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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

r
sx

r
sy

PHYSICS

r
g

r
ax

2.0 Kinematics of Linear motion




is defined as the

There are two types of motion:


 Linear or straight line motion (1-D)
 with constant (uniform) velocity
 with constant (uniform) acceleration, e.g. free
fall motion
 Projectile motion (2-D)
 x-component (horizontal)
 y-component (vertical)

CHAPTER 2:
Kinematics of linear motion
(5 hours)

r
vy

r
vx

CHAPTER 2

r
ay

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PHYSICS
CHAPTER 2
Learning Outcome:

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

2.1. Linear motion (1-D)

2.1 Linear Motion (1 hour)


At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Define distance, displacement, speed, velocity,
acceleration and related parameters: uniform velocity,
average velocity, instantaneous velocity, uniform
acceleration, average acceleration and instantaneous
acceleration.

Sketch graphs of displacementdisplacement-time, velocityvelocity-time and
accelerationacceleration-time.

2.1.1. Distance,




scalar quantity.
is defined as the
For example :
Q

P


The length of the path from P to Q is

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2.1.2

r
Displacement,s

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The magnitude of the displacement is given by

vector quantity
is defined as

The S.I. unit of displacement is

Example 1:

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and its direction is

An object P moves 20 m to the east after that 10 m to the south


and finally moves 30 m to west. Determine the displacement of P
N
relative to the original position.

2.1.3 Speed, v




2.1.4



r
Velocity, v

speed =

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is defined the
scalar quantity.
Equation:

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Instantaneous velocity, v
 is defined as

is a vector quantity.
The S.I. unit for velocity is m s-1.

Average velocity, vav


 is defined as
 Equation:

Equation:

v=

v av =

limit s
t 0 t

v av =


Its direction is in the


displacement.
displacement

of the change in
7

An object is moving in uniform velocity if

ds
=
dt
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2.1.5




s1

r
Acceleration, a

vector quantity
The S.I. unit for acceleration is m s-2.

Average acceleration, aav


 is defined as
 Equation:

The gradient of the tangent to the curve at point Q

a av =

a av =

t1
Therefore



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CHAPTER 2

Its direction is in the


The acceleration of an object is
of velocity changes at a
and along

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Instantaneous acceleration, a
 is defined as the
 Equation:

when the
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Deceleration, a
 is a
 The object is

limit v
a=
t 0 t

meaning the

v1


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An object is moving in uniform acceleration if

The gradient of the tangent to the curve at point Q

dv
=
dt

=
0

11

Therefore

t1

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CHAPTER 2

2.1.6

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Graphical methods

Velocity versus time graph (v-t)

Displacement against time graph (s-t)

0
0

t
(a) Uniform velocity

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t1 (a) t2

t1

(b) t2

t1

t2 (c)

(b) The velocity increases with time

(c)




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CHAPTER 2

Example 2 :

ds
dt

A toy train moves slowly along a straight track according to the


displacement, s against time, t graph in figure 2.1.

s (cm)

ds = vdt
Therefore

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PHYSICS

From the equation of instantaneous velocity,

v=

The gradient at point A is positive


The gradient at point B is zero
The gradient at point C is negative

10
8
6

t2

s = vdt

t1

2
Figure 2.1 0

Simulation 2.1

Simulation 2.2

10 12 14

t (s)

a. Explain qualitatively the motion of the toy train.


b. Sketch a velocity (cm s-1) against time (s) graph.
c. Determine the average velocity for the whole journey.

Simulation 2.3

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d. Calculate the instantaneous velocity at t = 12 s.

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

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CHAPTER 2

Example 3 :

Exercise 2.1 :

A velocity-time (v-t) graph in figure 2.2 shows the motion of a lift.

1. Figure 2.3 shows a velocity versus time graph for an object


constrained to move along a line. The positive direction is to
the right.

v (m s

1)

4
2
0
-2

10 15

20 25 30 35 40 45

50

t (s)

-4
Figure 2.2

a. Describe qualitatively the motion of the lift.


b. Sketch a graph of acceleration (m s-1) against time (s).
c. Determine the total distance travelled by the lift and its
displacement.
d. Calculate the average acceleration between 20 s to 40 s.

