trees gTO'Y1.
Husko explained that although all the inner mountains have
trees growing on them, usually there are no trees near the
top; this mountain where the deity lived was a special one
having trees even on the top.




For <Sise tR-hka:(h8.}, see the following

means a house.
<!ise kitav

~ise e~uuoh ~~----------\~




<!ise tahka:

Husko explained th~t this statement illustrates the enormous

belght of the deity.

7. The <Sise etuuo~ihi (also called <Sise etunoh) are the

corners or-the roof (see the diagram in the note for 1. 5).
The konka:ni c1kah siroka:ni cikah (a golden bird and a
silver bird) are o;ratch birds for the deity. They make noise
when they detect so:::1ething ~rrong in the settlement "t<:here
Yayresu:uo is chief. In other "Y<Ords, beinc: the guardian deity
of the culture hero, the deity continuously looks after
Yayresu:no and his people by using these two b1~1s for that
purpose. Husko exDlained that these birds '::ere ur1u"!'eh <!i kah
(umureh =a couule.of opuosite sex: cikgh =birds): the
konka:nl cikah (selden blrd) being the husband and the
siroka:ni dikah (silver bird) b~ing his wife~ Since the
Sakhalin Ainu consider the color gold as a male color and
silver as a female color, the phrase konka:ni cikah siroka:ni
<!ikah tells the Ainu audience that the birds are a husband and
his wife.

12. In this sentence, either for emphasis or for stylistic

reason, the location of the settlement is rePeated. That is,
it is first described as a settlement on the-otak~, which in
a strict sense oeans the sandy part of the beach "\':here there
is no grass.
It is used in this sentence, ho~ever, in a more
general sense and ~eans "shore." Pihsa mun (= Pihsa (shore)
+ mun (grass)} is c;rass 11hich grc1:s on the shore. Plhsa mun
is-s0met1mes referred to as otaka mun, although in a more--strict sense the part 'trhere grass grows is called ;nase>.raka:.
Therefore, both p~ases (otaka un kotan and nihsamun kot~n)
indicate that Yavresu:nos settlement is on the shore. The
Ainu regard this area as belonging to human beings, whereas
the mountains and the sea belong to the deities and demons.
18. The tonkori is the Ainu musical instruments with five
strings. Both men and 1romen play this 1nstrume_nt.

28-JJ. These describe the large si2e and power_of the deity.


28. Huska e:Aplained tl'J:ctt

1 ri l: 1 '!>l n1~nh ~-:ns so tall a!ld bis
that, as he walked, his legs created a wind, which was so
strong that it caused all the trees to s~ay.

)0. Huska explRincd that this statement described the length

of his legs.
)1. Huska e:x:!Jlained that the deity ~:anted to know the number
of lons steps and short ste~s required for him to Kalk to the
shore. Fro:n this line on, the deity tells the story in the
first person singular.

)2. The statement again illustrates the size of the deity.

The area called sinruru is a field which has shrubs and trees,
in contrast to the ~ountains on one hand and the grAssy aren
next to the beach (called T:1.8.S!'!Yq~':~,:) on the other. The Ainu
divide the sinruru in tvo: m~~un ~inr~ru is the part close
"'nd .~~,.,nlro
to the
to th P_ mc,
~ .. ~ .... -..:...
.;. .a.~. '-' ....
""J. - p-rt
.. a
shore. I translated the ~9kun si~ruru into "inner shrub
field" and the _g;.nke sin:r-u::!.'u i!lto "r.ear-shore shrub field."

"" :::. ......


35. The dem-ons often appear l'<i th 1~e!!1 u :!"?..ra (kern (blood) +
u:rgra (fog)). See also 1. 15 of Tale ).
40. The scene of the story changes to Yeyresu:uo at his
42. Yovresll:no now tells the story in the first person

5J. The rues~n is the road ";rhich connects the settlement and
the beach. There is one in eve!"y Ainu settlement.

54. Here the unoer sife of the house is referred to as the

head (sao~). It is often called 1orur:sc:. For detailed
discussion of the cuJ.tural ~eanlnc of the up-per side, see the
note ~or 1. 96 of Tale 1.
The number. six (hr3.n)


5J of Tale 1.



See the r..ote for

The follO"'Iling is information prese!lt in the November

version but not in the Narch te:;=:t presented above.
1. The story starts \'!i th the description of the demons. They
are visitine- o.n3 house after another in ar:other villac;e, i.e.,
not the settlement \'rhere Yayresu:oo li-ved. After asking about
the identity o~ the demons, t~e demons ~ould kill the people
in the house when the latter did not give the correct ansKer.

2. Ya resu:oo heard about these demons through cikah ~
pohka inu:ke to hear from the blrds). Thls popular Alnu
expression is the equivalent of "to hear via the grapevine."


). The scene of the story then shifts to Cir1k1yankuh l-rhom

Husko called koh turenoehe (guardian deity) of Y~vresu:oo.
The golden an~llver birds are described as umureh c~,
i.e., husband and wife {umureh =married couple).
Husko further explained about the birds that:
rosunso: an cise kitay



(The golden bird is on the part of the roof

directly above the upper side of the house.)
a:kes an else kitay siroka:ni cikah
(The silver bird is on the part of the roof
over the entrance.)
For the cultural meaning of the term rorunso: see the note
for 1. 96 of Tale 1. ~he side of the Ainu house called a:kes
is the side where the entrance is located. On the west coast
of Sakhalin it is on the l'rest side, and on the east coast it
is on the east side. It 1s the least imPortant of all the four
sides of an Ainu house, where females sit.
We see here the Ainu color symbolism: gold is considered a
male color and silver a female color. We shall see this
else1-rhere, e.g., .Tale 5

4. Husko described the demons in more detail. They "t~ere

males. One l'laS tall with a reddish complexion, while the other
was short. Each had a long beard.

Tale J:


(Man-eater demons)

Brief comment:
Husko told this story on March Jlst.
which her father had taught her.

This is another oyna

Subject: Following instructions which the Cirikiyankuh deity

had sent to Yavresu:uo, the latter was able to chase away two
male demons who came from offshore to attack his settlement;
upon the arrival of the demons, sedge bundles and wooden
statues beca~e live soldiers and puppy skulls became live dogs.
They chased the demons away.
Svnonsis: The Cirikiyankuh deity caused Yayresu:po to dream
that the next day man-eater demons would come from offshore
in a large boat to attack his settlement.
In the dream the
deity also gave instructions about preparing for the demons'
arrival. Followins the instructions from the deity, the next
morning Yavresu:no summoned the people of the settlement and
made sedge bundles and charm statues out of adler, elder,and
\'1hi te birch. They also killed puppies to obtain their skulls.
They put all of these on wooden sticks and placed them on both
sides of the path which connects their settlement to the shore.
Late in the afternoon, as Yayresu:no looked at the horizon,
he saw a large boat of the demons, bloHing a fog of blood in
the air and coming tOl.Iard the shore. Yavresu :no went into
the house and, as he watched through a knothole, the demons
arrived at the settlement and came up the road shouting to
each other that they were going to eat the men. Then all the
charm statues, sedge bundles,and pupr-Y skulls became alive~
The former tl-10 l-Thich became real soldiers started a- war dance
and the latter 111hich became live dogs barked. As they all
worked very hard to chase away the demons, the demons fled to
their boat and rm1ed offshore to return to their home.


Husko ohta oyanruru kotan an manuyke Ya;vresu:po



(Long ago, Yavresu:no lived in a settleme-nt.)


Ne:teh ani:ke

~ ~

manuyke sineh ukuran Yavresu:no mokoro

tarah ki: manu:

(One night while he l-Ias sleeping, he dreamed [as follows].)


"Neyke sinma neanto:


poro <!is tan gn koro

kotanuhu ohta sirena: kusu manu:

("Tomorrm'l the very large boats of the man-eating demons
will arrive at my settlement.)



kusu nir1kano etokooyki kusu neyke pirtka manu:

{ Therefore you should be well prepared and all will be



Hannehka nah anpe




neyl<:e 1-ren kusu iki: aynu ruhna :ke

kusu ekotan orokus





{If you do not do so, it will be dangerous since they will

cut people into pieces and S'ITallol-r them, and damage your



kusu slnma neanto:



enuma kusu nev1<:e nlsahta

wo:vaan senisteh



nevke pirika kusu lki," nah takara manu:

{Thus trhen you almke in the morning, summon your people
and make a variety of charms, and all will be well," he
(Yayresu:uo] thus dreamed.)


Neannehe kusu

~ ~

~ ~ kara.h~i

utrarorokehe am-re :ci\-Jka:~a




(Therefore, I [Yavresu:uo] gathered my people together and

made a variety of charm statues.)

Ne:teh oro\'ra tanl kene oken orm"'a osokoni oken oro,ra tahni
~ ~ karah~h:a ruesan ca:keke pohka an roskih~i manu:

(Therefore, I made charm statues from alder, charm statues

from elder, and charm statues from white birch; I then
erected them on the sides of the road.)


.Ne:teh orOlra nehsa'!!lus tantuka na: nl:

eros'kiteh ruesan

la:kenoka an roskihcl manu:

(Then, I also stuck sedge bundles on wooden sticks and
placed on the sides of the road.)
10. Ne :teh oro.,ra E& noy



~ hotarikah~i




ne :roh !:!!:!


..!:!.=..!.. an eroskhra ruesan


(Then I killed puppies, and later I placed many skulls of

puppies which I had killed on wooden sticks and erected
them on thP. sides of the road.)

. 11. Ne: teh orovra anok!'l neanoe <! ise ohta ahananteh okavcm manu:

(Then I entered the house.)



lcisirih1 P..n sanlceteh



(I took out my stone pipe and smo"ked it.)

lJ. Nevke tani hauke to:kesko


kanne tan1 sovta asioanuwa


ururu ka:ta sana anteh atuv ousikene inkara -an manu:



(And l:hen the calm late afternoon had come, I \Tent outside;
I then 11ent dot-:n to the beach and looked at the horizon.)

14. Nevke

atuv ous1ke\~a ~ .E2.!.2 unkayuh ka1rsen yans1r1h1

nukara manu:

(And I sa>or on the horizon a huge boat of the man-eaters

[headinc;] to,:rard the land [shore].)

15. Re :koh kern u:rara sllt:onove ani :vansir1h1. an nukarateh

orovla tani an cisehe ohta mA-kaoanteh okavan manu:
(I saN a huge curl-like fos of blood heading tor1ard the
shore; I '\'!ent up [the road] and then stayed in the house. )

16. Neyke re :koh


:vaan 1 oa. :karl hreomanteh anki ani okayan


I thought about this and that.)

17. Ne: teh tani o1cayan navne nea unlcayuh kavrsen tani sireoa

an manu:

(As I stayed 1.n the house, I heard a no1 se indicating the

arrival of the large boat of the man-eaters.)

18. Ne :teh orovra nevahka anokl3. neanoe asioanm-.ra an nukaraha


kL-teh else ohta ckayan m9.nuyke re :koh tani

uranko;vul]:ehci ha1-.roro'kehehcin anuwa ruesan oka:kara makatl


an manu:

(Therefore I did not go outside to look and stayed at

home; then I heard the noise of them coming up the road,
talking about killing people.)

19. Nennnehe kusu nnokq neqnoe
oka:kara an



ohta okavRnteh honuuv


(Therefore, I stayed in the house and I looked through a

20. Nevke

ruesan ca:uoka



sokoni oken

roski uehsamus tantuka no

nea ihurekani: oken na:

tahni o1cen na:

(The sedge bundles, the ~u~py skulls, the alder charm

statues, and the elder charm statues which ~ erected on
the sides of the path.) [This sentence is not co~plete.]
21. Nea oyasi utara tani rue san olea :lw.ra !nakauahc1hi kusu
ne :roh "ro:ya okavne
~ ~

uehsnmus tantuka

~ ~


ne:roh oken utara na: re:koh sivuhnahci :nanu:

(And, since the demons :<ere co!lling up the road, these

various objects, [i.e.J the sedge bundles, the puppy
skulls, and those charm statues tried very hard [to chase
al':ay the demons] )
22. Ne:roh unkavu"h utah ruesan oka:kara

J!1 seta




tantuka neane re:koh sikiripa sikirina tahnu:





ne :roh oken utara na: re :koh rimsehcH emus er1msehchra

re:koh siyuhnahci manu:
(As the man-eaters came up the road, the puppy skulls
barked loudly; the sedge bundles S\'!ayed their bodies and
danced (and danced hard); the charm statues danced (and
danced hard) with sword; and they all tried hard [to
chase al'lay the demons].)
2). Nevke


nov seta

utara kayk1 re :koh yawyatrsehchra

pehsamus tantuka utara --na: re:koh ukorimsehciwa





ne:no re:koh siyuhnahc1

~usu okav~hci

(The puppy skulls also barked louctly, and the sedge bundles
danced ann danced, 3nd they [all] tried hard [to chase
at:ay the demons].)
24. Ne:wa anuehe nea





ovasi utara






m!:lnuyke nea

reuunkehciwa k1rahc1wa hosiuihci manu:

(Since the man-eater demons sa\'r them, the demons ran away
fast; they went do'l'm to their boat, and fled by rm-<ing
their boat offshore and returned [to their home].)


Kerav kusu ~ Yayresu:oo

eyayek3:!I!esu ~ manu:

{Thanks to [Cirikivankuh] Yavresu:no was saved.)


Tan ucasukma tani nah teteh hemaka

(Nm"< the story is ended.)

Notes (for Tale J)

2. .Husko .. said that although this statement does not mention
the name Cir1ki;\a:r.1<uh, everybody (i.e., all the Ainu audience)
would k.novr that Cirikiva.n..lmh caused Yayresu:oo's dream.

J. In this statement, Yavresu:no talks in the first person


In the lines



the deity instructs Yayresu:oo.


A..">l oken is a big statue of a man carrying a s-vrord.

statues-are about five feet high and are used to exorcise evil
spirits. Soaller ones are called n1.nooo ( 11 "\iooden small

8. kene =alder; Alnus h1rsuta Rupr. (Chiri 195J: 179-180).

The Ainu also use this tree in making red dye, and hence also
call it ihurekani: ("red tree"), as in 1. 20.
osokoni = elder; S8mbucus Buer~eriana Bl. var. Miguelij
Nakai (Chiri 195J: 28}.
It is also called sokon1.
explains the designation as follows:
osokoni = os1konn1 = o
{anus) + si {excrement) + kor (to have) + ni (tree).
Ch1r1assumes that the Ainu used~is ~alodorous~ree to make charms;
the Ainu feel that if they refer to the smell as~ (excrement),
the evil spirits will be effectively expelled.)

tahni = white birch; Betula
Regel. (Ch1r1 1953: 181).


Cham. var. genuina

The ruesan is the oath which connects the settlement and

the beach. See the note for l. 5J of Tale 2.

9. uehsamus = sedge; CArex disP~l~ta Boott (Chiri 1953:

The oehsamus tantukq are the bundles of oehsamus used as


13. To:kes means "the end of the day," i.e., late afternoon
(about 4:00-5:00 p.m.).
14. The ka~:sen is a large boat, larger than a regular boat
which is called cis.

15. A

kem u:rara (blood-fog) seems to symbolize the arrival

of demons. See also 1. )6 of Tale 2.

20. Ihurekan1: is another name for alder.

of this tale.

See note for 1. 8

22. The rirnse is a special kind of dancing during which the

dancer strikes his heels to make noise.

Tale 4:

Nuhk~ ovasi

(A cr~ne demon)

Brief comrr.ent:
This is another ovna about Yavresu:no, the culture hero.
On Nove~ber 21, 1965~sko told the story in Japanese with
a few Ainu terms. She later recited the entire story in Ainu
on March 26, 1966r this is recorded in the following. She
learned this story from her father.
Alon~ with its imoortance as a story about the culture
hero and~his successful killing of a demon, the story is
significant in illustrating one of the most imoortant Ainu
taboos ~nd the conseauences of violating the taboo. Thus,
the Ainu are forbidden to say the name of a deity, demon,or
respected elder; the use of the verbal symbols is considered
disrespectful and hence offensive to those beings referred
to or addressed by the verbal symbols.
If it is necessary to
say such a name, it must be whispered.

In addition, this story illustrates another type of Ainu

demon which so far has not been presented in the stories.
Although ordinarily cranes are not classified as evil birds
and are sometimes referred to as kamuv clkah (deity birds),
in this story, a crane appears as a demon. Thus, sometimes a
stray member of an ordinary soecies of animals turns into a
demon. We shall also see this in Tales 9 and 12.
Subject: Because of a foolish servant of Yavresu:oo who broke
the taboo against talking about a demon aloud, Yavresu:no was
forced to combat a crane demon. He eventually killed it
distributed its meat to the beinis of the universe.
Synoosls: One day Yayresu:no decided to go up the river in
his settlement, and therefore asked his servant Ye:su to
summon six strong and six weak men for his twelve-man boat.
Ye:su steered the boat. As they aporoached a deep pool of
water along the upper reaches, Ye:su said in a loud voice that
since they l'tere near the deep water, they should find a crane
demon. Because Ye:su said this (which he was not supposed to
say aloud), the crane demon '\'ras offended. From the '\'roods, it
came out and killed Ye:su first and then all of the twelve
It then turned to Ynyresu:oo.
Although the latter
did his best to apologize for Ye:su's ill manners, the cran~
'\'rould not quit attacking with its beak and finally forced
Yayresusno to counterattack. He used two arrows, one with
an.obsidian point, the other with white flint (both of which are
~onsidered to be mo~e effective than metal points), and the
latter hit the chest of the demon and killed it. Yayresu:po
himself lost consciousness, but was awakened by a group of
white birds and black birds (c~ows), which were at his head
and his feet, respectively. They had picked him up and let
him down a number of t1~es in order to a'\orake him. RegRin-
ing consciousness, Yavresu:oo sliced the body of the deadcrane,

and distributed its meat to the beinRs of the universe. He
returned to his settlement and recuperated while his injuries
healed. He gre>or older and finally died.



oyanruru kotRn


(Long ago, there was a settlement on the shore.)


Ani:ke Yavresu:no nea ovanruru kotan eyaykotan koro manu:

(Yayresu:no lived in this settlement on the shore.)


Ne:teh oro'lra nea


nea Yavresu:uo ush1ehe Ye:su ka

!!!! manu:
(Yayresu:no's servant Ye:su was also there.)

4. Kotan


Yavresu:uo cu:tehuehehcinka okay manu:

(There were many servants of Yayresu:po at the settlement.)


Ne:teh orm;a slneh anto:ta Yayresu:no nea Ye:su


~ ~


(One day Yayresu:Po told Ye:su [as follows].)


sukun,ttara ecatoietenkhra ~ .!?E.!!?. c i nihi nay

"He take Ye: su


ecisankeNa tanto: neantc: tan nay oka :kara makanana.hcb:a

inkara anahciro"
("Ye:su, summon the young people and put my big boat in the
river; today let us go up the river and look around.")


Ne :teh oro . . m tani

utara l':e:cu:ka

Ye: su manuyke nea sukup-

l l i manu:

(Ye:su called the young people, and they assembled.)


K1: manuyke ruy


kuru hranso: tani aynu

we:ka:rika manu:
(Thus six strong men and six weak men assembled.)


Ne:teh orowa


ohta sankehci manu:

(They [the twelve boatmen] put the boat into the river.)


10. Nca


!'lr:i cis ohtq rcnu!1i:ke rn.<>

(Then Yavresu:no got into the boat and sat down.)

11. Orowa nea


cis ohta



(Then the young people in the boat headed offshore.)

12. Renahcl ID::Jnuvkc ruv _k_u_r_u h!:J.nso: _l<~_c_n _k_u_r_u ~i~w:...::a.:.:n~s::....o::.._;_: c1uohc1 manu:

((Heading offshore,) the six strong men and the six weak
men rov1ed. )
lJ. Nea Ye:su tani un manu:
(Ye:su steered.)
14. Re:koh emalm eteske ne:no un manu:

((Bending his head back-vrards,) he steered.)

15. Ne: teh orovra nea

eciporc1 :nanuvke



~ ~

ne :no re :koh ekovsororo ani tani



CiS nay lrahkak:=t isnatuyehe


k8. :ri m8lmuahci manu:

(Then as the young people rowed the very large boat, it

(the big boat) cut through the river, making waves, as
they went up the river.)

16. MRkauahci


ehankeno makaoahci

yayne tani nea ooro hahtara onne


(As they went up the river, they approached a deep pool in

the river.)

17. Nevke nea Ye:su

unl{~ru ~an

itahki: manu:

(And the helmsman, Ye:su, said [as follows].)

18. '"l'ani

hqhtA!"::l eh<Jnkehe kUSU shmuvan kanne ClDO:yan

("Now the huge deep

19. Tani

water is near, row hard.)

~ ~ h~htRra

an manu:

(Now there is the huge deep water.)

20. An mA.nuvke ne9.

hahtRra eana onisney an manu:

(On the bank of the huge deep water there is a master


21. Re:koh vavkite nuhkn oyasi


(It is a very dreadful crane demon.")

22. Nah lye: reanu:
(He thus said.)
2J. Nea Ye:su


1tnhk1: manu:

(Ye:su talked in this manner.)

24. Neanpehe kusu

Yavresu:no relcoh ehonemna manu:

(Yayresu:no was very much surprised.)

25. Ne:teh orm:a

unkuru Ye:su re:koh koca:ranke manu:

(Thereupon he scolded the helmsll!an Ye:su very hard.)

26. "Hemata ene an onneruva avnu ene an clhoma itah ki:hi





itah neanne

he~atane ~ ~


1tah eki:hi"

rrwhy do you [who are] old [enough] say tabooed words?

Why do you have to say them when they are taboo words?")
27. Nah


(Thus he [Yayresu:no] said.}

28. Yayresu :no ne :teh orm!a tani ~


sukunutara ~ kuru

1wanso: re:koh cine: lcohemahnahci ani

cipohc1 manu:
(As Yayresu:no [scolded Ye:su], the six strong men and the
six \'leak men rowed very hard; they kept roning.)
29. Neyke tan1 hennara

~ ~

hahtara ohta

cis s1rena:

(And then the boat already arrived at the great pool of
JO. Neyke cis sirepa:

~ ~

Ye:su cis osipi manu:

(And after the boat arrived [at the shore], Ye:su turned
the boat around [so that the stern would face the shore].)

Jl. Osiniteh tRni irRyeh kuwa koroteh ururukR enne tuhseteh

yan manu:
(After turning [the boat around], he [Ye:su] used the
rudder as a cane [support] and jumped to the shore.)
)2. Ne:teh




atuhu ni: .2.!!!2 reuye manu:

(Then he fastened the [mooring] rope to a tree.)

JJ. Ne:teh k1: re:koh hemata hum1h1 an manu:
(Then there was some strange large noise.)


Re:rah~ tura san manu:

(The wind also started.)

J5. Sanihi kusu an nukara1{o- nea nuhka ovasi ne: manu:

(When it came out and I looked, it was the crane demon.)

)6. Re:koh kenas tunka ekuntehne ne:no san manu:

(The crane came out of the woods like a dark shadow.)
J7. Ne :teh ormra nea i tahsiri et-ren Ye: su hoski kanne etu


(Then it [the crane demon] stabbed the slanderer, Ye:su,
with its beak.)

J8. Etu

e~hryke ~

Ye: su anpene .12 wenohke ekara ki: manu:

(Stabbing Ye:su with its beak, it tore him into pieces.)


Ne :teh


nea ci no: kuru utah kohesuve manu:

(Then it turned to the boatmen.)

40. Wen kuru hmnso: ~ etu eclw ki: manuyke ~ ~ kuru
hranso: emuyke avnu k1hpene kar8



(Stabbing the six weaK men with one blow, it killed all
of them (the six weak men).)

41. Ne:teh orowa kannR kohesuye

echr manuyke okore aynu kihnene

ruv kuru 1wanso: suy etu



(Then it turned to the six strong men and again stabbing

them with its beak, it killed all of them.)

42. Ne:teh orot-m


ikohesuve manu:

(Then it turned to me.)

4). Ikohesuycyke re:koh hannah sawre ivctu ekovki ki: manu:

(Turning around to face me, it angrily attacked me with
its beak.)

44. K1:ke re:koh anokR. neanne zayeunnaska an



es1:si ani
(While begging it [the crane] for pardon, I ducked[to
avoid the attacks].)

45. "Anoka vaveunnaska hemata kamuv neanne maskin kusu


sa:nu kiyehe hetaneva:

("I apologize; you are a deity and still why do you treat
me badly?}



neanne koro lrenkaha koro 1tahk1h1 ne:ra yuhke kt=Hnuy

ohtaka om9.nm-ra kBmuv nu :l:::J. anne tan


1 tah

~ ~

(When words of human resnect reach a great deity, he

listens to them; these [what I am saying to you] are the
words of a human being.}

47. Hemata kusu maskin


sa:nu ekiyehe hetaneya:"

(Why do you treat me so badly?")

48 .lliill ayye :lTa ya;veynnaska ani

(Thus I said, begging for forgiveness.)

49. t!l esi: s1 nevahka ra :no'keketa inu :ka c!ikm-renteh annene a!l
(It did not listen to me, and attacked me so often that I
kept ducking.)

50. Tani

es1:s1 yayne an kamihi ohtaka mac!!ri koro 'kanne

1koas manu:
(While I was ducking, my flesh [body] received cuts from
the attacks.)


51. Nevahkn anbhy:'l.ycunnaska

(Even then I apologized.)

52. "Hemata kusu hemata eramu



kusu cne an wen ou:rl

eki:he hetaneya:

("Why do you possess such an evil

that you behave so?)

5J. Anol<.a nea!loe enko

kusu maskin


~ ~


and so dissatisfied

enko ka:nuy !!!:! ne:he ne:vm;a hemata

uu:ri ovasl


ekivehe hetaneya:

(I am a half-human and half-deity; why do you behave as

badly as a demon?)


E:nch!' ~ neyahka anoka neanoe enko oro'trra kamuy .@11 ne: kusu

ne :ra aneko yaye;vunaskareyahka enu :ka

ne :kusu anoka ne:vahka

e~i km,enteh

eki :ne

k1 :!<.un ohta nukara ..ra:"

(I am not human but half-deity; even though I apologize,

you do not listen; [walt and] see how I attack you.")

55. Ne :teh tani sika ene yaynukara ankoh emuyke an ka:nu kanlPehe
kavkl saspehne anuwa hemaka
(Then I looked at myself and saw that my fine outfit had
become tattered and looked like tangle.)

kamlhi ohtaka re:koh poro ma~lri_koro ~ ki: manu:

(Ny flesh [body) had received many large cuts.)

57. Re:koh tani noyteh ram an koro ant okaxan manu:

{I was completely exhausted.)

58. Re:koh lre ns h.rka yo: no sua manu:

(I was tired and felt very 111.}

59. Neanoehe kusu tanl

ayye: manu:

(Therefore I said [as follows].)

60. "Anoka neyahka

tasare kun


{"Look out, I shall do [attack you] this time.)



