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International Journal of English Language

and Translation Studies


[ISSN: 2308-5460]

Vol-01, Issue-02
[July-September, 2013]

Editor-in-Chief
Mustafa Mubarak Pathan
Department of English Language & Translation Studies
The Faculty of Arts, the University of Sebha
Sebha, Libya

Indexed in:
DOAJ
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Isla mic World Science Citation Center
Linguistics Abstracts Online
Open J-gate

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International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


Table of Contents
Sr.
No.
1
2

10
11
12

13

14

15

16

Title of the Paper / Name of the Author(s)/ Country


Editorial
A Socio-linguistic Perspective to the Language Change of Television News
Broadcasting in Iran
- Shahla Simin, Hosna Kasma ee, Atiye Ezzati, Freshteh Teimouri &
Arineh Minasian, Iran
EFL Learners Difficult Role Transition from Secondary School to University:
From the P erspective and Perceptions of EFL Teachers of TBLT in Western
China
- Feng Teng, China
English Language Teaching and Learning during Holiday Camps: A Case Study
from Malaysia
- Dr. Ria Hanewald, Malaysia
English Metafunction Analysis in Chemistry Text: Characterization of Scientific
Text
- Ahma d Amin Dalimunte, M.Hum, Indonesia
Investigating the Difficulties Faced in Understanding, and Strategies Used in
Processing, English Idioms by the Libyan Students
- Noura Winis Ibrahim Saleh & Dr. Moha mmed Hassan Zakaria ,
Malaysia
MALL (Mobile Assisted Language Learning): A Paradise for English Language
Learners
- Dr. Suneetha Yedla, India
Metaphors about EFL Teachers' Roles: A Case of Iranian Non-English-Major
Students
- Mohsen Akbari, Iran
Mother Tongue Influence : A Thorn in the Flesh of Technocrats in the Global
Market
- Dr. S. Mohan, India
Teaching Creative Thinking Skills
- Dr. Nagamurali Eragamreddy, Libya
The Importance of a Dystopia n Hero in Sara Gruens Water for Elephants
Bassmah Bassam Khaled AlTaher, Jordan
The Leverage of a Proposed Post Process Writing Approach Program on
Developing the EFL Al-Azhar Secondary Students' Writing Skills
- Ismail Ibrahim Elshirbini Abdel-Fattah El-Ashri, Egypt
The Translator's Agency and the Ideological Manipulation in Translation: the
Case of Political Texts in Translation Classrooms in Iran
- Katayoon Afzali , Iran
The Use of Photo-Elicitation Interview in Sociolinguistics: The Case Study of
Awareness about the Use of Borrowings in Tlemcen Speech Community Algeria
- Mrs. Rahmoun-Mrabet Razzia, Alger ia
Uncertainty and Uncertainty Management: the Metacognitive State of ProblemSolving of Professional (experienced) Translators and Students of Translation
Studies
- Zahra Amirian & Moha mad J. Baghiat, Iran
Using Native Language in ESL Classroom
- Dr. Isa SPAHIU, Macedonia

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Page
Number
03
04-08

09-23

24-37

38-49

50-65

66-72

73-82

83-90

91-105
106-119
120-141

142-151

152-161

162-175

176-179

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460

English Metafunction Analysis in Che mistry Text: Characterization of


Scientific Text
Ahmad Amin Dalimunte, M.Hum
IAIN North Sumatra, Indonesia
Abstract
The object ives o f this research are to identify what Metafunctions are applied in chemistry
text and how they characterize a scient ific text. It was conducted by applying content
analys is. The data for this research was a twelve-paragraph chemistry text. The data were
collected by applying a documentary technique. The document was read and analyzed to find
out the Metafunction. The data were analyzed by some procedures: ident ifying the t ypes of
process, counting up the number of the processes, categorizing and count ing up the cohesion
devices, classifying the t ypes o f modulat ion and determining modalit y value, finally count ing
up the number of sentences and clauses, then scoring the grammat ical intricacy index. The
findings o f the research show that Material process (71of 100) is most ly used, circumstance
of spat ial locat ion (26 of 56) is more dominant than the others. Modalit y (5) is less used in
order to avoid fro m subjectivit y. Impersonalit y is implied through less use o f reference either
pronouns (7) or demonstrative (7), conjunct ions (60) are applied to develop ideas, and the
total number o f the clauses are found much more dominant (109) than the total number o f the
sentences (40) which results high grammat ical intricacy index. The Metafunct ion found
indicate that the chemistry text has fulfilled the characterist ics of scient ific or academic text
which truly reflects it as a natural science.
Keywords: Metafunction, chemistry, characterizat ion, scientific text.