Figure 2.3

a. Describe the motion of the object in 10 s.


b. Sketch a graph of acceleration (m s-2) against time (s) for
the whole journey.
c. Calculate the displacement of the object in 10 s.
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ANS. : 6 m

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CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS
CHAPTER 2
Learning Outcome:

Exercise 2.1 :
2. A train pulls out of a station and accelerates steadily for 20 s
until its velocity reaches 8 m s1. It then travels at a constant
velocity for 100 s, then it decelerates steadily to rest in a further
time of 30 s.
a. Sketch a velocity-time graph for the journey.
b. Calculate the acceleration and the distance travelled in
each part of the journey.
c. Calculate the average velocity for the journey.
Physics For Advanced Level, 4th edition, Jim Breithaupt, Nelson
Thornes, pg.15, no. 1.11

ANS. : 0.4 m s2,0 m s2,-0.267 m s2, 80 m, 800 m, 120 m;


6.67 m s1.

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PHYSICS

2.2 Uniformly accelerated motion (1 hour)


At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Derive and apply equations of motion with uniform
acceleration:

v = u + at
1
s = ut + at 2
2
2
2
v = u + 2as

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

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2.2. Uniformly accelerated motion




CHAPTER 2
From equation (1), the velocity-time graph is shown in figure
velocity
2.4:

From the definition of average acceleration, uniform (constant


constant)
acceleration is given by

a=

vu
t

(1)

v
u
a
t

where

Figure 2.4


: final velocity

time

From the graph,


The displacement after time, s =

: initial velocity

: uniform (constant) acceleration




: time

Hence,
(2)

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CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS

1
[u + (u + at )]t
2

From eq. (1),


From eq. (2),

(v u ) = at
(v + u ) = 2s

Notes:
 equations (1) (4) can be used if the motion in a straight
line with constant acceleration.


(3)

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By substituting eq. (1) into eq. (2) thus

s=

22

For a body moving at constant velocity, ( a = 0) the


equations (1) and (4) become

v=u
Therefore the equations (2) and (3) can be written as
multiply

t
2
(v + u )(v u ) = s (at )
t
(4)
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CHAPTER 2

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CHAPTER 2

Example 4 :

Example 5 :

A plane on a runway takes 16.2 s over a distance of 1200 m to


take off from rest. Assuming constant acceleration during take off,
calculate
a. the speed on leaving the ground,
b. the acceleration during take off.
Solution :

A bus travelling steadily at 30 m s1 along a straight road passes a


stationary car which, 5 s later, begins to move with a uniform
acceleration of 2 m s2 in the same direction as the bus. Determine
a. the time taken for the car to acquire the same velocity as the
bus,
b. the distance travelled by the car when it is level with the bus.
1
2
Solution : vb = 30 m s = constant ; u c = 0; ac = 2 ms

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

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CHAPTER 2

Example 6 :

Exercise 2.2 :

A particle moves along horizontal line according to the equation

At time, t =2.00 s, determine

1. A speedboat moving at 30.0 m s-1 approaches stationary


buoy marker 100 m ahead. The pilot slows the boat with a
constant acceleration of -3.50 m s-2 by reducing the throttle.
a. How long does it take the boat to reach the buoy?
b. What is the velocity of the boat when it reaches the buoy?

a. the displacement of the particle,


b. Its velocity, and
c. Its acceleration.

No. 23,pg. 51,Physics for scientists and engineers with modern


physics, Serway & Jewett,6th edition.
ANS. : 4.53 s; 14.1 m s1

s = 3t 3 4t 2 + 2t
Where s is displacement in meters and t is time in seconds.

2. An unmarked police car travelling a constant 95 km h-1 is


passed by a speeder traveling 140 km h-1. Precisely 1.00 s
after the speeder passes, the policemen steps on the
accelerator; if the police cars acceleration is 2.00 m s-2, how
much time passes before the police car overtakes the
speeder (assumed moving at constant speed)?

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No. 44, pg. 41,Physics for scientists and engineers with modern
physics, Douglas C. Giancoli,3rd edition.
28
ANS. : 14.4 s

CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS
CHAPTER 2
Learning Outcome:

Exercise 2.2 :
3. A car traveling 90 km h-1 is 100 m behind a truck traveling
75 km h-1. Assuming both vehicles moving at constant
velocity, calculate the time taken for the car to reach the
truck.
No. 15, pg. 39,Physics for scientists and engineers with modern
physics, Douglas C. Giancoli,3rd edition.
ANS. : 24 s

4. A car driver, travelling in his car at a constant velocity of


8 m s-1, sees a dog walking across the road 30 m ahead. The
drivers reaction time is 0.2 s, and the brakes are capable of
producing a deceleration of 1.2 m s-2. Calculate the distance
from where the car stops to where the dog is crossing,
assuming the driver reacts and brakes as quickly as
possible.
ANS. : 1.73 m

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PHYSICS

2.3 Freely falling bodies (1 hour)


At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Describe and use equations for freely falling bodies.

