Steel column design

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Steel column design

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332

Clause 4.2.5.2

Low Shear Fv 0.6Pv:

Mc =

pyZ

1.2pyZ

1.5pyZ

Clause 4.2.6

or alternatively Mc = pySeff

for simply supported beams and cantilevers and

generally.

Mc = py[Z (Sv/1.5)] or alternatively Mc = py[Seff (Sv)]

1.2pyZ for simply supported beams and cantilevers and

1.5pyZ generally.

where:

Seff is the effective plastic modulus as indicated in Clause 3.5.6.

For Slender Sections:

Clause 4.2.5.2

Low Shear Fv 0.6Pv:

Mc = pyZeff

Clause 4.2.6

Mc = py[Zeff (Sv/1.5)]

where:

Zeff is the effective plastic modulus as indicated in Clause 3.6.2.

6.3.4.5 Example 6.15: Moment Capacity of Beam with Full Lateral Restraint

A single span beam is simply supported between two columns and carries a reinforced

concrete slab in addition to the column and loading shown in Figure 6.33. Using the

characteristic loads indicated, select a suitable section considering section classification,

shear and bending only. Assume S 275 steel and that dead loads are inclusive of selfweights.

Gk = 10.0 kN

Qk = 30.0 kN

gk = 8.0 kN/m

qk = 10.0 kN/m

(b) Rectangular Hollow Section

2.0 m

4.0 m

6.0 m

Figure 6.33

6.3.4.6

333

Contract : Beams

Job Ref. No. : Example 6.15 Calcs. by : W.McK.

Part of Structure : Fully Restrained Beam

Checked by :

Calc. Sheet No. : 1 of 3

Date :

References

Calculations

Output

Gk = 10.0 kN

Qk = 30.0 kN

A

gk = 8.0 kN/m

qk = 10.0 kN/m

B

2.0 m

4.0 m

6.0 m

Table 2

Design UDL

= (1.4 8) + (1.6 10) =

62 kN

27.2 kN/m

62.0 kN

27.2 kN/m

A

2.0 m

4.0 m

6.0 m

By proportion:

Vertical reaction at A = VA =

(27.2 3) +

62 4

= 122.9 kN

6

Vertical reaction at C = VC =

(27.2 3) +

62 2

= 102.3 kN

6

122.9 kN

68.5 kN

6.5 kN

x

Shear Force Diagram

102.3 kN

Design shear

force = 122.9 kN

6.5

= 0.24 m

27.2

Maximum bending moment occurs at position of zero shear

(122.9 + 68.5)2 + 0.24 6.5 = 192.2 kNm

Mx =

2

2

Design bending

moment = 192.2 kNm

334

Contract : Beams

Job Ref. No. : Example 6.15 Calcs. by : W.McK.

Part of Structure : Fully Restrained Beam

Checked by :

Calc. Sheet No. : 2 of 3

Date :

References

Calculations

Output

Table 9

Assume the flange thickness T < 16 mm py = 275 N/mm2

192.2 106

= 698.9 103 mm3

275

A trial beam size can be selected from published section

tables: try a 305 165 46 UB S 275

Sx, required

Section Tables

Section Properties:

D = 306.6 mm d = 265.2 mm

B = 165.7 mm

T = 11.8 mm

t = 6.7 mm

b/T = 7.02

d/t = 39.6 mm Sx = 720 103 mm3 Zx = 646 103 mm3

1

Table 11

Clause 4.2.3

Clause 4.2.3

Clause 4.2.5.2

Clause 4.2.5.1

Clause 4.2.5.2

275 2

= 10

.

(i) Section Classification

=

py

Flange: Outstand element of compression flange rolled section

b/T = 7.02 < 9.0

Web: Neutral axis at mid-depth (i.e. bending only)

d/t = 39.6 < 80

< 70 therefore no need to check shear buckling

(ii) Shear

Design shear force = Fv = 122.9 kN

Pv = (0.6pyAv) = 0.6pytD

Pv = (0.6 275 6.7 306.6)/103 =

Pv >

338.9 kN

Fv

Flange is plastic

Web is plastic

Section is plastic

Section is adequate

in shear

(iii) Bending

60% Pv

= (0.6 338.9) = 203.3 kN > 68.5 kN

Low shear

Note: 68.5 kN is the coincident shear at the position of

maximum bending moment.

Mc

=

Mc =

=

1.2py Zx

for simply supported beams

(1.2 275 646 103)/ 106 = 213.2 kNm

p y Sx

(275 720 103)/106

= 198 kNm

Mx =

192.2 kNm

Mc >

Mx

Critical value of

Mc = 198 kNm

Section is adequate

in bending

319

Contract : Struts

Job Ref. No. : Example 6.11 Calcs. by : W.McK.

Part of Structure : Side Column with Restraint

Checked by :

Calc. Sheet No. : 2 of 2

Date :

References

Calculations

Output

Slenderness

= LE/r

For single-storey columns with intermediate restraint to both

flanges the effective lengths are indicated in Figure D2 of

Annex D1.