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International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


1. Introduction
Language as a means of co mmunicat ion is broadly used in all aspects of social life,
economy, po lit ic, social, culture, law, education, and many others. It is not only restricted to
spoken language but also in written language. In educat ion, academic level, language also
spreads widely into two broad categories o f disciplines of study, scient ific or non scient ific
study. Scient ific studies cover many disciplines of study eit her social sciences or natural
sciences among others linguist ics, socio logy, anthropology, bio logy, physics, chemistry,
mathemat ics, oceanography, etc. Because there are various kinds o f scientific studies, the
writer only restrictedly focuses on chemistry as one of scient ific studies categories. The
discussio n on scient ific studies are inseparable from written language as they are expressed
and presented through written language, that is in the form o f a text. Hence, it is ver y
important to know how language, particularly written language, is used in scient ific text.
Based on those reasons, the writer attempts to find out how Metafunction is used in chemistry
text.
2. The research questions
With the background specified above, the study aims to answer the fo llowing research
questions:
What Metafunct ions are applied in the chemistry text?
How is the result of the Metafunct ion analys is linked to the characterist ics of scient ific text?
3. Literature Review
3.1 Metafunction
Metafunct ion is defined as funct ions which should be fulfilled by human beings in using
language. There are three funct ions known as metafunct ion, namely to represent, to
exchange, and to organize experience. Technically, this metafunct ion is termed as ideat iona l
(experient ial funct ion), interpersonal, and textual funct ion.
3.2 Experiential function
It funct ions to represent experience. There are three elements represent ing experience in
clause, they are participant, process, and circumstance. Halliday (1994:106-142) categorizes
the processes termed as transit ivit y into six types namely, material, mental, relat ional, verbal,
behavioral, and existent ial process.
3.2.1 Material process
Material process is a process o f do ing. It expresses the notion that entit y does
something which may be done to other ent ities. To exemplify the verbs catch in the
Policeman caught the thief, and write in the girl is writing a letter.
3.2.2 Mental process
Mental process is a process invo lves sense, which is inside the human or conscious beings.
Verbs o f mental process indicate perception, cognit io n, and affect ion. For example, the verb
know in I know the news from you, and hear in I heard the crowded noise.
3.2.3 Relat ional process
Relational process refers to a process of being and relat ion amo ng ent it ies through
attribution and ident ificat ion. The verbs categorized as this process are BE (is, am, are, was,
were, etc) as in My father is a teacher, and linking verbs (beco me, seem, cost, weight, etc) as
in the o ld man seemed tired.
3.2.4 Verbal process
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International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


Verbal process shows act ivit ies o f saying, asking, commanding, and o ffering. It invo lves a
process of speaking as the verb say in The man something to me and ask in she asked me
some information.
3.2.5 Existent ial process
Existent ial process represents so mething existing or happening. It shares features o f
relat ional process in the sense that the commo n verb is BE (is, am, are, was, were, etc), and
other verbs such as go, come, toil. Syntactically, this process is preceded by there. As we
can see in there was a stranger over there, and there has been a phone call for you.
Circumstances are general across process types. Precisely it is because they are less centrally
invo lved in the process rather than participants. It refers to examples such as the locat ion of
an events, in t ime or space, manner, cause, etc. In the clause I meet him last night, and they
spent their vacation in Hollywood, the word last night and Ho llywood are circumstances.
3.3 Interpersonal Function
Interpersonal funct ion aims to exchange experience (Halliday, 1994:68). A clause as a
representation o f exchange can be analyzed in terms of the structural elements o f
interpersonal meaning. A clause is analyzable wit h respect to the funct ions o f subject, finite,
predicator, complement, and adjunct. In English mood, they are coded by subject and finite.
3.4 Modality
Modalit y is defined as personal judgment or opinio n. It refers to meaning which lies
between posit ive and negat ive polar of the Mood. It is shown through this figure below.
She went (+)
Area of Modalit y
(-) she did not go
GO (+)

(-) Do not go!

