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Design of Structural Elements

332

For Semi-Compact Sections:


Clause 4.2.5.2
Low Shear Fv 0.6Pv:
Mc =
pyZ
1.2pyZ
1.5pyZ
Clause 4.2.6

or alternatively Mc = pySeff
for simply supported beams and cantilevers and
generally.

High Shear Fv > 0.6Pv


Mc = py[Z (Sv/1.5)] or alternatively Mc = py[Seff (Sv)]
1.2pyZ for simply supported beams and cantilevers and
1.5pyZ generally.

where:
Seff is the effective plastic modulus as indicated in Clause 3.5.6.
For Slender Sections:
Clause 4.2.5.2
Low Shear Fv 0.6Pv:
Mc = pyZeff
Clause 4.2.6

High Shear Fv > 0.6Pv

Mc = py[Zeff (Sv/1.5)]
where:
Zeff is the effective plastic modulus as indicated in Clause 3.6.2.
6.3.4.5 Example 6.15: Moment Capacity of Beam with Full Lateral Restraint
A single span beam is simply supported between two columns and carries a reinforced
concrete slab in addition to the column and loading shown in Figure 6.33. Using the
characteristic loads indicated, select a suitable section considering section classification,
shear and bending only. Assume S 275 steel and that dead loads are inclusive of selfweights.
Gk = 10.0 kN
Qk = 30.0 kN
gk = 8.0 kN/m
qk = 10.0 kN/m

(a) Universal Beam Section


(b) Rectangular Hollow Section
2.0 m

4.0 m
6.0 m
Figure 6.33

Design of Structural Steelwork Elements


6.3.4.6

333

Solution to Example 6.15

Contract : Beams
Job Ref. No. : Example 6.15 Calcs. by : W.McK.
Part of Structure : Fully Restrained Beam
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. : 1 of 3
Date :

References

Calculations

Output

(a) Design a suitable Universal Beam Section


Gk = 10.0 kN
Qk = 30.0 kN
A

gk = 8.0 kN/m
qk = 10.0 kN/m
B

2.0 m

4.0 m
6.0 m

Table 2

Design point load


Design UDL

= (1.4 10) + (1.6 30) =


= (1.4 8) + (1.6 10) =

62 kN
27.2 kN/m

62.0 kN
27.2 kN/m
A

2.0 m

4.0 m
6.0 m

By proportion:
Vertical reaction at A = VA =

(27.2 3) +

62 4
= 122.9 kN
6

Vertical reaction at C = VC =

(27.2 3) +

62 2
= 102.3 kN
6

122.9 kN
68.5 kN
6.5 kN
x
Shear Force Diagram

102.3 kN

Design shear
force = 122.9 kN

6.5
= 0.24 m
27.2
Maximum bending moment occurs at position of zero shear

Position of zero shear x =

The maximum bending moment = shaded area =


(122.9 + 68.5)2 + 0.24 6.5 = 192.2 kNm
Mx =

2
2

Design bending
moment = 192.2 kNm

Design of Structural Elements

334

Contract : Beams
Job Ref. No. : Example 6.15 Calcs. by : W.McK.
Part of Structure : Fully Restrained Beam
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. : 2 of 3
Date :

References

Calculations

Output

The compression flange is fully restrained and assume low shear

Table 9

(a) Consider a universal beam section:


Assume the flange thickness T < 16 mm py = 275 N/mm2
192.2 106
= 698.9 103 mm3
275
A trial beam size can be selected from published section
tables: try a 305 165 46 UB S 275
Sx, required

Section Tables

Section Properties:
D = 306.6 mm d = 265.2 mm
B = 165.7 mm
T = 11.8 mm
t = 6.7 mm
b/T = 7.02
d/t = 39.6 mm Sx = 720 103 mm3 Zx = 646 103 mm3
1

Table 11

Clause 4.2.3

Clause 4.2.3

Clause 4.2.5.2

Clause 4.2.5.1
Clause 4.2.5.2

275 2
= 10
.
(i) Section Classification
=

py
Flange: Outstand element of compression flange rolled section
b/T = 7.02 < 9.0
Web: Neutral axis at mid-depth (i.e. bending only)
d/t = 39.6 < 80
< 70 therefore no need to check shear buckling
(ii) Shear
Design shear force = Fv = 122.9 kN
Pv = (0.6pyAv) = 0.6pytD
Pv = (0.6 275 6.7 306.6)/103 =
Pv >

338.9 kN
Fv

Flange is plastic
Web is plastic
Section is plastic

Section is adequate
in shear

(iii) Bending
60% Pv
= (0.6 338.9) = 203.3 kN > 68.5 kN
Low shear
Note: 68.5 kN is the coincident shear at the position of
maximum bending moment.
Mc
=
Mc =
=

1.2py Zx
for simply supported beams
(1.2 275 646 103)/ 106 = 213.2 kNm
p y Sx
(275 720 103)/106
= 198 kNm

Maximum applied moment

Mx =

192.2 kNm

Mc >

Mx

Critical value of
Mc = 198 kNm

Section is adequate
in bending

Design of Structural Steelwork Elements

319

Contract : Struts
Job Ref. No. : Example 6.11 Calcs. by : W.McK.
Part of Structure : Side Column with Restraint
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. : 2 of 2
Date :

References

Calculations

Output

Slenderness
= LE/r
For single-storey columns with intermediate restraint to both
flanges the effective lengths are indicated in Figure D2 of
Annex D1.