En~ h1


A.VVC: oe neanne 1nmrkA.raNa kamuv onne




en<!hr nA.h ye:ne itakihi ne:ra yuhke kamuvka nu:oe

{Those called human beings [human beings] make ritual sticks
and offer them to deities; thus even great deities will
listen to words spol{en by human beings.)
62. Maskin kusu ene

itah kannu ekiyehe hetaneva:

{Why don't you listen; why do you behave


6). Anoka neyahka ani kusu iki:"

{I shall counterattack you.")

64. Nah ayye: manu:

{Thus I said. )

65. Nah ayye :teh


l<:Ulr7ehe ~ erikorayeteh oro:1ano asum3.ra ~

ka:ta an amateh an no:reh omantene an <!ohca manu:

{After I said this, I picked up my bolI, placed [an arrow

with] an obsidian arrowhead on it {the bow), aimed, and
[the crane].)


nuhka ovasi re:koh kusu an reraruhu noskeke pohka an

c!oh<!a manu:
{Since I aimed well [straight] at the crane demon, I hit it
in the middle of its chest.)

67. Neyahkayk1 kaskeke nohka re:koh ikoas manu:

(Even then it vigorously attacked me.)

68. Neanpehe kusu tani kanna tetara rurup1s 5l an kuwehe kasketa


amateh tani suy

coh<!a manu:

{Therefore I placed [an arrow with] a white flint arrowhead

on the bow, and shot again.)

69. Neyke

~ ~

rerara noskekehe tomous manu:

(And the arrow hit it in the middle of its chest.)


70. Ne:teh keravlmsu

nuhkn. oyasi tA:ta

rayki mnnu:

(And, thank goodness, I killed the crane demon immediately.)

71. Ne:teh orm-:a ene ne:ka isam


(Then I was gone [I lost consciousness].)

72. Ne:teh orowa tani ohorohohe tu:nasihe

okayanayne re:koh

hemata an esinkacah ne:no amwne ya;vnuoa


([I dld not knov1 whether] things '\11ere sloN or fast [since
I was unconscious], then I felt very tired and I regained

73. Neyke kern to: tunket[! u:puye muhke anteh okavan rmtehe an
{And it seemed that I had been submerged ln a pool of

74. Ne :teh oroKa an saoaha oroto1a tetara Pitohsay

an saoaha orowa iverlkiPohnahciwa
kihei kusu

.!:.!! manuvke




{Then a grou? of white birds came down from the sky near
my head, and picked up my head with thelr.beaks and then
dropped it down.)


An kemah~ o~owaka re:koh kun~a oitohsay ranuwa ~ kemaha

erikitesoahciwa erikioohoahciwa nah


yayne ankoh

yaynuPa manu:
(l'lany black birds had come down near my feet, and they
picked my legs and then dropped them down; during this
time, I became conscious.)

76. Ne:teh orowa tani U"Vrasi yaynuPa



(During this time I became conscious.)

77. Ne:teh orowa yaynukara




ka:nu kampehe kavki anpene

an manu:

(Then when I looked at myself, I saw that my fine outfit

had become completely tattered [and looked] like tangle.)




netanakeheka re:koh okore

ne: ruwehe an

koro k1:teh okRvan1hi


(It looked as though my body had received (very) many cuts.)

79. Ne :teh

oro~-:~ ~ nuhlr::~ o~rasi

an nukara k:ohki nea nuhka

oyas1k:a kem to: tunketR u:nuye muhketeh ra.:vteh


(Then as I looked at the crane demon, it (the crane demon)

was immersed in a ~col of blood and dead.)
80. Neanpehe kusu g emus1h1

as1nkewa nea nuhka ovasi re:koh


an --------tatakhra ~~~
nohne -an kara ~
(Therefore I took out my srrord, struck the crane demon hard,
and cut him into fine pieces.)

81. Ne :teh oro\lra eneteh ni: re :koro ni: kayki okore



eneteh an munka okore an e imeh1':ara toy kaylti okore an

eimehkara ne: teh ormm tan1


hemaka manu:

(Then I distributed all [of the flesh of the demon) to the

existing trees, [i.e.,) the trees that are named, (I
distributed all of the flesh) to the existing grass, and
(I distributed all of the flesh) to the earth; thus I
finished [the l'Tork] ~ )
82. Hemaka anteh



inkara !!. kohki .!?..2.! kenf'l.s



kayki emuyke teh kunihika hom1h1ka

raoranke ruorokehe


(Having finished [the distribution], I sa11 that all the

small and big branches of the woods had fallen.)

ki:nuhkq munihi kavki okore

anukolrente"Wa an ki: ruv[ehe

.!!11 manu:
(It looked as though all the grass in the grass field was

84. Ne: teh oro11a tani !ill eramu si: ne kusu tani hosi n1 an
(Then I felt relieved and headed back.)


85. Hosiui ani:ke

Rn uoro


an renunketeh an o: wa


hos1ni an
((In order to head back,) I got 1n
back in it.)


big boat and headed

86. Eosiui ani:ke nea an koro ovanruru kotan ohta tani hosiPi


((Heading back) I ari'ived at my (mm) settlement on the



IJe :teh OrONa tani yaykahuye ~ o}my ~ ki: yayne tani ~

netanakehe ohta an


kavki o1{ore tani l!e :na hemaka

(Then I took it easy, and during that time the cuts on my
body were completely healed.)

88. Ne :teh orotm tani ok2.yan navne ankoh hekaye hokusteh an

hemaka manu:
(Later (while I continued to live), I became old and died.)

89. Nah teteh tan ucaskuma tani hemaka

(Thus the story is finished.)

Notes (for Tale


J. The term Ye:su (ye: = to say) is here used as a proper noun

for one of Yavresu:no's servants. Chiri recorded this term,
which aPpeared in tuitah [sic](a type of folklore; see
Introduction) at Shirahama-oll the east coast of Sakhalin,
meaning "an older person" (Chiri 1954: 480).
10. Here it is indicated that YRsresu:no did not ro11 the boat,
but simply sat in the boat. The person who does not row, but
merely sits in the boat usually is the mrner of the boat and
of high social status. He is called yaya:re aynu (~ = oneself;
~ = to sit dm-m; e.ynu = person).

15. A kasen is a large boat.

See the note for

1. 14 of Tale J.


16. Ha.hta.ra is a deen pool made by the force of flowing 1rater

at the curve of a meandering river. The Ainu note these hahtara,
since there usually are many flsh and hence it is a favorite
place for fishing and ice-fishing {called neray).

18. From this line until 21, Ye:su talks.

20. Busko translated this term. onisncv as "osama," l'Thich is a
Japanese term for king.
I do not know in \That sense she used
this term "king."

21. The nuhka are cranes {Grus janonicus {D.L.S. Muller)(Chiri

1962: 211}.

The Ainu do not consider ordinary cranes as

{See brief cooment.)

J4. Here Busko explained that the l'Jind started because the crane
demon flapped its wings.


From this point Yavresu:po tells the story in the.first

person singular.

J6. Kenas is a thicket of assorted trees consisting not

exclusively but primarily of deciduous trees. The Ainu differentiate this type of thicket from both huhkara, which is a
coniferous :forest consisting of spruce ( sun1cu) and fir (yayuh),
and kuvtav, 1ih1ch also is a coniferous forest, but consists
exclusively of larch (kuy).
J7. The literal meaning of 1 tahsiri el{en is "evil-mouthed."



as is clear when viewed in context, to mention things

which are taboo.


From this line to 1. 47, Yayresu:no is addressing the crane

demon, begging it not to attack him. As usual, Yayresu:po is
addressing the demon as 'kamuy (deity) out of politeness and in
order to please the demon.


The ~ is tangle {Laminaria janonlca Aresch {Ch1r1 195J:

During the summer, the Ainu used sea water to give a
salty taste to their cooking. During the winter, \'Then they
lived at their winter settlement in the interior, only river
water l-Tas available, and hence they used dried tangle for that
purpose. They did not know how to obtain salt in any other
manner until they started to barter for salt 1-1ith the Russians
and Japanese.



Huska explained that the deities became greater because

human beings paid their respects to them by offering inaw
(ritual sticks tTlth shavings).

65. Husko explained that asum!lr:ot !!:1!.. {obsidian e.rrovrheads) and

rurunis e.v (~lint arrowheads) are the two kinds of arrowheads
which v1ill kill any demon; they are more pOi1Crful than metal
70. Husko exnlained that the term r;3V){i Hhich means "to kill,"
is used here-instead of a polite word because the crane demon
was evil. Should an Ainu "~ish to use a term meaning "to kill,"
e.g., "to kill a bear deity" during the bear ceremony, he
should use esimawkoro, which is in the vocabulary of the kamuy
itah {laP~aE,e of the deities; see Introduction.)

74. The ter~ oitohsav means a group of birds. On March 26,

1966, Husko explained that she did not know exactly the kind
of birds that these tetara Ditohsay (literal meaning is "vrhite
birds") were, although on November 21, 1965, she said these
were white crows.
The term ran generally means "to come down," but here Husko
specified tha.tthey came dovm from the sky. I am not sure
whether she simply meant the sky because she thought the birds
11 ve in the sky, or 't'rhether she meant spec 1f1cally the sky as
the place where the deities reside.

75. Both on November 21 a.nd !'larch 26, Husko said that these
]{unne oi tohse.Y v;ere crO"I'lS ( etuh1{a )(Corvus levaillant ii
janonensis Bonaparte (Chiri 1962: 179)). For the cultural
meaning of crows {etuhkG.), see the note for 1. 50 of Tale 6.
77. For the term sas


see the note for 1.

82. For the term kenas (woods), see the note for 1.




Konkq:n1 mq:r~h s1rok~:n1 m~:r~h (A golden and a

Hllver flsh snc~r)

Brief comment:
This is another ovn:1. about Y::~.vresu:uo. Husko learned
this story from her father 6ivetu:kc-~. Husko told the story
to me ~r1mar1ly in Jaoanese on November 21, 1965, and on
November 27, 1965, tape-recorded it in Ainu. She dictated
the entire story in Ainu on March 28, 1966, and this
version is recorded in the following.
Subject: Yavrcsu:oo fishes with a pair of golden and silver
fish spears for golden and silver hucho trout.

Svnonsis: One day Yavresu:no made a golden and a silver fish

spear and went up the river ~1here he saH a golden and a silver
hucho trout. He preo~red his golden fish spear by adding the
stem to the foreshaf~ and, while singing, he stabbed the
golden trout. He later caught the silver female trout with
his silver fish s~ear. Putting the husband and '~ife trout on
a stringer of willow branches, he dragged them doxnstream to
his settlement.


yAykot8~koroteh ~


(Yayresu:uo lived in a settlement.)


Ani:ke sineh ante: tani ma:reh kara manu:

(One day he made fishing spears.)


Neyke konka:ni ma:reh ne:1ra siroka:ni ma:reh tura tuh

ma:reh kara manu:
(And he made both a golden and a silver fish spear.)


Karateh orowa tan! sineh anto:cehkovki nay~ emakan

(After making them, (one day) he went up a river to fish.)


Neyke nay ohta ll!Hkanteh nav onne inkaraha neanue konka:ni

ciray ne:wa s1roka:n1 ciray tura nav ohta nukara manu:
(And as he went up the river and looked at it (the river),
he saw in the river both a golden and a silver hucho




Nevke ---tanl --nea konka:ni m8:rch ---t~nl aslnketeh




ahun~eteh t~nl




vu:k~ra m~nu:

((ftnd the~ he took out the golden fish spear, put on the

stem, and sang [as follows].)


"Kon1m:n1 m=t:reh, konka:nl ma:-reh; konk::t:ni cir::=tv,



haye hamu toren, toren, kusnA.h"

("A golden fish spear, a golden fish spear; [the spear is

goin5 after] a golden hucho trout, a golden hucho trout;
[the spear is] going through Hater; stab it!
is saying to the spear].")


Nea ~ .E.2.!:Q. ciray konka:nl cirav avvanketeh orot._ra tani

r::wsanka:ta ayvanketeh orm'la
(I pulled U? the (very) large hucho trout, the golden
trout, and thenI pulled it onto the river bank.)





an rayki manu:

(I struck it on the head and killed it.)



tani inkara ankoh nea :nahne siroka :ni c ir.qy suy nay

ohta ill! manu:

(I looked [at the river again, and I saw that] the female
silver hucho trout was still in the river.)

11. Nesnoehe kusu tani suv oh tura yaykarakara


(Therefore, I again prepared the stem [for fishing] [i.e.,

I prepared to fish by tying the stem to the foreshaft].)

12. Yaykarakarateh orowa tani

yu:kara manu:

(After preparing, I sang [as follows].}

lJ. "Siroka:ni ma:reh, siroka:ni ma:reh; sirokR:n1 ciray,
s1roka:n1 ciray; have hsmu toren,toren, kusn::ih"
("A silver fish s~ar, a silver fish spear; [the S?ear is
going after] a silver huc~o trout; [the spear is] going
through 1:!ater; stab 1t: [Yayresu:po is saying to the


14. Ne:teh oro,J,q .!::!...2 s1rol<:n1


suy avv?.nlce

(Then I pulled up the silver hucho trout.)

15. AyyHnketeh


(After pulling it
it. )
16. Ne :teh oro,. ra

!! sitcqkh1a

rayki manu:

up, I struck it on the head and killed

tt!.iureh. ~ noro Cirav tani nio!1onto~e gn

(Then I strung the (very) large husband and wife trout on
willot-: branches, pulled them through the river and 1:ent
(downstream toward) home.)
17. Nah teteh t8.n ucqskUIT:3. oyr..9.


(Thus this ovng_ (story) is over.)

Notes (for Tale 5)

2. The ma:reh are fish spears. The Ainu use a ma:reh l'1th a
detachable hook \\'hich usually has t1:o barbs, called kehro.
The shaft of ma:reh consists of two ~arts: the foreshaft,
called ohsa, to which the hook is attached with a string, and
the stem l'l'hich is t led to the fore shaft \'il th a string. The
Ainu use the:!!. in rl verine fishins for hemo~ { s~lrcon)
(Oncorh:rnch,.ls r.:orb11sc~8. (Walbau:n) (Chir-i 19 2: 55)), tu"lt:.us1s
(trout)(Sqlvelinus ~~la~ leuco~~enis (Chlri 1962: 58)), or, as
in this story, cir~v (hucho trout)(Hucho nerrvl Brevoort
(Chiri 1962: 59-60)).
). The terms konk~:nl (gold) and siroka:nl (silver) are loan
words fro:n the Japar!ese terms "kogane" {gold) and "shiroane"
(silver). As Ne sa.1r in Tale 2, the Ainu use Old as a male
color and silver as a female color. This color symbolism is
also seen in 1. 5.


Here it seems that terms konk~:ni (gold) and siro~~:ni

(silver) us~d symbolically, rather than describing the
actual color of the trout. See the note for 1. J.


Here he puts the sten to the foreshaft by tyir.g then




I am not sure about th~ meaning of the nhrase, "h3Ve hamu

toren toren 1msna." Accordine to Husko' s exolar..R.t i o n ; - f t describes tJ)e motion of the soear slowly going through Hater,
and then, with the term kusna, a fish is hit by the spear.
have not been able to find any reference to these terms in
publications available to me.

8. From this line Yayresu:no relates the story in the first

person singular.
lJ. See the note for 1.


16. The Ainu

and put them
means to put
UI!lureh means

use t\'10 or three branches of lil1ow as a stringer

throueh the mouth of a fish.
The term niohcntone
the :fish on a ~rillo"r stringer. He:!."e, the term
"husband and l'life ...


is one type of Ainu story (see Introduction).




Other stories with Ainu texts



Etuhkaoo (A





Brief cor::r.ent:
Husko learned this ovna from Kuhturanah'ko, a blind
woman of about seventy ycrn of age t;ho spent most of her life
at Otasuh on the west coRst of southern Sakhalin (See Map).
She noH lives at Hurenai in Hokkaido.
Husko said that she is
distantly related by kinship to this \'TOman.
She first told this story in Japanese on February 22,
She then told the story in Ainu, the first half on
February 24, 1966 (until 1. 6)), and the second half on
February 26, 1966. The two versions hardly differ in details.
On April 6, 1966, when she tape-recorded the story in Ainu,
she was not feeling nell. Thus, the tape-recording of this
story is not too satisfactory; there are some pauses and one
correction (she forg-ot to mention the pai't in lrhich the
servant gives birth to a crmr baby, and then later she added
this Part).


Subject: Once there 1oras a married couple. After the husband

was killed in the Nar, the wife lived \'Tith her servant.
Later both lW'!!len had a child; the 'l'ronan a human child and the
servant a crow child. While the woman was gone, the servant
took the li"Oman s child and left her crol'r child behind. Later,
hOl'lever, when the -..IoJlan s child had become a man, he went back
to his mother to care for her.
Synopsis: Long ago there ~ras a young man, living l>rith his
wife, who spent his days hunting a~d fishing.
One day he
prepared for 'l'rar and then went out of the skylight opening.
His wife, who l'las left behind in the house, heard him go ins
up in the sky on an aircraft~ She later saw him fighting on
the aircraft in the sky. IP the afternoon she heard a sound
1n the back of her house as though so'!!lething had fallen from
the sky.
It turned out to be the sound of her husband l'rho
defeated in the l'lar in the sky and crashed in his aircraft.
She sent her servant to the adjacent settlement to summon
people for her husband's funeral.
After the death of her husband, she had to hunt and fish
(hunting and fishing are considered male occupations and
taboo for wo~en (see the note for 1. Jl)). She and her
servant lived together. One day, the widow experienced labor
pains and gave birth to a male child. She loved him much and
never left him behind. When he was able to walk, she took him
hunting and fishing, and to the river to fetch ~Iater. Even
when she l'rent outside the house to relieve herself, she took
him along.


One day her servant went out and did not ~eturn. When the
widow went to find her, the servant was suffering from labor
pains. The servant ave birth to a crow baby, Khich she later
treated very b~dly. She instead loved the little boy to whom
her mistress had given birth!
One day when the widow went to the river to fetch water,
she forgot to take her boy.
As she rushed back to the house,
both her boy and the servant vrere gone. She cried day and
night, and her eyes and face became swollen. Although she
was very angry at the servant, she still felt sorry for the
crow baby and fed it.
One day when she was se1-ring, the crm'l baby came into the
house to tell her that a man who looked like her both "in the
face and in build 1-ms outside.
Although at first she did not
believe it, she went out, and found her grown son. She cried
with joy.
The two and the crow baby then lived together. The son
hunted and fished for food.
The mother later became old and
died. The son lived with the crow until one day when he went
to a distant settlement to find a wife.
At the distant village, he stayed with the chief of the
settlement, l<rho had a very beautiful younger sister~ He
successfully asked the chief fo~ her to be his wife.
He spent
a couple of days at the chief's house. As the t1-:o returned
to his house at his settlement, the chief accompanied them all
the way to his house. The chief spent a fe'\>r days with the
couple, and then returned to his own settlement.
The couple had a prosperous life. A boy and a girl were
born to them. \/hen the man became old, he left this world to
join the world of the deities. There he heard that his male
child prospered even more than he had.


Husko ohta ovanruru kotan an manuyke sineh horoke:po


koro monim3hDo tura yaykotan korohciteh okayahci

(Long ago at a settlement on the shore, a young man and
his wife (the woman l'rhom he married) lived there.)

Nevke horoke:po vuhki:ko



~ehki:ko eh~i

kihei ani


(The young man went hunting for eame and [later] they ate
[the game], an~ then he went fishing and [later] they ate
[the fish]; this is the manner in which they lived.)



Okavah~1 yt:~yne s1neh~


tan1 horoke:no tum1

eoman kusu


((As he lived in this way,) one day the young man prepared
to go to l'zar.)





(He prepared for "\'Tar.)


K1 :ke re :koh yaysihteh

siton kote

~ ~

sanke manuyke muhteh orm:a



(To be l-zell-prepared [for l-rar), he took out a sword and

fastened it [to his waist].)




!:X_ 12:..!.

sanketeh oro,ra tani yo:rr:ah na:

sanketeh oro1-ra tan1 tumi k1: kusu as in manu:

(Then he took out a bo"~>r and (he took out) arroNs; he then
took out a spear and t.zent outside to en~age in \<Iar.)


Puy ka:r1 as1n manu:

(He went out through the skylight.)


Ne:teh oro'!tra monimahno tani else


(The wife was in the house.)



hokukoro horoke:no tumi eyasinteh tan1

nisko rikin hum1h1 an manu:

(As she 1-ms in the house, she heard her husband going up
in the sky to fight in the t'l'ar.)
10. Sinta o:teh tan1 n!sko r1kin humihi


(She heard him riding on the aircraft going up in the sky.)

11. Neannehe kusu tani asin manu:
(Therefore she l'Ient outside. )
12. As1ni:ke cise sovta asinteh inkara manu:
(After getting outside, she looked about.)


1). Nlsoro onne ink"lr::th::t

eniska ene sinta ecahse ani

re :koh nea hoku}:oro horoke :po



kusu anih1

nukara manu:


(As she looked tOt-;ard the sky, she sa\! her husband flying
in the aircraft in all directions and fighting.)

14. Ne :teh orO\'Ta tani else ohta ahun :r.Janu:

---- ---- ---- ----

(Then she went into the house.)

15. Ahunteh an manu:

(After getting inside, she stayed there.)

16. Neyke re:koh

humoro n1 ani

nisoro onne re:koh

poro tumiki

~ ~anu:

(Then there was a very loud sound from the \'lar in the sky.)
17. Re:koh

sir..ta ecahse tumi humoro

kusu an manu:

(Then there 1-;as a loud sound from the aircraft which was
flying around and fighting.)


18. Cise ohte. ay;vahka na:ruy na:ru:v

yuhoare humorokehe !ill navne tani

cise osmake

tumi humoro co:kanna


to :kesko oman kanne

re:koh hemata ha:ciri humihi an manu:

(Even though she stayed at home, the sound of the war

became louder and louder; then in the calm late afternoon,
there l'ras a very loud sound as though something had fallen
in the back of the house.)

19. Ueanpehe

~ ~

inkaraha neanne

monimahno asinteh cise osmahta omanm'la

hokukoro kamuv horoke:no tumi

aU\'len kara ru'lfrehehc1n an manu:

(Therefore, the \'lOman went to the back .of the house and
looked about; it looked as though the young deity husband
had been defeated ln the -;-rar.)


s1ntaha onmlVke keta !!Ynu kihpe ki :teh

cise osmake keta s1ntaha tura onisnosowa

ill1 manu:



(He Has killed in the air conveyance, and it looked he had
fallen in the air conveyance from the sky (to the back of
the house).)
21. Nul<ara manu:

(She [thus] saw it.)

22. Ne :teh orO\'la nea. monircahno tani a.uru un ovanruru kotan

----- ---

~ ~


---- ---- --


eutehkara manu:

(Then the woman asked her servant to go to the next

settlement on the sho~e [to tell the news].)

"~ ~

kotan ohta omanm1a 1nuvara kanne,

koro kamuv


horoke :no tumi ohta

aU'.>!en karahciwa or..isnoso'l'ra ran humihi
- ~__.;;;,_~

!!!1 kusu asi nano~ota

-- ----

nukaraha avnu kihne ki :vmka hemaka

rm1ehe an kusu avnu hunarm!a am:o :marehci"




("Go to the next settlement on the shore and tell [the

people there]; my deity husband was defeated in the l'iar,
and since there \:as the sound of my deity husband (being
defeated and) coming do'l-m from the sky, I went out and
looked; since it looks like he is dead, go and get the
people; let us take care of him [let us give him a

24. Nea kahcici inuyara kusu ~ ~ kotan ~ ~ manu:

(In order to tell the people, the servant went to the
next settlement.)

25. Ne:teh oro"t-ra sineh nehka okavan manu:

(The woman l'Tas left alone.)


Yayne hawke to:kesko oman kanne nea ~ ~ kotan aynu

ute.ra l're:l!hrahci manu:
(In the calm late afternoon, the people from the next
settlement gathered.)

27. Ne:teh

oro~!a ~!!!:!

hokukoro horoke:oo aynu kihne ki:

!!!! karakarahchm an sipintehciwa

(Since my young husband \oTas killed, I made preparations

and put a shroud over him.)

28. Ne:teh

oro~rq anoka inkar2.hci manu:

(Then we sa-.r him off [ l'le gave him a funeral].}

29. Ne:teh

oro~a ~~.ill:!

kotan orun utara okore hosinihci

(Then the folks from the next settlement all went home.)
JO. Ne :teh oro1r"lno tani sineh nehka

~ ~


ki: ani

kahcic1 tura vayton


(The my servant and I lived together (alone} in this

-Jl. Ol{avan manuvk'"e mahtekuh

neyahka ohkayo sirine yaykara

anm-ra ekime .lliU. anmJa :vuh an kov'k1 usaoka karJ.u:\r .ill koykiko
tura else ohta sanan ranke nea auwen cu:tehne ka.hcici tura


ranke okavan

{Although I was a '!.roman, I had to hunt as a man does; I

\'rent hunting and came dmm [from the mountains] to the
house with various kinds of game and ate them with my
J2. Nah gu ki: ani okayan manu:
{I lived in this way.)
JJ. Okavan manuvke cel-1-ca
~ ~ !_

an ki :ko

ra!'l!te nah .fill_ yay:reskepo

amre!'l cu:tehpe kahcici


ki: ani okayan manu:

(Living this ltlay, I went fishing and ate fish l'rith my

servant; I 11 ved alone [ l"Ti th my servant] in this manner.}
J4. Neyke sineh anto: re :koh an honih1 araka manu:
{One day I had severe labor pains.)


Tuye ikoni

ki: manu:

(They were labor pains.}

J6. Neyke orowa:no ~ sanaha oro'J:a er1: muhro ~ eya;:kara an
kemaha oro1-1aka eri: muhro

~ ekarakar~teh .ill}


orol-mno ta: uturuketa nm::1h kosi te: susu an ki:

nayne hemata


numno yo:noso hum1h1 an manu:


(And I out my head on a hlgh oillow, my feet [also] on a

high pillow, And my body in between [between the head and
the feet] was groaning and writhin~; then (while doing
so) I heard the sound of 1-rater coming dot:m.)

J7. Ne: kusu

ehonemua kusu hetesu anm'a an nukar:lha neanue

anoene oirika an uon hor-o1<:e: ooka pirikaykehe

ruwehe an



(Therefore, I 1-1as surprised and looked; indeed, I saH a

very good-looking little boy, a very good-looking one.)

)8. Neanoehe kusu re:koh an evavkonuuuru tani

uh manu:

(Therefore I ,.,.as very pleased and I picked him up.)

J9. Hankuehe an tuveteh tani uhsoro ohta




okayan manuvke nani




~ ~

amateh re:koh

evavkonuhteh ani
koro kamuy non


(I s~vered the.navel [I severed the umbilical cord], and

put him in my boso!!l; I 'lras very hap-py and loved" him day
and night; as I lived this way, gradually my little
deity man grew larger.)
40. Kfu tani oka.vanavne otuhus: kasu orehna: kasu okavanavne
~ ~

koro kamuy

horoke:no tani ahkas oahno


pone !! manu:
(Living in this l'ray, tl'ro to three years went by and my
little deity man started Kalking and became man-like.)

