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ANALISIS JURNAL INTERNASIONAL

The Impact of Human Resource Management on State


Government IT Employee Turnover Intentions

1. Analisis Variabel Independen


Variabel Independen/bebas adalah variabel yang mempengaruhi atau
menjadi penyebab berubahnya / timbulnya variabel dependen atau variable
terkait.

Variabel

Independen

merupakan variabel

penelitian yang

memengaruhi, yaitu faktor-faktor yang diukur, dimanipulasi/ dipilih oleh


seorang peneliti untuk menetapkan/menentukan hubungan antara fenomena
yang sedang diamati.
Berdasarkan pengertian tersebut, kelompok kami telah menganalisis
bahwa variabel independen dari jurnal internasional tersebut adalah yang
bergaris bawah The Impact of Human Resource Management on State
Government IT Employee Turnover Intentions .
Human Resource Management (HRM) menjadi variabel independen
karena ia mempengaruhi state goverment IT employee turnover intention.
Dalam jurnal ini terdapat lima hal dalam HRM yang mempengaruhi state
goverment IT employee turnover intention, yaitu promotion and advancement
opportunities, training and development, supervisory communications, pay
and reward satisfaction, and family-friendly policies. Ketika terjadi perubahan
dalam kelima hal tersebut maka akan mempengaruhi tingkat turnover pekerja
IT di pemerintahan.

2. Analisis Variabel Dependen


Variabel Dependen sering disebut dengan variabel terkait yaitu
variabel yang disebabkan atau dipengaruhi oleh adanya variabel bebas/

variabel independen. Besarnya perubahan pada variable ini tergantung dari


besaran variable bebas/ Independen. Variable Independen akan memberi
peluang kepada perubahan variabel terkait/ dependen yaitu sebesar koefisien
(besaran) perubahan dalam variabel independen. Maksudnya, setiap kali
terjadi perubahan sekian satuan pada variabel independen, maka diharapkan
akan mengakibatkan perubahan variabel dependen sekian satuan juga.
Berdasarkan pengertian tersebut, maka variabel dependen dalam jurnal
internasional tersebut adalah yang di garis bawahi The Impact of Human
Resource Management on State Government IT Employee Turnover
Intentions .
State goverment IT employee turnover intentions dipengaruhi oleh
Human Resource Management (HRM). Perubahan turnover tenaga kerja IT di
pemerintahan dipengaruhi oleh HRM.

3. Analisis Variabel Operasional


Variabel operasional adalah penarikan batasan yang lebih menjelaskan
ciri-ciri spesifik yang lebih substantive dari suatu konsep. Tujuannya agar
peneliti dapat mencapai suatu alat ukur yang sesuai dengan hakikat variabel
yang sudah di definisikan konsepnya, maka peneliti harus memasukkan proses
atau operasionalnya alat ukur yang akan digunakan untuk kuantifikasi gejala
atau variabel yang ditelitinya.
Variabel operasional dalam jurnal internasional tersebut :

This study analyzes the impact of human resource management on state


government IT employee turnover intentions. The results of a survey of
state government IT employees show that promotion and advancement
opportunities, training and development, supervisory communications,
pay and reward satisfaction, and family-friendly policies are all

significant variables affecting turnover intentions among state government


IT employees
Measures
The self-administered survey instrument was designed to elicit information
on employee perceptions of human resources management practices,
turnover intentions, and job alternatives as well as demographic
information. Responses were recorded using a 5-point Likert scale
(ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) or a 5-point
frequency of occurrence scale (almost never, rarely, sometimes, often,
almost always).
Several control variables were included in the analyses. Turnover research
models usually acknowledge the role of employment alternatives in the
turnover decision process. Data from several studies indicated that the
availability of an alternative job is a precondition to quitting for many
employees.54 This study included IT employees' perception of job
alternatives as a control variable. The item for perceived job alternatives
was drawn from the instrument developed by Meyer and Allen.55 The item
was: "It is very likely that I can find a job with another employer with
about the same pay and benefits I now have." Such personal
characteristics as age, gender, years of work in the same department, and
education were also included in the present research model as control
variables.