Thus, between the clause she went and she didnt go select ions such as may come, she
will come, she certainly will come, which are clauses with modalit y may occur. Modalit y is
typically coded by modals such as will, must, can, and should. This figure shows how
modalit y lies between positive and negat ive polar of the mood.
Table 1 Positive Polar

Value

High
Medium
Low

Modalization
is
Probabilit y
Usualit y
certain must be
always
probably will be
usually
possibly may be somet imes
Is not
NEGATIVE POLAR

POSITIVE POLAR
Modulat ion
do
Obligation
Inclinat ion
required must do
determined
supposed will do
keen
allowed
may do
willing
do not

T abl e 2
Examples:
Modalizat ion: an ant must be an insect (probabilit y; high)
They are possibly
(probability; low)
Modulation: an ant must have six legs (obligat ion; high)
Some ants may have wings (obligat ion; low)
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International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


The queen will lay eggs
(obligation; medium)
3.5 Textual Function
Textual funct ion is one function in which language is used to organize human experience.
This is to express that language is concerned with the organization o f information wit hin
individual clauses. In order to do this language has equipment as to how experience is
organized by using Theme, a starting point of a message, and Rheme, the rest of the message.
3.6 Cohesion
Cohesio n is a grammat ically relat ionship amo ng the sentences or clauses. It is a way a text
is held together by a particular linguist ics means. Cohesio n can be achieved by applying
reference, Ellipsis, subst itution, and conjunct ion.
3.6.1 Reference
References are words that refer to human, things, or are used instead of other words.
Pronouns
There are some types o f pronoun used in English, such as subject pronoun (he, she, it, I, we,
etc), object pronoun (him, her, them, me, etc), possessive pronoun (his, her, my, their, your,
etc), etc.
Demonstrative.
It is to show near distance of ent it y (this, these, here), and to show far distance (that, those,
there).
3. Comparison degree: - Posit ive: as .as.. in she is as beautiful as her mother
- Comparat ive: - er, more in she is more beautiful than her mother
- Superlat ive: -est, most in she is the most beautiful one in her family.
3.6.2 Ellipsis
It is by eliminat ing linguist ics units (word, group/phrase, clause, etc)in order to avoid
redundancy. Ellipsis is applied by using too as in she finds the book, I do too, also as in she
loves me, so do I, neither, either, etc.
3.6.3 Substitution
It is by delet ing linguist ics units to be replaced by another one. It is applied by another, other,
one, ones, etc. For example: the rich man has two cars. One is BMW, and another one is
Avanza.
3.6.4 Conjunct ion
Conjunct ion or connect ives are words serving as links, and indicat ing the relat ion between
what they are linking, in addit io n the relat ion should be logic. There are four types o f
conjunct ion, they are:
Addit ive conjunction, such as and, or, beside, moreover, etc as in she and I left the town.
Comparat ive, such as like, meanwhile, whereas, on the other hand, but, as if, as though, and
so on.
For example: she left the town whereas I dont
She walked as if she were a super model
Temporal, such as when, while, as, since, finally, etc.
For examples: she left this town when I just arrived
She left this town since I moved to Medan
Consequent ial, such as in order that, in order to, so that, such that, the, otherwise, so on as in
the lady shouted out in order that people heard her.
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International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


