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Contents

Coursebook answers
Homework Book answers
Chapter tests
Chapter test answers
Curriculum grids
Teaching program
Risk assessments Lab technician activity
Risk assessments Classroom activity
Safety notes
Technicians checklist and recipes

Answers to coursebook questions


1: The periodic table

Unit 1.1
1

a The electron is the smallest.


b The proton and the neutron are the heaviest particles, being approximately 1800
times heavier than the electron. The neutron is actually a little heavier than the
proton.
c The proton is positive.
d The electron is negative.
e The neutron is neutral.
f Electrons spin around the nucleus.
g Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus.

2 An atom is electrically neutral meaning that the number of protons must equal the
number of electrons.
3

a Atomic number = number of protons in an atom = number of electrons in an


atom
b Mass number = number of protons + neutrons in an atom
c Nucleus = heavy core at the centre of the atom, made from protons and neutrons

4 For the atom


5

238
92

U, atomic number = 92, mass number = 238

a atomic number = 8
b mass number = 8 + 9 = 17

6 At the time of printing this book, there were 111 different elements.
7 Atoms belonging to the same element have the same atomic number, the same
number of protons and the same number of electrons.
8 Various answers possible
9 Mg is the correct way of writing the symbol for magnesium.
10 Sulfur atoms make up the element sulfur (S).
Three different acids: hydrochloric acid HCl, sulfuric acid H2SO4, nitric acid
HNO3
b Three different lattices: silicon dioxide SiO2, sodium hydroxide NaOH, iron
oxide Fe2O3

11 a

12 a H2O2 hydrogen peroxide


b C12H22O11 sucrose (common sugar)
c H2O water
13 Diagrammatic answer required
14 Various answers possible

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Answers to coursebook questions


1: The periodic table
15 Some methods that can be used to separate mixtures: sieving, filtration, decanting,
gravity separation, evaporation, distillation, magnetism, centrifuging,
chromatography and froth flotation
16 In order from smallest to largest: electron, proton, atom, molecule, compound
17 Sodium Na, potassium K, iron Fe, copper Cu, silver Ag, tin Sn, antinomy Sb,
tungsten W, gold Au, mercury Hg, lead Pb
18 a
b
c
d
e

True: The mass number is usually bigger than the atomic number of an atom.
False: The chemical symbol for iron is Fe.
True: Salt is the compound NaCl.
True: Most of the atom is empty space.
False: A molecule is not the same as a lattice.

19 a

An element is made from many identical atoms; a compound is made from many
identical molecules or units.
b The element iron is made of many iron atoms; an atom of iron is only one atom.
c The compound water contains many molecules of water; a molecule of water is
just thatonly one molecule.
d A compound has many identical molecules or units; a mixture has a variety of
them.
e Different atoms make up a molecule.

20 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j

mixture
element
compound
element
mixture
compound
mixture
compound
mixture
element

21 a
b
c
d
e

compound
lattice
atom
molecule
mixture

22 A glass of cordial is a mixture and can be dilute or strong: there are no definite
proportions. A chemical formula needs definite proportions.
23 Tap water is a mixture that has in it water and probably some chlorine, fluoride (for
prevention of tooth decay), copper (from the pipes), dissolved oxygen, dirt (mixture)
etc.
24 a

SO2: 1 sulfur and 2 oxygens


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Answers to coursebook questions


1: The periodic table
b
c
d
e

H2S: 2 hydrogens and 1 sulfur


C12H22O11: 12 carbons, 22 hydrogens and 11 oxygens
H2SO4: 2 hydrogens, 1 sulfur and 4 oxygens
CH3COOH : 2 carbons, 4 hydrogens and 2 oxygens

25 a

56
26

Fe: 26p+, 26e, 30n

59
28

Ni: 28p+, 28e, 31n

64
29

Cu: 29p+, 29e, 35n

197
79

26
Atom

Au: 79p+, 79e, 118n


Atomic
number

Mass
number

Number
of
neutrons
6

Number
of
electrons
6

Symbol
for the
atom

12

Number
of
protons
6

carbon

12
6

sulfur

16

32

16

16

16

32
16

sodium

11

23

11

12

11

23
11

Na

oxygen

16

16
8

fluorine

19

10

19
9

iodine

53

127

53

74

53

127
53

Unit 1.2
1 Physical properties of an element: colour, melting and boiling points, density,
hardness
2

a 1829: 55
b 1864: 60
c 2006, the year this book was published: 111

3 Mendeleev left gaps to keep the families of elements known at the time in vertical
columns or groups.
4 Eka-silicon is the name given to germanium, an element that Mendeleev predicted
but which had not yet been discovered.
5 Any two of these properties:
Physical property
Mendeleevs predictions
for eka-silicon
Colour
Dirty grey

Observed properties of
germanium
Greywhite

Atomic mass

72.6

72

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1: The periodic table
Boiling point (oC)

Below 100

84

Density (g/cm3)

5.5

5.35

6 The rows in the periodic table are called periods.


7 Groups are the vertical columns in the periodic table.
8 Three special blocks with no normal group numbers are the transition elements, the
lanthanides and the actinides.
9 There are far more metals than non-metals in the periodic table.
10 The metalloids are: boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antinomy, tellurium,
polonium and astatine.
11 The non-metals are: H, He, C, N, O, F, Ne, P, S, Cl, Ar, Se, Br, Kr, I, Xe and Rn.
12 Examples might be: iron, gold, copper, silver, zinc, mercury and platinum.
13 a
b
c
d
e

False: Horizontal rows in the periodic table are periods.


False: Vertical columns are called groups.
False: The most reactive metallic atom would be francium Fr.
True: The most reactive non-metallic atom would be fluorine F.
True: The transition elements are all metals.

14 a
b
c
d

5=V
4 = IV
7 = VII
2 = II

15 The symbol for iron is Fe and is based on its Latin name ferrum. Ferrous is derived
from this word.
16 Plumber and plumbing come from the Latin word plumbum for lead, Pb.
17 When Dalton invented his symbols there were only a couple of dozen known
elements. Inventing new symbols for each of the 111 elements we now know would
be very difficult. They would also be difficult to remember and very clumsy to use
when writing chemical formulas and equations.
18 Cl = chlorine (non-metal), Na = sodium (metal), Ar = argon (non-metal), Si =
silicon (metalloid), Cu = copper (metal), Ge = germanium (metalloid)
19 a Most metals are found in Groups I and II and in the transition elements.
b Most non-metals are found in Groups VI, VII and VIII.
20 a any of oxygen O, sulfur S, selenium Se, tellurium Te and polonium Po
b any of sodium Na, magnesium Mg, aluminium Al, silicon Si, phosphorus P,
sulfur S, chlorine Cl and argon Ar
c any three elements from Groups I, II, III, IV, V, VII or VIII
d any three elements from Groups I, II, III, IV, V, VII or VIII that you have not
yet used
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1: The periodic table
e

any of helium He, neon Ne, argon Ar, krypton Kr, xenon Xe, radon Rn

21 a

From the periodic table, a hydrogen atom has 1 proton. If it also has 3 neutrons,
then the mass number = 1 + 3 = 4.
b From the periodic table, a chlorine atom has 17 protons. If it also has 20
neutrons, then the mass number = 17 + 20 = 37.
c From the periodic table, a nickel atom has 28 protons. If it also has 30 neutrons,
then the mass number = 28 + 30 = 58.

22 Diagrammatic answer required

Unit 1.3
1 The protons and neutrons are in the nucleus at the very centre of the atom, far away
from the action of a chemical reaction, which happens on the very outside of the
atom where the electrons are.
2 Energy levels are shells in which the electrons spin. They are named K, L, M and N
or are numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4.
3 K: 2 electrons, L: 8 electrons, M: 18 electrons but happy with 8, N: 32 electrons but
happy with 8
4 The electronic configuration of an atom shows how the electrons are arranged in its
shells.
5

a
b
c
d

silicon (Si): 2, 8, 4
helium (He): 2
nitrogen (N): 2, 5
argon (Ar): 2, 8, 8

6 The group number is the same as the number of electrons in the outer shell of an
atom.
7 An atom would be in Period 3 if it uses three electron shells.
8

a 2, 8, 7: Group VII, Period 3


b 2, 5: Group V, Period 2

9 Atoms in the same group have similar properties because they have the same
number of electrons in their outer shells. This means that they will act and react in a
similar way.
10 Three other family names for the noble gases are Group VIII, Group 0 or the inert
gases.
11 The Group VIII elements are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn.
12 Group VIII atoms are so stable and unreactive because they have either a filled outer
shell of electrons or have 8 electrons in it.
13 An ion is an atom that has gained or lost electrons, making it electrically charged.

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Answers to coursebook questions


1: The periodic table
14 Noble gases do not form ions because they have filled outer shells or 8 electrons in
them. This means they cannot accept another electron or donate an electron to
another atom.
15 A sodium ion forms when a sodium atom donates its outer-shell electron to another
atom.
16 A negative ion forms when an atom grabs an electron off another atom.
17 Sodium chloride has the ions Na+ and Cl. These ions are in equal numbers so the
overall charge is balanced.
18 Neutrons carry no electrical charge and therefore give no added charge to an ion.
19
Atomic
number

Number
of
electrons

Electronic
configuration

The
atom
could
lose
1e

He

Unreactive

Li

2,1

1e

7e

Lose 1e

Li+

Be

2,2

2e

6e

Lose 2e

Be2+

2,3

3e

5e

Uncertain

2,4

4e

4e

Uncertain

2,5

5e

3e

Gain 3e

N3

2,6

6e

2e

Gain 2e

O2

2,7

7e

1e

Gain 1e

Ne

10

10

2,8

Unreactive

Na

11

11

2,8,1

1e

7e

Lose 1e

Na+

Mg

12

12

2,8,2

2e

6e

Lose 2e

Mg2+

Al

13

13

2,8,3

3e

5e

Lose 3e

Al3+

Si

14

14

2,8,4

4e

4e

Uncertain

Gain 3e

P3

Or it
could
gain

Most
likely
scenario

1e

Uncertain

Most
likely
ion
formed
H+ or
H

No ion formed

No ion formed

15

15

2,8,5

5e

3e

16

16

2,8,6

6e

2e

Gain 2e

S2

Cl

17

17

2,8,7

7e

1e

Gain 1e

Cl

Ar

18

18

2,8,8

Unreactive

No ion formed

20 a An atom in Period 2, Group VI would be: 2,6.


b An atom in Period 3, Group VIII would be: 2,8,8.

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1: The periodic table
c

An atom of Period 1, Group VIII would be: 2 (this is the special case of helium
He).
d An atom of Mg would be: 2,8,2.
e An atom of S would be: 2,8,6.
21 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

An atom with eight protons = 8


An atom with eighteen protons = 18
An atom with an atomic number of 3 = 3
An atom with an atomic number of 7 = 7
An atom in Period 2, Group VII = 9
An atom in Period 3, Group II = 12
An atom of phosphorus = 15
An atom of aluminium = 13

22 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

2,6, most likely ionic charge, 2


2,8,8, will not form an ion
2,1, most likely ionic charge, +1
2,8,8,1, most likely ionic charge, +1
2,7, most likely ionic charge, 1
2,8,2, most likely ionic charge, +2
2,8,5, most likely ionic charge, 3
2,8,3, most likely ionic charge, +3

23 a
b
c
d
e
f

Period 2, Group IV
Period 3, Group VI
Period 2, Group V
Period 3, Group V
Period 4, Group II
Period 2, Group VIII

24
Number of
protons

Number of
neutrons

Number of
electrons

Overall
charge

10

10

11

Is it an
atom or an
ion?
Atom

Symbol

10

Atom

Ne

10

10

+1

Ion

Na+

17

16

18

Ion

Cl

15

15

18

Ion

P3

19

18

18

+1

Ion

K+

20

19

18

+2

Ion

Ca2+

10

Ion

O2

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1: The periodic table

Unit 1.4
1

a Lustrous: shiny
b Malleable: able to be bent
c Ductile: able to be stretched into wires

2 Many examples are possible. Iron and copper are some of the most useful. Iron is
the main component of the steel and stainless steel that makes up everything from
ship hulls to saucepans, car bodies to body piercings, while copper is used as
electrical wiring.
3 Most metals sink in water because their densities are higher than water.
4 Metal atoms form lattices.
5 If something is brittle then it shatters easily.
6 Diagrammatic answer required
7 Most non-metals have very low melting and boiling points, making them a liquid or
gas at normal room temperatures.
8 The strength with which an atom holds its electrons is called its electronegativity.
9 A non-metal has a higher electronegativity than a metal.
10 A chemical reaction can be thought of as a robbery because some atoms (the nonmetals) rob electrons from other atoms (the metals).
11 A hydrogen atom can form the hydrogen ion H+ and the hydride ion H.
12 a In Group I because it has one outer-shell electron
b In Group VII because it can gain one electron just like the other Group VII
elements
c By itself because it is different from all of the other elements
13 Helium could be placed in Group II because it has only two outer-shell electrons.
14 Helium is normally placed in Group VIII because it has a filled outer shell.
15 The metalloids: B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po and At
16 Metalloids are special in that they show both metallic and non-metallic character.
17 Metals: ductile, dense, malleable, lustrous, excellent conductors, normally solid
Non-metals: normally gas or liquid, brittle, dull, poor conductors
18 Examples could be drawn from:
a H, He, N, O, F, Ne, Cl, Ar, Kr
b N, P, As, Sb, Bi
c Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne
d F, Br, I, At
e S, Se, Te, Po

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1: The periodic table
19 Group I: +1, Group II: +2, Group III: +3, Group V: 3, Group VI: 2, Group VII: 1
Group VIII: no charge, no ion formed.
20 a
b
c
d
e

Na+
S2
I
P3
Al3+

21 a
b
c
d

Mercury (Hg) is the only metal that is liquid at normal room temperatures.
Sodium, magnesium and aluminium are metals in Period 3.
Tin and lead are metals in Group IV.
Beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium and radium are metals that
would form +2 ions.

22 a Solids: four, ignoring metalloids (P, Si, Se, I)


b Liquids: one (Br)
c Gases: ten (H, N, O, F, He, Cl, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn)

Unit 1.5
1 Distillation is used to separate noble gases from air.
2 Helium is lighter than air, just like hydrogen. It is far safer, however, because it is
not explosive.
3

a
b
c
d
e

Disinfectants: Cl, I
Sedative: Br
Goitre control: I
Bleach: Cl
Anaesthetic: F

4 The formulas for molecules of fluorine and of chlorine are F2 and Cl2.
5 Chemical equations should not be left unbalanced since it implies that matter is
being created or destroyed, both being impossible.
6 Lithium reacts with chlorine gas to form lithium chloride: 2Li + Cl2 2LiCl.
F2 + H2S S + 2HF
Cl2 + H2S S + 2HCl
2Na + Br2 2NaBr
2Li + F2 2LiF
2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2
2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2

a
b
c
d
e
f

a Melting point of 98C: Na


b In caustic soda: Na
c Is used as an air filter: Li
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1: The periodic table
d Would be the most reactive: Fr
e Would be the smallest atom: Li
9

a
b
c
d
e

10 a
b
c
d

Closely related to potassium: Ca


Used as a meal: Ba
Found in plaster: Ca
Used to protect iron from rusting: Mg
Least reactive: Be
True: The group contains both metals and non-metals.
True: All the elements in this group contain four electrons in their outer shell.
False: Diamond and graphite are not forms of silicon.
False: Carbon is in all living things, as well as in things that are dead.

11 a Diamond: gems, drill tips and saws, abrasives


b Graphite: electrode in battery, electrical brushes in motors, grey-lead pencils,
lubricant
c Silicon: glass, gemstones, electronic components
d Germanium: electronic components, lenses for optical instruments
12 Only 20% of diamonds are valuable.
13 a
b
c
d
e

In Period 5: Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd


Magnetic: Fe, Ni, Co
Used for jewellery: Au, Ag, Pt
Silver grey in colour: Ag, Fe, Pt, Zn, Hg, Cr, Ni
Obviously from Latin or Greek names: Cu, Au, Fe, Ag, W, Hg

14 Carbon is basically a non-metal but does conduct electricity as graphite. It could


thus be classified as a metalloid.
15 Carbon was found much earlier than most of the other non-metals since amorphous
carbon is left over from burning or combustion. It would have been on food, rocks,
and charcoal around cooking fires.
16 As a metal, tin is soft and malleable. A tin container would hold a liquid like heating
fuel so long as it retained these properties. Below 13C, however, tin begins to act
more like a non-metal: although solid it could be expected to crumble into powder
instead of retaining its shape. A container would soon have holes or splits which
would leak the vital heating fuel.
17 The melting and boiling points of the halogens increase as you move down the
group.
18 a
b
c
d

20C, gases: F, Cl, liquid: Br, solid: I


100C, gases: F, Cl, Br, solid: I
199C, gases: F, solids: Cl, Br, I
150C, gases: F, Cl, Br, liquids: I

19 a

Hydrogen and silicon: SiH4


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1: The periodic table
b Hydrogen and germanium: GeH4
c Hydrogen and tin: SnH4
d Hydrogen and lead: PbH4
2Na + 2H 2O 2NaOH + H2
2Rb + 2H2O 2RbOH + H2
2Li + I2 2LiI
2Cs + Cl2 2CsCl
2Na + Br2 2NaBr

20 a
b
c
d
e

21 a Br2 + H2S S + 2HBr


b I2 + H2S S + 2HI

Chapter review
1
Atom

Atomic
number

Mass
number

Number
of
neutrons
16

Number
of
electrons
16

Atomic
symbol

32

Number
of
protons
16

Sulfur

16

Hydrogen

1
1

Beryllium

9
4

Be

Iodine

53

127

53

74

53

127
53

Nickel

28

59

28

31

28

59
28

32
16

Ni

2 Diagrammatic answer required


3

a Halogens: Group VII


b Inert gases: Group VIII
c Alkaline earths: Group II

4 K holds up to two electrons, L holds eight, M holds up to eighteen but often only
fills to eight and N holds up to thirty-two but often only fills to eight.
5 Period numbernumber of electron shells used; group numbernumber of
electrons in the outer shell.
6 Elements of the same family are always found in the same group because they all
have the same number of electrons in their outer shells.
7 Hydrogen and helium are unique since their outer-shell electrons are in the K shell,
which fills with only two electrons.

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1: The periodic table
8
Electrical conductivity

Metal
High

Non-metal
None or limited

Heat conductivity

High

None

Shine

Lustrous

Dull

Able to be bent

Malleable

Crumbles

Melting/boiling points

Relatively high

Low

9 A chloride ion is a chlorine atom with an extra electron in its outer shell.
10 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n

False: The mass number of an atom is the number of protons and neutrons it has.
False: Mercury is a liquid at room temperature.
False: There are 111 different types of atoms.
True: Group V atoms all have five electrons in their outer shell.
True: Period 4 atoms all have four shells in use.
False: An atom with an electronic configuration of 2, 8, 5 would be in Period 3,
Group V.
False: Carbon dioxide is a molecule.
False: Air is a mixture.
True: The element carbon is found in all living things.
True: In an atom the number of electrons equals the number of protons.
True: Ions are always charged.
False: Ions are formed when atoms lose or gain electrons.
False: If an atom loses electrons it becomes a positive ion.
True: An atom that has gained three electrons would now be an ion of charge 3.

11 The three allotropes of carbon are amorphous carbon, diamond and graphite.
12 a

35
1

Cl: 17p+, 17e, 18n

H: 1p+, 1e, 2n

3
1

198
79

Au: 79p+, 79e, 119n

13 The size and weight of elements increases as you move down any group.
14 a
b
c
d
e
f

+3
1
2
0
+2
3

15 a chlorine: chloride
b oxygen: oxide
c nitrogen: nitride
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1: The periodic table
d bromine: bromide
e sulfur: sulfide
16 Metals have the lowest electronegativity.
17 The potassium atom donates its sole outer-shell electron to the fluorine atom,
forming the ions K+ and F. These then attract each other and form the compound
KF.
18 The outer electrons control what an atom does in a chemical reaction because these
electrons are the ones that can be attacked by other atoms.
19 Carbon forms a molecule CCl4 so family resemblances suggest the compounds:
SiCl4, GeCl4, SnCl4 and PbCl4.

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2: Chemical change

Unit 2.1
1 A polyatomic ion is an ion made up of more than one atom. Examples are OH and
NO3.
2

a ammonium
b hydroxide
c sulfate

3 The dichromate ion Cr2O72 has 2 chromium atoms (Cr) and 7 oxygen atoms (O).
4

a Cu+ and Cu2+


b Fe2+ and Fe3+

a
b
c
d

Ni2+
Mn4+
Cr3+
V5+

a
b
c
d

rubidium bromide
potassium sulfide
beryllium oxide
sodium nitride

a
b
c
d

ammonium chloride
lithium hydroxide
silver carbonate
zinc sulfate

8 Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.


Covalent bonding is where non-metal atoms share electrons.
9

a carbon dioxide
b dinitrogen pentoxide
c sulfur hexafluoride

10 Gaseous carbon dioxide = CO2(g). Dry ice = solid carbon dioxide = CO2(s).
11 a The solvent is water.
b The solutes are carbon dioxide, sugar and flavourings. Carbon dioxide is
gaseous; sugar is solid. Flavourings could be solid or liquid.
12 a Unsaturated, concentrated solution
b Supersaturated solution
13 Solutions in which water is the solvent are called aqueous solutions.
14 Ammonia NH3 must have stronger bonds between molecules than dinitrogen
monoxide N2O5 because it takes more heat to melt solid ammonia.
15 The formula for the permanganate ion is MnO4.
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2: Chemical change
16 The technical name of the molecule commonly known as hydrogen peroxide, H2O2
is dihydrogen dioxide.
17 Dihydrogen monoxide = H2O (known to most as water).
18 a
b
c
d
e

NaBr
MgS
CaF2
Li3N
Al4C3

19 a
b
c
d
e
f

KOH
Na2SO4
Mg(OH)2
SrCO3
LiNO3
(NH4)2O

20 a
b
c
d

FeCl3
FeCl2
CuNO3
Cu(NO3)2

21 a +4
b +32
c 9
22 a 2 N, 8 H, 1 S, 4 O
b 2 K, 2 Cr, 7 O
c 1 Ca, 2 O, 2 H
23 a PH3
b OCl2
24 a CH3COO
b 1

Unit 2.2
1 Melting, cutting something up
2

a instant coffee in water, sugar in a cup of coffee, salt in a saucepan of vegetables


b ice melts, water freezes, perfume evaporates, dry ice (sold carbon dioxide)
sublimes

3 Various answers are possible e.g. burning gas in a stove, cooking, rotting vegetables
in the bin.
4

a physical
b chemical
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2: Chemical change
c
d
e
f
g

chemical
physical
physical
physical
chemical

5 Precipitation, gas produced, change in temperature, colour change, metal depositing


6

a
b
c
d
e
f

Yes, a precipitate has formed.


No, this is a change of state.
Yes, a gas is produced.
Yes, the temperature has changed.
Yes, the colour has changed permanently.
Yes, the iron has another metal deposited on it.