41. Ne:teh tani 1-:ahka

kusu asioanahka

~ ~

~ ~

kusu asi-oanahka ya;vosanke an



hohoateh asinka an etunne anoene

tura okavan


horoke:po anoene an


~ ~



(When I went to scoop [fetch] water [from the river], or

when I 1r1ent to relieve myself, I never left him behind;
I always held his hand and.took him with me; I lived in
this manner.)

42. Nevlce


Rn to:ta





l<~.hcici ::tht~i


asin manu:
(And one day my servant, the "grandmother cook," went

4.3. Nevke


ohoro nn.h'!'lo ahunka han1c1: manu:

{She did not return until it t., very late.)

44. Neannehe kusu am..-o: neka kusu



~ ko~o ho~oke

nahkayteh asinnanm-!a inkara an1h1 neanne

re :koh nUl:ah kosi te: susu

lli 'kusu




{Therefore to look for her, I went out with my boy (little

man) on my back; as I looked, I heard the sound of
groaning and ~rrithing fro~ the direction of the waste

45. Neannehe kusu sanketa nave anm-1a an nu"karahB. neanne re:koh

nm.,..ah kosi te: susu ki: yayne no: koro manu:


{Therefore we went to the side [of the house]; as I

\'tatched, she gave birth to a child 't'l'hile groaning and
writhing (very much).)


nukara kohkl ~ etuh"ka Ql ~manu:

(As I looked, it was a little crot'l baby.}

47. Neannehe kusu


tant hoslpi


else ohta ahapan

{Therefore I returned and went into the house.)

48. Ahananteh okayan manu:

(I entered [the house] and stayed there.)

49. Yavne k1:

kahcici ahci ahci ahun manu:

(Meam'1hile the grand::nother cook came in.)

50. Ahun1h1 an nukqra kohki


~ ~

etuhka kava c1nk1 eto'koho

oo:nekoro non etuhka c1nk1 etokoho kocuouteh



(I looked at her as she entered; she came in with the
little crow baby to whom she had given birth, wra~ped in
an end piece of the front of a fish skin garment.)

51. Teh orow't tani okFtyanahci manu:

(And we lived in this way.)

52. Okayanahc1 :nanuvke cise ohta okavanahka


horoke:oo 11:noe!1e

~ ~

koro lwmuy

tenkorasi anioateh okavan !'!lanu:

{We lived in this way; ~hen I stayed at home, I always

carried ~Y little deity man in my arms and lived that



kahcici oo:nekoro

nea kahc1c1h1 onne


En etuhka iuerusuy manuvke

ki: manu:

(And the little crot-r, to '-'lhom the cook had given birth,
wanted to eat and cried for the cook.)

54. "Onmo

.2..!E!Q ~ mamma rna:nr.1a ~"

("Mother, mother, meal, meal.")

55. Nah ah ki: manu:

(He cried in this manner.)

56. Neanoehe kusu

<!aruhu onne och:e

kahcici uo:koro non etuhka ceh min


(Therefore the cook thre"lr a piece of fish into the mouth

of the 11 ttle crm~ to ~rhom she had given birth. )

57. Neyke "Holotdetrlow" nah ahki: ani sl kihi tetah tetah ranke
ruki manu:
(And he said "Holo11rlo-..rlo-vr," and gulped it down while
winking his .eyes.)


ki: ani okayahc1 manu:

(We lived in this


kahcici anoene

~ kamuv.~

horoke:po ra:nuh manu:

(The cook truly loved my little deity man.)

60. Nevke

no:nekoro .2.!l




(She badly treated the little crow to whom she had given

61. Neannehe kusu na:ruy

kasiovki ani

kamuy monim8hno no:ho anpene


(Therefore the deity woman too]{ increasingly better care

of. her child.)
62. Yayosanke evasin r.ahka


as in nevahka no: ho tura, yuhki: kusu

pon horoke:no


ani, l'Tahk::t ta: kusu



ani, vuhki: vuh sike ki: yahka nea

no:ho sike 1m:ta a'!la ran1{e yuh kamko se ani ahkas ani an





(When she went out to relieve herself, she took the child
l'~ith her, even 1-rhen she ,.~ent out to scoop [fetch] water
[from the river) she took the child with her, when she
l'!ent to the mountains to hunt, she put the child (little
man) on her back; even l'Then she '\';rent hunting and had
(load of)ga~e to carry, she put the child on top of the
load and walked tdth the load on her back.)


6). Cehko: yahka

horoke:no nahkav ani


nah ki: manu:

07hen she went fishing, she put the child (little man) on
her back; she fished in this manner.)

64. Ne:ra

~ ~ yahF~

annene ~ uo:ho teki ~ani ahkas;

yayosanke kusu asinahka nea po:ho teki



ahunke kusu asinahka nea no:ho tek1


okayahci yayne, sineh to: tani

ani tura asin,


nah tura


to:noski l'Tahka ta: kusu asin manu:

(Whatever she did, she ahmys took the hand of the child
(and l'mlked); in order to go outside to relieve herself,
she went out holding the child's hand; to fetch chopped
wood, she went out holding. the child s hand. As she
lived l'rith the child in this manner, one day around noon
the vlOman l'rent out to scoop [fetch] water [ f'rom the


65. Neyke temana nc:tch nea no:ho anoene oyra manu:

(Somehow she completely forgot the child.)

66. Oyrateh hohnateh lTahka

kusu asin manu:


(Forgetting and leaving [the child] behind, she went out

[of the house] to scoop [fetch] water [from the river].)
6?. Teh


nav ohta santeh torahka ta: ;:tayne tani .!!! po: ho

esikarun manu:
(She \<rent dotm to the river, and, while scooping \'later,
she remembered the child.)
68. Neanoehe kusu ehooemoa kusu nea 'tmhka ta: n1atus1h1 kayki

no: ho kasi orav>-ra else ohta makan manu:

(Therefore she w~s surprised; leaving the wooden bucket

(to scoop water) behind her, she returned to the house
where she had left the child.)
69. Neyke nea po:ho isgm manu:
(The child was gone.)
?0. Nea kahcici ahci ahcl



(And the grandmother cook was gone.)

?1. Ne:teh

En etuhka nateh


(Only the 1i ttle crol'r \<laS there. )

72. Neannehe kusu ekimateh kusu



;:tahka hunara

no:ho hunara vahka annene isam manu:

(She was surprised and searched everywhere; she searched

for the child, but he was gone.)

?J. Neanoehe kusu erammren kusu anpene cis ani pateh


(Therefore since she tms sad, she did nothing but cry.)
?4. Neyke ene kanne

~ ~


oirika monimahoo ne :l':a

kayki nea kesto asinko ohah cis ani pateh

s1k1hi"ka okore huh1:a


nayne nanuhuka

1 oekayki hannehka ki: ani

(And even. tho~gh she was a very beautiful wo~an, she cried
day and niGht and her face and eyes became s1-1ollen; she
did not eat.)

75. Nevke

\'ren E..2!2 etuhka

kusu nanna nann::1 san1<eta eh

(A...l1d the (poor) little cro1-r \'Tas hungry and came beside the

older sister [the \TOI!lan].)

76. Neannehe kusu

ki: kusu,




~ am'(l"en .!?.!:! etuhka tura vavsinkare an an

kusu 1ko1 ne esakaY nA.h .!!

o:nantelke re :!<oh ankoh

~ au~~en ~

~ ~





etuhka tura ihohnaha au'lren ornanteko nea

etuhkB- ikoine esalca:v ohta

inere ranl<e okayan

(Thereafter I lived with the (poor) little crow; I thought

that since 1 t was hungry it asked for food; although l'rhen
I thought of the cook I became very ang~y, I recalled that
the poor little crow was also left behind and asked for
food [because 1 t l-Ias hungry] ; I kept feeding 1 t )

77. Ne :'ra gn ya;vreske

ki: yayne tani hemoah na: ka:vki an

(Several years passed 't'1hile I lived in this manner.)

78. Ne :teh orm::ano okavan naync sineh to: tani yayka ukm-rka an
ki: manu:
(Hhile 11 ving that way, I lias seNing one day.)

79. Yayne

~~ ~~

.E.2!! etuh...l{a tuhse tuhse"tota asin manu:

(And the poor little crol-l l'!ent bopping (and hopping) out
of the house.)


else ohta okaYa navne okaYanteh yayka ukal>!ka an ki:

ani o1tavan nRvne

nah ki ha\'rhe an

~ ~

non etuhka hesoyne re :koh ka: ka:


(I stayed at ho:r.e; as I kept se1-1ing, I heard the sound of

the poor little crow outside loudly crying, "..ka:. .kal.")
81. Anayne


ll1! pon etuhkA tuhse tuhse\'m ahun manu:

(I1eamrhile, the poor little cro'ir hopped into the house.)

82. /l.huntch isn.nketa eh !Ilanu:
(Entering the house, it [the crow] went to the side.)

8). Ne :teh re :lwh 1utohtonkehe ehekem ehekemteh

iye: manu:

(Thereupon pulling and pulling the side of my clothes, it

said [as follows].)

84. "Nanns

nanr.a~:a en~mka


tuh korone1m etuhka tuh korone,:a


("Older sister, older sister, there is someone outside who

looks like you in the face and (trho looks like you in the)

85. Nah l{i:


(It cried in this manner.)

86. Neanpe he kusu

~ ay iye :

(Therefore I said to him [as follows].)

87. "1ill:!l omanteh !!ahNa eka



kunanka tuh korope nah1-1a ehteh


("\There [in the world] could somebody l'rhose face resembles

mine come fro~ (and be outside)?")
88. Nah ill! ~ I!lanu:
(I thought that 1.ray.)

89. Neyahka

~ ~

E..2!! etuhka re:l{oh iutohtonkehe ho:rika


ho:rika ani suv ene ive: manu:



((Even then) the poor little cro~r, pulling and pulling the
side of my garcent, again said [as follo"t.~s].)

90. "Nanna nanr.av:a hetake easinmra etuh1ra tuh koronetora soyta

anu't.'mvra enukara


("Older sister, older sister, come out quickly; someone

trho looks like you 1n build 1s outside; take a look.")

91. Nah lye: manu:

(He said so to me.)


92. l!ea


pon etuhka nea.rmehc

nukaraha neanr:.e sonno1w.

tura asi nanuvm an

n::mk8. tuh korone

tuhka tuh

korone SOVt;l cise sehsen1{Ct:=!. etaras lmsU an r.Janu:

{I thererore went o&tside with the poor little crow; as I

looked, indeed sorr.eone v1ho looked like r:e in the face
and (looked like me in) build was standing at the side
of the house.)



an nukaraha neanne sonnoka an no:koro kamuy

horoke:no ne: ruwehe an manu:

looked closely, he certainly loolted like the deity
rnan to 1-:hom I had given birth.)

(As I

94. I\!eannehe 1msu !'e :koh cise sehsanketa

au~re :ra\revra re: koh

cis ~ anenunteh manu:

{Therefore at the side of the house I embraced him and '"as
so happy that I cried tears of joy.)

95. Ne:teh ormra tani cise oht;1 tu!'a ahaPan manu:

(Then I 1-rent into the house v1ith him.)

96. We :teh orm!a nea kamuy EE!! horoke :uo

neanue ene kanne kusu uirika

I!lanu:vke anuene nanuhuka okore

~ unuhu nukaraha

neyah anuene cis rmrehe


ru~!e he

..!! manu:

{Then as the little deity man looked at his mother,

altho&gh she vras a very beautiful mother, there obviously
1.;ere traces of tears and {it looked that) her face \'laS
completely Sl'lOllen up.)

97. Ne :teh ormm

unukoro ka:nuv

tura okavanmra yuh !!!!

ki:ko tura gQ !U. cehkoYki ankoh tura


~ ~



e: neannehe an ki:

unukoro monimahuo tani tanto:

no mosiri

hemaka manu:

{Thereafter I [the son] lived with my mother; I went

hunting and ate [the meat] with her; I Nent fishing and
ate the fish \'Tith her; later {as I lived in this manner)
my mother left the world of tod3.y [died].)



Ne:teh orowR tan1 nnokn sineh nehka okavan

wen pon etuhkn



tuyma ovanruru kotFtn



ki: vavne tani s in~h Anto:

mah eya;vesitan!!.!:! ki: kusu oaye

an manu:
(Thereafter I lived alone; I still lived with the poor
little crow;(whlle living ln this manner,) one day I
went to look for a wife at a distant settlement on the


Ne: te h orm-.:a nea tu:-.rma oyanruru kotan ohta naye


(I went to the distant settlement on the shore.)

100. Neyke kotan koro nisoa ciseta

ahaoan manu:

(And I l'Tent lnto the house of the chief of the settlement.)

101. Ahananteh vantone an manu:

{I went in and stayed there overnight.)

102. Neyke kotan koro nisoa mahturesihi re:koh nirika monimahno
!!.!:! manu:

(The younger sister of the chief of the settlement was a

very beautiful woman.)
lOJ. Neannehe kusu tani

n1r1ka monir.mhno a.n haweki: manu:

(Therefore I talked [to the chief of the settlement]

about this beautiful woman [I asked the chief for this
beautiful woman as my wife].)
104. Neyke kamuy renka

nirika kamuy monimahno

koro manu:

(And, thanks to the deities, I married the beautiful deity

105. Ne:teh oro'l'ra

kotan koro nisna else ohta otuh to: kasu

oreh to: kasu oka:vanteh oro'trano tani yaykotan kohosi ni


eyaykaral{qra. mRnu:

106. Ne:teh orowa tani ~ koro mon1mahpo tura kotan kohosin1

!!! k1: manu:

(Then I went back to my settlement together with my woman.)



orowa nea kotan koro nisna nn: irura manu:

(The chief of the settlement saw us off.)

108 .1\n c1sehe Pahno irura manu:

{F.e accompanied us to my house.)

109. Ne: teh


suy otuh to: kasu orP.h to: kasu okavanavne

irura oyanruru kotan nisna kavki tani cise kohos1D1

lrotan kohoslpi k1: manu:

(Then the chief of the settl~ment (who saw us off till
my house) stayed two or three days and then returned to
his home (and to his settlement.)
110. Ne: teh


oka :1{eta nea !:!. koro kamuv mon1mahno tura

re:koh Pirika vavreske an ki: vavne tani umureh aynu

~ ~

koro manu:

(After..rards I lived well [had a prosperous life] with my

deity woman; (while I lived in this manner) I had a boy
and a girl . )
111. Ne:teh ormm okavanavne nani

kohekaye hokuste

onneram an koro yayne


((While living in this manner,) I gradually. became old;

(became old and) passed a\'!ay.))
112. Ne:teh orowa kamuv kotan ohta okavanike so:ka ene inu:

!!!! kohkl

~ ~

koro ,!>O:ho horoke:no kavki anoka

i vahkarlka re :koh c!inuounteh 1:e: nekerehe so :'ka ene an

!ill1.. manu:

(As I lived at the world of the deities, I heard news of

the world of the living Ainu and that my male child
p:rospered even more than I had; I heard the nel-1S of the world of the living Ainu.)
11). Ne:teh orowa tRn ucaskums ravohteoono hemaka

(Thus this story is flnally_over.)

Notes {for Tale 6)
2. Yuhkl: means to hunt land mammals and cehki: means to fish.
These are the primary subsistence economic activities of the
Ainu, although they also engage in some sea mammal huntinh.
The term yuh as used by the Sakhalin Ainu means their primary
land mammals. Amor.g the Hokkaldo Ainu, it has the same
meaning in their folklore, but 1n their more recent usage it
means "deer," the most important game animal in Hokkaido.
{Sakhalin is too far north to be the ecological zone of the
deer.) (For a detailed discussion of these ter~s, see
Pilsudski 1912: 162, 212; Chiri 1962: 150; Ohnuki-Tierney
1968: 55-57.)
Husko explained that because this young man t.;ras a del ty
he could get out throu~h the skylight, instead of the regular
entrance on the west side of the house.
The description of the man ends here and the story
focuses now on his wife.
10. The sinta is the air conveyance which the Ainu believe
the deities use for travel in the sky. They believe that the
deities often fought one another in the sky at the beginning
of the universe. Chiri also encountered the same use of this
term both in Sakhalin and Hokkaido Ainu tales, b'.lt he points
out that in the recent Bokkaido Ainu dialects the s~~e term
sinta means a "cradle for a baby." Chiri suggests that earlier
the term meant "air conveyance," but it has changed among the
Hokkaido Ainu {Chiri 1944: 19; 1948: 54-55; 195.4 : 7).
22. The term ush1ehe means "servant" and kahcici means "cook~
Although there t'o'as no sharp stratification in Ainu society,
occasionally there \orere a few people Hi thout relat1 ves to rely
on, and they often became the servants of 1-realthy members of
In this statement, the ~-:om.:~.n tells her servant to notify
the people in the next settlement. Usually the close relatives
of a deceased person are invited to the funeral, and as the
people in the adjacent settlements are often closely related
to the deceased by kinship ties, they are invited.}

From this line, the widow tells the story.

Jl. It is taboo for Ainu l'romen to fish or hunt. In these

activities, they deal directly with the major deities of the
Ainu, since the major game animals on the land and on the sea
are deities, and fish are considered to be the oroduct of a
sea deity. Blood is considered offensive to the deities and
thus women are forbidden to deal with the deities, since they

are at all times conta~inated with the smell of blood from
menstru:-:ttlon and child birth. :!:Oi!C:Ycr, as in this story and
also in the Tale 11, Ainu settlements weTe often s~all and
men we~e not around. They were in the mountains for hunting
or deceased, and thus the NOmen T.trere forced to hunt and fish.



The ter!:l :=thc!i

the phrase '!{ahclci 2hci ?..h~i means
"grand:nother," althou::;h it is often used as a designntlon for
an elderly Homan vrithout any ~:lnship relationship (See the
note for 1. 175 of T~.le 1). Here the term. ahcl is used to
refer to the servant in an affectionate manner; it is
repeated as ahci ahci for rhytlli~ic effect.


The cirur::Jun is the general area l'There garbage is disposed

and people relieve themselves. On the west coast of Sakhalin,
it is located in a north.-resterly directio:1 fro;n the house.
On the east coast, it is often in a northeasterly direction
from the house, but sometimes in a southeasterly direction
(Y. Yamamoto: 194J: 61.)

50. Here Huska said that the servant ~ust have had a crow
husband. I do not kno1-: any cultural explanation as to Hhy the
ba-cy had to be a crOiT, rather than any other animal. The
Ainu recognize three kinds of birds "irhich they consider to be
related to one another, and l'Thich belong to the genus Corvus.
They differentiate these three birds by their appearance and
cries. One of them is etu.h~a (Corvus levalllantii .1-9_l)onens1s
Bonaparte (Chiri 1962: 179}) ..,.rhich appears in this Si;ory.
Although the Ainu during P.uskos time d11 not emphasize the
crows as deities, in former days they res"Pected the cro1-rs as
deities. The most important characteristic of the cro'i: (ieities
was that theyoften possessed the shamans, and these shamans
'\':orshipped them as etu.hka kar:JU'' (crmr deities). 'D'.ri-ing Huska's
time the Ainu still believed that the cro~r notify the Ainu
about various h?..ppenint;s; they cry Nhen a 1-~hale is stranded
on the shore, or 1.-rhen a visitor is The Ainu also
believe that an eclipse of the moon occurs when a crow,
squirrel, fox, or octopus s~:rallo~m the n:oon.
The kava are clothes made of fish skin. The cinki
etolcoho is either of the lo"!rer front ends of a garment.


"Holo1!lmrlo~r" 1s onomatopoeia of the cry of the crow.

Although /1/ is not a regular phoneme in Ainu, Husko pronounced
it with a very distinctive /1/, which sounded almost exactly
like the darlc /1/ in English. Since /1/ is not a phoneme in
Ainu and I \ras used to the difficulty experienced by the
Japanese in pronouncing /1/, I was quite surprised and asked
her to pronounce the ono~atonoeia several times. Each time
she pronounced 1 t '1~1 th the same distinctive /1/.

From th!s point, the ~r1doH no longer tells the story, but
is referred to as kanuv moni~Rhoo (deity woman).



75. The term n~nnq ~s a kinshiP term means one's older sister,
but it is also co~L11only used as a designation for a l'IO:nan in
her tvrentics, thirties, and so:netimcs forties.
Here the crow
baby calls the wo~an nannB.
77 . Fro:n this line, again the 1-!0man tells the story.
80. As I described in the note for 1. 46, the three kinds of
birds of the genus Corvus are differentiated from one another
both by appearance and sound. \-/hen Husko explained the
differences, she specified that an etu!'!ka cries ".!:!.1. ~",
althout;h in this line it is "lea: ka: ". Since neither of the
other tt:o types of Corvus cry "ka: k!l:", according to Eusko's
statement, the onomatopoeia "ka: ka:" in this line is perhaps
an imitation of the Japanese l'rho refer to the cry of a cro1.-r
as "ka: ka:".


From this point, the son relates the story.

The tern hokus literally means "to :fall on one's back."

It is also a co~on exuression for dying. The term tanto:
!!. mosiri (the :-:orld of today) means the 1orld of the 11 ving
Ainu, in contrast to both the "rorld of the dead Ainu and the
world of the deities. All these worlds, however, are located
on the horizontal plane of the Ainu universe (for further
. details of these t~orlds, see Ohnuki-Tierney 1968: 111-175
(Chapter IV) )

104. I do not knmr l'rhy the chief's daughter is referred to as

kamuy monim!lhno (deity 1.-.roman).

105. Here the statement itself does not clearly indicate

whether he is staying at the house of the chief for the period
of bride service, as required by the Ainu custom. The period
of bride service among the Ainu seems to be rather flexible -anywhere bet~::een t110 days and a tieek.

11). When I asked Husko about trhat had happened to the croH,
she said, "I l-ronder what happened to it?" vlhen I asked about
what had happened to the servant, she said that she broueht
the. master s boy to a settlement bet"'reen cinu kahsiri (the
mountain t:hich nobody kneti).
He felt sorry for his real mother
and came bac1{ to his mother to take care of her \'Then he grel<J'
It is a common description of the location of a distant
settlement to say it is betNeen the mountain they kno;.r (i.e.,
the mountain in the back of one's settlement) and the mountain
which nobody knel'r (the mountain Nhich no one in the settlement
has visited).



Kamuv horoke:no {A young deity)

Brief comment:
l-iusko learned this __.___
ovna from Kuhtura.D8hko (there is a
brief description of this woman in "Brief comment" for Tale
Huska related the follOl<J"ins text on November 14, 1965. Her
second recitation,on Nove~ber 27, 1965, is tape-recorded.


The follOl'Ting ttlO points in this story are of particular

interests. First, it describes the Ainu belief that the
guardian deity of the lakes, called to: aeon, is a harbor seal
(tuk::1.ra in Ainu)(Phoc.~ vituHlis L. (Chiri 1962: 159)).
Secondly, the tale describes one type of transfor~ation from
an Ainu (human)into a deity. That is, upon death an Ainu
l'TOman married to a deity achieves the status of del ty.

This is a story of a love affair


an Ainu

\'lOman and a seal deity \'Tho was the guard ian deity of the lakes.

Svnonsis: There was a married couple living at a certain

settlei!lent. The husband l':-ent hunting for food and l'rhen he
returned l'~i th c;nme, his tlife cooked the meat. They ate and
slept together.
After staying at home for a couple of days,
the husband again went huntins. One day after the husband
lrent hunting in the mountains, the trife cool-::ed an offering
dish, placed the food in a red 'boNl on a red tray, and dressed
herself in fine clothes and jewelry. With a fine mat on her
arms, she follo~red a meandering road. Hhen she arrived at a
small l~~e, she put the mat at the edge of the lake, placed
the offering dish on the tray, and danced. \!bile dancing,
she called to the deity at the lake, "Come quickly, let us
make love day and night." As she danced, she saH the deity
comi~~ from the middle of the lake.
As he came to the land
and shook his body to remove the trater, she found him to be a
very good-loo1{ing man (instead of a seal). They made love
day and night. The deity ate the offering dish. She then
\'Tas reminded that she should return home before her husband
returned from the mountains.
As she arrived at her ho~e, she changed to her daily
clothes and cooked food for him. She and her husband continued
their daily life as usual.
After a couule of da:rs, her husband
again left for the mountains, ar.d therefore she prenared as
before and set forth to the lake. She again had an enjoyable
time with her deity young man and later returned to her home
in time for her husband's return.
After a couple of days at home, her husband left for the
mountains again and she for the lake. This ~ime, the deity
even left a small amount of offer1n~ dish for her to eat. (This
is an Ainu way of expressing a man's love for a woman). While
they trere enjoying themselves, the del ty suddenly groaned and


writhed ln pain. She then noticed her husband, whom she
thought was hunting, standing ln front of her. The deity was
bleeding fro:J the cut caused by the har-poonhcad; her husband
had shot the de 1 ty. The de tty fled to the lalre while her
husband beat her.
As they ;-:ent hor.:~e, her husband did not talk to her. She,
on the other h3nd, could not help thinking acout her deity
young man ~rho got hurt bec~use of her. Later she dressed and
went to the lake with an offerins dish.
At the lake she saw
on the shore a trail of blood from the deity.
It lead into
the lake. She follo~cd the trail of blood, which led her
under the 1:ater. She later came up on the other side. There
was a big rock !'lhlch housed a large cave.
She heard groaning
from inside and thus she couGhed (Ainu :ns.nner of notifying
one's arrivsl at the host's house). A young woman, the sister
of the del ty, sho~red her into the cave. The del ty ras
groaning and ~rrlthing, \'!lth hi~ head on an elevated pillo'!T a~d
feet on another elevated plllo:-r. She cared for the deity
until all of his scars ~!ere healed. A couple of later
she had borne a boy and girl. She reached her old age and diec.
After deat~ at the settle:nent of the deities, she heard that
her children had become famous.


Husko ohta o:vnnruru kotan ohta

(Long ago, there was a settlement on the shore.)


Ne:vke slneh

horo1~e:no ~acihi


(And there '\!as a young man 11 ving 1-rith his l'Tife [in the



manuvke kesto asinko nea horo1{e :'Do


ne: manuYke

yuh koyk1 manu:

(The young man 't-rent to the mountains every day to hunt
bear. )


Yuh na: usaan kar.J.UY renkayne J~oy1{i manu:

(He hunted for bear and various [other] animals.)


Onu:man omanko yuh s11{eki: ran1:e kimna san


(When the early evening came, he put the game or. his bac}~
and came down the mountains.)



Cise osmakcta si"ke och1e humihi ~ mR.r.u:

(He could be heard unlo~d1nb in the back of the house.)





sin m::muvV.e m.:.V.:::1rR. mann:

(Therefore the wo~an went out and looked around.)


Neyke hokukoro horoke:no ne: manu:

(It was her young husband.)



oro~~ ah~o~h~1


(Then they went inside.)

10. Tan1


ohta ahaoahc1 manu:

(They \!ent into the house. )

11. Ne:teh orm,:a an hokukoro horoke:uo

iye: manu:

(Then my young husband said [as follo1.;s].)