3.7 Text and Context
In analyzing a text anyo ne can not separate it from its context. Context (Halliday, 1989)
simply is described to serve in making a bridge between the text and the situation in which
texts actually occur. The term context covers some aspects; ideo logy, culture, and situation.
Those contexts have great impact on how the text is developed. The context of situat ion
determines field (what topic is being talked about), tenor (participants), and mode (way, or
medium). However, the analysis of the text must be related with its context.
3.8 Scientific text and its characteristics
Based on the major discipline of study, text is categorized into two types; they are
scientific and non-scientific text. This study only focuses on scient ific text, namely chemistry
text. Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical react ions, but also its
composit ion, structure and properties. As one branch o f scient ific studies, it applies logical,
rational approach to understand entit ies in real world. Focusing on the scient ific text,
chemistry cannot be separated from its characteristics.
Some characterist ics of scientific text are as follows:
Impersonal
In Oxford dict ionary (Hornby, 1974), the term impersonal means having no persona l
reference or connect ion.
Object ive
The term objective means one which is perceived similar by all persons regardless o f the
surrounding elements.
3. Practical
This term means pertaining to practice or action, or it concerns with ordinary activit ies.
4. Technical
Technical is defined as concerning detailed practical knowledge o f an industrial or
scientific subject, or showing technique.
Table 3 below lists the characteristics of written language which is the medium of scientific
text.
Aspects
Written language
Form
Eye mode
Durable, permanent
Spatial
Solitude
Funct ion
Absence of interlocutor
Formal use
Grammar
Less dialectal variat ion
Grammat ical intricacy: low
Lexical densit y: high
4. Research Design
Design is defined as a researchers plan of how to proceed (Bogdan and Biklen,
1992:58). A descript ive qualitat ive design was applied in t his study. Descript ive qualitative
design simply describes what going on is and what the qualit ative data shows. It is

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appropriate to be used since the data is in the form o f word rather than number. The type of
this study is Content Analys is.
Content Analys is is defined as a systemat ic, replicable technique for co mpressing many
words of text into fewer content categories based on explicit rules o f coding (Krippendorf,
1980). It is the study of recorded human co mmunications, such as books, websites, paint ings,
and laws. It is used to determine the presence of certain words or concepts within text or set
of texts.
4.1 Source of Data
The data in this research was a single twelve- paragraph chemistry text tit led Electron
Emissio n fro m Solids (I): History and Theory written by Vishwas Purohit.
Electron Emissio n fro m Solids (I): History & Theory
By Vishwas Purohit
(Paragraph 1) Certain so lids emit electrons from their surfaces when subjected to heat
(thermio nic emissio n), electromagnetic radiat ion (photoemissio n) and/or an electric field
(field emissio n). Much of electronics, including vacuum tubes, cathode-ray tubes in their
various manifestations, and electron microscopes, depend on the emissio n o f electrons fro m
metals and the manipulat ion of these electrons to perform various tasks.
Figure 1