7 The reaction may be very slow.


8

a
b
c
d
e

endothermic
exothermic
endothermic
exothermic
endothermic

9 Dissolution is when a substance breaks apart in solution. Precipitation is when a


substance forms in solution.
10 The zinc atoms pass electrons to the copper(II) ions and solid copper forms on the
surface of the zinc.
11 a Reactants: what you start with
b Products: what is left at the end of a chemical reaction
12 Because atoms cannot disappear into thin air, nor can they appear from nowhere
13 To check if a chemical equation is balanced or not, you must count how many atoms
of each element are on both sides of the equation. If they are all the same, then the
equation is balanced. If any are different then the equation is unbalanced.
14 a Word equation: nitrogen + oxygen nitrogen dioxide
b Unbalanced chemical equation: N2 + O2 NO2
c Balanced chemical equation showing states: N2(g) + 2O2(g) 2NO2(g)
15 a

A lump of calcium reacted with a solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and


formed a solution of calcium chloride and bubbles of hydrogen gas.
b calcium + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + hydrogen
c Ca(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2(g)

16 Overall, no change has occurred. A reaction happened and then reversed itself.
17 Aluminium heating up and wax melting are physical changes. Soot is formed from a
chemical reaction as the candle burns.
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2: Chemical change
18
Formula
FeSO4

Number of Fe
1

Number of S
1

Number of O
4

2FeSO4

2Fe2(SO4)3

24

3FeSO3

4Fe2(S2O3)3

24

36

19 a
b
c
d

Balanced
Unbalanced
Balanced
Unbalanced

20 The missing product is most likely to be MgCl2, making the equation:


Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2.
21 The missing reactant is most likely to be H2S, making the equation Cl2 + H2S S +
2HCl.
22 a
b
c
d

2Mg + O2 2MgO
2H2 + O2 2H2O
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
2SO2 + O2 2SO3

23 a
b
c
d

2Fe + O2 2FeO
2Na + O2 Na2O
4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

24 a
b
c
d

zinc + silver nitrate zinc nitrate + silver


Zn + AgNO3 Zn(NO3)2 + Ag
Zn + 2AgNO3 Zn(NO3)2 + 2Ag
Zn(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Zn(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)

calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + carbon dioxide +


water
b CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

25 a

Unit 2.3
1 A combination reaction is one in which two or more substances join to form one, i.e.
they get together.
2 C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g)
3 A decomposition reaction is one in which one substance breaks down into two or
more different substances.
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2: Chemical change
4

a Mg(OH)2(s) MgO(s) + H2O(g)


b 2NaN3(s) 2Na(s) + 3N2(g)

5 Carbon dioxide is produced.


6 The solution turns cloudy.
7 lead nitrate + sodium chromate sodium nitrate + lead chromate
8 AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
9

a CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)


b 2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s)

10 Oxygen is always needed as a reactant in a combustion reaction.


11 A flame is produced or the reaction is accompanied by a release of energy (usually
heat).
12 A neutralisation is the reaction of an acid with a base.
13 An acid: hydrochloric acid HCl; a base: sodium hydroxide NaOH; a salt sodium:
chloride NaCl.
14 HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
15 Heartburn and indigestion are caused when there is more acid in your stomach than
the amount normally present for digestion. Antacids work by neutralising this excess
acid. They contain a base like magnesium hydroxide. This reacts with the excess
hydrochloric acid in your stomach to form salt, water and relief!
16 a Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
b Fe(s) + 3AgNO3(aq) Fe(NO3)3(aq) + 3Ag(s)
17 The reverse of a decomposition reaction would be a combination reaction.
18 When dynamite explodes, it is an example of a combustion reaction.
19 Barium phosphide, Ba3P2, would decompose into the elements barium (Ba) and
phosphorus (P).
20 It suggests that nickel is a more reactive metal than gold.
21 a
b
c
d

no
yes
no
yes

22 a
b
c
d

silver chloride
mercury(I) iodide
calcium carbonate
barium sulfate

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2: Chemical change
23 The main part of a head-on car crash is over by 100 milliseconds or one-tenth of a
second (0.1 s). An airbag takes three hundredths of a second (0.03 s) to inflate.
Hence the airbag is completely inflated well before the crash is over.
24 2C8H18(l) + 25O2(g) 18H2O(l) + 16O2(g)
25 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j

2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2


4P + 5O2 P4O10
3Fe + 4H2O Fe3O4 + 4H2
2H2 + O2 2H2O
2C3H6 + 9O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
2H2O2 2H2O + O2
2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2
Al2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH 2Al(OH)3 + 3Na2SO4
2Pb3O4 6PbO + O2
Cu + 4HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NO2

Unit 2.4
1 Fruits containing citric acid: oranges, lemons, grapefruit, mandarins, limes
2 An acid is a substance that contains hydrogen, where the hydrogen is capable of
breaking away. It can neutralise a base.
3 Properties of acids: turns blue litmus red, taste sour, conduct electricity when
aqueous
4 The dilute solution has a lower concentration of nitric acid.
5 A base is a substance that can neutralise an acid.
6 Properties of bases: taste bitter, turn red litmus blue and feel soapy
7

a Caustic: a base able to destroy living tissue such as flesh


b Alkali: a base that can dissolve in water

a
b
c
d
e

a blue/green
b blue
c blue

1 or below
3 to 7
7
7 to 11
13 and above

10 A solution at pH 7 contains less free hydrogen than a solution at pH 4.


11 a nitric acid + calcium calcium nitrate + hydrogen
b H2SO4(aq) + Mg(s) + MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)
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2: Chemical change
c

2HCl(aq) + Fe(s) + FeCl2(aq) + H2(g)

12 Use the pop test. A spark will cause a pop if enough hydrogen is present.
13 The reactants involved in a neutralisation reaction are always an acid and a base.
14 A salt is an ionic compound.
15 The pain of a sting from a jellyfish such as a bluebottle is caused by a base being
injected into you. Vinegar is a weak acid and will neutralise the base and the sting.
16 a
b
c
d
e
f

acid + metal hydroxide salt + water


HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
HNO3(aq) + LiOH(aq) LiNO3(aq) + H2O(l)
H2SO4(aq) + Li2O(s) Li2SO4(aq) + H2O(l)
2HNO3(aq) + Na2CO3(s) 2NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
H2SO4(aq) + 2CuHCO3(s) Cu2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

17 Bases feel soapy to touch because the oil in your skin has been turned to soap by the
strong base.
18 Acetic acid. If it is only slightly acidic it probably contains a weak base. Also, acetic
acid is used in food.
19 Vomiting brings strong stomach acid (hydrochloric acid) into contact with delicate
tissues that have no protection against the acid.
20 You could add an acid to the soil to lower pH.
21 Solution A needs to be diluted by a factor of 100. Adding 990 mL of water to the
10 mL will do this.
22 a
b
c
d

nitric acid + aluminium aluminium nitrate + hydrogen


nitric acid + zinc zinc nitrate + hydrogen
nitric acid + iron iron nitrate + hydrogen
nitric acid + lithium lithium nitrate + hydrogen

23 a barium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid


b calcium hydroxide + nitric acid
c iron(III) hydroxide + sulfuric acid (others also possible)
24 X = sodium hydroxide
25 a
b
c
d

strontium nitrate
copper sulfate
silver chloride
magnesium nitrate

26 a

hydrochloric acid + iron(II) hydrogen carbonate water + carbon dioxide +


iron(II) chloride
2HCl(aq) + Fe(HCO3)2(s) 2H2O(l) + 2CO2(g) + FeCl2(aq)

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2: Chemical change
b nitric acid + silver hydroxide water + silver nitrate
HNO3(aq) + AgOH(s) H2O(l) + AgNO3(aq)
c sulfuric acid + barium hydroxide water + barium sulfate
H2SO4(aq) + Ba(OH)2(aq) 2H2O(l) + BaSO4(s)

Chapter review
1 Any of the following: precipitate forms, temperature change, gas produced,
permanent colour change, one metal deposits on another
2 Energy must be put into the system to melt the ice so this change is endothermic.
3 solute = salt (NaCl), solvent = water
4 OH, SO42, CO32
5

a
b
c
d

dihydrogen monosulfide
phosphorus trifluoride
silicon dioxide
dihydrogen oxide

6 Covalently because there are only non-metals involved


7

a +1
b +2
c +3

a
b
c
d

hydrogen carbonate ion


iodide ion
sulfide ion
ammonium ion

9 Diatomic refers to molecules made up of only two atoms, like O2.


10 a combination
b neutralisation
11 A displacement reaction
12 Antacids contain bases.
13 a
b
c
d
e

base
base
acid
base
acid

14 a
b
c
d

red
red
orange/red
orange (actually pinky orange)
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2: Chemical change
15 Cleaning solutions = base, vinegar = acid (other answers possible)
16 Rain is physical since vapour in the air condenses to form liquid water. (Of course,
the formation of acid rain is chemical!)
17 Add indicator to one (red = acid, green = water, blue = base) and then add one of the
other solutions and observe the colour change to tell you which is which.
18 a LiOH
b BaSO4
c AlBr3
19 a Water, carbon dioxide and sodium chloride
b Water and calcium nitrate
20 Various, e.g. add indicator to one and it stays green and therefore is water. Pour one
of the others into this. If it turns red, the one poured in is the acid and therefore the
remaining one is the base.

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3: Light

Unit 3.1
1 Things that reflect light well enough to form clear images: mirrors, smooth surfaces
such as the panel of a car, polished cutlery, polished tables, highly glazed tiles, very
smooth surface such as a still lake or a sheet of ice.
2 The law of reflection is that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection or
i = r.
3 Diagrammatic answer required
4 Transparent objects allow light to pass through them.
5 Diagrammatic answer required
6 Refraction is the change in speed and the bending of light as it passes from one
transparent substance into another.
7 When light refracts it changes its speed and its direction.
8 The refractive index indicates how optically dense a substance is.
9

a
b
c
d
e

It bends towards the normal.


It bends away from the normal.
It bends towards the normal.
It bends away from the normal.
It travels unaltered and unbent along the normal.

10 Diagrammatic answer required


11 The critical angle of a substance is the angle at which light cannot escape from an
optically dense substance into a less optically dense substance. Instead it refracts
along the surface of the substance with an angle of refraction of 90o.
12 For total internal reflection to occur, light must be travelling into a substance which
has a lower optical density (e.g. glass to air); and have an angle of incidence greater
than the critical angle.
13 a It will skim along the surface of the substance (r = 90o).
b It will escape, refracting away from the normal.
c It will totally internally reflect at the same angle i = r.
14 A bike reflector uses refraction and total internal reflection to reflect light from a car
headlights.
15 For a mirage to occur there must be layers of air at different temperatures that will
behave like different substances as far a light is concerned. That is, they have
different optical densities.
16 The advantages of using optical fibre instead of copper wire for communications
are: thinner, cheaper, more durable, can carry more information, have increased data
security and are unaffected by other electromagnetic radiations.

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3: Light
17 Reflection is when light bounces off another substance. Refraction is when light
passes into another substance but is bent by it.
18 Reflection and refraction can occur at the same time, e.g. when light hits a glass
block both are often happening.
19 a microphone
b digital or video camera
c computer
20 a speaker
b television
c printer/photocopier
21 More fibres allow more light to be transmitted to and from the end of the endoscope.
Also, if one breaks or is scratched, the others will still operate.
22 Although your stomach does not contain a light source doctors can see inside it by
sending light through one or more optical fibres in the endoscope.
23 Optic fibres have a number of protective layers coating and wrapping them to
protect them from breaking, getting scratched or from being bent severely. Severe
bends would allow light to escape and not undergo total internal reflection.
24 a Diagrammatic answer required
b Diamond has the highest refractive index and so will bend light the most if it
was coming from air.
c Water has the smallest refractive index and so will bend light the least if it was
coming from air.
25 a It would bend towards the normal.
b It would bend towards the normal.
c It would bend away from the normal.
26 Diagrammatic answer required
27 The position of the image of the fish will always be shallower and further away
from her than in reality. She would therefore have to throw the spear in the direction
C if shallow water or D is deeper water.

Unit 3.2
1

a
b
c
d
e

convex (concavo-convex)
concave (plano-concave)
convex (bi-convex)
concave (plano-concave)
convex (plano-convex)

To find the focal length of a lens:


focus on something distant
find the position of its image
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3: Light

measure the distance from the lens to the image.

3 Diagrammatic answer required


4 Upright, magnified, virtual images are formed concave lens.
5

Convex lenses form:


real images when the object is distant, beyond the focus
virtual images when the object is close, between the lens and the focus
an unfocused blur when the object is at the focus.
a Greater thickness = shorter focal length (focus closer to lens)
b Greater thickness = smaller image

7 Enlarged: magnification = 3; diminished: magnification = = 0.25


8

a You cannot touch the image.


b What you see is a virtual image.
c The brain constructs the image by assuming that light is travelling in perfectly
straight lines and is not bent.

9 At the movies the images are projected onto the screen and can be touched. Hence
they are real.
10 Optical instruments that contain lenses: magnifying glasses, telescopes,
microscopes, binoculars, cameras, spectacles
11 You would use the thick lens for the eyepiece and the thin lens for the objective
lens.
12 a

They both provide magnified images of distant objects; they both contain an
eyepiece and an objective lens.
b Binoculars are shorter than telescopes; their objects are usually closer; their
images are upright whereas the image in a simple telescope is inverted.

13 If binoculars did not contain triangular prisms their images would be upside down,
and a longer tube would be needed to contain the lenses at the correct separation.
14 a

False: Real images formed by convex lenses may be bigger or smaller than the
original object.
b True: Virtual images formed by convex lenses are always bigger than the
original object.
c True: Concave lenses can form only virtual images.
d False: Images in a concave lens are always the right way up.
e False: Real images in a convex lens are always inverted.

15 When describing lenses plano means that one side is flat.


16 a A convex lens: converging
b A concave lens: diverging
17 The Moon is too far awayonly objects closer than two focal lengths are enlarged.
18 The hot spot on the paper is an image of the Sun.
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3: Light
19 An old-fashioned slide projector forms inverted real images on the screen. If the
slide is placed up-side down the image will appear upright.
20 a 6 2 = 3
b 20 5 = 4
c 5 25 = 15 = 0.2
d 4 16 =
e

1
4

= 0.25

Units first need to be converted here to the same units: 16 8 = 2.

21 Diagrammatic answer required


22 a

To correct long-sightedness, a convex lens would need to be placed in front of


the eye.
b To correct short-sightedness, a concave lens would need to be placed in front of
the eye.

Unit 3.3
1 Sources of white light: the Sun, reflected moonlight, light globes, torch,
fluorescent tubes, car headlights, lightboxes.
2 The colours of the visible spectrum: ROYGBIV, i.e. red, orange, yellow, green,
blue, indigo, violet
3 The name given to the splitting of white light into the visible spectrum is dispersion.
4 Scattering causes skies to be blue.
5 Sunlight needs to travel further through the atmosphere at sunset than in the day.
The distance is more.
6 Diagrammatic answer required
7 The primary rainbow is brighter, lower in the sky and has the red band at the top.
8

Because while there are a lot of rain droplets floating in the sky, the storm has
passed and the Sun emerges
b Because there a lot of fine water droplets in the air

9 The chemicals that make up the tiny coloured spots on a TV screen are called
phosphors.
10 a red, blue and green
b magenta, yellow and cyan
11 Complementary colours are two colours that add to make white.
12 a green light + magenta = white light
b cyan light + red = white light
13 Examples of a filter: coloured cellophane, stained glass, coloured glass, coloured
Perspex
14 Pigments are used to colour substances like paint and ink.
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3: Light
15 The primary colours of pigment are cyan, magenta and yellow.
16 a blue
b green
c black (technically, black is the absence of colour, not a colour)
17 The four inks used in a colour printer cartridge are CYMK: cyan, yellow, magenta
and black.
18 You would use magenta and yellow inks to print a red border in a book.
19 You could prove that white light is made up from the seven colours of the visible
spectrum by passing it through a triangular glass prism.
20 The energy absorbed by the filter goes into the particles that make it up, making
them vibrate a little faster. This increased vibration increases the temperature of the
filter.
21 The black car will heat up the quickest. Black absorbs all light colour and all of its
energy. This energy will heat up the car. White will reflect all this energy and stay
cooler.
22 The first three dots are cyan, magenta and yellow. The next three are combinations
of them. If one ink starts to run out then these dots will indicate which ink is
deficient.
23 C: Blue is more refracted than red.
24 Diagrammatic answer required
25 Diagrammatic answer required

Chapter review
1

When a light ray travelling in air strikes a glass boundary, it bends TOWARDS
the normal.
b The speed of ray in the glass is SLOWER than it is in air.

False: Light always bends when it enters a different substance unless it hits at
90o to the surface (along the normal).
b False: A virtual image cannot be projected onto a screen.
c True: Light can bend due to refraction within the one substance.
d False: Light passing from water to air will bend away from the normal.
e True: The apparent depth of a swimming pool is less than the real depth.

3 Optical fibres are used in communications cables, in endoscopes and in


endomicroscopes.
4 Diagrammatic answer required
5

a The only concave lens is lens e.


b The convex lenses are a, b, c, d and f.

orange
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3: Light
b blue
c violet
7

a one
b two

a cyan
b green

9 The two lenses in a basic telescope or microscope are called the eyepiece lens and
the objective lens.
10 a Projectors of all types, e.g. data projector
b Microscope, telescope, magnifying glass
11 Diagrammatic answer required
12 a
b
c
d

real, inverted, same size


real, inverted, diminished
virtual, upright, enlarged
virtual, upright, diminished

13 Diagrammatic answer required


14 The red light that is left to be scattered is scattered more dramatically by the greater
number of particles in the atmosphere.
15 Diagrammatic answer required
16 a A green flag viewed in blue light appears black.
b A blue flag viewed in red light appears black.
c A cyan flag viewed in green light appears green.
17 That part of the page would appear green.
18 The lemons would appear a reddish colour.

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4: Origin of the universe

Unit 4.1
1 The pitch of the cars horn will change from high to low.
2 The sound waves of the ambulance siren will spread evenly in all directions and its
wavelength will be the same in all directions. It is only when it is moving that the
sound waves scrunch up spread out.
3

a The pitch of a sound lowers if its wavelength gets longer or increases.


b The pitch of a sound gets higher if its frequency increases.
c The pitch of a sound gets lower if the source of the sound travels away from
you.

4 Light can be separated into different colours by passing it through a prism.


5 The colour of light will change if the wavelength changes.
6 Stars emit a spectrum of light and not just one colour.
7 Astronomers use a spectrometer to observe the spectrum emitted by a star.
8

The colour will shift towards the red end when the wavelength gets longer or
increases.
b The colour will shift towards the blue end when the frequency increases.

9 The dark lines observed in a stars spectrum are caused by atoms in the stars
atmosphere absorbing some frequencies of light.
10 If stars are moving away from us they will display a red shift.
11 The faster a star is moving away from us, the more its red shift will be.
12 Hubbles law states that the distant stars and galaxies are moving away from us and
that the further away they are, the faster they are going.
13 Most galaxies are moving away from us at an enormous rate, suggesting that the
universe is expanding.
14 Scientists concluded that all the matter in the universe was once packed closer
together by playing the expansion of the universe in reverse. If it is expanding it
had to expand from something.
15 Before the Big Bang, the universe fit inside a single point, far smaller than a proton.
16 Before the Big Bang, the density of the universe was incredibly and ridiculously
high. Just after the Big Bang, the universe was incredibly dense but far less than just
before. The universe is now spread far and wide and its density is extremely low.
17 Personal question required
18 Both aircraft will display the Doppler effect, but the fast-flying aircraft will display
it more. The change in its pitch will be far greater than the slower aircraft.
19 As a mosquito flies past your head at night its pitch will change from high (as it flies
towards you) to low (as it flies away).
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4: Origin of the universe
20 a A green light will appear green if it is not moving.
b A green light will appear yellow, orange or red if it moves incredibly fast away
from you (the exact colour will depend on its exact speed).
c A green light will appear blue, indigo or violet if it moves incredibly fast
towards you (the exact colour will depend on its exact speed).
21 a

If the circles represent sound waves. A represents the direction in which the
object is moving.
b A (and to a lesser extent B and H) would be where you hear a sound of a higherthan-normal pitch.
c E (and to a lesser extent D and F) would be where you hear a pitch lower than
normal.
d C and G would be the closest to normal pitch.

22 Diagrammatic answer required

Unit 4.2
1 The term singularity refers to the incredibly small point which then exploded to
form the universe.
2 The young universe suddenly inflated a fraction after it first exploded.
3 Protons and neutrons are made from quarks.
4

a Photon: a burst of light


b Quark: a type of particle that clumps together to form protons and neutrons
c Proton: the centre or nucleus of a hydrogen atom. Along with neutrons, protons
make up the nuclei of all atoms
d Isotope: another form of an element, in this case, an alternative form of
hydrogen

a A single proton
b One proton and one neutron
c Protons and two neutrons

6 The fog of the young universe began to clear once it cooled sufficiently to allow
electrons to slow down enough to be captured by hydrogen and helium nuclei to
form atoms and elements.
7 Penzias and Wilson initially thought that hissing signals they were getting from
space were due to interference from cities on Earth, faulty instruments or pigeon
poo.
8 Penzias and Wilson detected microwaves formed from the first photons of light
from the very edge of the universe.
9 COBE stands for the Cosmic Background Explorer satellite. In 1992 it mapped
background radiation and produced an image of the universe at age 300 000 years.

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4: Origin of the universe
10 a

Dark matter (left over subatomic particles from the Big Bang) drew the clouds
of gas together until they compacted enough to form galaxies. Stars formed
when smaller clouds of gas collapsed further.
b The baby planets or planetesimals had their own gravity and attracted other
material to them, allowing them to grow bigger.

11 The four main types of universe are: open, closed, flat and accelerating.
12 Gravity is a force that might be expected to slow or even stop the expansion of the
universe.
13 a

Dark energy is a mysterious cosmological force that somehow overrides


gravitational attraction, speeding up the expansion of the universe instead of
slowing it down.
b The big crunch is expected when all the expansion of the universe has halted
because of gravitational attraction. It then collapses into a series of black holes
that then would collapse into a single black hole.

14 The universe can be likened to an inflating balloon with an ant on it because to the
ant there is nothing outside or beyond the balloon.
15 The balloon is like a sphere. Its surface is continuous and there is no end to it. A
straight line on its surface is actually curved and forms the circumference of a circle.
Hence, an ant would arrive back where it started, even though it would think it was
getting further away from the start.
16 If matter and antimatter totally destroyed each other after the Big Bang there would
be nothing left; no stars, no planets, no life, no you!
17 If the universe started off spread evenly across, it would have been less likely to
collapse into the clumps that formed the first galaxies, stars and eventually planets.
It would probably still be an evenly spread mist of gas.
18 Stars make up most of the matter in the universe and are made of hydrogen and
helium. Even if every planet in the universe was made from silicon and oxygen like
Earth and the universe was teeming with carbon-based life forms, the amounts of
these elements would still be insignificant when compared with the matter making
up the stars.
19 All the matter that has ever existed came from the Big Bang, even you.
20 Pie chart showing the 77% hydrogen and 23% helium. Other elements are so
insignificant they might appear as a fine line
21 a E = 2 300 000 000 300 000 000 = 180 000 000 000 000 000 joules
b Note: 5 g must first be converted into kg.
E = 0.005 300 000 000 300 000 000 = 450 000 000 000 000 joules

Unit 4.3
1 Apart from the Sun, the closest star to Earth is Proxima Centauri, part of the binary
star Alpha Centauri.
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4: Origin of the universe
2 The rules of physics make it impossible for spacecraft ever be able to travel at or
near the speed of light.
3 Space travel is not an effective way to discover extraterrestrial life since it would
take far too long to get anywhere, with one-way trips taking tens of thousands of
years.
4 A UFO is an unidentified flying object. It applies to anything in the sky that cannot
be identified, whether it is a strange light, a strange weather phenomenon or a stray
weather balloon that doesnt show up on radar. Although a UFO could be an alien
spaceship, it is more likely to be something else!
5 Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light and so can reach distant stars
far quicker than any spacecraft.
6 Messages into space are sent using microwaves because there is less background
interference at that frequency than at other frequencies.
7 ET stands for extraterrestrial.
8 Jocelyn Bell had discovered a pulsar when she thought she had found evidence of
aliens.
9 Politicians are often reluctant to fund SETI projects because they think they are
ridiculous and/or too expensive.
10 a

ETs may not have received our signals from Earth; the signals have not yet
reached them; they are not intelligent enough or developed enough to detect
them or realise they are important; they might not be looking for them; there
arent any ETs out there.
b We have not received signals from ETs: their signals have not yet reached us;
we are not intelligent enough or developed enough to detect them or realise they
are important; there arent any ETs out there.

11 SETI stands for Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence.


12 Two radio telescopes used by Project Phoenix are at Parkes telescope in NSW and
the Arechibo telescope in Puerto Rico.
13 Personal opinion required. A broadcast of The War of the Worlds today probably
would not cause the panic it did in the USA in 1938 because of increased
scepticism, increased knowledge of the world and media and the ready access to
other media.
14 Personal opinion required
15 Personal opinion required
16 Some people were offended by the nude figures attached to the Pioneer 10 and
Pioneer 11 space probes.
17 Any message that refers to modern technology would be difficult to understand by
another earlier generation if it was beamed back in time.

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4: Origin of the universe
18 Switching off our transmitters now would not guarantee our safety from dangerous
ETs since messages have been sent for up to 80 years. Although these messages
have reached close stars like Proxima Centauri, they have not yet reached more
distant stars.
19 The bottom of the Pioneer plaque indicates our position in the solar system.
20 Personal design required

Chapter review
1

True: A Formula One cars screaming engine changes pitch from high to low as
it races past your position in the grandstand.
b False: Sound and all waves such as light can undergo a Doppler effect.
c False: Stars moving away from us may have a spectrum shifted towards the red
end.
d True: Stars further away from us are moving faster than those closer to us.
e False: The universe is expanding.

2 Nothing except for the singularity existed before the Big Bang. There was no
before since time had not started.
3 A positron will annihilate an electron if they meet.
4 The first two elements in the universe were hydrogen and helium.
5 The fog of the early universe began to clear when atoms started to form, about
300 000 years after the Big Bang.
6 Scientists think there must be dark matter in the universe because gravity would
not be enough to draw all of the particles together to form the galaxies and stars.
7 Three models of the future universe that assume gravity slows its expansion are the
closed, open and flat universe.
8 Distances for spacecraft or even electromagnetic radiation to travel; ETs might not
be intelligent enough or developed enough to detect the signal; there are no ETs out
there.
9 Several radio frequencies are checked for ET signals because it is not known on
what frequency any ET would transmit.
10 Interference on a mobile phone could be caused by other radiations such as
lightning.
11 Arguments for SETI: knowledge, ability to learn from them
Argument against SETI: may alert hostile ETs that we exist
12 Flow chart in order: singularity explodes/matter and antimatter formed/annihilation
of matter and antimatter/photons released/quarks clump together/formation of
hydrogen/formation of helium/formation of atoms and elements.
13 The lines showing pulsars are included on the plaque on the Pioneer space probes to
give some direction as to the location of our Sun.
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4: Origin of the universe
14 Personal questions required

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5: The fragile crust

Unit 5.1
1

False: Triassic reptiles could not have swum the distances required to populate
different continents.
b True: There are similar mountain ranges in the USA and Europe, and also in
Africa and South America.
c False: Many of the continents that do not have glaciers now were once cold
enough to have them.
d True: Coal deposits above the Arctic Circle suggest the land has floated there
from warmer climates.
e False: The rock of the ocean floor is much younger than that of the continents.
f False: Continental rock is less dense than the rock of the ocean floor and floats
on it.
g True: Magnetic stripes on the ocean floor suggest that new rock is made along
mid-ocean ridges.