12. "Keh


koro monimahuo hetake easin"t.ora vuh kam ne:

eahunkewa sukewa ane:ro"

("Well, wife (the woman who is my wife), go out quickly
and bring in the bear meat and cook it; let's eat.")

1). Neannehe kusu otoka tura vavul{oraveua anteh;



osmahta oave anteh;

oroo:teh orowa; tani hosini


~ EQrQ ~ ~

karateh oro,ra;

~ ~1se



kam otoka an


ahteteh orowa, tani nea yuh kam an

~ ~

oroo:teh; tani

suke manu:

(Therefore I prepared by taking out a cooking pan; then I

went out to the back of the house; I nut the bear meat
1n the nan; I (returned and) reentered the house l'rith
the meat; I hooked the {very) large pan [over the fire];
I oreoared the bear meat, put it in the pan, and then
cooked 1t.)
14. An suke manu:
(I cooked.)


Teh orowa tani

ayyanke otoka






suke ornantene; tani


avvanketeh oroHa



ayyanke hemaka

(I cooked and cooked~ then it [the meat] was cooked, and
I put [the meat] into a bowl; I put all of it [the meat]
and took dm-:n the pan.)

16. Nea k::tm

tmr::tr?..ka teh tA-nl an hokukoro horoke: no ene iye:

(I cooled the ceat, and then my young husband said [as



"Ta: kam ane:ro"

("Let's eat the meat.")

18. Tani

e: manu:

(I ate.)

19. An e :teh oro:.ra t? oka:v::mi :ke tqni annoski hekota om8.n
kanne an hoku1<oro horoke:no

ive: manu:

(About midnight rr.y young husband said [as follmrs] (As I

was eating, midnight came, and my young husband said
20. "Ku mac1koro moni:nahoo ne: ohalr



("f-ly wife (the lo:oman ".\ho is my wife), cook the rice-gruel

and let's eat.")
21. Neannehe


tani m!.!_ oha"1he

tura yayukorayeoa

kara.teh tani unc_l

anteh oro':ITano

oro~:a ~


(Therefore I prepared a ~an, made the rice-gruel in the

pan and then put 1t [the pan] over the fire.)

22. Ne:teh oro;.ra tan1 tetara 1ne


~ ~ ~


(Then I (took out r1ce and) out rice in a pan.)

2). Ne:teh

oro~a ~ ~

suke manu:

(Then I cooked [the rice gruel].)

24. ill!

~ gn suke omantene ayyanketeh oro;.rano an hokukoro

---- -- --

horoke:no tura an e: manu:


(I cooked and cooked, then took the pan down [from the hook],
and ate w1 th my young husband. )




Ne:teh orowa tan1 an



teni iku:

an manu:
(I put away the dishes and then I- smoked tobacco.)
ho~okc: co ~

26. Ne :teh oro,.;a ar. hol'::ukoro

1ve: manu:

(Then my young husband said to me (as follows).)

27. "Kurr.acilwro monlmahno hetake omav karaHa .mokoro anro"


(the 'troman Hho is my 'tTife), make the bed quickly;

let's sleep.")


Mokoro an manu:
(I slept.)

29. Teh ormm to:no anto: kunne e.ntc: ~



(Thus day and night we made love.)

JO. Re:koh nirlka mokoro



(I slept well.)
.Jl. Ne:teh o,..owa tani :no"koro ana:vne mos ankoh slsto:no hemaka
(I slept and, \'Then I awoke, day had already broken.)

)2. Neanoehe lcusu

ehonemoa kusu tan1

an manu:

{I l':as surprised, ai!d got up. )

JJ. Teh orov!a nanoeci anteh orot:a tani 1nekara an
(I washed my race and cooked the meal.)
J4. Teh oro1-ra gn hokukcrc horoke:no .!! moymoye manu:
(I then shook my young husband to mTaken him. )

35. "Hetake


1 ne

tani sisto :noHa .llill.t !.21_ nirate


(Get up quickly and ~et's e~t; it is now dawn, the day has
broken (it is getting light]; \:hy don't you get up.)


)6. Ne:teh oro...,r.q


holmkoro horoke:no r.un::1 manu:

(Then my young husband got up.)

J7. Ne :teh orO\m tan1 nanoec1

k1: hem:-:1kateh tan1 1 oean

(Then he rlnished washing his face and ate.)

]8. Otuh !2J. kasu oreh !..:..

horoke:uo eklme

okavanteh tani suv an hokukoro

kusu o1{a:keta tan1 po:noh

~ ~


(After t"'TO or three days, my young husband again \'lent to

the mountains; therefore, aftertmrds [after he had gone]
I cooked an offering dish.)


An k1:teh orOlra tan1 hu:re



an sankevke nea no:uoh

oroo:teh sanaP1n1 2Q kara

(I took out a red bo1-1l and put a heaping amount of food

in 1 t.)

40. Teh

oro~:a tani hu:re ohcikeh .11 sa:nkevke ~ 1tank1 ohta

amateh tani yaysiyuhteh

sanke:',rke !!!! tumamuhu

.11 manu~ke

tuBam tesu ka:ni an


(Then I took out a red tray and placed a bo..,Tl on it; I

then changed my dress, took out a golden belt and
fastened it around my waist.)


Eto:nlnka:ri ~ sankeyke ~ kisaruhu gn kotuyua

U took out large earrings and put them on.)

42. Imuhsay ~ sankeY'ke !ill rekuhcihi oro~-:a an ahteh
{I took out my necklace and put it around my neck.)

4). Ru:karar1s

~ sankeyke ~ euausi

{I took out a cap and put it on.)

44. Teh oro . . ra tan1 an takarun k1roho

~ sankeyke ..!!. ~

(Then I took out my good shoes and put them on.)




oro~~ t~ni


nonto~o sohk~ra

un ukave




(Then I folded a fine cat, put it on my 9.rm and l'!ent out. )

46. ----~~~~
Asinani:ke ---tani

tunke noka


~ehs~nketa n~ve



inkara ~~~



(After leaving (getttn~ outside), I went to the side of

the house and sa11 a \':ind ing road e;ol nc; through the grass. )


Neanuehe kusu ~ ~ ok:=?:kgra Dave !!!l manuvke annene

hokoyakoya E..:_


(Therefore, I went on the road and it certainly l-las



l~eyahka ol{a:kara naye an ~:

(Even then I \'rent on

49. Paye anavne sineh

[ follo;~ed the road.])

~to: ~a:keta nave an manu:

(As I t-rent on, I ca:ne to the edge of a small lake.)




an manu:

(It tras a small lake. )


~a:keta nea nontomo sohkara ~ manu:

(I put the fine mat at the edge [of the lake].)

52. Ne: teh oro\ra nea an


ohcU{eh ponto!!:o




(Then I placai the tray, 'Khlch I \'las holding, on the fine

mat. )


:iJe:teh orm\"a tani tahk9.ra an manu:

(Then I danced.)


Ene .!! tahkara

ki: manu:

(I kept dancing.)

("The young deity man, quickly come on the land.")


(I said this and




Ea:nuy, kamuv horokc:no; oa:ouy, na:nuy, hetake

eyanm:a; to: r.o an to: kunne an to:



(Young deity man; co::te on to the land

love day and night.")



let us make

Nah avve: ani t::Jhkqra an manu:

(I said this and danced.)

59. Anavne ta!li in'{ara ani'hi






slrihi an I!
(Meanwhile, I saw the deity [seal] in the middle of the
la1te head in3 to~rard la.nd.)

60. Neannehe 'ku:m na:ruv tahlcara an manu:

(Therefore I continued dancing (danced some more).)
61. _A_n..;....R.._V=ne-. _t_a_n_i _t_o_: ca: t3 _n_e_a kar!:!UY van !11an11:
(IIeam1h1le the del ty landed on the shore (edge of the

62. Yanteh oro\ra tani sl.uoranora manu:

(After landing, he shook the l'mter from his body.)


An nukarako re:koh nlrika ohkavo ne: manu:

(When I looked at [the deity], he l-Ias a very good-looking


64. Nukara l{avki an enuratohke nahno P1rika


ka~uy horo1ce :no

ruwehe 9.n manu:

((As I looked) he was {looked like) a dazz1ngly goodlooking young deity-man.)


Neannehe kusu re:koh ~ enunteh mqnu:

(Therefore I l'!as very ple~sed.)



An cnu~teteh

orm:<"!. to:no

~nto: l<11nn~ :::~.nto: ::1!1

uko::ente an k1:


(I was pleased and we made love day and night.)

67. Ne :teh orov:a t?

~ ~ ~

no :uoh tani tuh


3n e:

(Then . . re ate the offering dish 1rhlch I had brought.)

68. Teh


tani ene an rA-nu manu:

(Then I thought [as follows].)

69. "An ho1mkoro ho!'olre :no hosi Di kun etokota. tu :nas hosi Pi an
("I should go back home quickly before my husband returns.")
70. Nah .:.!! ramu manu:
(I thought.)
71. NeG.nuehe kusu nea ka:nnr horoke:oo hekota ayye:

(Thus I mentioned this to my young deity man.)

?2. Ne: teh oroNa tani nea


horoke: uoka tan1 hos1 Pi

eyayukorAyena manu:
(The young deity

?J. Neannehe kusu




also prepared to depart (go

kaYki hosiu1


eya:vukora:venateh tani

oontomo sohl{r.tra !!1 uk:R. ten1-::ororo manu:

(Preparing to return, I folded the fine mat and held it in

my arms.)

?4. Ne:teh


teni hos1u1

(Then I departed



~ m~nu:



Cise ohta sirena an1h1

~ ~

hokuko!'o horoke:uo

~ ~

kusu an
(\olhen I arrived at home my young husband was not there.)



t::1.nt r-tn miva an kl'l:nu

76. Neannehe kusu ----- ~



Rn katuhu ne:no


okore Hn


o~avnn ~qnu:

(Therefore r.o-..r I removed. my clothr:.s, my fine clothes, and

I appeared ss usu~l [I had my usual clothes on].)

77. Orowa an


an hokuhu hosiui

horoke: DO etoke ene ioe krtra




(I cool{ed food before my young husbar..d returned (and while

I was cookins the food he came back).)
t~mt suv vuh
78. Orm,ra ---___.....

k3m no:t: an sukev".re an e: teh tani mol<. oro

an manu:
(Then I ago:tin cooked bear meat; after eating, I sleDt.}

79. Ne:teh orm.ra tanl suv kunne


ul<mente manu:

(Then once again we made love at night.}

80. 11okoro anqvne mos ankoh sisto:no kus'..l tani navki an 'l!Bnu:

{I slept; when I awoke, it was sunrise; so I got up.}

81. Teh


ine kara!!!! ki:teh an hokukoro horoke:no tura

an e:
{After I cooked the food, I ate l-71 th my young husband.}
82. !Dean hemakateh


an oyuehuihi


orowa tant

okayan manu:
(Having finished the food, I put away the dishes.)

8J. Okayant:ke suy otuh to: kusu oreh to:



84. Okavanteh oro,ra

kusu oko:t:k:eta

okayan manu:

or three days passed.)


suy an



horoke:no ekime ne:he


(After my young husband again went hunting in the

mountains, I got dressed.)



omantene asipan manu:

(After getting dressed, I went outside.)



Aslp:1ni:ke nea cise seh::-;2.nY.:eta nnve B.nteh hokovakovR. ru:

ka:rl suv

an manu:

{After getting outside, I went to the side of the house

and followed the zigzag road.)







an manu:

{While I kept going, I again came to the edge of the lake.)


After line 87, lines 51 to 82 are repeated. The story

again tells about her visit and meeting Kith the deity,
their good ti~e together, her getting back home before
her husband; and her daily routine of eating, slee-ping
and arising ln the morning.

lJO. Okayani:ke tani otuh to: oreh to: kasu okav::tnteh
orotr::l _t_a_n_i _a_n hokukoro ho-r-oke: no suv


_k_u_su_ .;. ; h. :;.e.;.;:.k=i;.; ;m. ; . o

rnakan mgnu:
(Neam1hile tNo or three days n:1ssed; my young husband
again ~ent U? to the mountains to hunt.)
The follm.;ing description of her pre-paration for the deity
is essentially the same as it was presented the first time;
hmrever, Huska added more details this t i=ne, and hence a few
lines are repeated here.
lJl. Neannehe kusu an


suy nea no:ooh kara an ki:

{Therefore I feit relieved, relaxed and again made an
offering dish.)
132. Neyke nea no:noh tani

kc>.rR hemal<aha kusu tani

ohta hu~ itaP-ki ~ amqteh




sanketa tura sanan

{And when I finished making the offering dish, I placed

the red borrl on the tray and brought them to the side of
the hearth.)
lJJ. Teh orovta

t~:=mi ~

karateh tani

no: ooh i t3.nki an oroo :l!a sananl ni an



tani yA.;vs iyuhte



{I put a heaping amount of food in the bm-11 in a round

shape and put [the bowl] down [on the floor]; I then got

1)4. Nevke niri ka k.q: nu kq_mne

~ SA.nkel-~A. ~

eyayesiyuhteh oro\>:a

(I took out my (very pretty) good clothes and got dressed.)

1)5. Ne:teh


tani tuman tesu ka:ni an sankevke an tamamuhu


(Then I took out a golden belt and fastened it around my



These lines repeat lines 41 to 46.


142. Asinan

nea kesto asinkoka:ri

_r_u_: oka:kara suv nave



~ ~m~a~n~u~:

(I '\'Tent outside, and walked along the wind 1ng road on 1-lhich
I walked everyday.)
14). Pave

nave anavne

~ ~

to: ca:keta suv nave


(I went on (and on and I again carne) to the edge of the

small lake. )
144. Ne:teh oro>ra nea nonto11o sohkara an esoanu manu:
(I spread the fine mat.)

145. Nevke


e'\'renne an einohna kara cink1 enirikaykehe an

(I put the 1-10rn side (side '\'11th torn corners} do\m and the
better side (side with good corners) u~.)

146. Teh orm-la tan1


no:noh oroo: 1tank1 ohcikeh

kasketa an amateh
(Then I placed the bowl on the tray with the offering dish,
which I carried with me.)

147. Tan1

pontoreo sohk~ra an eso?.nuva kasketa

2Q ~

(N'Ol'T I placed [the tray] on the fine mat which I had


148. An amateh oroa ~ suv tahkara ~ manu:

(After I pl~ced [the tray], I again danced.)

149. "Panuy, nauv, b!:r.uv horokc:no; Panuv, nanuv, hetake
yn.nwJa; Pauuv, nC!nuv, to:

ante: kunne Q!!!: ..!:! ukmrente

("Young de1 ty ma.n~ come quicl{ly to the land; let us make

love day and night.")
150. Nah




(I said this, and danced.)

151. Nevke tani to:

noskek~ 1nkBra a.n m8nu:

(Then I looked to~ard the middle of the lake.)




kamuv ho!'oke:no vans1rih1 an nu1{3.ra manu:

(I sav1 the young del ty ae;ain coming tovrard the land.)

l5J. Ne:teh oro,._.a na:ruyka tah'l-:ara an manu:
(Therefore I danced so:1e more.)
154. Tahkara anavne ne~ kamuv horoke:no tan1 to: ~a:keta yan
(Hhile I 't'ras dancing, the young deity landed on the shore
(at the edge of the lakcl.)

155. Yanih1 kusu



an e1-:1roro an !'e:koh t.ahl{ara


Olhen he landed, I was even more pleased and danced more

(very hard).)
156. Neyke nea kamuy horol{e :no tsni to:

cs :ta

yanteh s1 noranora

(The young deity now l.anded on the shore (at the edge of
the lake) and shook his body.)
157. Yav1-mhka tuytuye manu:
( Ee shook off the lrater.)

158. Ne: teh ormra

I!.E;~ ~



sohkara kasketa

(Then he came up to the fine mat l'!h1ch I had suread.



Ne?.nnehe.ku~u r~:koh ~ enunteu~

1 k 1: an manu:

(Therefore I \ms very nleased. )

160. l'Jeyke ne.:! k?.muv horoke:no





(And the young deity enbraced me, kissed me much [~any

times] and I was very ha-ppy.)
161. Ne:teh orowq tan1 neR Rn annqya uo:noh tRni




amateh tani an e:re !!l.qnu:

(Then I placed [on the mat] the offering dish which I
brought and let him eat.)
162. Ne:teh orowa tani e:a e:wa ornantene nonno an

--- ---- -------- -----

ipekes koro




(Then he kept eating (and eating), and later left a little

food remaining.}
l6J. Ne:teh





~ ~ om~mtene



oro'ITa tani re :koh usiko:.mravna anmra re :koh mrenuntehkfln

(Then I ate the leftovers; I finished 1 t and lTe embraced

each other (very !:!uch) and t:e "t-tere very pleased l'Ii th each
164. Ne: teh ore.: a tani i l l !! kunne ant o: !!! uko,:ente yayne
ki: ni:sahno

kamuy horoke:no re:koh m.n:ah manu:

(We made love day and night, and then the young deity
suddenly groaned.)
165. Neannehe lcusu


ehouemna kusu an nukarah9. neanne nea

kusu hekimo I!lqkan1h1 an rat!lu an hokukoro horoke:no

isanketa etaras kusu Rn manu:


(Therefore I was surprised and looked about; then my

husband \'rhoni I thought had _gone un to the mountains for
hunting was stand1~g in front [of ~e).)

io8: y8yne



klte eosihte manu:

(As the younF: <1eity f;roaned much, a harpoonhefld \:ent

through his back).
167. Eoisihte

nea K8":UY horo'ke:oo wRhK'3 onne re:'koh in8:w::t

reoun Manu:
(After being hit by [the har~oonhean], the you~g deity
"';ent tO\.' arc the lake, nnd, while >Jri thing, ""A'e nt offshore.)
168. Ne:teh orowa nea an hokukoro horoke:no re:koh ikovki:manu:
(Then my young


beat me hard [many


169. Ikoyki:ke re:koh surukehne ikara manu:

(As he beat me, he struck me as if I were a ball.)
170. Ne:teh


tani hosiuiwa


anne oman manu:

(Then I went home (to return).)

171. Neannehe kusu ok:l:kei:Q tani ne::1 nontomo sohk<3r::!
ukave tenkororo neA
hosini an


~ ~

n::1: an annateh tani ononi


('l'herefore I folded the fine mat and held in r.ty arms, and
I elsa held the tray~ and I now.headed back, fol1o~ing
[my husband].)
172. Cise ~ ne:teh oro~~a tani ~ise ohta oka.van ma.r.u:
(I then lived at


17J. Okavani:ke annene an hokukoro horoke:po



ki: manu:
(As tiree went by, my husband did not talk to me.)
174. Ne:teh orm:a tani
kasu okavanteh suv


suv otur. to: kasu oreh to:

e~imene:-~ ~h~e~k~i~m~o



{After t1ro or three days nassed. he again went hunting in

the mountains.)


175. Neannehe kusu okn:ketQ tan1


wo:v~Rn 1~eomanteh


k1: manu:

(Therefore I kept thinking (and thinking) about various


176. Ne :teh orat,a tani



(I thought [as follows].)

177. " kamuv horokc:no nooka an klri an yu:ninV.a'Kih<!i

1kusu k:mne sonno kusu
nevahka nave

ya;vyu: ni nka k1: kusu anoka

B.n easka:v ana 'kamuv horo'ke:no ohta nave

anmra an nukRra o1{;)," nah

~ ~


("Poor young deity ~:ho got hurt for no reason; since he

really hurt himself because of me, if uossible, I want
to go where he (the young deity) 1s and see [how he is
doing]," thus I thought.)

178. Neannehe kusu


re: koh yaysi;vuhte

.!2 caar.Ja.nuhu an

sahtewa an evavsivuhteh
(Therefore I dressed up very
(and dressed).)

179. Teh



and took out my treasure

tani else oro.-ra asinanteh nea hoko:vakova mun ru:

oka:kara paye


~ ~ ~

ca:keta pave

(Then I 1:ent out of the house and follovred the t<:inding

road; as I 'fralked, I arrived at the edge of the small


inkara an'koh

wahka onne reoun

kamuy horoke :no




an manu:

(As I looked, I saw a trail of blood dri~pings from the

young deity leading t0l'l'ard the "'rater. )

181. Neannehe kusu re :koh an eramm:en

kusu nea to: ca:keta


re:koh cis an mar.u:

(Therefore, since I felt very sad, I cried profusely at
the edge of the lake.)






tani ene an na:kRri mBnu:

(I ke'l_Jt crying (and crying) and then I thought [as

follows]. )



k3rnuv horoke:no

i~usu kan~e

vu:nintch omAn kusu

anoka nevahkq kamuv horoke:oo anne nqyeanuwa lnkarA an

("Poor young deity, since he got hurt because of me, I

should go ~here he (the young deity) is and see [how he
is doing], 11 I thus thought. )


l'!e~noehe 1-::usu tani N.Rhka O!lne rena .Rn manu:



(Therefore I headed tm:ard the water. )


185. To: ohta rena anteh orm!a t.Rni

tunke nohka oaye an

{At the lake I headed offshore, going under the 1.~ater.)

186. Pave !! n::we ~ navne tani to: ara.nehca:kew'l oecika an


(I went on (and on), and I crossed [the lake] and came up

to the other side.)

187. Ne:teh



inkarR ankoh ka~uv horokc:no hemihi


ruKehe oka:kara


to: onne

enrum an amnu:

(Then I looked about; follol'ring the trail of blood drippings from the young deity, I went up and saw a big rock
near the lake.)

188. Nevke

~ enr~~ tunka ~ ~

ErQ tuhso ahun manu:

(A very large cave was going far into the rock.)

189. Nea tuhso

~ ~

kamuy ahun ru . . rehe an mGnu:

(There was a trace indicating. that the deity had gone into
the cave.)

190. NeRnnehe kusu tuhso



neq tuhso

~~=~etR ~nq~qruhu




ohta etarRs an1h1



hq~-r ~

(Therefore as I stood at the side of the entrance to the

cave, 1 heard a very loud ~oan in the cave.)
191. Neanne he kusu s 1 o~1t:cre

(Therefore I

192. Ne:vke



[to notify my nresence].)

uunk1 l!lere!.:ono mahte!cu



(The girl, Nho t-ras a guard at the door, opened it (the


19J. "Nea.n merelwoo

inkara; nah ive:


(She said to oe, "Tr.e young- lady, come in and look about.")

194. Neanuehe kusu


sauaha oro:!:J erii




ne~ kR~UV horo~e:no


eoT.anteh oro1-:a ke:mah<l.

ta: uturuketg




kosi te: susu kusu A.n

(As I entered, I sa~ the young deity lying '!71th his head
on an elevated pillow, his f~et on an elevated ~illow,
and his body [ betl'1een the two] groaning and "tTri thing [in

195. Neannehe kusu tani

kasihuve a.n kasihuyeteh ta :ta okA.van

(Therefore I took care of him, and sper.t time [in the cave]
taking care of him.)

196. Nea kamuv horoke:no ?.n karakara macirihianvohkarakara vavne

nea mac1r1h1ka nanl !!.!! nirika
(I took care of the young deity and the scars "'~hich I took
care of gradually became healed.}

197. Tan1 henna tuh





reh cuhl{q okayanFJ.yne ne:teh tani

bw7.1 okore


:na hemaka


(After two or three months had passed, the scars

198. Ne:teh oro...,ra


anoene nlrik::t okayno 2..n. kl: ani okqvan

{Thereafter I l1v~1 very h~p~lly [with the deity].)

199. Tan1 otuh

kasu oreh


o~ayan n~vne


umurehno: an koro


{After two or three years had passed, I gave blrth to a

boy and a girl.)

tani hekf!.ve

~ 11~rn.e ~

l{ohekAve hokusteh



{(While I spent my life li~e this,) I beca~e old; I became

older and I finally died.)
201. Ne: teh orOira ka:nuv kotan oht:::!.

~ ko~o oo:hoh~1n


re:koh manka

:ke so :ka ene inu:




{Then I went to the world of the deities; as I heard the
nelrs of the ~-rorld of the 11 ving Ainu, I learned that my
children had become ver;,r great.)
202. Nah teteh tan



{Thus the story is ended.)

Notes {for Tale 7)

As discussed in the not~ for l. 2 of Tale 6, the Ainu term
yuh means primary ga:ae animals.
In this sentence, ho\'rever, yuh
is used in contrast to usaan k~m1~ (various animals}; thus yuh
are bears, the most imoortant ga~e ani~al and, at the same
time, the supreme deities of the Ainu.
lJ. An oto~n is a rectangular
on opposite sides.


vessel with two handles,

The Ainu cook food ln a vessel ~hich hangs by the handles

on a hook suspended fro~ the ceiling directly over the fire in
the hearth.

15. The oto~{?. here is a bml for eating; the Ainu use a
different oto~a for mixing food and eating.
20. The oh"l~., (rice-gruel) is rice coo}:ed in a large amount of
water. See che note for 1. 64 of Tale 1.
22. For the cultural exolanat1on of the tetara 1oe (rice), see
the notes for 1. 62 and 1.64 of Tale 1.

Slsto:no is the


To: oirate is the time immediqtely after sunrise.


The uo:ooh is food cooKed to offer to the deitles.


of sunrise.

)9. When the dishes are offered to the dead or to the deities,
Ainu custo~ calls for heaoing the food in a container in the
shape of a ball. This s~aoc is called s~nqoi. (The Jauanese
have the same custom; therefore they abhor rice heaped in
a bowl served t~ living people.)

The eto:nin1!:::t:ri are l;:1rr;e earrin3s, larger than ordinary

ones which are called nink8:ri. The Ainu earrings are large
metal rings, and some eto:nink~:ri are as lar~e as J inches in
diameter. The eto:nink~:ri are'more treasured than regulRr
nink~:ri, and they are 1:orn only on special occasions.
are often considered as status symbols and enjoyed by so-called
kahkemah (vri ves of great men).

44 . The tak~run kiro are shoes with pointed tins, similar to

Korean sboes. The Ainu treasure these shoes and .11ear them
only on special occasions; for everyday use they 'i!ear regular
kiro (ho )(shoes). Not .everyone has these shoes. They are
also considered as status sy~bols. I am not sure if the
takarun kiro l!ere actually Korean shoes l!r.ported by the Ainu.

45. The _EontoTlo so~k~ra are better quality rus::~. (rngts) -.:'lith
designs. The terr.1 is synonymous vrith atunoe('S"ee the note for
1. 196 of Tale 1.)
46. Husko explained that since the Ainu chose easy ground to
walk on, their road often 1ras ~rindinc:;.

55. Huska exolained that the lroman is calling the guardian

del ty of the lakes, irhlch 1 s a seal (see "Brief com.'"!lent ").
57. Huska did not kno>r the meaning of oa:uuv.

