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BIPV: Lessons Learned

Challenges and Opportunities of Integrating PV into Building Structures

Warwick Johnston, 2nd August 2008

Introduction
• Least cost solar option? Optimal inclination? • Challenges of Building Integration
– Integrated Design Process – Angle & Orientation – Shading – Features & Benefits

• Case Studies

Integrated Design Process
• Architects.....
– Engineers – Urban Designers – Installers

• Shading
– Known Shading – Unknown Shading

Optimal Orientation: Vertical
• Radiation Profile • Effect of Shadows • Amorphous

Design for Shade
• Unavoidable
– Fixed Structure

• Known Shading
– Sub-System Design (Inverters, etc) – Amorphous

• Unknown Shading
– Diodes – Amorphous

Ballarat University
• 200 m2, 8.4kWp • 8 sub-systems • Double-glazed 10% lighttransmitting • Saving of A/C load & system capacity

Design Challenges
• Expected Shade
– Expected: Trees, Light Poles,
Entranceway

• System Design
– Custom Panel Design – Inverters
1: 5 strings of 3 (tree) 2: 5 strings of 3 3: 1 string of 4 (entranceway) 4: 3 strings of 4 8: 2 strings of 3 (pole #2) 7: 3 strings of 4 (pole #1) 6: 2 strings of 4 (pole #1) 5: 5 strings of 4

Performance – Ballarat University

Outcomes
• Unexpected Shade
– Floodlights

• Broken during shipping and handling, long lead time • Building a bridge, removing the light poles

Tulla-Calder Interchange
• 500 m, 24kWp • 5 sub-systems • Noise attenuation

Design Challenges
• Vertical Pitch • Variable Orientation • Expected Shade
– Gantries

• Vandalism • Data Communications

Design Responses
• System Design
– Inverters – Panel Configuration

Sub System 1 – IG 60 2 – IG 60 3 – IG 30 4 – IG 60 4 – IG 15 5 strings of 3 Trees 11 strings of 5 10 strings of 3 Gantry #2 11 strings of 5 11 strings of 5 Gantry #1

Configuration

Orientation

Shade

Performance - TCI

Outcomes
• Iconic (?) • Mis-oriented • Broken during shipping & handling, long lead time • Unexpected Shade
– Light Poles, Emergency Phone

40 Albert Road
• Solar Pergola
– BBQ Shelter, shade, extend usable space – Unexpected Shade

• Fuel Cell Enclosure
– Extension to Solar Pergola – Unexpected Shade

Other Australian Installations
• • • • Melbourne University Sydney Olympics Werrington Train Station PVSolar, Schott, SunTech, Kaneka, BP

Thank you for your attention
• Thanks also to:
– – – – – – – Going Solar & Subcontractors Schott Solar Tulla-Calder Interchange Alliance
• Parsons Brinkerhoff, Baulderstone, Vicroads

McIldowie Partners Architects 40 Albert Road Clean Energy Council, Sustainability Victoria PVSolar, SunTech...... and you!

Warwick Johnston wbj@tpg.com.au +61 (0)413 361 534 Also happy to discuss solar air conditioning with you!