2 Six pieces of evidence that suggest the continents were once joined are: the shape of
the continents; fossil remains of the same fern-like plants and Triassic reptiles; rock
formations in mountains on different continents; ancient glaciers; coal above the
Arctic Circle; and magnetism in ancient rocks.
3

a Gondwana: Australia, Antarctica, South America, Africa, India


b Laurasia: North America, Europe, most of Asia

4 The evidence that Australia once was far colder than it is now: valleys made by
glaciers; the remains of a small dinosaur called Leaellynasaura found near Apollo
Bay which had larger-than-normal optic lobes allowing it to see in the 24-hour
darkness of an Antarctic winter.
5 Five surprising facts about the ocean floor when it was first mapped were: huge
volcanic mountain ranges exist down the centre of the oceans; the rock of the ocean
floor is much younger than that of the continents; deep ocean trenches exist; the
rock of the continents is less dense than that of the ocean floor; the ocean floor has
magnetic stripes that indicate that the rock is of different ages.
6 The longest mountain range in the world is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, being
65 000 km long.
7 The ocean floor often has magnetic stripes because as the lava flows out of the midocean ridge it cools and solidifies; it adopts the magnetism of the Earth at that
moment; the magnetic field of Earth changes every now and then, forming stripes
of magnetism.
8 The rock of the ocean floor is like a conveyor belt in that it forms new rock at the
mid-ocean ridge and then transports it over many years into the trench and
subduction zone formed where the ocean plate hits and dives under the continental
plate.

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5: The fragile crust
9

Tectonic plate: sheet of crust, partly molten bottom and toplayer of mantle
that all shifts as one
b Mantle: molten rock under intense pressure and temperaturethe layer under
the crust
c Crust: Thin layer of solid rock that we live onthe skin of the Earth

10 The crust is 8 to 64 km thick.


11 The oldest rocks on the ocean floor are those closest to the trenches and the
youngest are next to the ridges.
12 Convection currents are caused by hot material rising and cooler material dropping.
13 Convection currents can take millions of years to cycle around the mantle.
14 The mantle is kept hot because the crust traps heat like a blanket; patches are
continually being heated by radioactive decay of uranium, thorium and potassium.
15 The theory of plate tectonics suggests that the Earths crust is made from a series of
rock plates that shift around on convection currents in the mantle.
16 The temperatures along the ridges are higher than elsewhere in the ocean because
this is where magma emerges and cools to become solid rock. This hot lava will heat
the water around it.
17 It would be impossible for coal to form in the Arctic or Antarctic now because it is
too cold there for the plants that make up coal to grow.
18 Diagrammatic answer required
19 Smoke rises up a chimney on a rising, hot, convection current of air warmed by the
fire.
20 If the mantle cooled and became solid, the plates would stop moving.
21 Another possible reason why Australia doesnt have any glaciers now could be
global climate change raising the temperature of the whole planet. Hence, Australia
could still be in the same position, but the climate would be too warm for glaciers to
exist.
22 If an average lifetime is 80 to 100 years, then the plate on which Australia sits will
move northward at between 5 80 = 400 cm to 5 100 = 500 cm per year. This is
equivalent to 4 to 5 metres.

Unit 5.2
1

a transform or scraping
b spreading
c collision

a conservative: transform or scraping (a)


b destructive: collision (c)
c constructive: spreading (b)

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5: The fragile crust
3 A fault is a weakness in the Earths crust.
4 A rift valley is the crack or valley caused by a fault.
5 Examples of rift valleys: East African Rift Valley, the Jordan Rift Valley holding
the Sea of Galilee, Dead Sea and Gulf of Aqaba.
6 The mid-ocean ridge constantly tries to heal itself, forming a rock scab that is the
ridge itself. Magma keeps breaking through the scab, however, oozing out and
forcing the repair to happen all over again.
7

a faster
b heavier
c ocean plate

8 A subduction zone is where one plate (usually the ocean plate) dives another
(continental) plate. Friction causes earthquakes along it and melts the rock. The
molten rock may have enough pressure to break the surface to form volcanoes.
9 The deepest underwater trench is the Mariana Trench, located in the western Pacific
Ocean. Its depth is 11 033 m.
10 Island chains created by the collision of two ocean plates: the islands of Japan,
Indonesia, the Philippines, the Caribbean and the Aleutians.
12 The Andes Mountains lie parallel to the Peru-Chile trench.
13 At a scraping or transform boundary, plates scrape along each other. These dont
make mountains or volcanoes but do produce lots of earthquakes, some very strong.
Although most of these boundaries are underwater, some are on land.
14 A major transform boundary is the San Andreas fault, which runs 1300 km through
California, USA, directly under San Francisco and close to Los Angeles (often
called LA).
15 a rock L
b rock E
c rock J
16 a
b
c
d
e
f
g

collision
spreading
collision
collision
collision
scraping
collision

17 a
b
c
d
e

spreading
transform
spreading
collision
spreading
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5: The fragile crust
f

spreading

18 Diagrammatic answer required


19 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

Himalayas: Indo-Australian plate with Eurasian plate


Andes: South American plate with Nazca plate
Mid-Atlantic Ridge: African plate with South- and North-American plates
Caribbean islands: North American plate with Caribbean plate
Japan: Pacific plate with Eurasian plate
Mariana Trench: Philippine plate with Pacific plate
San Andreas fault: Pacific plate with North-American plate
Dead Sea: Indo-Australian plate with African plate

20 Assuming an average lifetime of between 70 and 90 years, the Himalayas will grow
between 70 and 90 centimetres. If you reach 100, they will have grown 1 metre.
21 a A further 10 m will take 1000 years.
b A further 100 m will take 10 000 years.
c A further 1 km (1000 m) will take 100 000 years.
22 a

Mediterranean Sea: the Red Sea needs to widen another 260 km (500 240 km).
260 km = 26 000 000 cm. So the time taken would be: 26 000 000/20 =
1 300 000 years = 1.3 million years.
b Atlantic Ocean (6100 km): time = 29 300 000 years = 29.3 million years
c Pacific Ocean (14 000 km): time = 68 800 000 years = 68.8 million years

Unit 5.3
1 The friction between the plates is normally enough to stop movement of the plates
for a while. The plates are still pushing, however, and the pressure will build until it
overcomes the friction. Thats when the plates will move, suddenly.
2 The deepest the focus can be below the surface is 200 km.
3 A seismometer detects an earthquake. The graph it produces is called a seismograph.
4 Body: Primary (P) and secondary (S)
Surface waves: Rayleigh (R) and Love (L)
5 Refraction is what happens to waves as they change speed on entering a new
material.
6 Different densities and temperatures of the rock below the surface cause changes in
speeds of P and S waves and cause them to be bent or refracted.
7 S waves apparently do not pass through the Earths core since there is always a
shadow opposite the epicentre. S waves cannot pass through liquid, indicating that
the outer core must be liquid.
8 A single seismograph tells us how far away a quake is but gives no information
about its direction.

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5: The fragile crust
9 Scientists can predict how far an earthquake is away from them by measuring the
time difference between the arrival of the P and the S waves from an earthquake.
10 The two surface seismic waves are Rayleigh (R) and Love (L) waves.
11 Diagrammatic answer required
12 a

Body waves travel through the body of the Earth, while surface waves travel the
longer distance across the surface.
b The focus is the point underground where the quakes starts. It is the point of
slippage. The epicentre is the place on the surface directly above it.
c A longitudinal wave is a push-pull wave, and moves particles back and forth in
the direction of the movement of the wave. A transverse wave is an up-down
wave that moves particles at right angles, or sideways, to the direction of the
movement.

13 a P waves, sound
b S and L waves, water waves, light
14 Diagrammatic answer required
15 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i

L (and sometimes R)
S and L
P
P and S
P
L
R
R
S and L

16 The branch bends and stores a lot of energy. It gets to a point where it suddenly
breaks, releasing all of this stored energy suddenly. Earthquakes move and bend
rock and store energy as they do. They release all that energy when the quake
occurs, just like the broken branch.
17 All of Australia sits on the Indo-Australian plate. There are no major boundaries
running through it. Papua New Guinea and New Zealand both straddle the IndoAustralian and Pacific plates and sit on a boundary where earthquakes can be
expected.
18 a
b
c
d

2500 km
1300 km
2150 km
6350 km

19 If P and S waves arrive at the same time then you must be at the epicentre of the
quake (actually, you must be at the focus itself!).
20 a 7.8 min or 7 min 48 s
b 2.6 min or 2 min 36 s
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5: The fragile crust
c 5 min
d 1.6 min or 1 min 36 s
21
Arrival time
of P waves
(h:min:s)
10:24:00

Arrival time
of S waves
(h:min:s)
10:32:00

Time
difference
(min:s)
8:00

04:48:20

4:52:50

2:55:21 p.m.

Time (min)

Distance of
epicentre (km)

8.0

6200

4:30

30 60 = 0.5
so time is 4.5
min

2900

3:01:21 p.m.

6:00

6.0

4150

7:37:03 p.m.

7:42:33 p.m.

5:30

5.5

3700

14:08:34

14:11:46

3:12

3.2

1950

20:21:02

20:25:50

4:48

4.8

3150

05:45:10

05:50:10

5:00

5.0

3300

11:28:00

11:34:30

6:30

6.5

4650

08:08:56

08:12:56

4:00

4.0

2500

15:21:04

15:28:40

7:36

7.6

5800

22 a

The tectonic plates involved in the earthquake that triggered the 2004 Boxing
Day tsunami were Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates.
b The earthquake occurred at a collision boundary.

Unit 5.4
1 Three types of faults are normal, revere and transcurrent.
2 Diagrammatic answers required
3 If the rock that makes the fault scarp is hard, it will weather slowly. If soft, it will
weather quickly and will be carried away by erosion, leaving a rounded rise instead.
4 Australian examples of horst and graben are the Spencer and St Vincent gulfs in
South Australia.
5 Loch Ness is a Scottish lake that has filled part of a transcurrent fault.
6 A substance shows plastic behaviour if it can bend and fold without breaking.
7 Rock can act in a plastic way if it is under extreme pressure and temperatures,
typically found in folding.
8 Diagrammatic answer required
9 It is evident that the Himalayas were once below the sea because fossilised seashells
have been found high on Mt Everest.
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5: The fragile crust
10 Diagrammatic answer required
11 An igneous intrusion is solid rock formed when magma has cooled and solidified
below ground.
12 Hot spots are located under the Hawaiian islands (Pacific Ocean), Yellowstone
National Park (USA), Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), the Azores, the Canary
Islands, Cape Verde, Ascension Island, St Helena, Tristan de Cunha, Gough Island
and Bouvet Island (all in the Atlantic Ocean) and under Bass Strait.
13 The Hawaiian Islands in order from youngest to oldest: Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai
14 If the magma at a hot spot boils underground water, it can then force its way to the
surface as geysers, steaming lakes and mud pools.
15 Examples of fossils fuels: oil, petrol, kerosene, natural gas, coal
16 Intense heat and pressure is needed to convert kerogen into hydrocarbons. Weak
spots can provide these conditions. The other idea is that oil and gas would be
squeezed into the more porous rock that weak spots would provide.
17 Kerogen is a tar-like substance made from decomposed plant and animal matter. A
hydrocarbon is the actual chemical energy store in fossil fuel and is thought to have
come from cooking kerogen.
18 Shaking a can of soft drink builds up pressure in it. When its top is popped the
pressure is suddenly relieved by spraying liquid out from its top. A composite
volcano does something similar. Pressure builds until it pops its top, spraying lava
and ash everywhere.
19 Diagrammatic answer required
20 The mountains and volcanoes of New Zealand are both caused by the collision of
the Pacific with the Indo-Australian plates. Mountains have buckled up and
volcanoes have formed from the subduction zone.
21 Evidence that the Hawaiian Islands are moving westwards: the oldest island Kauai is
in the far west; the youngest Hawaii is in the far east; a new underwater volcano,
Loihi, is forming east of Hawaii; volcanic activity is only under Hawaii and Loihi.
22 The natural gas reserves of Bass Strait would be expected to be about longitude
40S due to the weakness caused by a hot spot. Because the Indo-Australian plate is
moving north the reserves may be a little north of 40S.
23 a Diagrammatic answer required
b Layer K was laid down first, followed by J, I, H, G, F, E and D on top. All were
laid flat. Pressure folded the layers upwards, forming an upward fold or
anticline. Erosion removed the top of the fold, until D and E were nearly worn
away. The erosion left the surface flat once more. Sediment laid new layers: C
first, then B and A on top.

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5: The fragile crust

Chapter review
1 A map of the world in the future will be different from what it is now because all of
the plates and their continents are shifting. Some will join, others will part, some
will slide along each other.
2 The mysteries of the ocean floor were discovered only in the 20th century with the
invention of sonar and the need for good ocean-floor maps in World War II.
3

The north poles of ancient rocks that are magnetic all point in different
directions. When the continents are pieced together the north piles all point in
the same direction, suggesting the continents have shifted and twisted.
b Magnetic stripes exist parallel to the mid-ocean ridges. The stripes closest to the
ridges are the newest and the ones further out are older, suggesting that they are
moving away from the ridges and towards the trenches.

4 Convection currents push the rock of the mantle around. The bottoms of the plates
are partially molten or soggy and will be carried with the mantle as it moves
underneath them.
5 Magma is molten rock full of gas (mainly steam). Its density is less than the
surrounding rock and so it will push upwards through the covering tectonic plate.
6 The ocean floor is like a conveyer belt as it carries the newly created rock from the
mid-ocean ridges across the ocean towards the trenches.
7 The longest mountain ridge (about 65 000 km long) is down the middle of the
Atlantic. The highest is the Himalayas on the border of India and China/Tibet.
8 Dense materials sink and lighter materials float. The rock of the continental plates is
less dense than the rock of the ocean plates. The continents thus will float on the
ocean floor, and the ocean plate will sink under the continent.
9 Plate boundaries are where plates separate, collide or scrape over each other.
Friction will occur and will stop movement until the pressure is sufficient to
overcome the friction. When it does, the plate slips and an earthquake results.
10 The subduction zone is completely molten 200 km below the surface.
11 Primary, secondary, Raleigh and Love waves are all detected by the seismometer.
They are in the order P first, S next and R and L basically together and last.
12 Diagrammatic answer required
13 a S and L
b P
c R
14 Diagrammatic answer required
15 Three different ways mountain ranges can form are: continent/continent collision,
forming folded mountains; volcanic action at plate boundaries or hot spots; normal
faults create horst and graben which can erode into mountain ranges and basins.

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5: The fragile crust
16 A fault is a weak spot or break in the crust along which the crust can move in an
earthquake. There is no break in the crust when folded. The crust buckles instead of
breaking and shifting.
17 A cinder cone has steeper sides than a shield volcano because it is simply a pile of
rock. The pile will build until the rock begins to tumble further down the slopes. A
shield volcano is made from cooled lava. Being molten it will spread further than
solid rock.
18 The mantle is solid but still able to move due to the extreme pressures and
temperatures there. Other solid substances that can move are plasticine, clay and
mud.
19 The Earth is like toast on soup in that both have slabs of moving solid crust floating
on a hot, thick liquid.
20 All the current continents were part of Pangaea. Hence, it is literally all the lands. Its
babies are Gondwana and Laurasia.
21 The theory of continental drift assumes that only the continents are shifting. The
theory of plate tectonics involves much larger slabs of rock (which also carry the
shifting continents).
22 The temperature near the ceiling of a room is always hotter than at floor level
because of convection currents. The warmer air rises and the cooler air drops: the
temperature will increase as you go higher in the room.
23 One easy way of remembering what P, S, R and L waves do is P = push/pull, S =
shake, R = roll, L = leftovers!

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6: Ecosystems

Unit 6.1
1 Looking for food, looking for a mate, building a home, digesting food, growth,
repairing injuries, etc.
2 The Sun provides the initial source of energy for all ecosystems.
3 The Sun is the source of all energy: it releases light and heat.
4

a
b
c
d

false
true
false
false

5 Photosynthesis is the name of the process that all ecosystems rely on in order to
survive.
6 Molecules that are unused by an organism are excreted.
7 Reasons animals need to move around include looking for food, looking for a mate,
evading predators, looking for building materials for a nest, or looking for an
appropriate home, moving to warmer / cooler spots to control temperature
(ectotherms).
8 Movement energy = kinetic energy
9 Between 5% and 20 % is used for growth and development.
10 The Law of Conservation of Mass
11 Recycling is a term used to describe the re-using of substances.
12 From fewest to most: fish, tadpoles, algae. This is because algae are producers and
fish are the final consumers in this chain.
13 The number of organisms able to be supported at each successive level of the food
chain decreases.
14 a

After a week: plants would start to suffer, some would die. Various insects etc.
would start to die.
b After a year: plants would be dead, as would any animals that did not have stores
of food.

15 Large, fierce predators require large quantities of energy. An ecosystem is unable to


support many of these, because they must eat large numbers of the consumers that
come before them in the food chain.
16 If a consumer has only one food source, the eradication of that food will also
adversely affect that consumer. With numerous food sources, however, this is not
the case.
17 a The producer is the algae.
b The Sun

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6: Ecosystems
c

First order-consumer is the water snail; second-order consumer is the small fish;
third-order consumer is the large fish and fourth-order consumer is the shark
d The arrows point in the direction the food is moving.
18 a
b
c
d

Various answers, but numbers range from many seaweed to fewest man
Energy is lost from the man in the form of heat.
The producer is seaweed.
First-order consumer is the small crustacean; second-order consumer is the
lobster; third-order consumer is the octopus and the fourth-order consumer is the
man

19 a

It is possible that the first-order consumer eats one form of the life cycle (a
larvae for example) of the third-order consumer, which is a predator of itself.
b Yesby eating one of the life forms of its predator, the first-order consumer can
control the number of predators it has, thereby assisting its own survival.
c This predator would be a carnivore in this situation.
d There are only three levels of consumer because the amount of energy passed on
from one level to the next reduces each time. Thus, a large number of the
preceding level of organism needs to be eaten by those higher up the food chain.
Ecosystems cannot support more than approximately three levels of consumer.

20 Graph A shows the endothermic animalits temperature is constant over the course
of the day. Graph B is that of the ectothermic animalits temperature varies over
the course of the day.
21 Figure A is likely to be from a wheat fieldbecause of the large number of
producers. Figure B is likely to be a eucalypt forestfew numbers of producers.
22
Animal
Human

Body temp
o
C
37

Relies on
Sun (Y/N)
N

Endothermic
or ectothermic
ENDO

Poikilothermic or
homeothermic
H

Cat

38.5

ENDO

Dog

39

ENDO

Snake

1537

ECTO

Grasshopper

38.642.2

ECTO

Pigeon

41

ENDO

Lizard

3135

ECTO

Fish (trout)

1218

ECTO

Unit 6.2
1 Living matter is made up of the four basic elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and
nitrogen.

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6: Ecosystems
2 Biotic refers to the living environment; abiotic to the non-living environment.
3 Only about 1% of water is available for the use of organisms on Earth.
4 Heat energy causes water to evaporate. The Sun is the source of this energy.
5 The watertable refers to the surface of the underground water.
6 Carbon is found in the structural components of all living organismsas a part of
all cell structures (in the lipids of all cell membranes, for example).
7 Carbon exists in the atmosphere as part of the gas carbon dioxide.
8 Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2. It uses the energy from the Sun.
9 Carbon is returned to the atmosphere primarily through respiration of living
organisms, including the decomposers (decomposition).
10 a Removal of trees that would absorb carbon dioxide
b Industrial wastes (pollutants)
c The burning of petrol in vehicles releases pollutants.
11 Nitrogen fixation is the name of the process that makes nitrogen available to the
ecosystem.
12 Nitrogen is taken up by plants as nitrates.
13 Nitrogen is returned to the environment as ammonia, via urine and faeces.
14 Biotic: leaf, algae, bacteria, grass, human, egg, leaf, mouse
Abiotic: water, soil, air, rock, cloud, temperature, humidity
15 N2 is an inorganic molecule. It does not contain the element carbon.
16 a
b
c
d

true
false (all need water)
true
true

17 If all the decomposers suddenly disappeared there would not only be dead bodies
everywhere, but none of the matter making up their bodies would be returned to the
ecosystem.
18 The green pigment chlorophyll is instrumental in the process of photosynthesis. In
dark situations, more chlorophyll is needed so that every bit of available light is
made use of. In light situations, this is not as necessary.
19 a
b
c
d
e

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus


47% of the Earths crust is oxygen.
This is approximately 19% less than that found in the human body.
Silicon is the second most abundant element in the Earths crust.
Hydrogen: 8% Earths crust; 10% human body
Nitrogen: 1.3% Earths crust; 3% human body

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6: Ecosystems

Unit 6.3
1 Non-renewable resources are those that have a limited supply, and cannot be
replaced once used.
2 These include fossil fuels, nuclear power and timber.
3 Decomposers require aerobic conditions in order to decompose organic material.
4 Heat, pressure and time are required for organic material to become coal.
5 Fossil fuels are non-renewableso when they are gone, they cannot be replaced.
They also release pollutants into the atmosphere when they are refined or used.
6 In a nuclear fission reaction, the nucleus of an atom (i.e. uranium) is bombarded
with free neutrons, causing it to split, thereby releasing more neutrons and
enormous amounts of energy. These neutrons are then free to bombard more
uranium nuclei, thereby releasing even more neutrons and more energy.
7 Problems associated with nuclear fission reactions include: the release of such
enormous amounts of energy that regulation and control of this energy is at present,
impossible; the production of radioactive wastes that are difficult to handle.
8 A renewable resource is one that is constantly being renewed and limitless.
9 Five resources that are renewable and currently being used are: wind turbines, solar
ponds, ocean currents, hydroelectricity and geothermal energy.
10 a

In a deep pool, sunlight passes through the water and is ABSORBED by the
base and sides, gradually warming them.
b CONVECTION currents are produced throughout the pond as the warmer water
RISES.
c The water then cools, and SINKS to the BOTTOM.
d This cycle continues until the temperature of the pond is uniform throughout.

11 Solar cells convert light energy to electrical energy.


12 The process that allows electricity to be generated from a geothermal hot spot is:

Water is pumped below the ground.

This water gets heated to boiling point, thereby producing steam.

The steam rises.

A turbine uses the energy of the steam to create electrical energy.

13 Countries that use geothermal energy include New Zealand, Russia, Iceland and
others.
14 The length of the blade and the speed of the wind influence how much energy is
produced by a wind turbine.
15 The disadvantages of this type of energy production include: limited practicability,
only places that are relatively windy are candidates for this, wind turbines are not
aesthetically pleasing, wildlife, in particular birds, are put at risk.
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6: Ecosystems
16 Students should show:

a wide river flowing from a short height

a narrow river flowing from a tall height.

17 One of the following:

OTEC or Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. Here, warm ocean water is


pumped through a pipeline and is used to heat fresh water to boiling point. The
steam produced generates electricity.

Osmotic pressure. Osmosis is the movement of water from a low salt solution
(such as freshwater) to a stronger salt solution (such as seawater) through a
semipermeable membrane. This membrane allows some molecules to pass
through it (in this case water), but prevents the movement of other particles (salt).

Wave generators. Here, waves are forced into a narrow gully, causing the air
above them to rise and fall. This movement of air passes through a turbine to
produce electricity.

Tides. The daily movement of the tides is the only known renewable resource
that is totally predictable. In this case, a barrier (such as a dam) is placed across a
bays entrance so that the incoming tide turns a turbine located within the dam.
The water that is trapped behind the barrier at high tide is slowly released during
low tide, once again flowing through the turbine to produce electricity.