It nerhaus is
a meaningless phrase to keep the time or the rhythm:


As explained in the notes for lines 196.and 197 of Tale 1,

the Ainu believe that religious ~ersons acqulre suoer-Ainu
power l'Thich enables the:.:~ to sPe :ie1 ties (land and sea mammals)
as humans, while ordinary Ainu see them only as ani~als. Often

in stories, however, youn~ women, who apoarently do not have
this su~er-A1nu cower, m~rry deltics Yhom the women recognize
as humans, rather than ~nimals.
In this sentence the ~oman tells that she saw a seal
co81ns to~ard the sho~e from the middle of the lake, but when
it was on the land and shook the water from its body, it was
a good-looking man.
162. It is an Ainu custom, as Hus'rco exnlained, that a man
leaves a bit of what he eats, cqlled 1nekes (as in the sentence),
and gives to the wom~n he likes.
Only male lovers, however, can
give their ioekes (leftovers) to their wo~en in front of other
people; fe~~les c~nnot ~ive inekes to their men in nublic.
Another means of co:nmunic~.tion bet:reen the lovers is an exchange
of imoka (gifts). Men give meat an~ fish which they had
acquired by hunting ~nd fishing to their l-!Ornen; .:wmen give
clothing they have made to their men.
The exchange of leftovers and gifts is the_most ef~ective
and favored ~eans of communication between lovers. An outright
verbal expression is not only considered to be in bad taste,
but may be regarded as an offensive act of vavesiante, i.e.,
to ridicule a person. In fact, a direct verbal expression or
physical gestures in oublic can result in the payF-<ent of a
penalty to the offended oarty--often the oarents of the offended
party-if so decided by the peo?le of the community.
The exchange of leftovers and gifts as the means of
expressing affection is not restricted to lovers, but occurs
bettleen family members, relatives, and good friends. Hothers,
for exa.mole, often leave to their children some of their food,
especially something scarce or some of the treat she received
when in~ited to a house for a meal.
169.I am uncertain about the translqtion of this line.
translated into English what HusKo translated fro~ Ainu lnto
191. The sionkere is a coughing or clearing of one's throat
in front of the entrance to another's residence. See also the
note for 1. 196 of Tale 1.
192. Husko explained that this young girl wa.s the


201. This statement indicates that the woman uoon death went
to kRmuy kotan (world of the deities)
instead of the regular
world of the dead Ainu called ~uru un kotan.
Thus, the
statement indicates thRt upon death-she achieved the status
of a deity. See "Brief comment."

Tale 8:

Itesen1: ov~s1 (A loom-rod demon)

Brief co::.-aent:
Hus~o related a brief outline of the story in Japanese
on November 21, 1965, qnd the comnlete story in Ainu on March
4, 1966, ~hich is recorded in the following. She classified
this story as an u~~sku~~.
The 1tesen1: (1~ese (to weave)+ ni: (tree, wooden stick))
is a rod used for A. loom on 11hich to ,.,ea:\Te mats (~). The
women usually owned several of these.
In this story an
abandoned rod for a loom becomes an old woman.
Huska, however,
at one time said th3t the rods usually became sword-demons.
This story, as did Tale 2, again illustrates the l'iBY in
which a household object or a tool becomes a demon if it 1s
abandoned unbroken by the owner (for a detailed discussion of
this belief, see "Brief comment" for Tale 2).
Subject: An aban1oned rod for a loo~ became a de~on in the
:form of an old vrom?..n -vrho killed and then ate visitors to her
A wise elder eventually kills her with an arrow.
Synonsis: Long ago at a certain settlement, there was a rod
:for a loo~ which somebody abandoned without breaking it as they
moved out of the settlement.
Once a great chief of a certain settlement travelled in
his tv~el ve-:tan boat to visit neonle in another settlement.
Of the tvrel ve servants in the boat, six ~rere. weak and six were
strong. As it became dark, they apnroached an emnty settle- .
ment. They decided to stay there and the chief ordered one of
his weak servants to go up the road_and investigate. Snarks
were coming out of the skylight of a house. The servant who
went to investigate failed to come b? Another 1-1eak one t-rho
was sent to investig~te did not come back either. Eventu~lly,
all of the six !'!eak =en ~ad gone up the r.oad and not returned.
The chief later ~!ent un the roaq. alone except for his lead
As he opened the door of the house, he saw a gray-haired
woman hopping around the hearth and crying "Koh, koh," as she
cooked h~~an heads on the fire. The chief threw h~lead do5
into the house and clcsed the door. Hearing a cry frorn the dog,
he fled down to the boat where his six strong men were waiting.
They lrent back to their settlement. After two or th::;:oee
days, so~e brave ~en gathered and headed to the settlement of
the demon.
As the niFht approached, they went close to the settle~ent
of the de~on. They all held the1~ spears and bows and went un
the road.
As before~ sParks were coming out of the skylight.



They heard the noise of the de~on fro~ in~lde th~ house. The
chief loo~ed into the hou~e ~hrou~h a knothole an~ as before
fou~d the old wo~an cooking hu~an heads ~hile ho~ping around
the hearth cryins "Koh, koh."
They then Ri~ed Rt the center of her chest and shot her.
Fortunately, the de~on ~as killed instantly. Then they found
an old rod for a loom ~ith an arro~ stuck in its ~iddle lying
on the upper seat of the house.
Thanks to the chief and his men, there ~ere no nore evil
events in this deserted settle2ent and people travelled safely.


oht2. ns.koro un henke ut::trP.he ahci utarahe

(Long ago there were male and female elders somewhere [in
a settlement].)

O:va kotan

tuh en.8.vehci neYke iteseni: areanno

hohn::1cihtEh P::tvehci manu:

('1/hen they moved to another settlement, they left behind
a loom-rod as it \'las [ 1ri thout breal'::ing 1 t into nieces].)


Ne :teh






tani nB.'koro un nisuRhe or:1an


(One year during the SQ~mer, a great elder ~assed by [the

settlement ~here the looc-rod was left behind].)


Usb:ehehcin h:anso:us<Hs
(His servants


Ne:~ke ~




1n a six-man



ni s-Da tani tuyma o'lanruru l{Ot8.n onne uta s:::t eonan

(The elder went to visit a distant settlement.)




-- -

iwanso:uscis ~
ruv kusu 1wanso: wen kuru .;;;_...;:.;.;.:.;;:;...~

siko:cino:reteh nayehci manu:

(Six strong men on one side and six weak men on the other
side rovred the six-man-beat [h!el ve-man boat] (and went). )


.!'!eyke "DR:vehci vavne onu:m?..n o:nan manu:

(As they travelled, night came.)





sineh kotRn ohtR

m8nuvke oha kotan ne:

(\o/hen they came to



Neyke tani sirikunne


settlement, they found it empty



kusu neq oha kotan ohta


(Since it was dark, they prepared to suend the night at

the deserted settlement.)

10. Ne: teh


nea!l nah


(Then the elder sald.)




ne: sineh avnu tara cise


("My servants, one nerson [one of you] should go up to the
house to investigate".)

12. Neannehe kusu sukuh kuru sineh avnu cise onne makan mRnu:


- -

- -



(Therefore, a young man went up [the road] to the house.)

lJ. I1-1o:neka kusu nevke CSise nu:v oro"ra unci miro uaranahse
paranahse nah



(As he investigated, sparks were coming out of the skylight.)

14. Ne: teh orm,a nea a::vnu -:n9.kan manu:

(The man went up [the road].)


Makanihi neanne annene sanka

hank~ ~anu:

(Although he v1ent up, he did not come back dovm.)


Hosini"ka han"ki: manu:

(He did not return.}

17. Neanpehe kusu suy s1neh :;.ynu ho:!leka kusu makan manu:
(Therefore another man went .unto investigate.)

18. Nev?.hka


noke ket::t ouy orm''3_

un~ 1 ~1 r0


n8.h an

(Meantime sparks were coming out of the skylight.)

19. Neannehe kusu suy sineh




(However, when another [the third] man

disappeared. )
20. Suv sineh

a~rnu makR.n1~.:o


up, he also

anoene isRm

(Again another man went up and disappeared.}

21. Ki: :vavne

"tten kuru hranso oV.ore i sP..m

(Neantio.e the six


men disappeared.)

22. Kotan koro nisoa tani isauh setaha tura



(The chief of the settlement and his lead dog then \'rent

2J. Ne:vke

~ c~hke~ra. ~ise ~

inkaraha neanne annene an

sauaha tetara avnuhe o:vasi aneramu



ene ki: kusu


(He [the elder] onened the door and looked at the house;
indeed there was a l"Thite-haired human-like demon (or
sone unidentifiable creature).)


~ noro_un~1



iwo:neka utah




ovKa:rirnua nea

ci:re kusu an manu:


(She }:as making a fire, a big fire, and 1:as barbecuing

heads of those who [had come to] investigate; all of the
heads trere placed around the hearth.)

25. Ene ki: manu:

(This is what she was doing.)
26. Un~1 oyk?..:rimua tuhse ani. "koh koh," nah ki: ani nea aynu

2X.. kokir1na ani ci:re kusu


{All around the hearth she hopped, crying "kohl koh_," and
cooked those ~ny heads by turning them over.)

27. Ne~nuehe kusu
onn3vne an

ehouer.wr.J. kusu nea





set:=\h"'l else


(Therefore since I [the chief] was surprised, I threH my

lead dog into the house.)

28. Ne:teh

orm~a ~ .!!

hawehe ka:ri



~ ~

~ ..!!

is3.uh setaha a.r8h!'!e

nu: manu:

(As I closed the door, I heard the lead dog cry; it cried
29 .Ne:teh oro..,ra kira


cise ohta sauan manu:


(I fled from the house

the road).)

JO. Ruy kuru hranso an mAnu:

(The six strong men were there.)

renaan n::anu:
(The six strong men rmred the boat very hard and ro-,:ed
to . . rard offshore. )

)2. Ne:teh orow3. tan1 kanna

kotanuh ohta. hosini an

kohosini a.nki:teh an


(I (again) returned to my house, returned to my settlement.)

JJ. Ne:teh ormra tani tuh !.!_ ka reh to: ka okava!'lteh tani
re :koh manka avnu nateh


au~-'e :k~:~

:ri kavra ne: teh



(After two or three days had passed, I assembled only so~e

(very} brave men; then I [\ore] returned to the settlement
[of the demon].)

)4. Cis ani ~ onu:m3.n eh~nke kanne ~ kotan ohta sirenq:

.@.!! manu:
(We rotred the boat and 1 t was evening as


arr1 ved at the


(The brave men all held spearR and bows and

(Then we

J?. Neyke





uo the

to the outside of the house.)

ariki P-.r.1.h1 ne:no ouv



uec?.n oa:oo

an mAnu:

(And it ...,!as as before {"vthen they came before); a thin

stream of smoke was coming out of the skylight.)

(As usual, we heard the demon [the sound of the demon

hopping sround and cooking].)

39. "Koh koh koh,"

( "Koh


n9.h ki:


an kusu a.n

1wh" l'!as heard.)

40. Neannehe kusu honnuy ka:ri else

c 1 :re



~ ~

nukar8hrl ne!3.nne

~ t:l!3.!1U:

(When I looked through a knothole in the house, she was,

9.S before, cooking half of the dead men's heads.)

41. "Koh koh!' nah 1{i:


unci oy1{a: rl moA. tuhse ani ahkas kusu

an manu:
(Crying thus "l{oo, koh," she hopped (and v!alked) around
the hearth.)
42. Neanpehe kusu nea m.'JnkP.. ohkavo




o:vasl 'kotoroho nlri kana

kara co he a manu:

(Therefore the brave men aimed at the demon's chest, and

shot through a knothole.)

4). Neyke nea

rer::truhu noskil<e oohl<a

!2Y. tonous m?.nu:

(And the arrow stuck in the middle of the demon's chest.)

44. Kerav kusu

t:'l.:t-8. r::~ylcih~i


(Thank goodness, the demon was killed (there).)

45. Ne:teh


ne'=l. ni:s?-.hno



(Then the demon suddenly disappeared.)


~irahtehtevke is~m ~anu:

(It disappeared and thus 1ms gone.)

47. Ne: teh sineh ,

i tesenl: noskeke poh1c?.. f!.L tO!!!Ousteh

rort:nso: t9. hq: ~ i rl teh an m.:mu:

(Then [they sa'l1] a very big rod for a loor.J. Ni th an arrot-:
stuck in the middle lying (had fallen down) on the upper
seat [of the house].)

48. Keray kusu


neannehe orowa ta: kotgn ka:rl


(Thank goodness, during the surn:ner and trinter [all of the
year], men can walk around the settlement because the
evll h:=tppenings have disappeared. )
Nah an


kavki husko ohta an manu:


(This story occurred long ago.)

Notes (for Tale 8)

J. Even among elders (called henke or ekas), men who are

called nisoa are vlell respected, e.g., the chief of a settlement.
An h1anso:us~is (ttlelve-man boat)(i,,!an (six) +so: (side)
+ us (at} + <! 1 s (boat)) is a host on e<wh side of vrhlch there
ares1x men !=0\.:inf,. It is the tyoe of boat as the one
used by Yavresu:no in the crane demon story (Tale 4).




the term utas~ means to visit soneone for nle3surc, not

for business.

22. A kotan koro nisnq is chief of a settlement. In this line

the elaer is clearly identified as chief of a settle~ent.
An isauh set~(h~) is a lead do~ for n~su (do 0 sled). The
sled and dogs <tOcether called nusu) are one of fe'" properties
o~med by the Ainu.
For each sled-,-they use a leader, a second
dog, and varying nu:nbers of do~s, un to c-1bout 25.
All of them
are castrated males, trained since they were punoies.
Competent leaders are e~tremely important and hence are
treasured by the Ainu.
The SRkhalin Ainu use these doF~S for nulling sleds during
the winter.
During the su~mer, when they travel by boat,
a rope is extended to the dogs on shore, if conditions are
favorable, and the boat is towed along.
This custom,
described by Husko, is also reported in early records {T. Mogam1
1800: 469; S. Kondo 1804: n.p.).
In this story, the chief apparently had his dogs along as
he travelled.
Although the sex of the demon is not stated in the story,
Husko. explained that the demon 1ras a gray-h9.1red old 'l-roman.


From this line, the elder relates the story in the first
person singular.


For the meaning of rorunso: {upper seat), see the note

1. 96 of Tale 1.)

49. After the




kusu ova

Husko explained:
}{ot;~n ~ ~

tuh eoman ohtP.. i tesen1:

areanno o muhk!=>.nne hohoa 11:orn.q ne: !:lanu:



sikahtene ne: menu:

(Therefore, when one moves to another settlement, it
is taboo to leave behind a rod for a loom. Evil
things may happen.)

Tale 9:


(The oldest brother res id in.?; et the ri veY-

Brief com:r.P.n':::
~usko outlined !his tale ln Jno~ncse on February 22, 19~6.
On February 2), 1966, she relsted the entire tale in Ainu as
recorded 1n the following.
She classified the tale as an

The story describes ~n Ainu belief that R mgn with sunerAinu power c'3n sec ~h~t ordinary Ainu cannot (this belief was
illustr~ted in Tale 7.)
Thus, in Tale 9 only the oldest of
the three brothers o~ssesses suocr-Ainu oower which enables
him io see n rat de~on.
It is also significant that the
oldest brother resi~es at the river head in the mountains~ the
Ainu consider the mount~ins ~s the most sacred area of the
universe. Like T~le 4, this story is another illustration of
a m~mber of an ordinary species turning into a demon.
In this
story, a rat ~puears as a de~on, ~lthou3h nor~ally the Ainu do
not consider .rats as being demons. The Ainu, however, take
considerable cgre to keep the rats frota harming their l~i.nter
supply of food.
Subject: Th::--ee ~:d_ic..cent settlc:::1ents along a river each hnd one
of tb~ee b~ot~c~s a8 c~lc~;the.oldest brother resided at the
riverhead, the middle. one at the middle reaches of the river
and the youn~est one at the river ~outh. Only the oldest
brother-had super-Ainu power and hence was able to see a rat
demon 'lrhich an ordinary Ainu could not see; this rat had been
damaging the food supplies of the tKo settlements of the tKo
younger brothers. The oldest brother successfully killed the
Synopsis: Long ago, there were three adjacent settlements
along a river. The chiefs of these settlements Mere brothers.
The oldest resided at the upoer reaches of the river, th~
middle brother at the rnindle re~ches,and the youn~est one at
the river mouth.
One rl~y the oldest brother heArd ru~ors that
at the .settlements of his two younger brothers the food was
disap-pearing. Thus the Peo-ple in these set tle!ncnts -..rer.e dying
of hunger, and yet nobody kne'l': the cause. Therefore, one
morning he Ment down the mountain to investigate the situation
at the middle brother's settlement.
As he sat down to smoke
on the river bank near the middle brotr<'r's settlement, he sa'~
a big hairy arm co:n-1ng out fro:::~. the r1 ver bank on "!-lhich he ...~as
s1tt1ng. The arm reached the opposite side, and then went
1nto a storage house in the settlement. Pulling out a huge
bundle of dried trout, the arm went back into the river bank
on which the older brother was sittin~. "The arm repeated this
When the arm came out of the -river bank for the third


time, the oldest brother nrcn~red his bo~ and arTov.
As the
arm comPleted th~ third trio ~nj CPGe ou~ of the river b~nk
for the fourth time, h~ shot at it. The ar~ shook and
withdrew into the river bank.
The oldest brother nol' shouted to:~rd the other bank
asking for someone to come for him.
The servants of the
middle brother took hi~ to their settle~ent in a boat. As the
oldest brother walked around the settle~ent, he saK that many
people had died of hunger and others ~ere barely survivir .
lie took those men who could still function to the river b~.~i
where the rat demon m~de its den.
As they dug out the dirt arou~d the den, they could hear
the gro~ning of the rat demon. They stabbed and sliced the
demon into pieces to distribute its fleGh to all of the grass
and trees in the universe. They also carried out the food
which the rat had stolen and stored in its den, and brought
it back to their settlement across the river.
Thus the oldest brother killed the demon just in time to
save all the peoole in the three villages.


Huska ohta oyanruru kot:;.n an

(Long ago, there





~ nqy


a settler.1.ent on the shore.)

ta: t::1



(There was a very large river there.)


Ovanruru kotan navhe ohtR. r.RYhe etokota kiyanne ohkayo nay

etokota vavlcotan koro manu:
(Along the upper reaches of this river (at the settlement
on the shore), the oldest brother had his settle~ent.)


Oro~ra inosl-:i un ohka:vo ::1av tonl{eta ~ur.tomunkuh nuhtonta

yayl{otan koro manu:

(The middle brother was at the middle reaches of the river;
he (the one at the middle reaches of the river) had his
settlement alan~ the middle reaches of the river.)

(At the river mouth, the youngest brother had his settlement.)




nohk:1. in,;:<oh 1<1: ene

inul<u!{i r.,;hto::mn

kotan wenteh kl: mqnu:

(The birds said th~t both the settlement on the ~i~dle
reaches of the river ~nd thqt at the mouth of the river
\'Tere being destroyed by something rese:nbl1ng a de~o!l.)


Ki:ke aynu 1ne



sineh ukura!l sineh ult:uran



(Night after ni~ht (the human food,) all of the


K1: ya;vne kot:lr. ::1n

(In the


(Kany [of



an g_vnuk::1






all of the people in the settle=ent died.)

died from hunger.)

(Thus the rumor spread [to the oldest brother's sett!ement]. )

11. Penkeankuh r.e:teh oro:.:-a sineh to: n1sahta tani

kimma san nanu:

(One day at sunrise~ the brother at the unner reaches of
the river got dressed a~d came do'lm the mountain.)
12. Tan nuhtom kotqn onne !wo:neka esan ki:





(He came down to inves~ig3.te the settlement on the

reaches of the river.) -

1J. Esan ki :teh oro::a tani nuhtonta


~ ~~

(As he came down the ~ou~tain, he came upon the settlement

on the middle reaches of the river.)

14. Santeh orowa




( (As he came do"m,) he sat on the river bank.)

15. Ne:teh orowa tani




(Then he took out tobacco container.)


kis~yt;_h ~ ::;s1n1~etch

Teh tani


t:'J:tP. it:u: :rr.7<nu:

(Then he took out his pipe and smoked it there [on the
river bank].)

17. Iku:









oht~ ~




us teh ns1n mqnu:

{While smoking, he saw a very biE arm ~ith hair growing

on it comin~ out of the river bnnk on which he wes sitting
and resting:}

18. Asinteh





{As it came out, it reacr.ed over the river {to the other



teh si turh:;a e.!'anehcA.: ene ueci ka

(The arm stretched a.nd reached to the other side of the


20. Neanoehe kusu uirikano nukara manu:

(Therefore he [the oldest brother] 1ratched closely.)

~!B.ker.e ~

neh era-:::3. an kusu oiri kano nukara manu:

-(He watched closely and wondered where it was heading.)

22. 1-Jea nokan ra;nuhu ou :~..~ehe onne nea teh

---- --- --- ----


(The arm went into the storage house of the middle


23. Ne:teh nukara yayne


nea teh

~ EE1_ oro,~a

asin manu:

(As he [the oldest brother] 11as watching, the arm can:e out
of the storage house.)

24. Asinihi nukr:lra nea!'lue



navtom tuve

enooke kene sivoni :-..ravne


~ ~


sahue !!lU.Ye anoateh asin


toy tunke ene nav ururu

n2y ururu ennoke Y.:er.e


ahun manu:
(As he watched it co:ning out, he sal'!_ that 1 t held a very
large bundle of dried trout; it then crossed the river,
and .it went into (the dirt of) the river bank; it ;o~ith
dreH itself into the river bank.)


(As he a~ain ~atched, he saw the arm, the bi~ ar~ ~ith
hair e;ro't!ins on it, co'ile out of the river bank, and reach
to the other side of the river.)

26. Nukara neanne ~

suv --nea nu: ---onne ---ahun ~--manu:
(As he watched, the arm again went into the storage house.)
27. Ponno g.n teh


asin !11anu:


(After a short \oJhile, the arm again came out.)

28. Suy


sahne muve annateh nea

~ oro~ra

El!:! mA-nu:

(It again held a huge bu!1dle of dried trout as it came out

of the storace house.)

29. Heanuehe !tusu niri K?.nno


neanue suY nea ururu

ennoke kene ahun mqnu:

(Then as he [the oldest brother] watched closely, it [the
arm] again \'lent into the river bank.)

(As it went in this tiffie, he thought he should shoot the

Jl. Ku: kasketa

amateh evo:ko manu:

(He placed an arrolt1 to his bow and prepared [to shoot it].)
J2. Inkara yayne

~ ~


us teh ururu enncke1...-a suy

asin manu:
(As he \'ras t-satching, the huge hairy arm (the huge arm 1-rith
hair gro..ring on it) again came out from the river bank.)
JJ. Tan1 asinteh neannehe kusu

teh nirikano nuKara omantene


(When the arm came out, he aimed and shot it.)

J4. Tek esivasiva

(The arm shook.)



Evonteteh m3nu:

'"i thdrelr. )

J6. Ne:teh orOiTa



kf-lyo: manu:

(He [the oldest brother] shouted toNard the other side of

the river.)

37. "EnekRnu1<an


nA.h lelvO:


(He shouted, "Come and get me, co~e and get me.")


Nevke nur..tor.!U:r:! nlsna


as in manu:

(The servants of the chief at the settle~ent on the middle

reaches of the river came out (of the house of the middle

39. l"Je: teh orov::>. ten i nenkeankuh ek8nuh mqnu:

(Then they [the servants] ca!T!e to t;et the brother from the
upper reaches of the river.)

40. Nea ushJ neanuehe


tani nea cis an o :teh


((Because the servants caffie,) I [the oldest brother] got

into the boat and crossed the river (to the other side).)

41. Eneteh else K3.:r1 ahkasanu'!:a inkara



anihi neanne ray


(I i'ialked around and looked at all of the houses and found

many dead people.)
42. Wenco:ka slsnu

utahka okay

(There [also] were many men "'..rho Kere barely surviving.)

43. Neannehe kusu

-- __.._


lre :karlka -an kl: .;.::.::::...:..:~


(Therefore I gathered the people [1-1ho t-~ere still alive].)

44. Ne:teh orowa tRn1 nea aranehca: ene ueci"k3 an manu:

(Then I crossed the river (to the other side).)

45. Aynu renkavne :.!'.!


lro: v:=wn orunue an Rnu-:tteh tan1

(I took ~lth ~e ~any people, nnd (carried) vnrious tools;
and we crossed the river (to the other ~ide).)

46. Ne:teh

crow~~o ne~



ov3s1 tch




usl:k0h~ ~eR


(We completely dus in the river bank.where the arm of the

demon had co~e out.)

47. Au::entehcl


ki:tov tum ene re:koh ven nero



an kusu

an manu:

(After -v~e h8.d dug further, '"e heard the huc:e rat groanins
inside the dirt [river bank].)

48. Neanuehe kUS'..l

ne :teh


oro:~8.. ~ ur"'..lru"'{~.


utah an

a.u~~entehci ~

to:vche otore

tumket::J. ne: ro~ 1 neov lneP.Juv




ok9.:'-r m8nU:

(Therefore I encoura~ed the workers by shouting (more a~d

more); ~hen :::ts ..~e ha.d co!!~Pletely re!!loved the dirt fran the
river bank, we found a hu~e amount of food {in the dirt).)





utA.r8. an


1uemuy utah eciru :rBta e.r8.nehc8. ta:

ru :r::J.hci manu:

{I encouraged the t-!orkers 111 th more shouting, and they

quickly carried out the food; they carried the food to
the other side [of the river].)

50. Ru:rahci


in1t'3.rA.h~1"'{o ~ ~

tunta antP.h nu. ~9.h

~ ~

erumu oyasi r:ea tov


{'tfhile carrying out [the food], tore

demon groaning in the dirt.)

51. Neanuehe kusu ta: eru!!lu ovasi an


the very large rat



tatak1hci m.'
(Thus we stabbed and sliced the rat demon into pieces.)


Ne:teh oroNa t!'lni eneteh nun eneteh ni: na.h avive:ne

{Then I distributed [the flesh of the rat] to all the

existing gr~ss and all the existing trees.)


5J. Ne:tch t::tnl orat:::t


kusu r.e;; e!'tt:::u ov::1si :Jn rAvkhm

(Thus, thank goodness, I

54. Ani


had killed the rat de~on.)

kusu ar. koro kotanuhuh~i~ ~n ekn:~Psuknrah~i


kotar. P3nke nn kotRn an



(Thank goodness, I saved the neonle in my settlement; I
saved the settle~ent or. ~he middle yeaches of the river
and the settlement on the lower reaches of the river.)

Notes (for Tale


1. As I discussed in the not~ for 1. 2 of Tale 1, the term

kotan refers to various kinds of territorial units. In this
se~~ence, it represents the entire territory along the river
lr.cludlng all three of the settlements, rather than just one.
Undoubtedly, these three settlements belong to the family of
these three brothers.
~-lhen Busko outlined the story on February 22, 1966,. she
said that the settle~ent of the ~11dle brother ~ns the largest
of the three; it had the largest population.


The terms n?.'T tonke tq 3-nd ~uht or.~A. are synony:r.ous and
mean the middle reA.chcs of a rive::- (the forn::er is ordinary
diction and the latter a word used by the elders).
Thus, the
location of the settle~ent of the middle brother is repeated.