Clause 4.7.2
Clause 4.7.3
Annex D

Lx =

x =
Ly

y =

1.5L
Lx
rx

=
=

0.85L1 =
1.0 L 2 =
Ly
=
ry

(1.5 5.5) = 8.25 m


8250
= 55.4
149
(0.85 1.9) = 1.615 m * critical value
(1.0 1.2) = 1.2 m
1615
= 41.3
39.1

Table 23

T = 13.0 mm < 40 mm
For Rolled I Sections
Use strut curve (a) for the xx axis
Use strut curve (b) for the yy axis

Table 24(1)
Table 24(3)

x = 55.4,
y = 41.3,

Clause 4.7.4

Critical value of pc =
Pc =
=

py =
py =

pc
pc

275 N/mm2
275 N/mm2

245 N/mm2
248.5 N/mm2

245 N/mm
Agpc
(7260 245)/103

1779 kN

The maximum
compressive load
which can be
supported = 1779 kN

6.3.3.10 Example 6.12: Concentrically Loaded Column


A column in a braced building supports a symmetrical arrangement of beams in addition to
a vertical load from above, as shown in Figure 6.26. Using the characteristic loads
indicated, check the suitability of a 203 203 60 UC S 355 section.

F2
4.5 m

F1

F1
F2

F3

Figure 6.26

F1:
Dead load
Imposed load
F2:
Dead load
Imposed load
F3:
Dead load
Imposed load

= 75 kN
= 175 kN
= 20 kN
= 75 kN
= 150 kN
= 250 kN

Design of Structural Elements

320

6.3.3.11 Solution to Example 6.12


Contract : Struts
Job Ref. No. : Example 6.12 Calcs. by : W.McK.
Part of Structure : Concentrically Loaded Column Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. : 1 of 2
Date :

References

Calculations

Output

Member AB: 203 203 60 UC S 355


Section properties:
Ag = 7640 mm2
rx = 89.6 mm
ry = 52.0 mm
t = 9.4 mm
T = 14.2 mm
b/T = 7.25
d/t = 17.1
Gk = [2 (75 + 20) +150]
= 340 kN
Total characteristic imposed load Qk = [2 (175 + 75) +250]
= 750 kN
Total characteristic dead load

Table 2

Design load

Table 9

Table 11

Clause 3.5.5

m, dead load = 1.4


m, imposed load = 1.6
= [(1.4 Gk) + (1.6 Qk)]
= [(1.4 340) + (1.6 750)] = 1676 kN

Partial safety factors:

Design strength:

py =
=

355 N/mm2
(275/355)0.5

0.88

Section Classification:
Outstand element of a compression flange Rolled sections
9 = (9 0.88) = 7.92
b/T = 7.25;
b/T < 9

Flanges are plastic

Webs with axial compression


Fc
r2 =
Ag p yw
=

1676 10 3

=
7640 355

120
=
1 + 2r2

0.618

(120 0.88)

1 + (2 0.618)

47.2

40

120
1 + 2r2
Note: In this case it is not necessary to evaluate the full
expression as above since clearly d/t < 40
d/t

17.1

<

Web is non-slender

Design of Structural Steelwork Elements

321

Contract : Struts
Job Ref. No. : Example 6.12 Calcs. by : W.McK.
Part of Structure : Concentrically Loaded Column Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. : 2 of 2
Date :

References

Calculations

Output

Clause 4.7.2

Slenderness

LE/r

Table 22

(a) No-sway mode.


Assume the column to be effectively held in position at both
ends and not restrained in direction at either end.
Effective length LE = 1.0L
Lx
4500
=
x =
=
89.6
rx

y =

Ly
ry

4500
=
52.0

(1.0 4.5) =

50.2
86.5

Table 23

T = 14.2 mm < 40 mm
For Rolled H Sections
Use strut curve (b) for the xx axis
Use strut curve (c) for the yy axis

Table 24(3)
Table 24(5)

x = 50.2,
y = 86.5,

Clause 4.7.4

Critical value of pc =
Pc =
=

py =
py =

4.5 m

355 N/mm2
355 N/mm2

pc
pc

149 N/mm2
Agpc
(7640 169)/103

297.5 N/mm2
169 N/mm2

= 1291 kN
< Design load

Increase the
column size

6.3.3.12 Column Base Plates


Columns which are assumed to be nominally pinned at their bases are provided with a slab
base comprising a single plate fillet welded to the end of the column and bolted to the
foundation with four holding down (H.D.) bolts. The base plate, welds and bolts must be
of adequate size, stiffness and strength to transfer the axial compressive force and shear at
the support without exceeding the bearing strength of the bedding material and concrete
base, as shown in Figure 6.27.
The dimensions of the plate must be sufficient to distribute the axial compressive load
to the foundations and to accommodate the holding down bolts. It is usual to calculate the
thickness as indicated in Example 6.12 and to ensure that it is to the flange thickness.
The purpose of the welds is to transfer the shear force at the base and to securely attach
the plate to the column. In most cases either 6 mm or 8 mm fillet welds run along the
flanges and for a short distance on either side of the web will be adequate.
The holding down bolts are generally cast within location cones in a concrete base and
fitted with an anchor plate to prevent pull-out. The purpose of the location cone is to allow