History
(Paragraph 2) Electron emission fro m so lids is a fundamental process underlying
electrical transmissio n in a gas or vacuum, and as such, was amo ng the earliest pheno mena to
be observed scientifically. In the mid-eighteenth century, Jean-Antoine Nollet and Willia m
Morgan conducted experiments showing that the passage of electrical discharge in partially
evacuated tubes produced a glow between the electrodes. In the nineteenth century, Johann
Hittorf and Sir William Crookes independent ly investigated the radiat ion produced by a
cathode in a vacuum tube, demo nstrating that an invisible "light" was produced which caused
glass to fluoresce and cast shadows.
(Paragraph 3) In 1897, Joseph John Tho mpson demo nstrated that these cathodic rays
were actually beams o f negat ively charged particles (that is, electrons). He measured their
charge-to-mass rat io and noted their behavior in electric and magnetic fields. Tho mas Edison
obtained a patent in 1884 for a thermio nic emission device, consist ing of an incandescent
wire in an electric field wit hin an evacuated envelope, which was the forerunner of amplifier
tubes.
(Paragraph 4) Early investigators were puzzled by the sharp thresho ld value for
photoemissio n wit h respect to wavelength, an observat ion which could not be explained by
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classical electrical theory but which was correctly described by a quantum process by Albert
Einstein in 1905.
(Paragraph 5) The cathode ray tube(CRT) , equipped wit h a phosphorescent screen,
became the basic device for translat ing electronic signals into visual displays- init ially in
scientific instrumentation, in such devices as oscillo scopes, and later in televis io n and
computer screens. Modern CRT devices rely on electron guns based on field emissio n, which
provide greater life, brightness, and focusing abilit y than the thermio nic or photoemissio n
sources. The electron source in a CRT acts as an amplifier o f a weak signal (fro m an antenna
or the logic circuit of a computer) in a manner which is analogous to the triode. This electron
source also incorporated a magnet ic deflector, which mo ves the electron beam across the
phosphorescent background at a constant rate to create a two dimensio nal image from an
essent ially one dimensional electronic signal.
(Paragraph 6) The Ionoscope and the multiplier phototube, invented by Zworykin in
1923 and 1935 respect ively, set the stage for televisio n and video cameras. A televis io n
camera is defined as a device for convert ing photons into electrical signals which operates on
the principle of photoemissio n. Early versio ns incorporated tubes, but later cameras used
semico nductor techno logy.
(Paragraph 7) Transmissio n and Scanning electron microscopes emplo y the optical
properties o f electrons, notably t he shorter wavelength, to produce images o f very high
resolut ion. Crude models were developed in the 1930s' by Max Kno ll and Ernst Ruska, but it
was not until World War II that practical electron microscopes became available.
Transmission electron microscopes require an electron beam o f maximum brilliance,
minimum divergence, and high focus abilit y, and they cont inue to place demands on the
development of increasingly sophist icated electron beam technology.
(Paragraph 8) Electron beams are capable of delivering high levels of energy with great
precisio n. In the 1950s' and early 1960s', considerable research was devoted to the use of
electron beam in welding, machining, and metal refining on a miniature scale. These devices
were cumberso me because o f the need to operate in vacuum, and this techno logy has been
largely supplanted by lasers. The development of a very powerful and flexible laser based on
magnet ic manipulat ion of an electron beam brought electron beam techno logy into the
forefront of instrumentation.
Generalized theory
(Paragraph 9) The electrons wit hin a metal can be visualized and modeled as a form of
"electron gas" in which individual outer shell electrons are capable of mo ving freely under
the influence o f an electric field; this mo vement of electrons is responsible for the funct ion of
electric circuits. At the surface o f a metal, a potential barrier exists which prevents the
electrons fro m escaping unless certain condit io ns are met, whereupon the metal emits
electrons into the surrounding vacuum or gas. This emission produces a beam o f free
electrons which carries current and is capable o f being manipulated in many o f the same
ways that light is being manipulated. Both the current carrying and optical properties o f
electrical beams have unique aspects that make such beams indispensable in electronics.
(Paragraph 10) The behavior o f electrons at the surface of a metal is a quantum effect.
Electrons bound to atoms exist in discrete energy states. An electron may exist in the ground
state, corresponding to absolute zero temperature, or it may absorb energy and be raised to a
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International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


discrete higher energy level by heat or irradiat ion by electromagnet ic radiat ion. In metals and
crystalline so lids, the shared electrons occupy energy bands rather than discrete energy levels.
(Paragraph 11) Electrons are unable to escape fro m the surface o f the so lid because the
energy o f an outer shell, ground state electron in the solid is less than the energy of a free
electron in vacuum. In order for an electron to be ejected from the surface, it must either
surmount the surface potential barrier by having energy equal to or greater than that of a free
electron in the surrounding medium, or tunnel through the barrier. The pheno menon of
tunneling is considered to be in the context of field emissio n, to which it is specific.
(Paragraph 12) The eject ion of electrons fro m a heated conductor is known as
thermionic emissio n. In its most basic form, a thermionic device consists o f the heated,
negat ively charged cathode (which serves as the electron emitter) and a posit ively charged
anode to draw off emitted electrons, both of which are enclo sed in a vacuum- typically a
glass tube. A vacuum is required because electrons traveling through a gas are scattered and
dissipate their energy in heat ing the gas. In addit ion, chemical react ions between the cathode
and any substances present in the tube poison the cathode, decreasing emission. Unless an
anode is present to draw off emitted electrons, they build up in a space charge around the
cathode, increasing the energy required for electron emissio n.
4.2 Technique of Data Collection
The data were collected by applying a documentary technique. The document was read and
analyzed to find out the Metafunct ion.
4.3 Technique of Data Analysis
The data were analyzed based on these fo llowing procedures:
a. Identifying the types of process; material, mental, relat ional, verbal, behavioral, and
existential.
b. Counting up the number of the processes.
a. Categorizing the cohesio n devices; pronouns, references, ellipsis, substitution, and
conjunct ions applied in the text
b. Counting up the number of the cohesio n devices.
a. Classifying the t ypes of modulat ion whether Modalizat ion or Modulation are used in t he
text
b. Determining modalit y value high, medium, or low.
a. Counting up the number of sentences and clauses in the text
Scoring the grammat ical intricacy index
5. Data Analysis
After having been analyzed the text, the writer found out the use of Metafunct ion in
chemistry text as fo llows:
5.1 Transitivity ( types of processes)
Table 4.1 Types o f processes were found in chemistry text
Transitivity (Process)
Material
Emit(2)
Based(2)
Perform
Provide
Depend
Acts