The part of a river 'lrhich in English is called "rl ver

mouth " is also referred to here as river mouth (n.9v = river;
c!ara = nouth); in oldr Ainu diction, ho1;ever, it is called
:l?..J! ~ (the lower ooenlns {anus) of a river).
In former
t!~es, the Ainu considered the rivers as wocen; th~ "river
mouth" is their lm:er opening (Chiri 1954 : 457-460). Thus
their head lies in the mountains, which is the roost sacred
area to the Ainu.
Since the Ainu believe th~t the head of a river lies in the
mountains, they call the uooer reaches of the river oenke
(head) and the lmzer reaches l).q!'lke {lo\o;er p~rt).
The phrase
D:}.nkc 8n lcot.qn thus means "the settlerr.ent !lt the lo\ter reaches
of the river."


For the dlscussion of the ohrsse ~iknh nero oohk~ inu: Qn
kohl< 1 (to hear ViR. the graocvine), sec the remarks for 'l'Ale2
(Ho. 2).

24. S:1h~e ~uve (drled trout) 3re one of the prim9ry food
supplies for winter.


From this point, the oldest brother relates the story.

54. Hhen I as'cced Huska about l!hat had h9.ppened to the settlement of the youngest brother located at the river ~outh, she
explained th~t the rat de~on first attacked the settleffie~t of
the youngest brother.

This story about three brothers see~s to belong to a

type of Ainu stories in which t~o uersons with op~osite
characterlstics aonegr. One lives on ~he upper re~ches of a
river and the other on. the lm'er reaches. Chiri fou!'!d a number
of stories of this tyoe bo~h in Hokkaido and Sakhalin (Chirl
1937 and 1955).
Husko' s story transcr1 bed here d lffers in a 'fer i!!loort.;mt
points fro~ those collected by Chiri.
In Qll of the stories
presented by Chiri, there is no kinshiP tie between the oerson
living on the upper re8.ches of a river and the one on the
lower reaches. Also, all of the~ involve t~o characters,
instead ofhaving a middle one as in the story told by Eusko.
In the stories by Chiri, the main plot is the contest between
two humans; often the contest about how to outsmart a deity.
In Busko's story, on the other h:1nd, there is no contest of any
kind bet 'Ire en the humans. Finally, in the msjori ty of Chiri' s
stories, the person living on the lower reaches of a river
(oanl{esnlmx [sic]) is the wiser, although Chiri fou!1d that in
some areas, such as Teshio on the northern tip of Hokkaido,
the person living on the lo~er reaches of a river is the fool
(Chiri 1955: 257-258). In the seven Sakhalin stories of Chiri,
the person living on the unoer reaches of a river anoears as
the fool. Five of these Sakhalin Ainu stories 't:ere collected
and the other two.are from the west coast.

Tale 10:

0\m<Jknsne (\-fomen v1ith teeth in their V8.ginA.)

::.r l e f c O:i!':lC n t :
husko lear!"~ed this story from Set~ne1:oro v:ho r:as at the
same time one of her father's co-~lves and her first
husband s mother (her husband 1:as a son of Sct:'!ne"l{oro and
her second husband "rho ~~as not Husko' s fath:!r; nus}~o does not
consider her husband as her s ibllnE~). !\ccord in.s to Iiusko,
Setanekoro often told this story when there was a gathering
of people.
Husko recited the story to me on February 27, 1968.
After the recitation, she said that the story might have
been a Hokkaido Ainu story. Later she denied her state~ent
and said it was a Sakhalin Ainu story, but the story took
place somewhere near Sokkaido. She then explained ho~ it
took place as follows:
One time a group of elders went to Kaiba-to (this is a
Japanese designation for a very small islRnd north of Rebun
Island, or west of northern tip of Hokkaldo~ Busko forgot
the Ainu name for this island; many sea lions gather on this
island) to catch sea lions (et~sne in Ainu)(EuTetoniRs jubA.ta
(Schreber)(Chiri 1962: 165)). They encountered a sea storm
on their way to the island and drifted to another island
where the story takes place. Husko, therefore, thinks that
the island lies near Hokkaido. The s1~ord, lrhich one of these
men used in the story, was kept by some Sakhalin Ainu during
Husko' s time, trhich proved to the Ainu that the story actualiy
JUdging from the lack of details, it seems to me that
Huslco only rerneiTibered the main the!nes of the story, and it
is not one of the best in her repertoire.
Sub 1ect: This is a story about olm3~<Usne "'!.rho are the women
livins on a certain island and having teeth in their vagina.
Synons1s: Some elders fro~ Sakh3lin once drifted to an
island during foggy ~-:eather Nhile they ~o~ere hunting sea
:mammals. On this island there ""Vras an Ainu settlement.
the elders entered a house on the island, they found only
'"omen. The v~o:nen liked the men so much that they scrambled
with one another in order to sleep with the elders. These
women, however, were the women with teeth in their vagina
and hence lethal to sleen with. One of the elders was clever
enough to insert a sword in a woman's vagina at the time of
intercourse and the teeth in her vsgina -r:ere broken. These
women expose their buttocks to the wind from the mountains
and thereby conceive children.



Husko oht::~. ~ koro '-<:ot:1n ~ k1-r~huto hen1~e ut::1h

{Long a11o, there ~-!ere so:ne elders in the country [on the
island] of S~kh~lin.



Nevke mosi ri

1<::.::\:nuv 1-::ovl< 1

erenqh~ i


ka: t::1

ren3hc1tch mosiri onr::c nP.vchci cis ani neyke re:}:oh kov

yuhke '!l!!lnu:
{They set out to sea to hu!!t sec>.; they sailed
toward offshore; they ro~ed the boat toward the island,
and the waves were very big.)


Nevke tani re: r~k8.



lwv1{a vuh~<e henke utrlh t8:r.i

(Since the ~ind was strong and the waves were big, the
elders drifted off course.)


Nevke moi!".:lhci y.qync s1neh mosiri oht-'3. vanP..hlC.1 !!larm:

(While drifting, they landed on an island.)

(When they landed, they found a settlement of peonle.)


Neannehe kusu si~eh else ohta ah~nBh~i m9.nU:

(Therefore they went into a h9use.)


Nevke mahtekuh nateh an manu:

(And there 'lrere only vromen [in the house] )


Nevke anne:r.e ne :roh ~.}l_ta~ ne :roh .f>J:l:!favo utah an~

konupurahc i


(The ~ooen ~erta1nly)l1ked the men [from the boat] very



Re:koh eukosrakorohci


(They [the Horcen] scra:nbled 1-rith one another [trying to

get the men].)
10. Ne:roh


utara ne:teh orow?. ta:ta rev:sihci

{The men therefore stayed there overnight, and the woncn
wanted very much to ~lcco ~ith the~.)

(For each man, three

12. Ne:teh


~omen scra~bled



with one another.)


ne: manu:
----(These Nomen had very pretty faces.)


nP. : m-:tnu:
-----{Nevertheless, they were dreadful
sleep. )


with whom to

:rw:ehe. an manu:

(It anuearai that these :ere the Ko:r.en ,:1th teeth in their
vaBi~; [as mentioned] in the story.)







esi:na ani anua manu:

{One elder helda sword concealed.)

1-::omm'..!ro.hc i




re :koh eu1wtur1

ehel{.e!'!:-:::-:?!.hci ani lkihCSi rr:anu:



(The ':ro~en folks enjoyed slee~inc: 'rith the !!"aen so much

that they scram!lled 1ri th one a~ot her and pulled ~en's



1msu r.e::t ikoronis esi:n:::1



ikoronis nea r:11hte':-cuh m2.tutFr2. koronehe o1{::t :kBra

vavekota koror:ehe 3.hunl-:e

~ nr1hte1-~uh




ki :teh orm:::t

:kara ehur;ke



{Therefore, the elder ~ith a concealed sword acted as

though he were inserting his oenis into a worn~n's
vagina., but instead inserted the s1:ord in her vagina.)

18. Nevke




(And they [the teeth] bit into the swrd.)

19. Nea


koronche neq 1koronis nnnenc kunana manu:

(The woman's vaGina (indeed) bit lnto.the sword.)

20. Neannehe kusu


:koh eheke!r. V8.vne

1 l{oro!!is rise


((Pullinp; out [the S\rord] very hard,) he pulled it [the

sword] out. )

21. Neannehe

1korcn1s tRni tan mosiri kesko ornan n3hno




(Therefore the sword will remain in the story [peo~le ~ill

talk about the s'-rord.] until the end of the l'lorld.)

22. Tan

ean rnatutAra ne9nne


isam mosiri ne:

(There are women on the island but it ls an island without
2]. Sineh

ohk~:.. o1ca tuvmP~






mosiri oroc:a ahkasko

brP- ne81'! tura






ki: rusuyg};c i~o

ne: manu:

(\olhen they see a man vralking [coming] from a dlstP-nt

settlement, they scramble ~:ith one another beca.use they
want to sleep with him; [then] they cut off [with the
teeth in their vagina] his penis and kill him.)

24. Ne:vke ta: mosirl orun matutara a:v:ve =~~a an

u~askuma ohtR

!!.!! olma1msue utah matutara ne: manu:

(And the v;omen on the island are said to be those '\romen
in the story with teeth in the vagina.)


Neyke ueskanne

ohta neskar!De ek:tn!'aye horlki!'3:Vnahciko

peska.nne re:ra hori1{irehciko nah




r::>.nke uo:ko!'ahci


(And when the ,;ind comes from the mountains, they lift
their skirts (toKard the mountains) and exuose their
buttocks toward the 'lrrind from the mountains; thereby
they become pregnant; thus they do.)

26. Nr-lh !! mosiri orun m"''.tutara oiM8kusne utah utar8. kA.vkl


nc: m"


(Indeed those women on the island are the women with teeth
in the vagina. )
27. UcasP.:uma ohtA. ...!:!
(There was this story [this is.the story about the women
with the teeth in their vagina].)

Notes (for Tale 10)


For the term henke, see the note lJ of Tale 1.

2. Here the ter~ mosiri means specifically Kaiba Island (see

"Brief co:nment.")


The term aynu in Ainu :::neans "people" or .,human beings."

14. The

oim~kusne matut~ra are the women with teeth in their

vagina ( (vagina) + irr.-::tk (teeth) + .. (.grml) + ~ (person);
matutara (vTO:nen)). Eusko recalled that these 1:omen have
teeth in their vagina only durin3 certain periods of the year.
She l'tas not sure, but thought that it was during the "Kinter
that the teeth gre1r and that they fell off durinG sumTI!er.


In a similar story which Pilsudski collected on the east

coast of Sakhalin, it is a red whetstone which a man used to
insert in a 1!0man' s vagina (Pilsud ski 1912: 88). See "Remarks"
at the end of this story.

25. On the ':rest coast of Sakhalin where the mounte.ins are

located in the east, the nesk~nne (wind from the mountains)
is a 11ind from the east. 'l'he Ainu sa,y th3t Nhen the pes1wnue
blows, the sea becomes rough, and hence they usually do not
go fishing. Of course, ~ithout a harbor it is very difficult
to return to land "t-rhen there is lTind bl01.'ling from the
raountains tovrard the sea.

Husko explained that the nekP-.nne is the re :r2. ovasi

("\'rind demon) and that these women only gi Ye birth to female
Many scholsrs have discussed the wide distribution of
Similar" stories. Although I do not have all the stories
available in order to determine what scholars mean by
"simila~., I shall briefly comment on the distribution of
stories with a similar theme or themes.

Pilsudski recorded amon~ the Ainu of th~ cast coast of
Sakhglin, a story about n ~o~~n with teeth in her VAgina,
which brol-;.e \;hen 8. mnn inserted a S\trord in her V;J.~ln'1.
was one of the five ~en ~ho, durin; foggy we8ther, drifted to
the island where she lived (Pilsudski 1912: 85-90).
In this
story, thus, there is only one "'om:::tn and 1!ind docs not apDear.
(This story ~as translated and published in Jananese by Chiri
(1942: 11-114)). At the end of the Ainu te~t nnd translation,
Pilsudsl\.i \1rites th~.t the same legend is reported amant: the
Ainu by B. H. Ch~mhcrlaln (Ainu Folk-tales in the Proceedi~~s
of the FoH:lore ~oci,~t:r, London, 1888), an-:1 also nentioned by
Dobrotworski (Ai~u-~~s~i~n Diction~ry, Su~nlc~cnts, page 67,
Kazan, 1875). Pilsuds~i further not8s that he as ~:ell as
L. Sterberg recorded "similar tales" among the Gil;_raks in
Chiri, too, reports tales both at Horobetsu in Hokkaido
and Shir:::mra on the ea.s'.:. of Sal<halin abou'c 1!omen vri th
teeth in their va~ina (Chiri 195l}: 59-60).
In the Horobetsu
version, an entire island on the eastern sea is inhabited
only by 1:omen 'trith teeth in their vac;ina, l!ho beco~e pregnant
by the east wind.
Stories with similar themes are not confined to the Ainu
and the Gilyaks.
Even the restricted theme of va~ina dent~ta
seems to have a wide distribution, including Siberian tribes,
sroups south of Japan inclu:iin.s sroups in In-:l.ia, and both
North and South .l\:-~c-ric:;!1 In:iians (Ish~ 1957: !1.9. (sixth
page in the reprint)).
Isl::t.':< seems to consider stories !Jrith
a va~ina dentata theme as a sub-category of the theme of the
"island of women," and discusses the distribution of the
latter in various parts of the "t-rorld.

2. J


Tale 11:


::-!.'b011t demons

Three sisters

Long aflo, there ere three sisters living by the~selves

in a settleient.
As their ogrents an~ brothers ~ere dead,
they hunted and fished for ~heir food alone.
One day the oldest sister said to the other two, "We
are ready to get m~rried.
Since it is h~rd for the three of
us to live :dthout men, I shall find myself a man." She
then put on her clothes and decorated herself with earrings
and a neckla9e} As she ~as de9Rrting, she hung a disc for
her necklacell on the ~all, Rnd said to her sisters, "As
lon.g as I a!!l alive, the disc v.ill stay on the 1Tall; if
h01!ever, I should die, the disc >rill Si~ing on the l!all and
then fall to the floor."
After leaving home, the oldest sister climbed a mountain.
As the sun was setting, she sa~ a Grass hut(2) with smoke
coming out of the skylight. She went to the hut and coughed
{the Ainu manner of a!1:nour.c1:ng one's arrival). (J) She heard
the voice of an elderly woman replying, "Who in the world
are you ~ho co~cs to my door at this late hour and coughs?
I ar.1 too tired to get up and shol: you in. Come ln."
When the oldest sister went knside, she saw an elderly
t-:eavLng threads for shoes. ( )
As the "'!roman sa1r the
oldest sister, she shed tears of joy. She told the oldest
sister that there was a dreadful decon in her s~ttlement.
She then served suuncr to the oldest sister.
After eating~
the oldest sister said that she was ready to resume her tri~
even though it ..-;.9s very darl{ outside. The elderly NOman
ae;~ln reminded her that there -v:as a dreadful demon in her
settle~en~ and she should not ~c outside at this time of the
night. The wo~0n also told her that the demon lived in a
tl';o-story house further along the road. ( 5)

DeEpite the ~o=~~' advice, the oldest sister left the

hut and stqrted up the road. She then to a golden
house. At the entrance to the hQuse, she coughed. Then a
young girl came out and urged her to so inside. The girl
told the oldest sister thAt she h~d three brothers, and that
the oldest lras a dreadful demon.
She said that thus the
oldest sister should eat quickly so she could hide before the
brothers !'cturned from huntin;;.
Shortly after she had hidden, the three brothers came
back and m:::1de a loud sound. The oldest son then said, "There
is a human s:!lcll; I can smell human flesh."
After finding
her hiding place, he dragged her out.
I~ beat her and tossed


her into a nearby swJmn 1rhl<;!) h':l.d m~ny sh::trp bAmboo ~:mears
protrudlns from the hotto~. {o)
After being injured by the
bamboo spe~rs, she lo~t cor.~clousncss.
At the time, back in her hou~e, the disc which hung fro~
the ~all of her hou~e s~an~ rRnidly and then fell to the
The t1-ro re:nainin~ sl sters cried :::l.nd said, "~Je told
her to stRy at ho~e." T~en they put the disc back on the
\'tall. 11ear.zhile, tne eldc::-1:; "-'YOT!}an in the grass hut, .-:ho ~ras a.
del ty, l'ms very ~-rorr led. ( 7)
The oldest sister lay in the s:vam~ unco:1scious. ( 8) Hhen
she re~ained consciousn~ss, she found herself lying in a pool
of blood. 'I'his nool h::1d been created b.Y the blood of all the
people ~tho had been thro1;n there b~1 the demon brother.
Finally she mana~ed to esca~c from the s~amp and went back to
the elderly ~om~n in the ~rass hut.
As she coughed at the
entrance, the ~-TOm3.n came out a!ld said, "I 1mrn.ed you, but you
insisted on coing.
See ~h~~ happened to you." The ~o~3n
treated the Kounds of the sister until they were co~pletely
Meamrhile, at the set ~le:cent of the three sisters, the
middle sister said to the youngest, "I am going to follow
the trail of my older sister in order to find her." Then
she hung her disc on the ~all and left. She closely folloYed
the footnrints of the older sister, although at tir-es it ~:as
very difficult. The footnri!lts led her directly to the
golden house of the demon, instead of to the gr::tss hut of the
female deity.
At the gol~en h6use, the sister of the three
brothers cane out and ur~ed the middle sister to leave
quickly. The oldest brother, however, caught the middle
sister, beat her, and then thre~r her into the Slmmn of b;:1mboo
spears. She, too, lost consciousness. When she regained
consciousness, she also found herself in a pool of blood.
She, too, finally :n"'-na5ed to escape from the s-;..ram-p ann found
her "lray to the crass hut ~-here her older sister :ras reco;ering
from her injuries. The middle sister cleared her thro~t in
front of the hut end 1:as sho~~n ln. There she found her older
sister who was by then co~pletely recovered from her injuries.
The female deity cared for the middle sister as she had for
the oldest sister.
Back in the bo~e settleeent of the three sisters, the
youngest sister 1:as alone at home.
A fe'.t: days after the
middle sister had left ho~e, the disc on the wall swang
rapidly and the~ dro~9e1 to ~he floor. The youngest sister
then decided to follow her other sisters. The .footPrints o~
her oldest sister by then h~d disap?eared, but those of her
middle sister ~ere still visible although at times were h~rd
to see. She sa~ smoke fro~ a grass hut and, lnter inside
found both of her sisters. The deity described to the
youngest sister the narro~-~ esc:? of her t1'10 sisters.

Then the middle si~ter said, "Since ou~ oldes~ sister is
at fault, let us thro:~ n~s?.l mucus :1t her!" '..lhe!1 tr..c oldest
sister said, "Since ou~ ~iddle sister is st fault, let us
thro~! nss:::l.l ;r.ucus at her."
Then they all thre1.r ~ucus at one
another. Lgter, thanics to the deity, all returned s~fely to
their settle~ent.

Notes (for Tale 11)



Ainu r.ecxl3ces consist of a metal disc hanc,ing

a chain of beads and coins.

For the cultural meaning of the mun kuca (grass hut),
see the note for 1. 164 of Tale 1.

J. A visitor announces his arrival by coughing or clearing

his throat in front of the host's house. This gesture is
called sionkere. See the note for 1. 196 of Tale 1.

In m::J.kin[: shoes, the Ainu use threads made of ha;y:

(nettle) (UrticA TP..1-::ed~ns. Oh~~i (Chiri 1953: 162). These
threads are called ohcka. The Ainu make shoes from the skins.
of harbor seals (calledtukRr~ in Ainu), sea lions (et:3.sne),
salmonfand another fish called ciray (I have not been able
to identify this fish).

A t~!O-story house, called ~en1.;:."! us cise in Ainu, is not
a traditional type of i~inu house. 'rhus, the description of
the demon's house may reflect Japanese influences. Among the
Japan~se, one-story houses are often considered less
prestigeous than two-story houses.
The ~olden color of the
demon's house also indicates that the house is as soc ia.ted l-.ri th
The m-~amn of ba!!!boo spears is called in Ainu "toh to:po,"
which literally means "bamboo straT.n." The toh is ba!:lboo ( Sasa
nanicul::tt?.. IIa1<ino et Shibat3. var. P8.nicul::1ta Nakai (Chiri 195): 222)). Ho~Tever, Se.1\:halin is too fc:r north for rezular
bamboo to grmr; only the short ba:nboo grass (Sr~sa kuri1P.ns1s
-~-fakino et Shibata var. r-enuinaNakai (Chiri 195): 220)) e;-ro~rs
.. - there. Therefore, the nrese!'lce of to"h in the story may
indicate that the sto~y ~:as transt:!litted from the Holckaido Ainu
(bamboo grows in Hokk~ido).
It is also ~ossible that the toh
in the story indicates Japanes~ influences; the Japanese
brought many articles ~ade of bamboo stalks, and the Ainu then
began ~akin;::, their musical instrunent, C"'lled muh1cun, out of
old bamboo hr::tndles fro:n J8.nanese broo::1s. B'1nboo spears Here
also the \'rea:oons of Ja~~ncse farmers.


Here an Ainu audience would realize that to save these
girls the deity temporarily resided in the world of the Ainu.
See also the note for 1. 16!} of T;::~le 1.

Tale 12:

A rat demon(l)

Long ago a m~n and his ~ife lived in a certain settlement.

One day they decided to visit their relatives who lived beyond
a distaP.t ~ountain. They crossed the visible mountain and
then crossed the dist3nt mountain which they had never before
As they crossed the second mountin, they found a baby boy
crying in a cradle (J) at ~he foot of a tree. Since they had
not been able to have children, and thinking that the deities(4)
must have left the baby there for them, they were very haP?Y
to take him with them.
They arrived Nith the baby at their relatives' settlement.
While at the settlement, the husband ~ras a.-:akened every nisht
by a noise which sounded l~ke a rat biting something. When
he looked, he sav: a large rat eating food on the shelf.
also noticed that their baby had disappeared from their side
where he had been sleeping. Then, as soon as the biting
sound stopped, the baby '::as back at their side. The baby never
cried during the day. Since the couple "Jras ashamed of this
incident, they never mentioned it to anyone.
One night they made a trap and set it on the shelf. At
the hour 1hen the rat normally appeared, they heard the cry
of a rat. They then found a huge rat caught in the trap on
the shelf. They ~illed the rat, dissected it, and then
distributed the pieces to the grass, trees, earth, birds and
all the beings of the universe. Their relatives later realized
that the baby ~:as actually a rat demon disguised as a human

Notes (for Tale 12)

1. In Ainu a rat demon is called erumu ovasi. For a
discussion of the Ainu attitude. totrards rats, see the "Brief
c:::>mment" of Tale 9.

The Ainu describes a distant place as belns over a h~n~inu
\!hich litcrall~; !!leans "the mount<!ln of .-:hlch nobody
has heard." In contrast, they refer to the mountain which
they can see from their settlement as ~inu knhslrl (the
mountain of Hhich they h:lve heard). 'fhcy use these terms as
a pair to deGcribe a fa~illar place and a strange place. See
also the note for 1. 113 of Tale 6.


J. EuGko referred to this cradle as a ~ahka, which ls oval

shaped and m:? by hollo;.rinrr a piece of v;ood. The Ainu h::mg
this type of cr3dle fro~ the ceilinG. There is another
cradle called a~~ahkq ~hich is portable and ln which the Ainu
carry their b~bics or let them sleep.

The term used here ls k8!TIUY.

In this CFlse, it does not
refer to a particular deity but to a generalized concept of





The followir.~ four tales describe the origins of certain

Ainu custo~s ~nd iechnic~l s%ills.
The stories inrlicatc th~t
the Ainu deities trqns~1tted knowledge and customs to the
Ainu, where~s actually many of th0se which appear in the
foll01:ing stories >:ere introduced by other peoples. These
will be exolained in the "Remgrks" follo,,:in.; each tale.
Tale lJ:

The sea


~ho ~arried




Once, at Yo~oh~in~v near thA Russian-Jananese border,

there was an elderly counle with an extre~ely attractive
daughter. She alwRys wore many beautiful or~aments. Many
men in the settle~ent courted her. Others came fro~ dist~nt
settlements to ask for her h8nd.
Ho~evcr, none of them hqd
any success. 3ecause she refused so many anj remained single
for such a long ti~e, the neonle criticized her. They said,
"She is very snobbish.
If she thinks she is so preciou~,
why doesn't she marry a deity!"
One day her father cut many vrillo: br~nches and made
numerous inRw (ritual sticks). Then he asked his daughter
to accomnany hi':':l to the shore. A.t the beach, they sat next
to each other.
He asked her to remove the lice from his
hair. During this timey he fingered the sand. Then he told
her what the peoPle in their settlement ~ere saying about
He asked her if it was all right lf he gave her to a
~o:havkuh (killer whale)(l) to be his wife. She agreed.
They went back home, and he decorated her with many Precious
treasures, such ~s golden earrings. Then they went back to
the shore. The father covered the bottom of his boat with
ina~r and DO!Poh (food offering to deities).
He also put in
it all the treasures he had brought fro~ his home. The
dau&hter in the boat looked like a gojdess. Then he got into
the boat and ro~ed offshore. There were three deities of the
sea (atuy ka-nuv), 1. e"' sea. ~ammals, head inz tOtrerd s the
boat. rhey lookeci like ~rhales, but d1c not have spout holes.
The middle one ,,rA.s the ~o: h;->.y'.{u!-1 (killer ~'1h.3le) "t:hom the
daughter ~(g.;; to m.qrry. ~nd the t:o on the outside 1rere his
servants. 2J The ~o:h~v'.J:uh had 1-rhite dorsal fins (aspe)
which resembled the "to!:loe ., c:-est (Japanese fa::.ily crest .
made of t'l:o large co~:mns-11 ke figures 1.-:hich are united formir.g
a circle).
The three ~ent near the boat. The master ~o:hqykuh ~as
on one side of the boat, Rnd one of the servants >:as on the
The father put the i~q~r and Do:noh (offering of
cooked food) on the b~ck of the master c~:r.Pvkuh, and placed
his daughter bet~!een his tt-.'0 fins.
Ee hung his mos-t
precious treasure, a sword, from his daughter's shoulder, and


nut the re=a1n1~z no:Do~ o~ the bac~s of the servants. The
tour circled th?._ho~~ Gnce, 2~f the~ ~~9~ seo~~rrl. After the
three sea dc~t1es 3nd his daughter h~d d~saopearcd over the
horizon, the father returned ho~e.
Fror.1 the tirr.f' vh~n the r.::'ln cffer~c his d3.U~?;hter to the
he 8nd his ~ife each d~y fou~~ m8ny fish on the
shore ln front of their house. The fis~ looked fresh, as
thcush they had just been cau.s-ht. They ::ere nle.ced on
m!<.c~hci {a kino of grass u.=>en by the _.;inu to lr::lo fish, or
on which to ~lRce fish). Thus, althoush the o~ly daughter of
the couple ~as gone, her ~usb~nd ~o:h~vk~~ in turn helned her
parents as their son-in-la~.