18 By coppicing, the roots of the tree are kept intact, preventing erosion. The canopy is
also more quickly replaced, providing food and habitat for other organisms.
19 The conversion of waste products from agricultural crops (such as sugar cane, corn,
rice and wheat, and oil-bearing crops such as sunflowers) into fuels, such as ethanol
and bio diesel
20 The 3 Rs are Reduce; Reuse; Recycle.
21 More modern technology advances (computers, DVDs, VCRs, MP3s etc.) mean that
modern society uses a far greater diverse number of energy users.
22 Various answers
23 Wind farming refers to the large-scale use of wind turbines to generate electricity.
24 Previously, these hot and dry areas must have been highly vegetated (indicating a
plentiful water supply), as fossil fuels would not be found there otherwise.
25 Various answers taken from text

Chapter review
1

a Correct
b Energy that is derived from molten rocks beneath the surface of the Earth is
called GEOthermal energy.
c ENDOTHERMIC animals use most of their energy to maintain a constant body
temperature.
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6: Ecosystems
d Correct
2 Photosynthesis: carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen (in the presence of
sunlight)
CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2 (in the presence of sunlight)
3 A semipermeable membrane is one that allows some things to pass through it, but
not others. Size is the determining factor.
4 Joules is the unit energy is measured in.
5 Wombats maintain a constant body temperature, using the food they eat as the fuel.
6 Energy can be lost from an organism as heat; as sound; as movement.
7 Lightning is an essential factor in returning atmospheric nitrogen to the environment
in a useable form.
8 Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are the basic building blocks of life.
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are involved in the structure of carbohydrates, lipids,
fats and oils. These three elements, together with nitrogen, form proteins and nucleic
acids.
9 Matter is not being continually produced, thus it is important that it is able to be
recycled. It is then able to become part of new organisms.
10 A renewable resource is one that is not limited in supply; non-renewable resources
are.
11 Various answers
12 Those that are endothermic cost the most to feed. This is because they need a
constant fuel supply to maintain their body temperature.
13 Ectothermic pets must be provided with a place to keep both warm and cool. Thus
there is an additional cost involved in heating a portion of their enclosure.
14 Various answers
15 Bacteria are major contributors to the decomposition of dead matter. Without their
ability to recycle nutrients, the ecosystem would soon be unable to support plant
life, which provides the initial link in all food chains.

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7: Photosynthesis and respiration

Unit 7.1
1 The main purpose of respiration is to provide energy for all cell activities.
2 The reactants of aerobic respiration are glucose and oxygen.
3 C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
4 Enzymes are called biological catalysts because they speed up reactions without
being used up themselves.
5 Diagrammatic answers required
6

a ATP
b ATP serves as the energy source for all cell activities.

7 Possible uses of energy in cells: making molecules; transport of substances;


transmission of messages.
8 Anaerobic respiration is the process through which energy is obtained from glucose
but without using oxygen.
9 In animals: C6H12O6 2C3H6O3 + energy
In yeast: C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy
10 a

Anaerobic respiration in muscle cells produces lactic acid. This acid is removed
from the cells into the bloodstream.
b Lactic acid is removed by a reaction which produces pyruvate.

11 You keep breathing heavily even after you have stopped running to provide oxygen
to convert and break down lactic acid.
12 Industrial uses of the anaerobic respiration of yeast: wine-making and bread-making
13 The carbon dioxide produced by the anaerobic respiration of yeast causes the
bubbles in champagne.
14 Aerobic respiration produces much more energy than anaerobic respiration.
15 Substances glucose can be obtained from:
some foods and drinks that actually contain glucose, e.g. sport drinks and
Glucogen are often high in glucose
the breakdown of starchy foods in the diet
the conversion into glucose of a substance called glycogen, which is stored in
the liver
the conversion into glucose of fat
the conversion into glucose of protein.
16 a

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimum energy on which your body can
survive.
b Factors on which BMR depends: age, sex, size and state of health. It changes
throughout your life.

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7: Photosynthesis and respiration
17 Heart beat, breathing, repair of tissues
18 Respiration can be called slow combustion because it is the same reaction as
combustion (fuel plus oxygen), but energy is released stepwise and slowly.
19 The change of shape means the enzyme and reactant cannot lock together.
20 The first source of glucose is food. The next are the stores, fat and then muscle
(protein). Once food is not supplied, a person will then convert body fat into glucose
and then energy. When all fat is used, the body will then start to convert protein
(muscle).
21 From the information, white muscle fibres have readily available stores of energy,
available quickly. Red muscle fibres release their energy more slowly and are
therefore better for endurance.
22 a
b
c
d
e

respiration
glucose and oxygen
carbon dioxide and water
colourless
milky

Unit 7.2
1

a
b
c
d
e

The diaphragm contracts.


The chest cavity enlarges.
Ribs are raised.
Intercostal muscles contract.
Pressure in the chest cavity decreases.

2
Structure
Trachea

Function
Carries air to and from the lungs

Epiglottis

Prevents food from entering the trachea

Nose

Filters, warms and humidifies air

Cilia

Removes foreign particles from the lungs

Alveolus

The site of gas exchange

a larynx and epiglottis


b Coughing occurs.

a
b
c
d
e
f

nasal cavity
epiglottis
trachea
bronchus
larynx
alveoli
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7: Photosynthesis and respiration
g diaphragm
h intercostals
5

a
b
c
d

trachea
carries air to and from the lungs
alveoli
the site of gas exchange between air and blood

a alveoli
b It allows a maximum rate of gas diffusion.

7 Features needed for effective gas exchange: high surface area, a thin, moist surface
and a means of transporting gases to and from cells.
8

Haemoglobin is found in red blood cells.

9 The function of haemoglobin is to carry oxygen from the lungs to body cells.
10 It is necessary for larger animals to have a respiratory system because gases cannot
diffuse efficiently to all body cells in the required amounts.
11
Structure
Skin and lungs/bloodstream

Organism
Frog

Gills/bloodstream

Fish

Moist body surface/bloodstream

Earthworm

Lungs/bloodstream

Lizard

Body surface/no circulatory system

Single-celled amoeba

Air filled tubes/no bloodstream

Insect

12 It is better to breathe through your nose than through your mouth because the nose
filters, warms and humidifies the incoming air. The mouth does not do this.
13 a

To provide more oxygen for your cells, particularly your muscles cells, so that
you can move
b To provide more oxygen for your cells, particularly your muscles cells, so that
you can move IF YOU HAVE TO

14 a
b
c
d

about the same


less
greater
greater

15 a
Apparatus
Plastic tube

Body part
Trachea

Balloons

Lungs

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7: Photosynthesis and respiration
Bell jar

Chest

Rubber floor

Diaphragm

b The space enlarges, causing pressure to drop, so air flows in.


c Bell jar walls are fixed. Our ribs move upwards and outwards.
16 a The gas that diffuses in the direction of A to B: oxygen.
b This gas joins to haemoglobin when it enters a red blood cell.
c This joining is important because haemoglobin allows more oxygen to be carried
than would be if it simply dissolved in the blood.

Unit 7.3
1

a The two reactants in photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water.


b Energy from sunlight and the green pigment chlorophyll are also needed for
photosynthesis to occur.
c The two products of photosynthesis are sugar glucose and oxygen.

Chlorophyll traps light energy.

3 Chloroplasts containing enzymes are needed.


4 Light energy is changed into chemical energy during photosynthesis.
5 Photosynthesis is essential for all living things to supply the chemical energy (in the
form of glucose) that they need and to replace the oxygen used during respiration.
6 Chloroplasts are structures found within the cells of plants. They contain the green
pigment chlorophyll, which acts something like a solar cell trapping light energy
and converting it to another form.
7 Ways in which the glucose formed during photosynthesis may be used by the plant:

directly into energy via respiration

into cellulose for building plant cell walls

into other sugars for transport to various parts of the plant

into substances used for producing oils and proteins

into starch for temporary storage in the leaf. This would happen on sunny days
when photosynthesis might occur up to ten times faster than respiration.

8 On a sunny day the photosynthesis rate would be far higher than the respiration rate
of a plant.
9

Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction and, like most chemical reactions, its rate is
faster at higher temperatures.

10 Above 30oC there may not be sufficient carbon dioxide or sufficient sunlight
(unlikely); stomata will close to retain moisture in the plant (refer to Unit 7.4).
11 Ways in which photosynthesis is carried out by green sulfur: bacteria use hydrogen
sulfide not water, produce sulfur not oxygen, use a pigment other than chlorophyll.
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7: Photosynthesis and respiration
12 Chemosynthetic bacteria use energy from a chemical reaction rather than the light
energy used by plants.
13 a 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
b C6H112O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
14 It is not true to say that respiration is simply the reverse of photosynthesis. The two
processes are far more complex than the equations suggest, using a different
sequences of steps, different enzymes and occurring in different locations.
15 a H2O + light energy O2 + H+ + ATP
b CO2 + H+ + ATP C6H12O6
c Stage one requires light.
16 At night time the plant has no sunlight to power its photosynthesis and so this
reaction drops to zero as it gets darker. The plant still needs to run its respiration to
provide its cells with energy.
17 a starch
b no blue/black colour
c This result would be expected because no photosynthesis occurs because no
carbon dioxide is available.
d It was necessary to keep the plant in the dark for 2 days to remove any
previously stored starch.
18 a photosynthesis
b More light energy is available, so a greater rate of photosynthesis occurs.
c For example, higher carbon dioxide level, higher temperature
19 a
b
c
d

oxygen
glowing splint test
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 (chlorophyll and light needed)
More gas would be produced by the larger plant mass.

Unit 7.4
1 This aids photosynthesis by allowing maximum exposure to sunlight.
2

a It prevents water loss and protects from bacterial and fungal invasion.
b It does not allow gases to diffuse through it.

a Water via xylem cells; carbon dioxide by diffusion through stomata


b Glucose via phloem cells; oxygen by diffusion through stomata

a
b
c
d
e

stomata
epidermal cell
cuticle
air space
xylem vessel
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7: Photosynthesis and respiration
f chloroplast
g palisade cell
h mesophyll cell
5 stomata
6 Guard cells change shape to close the stomata.
7
Structure
Epidermis

Function
Outer layer of cells of the leaf

Cuticle

Waxy, waterproof covering of the leaf

Stomata

Allow gases to enter and exit the leaf

Guard cells

Control the size of openings in the leaf

Mesophyll cells

Loosely packed cells with air spaces between them

Palisade cells

Tightly packed cells containing large numbers of


chloroplasts

Xylem cells

Specialised water-conducting cells

a green
b red and blue

9 This is necessary because some light is absorbed by water.


10 The yellow and orange colours typical of autumn leaves are due to accessory
pigments which have become visible when chlorophyll is broken down.
11 a

Less surface area and therefore less water loss. No great need for high surface
area because the areas in which these plants grow is typically very sunny.
b Gum leaves have less exposure to Sun and therefore do not lose as much water.
c Less chlorophyll needed because it is typically sunnier than North America.
d Photosynthesis would virtually shut down in a cold climate winter. Keeping the
leaves on would simply need more energy. The trees go into hibernation.

12 a X, the palisade cells as they have a higher concentration of chloroplasts.


b Oxygen produced by photosynthesis (occurs faster than oxygen use by
respiration).

Chapter review
1

a C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy


b Provides energy for all cell activities

a To catalyse reactions
b Each enzyme catalyses only one type of reaction. There are many types of
reactions, so many enzymes are needed.

Respiration (energy release) without oxygen


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7: Photosynthesis and respiration
b Human muscle cells and yeast cells
c Energy remains locked in the product molecules.
4

a Basal metabolic rate (BMR)


b Differs with age and sex
c Heart beat, breathing and tissue repair

a
b
c
d
e
f

a 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 (chlorophyll and light needed)


b Converts light energy to the chemical energy needed by all living things.
Replaces the oxygen used in respiration.

a Light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature


b More light provides more energy. Carbon dioxide is a reactant. Increasing
reactant concentration increases rate. Higher temperatures usually mean faster
reactions.

i
v
iv
iii
ii and vi
vi

8 For respiration and for conversion to other substances such as starch and cellulose.
9 Chemosynthetic bacteria also convert carbon dioxide and water to glucose and
oxygen, but use energy from a chemical reaction rather than light energy.
10 a starch
b glycogen
11 a
b
c
d
e

photosynthesis
cell activities
chlorophyll
respiration
ADP

12 a
b
c
d
e
f
g

vii
iv
i
v
ii
vi
iii

13 a Inhaled air has more oxygen, less carbon dioxide and less water vapour.
b Gas exchange in the lungs takes oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. Air
passages moisten the air, so water vapour rises.

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7: Photosynthesis and respiration
14 a 1. Thin moist surface 2. Large surface area 3. Lie close to the circulatory system
b 1. For efficient diffusion of gases 2. For maximum rate of diffusion 3. To
transport gases to cells
15 Plants photosynthesise during the day and respire at all times of the day and night.
16 The stages in each process are not the reverse of each other. The enzymes involved
in each process are different.
17 Refer to the comparison table on page 208 of Science Dimensions 3.
18 a Water levels, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature
b Plant C because red light is most strongly absorbed by chlorophyll. More light
means more photosynthesis.
19 a C and D
b B, C and D
c Brespiration occurring to produce carbon dioxide (no photosynthesis to lower
carbon dioxide)
d Dphotosynthesis occurring to produce oxygen (little respiration to lower
oxygen)

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8: Responding and controlling

Unit 8.1
1 Many answers are possible, e.g. stimulus = dog sees you; response = dog wags tail.
2
Stimulus
A very cold wind

Response
Goosebumps, shivering, pale complexion as
blood leaves the skin, wanting to stomp your
feet and rub your hands together, putting on
more clothes, move to a place out of the wind

Bad smell, lots of dust in the air, shes


diving underwater, nose is blocked

Emily pinches her nose

A bus sounds its horn

Jump, scream, shift, look around at the bus

Heat, shirt is smelly and needs a wash

Reuben takes off his shirt

The smell of sausages on the BBQ

Sniff the air, salivate, stomach grumbles,


move towards the BBQ

Tiredness, late at night, boring movie

Patrick yawns

A salty meal

Stop eating, complain, pull a face, drink


water

Loud noise, horror movie, sudden


disturbance

Alison screams

3 Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment despite changes


in the surroundings. Homeostasis is necessary because cells only work efficiently if
levels of substances such as glucose and water are kept reasonably constant and
within certain limits.
4 water, glucose, carbon dioxide
5

a 37oC
b 7.38

6 A receptor detects a stimulus such as heat. An effector brings about a response such
as movement of a hand away from the heat.
7
Receptor
Cells of the retina

Stimulus
Light

Cells of the inner ear

Sound

Taste buds

Chemicals

Osmoreceptors in the brain

Water levels

Semicircular canals in the ear

Gravity

Thermoreceptors in the skin

Heat

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8: Responding and controlling
8 Feedback is when a response changes the original stimulus in some way.
Coordination is when a number of systems respond to the stimulus.
9

a Bark back, snarl, attack, retreat away or wag tail if not perceived as a threat
b Bark back or snarl: this could be perceived as a threat so likely responses are to
bark louder or attack, or quieten down or wag tail (because it sees the other dog
as more powerful or an equal)
Retreat: perception that the other dog is weaker. This might trigger further attack
or the first dog ignoring the weaker dog
c The dogs could become friends, wag tails and play or it could escalate into a
fight.

10 a
b
c
d

The receptors which detected this increase are located in the large arteries.
The coordinating centre receiving messages is the brain.
The structures that would act as effectors are the diaphragm and chest muscles.
The likely response would be an increased breathing and heart rate.

11 The different responses you coordinate when stepping barefoot onto hot sand at the
beach are: running quickly and lightly, making funny faces, making ouch sounds
and seeking cooler, shaded areas.
12 Alcohol slows the operation of the stimulus-response model because it slows the
time taken for the driver to respond to the stimulus (the emergency).
13 Drivers over 70 years of age now need driving tests before they can renew their
licences because older people generally take longer to respond to the stimulus (the
emergency).
14 Likely responses from the child are: fear, screams and crying or excitement, smiles,
and trying to touch the dog. Likely further responses from the dog are fear, barking,
snarling and biting or excitement, wagging its tail and licking the childs face.
15 a The stimulus for the teacher was the students unsafe behaviour.
b Possible responses from the teacher are to deal with the safety issue first,
explanation of correct procedure or could be shouting, issuing of detention,
instructions to leave the class.
c Depending on the student, their responses might be to say sorry, leaving the
room, slamming the door or shouting at the teacher.
d Apologising to the teacher might be feedback from the student that would calm
the teacher.
e Shouting at the teacher is feedback that probably would anger the teacher even
more.
16 Various responses
17 i = stimulus, ii = receptor, iii = relay, iv = coordinating centre, v = relay, vi =
effector, vii = response, viii = feedback
18 Diagrammatic answer required similar to Figure 8.1.2

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8: Responding and controlling
19 a

The initial stimulus is the sudden drop in temperature. Initial responses are
shivers and putting on the coat. Other possible responses are goosebumps and
moving around to warm up.
b The feedback after she put the coat on was that she was warmer. The new
response was to stop shivering.
c Further feedback was that she was too hot. A further response was her sweating.

20 Diagrammatic answer required

Unit 8.2
1 The two main parts of the nervous system are the central nervous system (brain and
spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (sensory receptors and nerves).
2 The CNS acts as the control centre, receiving messages from all parts of the body. It
examines the information received, and then sends out messages to tell different
parts of the body what they should do. The PNS continuously informs the CNS of
changing conditions, and transmits the decisions made by the CNS back to effector
organs.
3

neurons: specialised cells that transmit and receive messages in the form of
electrical impulses
b dendrites: small threads arranged around the cell body. Dendrites make contact
with other cells and receive information from them
c axon: a long, thin thread that carries information away from the cell
d myelin: a white fatty substance that often encases the axon

4 A neuron is similar to other cells in the body in that it has a nucleus, cell membrane
and cytoplasm.
5 A nerve is a bundle of neurons.
6 Sensory neurons: sensitive to a particular stimulus such as heat, pressure or light.
These form part of the bodys sense organ (eyes, ears etc.), which function by
collecting a particular type of energy. The sensory neuron then converts this energy
into an electrical impulse
Connecting neurons or interneurons: transfer messages within the CNS
Motor neurons: transfer messages from the CNS to effector organs such as muscles
7

a
b
c
d

light to electrical
sound to electrical
chemical to electrical
heat to electrical

a motor neuron
b i cytoplasm, ii nucleus, iii dendrite, iv myelin, v axon

9 A synapse is a small gap between neurons.


10 Synapses are susceptible to chemical interference and they slow messages through
the nervous system.
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8: Responding and controlling
11 Neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry the message from one neuron to another
across the synapse.
12 Examples of neurotransmitters: noradrenalin, dopamine, acetylcholine, the
encephalins
13 The surface is folded creating a large surface area with billions of neurons. A flat
brain would not be as effective.
14 a cerebrum, b cerebellum, c medulla, d spinal cord
15 a
b
c
d

cerebrum
medulla
cerebellum
cerebrum

16 Ways the brain can be permanently damaged: stroke (haemorrhage), stroke (clot or
blockage), accident, rapid turns in an aircraft
17 Ways in which the brain is protected from injury: the skull, layers of connective
tissue called meninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
18 Coughing, sneezing and blinking are reflex actions.
19 Automatic conscious acts that can appear to be reflex actions: playing a musical
instrument, playing sport, driving a car, riding a bike, snow boarding, surfing
20 The left side of the brain controls logical thought and is the side of your cerebrum
that is helping you answer these questions.
21 a
b
c
d

shivering, goosebumps
coughing
saliva production
sweating

22 Bright light is shone in the eye THEN receptors detect change in light intensity
THEN impulse is sent along a sensory neuron to the brain THEN impulse is sent
along a motor neuron to iris muscle THEN iris muscles contract THEN pupil dilates.

Unit 8.3
1 Hormones are chemical messengers that are produced by the endocrine glands and
carried by the bloodstream.
2 A hormone recognises its target cell because each hormone has a specific shape
which fits into a receptor on the target cells membrane, a little like a jigsaw puzzle.

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8: Responding and controlling
3
Gland
adrenal

Hormone
adrenalin

pancreas

insulin

pituitary

ADH

thyroid

thyroxin

ovaries

oestrogen

testes

testosterone

a
b
c
d
e
f

M
O
L
K
N
P

5 The body uses electrical impulses to send fast and instantaneous messages.
Hormones are used whenever a more widespread and longer-term response is
required.
6 Hormones are broken down when they pass through the liver preventing a hormonal
response from continuing.
7 Adrenalin is known as the fight or flight hormone because, when you are frightened,
it is released, causing your heart to beat faster, increasing your breathing rate,
diverting blood to your muscles, dilating your pupils, making the hairs on your skin
stand on end, making your brain more alert and making you ready to fight or flee.
8 The pituitary gland could best be called the master gland. It not only releases
hormones which directly affect other organs, but also releases hormones which
instruct other glands to release hormones.
9 Two hormones involved in human growth are thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
and human-growth hormone (HGH).
10 The two hormones, insulin and glucagon, maintain blood glucose at the correct
levels.
11 Type I is insulin-dependent diabetics (around 15% of cases), who have a defective
pancreas. High blood glucose levels result because the pancreas does not produce
enough insulin. This may result in glucose in the urine as the body tries to rid itself
of its excess. Long-term effects of excess glucose include damage to vital organs
such as the kidneys. Treatment involves the use of daily insulin injections.
Type II, or non-insulin-dependent diabetics, do not produce enough insulin, or have
cells that do not respond correctly to insulin. Treatment involves a special diet, an
exercise program, use of drugs and possibly insulin injections.

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8: Responding and controlling
12 When a diabetic has a hypoglycaemic episode, their blood-glucose levels fall too
far, affecting the brain and causing loss of consciousness.
13 A pheromone is a chemical that influences the behaviour of animals, particularly
behaviours involving sex. Pheromones act directly on the CNS, producing
immediate behavioural changes.
14 Dogs take so much interest in each others urine and faeces because they contain
pheromones. These mark out territories.
15 a light, particularly sunlight
b growth towards the light
16 The hormone auxin stimulates plant cells to elongate or grow longer. It is produced
by the tips of growing shoots but is destroyed when exposed to light. This means
that the hormone in a shoot will live and elongate cells if it is in the shade, but will
be destroyed if in sunlight. Cells on the shady side will elongate more rapidly than
on the sunny side, causing the shoot to bend and grow towards the light.
17 a
b
c
d

faster delivery of glucose and oxygen to muscles


more air into lungs for greater oxygen uptake
more glucose available for respiration
faster exchange of gases

18 Administering thyroxin would have little or no effect on an adult with cretinism


since the lack of thyroxin in infants causes the condition.
19 a because it is needed for photosynthesis
b because plant roots must grow down to anchor the plant and to obtain water and
minerals
20 a heliotropism = response to the Sun (helio)
b hydrotropism = response to water (hydro)
21 If producers included human pheromones in their products then their perfumes and
aftershaves would be guaranteed to attract partners.
22 Type I = 15%, Type II = 100 15 = 85%
23 Flow chart required
24 Sketch graph required

Unit 8.4
1 Innate behaviour is genetically controlled behaviour where an organism responds in
a predictable manner.
2 A reflex is an automatic, quick response to a single stimulus (e.g. coughing,
blinking). An instinct is a complicated set of responses to stimuli (e.g. migration,
courtship rituals).
3 Habituation, trial and error, associative learning or conditioning, insight

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8: Responding and controlling
4

Learning the way through a maze, learning to open doors, barking to get its
owners to come to it etc.
b A dog knows its feeding time, the time its owner comes home, the sound of its
owners car, where its food is kept etc.

5 Habituation is when an organism becomes immune to a stimulus because it has


learnt that it is not dangerous or important to it.
6 Various stimuli might be listed, e.g. sound of train, aircraft or traffic noise, barking
of a dog, music from the next room.
7 A reflex that can be overcome: the response to heat or pain can be overcome
although it will probably harm the person, e.g. a person might deliberately burn or
cut themselves. The response to heat, cold and light is often impossible to overcome,
e.g. you will sweat, shiver and your pupils will always change size.
8 Young geese are imprinted on whatever animal is substituted for their mother after
birth.
9

a
b
c
d
e

individual
species
species
individual
species

10 A social hierarchy is a set of levels of authority with a complex system of


communication to reinforce this organisation.
11 a
b
c
d
e
f

learned
innate
learned
learned
learned
innate

12 a

Innate behaviour is not usually able to be modified. Learned behaviour can be


modified.
b Instinct is a complicated set of responses to stimuli. Migration, for example, is
an instinct brought about by the changes of oncoming winter. Insight is a
complex form of learning involving planning, prediction of events, forming
concepts and drawing on past experiences to solve a problem. An example is
when someone uses a chair to reach for something too high for them.

13 Innate behaviour is needed for feeding and to ensure immediate safety. If these were
learned behaviours then the organism would probably starve or be killed before it
had a chance to learn the behaviour.
14 Play encourages learned behaviours.
15 A cat that learns how to use the cat-flap without being shown is exhibiting trial and
error, learned behaviour.
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8: Responding and controlling
16 Although drooling is innate, the dogs response to the bell is learned.
17 An animal like an earthworm is unlikely to be able to solve a problem by insight
because its nervous system is too simple and undeveloped.
18 Human infants become imprinted on their mothers, allowing them to breastfeed
from them and seek safety.
19 Although the ability to imprint is innate, the actual process is learned. Geese, for
example, learn that the animal that is there at birth is their mother. If genetic,
then they would always imprint on their biological mother.
20 A social hierarchy ensures that all organisms in the society carry out a specific role
that will ensure the societys survival.
21 a dances to give directions for food
b pheromones to mark food trails
c gestures to signal aggression
22 No. The ants behaviour is innate. Tasks are performed instinctively, and not by
clever reasoning or insight.
23 Reflex THEN instinct THEN habituation THEN associative THEN insight

Chapter review
1 To obtain food, to find a mate, to avoid predators
2 The nervous and endocrine systems
3

a stimulus: something that brings about a change in the activity of an organism


(e.g. heat, light)
b an effector: an organ, gland or muscle which carries out a response to a stimulus
(e.g. heart, adrenal gland, bicep muscle)
c a receptor: part of the body that detects a stimulus (e.g. retina cells in eyes,
cochlear cells in ears)
d a response: a change in the activity of an organism as a result of a stimulus (e.g.
pupils in the eye dilate as a response to bright light)

a homeostasis
b Cells need a continuous supply of glucose for respiration.
c endocrine

5 Sensory neuron. The axon carries messages to the cell from a receptor.
6

a
b
c
d

A
C
D
A

a synapses
b Chemicals called neurotransmitters carry the message.
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8: Responding and controlling
8

a A reflex action is performed without thinking.


b Examples are coughing, sneezing and blinking.
c They are fast because they involve very few neurons.

a
b
c
d
e

true
false
true
false
false

10 a In humans reproduction, metabolism and growth are controlled by hormones.


b In plants flowering, seed germination and growth are controlled by hormones.
11 a A tropism is a response where a plant grows towards or away from a stimulus.
b Phototropism (response to light); geotropism (response to gravity)
12
Function
blood glucose levels

Hormone
insulin

female reproductive functions

oestrogen

the rate of chemical reactions in cells

thyroxin

water levels within the body

ADH

the readiness of the body for action

adrenalin

the deepening of the male voice at puberty

testosterone

13 a

Learned behaviour can be modified. Innate behaviour is genetically preprogrammed, and cannot usually be modified.
b When an organism must respond quickly to avoid being eaten by a predator or
harmed in some other way.

