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(i) To determine the Cp distribution of circular cylinder and compare with theoretical results.

(ii) To study the effect of Reynolds number on the Cp distribution.

Apparatus:

Suction Type Wind Tunnel

Air is sucked through a duct equipped with a viewing port and instrumentation

where models are mounted for study. Typically the air is moved through the tunnel using

a series of fans.

The airflow created by the fans that is entering the tunnel is itself highly turbulent , partly

due to the fan blade motion. The air moving through the tunnel needs to be relatively

turbulence-free and laminar. To correct this problem, closely spaced vertical and

horizontal air vanes called honeycombs (1 sq. inch) and wire mesh screens (1 sq.

mm.) are used to smooth out the turbulent airflow before reaching the subject of the

testing. This forms the low velocity settling chamber of the wind tunnel.

The velocity is increased in the contraction part upto maximum speeds of 35 m/s. The

pressure measured in this part is the total/stagnation pressure or P o.

In test section, several experiments involving flow visualization, measurement of

pressure, forces and moments as well as boundary layer in favorable and adverse

pressure gradients are conducted on small models.

The purpose of the diffuser is to allow the air exiting the test section to expand and

gradually slow down, thus reducing the dynamic pressure (kinetic energy) and increasing

the static pressure. This reduces the current drawn by the fan motor or, alternatively,

allows a higher speed to be achieved for a given motor/fan size and current draws. The

angle included by the diffuser walls is generally limited to approximately 5 maximum

pressure recovery actually occurs at a somewhat greater angle, but the boundary layer is

close enough to separation in the flow through the diffuser and hence the entire tunnel

may become unsteady.

Fig. 1

Circular Cylinder

A long circular cylinder is placed in the test section, such that its ends are fixed to the

walls of the wind tunnel. Thus it can be taken as an infinite circular cylinder. 20 ports are

present on the circumference of the cylinder, i.e. at an interval of 18, which are

connected to a pressure scanner.

The physical signal (pressure) is being fed to a Scanivalve pressure sensor, a kind of

piezo-electric pressure transducer (A transducer is a device that converts one form of

energy to another form of energy; in this case, generates a voltage signal as a function of

the pressure imposed).

Scanivalve produces electrical signal with respect to some reference, the atmospheric

pressure. This signal goes to a signal conditioner, which performs signal Amplification,

Noise filtration and Bridge balancing. Now we use an ADC card (Analogue digital card),

which converts analogue signal to digital signal. This data in the form of digital signal is

acquired by the LabVIEW. LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering

Workbench) is a development environment for a visual programming language. The

benefit of LabVIEW over other development environments is the extensive support for

accessing instrumentation hardware. All this forms the Data Acquisition System

(DAQ).

Theory:

The pressure coefficient is a dimensionless number which describes the relative pressures

throughout a flow field in fluid dynamics. The coefficient of pressure is defined as:

where,

( )

=

P is the pressure in the freestream (i.e. total pressure measured in the inlet section)

is the freestream fluid density

U is the freestream velocity of the fluid.

P o is the total stagnation pressure measured in the settling chamber.

At the leading edge of the cylinder, where the oncoming flow is brought to rest, a stagnation point

is formed. The measured static pressure here is equal to the stagnation pressure. To either side of

the stagnation point the flow velocity increases around the forward surface of the cylinder

producing a drop in static pressure. The total pressure is constant and is equal to the sum of

static and dynamic pressures.

Near the cylinder surface a thin boundary layer is formed, which is a region where the velocity

drops rapidly to zero to satisfy the no slip condition at the cylinder surface. The boundary layer is

thus the region where direct effects of viscosity can be felt. The viscous effects are taken as

negligible everywhere else. The flow pattern and boundary layer are functions of Reynolds No:

If Re D <40K (Subcritical Reynolds Number), the boundary layer is laminar from the stagnation

point at the front of the cylinder to the point where it separates. In this case, the wake region

behind the cylinder is larger and the resulting flow pattern is associated with larger drag on the

cylinder.

Fig. 2

If Re D >40K (Subcritical Reynolds Number), the boundary layer becomes turbulent. Due to

turbulence, the flow remains attached with the surface of the cylinder and separation takes place

at a later angle. T he wake region is smaller and therefore drag will be less.

Fig. 3

Since the surface of the cylinder is smooth the flow will be laminar and in this case friction drag

will be less, pressure drag will be high compared to the turbulent flow. Thus the flow would

separate at an angle of around 80-90.

In case of potential flow over a circular cylinder, we can get easily the pressure distribution over

the cylindrical surface using the Bernoullis equation.

= +

= +

( )

Thus,

=

( )

As the flow is assumed to be incompressible and inviscid, we can apply the potential flow theory

to get a theoretical estimate of the pressure distribution. Shown below is a circular cylinder kept

in a potential flow.

Fig. 4

From potential flow solutions, we have U=U r +U , where U r = 0 and U = -2U sin, where is the

angle measured as shown in the above figures. Finally, we have for theoretical calculations,

=

For experimental calculations, we have

=

( )

( )

=

( )

Experimental Procedure:

o

The circular cylinder was placed in the test section initially at 0 degree.

20 ports of Scanivalve Pressure sensor were connected to the cylinder at 18 intervals, the

REF port was connected to the inlet section to measure P and another port was

connected to settling chamber to measure P0.

The flow was started at a speed of 19m/s and the readings over transducer were recorded

after passing through the DAQ.

The above step was repeated up to 360 degree by increasing angle by 18 degree in each

step.