Berdasarkan kutipan dari jurnal internasional tersebut dapat di


simpulkan bahwa, variabel operasionalnya adalah penelitian tentang
promotion and advancement opportunities, training and development,
supervisory communications, pay and reward satisfaction, and family-friendly
policies yang signifikan mempengaruhi keinginan berpindah antar negara
pegawai pemerintah IT. Instrumen survei dikelola untuk memperoleh
informasi mengenai persepsi karyawan sumber daya manusia praktek
manajemen, keinginan berpindah, dan alternatif pekerjaan serta informasi

demografis. Tanggapan dicatat menggunakan 5 poin skala Likert poin (mulai


dari 1 = sangat tidak setuju sampai 5 = sangat setuju) atau frekuensi skala 5titik terjadinya (hampir tidak pernah, jarang, kadang-kadang, sering, hampir
selalu). Selain itu, karakteristik pribadi seperti umur, jenis kelamin, tahun
bekerja di departemen yang sama, dan pendidikan juga termasuk dalam model
penelitian ini sebagai kontrol variables.

4. Analisis Hipotesis
Hipotesis adalah dugaan/ pernyataan sementara yang diungkapkan
secara deklaratif/ yang menjadi jawaban dari sebuah permasalahan.
Pernyataan tersebut diformulasikan dalam bentuk variabel agar bisa di uji
secara empiris. Hipotesis merupakan identik dari perkiraan atau prediksi. Dari
sebuah hipotesis maka akan menimbulkan suatu prediksi, karena prediksi
adalah hasil yang diharapkan diperoleh dari hipotesis. Hipotesis dapat
diketahui jika telah melakukan suatu percobaan sehingga mengetahui hasilnya.
Hipotesis yang terdapat dalam jurnal internasional tersebut adalah
sebagai berikut:
Hypotheses
Since the 1990s, state governments have analyzed the barriers to
effective recruitment and retention of IT workers and tried to reform
the traditional civil service system. Results of a survey of the top
information technology officials in 49 states14 showed that state
governments have made changes in job classification/compensation
systems to retain IT employees. Some of the human resource
management changes made in state governments are as follows:
salary increases, bonus programs, enhanced benefit programs,
employee development programs, alternative schedules/flex time,
telecommuting, and enhanced IT training programs. This study
analyzes the effect of these human resource management changes on

IT employee turnover intention in state governments. The HRM


practices included in this study are promotion and advancement
opportunities, training and development, supervisory communications,
satisfaction with pay and rewards, and family-friendly policies.

Hypotheses 1
State government IT employees who perceive having fair
opportunities for advancement and promotion will have lower
levels of turnover intentions compared to those who do not.
(Pegawai pemerintahaan negara bagian IT yang merasa memiliki
kesempatan yang adil untuk kemajuan dan promosi akan memiliki
tingkat keinginan berpindah yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan
mereka yang tidak)
Hypotheses 2
State government IT employees who perceive organizational
support of employee training and development are more likely to
express lower levels of turnover intentions.
(Pegawai pemerintah negara bagian IT yang menganggap
dukungan organisasi pelatihan dan pengembangan karyawan lebih
mungkin untuk mengurangi tingkat perpindahan)
Hypotheses 3
The degree of effective supervisory communications is negatively
associated with turnover intentions among state government IT
employees.
(Tingkat komunikasi pengawasan yang efektif berhubungan negatif
dengan keinginan perpindahan antar pegawai pemerintahan negara
bagian IT)
Hypotheses 4

The degree of satisfaction with pay and other rewards is negatively


associated with turnover intentions among state government IT
employees.
(Tingkat kepuasan dengan gaji dan manfaat lainnya berhubungan
negatif dengan keinginan perpindahan antar pegawai pemerintahan
negara bagian IT)

Hypotheses 5
The availability of diverse family-friendly policies is negatively
associated with turnover intentions among state government IT
employees.
(Ketersediaan kebijakan diverse family-friendly berhubungan
negatif dengan keinginan perpindahan antar pegawai pemerintahan
negara bagian IT)