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Known

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Relational
I s ( 7)
Was(3)
Consisting(2)

Verbal
Showing
Demonstrate
( 2)

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Behavioural
Observed
Investigated
Noted

Existential
Exists
Present

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Underlying
Conducted
Produce(5)
Caused
Charged
Measured
Obtained
Puzzled
Equipped
Rel y
Raised
Draw off (2)
Employ
Brought
Occupy
Enclosed
Developed
Scattered
Place
Surmount
Dissipate
Delivering
Manipulated
( 2)
Serve
Visualized
71

Incorporated
( 2)
Move(2)
Create
Invented
Set
Converting
Operates (2)
Used
Supplanted
Discrete
Require (3)
Prevent
Escape
Travelling
Continue
Met
Ejected
Decreasing
Increasing
Devoted
Make
Charged (2)
Absorb
Build up
Modeled

Were (2)
Became (2)
Are (2)
Have (2)
Corresponding
To

21
Total = 106

Explained
Described
Defined

Considered

It was found through the analysis that material process is used most ly. An essence o f
material process is to show actions, doings invo lved physics o f ent it ies. It is closely related to
practicalit y as one o f characterist ics in scientific text since pract icalit y concerns wit h
practice, action, or activit ies. And pract icalit y in scientific text cannot be achieved without
applying material process.
Relat ional process is used dominant ly. Because the chemistry text frequent ly uses many
symbo ls to refer to entities in chemistry, in order to ident ify and attribute them or to make it
easy to be realized, relat ional process is used.
5.2 Circumstance
Table 4 circumstances were used in chemistry text
T
Y
P
E
S

Extent

Circumstances

Location: temporal

In the mid-eighteenth century, in the nineteenth century, in


1894,in 1884,in 1905,in 1923,and 1935,in the 1930s,until
world war

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Frequenc
y
8

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Location: spatial
of
C
I
R
C
U
M
S
T
A
N
C
E

Manner
Cause
Contingency
Accompaniment
Role
Matter
angel

In a gas or vacuum, in a vacuum tube, in electric and magnetic


Field, in an electrified, in scientific instrumentation, in such
Devices as oscilloscopes, in television, in a CRT, from an
antenna or the logic circuit, from one dimensional electronic
signal, into the forefront of instrumentation, in a space charge
around the cathode, at the surface of metal (2) into the
surrounding vacuum or gas, in electronics, in the surrounding
medium, in the ground state, in the tube, in metals and
crystalline solids, from the surface of solids (2),in the solid, in
vacuum (2).
Independently,
negativel y
(2),correctly,
respectively,
increasingly, largely, freel y, positivel y, scientifically.
Because of, because the energy, in order for, because electrons
In the context of fi eld emission
With great precision, with a phosphorescent screen
As a form of electron gas, as the electron emitter, as an
amplifier, as a device, as thermionic emission
Total 56