Clause 4.7.2

Clause 4.7.3

Annex D

Lx =

x =

Ly

y =

1.5L

Lx

rx

=

=

0.85L1 =

1.0 L 2 =

Ly

=

ry

8250

= 55.4

149

(0.85 1.9) = 1.615 m * critical value

(1.0 1.2) = 1.2 m

1615

= 41.3

39.1

Table 23

T = 13.0 mm < 40 mm

For Rolled I Sections

Use strut curve (a) for the xx axis

Use strut curve (b) for the yy axis

Table 24(1)

Table 24(3)

x = 55.4,

y = 41.3,

Clause 4.7.4

Critical value of pc =

Pc =

=

py =

py =

pc

pc

275 N/mm2

275 N/mm2

245 N/mm2

248.5 N/mm2

245 N/mm

Agpc

(7260 245)/103

1779 kN

The maximum

compressive load

which can be

supported = 1779 kN

A column in a braced building supports a symmetrical arrangement of beams in addition to

a vertical load from above, as shown in Figure 6.26. Using the characteristic loads

indicated, check the suitability of a 203 203 60 UC S 355 section.

F2

4.5 m

F1

F1

F2

F3

Figure 6.26

F1:

Dead load

Imposed load

F2:

Dead load

Imposed load

F3:

Dead load

Imposed load

= 75 kN

= 175 kN

= 20 kN

= 75 kN

= 150 kN

= 250 kN

320

Contract : Struts

Job Ref. No. : Example 6.12 Calcs. by : W.McK.

Part of Structure : Concentrically Loaded Column Checked by :

Calc. Sheet No. : 1 of 2

Date :

References

Calculations

Output

Section properties:

Ag = 7640 mm2

rx = 89.6 mm

ry = 52.0 mm

t = 9.4 mm

T = 14.2 mm

b/T = 7.25

d/t = 17.1

Gk = [2 (75 + 20) +150]

= 340 kN

Total characteristic imposed load Qk = [2 (175 + 75) +250]

= 750 kN

Total characteristic dead load

Table 2

Design load

Table 9

Table 11

Clause 3.5.5

m, imposed load = 1.6

= [(1.4 Gk) + (1.6 Qk)]

= [(1.4 340) + (1.6 750)] = 1676 kN

Design strength:

py =

=

355 N/mm2

(275/355)0.5

0.88

Section Classification:

Outstand element of a compression flange Rolled sections

9 = (9 0.88) = 7.92

b/T = 7.25;

b/T < 9

Fc

r2 =

Ag p yw

=

1676 10 3

=

7640 355

120

=

1 + 2r2

0.618

(120 0.88)

1 + (2 0.618)

47.2

40

120

1 + 2r2

Note: In this case it is not necessary to evaluate the full

expression as above since clearly d/t < 40

d/t

17.1

<

Web is non-slender

321

Contract : Struts

Job Ref. No. : Example 6.12 Calcs. by : W.McK.

Part of Structure : Concentrically Loaded Column Checked by :

Calc. Sheet No. : 2 of 2

Date :

References

Calculations

Output

Clause 4.7.2

Slenderness

LE/r

Table 22

Assume the column to be effectively held in position at both

ends and not restrained in direction at either end.

Effective length LE = 1.0L

Lx

4500

=

x =

=

89.6

rx

y =

Ly

ry

4500

=

52.0

(1.0 4.5) =

50.2

86.5

Table 23

T = 14.2 mm < 40 mm

For Rolled H Sections

Use strut curve (b) for the xx axis

Use strut curve (c) for the yy axis

Table 24(3)

Table 24(5)

x = 50.2,

y = 86.5,

Clause 4.7.4

Critical value of pc =

Pc =

=

py =

py =

4.5 m

355 N/mm2

355 N/mm2

pc

pc

149 N/mm2

Agpc

(7640 169)/103

297.5 N/mm2

169 N/mm2

= 1291 kN

< Design load

Increase the

column size

Columns which are assumed to be nominally pinned at their bases are provided with a slab

base comprising a single plate fillet welded to the end of the column and bolted to the

foundation with four holding down (H.D.) bolts. The base plate, welds and bolts must be

of adequate size, stiffness and strength to transfer the axial compressive force and shear at

the support without exceeding the bearing strength of the bedding material and concrete

base, as shown in Figure 6.27.

The dimensions of the plate must be sufficient to distribute the axial compressive load

to the foundations and to accommodate the holding down bolts. It is usual to calculate the

thickness as indicated in Example 6.12 and to ensure that it is to the flange thickness.

The purpose of the welds is to transfer the shear force at the base and to securely attach

the plate to the column. In most cases either 6 mm or 8 mm fillet welds run along the

flanges and for a short distance on either side of the web will be adequate.

The holding down bolts are generally cast within location cones in a concrete base and

fitted with an anchor plate to prevent pull-out. The purpose of the location cone is to allow

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