14 a You respond to different stimuli, e.g. light, heat, sound and gravity.
b Retina cells in the eye, thermoreceptors in the skin, cochlear cells in the ears,
semicircular canals in the ears
15 When female dogs and cats are on heat they give off pheromones that attract
males.
16 If human animal magnetism exists then it probably involves pheromones.
17
Nature of message

Nervous system
electrical

Endocrine system
chemical

Distribution

along nerves

through bloodstream

Speed of delivery

fast

slow

Length of response

short

long

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8: Responding and controlling
18
Part
cerebellum

Function
controls muscle movements while you are cycling

medulla

controls involuntary actions such as breathing

meninges

protect the brain from injury

cerebrum

centre for sight, hearing and speech

19 a = pancreas, b = insulin, c = bloodstream, d = liver, e = response, f = feedback


20 i = stimulus, ii = receptor, iii = sensory nerve, iv = motor nerve, v = effector, vi =
response
21
Name
insight

Behaviour
a chimpanzee uses a stick to reach bananas hung on a
pole

habituation

people living near trams ignore the sound of trams

conditioning

dogs salivate at the sound of a bell

trial and error

a circus animal performs tricks

reflex

blinking in bright light

imprinting

a newly hatched chick follows a dog

22 a
b
c
d
e
f

learned
innate
innate
learned
innate
innate

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9: Reproduction

Unit 9.1
1 Plant cells have chloroplasts, a cell wall, a large vacuole and very few mitochondria.
Animal cells have no chloroplasts, no cell wall, only small vacuoles and many
mitochondria.
2 46
3 In the nucleus
4 Mitochondria make energy for the cells.
5 Mutation is when genetic information is imperfectly copied from a parent cell to a
daughter cell.
6 Bacteria and certain types of algae and fungi
7 If bacteria is in the food and it multiplies rapidly, the food will not be edible.
8 Budding is an uneven process while fission produces two identical cells.
9 Fungi, mosses, ferns and algae
10 When a piece of a plant breaks off and becomes a new plant it is known as
vegetative propagation.
11 a sperm
b ovum
12 Various answers possible, eg. gamete not properly formed
13 a Ovulation is the release of a mature ovum.
b A pheromone is a chemical released to attract the opposite sex.
14 The zygote divides by mitosis to become an embryo.
15 Different cells have different functions.
16 The environment has an effect on how the trees look, despite being genetically
identical.
17 a The spores must be small, light and resilient.
b If an animal comes into contact with the spore and then moves to another
location, the spore could be left in the second location.
18 The bright colour and nectar will attract insects and birds. As the birds try and get at
the nectar they will rub off some pollen and will then take it to the next plant.
19 The original earthworms and mushrooms will die, but their babies will live on.
20 Asexual reproduction/fragmentation and regeneration

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9: Reproduction
21
Organism
bacteria

Type of reproduction
fission

yeast

budding

ferns

spores

starfish

fragmentation and regeneration

22 a 2
b 64
c 4096
23 Human core body temperature: 37oC

Unit 9.2
1

a
b
c
d
e

prostate gland
urethra
epididymis
testis
scrotum

2 to keep them cool


3 fluid and sperm
4 prostate gland
5 epididymis
6

a
b
c
d
e

fallopian tube
ovary
uterus
cervix
vagina

7 About 500 000


8 In the fallopian tube
9 Menopause is when a woman stops menstruating. It normally occurs between 40
and 50 years of age.
10 Puberty is the time when a person becomes capable of reproduction.
11 a Get taller, muscles develop, body hair grows and voice deepens
b Breasts develop, hips widen, body hair grows and get taller
12 a testosterone
b oestrogen

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9: Reproduction
13 The prostate gland, which contributes fluid to semen, matures before the testes,
which contribute sperm.
14 menarche
15 Girls reach puberty earlier.
16 Men make new sperm throughout their lives but women dont make new eggs.
17 Secondary sexual characteristics are those that have no real role in reproduction, e.g.
a hairy chest on a man.
18 Intense physical stress inhibits hormone production.
19 a 120 cm
b 140 cm
c Girls: 1113, Boys: 1315
20 Flow chart required
21 Scale timeline required

Unit 9.3
1 Copulation is sexual intercourse.
2 Several hundred million
3 Only a few hundred
4 The egg surface changes after one sperm has entered.
5 A zygote is one cell, a morula is about 80 cells and a blastocyst is a lot more cells
(in a fluid-filled ball).
6 The first trimester
7 By the amniotic fluid
8 The lifeline for the foetus is the umbilical cord. It supplies the foetus with oxygen,
removes carbon dioxide, provides nutrients and removes waste.
9 It helps the head squeeze through the vagina.
10 The amniotic fluid rushes out.
11 Many body systems are being formed at this stage.
12 9 to 13 kilograms
13 a It protects against birth defects.
b 0.5 mg per day one month before pregnancy and during the first trimester
14 1 in 500
15 a

A needle, guided by ultrasound, is inserted into the abdomen and a sample of


amniotic fluid is taken.
b To test for defects
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9: Reproduction
16 A blood sample from the umbilical cord
17 Alcohol, antibiotics, LSD
18 Reduced birthweight and/or reduced intelligence
19 In the first trimester, a few drinks could be disastrous.
20 Damage to the eyes and nervous system
21 The foetus does not inhale. The lungs arent functional until it is born.
22 Sperm stay alive for up to two days within the fallopian tubes.
23 It means their lungs are working.
24 Advantage: more relaxed and comfortable
Disadvantage: if anything goes wrong
25 The sperm duct or vas deferens

Unit 9.4
1 Activities such as oral, anal or genital sex
2 Abstinence, condom use, having few partners
3 Oral, genital and anal sex spread it. Antibiotics treat it.
4 A chancre is an open, painless sore.
5 infection, radiation
6

a cancer of the prostate gland or testes


b breast cancer

7 More than one embryo is implanted at the same time.


8 Womens bodies are not designed to take the strain of carrying more than one baby
at a time.
9 Asymptomatic means without symptoms.
10 The IVF process is very detailed with a lot of steps in it.
11 The rate of IVF use is going up.
12 During birth, the baby could contact an open sore.
13 Increased number of partners, people becoming sexually active earlier, increasing
population
14 Self-examination of the testes or breast involves carefully rolling the testes or breast
in your fingers to detect any odd bumps.
15 Men are more likely to detect a sexually transmitted infection because their prime
sexual organ (the penis) is external to the body and easy to see. Also many
infections generally will affect their urethra in their penis, through which they also
urinate. This will cause pain.
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9: Reproduction
16 Oral sex is sexual contact because all sorts of STIs can be transmitted by it.
17 a bacterial infections (chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea)
b viral diseases (HIV/AIDS, herpes)
18 Personal responses

Chapter review
1 gametes
2 The process of gamete formation
3 a zygote
4

a In asexual reproduction, new cells are created by mitosis.


b Fission is a type of asexual reproduction.
c If a daughter cell is not identical to the parent cell, a mutation has occurred.

5 No, because the environment has an effect on appearance.


6 Fission produces identical-sized cells but budding doesnt.
7 Fertilisation is the successful fusing of two gametes.
8 Something having both male and female parts
9 Ova do not have flagella.
10 In the ovaries and testes
11 a The release of an ovum by the female is called ovulation.
b A zygote divides by mitosis to become an embryo.
c Few fertilised eggs survive to maturity.
12 Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate body systems.
13 Good nutrition and properly formed gametes
14 a
b
c
d
e

endometrium
amniotic fluid
cervix (with plug of mucus)
umbilical cord
foetus

15 HIV, herpes
16 Spores can be spread over a greater distance so they have a better chance of
survival.
17 Internal offers greater protection.
18 No need for two parents
19 Because it will not have to compete for nutrients in the womb and also the parents
can offer the highest level of care.

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9: Reproduction
20 a Both get taller and grow body hair.
b Males get a much deeper voice and women grow breasts.

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10: Forensics

Unit 10.1
1

a To collect scientific evidence


b To collect, bag and label all types of evidence for a serious crime such as a
homicide
c To perform autopsies on the deceased to determine the cause of death

2 Various answers possible: student ID card, bus pass, credit cards, library card etc.
3 In the past when communications were more primitive, the identity of a criminal
tended to stay in the city or the state in which they committed the crime. Nowadays,
modern photography, Internet and email allow your identity to be spread quickly
around the world.
4 The Bertillon system is a system of identifying people based on measurements of
the bony features of the skull.
5 The Bertillon system was dropped as a method of identification when a man was
convicted for a crime committed by his twin but separated brother.
6 Problems of photographs as a method of identification are: many photos need to be
sifted through to get an identification; retroactive interference.
7 Retroactive interference is when something that happens after an event clouds your
memory so that the original event cannot be correctly recalled. This occurs when
people see photographs of offenders which makes it harder for them to remember
what the real offender looked like.
8 Identikit used pre-drawn facial features that could be slotted together without the
need of an artist.
9 Identikit and other composite drawings have only a 2% success rate of identification
because they are usually only accurate when the person actually knows the criminal
or if they have very distinctive features. Composite drawings could therefore result
in people being wrongly identified.
10 Biometric facial recognition measures the position of points formed by the eyes,
chin, nose, ears and other facial features.
11 Problems that exist with biometric facial recognition are high rate of false positives;
high rate of false negatives; inconsistent results due to slight changes in the angle;
inconsistent results due to quality of images; privacy problems.
12 Primates (e.g. apes, chimpanzees and humans) have fingerprints. Their purpose is to
help us grip things.
13 Before computers, fingerprints were not particularly useful because the investigator
needed to scan through thousands of sets before any match could be found.
14 Fingerprints are now taken every time you enter or exit the USA because of
increased screening after 11 September 2001. They are taken by a special IR scanner
and then matched on a computer.

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10: Forensics
15 Diagrammatic answer required
16 Advantages to iris and retina identification are two scans are taken, one of each eye;
it cannot be forged with a glass eye which never moves; an iris has 266 identifiable
features and is therefore far more detailed than a fingerprint; the iris never changes,
even as you age, and so is a good long-term identifier.
17 X-rays of the body will show previous bone injuries and any pins used; comparison
with known hospital records; X-rays of the teeth compared with known dental
records.
18 Measurement of key bones like the femur; careful examination of the pelvis, skull
and other key bones; data entered into a missing person database; dental and
hospital records, photographs and other materials can then be collected to help
positively identify the person; remains of clothing, buttons, buckles or other objects
which might still be around the skeleton.
19 DNA is a chemical that is present in every cell of your body.
20 A negative DNA match is sometimes very useful because it proves some suspects as
innocent.
21 Identification of bodies from the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami was so difficult because:
the tropical heat quickened decomposition; many local people were very poor and
had not been to a hospital or a dentist and therefore no records were kept; whole
families were wiped out so no-one was left to report members missing; waves and
debris crushed many people; many bodies were swept out to sea; many bodies were
those of foreigners holidaying in the area.
22 Teeth impressions left on a victim can often not be used to positively identify the
culprit because many teeth have the same dimensions and spacing, especially since
many people have orthodontry. Impressions are on a 3D surface, but the
photographs used to match them up are 2D.
23 Teeth are the hardest part of the body (especially the enamel), making them the last
things to break down.
24 The final identification of fingerprints is done by a person and not by a computer
because a computer cant think or interpret and can make wrong identifications.
They also cant be a witness in a court.
25 A blind experiment is important because a scientist might receive information on the
TV or from newspapers or be told information by police. This might cloud their
judgement when examining evidence related to the case. It might also make the
scientist more certain that there is a match when there isnt one.

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10: Forensics
26
Method
Fingerprints

Advantages
Can prove identity
Can be databased and
electronically compared
Left at crime scenes and easy to
collect
Can be electronically used for
access to rooms, computers, etc.

Disadvantages
Takes time to dust a crime
scene.
Need specialists to do all this
work.
Mainly used by police.
Can be planted; fingerprint
scanners can also be fooled
with, matching prints cleverly
made
May not be on a criminal
database, so draw a blank

DNA

Usually left at all crime scenes

Expensive to process

Can prove identity to a statistical Breaks down quickly if an old


certainty
crime scene
Can be databased
Can tell if male or female, and
some other traits like if had red
hair
ID
(licence/papers
etc.)

Cant often see where evidence


is just swab and hope for the
best
Easily contaminated

Useful most of the time

Easy to fake

Has a useful purpose in the


community for banking, etc.

Not always present when needed

Cheap and easy to supply


Photographs

Cheap
Useful most of the time
Can show actions, not just
identity, if photographed at the
right time

People change as they get older


and look different
Are only 2D, not 3D, making
comparisons harder

27 Bar graph required

Unit 10.2
1 Ink, paper, handwriting in both content and form
2 Slant and spacing of letters in handwriting can easily be changed. The formation of
certain letters of the alphabet, however, rarely change.
3 The paper was too recent; the material had clearly been copied from Hitlers
speeches and other historians documents; the material included well-known errors.

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10: Forensics
4 Microscopic pits and cracks in the hammers can be used to determine which
typewriter typed out a ransom note.
5 A computer printer can be identified by the imprint its feed mechanism leaves on the
paper.
6

a Inks will often glow when placed under certain coloured lights such as UV.
b A solvent draws up the different pigments used to make ink through paper,
making a recognisable colour rainbow pattern.

7 Plastic has a life four to five times longer than a paper note. Also, the plastic is
difficult to obtain and to print on.
8

a Intaglio printing is raised print.


b Microprinting is text able to be read only under a microscope.
c A water mark is a hidden image that you can only see when you hold the note up
to the light so that the light can shine through from behind.

9 Very few people had seen a $100 bill when they were first introduced and so they
were able to be easily bluffed.
10 Identical serial numbers: of poorer standard than the real money; poor reproduction
of the finer details
11 Drivers licence, passport, bank records, professional credentials, money etc.
12 Chromatography produces different-coloured bands from black ink because black
ink is made up of a bunch of colours to absorb all the light.
13 If everyone could print their own money then there would be no value in the printed
banknotes.
14 A persons personality cannot be deduced from their handwriting because it is not a
real science. You learn different styles of writing at home, in different schools and
in different states and countries. Handwriting is a learnt skill.
15 Identity theft is when a criminal pretends to be someone else to fool the bank to
get money etc.
16 You should check for hidden watermarks, intaglio printing, optically active devices
etc. Otherwise, you should not accept the note.
17 Diagrammatic answer required

Unit 10.3
1

Evidence is information that can be used in a court of law to prove innocence or


guilt.
b Two broad categories of evidence are that obtained from eye witnesses and
physical evidence.
c Examples of physical evidence: blood, saliva, fingerprints, footprints, mud, tool
marks, DNA

Dust for them by brushing a powder onto them


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Answers to coursebook questions


10: Forensics
b Use high-powered poly lights that cause fingerprints to fluoresce
3 Hair, skin, dandruff, clothing fibres, blood, semen
4 Animalhair, wool, fur or feathers; mineral (synthetic) nylon, polyester, etc;
vegetablecotton, hessian; fibres used in clothingcotton, polyester, nylon, wool
5 Fibres are considered circumstantial evidence because they could have come from
other people wearing the same jumper or who patted the same dog, etc.
6 Tool marks are the distinctive marks left by a particular tool.
7

a
b
c
d

Marks around a door or window frame by a jemmy bar


Scissors or guillotine cut
Puncture mark, shape, size and depth of weapon
Saw marks, crow bars to lift track, grinding tools

8 Footprints can be left in soft mud; by stepping into something wet like blood or oil;
as dirt left on a clean surface
9

a Tread pattern and depth, shape


b Imperfections in manufacture process, wear and tear (e.g. worn down, cuts,
embedded stones)

10 Hairnarrow down hair colour, racial group of offender or unknown victim,


circumstantial evidence that a person was at a crime scene
DNAprove someones identity, strong evidence that they were at the crime scene,
especially if in large amounts and varied locations
Bloodshows that an injury or death may have occurred. Can show what sort of
injuries were inflicted due to splatter patterns, etc.
Other body secretionssemen can prove that a sexual act took place, though it
cannot in itself prove a rape
11 Diatoms would be in the lungs of the body. Each lake and pond has its own specific
types of diatoms.
12 a Insects can date a death by where they are in their life cycle.
b Certain insects come only from certain parts of the world.
13 a CCTV
b mobile phone
c computer records
14 You can be located within 100 m when using your mobile phone.
15 Deleting a file from your computer only erases its access, not the actual file.
16 Shoe prints cannot definitely prove that a person was at a particular location because
they could have been worn by another person. A partial or low-quality print may
have been left which may not be enough in itself to make a match. A person may
have legitimately been at the crime scene earlier or later on and not committed the
crime.
17 Various answers possible
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10: Forensics
18 Various answers possible
19 Audio and video footage doesnt always accurately represent what happened at a
crime scene because it only records every 1/60th of a second, hence it misses bits.
More importantly, it only shoots from one angle and only shows what happens in
front of it, not what happens elsewhere before or after.
20 eggs, maggots, small blowfly, large blowfly
21 People died soon after his visit: circumstantial
Altered medical records: circumstantial
Poorly worded will: circumstantial
Shipman being sole beneficiary: circumstantial
Morphine in patients: direct evidence since no-one except the doctor could supply it

Unit 10.4
1 Features such as scars and tattoos can help eyewitnesses identify the accused.
2 Police get eyewitness accounts as quickly as possible because the memory of the
witness will worsen with time and get muddied by other images and thoughts.
3 Modus operandi is the mode of operation of a criminalthe way they go about the
crime.
4 A favourite type of tool; a defined technique; a common time and date; a signature
activity; similar location of offences
5 A criminal might commit a crime where they feel safean area they know well
with escape routes, etc.; aqn area that may be near public transport if they dont
have a car; a location that is concealedi.e. back door rather than front door
6 A criminal profiler must have skills in psychology, statistics and geography.
7 Criminal profiling is generally not a useful way of solving a crime. It can often
encourage police to overlook obvious suspects.
8 Blood drips can tell investigators height of attack; direction of attack; whether
victim was still or running; severity of attack; blood type of attacker
9 A wound can tell investigators what type of object was used, e.g. blunt objects often
leave bruising, split skin and fractures underneath; whether the attacker was left- or
right-handed
10 Forensic pathologists probe and measure wounds to give them some idea of the type
of weapon, direction of the attack and ferocity of the attack.
11 Bullets kill by cutting major arteries or by transferring their energy into the organs,
causing a pressure wave that explodes the organ.
12 Investigators can tell which direction a bullet came from if it passes right through a
body by plotting back from the wound angle to possible locations, or tracking back
from other damage that produces angular datai.e. a hole in a window then a wall.
Powder marks can show a point blank or very close firearm position.
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Answers to coursebook questions


10: Forensics
13 The vehicle; the environment; the driver (the most likely)
14 Yaw marks are curved rubber marks left on the road. They indicate that the car was
travelling too fast for the corner.
15 Motive is the reason someone commits a crime.
16 Common motives are their emotional state at the time; social and religious beliefs;
adherence to laws and moral principles; threats; altered mental states, perhaps
through using drugs or alcohol; lust, greed and revenge.
17 A cold case is one where there are no more leads to pursue.
18 A cold case might be re-opened if new evidence (such as DNA) comes up or if an
admission is made by someone.
19 Various habits might be: always getting out of bed on the same side, putting trousers
on right leg first, same cereal for breakfast each day, etc.
20 The stalker lives in the area, or nearby; the stalker does not have a job to get up to in
the morning; the stalker probably isnt in a relationship, being out that late; the
stalker is probably of a similar or slightly older age; the stalker may not have a car if
they always stalk on foot, unless they are following with their vehicle.
21 a

This would confuse the police investigating the crimes since the MO might be
slightly different, making them unsure about the main killers identity.
b Serial killers undoubtedly get some perverted fame from their crimes. Others
might find this fame attractive and cash in on it by killing in the same way.

22 Diagrammatic answer
23 Probably a young person who is at school and not around at other times. Could need
money for drug habit due to regularity of crimes. Probably uses trains for transport.
Probably live in a nearby suburb and knows the area reasonably well

Chapter review
1

a
b
c
d
e

true
false
false
false
false

2 Identifying dead person; matching a criminal to a crime scene; use on legal


documents; computer or facility access
3 Age, height, sex, and ethnicity of a person. General health and other traits like
occupation may also be inferredfrom bone growth and injuries
4 Pattern matching is when the pattern from one object is left in another and can be
matched again (could be footprint, tyre print or cut or wear marks; could be broken
object pieced togetheri.e. arrowhead and arrow etc.)

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Answers to coursebook questions


10: Forensics
5 Bite-mark comparisons are only sometimes helpful because many teeth are in good
order and not able to be distinguished. Teeth impressions are left in 3D but
photographs are 2D, altering the perspective.
6 An alibi is the evidence that proves a person was somewhere else when the crime
took place.
7 The main factor is heatthe hotter the environment the more active the microbes
and flies will be (they are cold-blooded ectotherms); their reproduction and
multiplication would also be increased.
Clothing can affect access of insects and carrion-eating species to the corpse.
Very dry environments can mummify a body, stopping decay.
Being deep underwater where there may be a lack of oxygen could also reduce or
stop decay.
8 A profiler would look at all the evidence in a series of crime scenes but particularly
the first of a series. He would be looking at what was done at the crime scene that
could give clues to the psychology of the criminal.
9 Computerwhen a person accessed it, where they went on the Internet, all the files
that they have accessed
Mobile phoneall calls made and received and their numbers and times. Location
near where the person went when the mobile phone was on
Audio recording on answering machines, or from surveillance etc.records any
dialogue in the vicinity
Video footage from security cameras can show what happened at a crime scene
from that particular angle or perspective.
10 a

They may have been attacked by a family member or friend and dont want to
dob them in. They might be afraid for their life so wont talk. They were
attacked by a left hander and defended themselvesthere might be injuries on
their attacker
b Record date and time and identity details. Photograph or clearly document all
injuries, check for skin under fingernails, try and calmly get what information
the victim is willing to volunteer. Discreetly look for any injuries on people
accompanying the victim

11 Call for backup.


Clear bystanders away from the building.
Carefully enter the building, checking for danger.
Make sure no robbers are still present at the crime scene.
Get everyone to sit down.
Get the names and addresses of all people present.
Ask everyone to write down everything that they saw and heard.
Allow people to leave the building.
Get the security camera footage.

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10: Forensics
12 Something similar to belowcan be flexible
Most helpful
Less helpful
What clothing was the person wearing
Hair colour, eye colour ethnicity, what
i.e. hat, clothing colours and designs
time they came in, where they walked
Tattoos, rings and other jewellery that they
were wearing
Height
13 a Check inside the mouth to see if there is any soot in there.
b Check for remains of wallet, take X-rays of the victim and compare dental
records.
c A source of ignition like a heater, toaster etc; may look for evidence of
accelerants like a petrol can. Would look at the area which has the most
extensive burning and damage for why the fire started
14 Take a photograph of a known person via both methods to measure the distortion of
the face at all the key points. Use this data to show whether the other two faces are
the same person.
15 Cordon off the area. Photograph the body and the surrounding area. Take swabs of
rectum before taking body temperature (preserve any possible evidence before
trying to determine body temperature in case body is more recent). Check for
photographic ID in bag and clothing. Look for evidence to see if the body was killed
at or near the location or transported there from elsewhere, i.e. drag marks,
footprints, tyre prints. Collect any evidence from the scene. Carefully bag body.
Collect any trace evidence from the body at the morguefibres, skin under
fingernails, check for any sexual penetration, perform autopsy to determine cause of
death, carefully document and identify the species of animals from bite marks (Are
they local to the area?).
16 He would not have crushed the eggs if they were pigeon eggs, nor would he be
smuggling them as they are worthless. Recover and incubate the eggs till they hatch
to determine the species. DNA samples could be taken and compared to a database
if the eggs do not hatch.
17 The fact that she concealed the items when taking and transporting them is strong
evidence against her. Not stopping when she was chased also strongly suggests that
she was committing an offence, though is not conclusive.