Methodology
Sample Selection and Survey Administration
This study used data from a 2003 survey of IT employees working in the
central IT departments or divisions of 38 state governments.50 The sample
was constructed from individual state employee directories and IT
department websites. Copies of the survey were distributed to 3,775
employees. The survey was distributed in two formats. IT employees whose
e-mail addresses were available from their department websites or state
employee directories were directed to a Web-based online survey and
received copies of a follow-up survey by mail. The response rate for this
combination was 24 percent. For the ten state governments that did not
make their employees' email addresses available online, the surface mailonly survey response rate was 16.5 percent. These IT employees were also
sent follow-up surveys.
Seventy uncompleted survey questionnaires were returned because the
targeted participants were no longer employed by their respective

agencies. From the total adjusted sample of 3,705 survey questionnaires,


801 were returned; 12 were considered invalid because they were
incomplete or had been filled out by non-IT employees. The final number
of usable questionnaires was 789-a response rate of 21.2 percent.

5. Analisis Hasil Hipotesis


Setelah dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai kasus yang di teliti,
maka dapat di jelaskan hasil mengenai hipotesis yang telah di bangun. Hasil
hipotesis dari jurnal internasional mengenai The Impact of Human Resource
Management on State Government IT Employee Turnover Intentions adalah
sebagai berikut:

Results and Findings


-

Demographics for the 789 survey respondents.


The respondents' job titles were categorized as IT management,
networks, system development and integration, technical service and
operations, and PC enduser support. The majority of respondents (60 96)
worked in systems development and integration positions. Almost twothirds (64.196) were male. In terms of age, the sample ranged from 20 to
over 65. The distribution for work experience in the IT department or
division was: less than 1 year: 8%; 1-5 years: 37.4%; 6-10 years: 15.4%;
11-15 years: 12.9%; and 16 years or more: 26.3%. A majority of
respondents reported having a college degree, with 13 percent holding
graduate or professional degrees. Salary levels were: under $41,000: 23.5
%; $4l,000-$60,000: 39 %; $6l,000-$80,000: 23.9 %; $81,000$100,000: 6
%; and $101,000-$130,000: 0.7%. Just under two-thirds of the
respondents (64.5 %) had private sector work experience.

Descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients for the study variables.


The majority of the zero-order correlations were statistically
significant at p <0.01. All of the measures appeared to be relatively
distinct; the largest correlation (between training and development and
advancement and promotion opportunities) was 0.57.

Results from an ordinary-least squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis.


The adjusted R2 for the model is 0.360 and the equation achieves
statistical significance at the 0.001 level. Statistically significant
association was noted between all HRM practices, including promotion
opportunities, training and development, pay reward satisfaction,
supervisory communications, family-friendly policies, and state IT
employee turnover intentions. All of the proposed hypotheses are therefore
supported.
Results from the regression analysis showed that state IT
employees who perceived fair opportunities for advancement and
promotion are less likely to express turnover intentions (p <.001).
IT employees who perceived high degrees of training and development
opportunities reported lower levels of turnover intentions compared to IT
employees who did not (p< .01).
Statistical support was also found for a negative relationship
between the degree of pay reward satisfaction and IT employee turnover
intentions (p <.001).
The level of effective super- visory communications and the degree
of family-friendly policy both are negatively associated with the degree of
IT employee turnover intentions (p <.001).
Among the control variables, the data showed that male IT
employees were more likely to express turnover intentions (p <.05). Also
negatively associated with IT employee turnover intentions were age (p
c.001) and years of work (p <.10). However, no statistically significant

relationships were found between perceived job alternatives or education


and turnover intentions.
Gender differences in HRM policies affecting IT employee
turnover intentions are presented in Table 4. Advancement and promotion
opportunities, training and development, pay and reward satisfaction,
supervisory communications, and family-friendly policies were all
significantly associated with male IT employees' turnover intentions
(Table 4). Opportunities for advancement and promotion had the highest
regression coefficient among male IT employees ( = -.19,p< .001).
Among the control variables, age was negatively associated with male IT
employee turnover intentions (p< .001).
HRM practices included in this study were all significant variables
affecting female IT employees' turnover intentions except for training and
development. Not surprisingly, the level of family-friendly policies was the
highest regression coefficient among female IT employees ( = -.24,p< .
001). On the other hand, years of work were negatively associated with
female IT employee turnover intentions (p< .01).