For upward and downward motion, use

a = g = 9.81 m s2

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CHAPTER 2

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2.3. Freely falling bodies




is defined as

In the earths gravitational field, the constant acceleration


 known as
or

Sign convention:
From the sign convention
thus,

or


the value is
the direction is

Note:

In solving any problem involves freely falling bodies or free


fall motion, the

CHAPTER 2

Table 2.1 shows the equations of linear motion and freely


falling bodies.
Linear motion

Freely falling bodies

Table 2.1
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CHAPTER 2

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An example of freely falling body is the motion of a ball thrown


vertically upwards with initial velocity, u as shown in figure 2.5.

The graphs in figure 2.6 show


the motion of the ball moves
up and down.
Derivation of equations
 At the maximum height or
displacement, H where t = t1,
its velocity,


Figure 2.5

CHAPTER 2

hence

v = u gt

Assuming air resistance is negligible, the acceleration of the


ball, a = g when the ball moves upward and its

therefore the time taken for


the ball reaches H,

CHAPTER 2
s = ut1

1 2
gt1
2

OR

Where s

t1

2t1

t1

2t1

t1

2t1

Figure 2.6

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t
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CHAPTER 2

Example 7 :

To calculate the maximum height or displacement, H:


use either

0
v
u

0
33

v =0

0 = u gt1

when the ball reaches the

PHYSICS

A ball is thrown from the top of a building is given an initial velocity


of 10.0 m s1 straight upward. The building is 30.0 m high and the
ball just misses the edge of the roof on its way down, as shown in
B
figure 2.7. Calculate

=H

v 2 = u 2 2 gs

a. the maximum height of the stone from point A.


b. the time taken from point A to C.
u =10.0 m s1
c. the time taken from point A to D.
A
d. the velocity of the stone when it reaches point D.

0 = u 2 gH
maximum height,

(Given g = 9.81 m s2)




Another form of freely falling bodies expressions are


30.0 m

35

Figure 2.7

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS

Example 8 :

Solution :
b. The books velocity is given by

A book is dropped 150 m from the ground. Determine


a. the time taken for the book reaches the ground.
b. the velocity of the book when it reaches the ground.
(given g = 9.81 m
Solution :

uy = 0

s-2)

uy = 0 m s1

s y = 150 m

CHAPTER 2

s y = 150 m

vy = ?
150 m
Therefore the books velocity is

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CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS
CHAPTER 2
Learning Outcome:

Exercise 2.3 :
1. A ball is thrown directly downward, with an initial speed of
8.00 m s1, from a height of 30.0 m. Calculate
a. the time taken for the ball to strike the ground,
b. the balls speed when it reaches the ground.
ANS. : 1.79 s; 25.6 m s1

2. A falling stone takes 0.30 s to travel past a window 2.2 m tall


as shown in figure 2.8.

2.2 m

to travel this
distance took
0.30 s

Figure 2.8

From what height above the top of the windows did the stone
fall?
ANS. : 1.75 m

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PHYSICS

38

2.4 Projectile motion (2 hours)


At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Describe and use equations for projectile,

u x = u cos
u y = u sin
ax = 0
ay = g


Calculate:
Calculate: time of flight, maximum height, range and
maximum range, instantaneous position and velocity.

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PHYSICS
CHAPTER 2
2.4. Projectile motion


PHYSICS


A projectile motion consists of two components:


 vertical component (y-comp.)


CHAPTER 2
From figure 2.9,
 The x-component of velocity along AC (horizontal) at any
point is constant,

motion under constant acceleration, ay= g

horizontal component (x-comp.)

motion with constant velocity thus ax= 0


The path followed by a projectile is called trajectory is shown in
figure 2.9. y


The y-component (vertical) of velocity varies from one


point to another point along AC.
but the y-component of the initial velocity is given by

B
P

t2

t1

Figure 2.9

PHYSICS


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CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS

Point P

CHAPTER 2

2.4.1 Maximum height, H

Table 2.2 shows the x and y-components, magnitude and


direction of velocities at points P and Q.