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A N S W E R S

1.1

1: The periodic table

Element symbols

1 a B inside a circle
b K inside a circle
2 Can include hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,
sulfur, iodine etc. (3 marks)
3 Can include helium, lithium, neon,
aluminium etc. (3 marks)
4 They consist of the first letter and the first
consonant of their names. (4 marks)
5 They consist of the first letter and the first
consonant not in common. (4 marks)
6 Use the Berzelius method to write the symbol
for the following elements:
a Cp
b Po
c So

A N S W E R S

1
2
3
4

1.2

Diagrammatic answer required.


Group VIII
Halogens
a 78
b 79
c 8
d 12
e 98
f 35
g 36
5 a Carbon
b Lithium
c Zirconium
d Aluminium
e Uranium
f Barium
g Hydrogen

7 Their symbols are derived from either their


old name or their Latin name.
8 a The first two letters of its old name,
Natrium, were used.
b The non-metal nitrogen, according to the
rules, would be N.
9 Helium (He) Greek helios for Sun;
Uranium (U) Uranus; Neptunium (Np)
Neptune; Plutonium (Pu) Pluto
10 Mendelevium (Md)
11 Ununoctium (Uuo)
12 a 183
b Unocttrium (Uct)

1: The periodic table

The periodic table


6 a Carbon, chlorine, cobalt, copper,
chromium, calcium, cesium, cerium,
californium
b C, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Ca, Cs, Ce, Cf
c All elements must have a unique symbol.
Therefore, only one c element can start
with one letter.
7 Elements in the same group share common
properties.
8 It tells us the number of protons that are in the
nucleus of the element.
9 RutherfordiumRutherford; BohriumNiels
Bohr; CuriumCurie; EinsteiniumEinstein;
FermiumFermi; MendeleeviumMendeleev;
NobeliumNobel; SeaborgiumSeaborg;
LawrenciumErnest Lawrence (inventor of the
cyclotron)

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1.3

A N S W E R S

1: The periodic table

Changes in properties across the


periodic tablepage 1

1
Period

1
2

2 a
b
c
d

Group

Atomic
number

Electronic
configuration

Symbol

Element

Melting
point
(C)

Boiling
point
(C)

Diameter
of atom
(Angstrom)

Hydrogen

0.60

II

He

Helium

1.86

2,1

Li

Lithium

181

1342

3.04

II

2,2

Be

Beryllium

1278

2970

2.22

III

2,3

Boron

2200

3927

1.76

IV

2,4

Carbon

3500

3800

1.54

2,5

Nitrogen

211

196

1.40

VI

2,6

Oxygen

219

183

1.32

VII

2,7

Fluorine

220

188

1.28

VIII

10

2,8

Ne

Neon

249

246

2.24

11

2,8,1

Na

Sodium

98

883

3.72

II

12

2,8,2

Mg

Magnesium

649

1107

3.20

III

13

2,8,3

Al

Aluminium

660

2467

2.86

IV

14

2,8,4

Si

Silicon

1410

2355

2.34

15

2,8,5

Phosphorus

44

287

2.20

VI

16

2,8,6

Sulfur

119

445

2.08

VII

17

2,8,7

Cl

Chlorine

101

35

1.98

VIII

18

2,8,8

Ar

Argon

190

186

3.08

19

2,8,8,1

Potassiuim

63

760

4.62

II

20

2,8,8,2

Calcium

839

1484

3.94

Alkali metals
Alkaline earths
Halogens
Inert gases or noble gases

3 The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

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4 The graph shows


a series of peaks
and troughs. The
bottoms of the
troughs coincide
with the noble gas
elements (atomic
numbers 2, 10 and
18). The peaks
coincide with the
Group IV elements
(C and Si).

1.3

Melting point (C)

A N S W E R S

5 Once again, the


graph shows a
series of peaks and
troughs, the lowest
point of the graph
coinciding with
the noble gases.
The highest point
of the peaks is now
in Group III, only
marginally higher
than the points
for the Group IV
elements.

Changes in properties across the


periodic tablepage 2

3800
3600
3400
3200
3000
2800
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
200
400

8e_b_d]fe_dj9

1: The periodic table

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

1: The periodic table

1.3

7h
9b

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Changes in properties across the


periodic tablepage 3
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A N S W E R S

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

A N S W E R S

1.3

1: The periodic table

Changes in properties across the


periodic tablepage 4

8 Atoms get smaller as we move across the first seven groups of Period 2. The Group VII element Ne
reverses this trend, however, since it is bigger than its neighbour.
9 The same pattern is shown in the size of the elements in Period 3atoms get smaller until we get to
Group VIII, which is bigger than its neighbour.
10 The size of the atoms should increase as we move down a group, because more shells are being added to
the atoms.
11 Yesthe table shows that atoms increase in size as we move down a group.
12 Period 3 (three shells in use) and Group II (two electrons in the outer shell).
13 The period of an atom is the same as the number of shells shown in the electronic configuration (the
number of numbers). The group is the number of electrons in the outer shell (shown as the last number
in the electronic configuration).

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1.5

A N S W E R S

Name

Symbol

1: The periodic table

What am I?
Name

Symbol

1 Hydrogen

26 Scandium

Sc

2 Iron

Fe

27 Germanium

Ge

3 Arsenic

As

28 Xenon

Xe

4 Neon

Ne

29 Calcium

Ca

5 Calcium

Ca

30 Iodine

6 Krypton

Kr

31 Chlorine

Cl

7 Copper

Cu

32 Sodium

Na

8 Californium

Cf

33 Fluorine

9 Curium

Cm

34 Silicon

Si

10 Lead

Pb

35 Sulfur

11 Plutonium

Pu

36 Calcium

12 Neptunium

Np

37 Boron

Ca

13 Fluorine

38 Antinomy

Sb

14 Francium

Fr

39 Radium

Ra

15 Fluorine

40 Phosphorus

16 Bromine

Br

41 Aluminium

Al

17 Chlorine

Cl

42 Strontium

Sr

18 Beryllium

Be

43 Arsenic

As

19 Rubidium

Rb

44 Argon

Ar

20 Carbon

45 Potassium

21 Helium

He

46 Helium

He

22 Bromine

Br

47 Oxygen

23 Oxygen

48 Sodium

Na

24 Lithium

Li

49 Magnesium

Mg

25 Thorium

Th

50 Neon

Ne

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'

7


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Periodic table crossword

1: The periodic table

1.6

A N S W E R S

(/

J H 7 D I

?
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;

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J
H

L ? J

O

)(

= H E K F
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A N S W E R S

1.7

Unit 1.1

ductile
conductors
electronegativity
metal
non-metals
metalloids

Unit 1.3
shells
electron configuration
ion
group number
period number
inert gases
stable

Unit 1.2
Mendeleev
Moseley
period
group

1 a
b
c
d
e
f
g

Sci-words
synthetic
physical properties
chemical properties

atomos
atomic number
mass number
element
compound
Dalton
bonded
molecule
nucleus

A N S W E R S

1: The periodic table

Unit 1.5
noble gases
halogens
alkali metals
alkaline earths
transition metals
allotropes
graphite
diamond

Unit 1.4
lustrous
malleable

2.1

magnesium chloride
ammonium oxide
calcium nitride
copper(II) carbonate
chromium(III) sulfate
chromium(III) nitrate
aluminium hydroxide

2: Chemical change

Ionic compounds, names and


formulas
2 a
b
c
d
e
f
g

Li2CO3
AlBr3
Cu(NO3)2
NaCl
CaBr2
NH4OH
Li3N

3 a CrO42
b i MgCrO4
ii Al2(CrO4)3

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A N S W E R S

2.2

Change

2: Chemical change

Chemical and physical changepage 1

Physical?

Chemical?

1 Burning paper

2 A banana goes black

3 TNT explodes

4 Mixing the ingredients of


a cake

5 Baking a cake

6 A person breathes

7 Sweat cools you by


evaporating

8 Fireworks go off
9 Boiling water is added to
instant coffee
10 Sugar is added to coffee

Reason for your choice


New substances (e.g. carbon, smoke,
gases) are made. Heat is released.
New substances are made.
New substances (e.g. carbon, smoke,
gases) are made. Heat is released.
No new substancesold ones simply
mixes together.
New substances (e.g. cake) are made.
Physical since gases are manually drawn in
and out. Chemical since gases change in
composition.
Sweat is water on the skin. It becomes
water vapour when it evaporates.
New substances (e.g. carbon, smoke,
gases) are made. Heat is released.
Dissolving is a physical change. No new
substances made.
Dissolving is a physical change. No new
substances made.
Heat is being released.

11 The inside of a haystack


gets very hot

12 A dead mouse rots

New substances are made.

13 A plant makes its food by


photosynthesis

New substances (e.g. glucose for the


plant) are made. Energy is released.

14 Digesting food

15 Margarine is melted

16 Sugar is burnt to make


toffee

17 Bleach turns a stain white

18 Bread is toasted

19 Bacteria break down a


compost

20 Lemon juice stings in a


cut

21 Antiperspirants stop you


sweating

22 The a soft drink goes fizzy


when its top is released

23 Bicarbonate of soda fizzes


and bubbles when vinegar
is added

24 A cold pack quickly cools


when snapped

Physical since some digestion is


mechanical breaking the food into smaller
pieces e.g. teeth, peristalsis. Chemical
since saliva, stomach acids and enzymes
break down food into simpler substances.
Change of state is physical.
New substance (toffee) is made.
Permanent colour change.
Physical since bread is dried out first.
Chemical since dried bread is then partly
burnt.
New substances are made. Heat is
released.
New substances are made.
New substances formed (an insoluble
hydroxide instead of sweat).
Carbon dioxide was always there, dissolved
in the drink. Releasing the pressure allows
it to escape.
New substances formed, one being a gas
(bubbles).
New substances formed. Heat absorbed
from surroundings.

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A N S W E R S

2.2

Change

2: Chemical change

Chemical and physical changepage 2

Physical?

Chemical?

Reason for your choice

25 An iron nail is coated in


copper when placed in a
blue solution

Metal is deposited on another.

26 Using soap in hard water


produces soap scum

New substance (scum) forms.

27 A glow-worm lights up

Energy released.

28 H2O(s) H2O(l)
29 2H2 + O2 2H2O
30 NaCl(s) NaCl(aq)
31 Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2

No change in substances. Was water and


still is water.

New substances formed.


No change in substances. Salt has simply
dissolved.

New substances formed.

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A N S W E R S

2.3

2: Chemical change

Classifying reaction types

1 a decomposition
b combustion
c combination
d neutralisation
e precipitation
f decomposition
g displacement
h neutralisation
i combustion
j neutralisation
k displacement
l precipitation
m combustion
n precipitation
o neutralisation
p displacement
q neutralisation
r precipitation
2 a 2Mg + O2 2MgO
b H2 + Cl2 2HCl
c 4P + 5O2 P4O10
d CO2 + H2O H2CO3 (already balanced)
e 2SO2+ O2 2SO3
f 2CO + O2 2CO2
g 4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3
3 a 2NaN3 2Na + 3N2
b 2H2O 2H2 + O2
c 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2
d 2H2O2 2H2O + O2
e 2Pb3O4 6PbO + O2
4 a Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KCl(aq) PbCl2 + 2KNO3(aq)
b Al2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH 2Al(OH)3 + 3Na2SO4
5 a 2Fe + O2 2FeO
b C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
c CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
d 2C3H6 + 9O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
6 a 2KOH + H2SO4 K2SO4 + 2H2O
b CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2+ CO2 + H2O
c CO2 + 2NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O
d BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2HCl
e 2HCl + CaO CaCl2 + H2O
f 2HNO3 + Na2CO3 2NaNO3 + H2O + CO2
g H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O
h 2NH4Cl + CaO CaCl2 + H2O + 2NH3
7 a Fe + 3AgNO3 Fe(NO3)3 + 3Ag
b 2CuCl + Zn ZnCl2 + 2Cu
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A N S W E R S

2.4

2: Chemical change

Acids, bases and the pH scale

1 pH 7
2 a dilute nitric acid (pH 1.0)
b toothpaste/milk (pH 6.8)
c dilute caustic soda (pH 13.0)
d cream cleanser (pH 8.8)
e toothpaste/milk (pH 6.8)
3
pH

litmus

bromothymol
blue

methyl
orange

phenolphthalein

universal
indicator

Ajax floor cleaner

10.0

blue

blue

yellow

change

blue

ammonia solution

11.0

blue

blue

yellow

pink

violet

Brasso brass polish

9.5

blue

blue

yellow

change

blue

calcium hydroxide
solution

11.9

blue

blue

yellow

pink

violet

carpet shampoo

5.9

change

yellow

yellow

colourless

yellow

cream cleanser

8.8

blue

blue

yellow

change

green

dilute caustic soda

13.0

blue

blue

yellow

pink

deep violet

dilute nitric acid

1.0

red

yellow

redorange

colourless

deep red

dishwashing liquid

5.5

red

yellow

yellow

colourless

orange

Jif cleaner

11.0

blue

blue

yellow

pink

violet

lemon juice

2.5

red

yellow

redorange

colourless

deep red

milk

6.8

change

change

yellow

colourless

yellow

oranges

3.2

red

yellow

change

colourless

red

oven spray

12.5

blue

blue

yellow

pink

deep violet

tea

5.2

red

yellow

yellow

colourless

orange

toothpaste

6.8

change

change

yellow

colourless

yellow

vinegar

2.9

red

yellow

redorange

colourless

red

wine

3.8

red

yellow

change

colourless

red-orange

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A N S W E R S

2.5

2: Chemical change

pH levels of common drinks

1 Cola

6 1 The probe still had acid on it. 2 The


probe was faulty. 3 The water sample was
contaminated.

2 Milk
3 Any three of: water, milk, coffee, tea
4 To remove any drink from the probe that might
have contaminated the next test.
5 If the previous drink was not fully washed off
the probe it would record a pH for water that
was less or greater than 6.49.

A N S W E R S

2.6

7 1 More than one drink should have been


sampled. 2 The temperature should have been
kept constant. 3 Distilled water should have
been used for the control.

2: Chemical change

A neutralisation reaction

Volume of carbon dioxide (mL)

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
Mass of sodium carbonate (g)

0.4

0.45

0.5

2 Because all the acid was reacted. In the earlier experiments, up to 0.25 g of sodium carbonate, only
part of the acid was being consumed.
3 From the graph, 0.27 g of sodium carbonate.
4
stopper
glass syringe
with well-greased
plunger

side-arm
flask

hydrochloric
acid

Alternatively,
displacement of
water could be
used to collect
the gas.

calcium
carbonate

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2: Chemical change

2.7

A N S W E R S

Chemical reactions crossword


'

7
/

I

E B K J

?

?

H

9 7 K I

7

'+

?

J ?

E D

?

('

((

H
E

9 ? :

9
(+

E
'*

9
B

J > ; H C ? 9

''

D : E

I 7

J

L ;

;

?
()

H
'/

O
(&

'.

?

7
')

>

9 E C F E K D :

7 9 J

; 7 9 J 7
 D J I

'(

',

>

9
'-

H ;

E
'&

E D

D : ? 9 7 J E H

(*

:


: ; 9 E C F E
D

I

J
?

I F B 7

9 ; C ; D J

J
?
(,

F H ; 9

? F

?

J 7 J

? E D

(-

C ; J 7 B I

A N S W E R S

2.8

2: Chemical change

Sci-words

Unit 2.1

Unit 2.2

Unit 2.3

Unit 2.4

polyatomic
transition
ammonium
sulfate
diatomic
covalent
penta
supersaturated

physical
chemical
decomposers
endothermic
exothermic
bioluminescence

combination
diatomic
decomposition
precipitation
neutralisation
combustion
displacement

acid
base
corrosive
caustic
indicator
water

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A N S W E R S

3.1

3: Light

Revising reflection

1 Various answers possible.


2
i

incident ray

reflected ray
angle of incidence

angle of reflection

normal

3 a a = 60, b = 60, c = 30
b d = 70, e = 20, f = 70
c g = 50, h = 50, i = 40, j = 50, k = 40, l = 40, m = 50
4 The incoming and final outgoing light rays in part c in Question 3 are parallel.
5

2m

2m

1m

1m

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A N S W E R S

3.2

3: Light

Refractionpage 1

1 As per Science Dimensions 3 Figure 3.1.4.


2

c
air
glass

refractive
index 1.5
refractive
index 1.1

air
water

e
air
air
glass

perspex

5 As per Science Dimensions 3 Figure 3.1.13.


real cloud

cool air
warm air

mirage cloud

bent rays travelling


through cool and
warm air

4 As per Science Dimensions 3 Figure 3.1.8.

Total
internal
reflection

air
water

7 As shown in the previous answer.

apparent depth

real depth

bottom
point

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A N S W E R S

3.3

1 n1 = 1.0, 1 = 70
n2 = 1.33, 2 = ?
n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2
1.0 sin 70 = 1.33 sin 2
2 = 1.0 sin 70
1.33
2 = 45

2 n1 = ?, 1 = 40
n2 = 1.0, 2 = 57
n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2
n1 sin 40 = 1.0 sin 57
n1 = 1.0 sin 57
sin 40
n1 = 1.3

3: Light

Snells law
3 n1 = 1.33, 1 = ?
n2 = 1.0, 2 = 36
n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2
1.33 sin 1 = 1.0 sin 36
sin 1 = 1.0 sin 36
1.33
2 = 26.2

4 n1 = 1.33, 1 = 15
n2 = ?, 2 = 17
n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2
1.33 sin 15 = n2 sin 17
n2 = 1.33 sin 15
sin 17
2 = 1.18

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A N S W E R S

3: Light

3.4

Ray tracing for mirrors

YedYWl[c_hheh

eX`[Yj

\eYki
_cW][

Wn_i

YedYWl[c_hheh

eX`[Yj

\eYki

Wn_i

_cW][

YedYWl[c_hheh

eX`[Yj

\eYki

Wn_i

_cW][

focus

concave mirror

object

axis

image

5 The image increases in size and moves further away from the mirror.

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3.5

A N S W E R S

3: Light

Ray tracing for lensespage 1

Convex lenses
1

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3.5

A N S W E R S

3: Light

Ray tracing for lensespage 2

5
I
O

Concave lenses
6

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3.5

A N S W E R S

3: Light

Ray tracing for lensespage 3

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A N S W E R S

3.5

3: Light

Ray tracing for lensespage 4

10

In a convex lens
11 The image moves further away on the other side of the lens and increases in size.
12 The image moves closer to the lens on the same side and decreases in size.
13 When the object is closer than one focal length to the lens.
14 When the object is further than one focal length from the lens.

In a concave lens
15 The image moves closer to the lens on the same side and increases in size.
16 The image moves closer to the lens on the same side and increases in size.
17 For any object position
18 Never

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3: Light

3.7

A N S W E R S

Light crossword
2

S
3

P
E

13

M A

10

14

N
I

15

V
Y

27

M M U
E

26

M A

12

X
N

20

24

3.8

11

F
R

28

O N
N

N G

T
I
B

29

L
I

19

I
D

A
30

M A

21

N
C

16

A N S W E R S

M
C

18

P
25

N O

L
23

P
22

17

O
I

O W

3: Light

Sci-words

Unit 3.1

Unit 3.2

Unit 3.3

refraction
normal
density
apparent
critical
endoscope

convex
concave
focus
magnification
axis
real
virtual
inverted
diminished
enlarged
binoculars

primary
spectrum
dispersion
scattering
rainbow
magenta
filter
absorption
complementary
black
yellow

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A N S W E R S

4.1

4: Origin of the universe

Big Bang to the present

present day

Big Bang

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A N S W E R S

1 a


Mercury (92):


4.2

4: Origin of the universe

Time travel

92 106/3 105
= 306.7 seconds
= 306.7/60
= 5.11 minutes

b Venus (42):


42 106/3 105
= 140 seconds
= 140/60
= 2.33 minutes

c Mars (78):


78 106/3 105
= 260 seconds
= 260/60
= 4.33 minutes

d Jupiter (628):


628 106/3 105


= 2093.3 seconds
= 2093.3/60
= 34.89 minutes

e Saturn (1250):



1250 106/3 105


= 4166.7 seconds
= 4166.7/60
= 69.44 minutes
= 1.16 hours

2725 106/3 105


= 9083.3 seconds
= 9083.3/60
= 151.38 minutes
= 2.52 hours

Uranus (2725):



g Neptune (4350):



4350 106/3 105


= 14 500 seconds
= 14 500/60
= 241.67 minutes
= 4.03 hours

h Alpha Centauri (4.27): 4.2/2.5



= 1.71 years
i

Betelgeuse (520):

Crab Nebula (4000): 4000/2.5



= 1600 years

520/2.5
= 208 years

2 a 9.1 years
b 230 years
c 50 million years

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4.3

4: Origin of the universe

Future civilisations

Ability to control energy


1

can communicate
with aliens

can alter
the Sun

can trap
Suns energy
with Dyson
sphere

can control
entire galaxy

can control
a black hole

can control
thousands of
galaxies

A N S W E R S

l
stria
indu
n
lutio
revo

infor
ma i
t
on
revo
lutio
n

Ability to process information


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1
3

4: Origin of the universe

4.4

A N S W E R S

Origin of the universe crossword


2

O N

G
P
10

L
11

A
I
E

H
12

15

19

L
16

25

T
E

M
H

24

26

H
Y

T
E

S
T

17

U
V

13

4.5

W A

P
S

I
22

D
23

A N S W E R S

V
21

W
18

A
N

14

A
I

N G
20

T H

U M

4: Origin of the universe

Sci-words

Unit 4.1

Unit 4.2

Unit 4.3

expanding
Doppler
spectrum
wavelength
red
bang

billion
singularity
inflated
antimatter
quarks
hydrogen
helium
straight
Wilson
COBE
dark
planets

habitable
Pioneer
light
microwave
terrestrial
Phoenix

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A N S W E R S

5.3

5: The fragile crust

Where are the ocean trenches?


page 1

1 Refer to map on next page with positions of trenches.


2 Refer to map on next page with positions of trenches.
3 Ocean trenches occur at boundaries where an ocean plate collides with a continental plate and sinks
under it, the sink forming the trench.
4 The molten rock from the subduction zone is full of dissolved gases, making it lighter than the
surrounding rock. It thus pushes upwards, forming volcanoes or a chain of volcanic islands. The upper,
continental plate also thickens on collision, often forming a folded mountain range.
5 As the ocean plate sinks, it begins to melt and return to the mantle below. The ocean plate is thus
gradually destroyed as it sinks beneath the continental plate.
6 The subduction zone is a region of molten rock caused by the friction between the two plates.
7 Trenches are at the boundary where a continental shelf meets an ocean plate. The edge of the plate will
often follow the coast of the continent itself.
8 Eroded matter flows down the rivers of the continents and into the oceans. This matter will settle into
the deepest sections of the ocean, partly filling the trenches.
9 Because of their immense depth, the apparent lack of life there and the lack of knowledge and physical
exploration of them. To science fiction writers, anything could and does live down there.
10 The Deep

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5: The fragile crust

5.3

',&;
'*&;
'(&;
'&&;
.&;
,&;
*&;
(&;
&
(&M
*&M
,&M
.&M
'&&M
'(&M
'*&M
',&M
'.&
,&I

*&I

(&I

&

(&D

*&D

,&D

.&D

'.&

',&M

'*&M

'(&M

'&&M

.&M

,&M

*&M

(&M

&

(&;

&

*&;

,&;

.&;

 (&&&  *&&&ac

'&&;

'(&;

'*&;

',&;

'.&

Where are the ocean trenches?


page 2

'.&

A N S W E R S

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A N S W E R S

5.4

5: The fragile crust

Where do quakes happen?page 1

1 Refer to the map on next page with positions of earthquakes marked.


2 Longitude is a measure in degrees from 0 to 360. 180 is halfway around the globe, regardless of which
way, east or west, you go.
3 From the plotted earthquakes, the stable continents are mainland Asia, Europe and Australia.
4 According to the map: the USA (west coast), Mexico, Malaysia, Indonesia (Java), the Philippines, Japan,
Papua New Guinea, the countries along the west coast of South America (Peru, Chile and Bolivia),
the countries of North Africa (Libya, Egypt and Sudan), the island countries of the Caribbean (or West
Indies) and some Pacific Island countries.
5 Los Angeles (USA), Mexico City (Mexico), Tokyo (Japan), Manila (Philippines), Jakarta (Indonesia),
Tripoli (Libya), Khartoum (Sudan), Rabaul (PNG) and Anchorage (Alaska) are all cities that are on or
close to major earthquake zones and are therefore likely to suffer frequent quakes.
6 The locations of the plotted quakes follow the boundaries of the plates.
7 Plate boundaries are where any movement of the plates will become obvious.
8 Separation, collision and sliding will all happen along these boundaries, causing earthquakes.
9 Underwater quakes will often cause a tsunami (tidal wave) that can then pound and drown lengths of
coastline, its villages and towns.