Hasil studi sangat menyarankan bahwa para pemimpin eksekutif dan


manajer dari departemen TI harus mengakui faktor HRM ini ketika mengatasi
masalah keinginan turnover dari karyawan. Pemimpin organisasi dan manajer TI
harus mempertimbangkan beberapa strategi untuk menunjukkan dukungan untuk
tujuan pengembangan karir TI karyawan mereka. Misalnya, organisasi dapat
memberikan kesempatan perencanaan karir, pelatihan dan pengembangan
pengalaman kepada karyawan IT dengan tujuan manajerial khusus, menyediakan
program pelatihan yang beragam bagi para pekerja IT untuk meningkatkan
pengembangan profesional mereka sehingga dapat membuat mereka lebih
mungkin untuk tetap berada di perusahaan. Organisasi juga bisa terus rutin
mengadakan fokus pertemuan kelompok dengan karyawan IT dan manajer untuk
mengeksplorasi isu-isu seperti hubungan pengawasan dan pengembangan karir.

Selanjutnya, organisasi dapat memanfaatkan alat self-assessment untuk


mengidentifikasi kekuatan dan apa yang perlu perbaikan dari karyawan IT.
Berdasarkan isi self-assessment, supervisor dapat memulai proses penetapan
tujuan untuk pengembangan karir karyawan. Melalui proses penetapan tujuan ini,
supervisor dan manajer dapat memberikan umpan balik yang berkaitan dengan
informasi penilaian diri yang spesifik dan mengidentifikasi pengetahuan,
keterampilan, dan kemampuan yang diperlukan untuk menangani tugas-tugas
sekarang atau masa depan dan pengembangan karir. Dengan membiarkan
karyawan mengetahui berbagai jalur karir yang tersedia bagi mereka, instansi
pemerintah negara dapat mengurangi perasaan mengabaikan yang sering
menyebabkan peningkatan turnover.
Studi ini juga menemukan bahwa tingkat komunikasi pengawasan yang
efektif berhubungan negatif dengan keinginan perpindahan karyawan IT. Dalam
rangka meningkatkan pengawasan komunikasi, manajer dan karyawan TI dapat
bekerja sama untuk mengembangkan sistem evaluasi kinerja yang memadai.
Setelah sistem evaluasi ditetapkan, manajer dan supervisor dapat membantu TI
pekerja mengembangkan rencana aksi untuk meningkatkan kinerja karyawan IT .
Studi ini juga menemukan bahwa tingkat kepuasan dengan gaji dan
manfaat lainnya berhubungan negatif dengan keinginan berpindah antar negara
pegawai pemerintah IT. Implikasi penting dari temuan ini adalah bahwa lembaga
pemerintah negara akan menerima manfaat jangka panjang retensi karyawan dari
evaluasi klasifikasi pekerjaan dan kompensasi sistem karyawan IT.
Temuan penting lainnya dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa tingkat kebijakan
diverse family-friendly yang tersedia secara negatif terkait dengan keinginan
berpindah baik laki-laki dan perempuan TI karyawan. Ketersediaan kebijakan
diverse family-friendly adalah faktor yang paling signifikan mempengaruhi
keinginan berpindah karyawan TI perempuan. Manajemen, manajer lini, dan
departemen sumber daya manusia dapat berkolaborasi untuk melakukan penilaian
kebutuhan dan memanfaatkan informasi untuk membuat kebijakan diverse familyfriendly yang memenuhi kebutuhan dan tujuan pengembangan karir individu
karyawan IT.

Kesimpulan
Kesimpulannya, hasil menunjukkan bahwa peluang promosi, pelatihan dan
pengembangan, komunikasi pengawasan, membayar dan menghargai kepuasan,
dan diverse family-friendly, semua variabel yang signifikan mempengaruhi
keinginan berpindah antar negara pegawai pemerintah IT. Temuan ini menyiratkan
perlunya komitmen organisasi dan manajerial yang lebih besar untuk penilaian
organisasi praktek HRM di lembaga negara.