After about t~o years, the father o~e day made many inaw
(ritual sticks), and his vlife pren~r~d no:ooh (offering o-f--cooked food). ~-!1 th these offerin(s in his boat, the father
went to sea. He was anxious to s0e hls dauchter again. As
he sailed offshore, he saw the 6o:h~vkuh, his daughte~and
her baby comlne; to1ards hil!l. The fp.t!-Jer and the daughter
embraced. The father again offered i~aN and no:ooh to the
CO:havkuh after "'Vlhlch the three S~!a.!I! off.
This time the daughter \-!as l-:earin.s t3hru: koro imi
(Ainu garn:ent lr1 t h mandarin collar), ar..d the baby han a
hoh~iri (triangular stone) on his forehead.

Notes (ror Tale lJ)

The Ainu reve~e ~ sea m3~~al called co:~Avkuh, or
(Huska did not kno~: the ceanlr:s; cf. tior.~yaku
[ sic]--killer ,_rhale ("the deity we are afraid of") {Chiri
l9b2: 175)). Amon5 the sea deities it is considered as being
next in impo~tance to ~enehte kamuv (harbor seal). Although
Husl<.o is .not sure of the snecies, her description indicated
that it perhaps is the kilier ~hale (Crcinus orca Linne
(Chiri 1962: 174)).



Husko described the deity as the 2n"koh sercma1-:ah.::!.h~in

(our c;uardian deity) of all the Aln-:.1. Its ber.eficial po-rrer
is demonstrated first through its ~roviding whale meat for
the Ainu. When ~o:h~v~uh er.counters a ~hale, it will cut the
whale into pieces Kith its fi~s. Then it lets the bones and
other unedible parts of the whqle sink to the botto~ of the
sea "'trhlle all erring the r1 kq_ ( h~) (boneless square chur..k of
1-1hale mea.t and fa.t) to float on the surface for the Ainu.
Thus, althoueh this deity is small in sl?.e, it can kill a
huge 1-rhale and provide the Ainu w1 th much vrhale me.::lt.

Secondly, this deity a.icts the Ainu by guHrding boats
caught in sea stor~s. Several of these deities surround the
boat and thus calm the Kater.
2. Huska e)oH:::tined tr"''"lt although a co:havkuh trould anuear
to ordin3ry ~inu as a ~ea mBrnrnal (killer vhale), he would
appear to a lllan 'l'ri t h super-Ainu nmrer ( nuuuru ::1vr.u) as a
good-looking man. She said that the father had super-Ainu
power. Presumably the daughter, too, saw him as a man;
Huska, hO't1ever, did not indicate \orhether the daughter had
super-Ainu power. This descri~tion of the co:hqvkuh is a
description of sea rr.8.!!'.msls; ho~-:ever, since the father and
daughter had suuer-Alnu uot!er and 'l'rere the only people
present, they ~ust have seen the co:hqvkuh as men.
Huska explained that this story illustrates the origins
of certain customs among the north~est coast Ainu, many of
l'rhom - includ lng Busko - consider themselves to be related
to the couple. Thus, because the rrtan and his l,rife save their
daughter to the co: hq-.,1mh around the time of hemovcu!-1
(approximately our June to July) or im8:cuh (aucroxi~ately
our August), the Ainu descendents of this cou~le annually
perform during summer the ritual to the co:havkuh. It
consists of 1n~~:ksr'3. (oa~-::ine; and offering of in9':T) ar.d no: uoh
(offering of cooked food) and lasts from the morning to
evening of one day.
Secondly, Husko explained that because of this event the
north'lrest coast 1Unu started using the "tomoe" crest, the
only true crest of the Ainu.
Thirdly, Huska said that this story also explains hovr
the Ainu discovered the tahru: koro imi (Sakhalin Ainu
gar.JJ.ent ~rith mandarin collar) aY:~d the hohciri (trian~ular
stone hanging from the forehead of a boy). Huska described
the latter as the hair Rtyle of the boys ur.til age fifteen.
All of the hair is shaved except for a square ~atch in the
front of the head and a triangulnr stone is hung fro~ this
patch of hair (see the follmring -picture).


/;.lthouGh ~usko e::pl8.ined th2.t only relatives p,r.d

descendants of th~ counle nr8ct1cc these customs, ttey are
actually 1:idespread .::.:::~~me the sa:-::h::1lin f~inu. -?t<rther!liorc,
some of these customs are actually of foreicn origin.
The "tc.:::oe" crest, in fact, diffused to the Ainu from
the Jap8nesc; the Ainu tre8.sured the Jap.'3.!!cse i2.rments ~1ith
far.1ily crests, aT!d tr.e "to!"!"!oe" crest is a rather cor;;mon
Japanese crest. Althou~h the Ainu oNncd garments with this
or other Jan~nese family crests, they did not, of course, use
therL as symbols of any social units.
The t~hru: ~oro irni, too, ~a3 introduced by the Manchus
and 1:as vrioC::.spread 2.::lan;; the Sal{halln Ainu.
It eight be that both the Japanese and ~ar.darin features
came from "ever the sea," and hence they had become associated
with the ~o:~~v~uh (killer whale) whose residence is also
located offshore, or over the ~e~.
The use of hoh~iri, too, ~as not restricted to a certain
group. Chiri reports it ~s a custoo ~ract1ced generally by
the Sakhalin Ainu, although he is not specific about its
Eis explanation of hoh~iri differs somewhat
fran that of !-:l:usko. Accordinr; to Chiri, the hohciri is a
triangular piece of cloth hanging from the h2-ir over the
forehead; this hair style was used by Sakhalin Ainu boys
before they ~eached aeulthood. ~hen they managed to shoot a
flying bird a~d thus had ?roved their adulthood, they could
remove the nohciri (Chiri and Oda 1956: 26).

Tale 14:



The Ainu at :'-'ia :nu~r (see l'!au) on the east coast of

Sakhalin kept hearing fhe sound. of uou~ding from the ton of
the Totorohoh~e ~ountai~ (called "Totoroki-toge" by the
Japanese). 0ne d~y several el5ers ulgnned to investigate.
When they re~ched the top of the mountain, they found several
good-looJcins :nen ~:i t~1 for tails en~::;p;e-1 in forging iron. The
elders sudde:1ly l3. loud sound, t!hlch surnrised .the men
and caused them to run a~!~Y, leavin~ behind all of their tools
for forsing iron and their production consisting of swords,
sheaths, and other goods.
This is he>: the Ainu learned the technique of forgin~
iron from the fox deities (called hu:re kRmuy ("red deities")
11"! Ainu).(l)

Notes (for Tale 14)
The fox (su~~r1 in Al~u)(Velncs ~1lnes schre~c~l Klshida)
(Chiri 1962: l4Jr is one of the ::1ost 1nnortr.>.nt A1Y!u deities,
:::tnd. the Ainu p~:rforn the hu:rc ln~uv o1~~ ir.1~::tr-''l. (seel!-:!S off
the red deity, i.e., seeing-off ceremony for ~he fo~). The
ceremony is nerformed for a fox, which is caught when it is
a cub and then r8.iscd. in A. ca[.";"e. The ceremony reseT.bles the
bear cere~ony although is much less elqborate. Since the fox
is fast afoot, the Ainu consider this deity as a messenser
among the other deities in helnin~ to settle dispu'ces; hence
they call it iren~~ koro k~~lY (deity ~ith a mind; judge.)
The imuort;.:tnt oovcrs of th~ fox are its ability to orosnostic?..te (asurasteh) ar.d to cause a person to lose his soul,
i.e., to be~itch (ir~~~hs~hk~rc). For further details of the
Ainu attitude to":rard this deity, see Ohnuki-Tierney 1968:
It is known historically that the S~khalin Ainu were
using the technique of forsin~ iron at the end of tr.e
nineteenth century, slthouzh they had never learned the
technique of soeltins (Takakura 1955: 6; Hera 1956: 75).

Tale 15:

Women's skills

Once there 1-:as a ;;reat man who heard a merry noise from
a house in a v~st ;rass field. When he looked inside of the
house, he se.vr several trol,lt vromen(l) ~-.ith small tattoos both
above and belo\r the l1Ps.l2) The trout t:omen on the loFer
side of the house (a:k~s)CJ) were weav1n6 nettle gar~ents.(h)
They lrere also rng,kin~ e!Ilbroidery on the gar:nent usir..; blue
and black threads. The trout t:orten at the uoper side
( 1rere ::e~ving !!l.a.ts using red st~ios of elm
bark. ( 0 ) 'l'he !:omen on the up!)er side ":ere singing the
following song:(?)
"Panuunna:tn. l~u 1:n~':.."l r:~.y!l.:e, siTmi!'l oe:po1{o tovre
tovre, ku."lne oe:'!?o!-::o tovre toYre" 1"~!hen I lool';:
at the lo~ei.sidc or the house, the garments
become soiled with blue stains; they get soiled
with black stains.")(8)
The wo~en on the lo~er sl~e were singing about the vo~en
on the upper side as follo~s:


" 1.....

l:u in'.o:q



I J oo~...,t +-r.o ll')"t::-1. ''1. a.-.

soiled with red stains. )(9)

When the man

. ..





.. _.-

.. _,

..... '

all of the


to;rP- to--rre"

to e '11"'tc:: :---ccor,...c




fled while sinGing:

"Horocu :cu: hc!'8CU :c'..J.:; 1c.<)_;nuy

horo~~e: no s!mr.lw.n ku r'J~u;

b,ct~l\P. <::=::in Jn,::'l T.'=:!!!:U j SO':Un SO"iUrl t~et9.\.:~ 6.Si!1 c8rin~l0)
(A man i1as co:2e, .:1 ma!1 h::1s co;ne; I thin~ that the great

m~n has come

hlk_~_._y out )

in; let us leave quickly; out, out, let us

Then the man reqlized that there was !10 house and there
were no ~omen. Only the grass field ~a.s in fro!1t of him.
N~vertheless, this ~an trans~itted the skills to weave, dye,
embroider, and tattoo to the Ainu womep.

Notes (for Tale 15)

The Ainu term for trout women is tukusis monirnqhno
(tukusis = trout {S:::lvelinus ~alma l~uco~nger:is (Chiri 1962:
58)); :nonimahpo =~rosen).
2. These tat1;oos are called C<=~'>eton sinu.-:e. ''E!:~n~ are narrov1 -only a~out an inch :n widtQ -- and
are centered ~both above
and belo~-r the lips~ This kind of ta.ttoo has less prestige than
the ~~ovak:er1 sinuye, a tattoo that surrounds the mouth.

The g:kes 1s the least prestigeous of the four sides
of the house. See t~1e "Rem8.rks 11 for Tale 2.
The garments l~oven "11ith the thread of hqy (nettle).are
called 2.hrus. The hg_y = Urtica Takcdan~ Oht~t(Chiri 195):



The rorunso: is the most imnortant of the four sides of

the house. See the note for 1. 96 of Tale 1.

The striPs of el~ bark used for weavin~ are called hu:re
ah (hu:re = r~d; ah =elm {Vl~us laciniata ~ayr (Chiri 195):
lb5). The outer bark of this ~ree is soaked in certain
lakes (not all of the lakes work in this manner) until it
becomes red. It is dried and then beaten with a stick until
the thin layers of the bark separate.


7. Huska sang this song and. the follo"':ing one



a definite


Here the embroidery is puroosely called~ (dirt).

8 and 9. These sonss illustrnte Ainu color symbolism; red is

a sacred color nsso~tated with the sacred unDer side of the
house; blue and black ~re nrofane colors associated with the
lowest side.


In the Ainu text this man is referred to as kqmuv

horoke:no (deity ~an). Thus, we learn that the man who
transmitted these skills to the Ainu women was a great man.


Husko told this story to illustrate how the deities

taught the Ainu ~omen these skills, even though no specific
deity appears in the story.
It seems that socehow a deity
arranged fo~ this great man to see this scene so that he in
turn could transmit the skills to the Ainu ..,.,omen.
It is
believed th3.t the ~-:o:Jen go: the idea for tattooing from trout,
called tu~'::usis in Ainu, Nhich have blacl< dots.

Tale 16:


the Ainu neither write nor use coal

At the beginning of the world, Yayresu:uo, the culture

hero, had a rabbit as a Dessenser. There also ~as a deity
who created the lrorld 7 ~lthough he was neither an Ainu deity
nor a Japanese deity.\lJ
One time the creator deity wanted to teach the Ainu
writing and tell them to use coal for fuel.
Ee wrote the
instructions on) a note which he bave to the rabbit to deliver
to the Ainu. (2
On the .,.ray to the Ainu, the rabbit rested in
the sun a:r..d then sta.rted to masturbate. Then another del ty
went behind him and shouted at him. The rabbit 'llaS sururised
and ran alray leaving the note behind. !-lhilc running the
rabbit said:

neanne su~~ un~i koro ne: ~anu:; sisam ne~nue

n1: U!'lCi l-:oron;:: ~:~The Ainu are SUP!)Osed to
make fire vTith-cQal; the Japanese are suuoosed to
make fire Hi th '!-rood.")

The deity Nho surorised the rabbit and nicked un the note
must have taken it to the country of the Jan.3.nese, because the
Jap~nese acouired these skills inste3d of the Ainu.{J)
is why the J\inu did not learn to l-IT1te and use co~l, n.~1i,boue;h
the creator deity intended to teach them these skills.\ J

Notes (for Tale 16)

1. The information in this statement presents a somewhat

different view of the universe from that indicated in my
remaining data. The latter plaoes little emphasis on the
creator deity, and the Ainu universe is occupied exclusively
by the Ainu and their deities.
2. Although in the beginning of the ~tory the rabbit is
Iayresu:po's messenger, here it seems to be the messenger of
the creator deity.


Husko added this statement after she finished the story.


Although Yayresu:po's role in this inoident is not olear

in the story, the Ainu characterization of him suggests that
he would have received the note from the rabbit and then
would have transmitted the knowledge to the Ainu.
This story contrasts to a Gilyak version as to why the
Gilyak do not have writing while the Japanese do. In the
Gilyak story, a Gilyak, an Orok, a Japanese and a "K1ren"
(Ul'chi) were in a boat. A storm started suddenly and they
quickly pulled their boat to the shore. As they landed,
the sun came out. Then, each of them took from his bosom
a notebook with writing on it, but a strong wind blew away
all three notebooks, leaving only the notebook of the
Japanese. This is why only the Japanese kept the knowledge
of writing, whereas others no longer have it (T. Hattori
194la: 94-95).


Five stories about the bear deities

The bear deities are the most important deities in the

pantheon of the Ainu on the north'l'rest coast of Sakhalin. The
Ainu term for the deities is 1so k(muy (bear deities) or
simply kamuy (deities)(!!
bear Ursus arotos collar1s
(Ch1r1 1962: 149)).

The following five stories illustrate the Ainu attitude

and feelings toward the bear deities.
Tale 17:

Proof that the bears return to the mountains

Once a man at Ray~iska captured a cub in the spring of

the year. He held a bear ceremony in the fall when the cub
was two years old. During the following fall, he went hunting
in the mountains, and caught a bear with his~ (set trap).
When he opened the bear's skull, he found in it ho&&i (ritual
shavings) which he recognized as those which he ad put 1n
the brain cavity of the bear used for the bear ceremony
during the previous fall. He knew then that it was the same
bear which he had raised and, during the previous fall, had
sent to be reborn.
The Ainu tell this story as proof that the bears killed
during the bear ceremony or hunting return to the mountains
to be reborn.

Tale 18:

A sucking-paw story

Once a hunter lost his way and went by mistake into a

bear's cave. The bear then taught him how to lick his palms
in order to quench his thirst and hunger. The bear also said
that as the bear goes up the river to reach its winter den
(tuwanpe), it will eat and drink as much as it can. Then, it
will survive from March until as late as June by sucking on
its paws. This hunter stayed in the cave with the bear until
spring. Then the bear led him out of the cave. The mountain
snow was still deep, and occasionally the bear put the hunter
on its back when the snow was too deep for him to walk. They
travelled for a long time until they approached the shore
where the man's settlement was located. The hunter thanked
the bear and told him to go back to the mountain.



The Ainu tell the ~tory to illu~trstc th8t a bear

revealed to t~e Ainu the ~~~ th~t benrs survive in their den
~ithcut food duri~s the winier.
A striking similarity ls noted between the suckin~-naw
story told by Huslco nnd ~ suckir!'j-P9"! story recorded around
the turn of the century amonE the Kurile Ainu by R. Torii
(1919: 255). The ~ell-kno~n study on bear cercmoni~lisrn by
A. I. Hallo11~ell sh011s that the Air.u or.e of a ll:ni ted
nll.:lber of :oeoplcs ~~;none; Nhc:r, arc fcur.d both the elfl.borate
bear cerenonialisl"!l. Flnd the suck ins-pal: story ( EA.llm;ell 1926:


Tale 19:

The '\"ro::.ld of the deitie:s called


There was once a girl at Motasam, near Nayasi ln the

northerl1 part of the no:rth,::est coRst. One daj' she Kent to
the shore to get sea ~ater for cooking but never returned.
Later, people observed in the distance a girl coning down to
the shore to get ~ater at Oso~anesno, near Eotas~~. She was
carrying a niRtus (birch-b~rk ~ater container). The ueonle
smr her seve!'8l times. Finally they decided to exanine her
footsteps. They discovered that the urints of or.e foot 'I'Tere
those of a bear deity, while those of the other foot were
human. T~:o elders dec ld ed to find out :!lore a.bout her
appear::.J.nce, so they hid thensel ves behir;d a large rock. As
the girl aGain caEe do~n for se~ ~ater, they recognized her
as the girl froc ~otas~rn Hho had no~ returned ho~e. Her
footprints indica~~a., ho~~ever, that she '1-!:.lS a.lready a ser.l1de1ty. As_they ~ondered how this had happened, they asked
her. She told the~ that she ~as the wife of a bear deity,
living at a kamuv kct~n c~orld of d~ities)(l) called
:E~yuhsim9. (meanin~ o:f this desisnstion is not clear), and
thus she could no longer go home "'1 th them. Ho~;rever, she
promised that the next time she caffie do~n for ~ater, she
would take them to H~yuhs~m~. She w9rned them that when she
did this, the:,. should not mention the na::ne E::~vuhsim~, even
when they approached the place and started to hear the voices
of children and the barking of dogs.
A few days later, the elders ~ent to the shore where she
usually appeared. She came down as before, end started to
lead them to H~vuhsim~. As the.elcters follo~cd ~er, surldenly
1 t became very for::.t:_y, and they could no lor.cer se:e t\'here they
were going. Then they henrd the voices of children and
barking of dogs. They also saw a lake around which there were

many houses of deities. They noticed that all the deities in
Ihvuhsili::1. '::ere \:earin~ clothes m:.1oe of mnrten s%1n(2), and
they found tn.'"lt the F.;irl v1ho h3d led them to Eavuhslm8 \laS the
mother of a girl and a boy born to her and her deity-husband.
Many eagles were nesting around the lake, and their
feathers were scattered on the ground. The girl told.them to
gather the feathers and them ho:ce to sell. Thus the two
elders \~ith bu~dl~s or ;asle feathers on their backs returned
to their settlements. J
A few days later, these two men, together with a few
others, again decided to visit H~yuhsim~.
As they went, it
again became foss:,.
Then they heard the voices of children
and barkinp of do~s.
At that time a fool in the group said,
"Since 1!e can hear the \roices of children and bar1{i!1S" of
dogs, H8:vuhsiY:J~ r.mst be near." Because of the of the
ihom~h (taboo) by the fool, the p:1rty never reached Ea:vuh.sim8..
However, some time later, the original t~o elders decided
to try again alor.e. This time they reached. .P."lvu.hsir.1'1 and
again came bacl<: Hi th :r~uge bur..dles of eagle feathers on their

When a hu!!!an being visits a k::-muv kot::Jn (:orld of

deities), he starts to smell profusely. Thus, on return to
his settleillent, he should not i~ediately enter his house
but should call to his fa~ily from outside. Whe!1 the family
members ansNer, he should unload a.nything he has carried from
the world of deities ~!1d leave it outside, since nothing fror.1
a world of deities may be immediately brought into the house.
Then, aft~T the far.1.ily me~bers have nrepared ar.d started tusu
(shamanistic ritu~l), the returned person may enter the house
amidst the smoke of tus~.
On this occasion when the two ~en who were carryin
feathers from the world of deities reached their house {it is
not clear whether the t~o reen ~ere living in the same house),
they called for their fa.!lily members from outside.
there was a funeral at the house and the familv did not
As the tvo men were resting at the kg~u7 samcq (sacred
place outside the house}, the funeral orocession came out of
the house. The deities became very angry and caused the t1ro
men to die instant~neously.
Since these two ~en died without reporting the location
of HP-vuhsi:n~, nobody !'!O;J knmIs hm-r to get there.
Peonle have
searched and seArched, but its location is unknown to-this

Notes {for Tale 19)
According to Busko, there are several kRmuv kot~n (worlds
of the deities) in the mou~talns o~ the north~est coast. In
these settlements the bears take hu~a~ for~ and live like
hu~~ns, having families and livin~ in houses.
These deities
are called kimun avnu (rnount~in ceonle). Although they look
like hu!n~!!s, they-::'lre nctu01ll v v.~:::~;.- (bears) and they all are
bald-headed. Therefore, she 'said it: !s taboo to ridicule
bald-headedness. A breach of thi~ taboo ~ill cguse a flood,
as :ounish~ent by the klr.un Rvr~u.
~-Then Eusko ts.lks ~bout ~he ~~~~.1:.. ?.Ynu
ahu~.ys desisnates the!n ~s cales.

in f!eneral, she
the son of Eusko's
mother's brother, also said th~t ~e al~ays thought of th~
klr'!un ?..vr.:u as b~ld-h<::!tded !:lsles. =:o:-:ever, Nhen I asked
Busko about it, she Bald th3t ~ece~se of the descri~tion of
the voices of at :i"<=!.vuhs ~:::.::_, the k i:rtun a:'-:r.u must have
children, and that t ;.e ir mothers 2:::-e f"emales. Ordinarily the
Sakhalin Ainu do not em~h~size the sex distinction of a bear.
The marten skins ~-rere V3l u:=..ble as trade 1 te;;1s. Thus
they usuall:r refrained fro::~ ]{eep~!:S the:-:1 for their mm use;
nearly all were used as barter ite~s. This lnfo:::-~ation
sug~;ests that the Ainu associate the deities Kith \realth.

Althcush the popularity of ea0le feathers had declined
by ~usko's tiree, earlier the Chi~ese paid very high prices
for eagle f"eathers collected by the A!.nu. Thus, this passage
in the story indicates that the Air.u consider the deities as
benefactors to the Ainu.
As did Tale 7, this story al3o describes the Ainu
of the transfor~ation of a woman into a deity as
the result of her ~arri~ge to a deity.

Belief in the lcl~un 3Vl!'..l c~our.t~!.n people) is also

reported by studying othc-::- S!'ikhalin Ainu. From a
story collected at Aih~~~, on the s~c~heastern coast of
southern Sakhalin, Pilsudsti desc::::-i~es :::t sil!!ilar belief. These
beings are called o1<8r. or l~imt1c'l .i~"!.l [sic], and .n:-e thought to
be half-human ar..d half-deity, b<J.ld-he~ded, and living in the
mountains. They often visit Ainus i~ the form of bears and
bring good luck to their Ainu host. Thus, whenever the Ainu
hunt they carry :food for offerin5"s to these beings (Pllsudski

1912: 135-136).
Chlri, hotTever, criticl~:es Pilsu1ski's interpretation of
kimu1mjnu [sic], and summarizes the Sakh:-:~lin 1\inu belief in

kimun.qv~u or 1.{1':1o1c:"!'.r1wb. -:1s follo,_.Js (these Ainu terms are
written in Janan~se ohonetic scripts, Rnd the phone~icizqtion
into Ainu is ~Y 1ntcrDret~tio!1). The kb:n!"!~:vr.u a:!:'e hu!:nns,
not bears, ~ho live in the ~ountqins and dislike blood. They
are bald-headed, and hence one should never ridicule b~ld
headed persons, not even in his hou~c, since the Goddess of
the He2rth will report it to the kimunDynu. fl.s punishment,
when the person cocs into the mountains, he will encounter
rain and other dlsas~ers.

Chiri clai~s that the figure who aooears in the story

collected by ?ilsudski is not ki~un~y~u but is a bear deity
transformed into a human female (Clliri 19~4: 59-60). However,
he does not mention the olace in Sakhalin where he collected
the information on ~hich tis statement is bascj. It ~as
prob~bly on the eastern coast, where he had worked.
Hithout P.ddit ion::~l n:?.terial, I cannot evaluate the
different interprct.s.trm:s o:' Pilsuds1~i ann Chiri. J\cco::::-ding
to .Hus}{Q' s data, the :..:1:-:1u~ ~ ~rc believed to be bears in
human form.

Tale 20:
At a place c::tlled I1P.tusi on the co~st, people
sa11 that a v:o!.:lla.n 1:ho \:as fetchin~ se:::-t '.'rater. left prin~s froi'!l
one foot <'lhich -;-;ere si:! to those of a bear. 11oreover,
the inside and outside of ~he footprints were reversed. Hhen
the people looked closer at this NO~an, they realized that
she was the missing wife of a man living in the s~ttlernent.
She had disappea:!:'ed so~e time aso. During a shamanistic
performance a she!~ans .spirit helper deliv-ered a from
the missing ~ocan. She told the people not to follo~ her.
since she was the ~ife of a bear deity. Therefore, the place
where this incident occurred was named Matusi, Hhich means
"the place where a wife ~as abducted."
Although this story is very brief, it describes, ~s did .
the precedi!1t; story, the Ainu conception of the transforr:Jation
of an Ainu wom~n to q deity as the result of her marri~~e to
a deity.