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,&I

*&I

(&I

'&I

&

'&D

(&D

'.&

',&M

',&M

'(&M

'&&M

'*&M

'(&M

'&&M

I_j[e\cW`eh[Whj^gkWa[

'*&M

.&M

.&M

,&M

,&M

*&M

*&M

(&M

(&M

&

&

(&;

(&;

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

*&;

&

*&;

.&;

'&&;

,&;

.&;

'&&;

 (&&&  *&&&ac

,&;

'(&;

'(&;

'*&;

'*&;

',&;

',&;

'.&

'.&

5.4

*&D

,&D

.&D

'.&

A N S W E R S

5: The fragile crust

Where do quakes happen?page 2

A N S W E R S

5.5

5: The fragile crust

Comparing P and S waves

1 The epicentre
2 The focus. A body wave travels through the
Earth. Surface waves travel around the globe,
not through it.
3 P and S are body waves and L is a surface wave.
4 P is a longitudinal wave and S and L are
transverse waves.
5 P stands for primary, S for secondary and L for
Love.
6 a 2.5 minutes
b 7.8 minutes
7 a 7.1 minutes
b 11.9 minutes
8 a 3.4 minutes
b 13.3 minutes
9 L is the slowest, followed by S, then P. The
graph shows that S, then L, take longer times to
travel the same distance as the P wave.

A N S W E R S

Earthquake 1

J8

Earthquake 2

G5H5

Earthquake 3

N15

Earthquake 4

I8

5.6

10 P: average speed is 780 km/min;


S: 420 km/min; L: 300 km/min
11 a 4 minutes
b 7.1 minutes
c 10 minutes
12 3 minutes
13 a 4.4 minutes
b 6.6 minutes
14 A seismometer is a device that measures the
energy of a quake. A seismograph is the graph it
produces.
15 Quake 10.34, P waves arrive at 10.41, S waves
arrive at 10.46, and L waves arrive at 10.51
16 a 5000 km
b 3300 km
17 The first and last waves would arrive about
8 minutes apart.

5: The fragile crust

Locating the epicentre

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A N S W E R S

5.7

5: The fragile crust

Volcanoes: where are they?page 1

1 Refer to map on the next page, showing positions of volcanoes.


2 Because both occur at plate boundaries.
3 See map on next page.
4 A volcano is probably due to a hot spot if it does not coincide with a plate boundary.
5 See map on next page.
6 Hot-spot volcanoes move with the plate on which they sit.
7 Kauai is in the far west and so is the oldest, having formed and moved west first. The most volcanic
would be Hawaii, being the most easterly and thus relatively new.

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Volcanoes: where are they?page 2

%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

7
7
7
7
7
7


7

7

2INGOF&IRE
3

3

3

3

.

.

.

.

.



7

7

6OLCANO

7

7

7

7

7

7

%

&

%

%

%

 (&&&  *&&&ac

%

%

%

%



5.7

5: The fragile crust



A N S W E R S

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5: The fragile crust

5.8

A N S W E R S

The fragile crust crossword

A N

A
5

G O

10

11

W A

C O

O
I

15

N
19

S
R

T
U

R
S

I
25
27

28

C O

G M

29

A N S W E R S

Unit 5.1
supercontinent
Pangaea
Gondwana
Laurasia
crust
mantle
convection current
tectonic plates

Unit 5.2
boundary
spreading boundaries
collision boundaries
transform boundaries

N
R

5.9

T
13

F
R

O
E

16

22

N
26

B
30

N
L

I
U

23

24

O N

M A

20

D
Y

M A

21

12

U
18

17

A
L

14

E
O

5: The fragile crust

Sci-words

conservative
destructive
rift valley
magma
subduction zone

Unit 5.3
focus
seismic waves
body waves
surface waves
primary waves
secondary waves
Rayleigh waves
Love waves

longitudinal waves
refraction
seismologist
seismometer
seismograph
focus
epicentre
energy
Mercalli
aftershock
tsunami

Unit 5.4
normal fault
transcurrent fault
fault scarp

horst
graben
plastic
syncline
anticline
unconformity
sedimentary
shield cone
cinder cone
composite cone
volcanic plug
igneous rock
igneous intrusion
hot spot
kerogen
hydrocarbon

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A N S W E R S

6.1

6: Ecosystems

A food web

2 Many answers are possible.


This is one example.
shark

3 The food pyramid indicates that the number of


organisms in one level must be greater than the
number of organisms in the trophic level above,
in order to supply enough energy for that level.

seals
big fish
sardines
seaweed

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6.2

A N S W E R S

6: Ecosystems

Food chains and food webs

1 There are many possible food chains that can be created. Three examples are shown below.
4th order consumers
3rd order consumers
2nd order consumers
1st order consumers

Producers

birds

larger fish

smaller fish

tadpoles

phytoplankton

birds

small fish

larger water plants

birds

larger fish

smaller fish

mosquito larvae

phytoplankton

2
BIRDS
FUNGI
LARGERlSH

WATERSNAILS
SMALLERlSH

FRESHWATERMUSSELS

BACTERIA
TADPOLES

MOSQUITOLARVAE
WATERmEAS

WORMS
PHYTOPLANKTON

LARGEWATERPLANTS

DECOMPOSITION

NUTRIENTS
RECYCLED

3 Many examples are possible. One is given below.


birds
larger fish
smaller fish
tadpoles
phytoplankton

4 The pyramid follows a food chain from bottom to top. There are always more organisms at the bottom of
a food chain, and this is shown in a pyramid for that chain.

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A N S W E R S

6.3

6: Ecosystems

Cycles in nature

1 As per Science Dimensions 3 Figure 6.2.3.


2
photosynthesis
atmospheric CO2
burning

respiration

fossil fuels

C in earth

decomposers

3 As per Science Dimensions 3 Figure 6.2.9.

A N S W E R S

6.4

6: Ecosystems

Too big for our boots!

1 They provide us with all our resources such as


food, fuel, shelter and minerals, and recycle our
wastes, including carbon dioxide.
2 Plants absorb water and use it in photosynthesis,
combining it with carbon dioxide.
3 Into plants through leaves and then
photosynthesis.
4 Dead remains of plants and animals form fossil
fuel. Wood from plants can be used as fuels, as
can other organic matter as biogas.
5 Provides food through plants. Plants recycle
carbon dioxide from the air and make oxygen.
6 Natureall are provided by natural cycles.
7 It is the land area required to sustain our level
of resource consumption and waste disposal.
8 1 hectare or 10 000 sq m

9 The resources that support our lives are very


distant and therefore the impact is hidden. Also
people only tend to act when a problem affects
them personally.
10 10/2.5 = 4. It is currently four times greater than
the world average.
11 Answers will vary.
12 Answers will vary.
13 We are currently four times the worlds average
footprintour foot is too big for the worlds
average boot. We use far too many resources in
an unsustainable way.
14 Improve the efficiency of our resource use.
Reduce the amount of waste produced. Increase
productivity.
15 Plant trees, compost kitchen waste, walk/ride to
school, grow my own vegetables, etc.

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

6: Ecosystems

6.5

A N S W E R S

Energy in the community

1 4500 kJ

4 a six-pack of diet drinks (375 mL cans)


6 5000 = 30 000 kJ

2 5 cans = 5 5000 = 25 000 kJ


5 375 mL cans = 1875 mL
Saving: 25 000 14 500 = 10 500 kJ
3 Glass jar = 5000 kJ
Steel can = 4000 kJ
Saving: 5000 4000 = 1000 kJ

5 cans of baked beans


5 4000 = 20 000 kJ

1 jar of peanut butter


1 5000 = 5000 kJ

1 litre of oil (glass bottle)


1 14 500 = 14 500 kJ

6: Ecosystems

6.6

A N S W E R S

two 2-litre containers of milk


2 14 500 = 29 000 kJ

Ecosystems crossword

2
4

11

A
I

N
I

T
14

A
L

12

D
E

10

R
19

C O

U M
22

H
24

M A

D
I

E
U

17

G
R
S

E
R

T
E

P
26

O
N

13

20

23

J
U

I
N

15

P
I

I
O

N
R

C
25

16

18

21

S
E

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

A N S W E R S

6.7

6: Ecosystems

Sci-words

Unit 6.1

Unit 6.2

Unit 6.3

biotic
joule
matter
producers
consumers
ectothermic
endothermic

abiotic
organic matter
inorganic matter
stomata
photosynthesis
respiration
digestion
decomposition
nitrogen fixation

non-renewable resources
renewable resources
fossil fuels
nuclear fission
geothermal
hydro-electricity
biomass
conservation

A N S W E R S

1 a
b
c
d
e

7.1

7: Respiration and photosynthesis

Respiration and yeast

glucose
oxygen (gas)
carbon dioxide
water
ethanol (a type of alcohol)

2 Anaerobic respiration is happening because one


of its products is the alcohol that is present in
beer, wine and champagne.
3 Kneading mixes air containing oxygen gas into
the dough.

6 If the dough was left to rise in a hotter spot then


the yeast would grow much faster, making more
carbon dioxide and producing bigger bubbles.
This would make a very holey bread.
7 Anaerobic respiration causes the dough to rise
in the oven because it makes the alcohol which
gives the smell that comes when bread is baked.
8 The bread would retain the alcohol and give
you all the effects that alcohol from a wine or
beer would give.

4 The gas carbon dioxide will form small bubbles


in the dough, making it enlarge and rise.
5 Storing the dough in the fridge (about 4C)
slows its rise because yeast does not grow as fast
in colder conditions.

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A N S W E R S

4.1
7.2

7: Respiration and photosynthesis

Cell diagrams
Asthma

1 See Figure 7.2.1 in Science Dimensions 3.


2 Triggers include dust, smoke, irritants, chemicals and exercise.
3 The airways become narrower. This is caused by the contraction of the airway muscles with swelling
and inflammation of the airway lining. This then leads to the production of excess mucus, which further
restricts airflow. The result is a reduced amount of air going in and out of the lungs.
4 Wheezing, chest tightness, breathlessness and sometimes coughing.
5 Reliever and preventer medication.
6 A reliever relaxes the muscles of the airway, allowing them to open and produce normal breathing.
A preventer reduces swelling and inflammation of the airways, which helps reduce excess mucus
production.
7 The normal airways are open, not inflamed or irritated, and produce a little bit of mucus.
The asthma sufferer would have a swollen, inflamed lining that may be producing excess mucus, even
between attacks.

A N S W E R S

7.3

7: Respiration and photosynthesis

Other respiratory systems

1 These organisms are too large to allow gases to move directly from the atmosphere to all body cells.
2 The movement of gases across the lining requires a moist surface.
3 a Large surface area and moist surface.
b Insectoxygen moves directly from the air to the tissues; fishoxygen moves from water into the
bloodstream.
c Large surface area and moist surface.

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A N S W E R S

7.4

7: Respiration and photosynthesis

The effect of temperature on


photosynthesis

1 a Carbon dioxide, water.


b Glucose (sugar), oxygen.
c Light, chlorophyll.
chlorophyll

2 a 6CO2 + 6H2O

light

C6H12O6 + 6O2
b A lighted splint will flare when placed
in the oxygen gas.
3 a The rate of most chemical reactions
increases as the temperature
increases.
b At these higher temperatures the
enzymes involved in photosynthesis are
altered (denatured). Without effective
enzymes, the rate of reaction slows.

Bubbles per minute

50

4 Carbon dioxide level and light intensity.

A N S W E R S

7.5

40

30

20

20

30

40

Temperature (C)

7: Respiration and photosynthesis

Photosynthesis and respiration

All organisms require energy to carry out their life


functions. The Sun is the ultimate source of energy
for all life on Earth.
During photosynthesis plants use the energy
from the Sun to make food. Photosynthesis is a
chemical reaction in which water and carbon
dioxide react to form oxygen and glucose. Glucose
is the chemical in which the energy is stored.
Chlorophyll is a pigment in plants that absorbs the
sunlight. The chlorophyll is contained in structures
called chloroplasts inside the leaf cells.
This stored energy is available to be used later.
The energy in glucose is released in a process called
respiration. Both plants and animals release energy
in this way.
In respiration, glucose reacts with oxygen to form
the products carbon dioxide and water.
Respiration and photosynthesis would occur very
slowly without enzymes to act as catalysts and speed
up the reactions.

2 a Photosynthesis:
light

3 a
4 a
b

c
5 a
b
c
d

water + carbon dioxide oxygen + glucose


Respiration:
oxygen + glucose water + carbon dioxide
(+ energy)
B
b A
Oxygen
The rate of gas production would increase,
as more light increases the rate of
photosynthesis.
Insert a glowing splint and it should burst
into flames.
Carbon dioxide
Insert a lighted splint and it should go out (or
limewater test).
Yes
Oxygen from photosynthesis, as the set-up
is now in the light. And carbon dioxide, as
respiration goes on all the time.

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

7: Respiration and photosynthesis

7.6

A N S W E R S

Leaves

1 See Figure 7.4.2 in Science Dimensions 3.


2
mesophyll cells

loosely packed cells that give this part of the leaf a spongy appearance;
loose packing allows large spaces for gases to move between the cells

phloem cells

carries food and glucose away from the leaf

air space

spaces in the leaf where gases move around cells

lower epidermal cells

transparent layer of cells on the bottom of the leaf that act like a skin

upper epidermal cells

transparent layer of cells on the top of the leaf that act like a skin

cuticle

waxy waterproof layer that reduces loss of water from the leaf

stomata

small openings on the leaf surface

xylem cells

supplies water to the leaf

palisade cells

this layer is tightly packed and contains large numbers of chloroplasts; a large
amount of photosynthesis occurs here

chloroplast

structure in plant cells that contains the green chlorophyll

guard cells

cells that change the size of the stomatal openings, allowing stomata to open
and close

T
M
A

H
R

21

O
M

I
N

11

C H

13

O
N

L
O

19

C A

16

17

S
Y

20

25

L
14

E
O

C
12

27

P
M

S
10

D
26

22

O
B

24

O
L

23

P
6

A
E

15

18

Repiration and photosynthesis


crossword

L
5

O
9

7: Respiration and photosynthesis

7.7

A N S W E R S

S
E

O
28

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

7.8

A N S W E R S

7: Respiration and photosynthesis

Sci-words

Unit 7.1

Unit 7.2

Unit 7.3

Unit 7.4

respiration
glucose
carbon dioxide
enzymes
metabolism
ATP
mitochondria
anaerobic
lactic acid
ethanol
fermentation
BMR
glycogen

windpipe
alveolus
epiglottis
diffusion
haemoglobin
diaphragm
exhaled air
capillaries

oxygen
carbon dioxide
chlorophyll
chloroplasts
destarching
iodine
cellulose
light reaction
light intensity

cuticle
stomata
xylem cells
phloem cells
palisade cells
mesophyll cells
epidermis
guard cells
xanthophyll
green

8.1

A N S W E R S

8: Responding and controlling

Reaction times

1 The stimulus for your actions is the car backing


out in front of you.
2 Fear, sweating, shaking, developing a red face
3 Braking, swerving, speeding up, deliberately fall
off
4 Various answers possible. All appropriate with
reasons.
5 Possible reasons for difference in the reaction
times include laboratory testing is not the real
world; in lab testing the subject is aware of
7

what is happening and is therefore more alert;


real drivers have other distractions; an average
includes those driving under the influence of
alcohol; elderly drivers etc. who have longer
reaction times.
6 Factors that might dull reactions and increase
reaction time include alcohol or drugs in the
blood; fatigue; age (older people generally have
slower reaction times); distractions such as
mobile phones or music.

Speed in m/s

1.1

12

18

24

28

334

Speed in km/h

43

65

88

100

1200

What travels at
this speed

Not
moving

Walking
briskly

Sprinter

Greyhound

Antelope

Cheetah

Sound in
air

Average
0.5
reaction times of
between 0.2 and
1.0 seconds

0.5

0.3

0.8

1.0

0.2

0.6

Reaction
distance in
metres if you
could travel at
this speed

0.55

3.6

14.4

24

5.6

200.4

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

A N S W E R S

8.2

8: Responding and controlling

The nervous system

1 It allows our body to detect stimuli, process


information and react.

8 Fastest: 1.8/180 = 0.01 seconds.


Slowest: 1.8/0.4 = 4.5 seconds.

2 a The neuron
b The neuron consists of the cell body, an
axon and dendrites.

9 a

3 Sensory and motor


4 Heat, pain, cold, touch, light, sound etc.
5 Muscle or gland

7 A chemical called a neurotransmitter carries the


impulse across the gap.

8.3

11 e
12 Dendrites
13 d
14 Nucleus

6 The gap between two neurons

A N S W E R S

10 Up

15 c

8: Responding and controlling

Concussion in football

1 Concussion is when the bodys nervous function shuts down following a mild injury to the brain.
2 Amnesia
3 At least 7 days
4 It reduces the brains capacity to process information at its normal rate.
5 It may be due to the neurons producing less energy to transmit messages. The brain swells and doesnt
function properly.
6 Two players colliding head-on (head clash).
7 A players head being struck by a ball that was kicked from close range; a players head hitting the
ground.
8 E = electro, E = encephalo, G = gram
9 Goalies could be considered non-headers and may have a lower number of neurological problems than
forwards who head the ball more often.

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

A N S W E R S

8.4

8: Responding and controlling

Hormonal control of the menstrual


cycle
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Science Dimensions 3 Homework Book Answers Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

A N S W E R S

8.5

8: Responding and controlling

Diabetes type I

1 Juvenile diabetes. It usually occurs in childhood.


2 An auto-immune reaction destroys about 90% of
the cells that produce insulin in the pancreas.
3 A number of daily injections of the hormone are
required.
4 The bodys cells cannot process glucose, which
they need for energy. To get energy the body
begins to use its own fat as a substitute and
this causes dangerous chemical substances to
accumulate in the blood.
5 Calculation is 7% of 15%. That is, 0.07 0.15 =
0.0105 = 1.05%

6 They are classified by how long they act for


short, intermediate or long.
7 Onset when the insulin starts to work.
Peak when it is working hardest.
Duration how long it works for.
8 NPH and Long (L)
9 Ultralong (UL)
10 Humalog. Because of the fast onset and short
peak.
11 Answers will vary.

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A N S W E R S

Action

8.6

8: Responding and controlling

Behaviour

Innate behaviour
Reflex
Instinct

Learned behaviour
Habituation Trial and
error

Conditioning

Walking on ice for the


first time

Ignoring a dog that


always barks
Gagging at the smell
of vomit

Toilet training of a
toddler

Washing your hands


after the toilet

Crying when cutting


onions

Crying when watching


a film

Building a shed

Cats chase mice


Ticklishness

Playing a new
computer game

A dog scratches at the


door to come in

Freeing a kitten
trapped in a drain
Dogs bark at cats

Mixing colours with


paints

Living on a noisy road


Worms bury
underground
Avoiding touching a
stove

Insight

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

8: Responding and controlling

8.7

A N S W E R S

Responding and controlling


crossword
1

T
E

C
T
21

R
I

N
U

G
H O

L U M

R
U

E
27

H A

M O

22

23

25

L E

I
28

S
E
O

I
26

O M

20

R
E

S
P
O
N

S
E

T
O

N
E

U
S

T
H

N
13

A
X

R
T

8.8

19

S
B

C O

17

A N S W E R S

18

24

C O

15

12

D
O

T
11

16

10

E
P

14

T
8

8: Responding and controlling

Sci-words

Unit 8.1

Unit 8.2

Unit 8.3

Unit 8.4

homeostasis
stimulus
response
receptor
effector
retina
cochlear cells
coordination

reflex
neurotransmitter
cerebellum
meninges
interneurons
synapses
cerebrum
motor neurons
peripheral
sensory neuron
spinal cord
axon
dendrite
medulla
nerve

hormone
pituitary
adrenalin
insulin
hypothalamus
pancreas
testosterone
HGH
auxin
tropisms
pheromones

habituation
imprinting
innate
behaviour
social
reflex
trial and error
instinct
learned
insight

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A N S W E R S

9.1

9: Reproduction

Strange plant sex

1 Cycads have separate male and female plants.


2 A weevil
3 The ripening cones release a strong odour that
attracts the weevils.
4 The mating weevils are covered in pollen, the
male sex cell.

8 The anther and filament, which are called the


stamen
9 The stigma, style, ovary and ovule
10 The male sex cell is the pollen and the female
sex cell is the ovule.
11 Arrow drawn from anther to stigma

5 The female cycad also emits a similar odour to


the male cycad. This draws some of the pollencoated weevils across from the male plant.

12 Pollination is the transfer of pollen from anther


to stigma. Fertilisation is when the pollen and
egg fuse together.

6 Cross-pollination

13 Wind, insects such as bees or ants, animals

7 Self-pollination

A N S W E R S

9.2

9: Reproduction

Male and female reproductive


organspage 1

ureter

bladder

prostate gland

anus
sperm duct

penis
urethra

epididymis

seminiferous
tubules

scrotum
testis

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A N S W E R S

9: Reproduction

9.2

Male and female reproductive


organspage 2

kh[j[h
\Wbbef_Wd
jkX[
el_ZkYj

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elWho

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lW]_dW
kh[j^hW

3 a Ovaries produce eggs and sex hormones.


b The epididymis is a coiled tube in which sperm mature.
c The fallopian tubes are narrow tubes that carry eggs from the ovary to the uterus. This is where
fertilisation occurs.
d The seminiferous tubules produce sperm.
e The uterus is where the foetus develops during pregnancy.

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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

9: Reproduction

9.3

A N S W E R S

Fertility and temperature

1
37.4
37.2

Temperature (C)

37.0
36.8
36.6
36.4
36.2
36.0
35.8

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

Day of month

2 The woman ovulated on day 10.


3 Days 1 to 9, and days 20 to 30
4 Not really, because the temperature fluctuations are small and hard to measure accurately. Also, other
factors could affect body temperature.
5 a Third World countriesmany answers possible, because of poor medical care
b Same as a, because of lack of contraception
c Developed democratic countries, e.g. Australia, because of education and availability of
contraception
d Same as c

A N S W E R S

9.4

9: Reproduction

Stages of pregnancy

1 Male sex cell is sperm. Female sex cell is ovum


or egg.
2 The union of male sperm and female egg.
3 The morula is a clump of up to 80 cells that
forms in the uterus.
4 e fallopian tube
5 Zygote

6 b
7 a, e, d, c, b
8 Foetus
9 Amniotic fluid
10 a umbilical cord. b amniotic fluid.
11 36 weeks

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A N S W E R S

9.5

9: Reproduction

STDs

1
Infection/disease
Able to kill?

Chlamydia

Gonorrhoea

Herpes

HIV/AIDS

Syphilis

depending
on time it is
detected

Is a cure available?

Is STI/STD able to be
treated by antibiotics?

bacteria

virus

oral sex

genital sex

anal sex

non-sexual
contact

pus

sores

flu-like
symptoms

(fever)

but will
reappear
periodically

Caused
by:
Can be
caught
through:

although
difficult
to ignore
symptoms
especially in
men

no
symptoms

(sometimes)

(although
symptoms
may be
difficult
to detect,
especially in
women)

a cap and
diaphragm

a condom

disappearing
Symptoms
can be:

You
can be
protected
if you use:

(sometimes
there are
no flu-like
symptoms
and there are
no more signs
of the disease
until it is fullblown AIDS)

(depends
on sites of
sores)

an IUD

the Pill

(although
symptoms
may be
difficult
to detect,
especially in
women)

2 Some STI/STDs have no symptoms or they are difficult to detect, or the symptoms may have come and
gone again, leading the person to think they are cured.
3 NSU can sometimes be confused with gonorrhoea or chlamydia. All have similar symptoms.
4 a The STI/STD is most likely to be syphilis because it produces a sore and can be treated with
antibiotics. Herpes also produces a sore but cannot be treated with antibiotics.
b He should definitely tell the girl because she is at risk of a life-threatening disease, as are any of her
future and possibly past sexual partners.
c Although the antibiotics should start working immediately it will take some time for his body to be
rid of the bacteria causing the disease. In this time he could pass on the disease.
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This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

I
O

19

O N

M
P

T
A

14

N
18

22

U
24

O N
25

O
27

E
C

O N

9.7

30

O
29

T
28

U
T

C
A

A
I

16

13

12

O N

O
P

L
23

asexual
clone
mutation
budding
regeneration
fission
spore vessels
anther
ovary
cross-pollination
fertilisation
ovum
gamete

A N S W E R S

Unit 9.1

21

L
I

U
H

A
Y

10

A
15

20

26

T
17

S
E

R
11

Reproduction crossword

M
8

Answers
9:
Reproduction
to activities

9.6

A N S W E R S

E
E

9: Reproduction

Sci-words

sexual
flagellum
hormones
ovulation
embryo

oviduct
menstruation
puberty
oestrogen
testosterone

folate
alcohol
rubella
fraternal

Unit 9.2

Unit 9.3

scrotum
cilia
penis
sperm duct
semen
menopause
follicle

copulation
ejaculation
contraception
blastocyst
implantation
embryo
amniotic fluid

sexually transmitted
disease
asymptomatic
herpes
chancre
in vitro

Unit 9.4

Science Dimensions 3 Homework Book Answers Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

A N S W E R S

10.1

10: Forensics

Fingerprints

1 See figure 10.1.7 in Science Dimensions 4 for


diagrams of each fingerprint type.
2 Students should collect three fingerprints.
3 The prints are stuck onto a black surface because the
dust is white, allowing us to better see the patterns.
4 It is easier to see the prints on some surfaces than
others. White powder used on a white surface can
be very hard to see. It is easier to see prints with
the white powder on coloured or dark surfaces.
Students should give examples they experienced.
5 Carbon powder is black so would be used for
dusting light coloured or white surfaces. Using
carbon makes it easier to see the prints in
situations when it is not easy to see them with
white powder.
6 A latent print is caused by the oils and sweat
containing salts, water and amino acids from
your skin remaining on anything you touch.
7 Aluminium powder is used for dark and light
surfaces and glass. Lanconide powder is used
for smooth dark coloured surfaces.
8 Place the piece of paper that you suspect has

A N S W E R S

10.2

a print on it into a jar with iodine. If there is a


print the iodine vapour will stick to the print and
make it visible. (There are also other techniques
that may produce the same outcome).
9 Minutiae are the points at which the ridges in the
fingerprint split or end. These features are unique
and help to identify each persons fingerprints.
The two main types of minutiae are ridge
endings and bifurcations, where a ridge splits.
10 Fingerprints begin to form when a foetus is
about 1012 weeks old. This occurs when the
deeper layers of the skin grow faster than the
skin on the surface of the fingers. This difference
in growth rate causes the skin on top to buckle
and form the ridges and valleys that make up
the fingerprints. The actual pattern is partly
inherited, but the patterns also vary as the foetus
moves and presses on the womb or itself while
fingerprint formation is occurring. This pressure
on the fingertips changes the patterns slightly,
meaning that even identical twins do not have
exactly the same fingerprints.