Velocity

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The ball reaches the highest point at point B at velocity, v


where
 x-component of the velocity, v = v = u = u cos
x
x
 y-component of the velocity, v y = 0
 y-component of the displacement, s y = H

Use

Point Q

x-comp.
y-comp.
magnitude

v y2 = u y2 2 gs y
2

0 = (u sin ) 2 gH

direction

Table 2.2

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2.4.2 Time taken to reach maximum height, t


 At maximum height, H



Time, t

Use

CHAPTER 2

2.4.4 Horizontal range, R and value of R maximum




Since the x-component for velocity along AC is constant hence

From the displacement formula with uniform velocity, thus the


x-component of displacement along AC is

u x = v x = u cos

= t and vy= 0

v y = u y gt

s x = u x t and s x = R

0 = (u sin ) gt '
2.4.3 Flight time, t (from point A to point C)

t = 2 t '

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CHAPTER 2

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2.4.5 Horizontal projectile

From the trigonometry identity,

sin 2 = 2 sin cos

thus

CHAPTER 2
Figure 2.10 shows a ball bearing rolling off the end of a table
with an initial velocity, u in the horizontal direction.

The value of R maximum when = 45


45 and sin 2 = 1
therefore
Figure 2.10


Horizontal component along path AB.

velocity, u x =
displacement, s x =


47

Vertical component along path AB.

initial velocity, u y =
displacement, s y =

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CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS

Time taken for the ball to reach the floor (point B), t
 By using the equation of freely falling bodies,

1
s y = u y t gt 2
2
1 2
h = 0 gt
2

Since the x-component of velocity along AB is constant, thus


the horizontal displacement, x

sx = u xt

Horizontal displacement, x
 Use condition below :

CHAPTER 2

Figure 2.11

and

sx = x

Note :
 In solving any calculation problem about projectile motion,
the air resistance is negligible.
negligible

(Refer to figure 2.11)


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CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS

Example 9 :
y

b. the time taken for the ball reaches the maximum height, H and
calculate the value of H.

u
Figure 2.12 O

CHAPTER 2

c. the horizontal range, R


d. the magnitude and direction of its velocity when the ball
reaches the ground (point P).
e. the position of the ball, and the magnitude and direction of its
velocity at point Q if the ball was hit from a flat-topped hill with
the time at point Q is 45.0 s.

H
P

= 60.0
R

v1y
Figure 2.12 shows a ball thrown by superman
with an initial speed, u = 200 m s-1 and makes an
angle, = 60.0 to the horizontal. Determine
a. the position of the ball, and the magnitude and
direction of its velocity, when t = 2.0 s.

v1x
v1
Q

v2y

(given g = 9.81 m s-2)

v2x
v2
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CHAPTER 2

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CHAPTER 2

Example 10 :

Exercise 2.4 :

A transport plane travelling at a constant velocity of 50 m s1 at an


altitude of 300 m releases a parcel when directly above a point X
on level ground. Calculate
a. the flight time of the parcel,
b. the velocity of impact of the parcel,
c. the distance from X to the point of impact.

Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s2


1. A basketball player who is 2.00 m tall is standing on the floor
10.0 m from the basket, as in figure 2.13. If he shoots the
ball at a 40.0 angle above the horizontal, at what initial
speed must he throw so that it goes through the hoop without
striking the backboard? The basket height is 3.05 m.

(given g = 9.81 m s-2)


Solution :

u = 50 m s 1

300 m
X

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53

CHAPTER 2

Figure 2.13
ANS. : 10.7 m s1

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54

CHAPTER 2

Exercise 2.4 :
2. An apple is thrown at an angle of 30 above the horizontal
from the top of a building 20 m high. Its initial speed is
40 m s1. Calculate
a. the time taken for the apple to strikes the ground,
b. the distance from the foot of the building will it strikes
the ground,
c. the maximum height reached by the apple from the
ground.

THE END
Next Chapter
Chapter

ANS. : 4.90 s; 170 m; 40.4 m

3. A stone is thrown from the top of one building toward a tall


building 50 m away. The initial velocity of the ball is 20 m s1
at 40 above the horizontal. How far above or below its
original level will the stone strike the opposite wall?

CHAPTER 3 :
Force, Momentum and Impulse

ANS. : 10.3 m below the original level.

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