Observations:

Angle ()

(in degree)

P - P

(in mV)

P0 - P

(in mV)

Theoretical Cp

223.2908

229.6473

0.972321

-2.76794

18

200.0208

229.6473

0.6180

0.870991

40.92935

36

60.77065

229.6473

-0.3820

0.264626

-169.28

54

-166.635

229.6473

-1.6180

-0.72561

-55.1547

72

-295.9254

229.6473

-2.6180

-1.28861

-50.7795

90

-248.0028

229.6473

-3

-1.07993

-64.0024

108

-250.9674

229.6473

-2.6180

-1.09284

-58.2573

126

-248.7236

229.6473

--1.6180

-1.08307

-33.0627

144

-210.9848

229.6473

-0.3820

-0.91873

140.5277

162

-248.1673

229.6473

0.6180

-1.08065

-274.852

180

-251.2019

229.6473

-1.09386

-209.386

198

-248.7802

229.6473

0.6180

-1.08331

-275.284

216

-260.5498

229.6473

-0.3820

-1.13457

197.033

234

-257.052

229.6473

-1.6180

-1.11933

-30.8214

252

-250.2366

229.6473

-2.6180

-1.08966

-58.3788

270

-251.0831

229.6473

-3

-1.09334

-63.5553

288

-215.994

229.6473

-2.6180

-0.94055

-64.0743

306

-251.6286

229.6473

--1.6180

-1.09572

-32.2809

324

-66.67651

229.6473

-0.3820

-0.29034

-23.9872

342

144.6353

229.6473

0.6180

0.629815

1.906198

360

223.2908

229.6473

0.972321

-2.76794

CP = 1-4sin

Experimental Cp

% Error

()

( )

Calculation:

= = 229.6473

U = 19 m/s

Thus, Density of air = 1.2724 kg/m3 =

Dynamic viscosity of air at Room temperature = = 1.846 * 10 -5 kg/m s

Diameter of cylinder = D =38 mm

Thus, Reynoldss number is given by,

ReD =

Calculation of Cd and Cl :

Cd =

Cl =

We use trapezoidal rule to evaluate the given integrals. Trapezoidal rule for a given integral is as

follows and can be calculated in MATLAB using the function trapz(X,Y).

Cd = 1.1626

Cl = 0.0843

V (m/s)

Re

Cl

Cd

14

37639.85

0.063

1.2582

19

49761.06

0.0843

1.1626

24.7

61846.89

0.0835

1.0602

29

72717.45

0.0773

1.1212

33.2

83469.90

0.1085

1.1618

Results:

1. Reynoldss number (ReD) of the given flow is 49761.06. Flow is in laminar region (Re D

<400000), and the separation is seen at around 80 as expected.

2. Cd = 1.1626 and Cl = 0.0843 for the given ReD.

3. Plots

Fig 5: Cp vs

Fig 6: Cd vs Re

Discussions:

1) In this experiment we determined the pressure distribution over a circular cylinder in a

uniform flow, and thus obtained the pressure coefficient experimentally and compared it

with the theoretical value.

2) From first graph it was inferred that pressure distribution was roughly symmetric about

the horizontal axis. This implied no generation of lift. The theoretical graph also implied

symmetry about the vertical axis, which was not the case with the experimental graph.

This implies that ideally the circular cylinder doesnt experience drag, although in actual

case it does. This is the DAlemberts Paradox, and is explained using the boundary layer

concept, which leads to separation of flow.

3) Cp nearly follows the theoretical solution for the front half of the cylinder (-90< <90).

But in the rear end of the cylinder due to adverse pressure gradient, flow separation

occurs and the Cp distribution changes drastically leading to deviation.

4) The set of equations used to obtain the theoretical values assumes that the flow is steady,

incompressible, inviscid and negligible body forces. In the above experiment we are

implying a potential flow. This leads to the difference in the two pressure distribution

plots as discussed above.

5) The study of the flow over a circular cylinder is basic but very important in aerodynamics.

It can be indirectly used to study flow over an actual airfoil. Various transformations like

the Zhukovsky Transformation use conformal mapping to transform certain airfoils to

circular airfoils, over which calculations can be easily performed.

6) Due to rotation of cy linder, the potential flow solution would require an addition of a 2-D

point vortex centered at the centre of the circular cylinder. T here would be an uneven

distribution of velocities on the upper and lower surfaces of the cylinder thus creating an

upward or downward (lift) force depending upon the rotation of the cylinder.

7) For 0<Re<4, flow is attached and called Stokes Flow; for 4<Re<40, flow separates,

forming stable vortices; for Re>40 these vortices become unstable and flow downstream

as shed vortices and is called a Kalman Vortex Street; for Re~10 5 this vortex street

becomes turbulent and metamorphoses into a distinct wake. The laminar boundary layer

separates at a point about 80 from the stagnation point; for Re~10 6 laminar to turbulent

transition takes place in the boundary layer over the top of separated region and the flow

reattaches and separates at about 120 for which there is a significant drop in C d; for even

higher Re, the points of separation move toward the forward face, fattening the wake,

increasing the Cd.

8) From the graph of Cd vs Re, it was seen that as Re increased, Cd decreased at first but then

started increasing. This change however, was not a big one and if the range of Re were to

be increased as in the previous point, the values can be considered constant in the range

considered for the current experiment. The most significant drop occurs during transition

to turbulent boundary layer.

Fig 6

References:

[1] John D Anderson JR., Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, 5th edition, Tata McGraw Hill. Inc.,

New York

[2] Fig 1: Bapu Joglekar, Rana Manoj Mourya, Design, construction and testing open circuit

low speed wind tunnel, ISSN 2348-697X (Online), Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp: (1-9).

[3] Fig 2- 3: http://www.dept.aoe.vt.edu/~aborgolt/aoe3054/manual/expt3/index.html

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