26

10
4
1
2
5
0
0

Circumstance of spat ial lo cat ion is much more dominant than other circumstances. Because
this text fully concerns in history, in order to support the facts ment ioned, a list of
circumstances of locat ion showing spat ial (place) and temporal (time) are used.
5.3 Modality
Table 5 modality found in chemistry text
MODALITY
Could not be explained
Modulation:obligat ion:low
It must either surmount the surface
Modulation:obligat ion:high
Can be visualized
Modulation:obligat ion:low
An electron may exist
Modulation:obligat ion:low
It may absorb
Modulation:obligat ion:low
Modalit y was less used this text in order to avo id from subject ivit y because subject ivit y is
expressed by modalit y, personal judgment or opinio n. Subjectivit y is very contrastive to
object ivit y which is major characterist ics of scient ific text.
5.4 Cohesion units
5.4.1 Reference
Table 6 references used in chemistry text
pronouns
demonstrative
Their (5)
These (2)
They (2)
This (3)
Both (2)
7
7
This chemistry text used fewer pronouns because it tends to be impersonal. It means the
write does not show his personalit y. Instead of using pronouns, passive construction is
applied in the text in order to maintain object ivit y. Objectivit y means one which is perceived
similar by all persons regardless of the surrounding elements.
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5.4.2 Conjunction
Table 7 conjunctions used in chemistry text
Conjunct ions
Frequency
When
1
And
27
Or
4
Thant
7
Which
13
But
3
Because of
1
In which
1
Where
1
Because
2
Total
60
The reason why there are many conjunctions used is very closed related to the grammat ical
intricacy as shown in table 4.5 that the ideas developed are very co mplete, so those such
conjunct ions are used to relate closely those ideas; intra and interrelated ideas ,consequent ly
the readers can comprehend easily the text.
5. 5 Grammatical Intricacy (GI)
Table 8 Grammatical Intricacy in Chemistry Text
paragraph sentences clauses
1
2
4
2
3
12
3
3
8
4
1
3
5
4
11
6
3
6
7
3
7
8
4
8
9
5
16
10
4
8
11
3
8
12
5
18
Total
40
109
GI SCORE = the total number of clause
= 109
=2.7
The total number of sentences
40
Significant difference of the total number between clauses and sentences indicates that this
Chemistry text is more informative, and more academic. This is to indicate that this text
contained more information. The more concise informat ion contained in this text, the more
complete informat ion is available, and then the readers can co mprehend the text better.
6. Conclusions
Wit h reference to the research findings, some conclusio ns are drawn as the fo llowing.
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Through the transit ivit y analysis result, it was fo und that the chemistry text used material
process mostly. It is because the material process is essentially to show act ion, act ivit y of
ent it y, and it is t ightly related to practical and technical as characterist ics of scient ific text
which are mainly about practice, action, or practical knowledge.
Based on the research findings, the modalit y aspect is less used because it concerns wit h
personal judgment or opinio n which is subject ive, and it is extremely contrastive with the
main characterist ics of scient ific text, that is objective. The analysis result also showed that
the cohesio n devices are very useful to relate information to the other one. There are also
many circumstances found in the text to give addit ional informat ion in order that the
informat ion beco mes more complete and make the text more academic.
The degree o f an academic text can be seen through the total number o f clauses found in
the sentences. The total number of the clauses are much more do minant than the total number
of the sentences because they funct ion to give much more co mplete informat ion, in other
words the more clauses found in the text, the more complete the information contained.
About the Author:
Ahmad Amin Dalimunte, M.Hum works as a facult y member with the IAIN [State Institute for
Islamic Studies] North Sumatra, Indonesia. His areas of research interest include- ELT, ESP
and Teaching English as a Foreign Language.
References
Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. (1992). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to
Theory and Method. Allyn and Bacon
Halliday, M.A. K. (1994). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. (2nd ed.). London:
Edward Arno ld
Halliday, M.A. K., & Hasan, R. (1989). Language, Context, and Text: aspects of language in
a social perspective. Oxford Universit y Press
Hornby, A.S. (1974). Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary of Current English. (3rd ed.).
Oxford: Oxford Universit y Press
Krippendorff, K. (1980). Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. Newbury
Park, CA: Sage
Purohit, V. (2005). Electron Emission from Solids (I): History & Theory. Retrieved fro m
http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/2-12-2005-65657.asp

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