Tale 21:

Bears with clay on their body

There are certain bears which are called tu:r1 utehpe

(meaning of this term is not clear}. These bears are
considered to be kings. (Husko used the Japanese term osama'
l'lhioh meF.lns "king," but I do not know the meaning that she
intended.) These bears spread clay over their bodies. A
tu:ri utehpe also has a large female wild duck (kopeca in
Ainu){~ platyrbYnchos platyrhynchos Linne (Chiri l962:
204)), as his servant. The wild duck looks for men. If
successful, it will report to its master, and then the bear
will attack the men. Therefore, when the marten hunters 1n
a kaama ku~a (temporary hut where marten hunters stay while
setting marten traps) notice a wild duck, they should catch
it, so that it cannot go back to the bear to report the
location of the hunters. Unless a wild duck assists the bear
in locating men, the bear, being lazy, will notsearch for
The hunters in the mountains should also flee when they
hear a pounding noise, since it is the sound of a tu:ri utehpe
spreading clay over its body. They should always carry a
large a.mount of clay, a yo :mah (spear) , and a sharp wooden
skewer similar to the ima:ni (wooden skewer on which to smoke
trout). If a tu:ri utehpe comes to their hut, it will look
like a huge bundla of clay with a single opening at its
mouth. It will go next to the hearth to dry the clay on its
body. Then the men should add more clay over the eyes, for
as soon as the olay over the eyes dries and falls off, the
bear can see and will attack the men. Meanwhile, the men
should remove the clay from the bears armpits and anus.
While one man holds a skewer pointing toward the anus, the two
other men should stab the bear in both armpits with spears.
Then the bear will fall on its rear end and the skewer will
enter its anus. This is the only way that men can kill a
tu:ri utehoe and escape its attaok. Of course, one should
never talk
.aloud 1n the mountains about a tu:riutehpe,
because upon hearing its name, it attacks.



tales about the OroKs

The following four stories about the Oroks describe the

Ainu-Orok relationship. These stores did not occur in the
beginning of the universe when the universe was occupied
exclusively by the Ainu, their deities and demons. They
occurred in the world which the Ainu shared with other
The stories illustrate the deep-seated Ainu hatred and
suspicion of the Orohko (Oroks). The Oroks, Gilyaks, Sandas,
and Kirens all became middlemen in the Santan trade which
extended from Manchuria in the north to Japan in the south.
Historical records indicate that all of the peoples in this
area abused the Ainu. The Ainu still dislike the Oroks, but
maintain a friendly attitude toward the Gilyaks and neutral
attitude toward the Sandas and Kirens.
Although it is difficult to understand the reason for
the Ainu singling out the Oroks for their dislike, one of the
reasons seems to be the difference in the Ainu and Orok way
of living. Busko pointed out the difference between the Ainu
and Oroks, the latter being reindeer herders, without a
fishing economy like the Ainu and Gilyaks. Also, the Oroks
~laced their dead on a wooden structure above the.ground,
rather than burying them in the ground as the Ainu tfd. The
Oroks also looked very different than the Ainu and Gilyaks,
having "flat faces like the Koreans and Japanese."
Tale 22:

The Orok attack at


Once Ray~iska (see Map)Cl) was an extremely prosperous

Ainu settlement. There were so many people in the settlement
that "the sleeves of their garments became wo~n as the result
of people rubbing each other as they walked."(2}
The prosperity of Ray~iska, however, was undermined by
the Oroks, who came from the Arapeh~a Kotan ("the country
on the other side of the strait," i.e., the Maritime
Provinces) to attack the Ainu. Although the Ainu won the
battle, the retreating Oroks are said to have cast a spell
over them by bu~ying their ritual sticks on the shore. The
Ainu could not counter attack the Orok spell, since it is not
part of the A1n~ belief system to ask deities to cast out
evil spirits.(3J Due to the Orok soell, the A~~u at Ray~iska
started to die one after another, and the popu~ation declined
rapidly. This is how the settlement received the name of
Ray~iska (ray (to die) +~is (to cry)+ ka {place)).
this event it became taboo to pronounce the appellation
aloud, and ever since the people have had to refer to the
settlement as Tara Kotan (tara (that)+ kotan (settlement)).(4)


Notes (for Tale 22)
In the recent past Ra~~iska was one of the larser Ainu
settlements on the northwest coast. After her first marriage
at Rav~iska, Eusko spent the major portion of her life there.
Nany of her relatives on both sides of her family also scent
their lives there.
This is an Ainu exoression which indicates the large
number of peo?le livin5 at a settlement and is considered an
index of its prosoerity.

This particular information t-ms given by Iiusko 1-(hen I
specifically asked her why the Ainu could not counterattack.

Huska did not even knm-: the approximate date of this

event, and I have not been able to find any reference to it
in other sources.

Tale 2J:

The war between the


Ainu and



Long ago, three or four Oroks from T~ravka (in the

northeastern part of southern Sakhalin) lost their way when
travelling to the west coast. They reached the SirioRnkusnay
(a tributary of the main river at 3~v~is~a, called To:kunnay
(the Japanese call it R~ichlshika-gawn)).
As they were very
hungry, when they saw so~ething hanging fro~ a willa~ tree,
they thought it ~as the intestines of so~e animnl and thus
ate it.
It actually ~as olacenta (h~~i~o ihunke in Ainu),
which the Ainu at ~~v~isk~ olaced on R crotch of a tree, as
l:as required by custo:n. (I J T!-:o of the Oro~~s died as a
result, and the one or two who remained alive returned to
In the follm:lnp: May 7 many Groks fro~ Tara:vl{n. returned
to the Ainu settlement at Bav~iskR for reven~e. The Ainu
males, however 7 hqd ~one herrin~ fishing at fistomon~yno and
Kusunn~ (see Ihp).C2) Since there Here no Ainu r:1ales left
at Rqv~lska, the Oroks decided to attack the Ainu at
At Kot~nturu, ~hich is situated between Rqv~iska and
Ustomon~?no, the able males had also gone herrin~ fishing at
Ustomo~~vno, anj t~e only people remaining were an elderly
couple \~ith t:.~o little boys. The couple had heard that the
Oroks fro~ TGr~vka miRht come for revenge. Later they could

see in the distance to~~rds R~v~\sk~ a grouo of people co~lng
The couole susn~ctcd th?..t they were Oroks.


Therefore, the elder took out two treasured swords,

dressed the t~o boys in their test attire, giving each cf the~
a s~ord, an~ let them escRDC throu~h the sscrcd wlnrlow in the
northeastern corner of the hou2e (c3lled ahouy or kR~uv
nuvarR); thus the Oroks will not see them escape.
The grouo of neoTJle \,ere the Orol{s.
Unon ::1rri ving at
the house, there was a severe b3t~le.
The elder killed t~o
Oroks and lqter ~-:~s killed by other Croks.
His ~1ife 1<illed
an Oro~ but, too, ~as killed. There ~ere too many Oroks. The
two boys re9an~hile went across the river at Kotanturu an1
sto~ncd ~t g grassy f~el~.
In the middle of this field were
t~o-;pruceCJ); these ~ere the only trees in the field. The
boys each clii!!bed a separate tree. They played Fi th e?
other, usin; their swords. The golden chains hanging fron the
swords and having a bell at the end, fell off. Thus these
trees ~ere n~oed Suoqr9:re Vsl (sucDra:re = ch~in; usi =

After nlaying to5ether briefly, the boys went back to

their home, and found both of their narents dead.
They ~ent
to Usto~on~vco to renort the incident. The neocle at
Kot?.~tur.}_~,-~~i~o h3.d g.cne to l_!sta~o~~~n)o, returned. The ~eonle
at the Usto:-::cn9vno settletr.e!!-::: an~ Kusur:nr-ty settlement al~o
went to the funeral.
When the boys became ~oults, they decided to seek rever.~e
the Oroks for the eeaths of their narents. They heat~d
metal, begt and stretched it into the shane of srords. They
killed a :n2.le servant ar.d cut out his liver.
They then
te~pered the swords with the liver of the servAnt.
surw-::.oned other men, "~ho armed the-zsel ves, and then all of them
set forth to Tar~vka. The Ainu killed all of the Oroks there.(4)
The boys, no:-; adults, l:er.t back to Kotqnturu.
L~ter they
became old and d led.
~-/hen they died, the 9eople :anted to see
the insides of such sreat me~. U~on the death of the olde~
brother, they o~er.ed his heart, and four.d a ru:sis s:J.~ce (~air
chest); his heart consisted of bundles of hair. -when the
younger brother died they opened his body and found that his
heart was a rurcnls sa~ne (flint heart); it was made of white

Notes (for Tale 2))

1. Here Husko uointed to the Orok custom of eating raw megt,

which the Ainu did not.

As I stated in the I~troductio~, the Ainu in this Feneral
a.!'ea ~re ::!12. rel0ted throu;:_-h kinshiD ties, ancl they freely
move from one settlement to ~nether in Pursuit of food.


They arc Yesso sPruce Rnd are cglled in Ainu sun~u (Picea
(Chlri l95J: 236)}.

je~oensis C~rr

Here Huska added th.:lt there \;ere still so11e tw:r.en and
children rerr.aL!ine;, ?'! thus this is t:hy there tIere still T!l-8.ny
Oroks at TarRyka durins Huska's time.


The Ainu consider ~uru-:)1S (flint) to h:lve unusuql po~:er.

As \ole sm! in T8.le 4., a :flinta!'ro-;:head is believEd. to l<ill any
demon (see the note for 1. 65 of Tale 4).
The same story., differing very little except for two
points, is recorded in Japanese by T. Ya~aT.oto (Ya~a~oto 1944:
197-201) who h~ard it fro~ "Ishi~ura Tokante" at the
Ustomon~vno (see ~an) settle~ent.
This "Ishimura Tokante" must
be Huska's relative., To'r..C?.nteka':nu, t:ho t~as the husband of
Uhkut?.nne (Busko's husoand's (i.:o:t.ouo /\v!1u) h8.lf-sister (his
!!lot her's daughter t;o-ith her first husba~d) Y.
Huska said
Tol<::J.ntektJ:vnu ~ras at the sa:::1e time her third cous 1 n on her
mother's side, and that his Jn.-panese last name t:as Ishimura.
The major difference bet~een t~c two versions of the story
1s that in H'J.sko' s story the h:o brothers tempered their sNords
w1 th the liver of a ser\~ant 11~hom they killed.
In To~-:~ntek.~:vn11 "s
version, as recorded by T. Yama:.noto, the h:o brat hers fou:nd a
strane:er v:ho had a :hand bellOl;s rr.::J.d e fro!ll a \?ooden stick and
fish skin, and the two brothers knew how to use it (T. Yamamoto
1944! 197).
Another difference, important from the pain~ of vimv of
symbolism, is th8.t 1!1 Hus1w s version only golden chains were
hung from the boys' swords, ~hile in the Tok~nteka~nus
ver~ion a golden ch3in t~as hung fro:n one boy's s:ord and a
silver one t>'as on the other boy's s1~ord.
Also, in
Tok~ntekavr.u's version, the boys fled to a mountain in the back
of' the settlement, :rather than to a grass field, as in Huska's
Stories involving both the Ainu and Oroks seem to be
favorites with both of these peoples as they are also recorded
by several scholars., including Pilsudski (1912: 66-76),
s. Ishida (1910: 47tS-lt77), Nonaka (19JJ: l?J-178) and Chiri
(1944: l22-l2J).
In all of these tal~s, there are b:o common
themes: namely, the .,.!ar t::~kes plnc<:: ~t '1'9!"AV1<r-t, instead of
at TI;:wc1s1<q, as in E.usko's ~tory, P..nd secor.cly, the Ainu
mistake l'!hat the Oroks offer the!Il to eat, usually intestines
ot reindeer, as so~ething having to do with the hu~an female

reproductive organ, q uterus or nfterbirth.

Ainu qD~er over
this c~uses the w~r.
In Pilsudski 1 3 story only, the Oroks
offered reindeer storr.."lch st"~ lned Hi th lmDCln cxcre:ner:.t. The
Oroks, too, have their versions of the war with the Ainu, and
one is recorded by Sekiguchi (1940).

Tale 24:

Orok skulls

There are many Oroks at the Siska (Shisuka in Japanese)

and Te.rnv1-:.a (Taralka ln JapAnese) regions in the northeastern
southern Sakhalin.
The Oroks a~e revengeful and hold their grudges fo~ a
long time. This is ~hy after death their skulls do not rest
in peace, and they continuously move around.
The Oroks put their de~d in a coffin and place it on a
raised wooden structure. Therefore, the coffin will eventually
rot aNay and trill fall to .the eround. Then the skull in the
coffin will fall out and start rolling arou~d the field, while
cryin5, "ER:rav, ha:r~v."
The skull of a child will cry in a high shrill voice,
while that of an adult ~ill cry in a low voice. While cryin,
a skull will go to a nearby river to drink water and ~ill
leave a trail from the field to the river; its trail looks
like the trail of a large tree trunk which has been dragged
across the field.
If an Ainu happens to be fishing on a river when an Orok
skull goes by, and he jokingly tells the skull to co~e to hi~,
then the skull will go to the boat.
If someone tells the
skull to sir..5, it :-:ill sing "Ha::rr:?v, h:?.:r?:v." If sor.1eone
strikes the skull ~ith a stick or so~ething else, it would
break into pieces, and yet each of the broken _pieces would
jump up onto the boat. They will then stick.on the edse of
the boat and keep cryin2;, "Ea::rav, ha:rav."
This is so because the Oroks keep a grudge against o~hers
for a long time; they will not have peace of mind even after
When one encounters situations involving the Orok skulls,
one should perfor:r. s~~nur3hDA., '::'hich is the Ainu inforr.1al
rite of offering ~hRtcver is available, e.g., tobacco which
one always carries. Then the Orok skulls will leRve.






lr. the fteld

Gnce there was a widow and her dRu~hter. One day the l~ent t:i th other .:;i:rls to A field to gather cr::J.nber~ies.(l)
In the field, next to a rotten tre~ trunk lying
on the grass, ras a skull h~lf-buried in the ground.
there ~ere holes in the skull for the eyes, nose, and mouth,
the slrl said, " kind of a head is th~t ~Jhich has so many
( E<::-:~ate! s?.ns.ll?. n~S!nne ene k8m1P suvehe okAY?)" The
skull irn:;:e~ i8.~e:l:1 a.ns~:ere.:, "Since it is a hu;nan head, it of
course has :J:l!'"J" holes ( _!'_y!":u ~ ne,qnne si :n<1. Q.!! ~ ~)."
The girl was fr1Ehtened and ran home. The skull chased
her by rolling all the way to her horne.
She dashed into the
house in order to shut the door.
As she rlid, she henrd a
noise as thoug~ sc~et~ing had bu~ned into the door; it had
rolled so fast that it hit the door which she ~as closing.
Si~ce the skull did not have hands, it could not open the
door. F:ea!!:~r.ile t }~e girl hid herself in the bedd i!!g.
then explained wh~t had hacnened to her mother.
The mother auologlzed to the skull, explaining that
because her daushter did ~ot know about life, she had made
such foolish st~tenents. She begged the s~ull to forsive her
daughter and s~e offered it wh~tever it wished.
She put
lacauer-:!are dishes and other Precious treasures in a leather
bcx-(called ha~kGta). Then she opened the door and told the
skull not to be ansry bee~use she ~ould bring the treasure to
wherever it wished. The skull rolled back next to the tree
trunk in the field l-!hile s'3.ying, "Since it is a hu:nan head,
it of course has many holes."
The skull l''as that of an Orok. Peoule thought that the
Orok was bexitche~ to death by a fox while gathering some
plants. Since the Oroks hold grudges for a lons t1ce, this
skull, too, had not been able to fi!!d neace and had haunted
the girl.

Notes (for Tale 25)

1. Cranberries in /,inu are called kP. t"'.;a (V8cc i ni u~ O~:vc occus

L. (Ch1ri 195): 54)). The Ainu especially enjoy a dish
called tu~eh ci!~~!'lne, \'lhich is :l!ade by l:liXinE" r:l.ashed fish
meat and certain berries; cranberries are often used in this


Seven ~irldles (urchr~~)

1 . sKoy
u ' D no'3.h h C:-':'l. t







is that under the foaru?)

(What is that which comes en

masse from the se.::l.?)



Untahko unt~hko o~~nte~c ovsutos~q he~~ta?

(~hat is that
which invites oeoole to a ~eal and then goes to the corner
of the roo~?)



(What is that which goes offshore)

tuna (huntins ge~r for catching harbor seals)C3)

Tetara ayr.u ni:~3 hu:re ~ a:-:un her:;8.t'3.? {".lhile ~:hite

men chop ~ood, a red ~an retreats; who are they?)


ruv (trhetsto!'!e)




lni: nah c~~ooden pestle)

Nann'?.cn:o O'D;'lnten~ seho:> 1{o:=::::'J. hef!!~t~?

(Hhat is th:).t
\'Thich v:as!1es its face an:l then go-es under the bed?)(2)


Ihcuhceh (This is a fish which I C8nnot


imah !le:'!-~3. ~ tur~ (teeth and tongue)

Ekemgsahku i~~~ kot~n k~:ema ke~qkorokuh ohaciruntq

(::Jh<:~.t is ti1a~ -..rhich ;..;ithout less goes to six
settlements set t t;rP.)'?S, ...,~hile the storage house ,_.,1 th
legs stays at home?){4

cis (boat)

Notei (for the riddles)

Accordinz; to P.:us~cos descrintion, this fish is about five
to si;: inches long. Durin;;: the net:< moon in Hay, they cone
en masse so close to the shore thRt the sho~e becomes white.
The Ainu catch these fish either by hand or with buckets.



2. The Ainu build r::d.. sed st~uc tures c.~lled sc h o;1 the north
and south ~->i!ie~ of the house. 'I'h~? sleen on th~se structures
which do not h~vc in~ivi~u31 como~rt~~nts.
~us%o s~id thRt
these structures help to keen out fleas while the Ainu sleep;
there are numerous fleas on the floor becgusc do~s, which
usually rti?..ny fleqs, are freely 3d~::t1.tted to th~ house.
). This hunting gear called tuna was no longer used during
Huska's time a~d she had never seen one.
In this instance the usu~l terill for storage house, ~'
is not used; i!i.stea.d the storac;e house is referred to as "a
person with less" (ke~3korokuh).






Ch1r1, liashio (!(a. ~ Ul.- '"-. -f, )

Air..u :!l~l:"'!'l~;:~u ( } 1 iZ ft.~
Tol{yo: 1\:yodo Kenkyu8ha.

(p,) ( I\inu



Ainuro Goho Kenkvu - Kar~futo Ho~en o Chushin

to shl te ("'} -{;Z~ P.;-~!1,')/.- F?f :K_1""~-tt'\::~
(Rese2rch on ~he Ainu langua5e - pr1~ar1ly on
the S8.khnlin "~1r..u d 12-.lect~).
Hakub,JtS~l~.O::r.>.!! :-:::JkOk.'..l ( ;F1f 1:'-.. iJ.-f$iYf:t(ffL~), Vel. 4,
No. 4, pp. 51-172.


Karafuto Air:u no Setsuv~a ( ~ -;:, /? 9...0 t_t.t'b- )

(Folktgles of the S9~hal1n Ai~u).
na.kubutsu1~~n Tho ( ;ff. ~If ~f.0~;f. !jtZ_), Vol. J,
No. l, pp. 1-146.




Karafuto /~inu no Setsmra (

~If X. 1 ~_iWh.)
(Folktales of the Sakhalin Ainu).
Kenk:\~U ( ~ {t _,.
Vol. 12, Ko. !l-,
PP 46-56:

-t!J.'J7. ),

& 1962
Bunrui Air.u.::c Ji ten ( ~ -c. I f Z
(Cla3sif1ed dictionaries of the Ainu langua5e).
3 vols. (Vol. I - Plants (195J); Vol. II P~imals (1962); Vol. III- Human (1954)).
Tokyo: liihon Jomin Bunka Kenkyujo.

1953, 1954


VG- t4'-

Ainu Sanbun i:onozatari - Km:::!.shimo no Hono no

Mu'kash1 ~an::~shi (1{7.. '>Rfz.'ttv"f'.:r;-YrF1 { 11f%'t. )
(Panqmoe-u~~ne~er, Ainu folk tales of the true
and unt:rue typs...:::]d). Honno Bunk8. !<:e~'{VU ( jz_;f f~
~ ~ ), i-ro. 10, pP. 25l-Jl9 (1-69).


Chirl, Mas1o


Ainu~o )JvuT.o!'l ( I 1X... ~AP 1) ( L1troduction to

the Ai::~u lR!':!-?;uar;-e). Tokyo: N1re Shobo.


(~~ ~~ f~,),

and Od.a, Kun1o (.). lP

Yuk~~~ K~n::>hn (:J.--1] 7 ~~ ) (Evaluations of
the Ainu epic). Tokyo: Gengensha.

Dundes, Alan








New Jersey: Prentice-

Goodenou:-::h, :.-lard H.
Anthrcnolocicnl Studies: h ~c~ Publication
Series of the Nne! lean An throl_)olocic."l.l
A~eric~n Anthronolo~ist.
No. 1, p. v.




Beqr ~n the ~orthern E~~isnhere.
Publis!Je:d F~-:.D. Dl.ssertatior1. ?hil'3.6elor1ia:
University of Pennsylvania.

1.? )


Hattori, Shiro ( llt

P.inuso ni oY-eru Xenchoshaso Tokushu::;o ( 7 f ~~
k."j"~ r"]" ~if ~
/1 :Jt~q:w (/~ SPCC ial l?..ngU3.:C of
the older ~eneration of the Ainu). Min~oku~2ku
Y.e!:11-:~,~ ~ --~- ~ "7 f1{ fih. ) , Vol. 21, !\o. J,







Hor;en no Ninsho Setsuji ni

1.{-~J "- 7 .. 7 )
(Perso~~l Affixes in the Sakhalin Ainu dialects).
~ 1:e ) ' -fJo JO
Ge .,..,'""O 'e,..,'1u ( ~
0 ~::z...
o~ . . . . 1 j (,
.;' ' PD
- 1 - 20

(rf:Z m;

1J=j7}- :1~ "l




Hattori, Shiro
l!D~ ), and Chiri, Nasio (~D~L'[.~{~.)
_1\inu!:;O Shoh~::-;en no Kisosoi Tol~e ise':-:u-tek 1 _
Kenk.;ru <7f,z~~i'"~ '7 .~-PJl-m-w t:trr~ fl:; :P1 ~ >
(A le:;dcost3tistic stun;.' of hlr.u dlalectsCsic]).
11inzo1~,.lr.:?.~-:u Ken' ( ~ ~ "1:- ~, -~ ) , Vol. 24,
No. 4, pp. Jl-66.



Hattori, Shiro (
\11)"~~ ), ed.
f:.inu::-:o :rocen Jite:-1 Cr1x ~;o~i;f~)(An Ainu
dialect dictionary). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.

n"l. tr ~ .)


Hattori, Takeshl (
G:ri~raku no Densho to Yurne Hand.n.n (.f ?t-J1 F-f~C
I} JfJ) $ff) (Gilya1<: oral traditio~s ~r:d dream
:::_nalys is).
K~rn futo Jiho (
;K, ~


52, pp.




m! )

Hinami Karafuto i'Untanshu ( ffi1If

(Folktales of southern Sakhalin). KRr~futo
Jiho (~A pt-#Q.J, No. 48, pp. 15-23; No. 49,
pp. 52-59.


'fb JCt

Hora, Tot'lio (
K.<"lrf-!futoshi Ke!!k':U (fg A~~
(?.esearch on
the history of ~akhalin Island). Tokyo:

'}t )


Ishida, Elichiro { b \f.J }:_-~f,)

The Island of :!omen.
No. 4, n. p. (reprint).


Vol. IV,

Ish1d3, Shu;:o





O::::-o1~ko to _ll_in'..l !10 T8.taka1 i~onos::~.tarl ( 1JZ 7:1~

rf7.._ '1
1-t>}t:) {Stories -=J.bOl-: ~~8.rS bet~!Ce!1


the Oro!-: ~!:-1 th~ A.i!1u). Ji!1r~l1.c-:.q~u Zasshl

( }-._ i_, f}
~? ) , Vol. XXV ( i-:o. 294),
pp. 476-477.





( ~W - 1--Rb)
Ihr-:futo /~i~u n6 Cnin Soshiki ( 'Jl" 1S-.. I{J...1 t3- r'l,l
i.:fl~), (P!:or.~mic structure of ':he S::.)_s~v~l1.::.!1 :U:'1u
Jlnrul::-'1"\.:u Zass!-:1 (;(__"f..?-{i~2o),
Vol. 27, ~os. 6-8, pp. J25-JJ2, 401-410, & 472-



Ai1:u no S!li!1te!1 - i\lnu P..3.~{ 1 mru no De:r.sct~u (-rfX..t7)

WJi!--r1x.:7-,/JvaJffft) (Hyth of "the ;;inu - 1'ales of
A~nu Ral~!~uru).
To~yo: Yasu Shobo.


Ainu~o Ke!;'.{vu ( I" 1 X ~{~ (A study of the

Ainu lar!;u~;-~e).
(Selected essnys of Kyosu1':e
K1ndaich1 Vol. I). ~okyo: Sanseido.




Kondo, Seis2i ( 1h
Henvo ?.un"l{-=~ i Zu1-:o ( iE. ~
of the frontiers).

1J'~-ij.$) (Descri ~t ion

Mogami, Tokun~i ( ~.J:.

J:t:j ) t-- ~ 4 '1;t
Ezo Soshi ~oh~n <i1~~~J\{Rif)(Stories of the
Ezo, Vol. II).
K. Otomo, e_., Hoku~o!1 Sosho,
Vol. J, pp. 447-479. Tokyo: Hok~o Shoho.


Nonaka, Fu:nio


(~ 1f X...J:.._ )

Kitn-Ezo E1bu!1 - K~r~futo Ainu no Sokusekl

~ tl:Cn] --:rA r~ X./) }(__~1...}1Co!;fidential
stories 01 Nb~thern ~o - Traces of the Sakhalin
Toyohara: ~okushindo Shoten.

Ohnuki-Tierney, E'!"{o
h. !-!orth:-'est C0~s'c Sq1:~:=!lin Ai"!!u ~Io:r-ld 'lie~~.
Ph.D. ci~sertation, the u8nt. of 1~thropolo~y,
Un1v. or Wisconsin. 407 p~.
Pllsudski, 3ro!11slov


~!qte~1~1~ for the Studv of the Ai?:.u L<mr.u::'l:.c

.and ?ol~lcrz:- Cr~co~: Spo!1-:a '.-iFia:~nicza Polska.

Raun, /l.lo; Frar..c1s, D?..vid; Voeg-elin, C. F. 3.nd F. Y.., ed.

L'?n~u?..:ce of the 'Torl~: ~or~o-0rl8nt8l ?:'1sc !.clc
t,r:r.:'iironoforic'"!l llr![I.Hstlcs, Vol. 7, :~c. 1.



( Pi'fl o ~~ )
iiJ :>.<. ... , -d--b..
Oro'.cko so:-3. i!onor:-::':.:::-1 ( lt11 :J ~ rr. o~ "&~ ) (Oro1{
:br stories). 1\a'l"'atuto Jiho, Eo. :;8, pp. 62-67.

Talca1mra., Shir:.ichi:-c {~J
~is!:i~:::1 ?:::t:r::tfuto Y.~l.~~tsu to Dojin ( I Ji9
-r:t-- 1\..11{] ~ ~ -r:.-A_ ) (~cvclop~ent of the Kuril
I~l3nds 2~d s~~h~1in, ~~~ its effect on the
abor1[!:1nes). ~O~)"!)O ~ur:~:~ ;{en1~':u ( j(_ "t J..HL1>j ~
ro. 10, p~. 1-27 (55-Sl).



~J'"UZO (~ ~ ~ ~






J~in_92 C.e~


e': Ettno1c~1oues les

r:ou::-iTe:;-.- Jcu:::n8l c::~ ~r:e ~o1lef.'"e
'l'o!<:,-o I:-a:uc~i~l University, Vol. XLII,



Article 1.

L.l.... .if- J'} ~ )

Yar:1amot o, Toshi o (


Karaf~to Ainu Giriyaku Cro1~ko no Setsu!~i:l (~~


-i'1v- 7 if !].7 ::J- OJ

G'ly:>. 1'



E~~~uhut;u~:~;' Ih~,, ( ~


1, pp. 147-211.

K9.~f-!.futo .~inu

d'i:ellings in

of the


A/r -pf ~7ttffR}'~


Y~2.r:10to, Yu!w ( J,~~5~)


t-t ) (Stories

C.,...c'' cr- C'..,',}~"='1 ~n'


no Juky)