10: Forensics

Time of death

1 Flies
2 The body was only recently placed in the freezer
since species 1 and 2 are most active in late
spring/early summer or the body had been in the
freezer since last summer.
3 The minimum number of days would have been
2 to 3.
4 The minimum age could be 7.
5 a bed sores = 3 days
eyes/ears = 1 day
b Eggs were laid in the sores before the person
died.
c It is possible since the flies developed in the
last 3 days.
6 a Blow flies, house flies, carrion beetles,
rove beetles
b The body could have been in a location
where insects were unable to access it, such
as in a locked room, or in a very dry location

where fewer insects were found. In each


case insects would not be able to successfully
colonise the body.
7 16 days
8 8 days
9 a A mummy is most likely to form under
hot dry conditions, as to form a mummy a
body must dry our quickly before it decays.
b It may be difficult to determine the time of
death of a mummy because it will not go
through the normal decay cycle of fresh,
bloated, decay and dry. This also means
it will not be colonised by various insect
species at different stages, making it difficult
to determine how long the body has been
dead for.
10 a Most summer, least winter.
b Winter

Science Dimensions 3 Homework Book Answers Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

A N S W E R S

10: Forensics

10.4

D E N T I
I

F
4

Forensics crossword
I

C A T I
A

C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y

R
B I

O M E T R I

O
N
10

O N

7
9

12

A L U M I

N T S
11

V
N I

L O O P S

17

B E R T I

A N S W E R S

Unit 10.1
pathologist
evidence
anthropometry
biometrics
retroactive
Identikit
whorl
retina
DNA

16

U M

15

C
C

N E R T I

L L O N

10.5

14

O R G E R Y
P

13

C S
O

N G E R P R I

10: Forensics

Sci-words

Unit 10.2

Unit 10.3

Unit 10.4

oblique
fluoresce
intaglio
water marks
chromatography

porous
comparison
circumstantial
striation
impressions
diatoms
phreaking

modus operandi
alibi
yaw marks
motive

Science Dimensions 3 Homework Book Answers Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
This page may be photocopied for classroom use.

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: ____________ / 124 marks

Section AMultiple choice (36 marks)


1

Which one of the following is not a property of non-metals? Non-metals are:


A normally gases or liquids at room temperature
B either poor electrical conductors, or non-conductors
C able to be hammered into sheets
D dull, with little or no shine

The atomic number of zinc (Zn) is 30. Therefore, the ion represented by the
symbol 65Zn2+ has:
A 30 protons, 35 neutrons and 28 electrons
B 65 protons, 30 neutrons and 32 electrons
C 30 protons, 65 neutrons and 28 electrons
D 30 protons, 35 neutrons and 32 electrons

The number of neutrons in a neutral atom can be calculated by:


A dividing the mass number of the atom by the atomic number of the atom
B adding together the atomic number and the mass number of the atom
C subtracting the atomic number from the mass number of the atom
D subtracting the mass number from the atomic number of the atom

An atom of chlorine (Cl) has 17 protons, 18 neutrons and 17 electrons. Which


of the following statements is incorrect about the atom of chlorine?
A It has an atomic number of 17.
B The atom would have no overall electrical charge.
C It would be in Period VII.
D It would be in Period 3.

Use the periodic table to determine which of the following statements is


incorrect about chlorine atoms.
A They form the ion Cl.
B Chlorine atoms are smaller than fluorine atoms.
C They are related to F, Br and I.
D Chlorine belongs to the halogen family.

An atom of chlorine has 17 protons, 18 neutrons and 17 electrons. The best


symbol for the atom would be:
A 18
B 17
C 34
D 35
17 Cl
17 Cl
17 Cl
18 Cl

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
7

Which of the following statements concerning the Group VIII elements in the
periodic table is incorrect?
A They are called the noble or inert gases.
B They are very stable and rarely react.
C They are also known as Group O.
D They all contain eight electrons in their outer shells.
The table below shows details of several particles.
Mass
number
39
31

10

12

13

Atomic
number
W
15

Number of
neutrons
19
Y

Number of
electrons
X
17

Overall
charge
+2
Z

The numbers needed to complete the table in the order W, X, Y, Z are:


A 20, 18, 16 and 2
B 20, 22, 16 and +2
C 21, 17, 15 and 0
D 20, 18, 17 and 2

Neutral atoms belonging to the same element always have:


A the same mass number
B the same atomic number
C the same number of neutrons
D more protons than electrons

An atom of uranium has the symbol


A
B
C
D

11

235
92

U. This atom would have:

92 protons, 235 neutrons and 92 electrons


92 protons, 143 neutrons and 92 electrons
92 protons, 143 electrons and 92 neutrons
92 neutrons, 143 protons and 143 electrons

A compound forms when:


A two or more elements chemically combine with each other
B two or more elements are physically mixed together
C a large number of identical atoms join together
D a mixture is separated into its components

The vertical columns in the periodic table are known as:


A periods, and they contain elements with the same number of
outer-shell electrons
B periods, and they contain elements with the same number of used
electron shells
C groups, and they contain elements with the same number of
outer-shell electrons
D groups, and they contain elements with the same number of used
electron shells

An atom of calcium has 20 electrons. Its electron configuration would best be


written as:
A 42
B 20
C 2, 8, 8, 2
D 2, 8, 10
20 Ca

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
14

15

The electron configuration of an element in Period 3, Group IV of the periodic


table is:
A 2, 8, 6
B 2, 8, 8, 3
C 2, 8, 18, 3
D 2, 8, 4
An atom with the electron configuration 2, 8, 5 would be expected to form an
ionic charge of:
A +3

16

18

19

20

21

B 3

C +5

D 5

When an atom in Group II forms an ion, the ion will most likely have a
charge of:
A +2

17

B 2

C +6

An aluminium atom is most likely to form the ion:


A Al3
B Al3+
C Al

D 6

D 3Al

In the flame colour experiment, different metallic salts gave out different
colours when placed in a Bunsen burner flame. This was because:
A the heat from the Bunsen burner caused the electrons to jump to another
shell. Coloured light emerged when they jumped back.
B the heat from the Bunsen burner caused the electrons to make colour
C the electrons are moving very fast around the nucleus
D the light came from the Bunsen burner

Non-metals tend to have:


A high electronegativity, and form positively charged ions
B high electronegativity, and form negatively charged ions
C low electronegativity, and form positively charged ions
D low electronegativity, and form negatively charged ions

A particular element is shiny, malleable and a good conductor of electricity.


Which section of the periodic table would this element not be found in?
A transition elements
B Group I
C Group III
D Group VII

Moving down Group VII in the periodic table, which property would be
expected to decrease?
A the reactivity
B the number of outer-shell electrons in each atom
C the size of atoms
D the melting point

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

Moving down Group I in the periodic table, which property would be expected
to decrease?
A the mass of atoms
B the size of atoms
C the number of used electron shells in each atom
D the electronegativity

The mass of one electron is approximately equal to the mass of:


1
A 1800 protons
B
of a proton
1800
C 1 proton
D 1 neutron

Which of the following is not a physical property of an element?


A melting point
B colour
C reactivity with oxygen
D density

Which of the following lists contains only compounds?


A water (H2O), glucose (C6H12O6) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
B tungsten (W), phosphorus (P) and chlorine (Cl2)
C Vegemite, limewater (Ca(OH)2) and plutonium (Pu)
D salt (NaCl), air and iron (Fe)

Agar is:
A the flat dish metal crystals grow in
B a type of bacteria
C metal crystals
D a jelly

Petri dishes are commonly used:


A in jellyology
C in pathology

B in restaurants
D to eat jelly from

A metal pin is heated in a Bunsen burner, then cooled slowly. This treatment
produces a metal which is:
A harder and more brittle than the original metal
B softer and more brittle than the original metal
C harder and more ductile than the original metal
D softer and more ductile than the original metal

Quenching is when a metal is:


A heated then cooled slowly
B heated then cooled quickly
C the normal state of a metal
D heated, cooled quickly, heated again, then cooled slowly

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
30

31

32

33

34

35
36

In 1869, Mendeleev devised a periodic table. Which of the following did


Mendeleev not do in his periodic table?
A predict properties of undiscovered elements
B list elements with atomic numbers greater than 100
C arrange elements in order of increasing atomic mass
D place elements in vertical columns based on chemical properties

Which of the following elements would be expected to conduct electricity?


A helium (element number 2)
B chlorine (element number 17)
C scandium (element number 21)
D krypton (element number 36)

Calcium forms the compound CaSO4. Use family resemblances to determine


which of the formulas below is most unlikely to exist.
A SrSO4
B GeBr4
C PbI4
D GeF4

Sodium is a Group I element and reacts with water via this equation:
2Na + H2O Na2O + H2. Potassium is also a Group I element which reacts
with water. The most probable equation for this reaction is:
A K + H2O K2O + H2
B 2K + H2O Na2O + H2
C 2K + H2O 2KO + H2
D K + 2H2O KO2 + H2

Look at this reaction: F2 + H2S S + 2HF. Which of the following equations is


most unlikely?
A Cl2 + H2S S + HCl
B Cl2 + H2S S + 2HCl
C Br2 + H2S S + 2HBr
D I2 + H2S S + 2HI

The most likely formula for magnesium iodide is:


A MgI
B Mg2I
C Mg2I

D MgI2

The most likely name for the compound K3P would be:
A potassium phosphorus
B potassium phophorourside
C potassium phosphide
D potassiumide phosphide

Section BWritten answers (88 marks)


1

In a neutral atom, which two particles:


a

are present in equal numbers?

have approximately the


same mass?

have equal but opposite


charges?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
2

Write the electron shell configuration for


each of the following elements:
a

an atom of phosphorus
(atomic number 15)

an atom of potassium
(atomic number 19)

an atom with atomic number 7

an atom in Period 3,
Group VII

the oxide ion (O2)

Give the chemical symbol for


any element:
a

in the same group as


fluorine (F)

in the same period as sodium


(Na)

in the group known as the


alkali metals

that would form ions of


charge 3

What is the most likely name of the


compound MgN?

Complete the following table.


Number
of
protons
10
11
16

Number
of
electrons

Charge
on the
atom
or ion
0

Symbol

Na+

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
6

List three properties of non-metals.

3
7

List three properties of metals.

3
8

Select the element from each pair that


has the stated property.
a

High electronegativity
calcium (Ca) or chlorine (Cl)?

Metalloidsilicon (Si)
or sulfur (S)?

Chemically unreactive
aluminium (Al) or argon (Ar)?

Complete the following table.


Atom and
change

Name
of ion
formed

Symbol
of ion
formed

Magnesium
(Mg) atom
loses two
electrons
Nitrogen (N)
atom gains
three
electrons

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
10

Complete the table below


showing details of the three
main sub-atomic particles.
Particle
proton

Charge

Location

around the
nucleus
neutral

6
11

12

Write the chemical formulas for:


a

calcium oxide

barium iodide

beryllium nitride

aluminium oxide

The flame colours of metal salts are


given in the table below.
Salt
strontium
chloride
sodium chloride
potassium
chloride
barium chloride

Flame colour
red
orange
purple
green

What evidence is there that the colour


came from the metals and not the nonmetal part of the salts?
13

Identify the group of the periodic table


described in each statement below.
a

reactive metals whose atoms


form ions with a charge of +2

reactive non-metals whose


atoms form ions with a
charge of 1

colourless gases whose atoms


are very unreactive

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
14

15

The apparatus shown below may be used


to test a property of several materials.

What property of materials is


being tested?

Which of the materials


listed below would be
expected to cause the
ammeter needle to move when
the switch is closed?
sulfur, lead, copper,
phosphorus

Explain why you chose your


answer for part b.

Give the symbol of a:


a

Period 2 alkali metal

Period 4 element with only


3 outer-shell electrons

Group VII element with


electrons in only 3 shells

member of the lanthanide series

Period 5 transition element

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
16

Use the following list to complete the


table below. Part a has been completed
as an example.
a

Zn and Cr

alkali metals

different forms of the


same element

halogens

first row transition elements

Na and Li

diamond and graphite

group VII elements

Term
allotrope

Description

Examples

Group I
elements
Elements
from
numbers
21 to 30

Cl and F
a

7
17

Five diagrams, labelled v to z, are shown


below. Use the letters v to z to answer
the questions that follow.

Which diagram could represent:


a

an atom of sulfur?

a water molecule (H2O)?

a mixture of two compounds?

the potassium chloride


lattice (KCl)?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
18

19

20

21

22

State one way in which helium (He) is:


a

like all other gases in


Group VIII

different from all other gases in


Group VIII

State one way in which hydrogen (H) is:


a

similar to the Group VII


elements

similar to the Group I elements

Write equations to show the reaction of:


a

Group VII element with H2S to


form sulfur and a strong acid

Group I element with Cl2 to


form a white salt

Match each Group IV element (C, Si,


Ge, Sn, Pb) to its use.
a

a major component of glass

once used extensively


in plumbing

tips of dentist drills

to coat containers for storing


baked beans

a catalyst in fluorescent tubes

Listed below are five atoms using


symbols that are not the usual symbols
of the elements. Use the letters V to Z to
answer the following questions.
40
18

20
10

40
19

39
19

40
20

Which two atoms have the


same number of neutrons?

Which atom has the smallest


mass number?

Which two atoms belong to the


same element?

Which two symbols represent


noble gases?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
23

Which element in each pair (atomic


numbers are given in brackets) is
more reactive?
a

Li (3) and Cs (55)

F (9) and Cl (17)

Na (11) and Mg (12)

O (8) and Ne (10)

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: ____________ / 105 marks

Section AMultiple choice (24 marks)


1

Which of the following involves a chemical change?


A A piece of chocolate becomes soft when warmed.
B Dry ice (solid CO2) is warmed to form gaseous CO2.
C Fireflies glow in the dark.
D Water boils to become steam.

Which of the following lists the metals sodium (Na), gold (Au), iron (Fe) and
copper (Cu), in order of increasing reactivity?
A Na, Fe, Cu, Au
B Au, Cu, Fe, Na
C Fe, Na, Au, Cu
D Cu, Au, Na, Fe
The equation for the overall reaction in photosynthesis is:

energy + 6CO 2(g) + 6H 2O (l) C 6H12O 6(aq) + 6O 2(g)

Photosynthesis is:
A an endothermic process
C a combustion reaction
4

B an exothermic process
D an acidbase reaction

Magnesium is dissolved in acid. Its equation is: Mg + 2HCl + H2.


The missing chemical in the reaction is:
A MgCl
B Mg2Cl
C MgCl2
D 2MgCl
Metals like sodium and calcium are very reactive because they have:
A many outer-shell electrons, and they are readily donated
B a few outer-shell electrons, and they are readily donated
C many outer-shell electrons, and they are not readily donated
D a few outer-shell electrons, and they are not readily donated

Given that the symbol for chromium is Cr, and the formula for the sulfate ion is
SO 24 , the formula for chromium(III) sulfate is:
A CrSO4

B Cr3(SO4)2

C Cr2(SO4)3

D Cr2SO4

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
7

A chemical reaction is represented by the equation shown below.

CaCO 3(s) CaO(s) + CO 2(g)

10

11

12

13

This is an example of a:
A neutralisation reaction
B displacement reaction
C precipitation reaction
D decomposition reaction
During an endothermic reaction:
A energy is released to the surroundings
B the reaction vessel becomes warm
C the products of the reaction have lower energy than the reactants
D heat must be supplied for the reaction to occur
A precipitate is:
A a clear and colourless solution
B a gas
C a solid lump
D a fine solid powder that forms when two solutions are mixed
A precipitate:
A may form when two clear solutions are mixed
B is a soluble salt
C forms because the ions in a solution repel each other
D collects at the surface when two solutions are mixed
Zinc is a more reactive metal than copper. This means that:
A electrons are easily transferred from zinc atoms to copper atoms
B zinc will deposit if copper is placed in a solution containing zinc ions
C copper atoms give up electrons more easily than zinc atoms
D copper will be produced if zinc is placed in a solution containing
copper ions
A weak acid is an acid which:
A easily donates its hydrogen ion to a base
B does not easily donate its hydrogen ion to a base
C has few solute particles dissolved in the solvent
D is highly corrosive
When solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) are
mixed, solid silver chloride (AgCl) forms. Which ions remain dissolved
in the solution?
A Na+ and Cl
C Na+ and NO 3

B Ag+ and Cl
D Ag+ and NO 3

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21
22

An acid reacting with a metal hydroxide to produce salt and water is an example
of a:
A combustion reaction
B displacement reaction
C neutralisation reaction
D decomposition reaction
Reduction occurs when:
A a metal atom forms a positively charged ion
B a non-metal atom forms a negatively charged ion
C two ions combine to form a precipitate
D steam condenses to form liquid water
A combustion reaction:
A always has carbon dioxide as a product
B always has water as a product
C always has oxygen as a reactant
D is always endothermic
Which of the following is a property of bases?
A sour taste
B turn blue litmus red
C react with acids to produce a salt and hydrogen gas
D soapy feel
Which test would show that a gas sample is carbon dioxide? The gas:
A produces a pop noise when a match is placed in it
B causes a flame to flare up
C is odourless and yellow
D produces a precipitate when it is bubbled through a limewater solution
When hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium, the products are:
A salt and hydrogen gas
B salt and water
C salt, carbon dioxide and water
D salt and oxygen gas
A change from pH 3 to pH 5 means that the hydrogen ion present in the
solution:
A decreases by a factor of 2
B increases by a factor of 2
C decreases by a factor of 100
D increases by a factor of 100
What is the pH of pure or distilled water?
A 0
B 5
C 7
D 10
When a base is added to red litmus, it turns:
A red
B the colour of beetroot
C blue
D yellow
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1
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
23

24

A solution of pH 8 is:
A slightly basic
C strongly basic

B slightly acidic
D strongly acidic

100 mL of a solution with pH 10 is added slowly to 900 mL of cold water.


What will be the pH of the diluted solution?
A 8
B 9
C 11
D 12

Section BWritten answers (81 marks)


1

Write a chemical equation for a reaction


where the products are dissolved CaCl2,
gaseous CO2 and liquid H2O. The
reactants are solid CaCO3 and
dissolved HCl.

State three signs that a chemical reaction


has occurred.

3
3

Suggest two reasons why some chemical


reactions do not occur spontaneously.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
4

The table below shows the symbol or


formula of several ions.
Name of ion

Symbol or
formula

magnesium
aluminium
carbonate

Mg2+
Al3+
CO 23

hydroxide
nitride
ammonium

OH
N3
NH +4

Write the chemical formula for:

magnesium nitride

ammonium hydroxide

aluminium carbonate

magnesium hydroxide

Use the information in the previous


question to name these chemicals:
a

Al2(SO4)3

MgCO3

Ca(OH)2

Write the chemical formulas for


these compounds.
a

water

carbon dioxide

hydrogen gas

hydrochloric acid

nitric acid

caustic soda (sodium


hydroxide)

common salt (sodium chloride)

How many atoms of each element are


there in these compounds?
a

Zn(NO3)2

(NH4)2SO4

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
8

Predict the missing chemicals in


these equations:
a

HCl + NaOH NaCl +

2HNO3 + Zn Zn(NO3)2 +

2HCl + CaCl2 + H2O

2HNO3 + Na2CO3
2NaNO3 + H2O +

Balance these chemical equations.


a

Cl2 + H2S S + HCl

CaCO3 + H2SO4
CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O

10

11

CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O

C3H8 + O2 CO2 + H2O

Mg + O2 MgO

Al + O2 Al2O3

Complete each of the following word


equations.
a

acid + base

acid + metal

acid + metal oxide

Name the salt produced when:


a

hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts


with magnesium (Mg)

nitric acid (HNO3) reacts with


barium carbonate (BaCO3)

sulfuric acid (H2SO4) reacts


with iron(II) oxide (FeO)

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
12

13

14

Two clear aqueous solutions, BaCl2 and


Na2SO4, are mixed. A white solid forms.
a

What is the solvent for this


reaction?

What is the name given to a


solid that forms when two
solutions are mixed?

What is the chemical formula


of the solid that formed in
this reaction?

Write a chemical equation for the


reaction between solid zinc (Zn) and an
aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid
(HCl). One of the products of the
reaction is a soluble salt, zinc chloride
(ZnCl2).

The table below shows the solubility of


several ions.
Negative
ion

NO 3
SO 24
Cl

Positive
ion

Solubility of
compounds

all

soluble
2+

2+

Ba Pb
others
Ag+ Pb2+
others

insoluble
soluble
insoluble
soluble

Use this table to help write equations


for the following reactions. You
should include states (aq, s, etc.) in
your equations.
a

Solutions of sodium sulfate


(Na2SO4) and barium chloride
(BaCl2) are mixed.

Solutions of lead(II) nitrate


(Pb(NO3)2) and potassium
chloride (KCl) are mixed.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
15

16

17

The chemical reaction called respiration


gives us energy to stay alive.
a

Write a chemical equation for


the respiration reaction.

Where does this reaction occur?

Is the reaction endothermic or


exothermic?

Write the chemical formula for:


a

dinitrogen pentoxide

phosphorus trichloride

sulfur hexafluoride

List three properties of acids.

3
18

Use any of the terms in the list below


to label each of the reactions shown in
a to d.
decomposition, precipitation,
displacement, combustion,
neutralisation
a

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KCl(aq)
PbCl2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g)
6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1)

Mg(s) + ZnCl2(aq)
MgCl2(aq) +
Zn(s)
2MgO(s) 2Mg(s) + O2(g)

Write a chemical equation for the


reaction between solid magnesium oxide
(MgO) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). One
of the products is the soluble salt
magnesium sulfate (MgSO4).

d
19

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
20

21

22

23

Which substance in the


following list could not be
an acid?
HBr, CH3COOH, K2CO3

Explain how you reached your


answer in part a.

In a solution of pH 7, what colour is:


a

red litmus?

blue litmus?

Use numbers from the list below to give


the approximate pH of the solutions
described in a to c.
1, 5, 7, 8, 13
a

a concentrated solution of a
strong acid

a neutral solution

a dilute solution of a
weak base

Use numbers from the list below to give


the approximate pH of the substances
described in a to e.
2, 4, 5, 7.5, 13
a

coffee

oven cleaner

orange juice

rust remover

human blood

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
24

25

The diagram below shows the colour


changes of several indicators.

Name an indicator that would


show the same colour at pH 3
and pH 5.

Name an indicator that would


show different colours for
solutions of pH 9 and pH 11.

Which two indicators would


give exactly the same results at
both pH 3 and pH 10?

You are provided with 10 mL of a


solution of pH 4. Describe how you
would prepare a solution of pH 5.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 84 marks

Section AMultiple choice (24 marks)


1

Which ray below is the one that is reflected from a plane mirror?

1
2

Perspex has a higher refractive index than air. Light entering air from
perspex will:
A slow down slightly and be bent towards the normal
B slow down slightly and be bent away from the normal
C speed up slightly and be bent towards the normal
D speed up slightly and be bent away from the normal
When a light ray passing from glass to air strikes the boundary at the critical
angle of incidence, the light ray:
A is totally internally reflected
B passes through to the air without any change in its direction
C skims the surface of the glass
D is reflected back along its original path
When a light ray passing from air to glass strikes the glass perpendicular to its
boundary, the light ray will:
A speed up as it enters the glass and bend away from the normal
B pass through the glass without any change in its direction
C be totally internally reflected
D slow down as it enters the glass and bend towards the normal
A light ray strikes a glass surface at a small angle and passes through the glass.
The ray emerging from the glass into the air will be:
A parallel to the ray entering the glass
B in the same straight line as the ray entering the glass
C bent towards the normal as it exits the glass
D at right angles to the ray entering the glass

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
6

10
11
12

13

When a pencil is viewed through water, it appears bent because light:


A slows down as it passes from water to air
B is reflected at the surface of the water
C is refracted away from the normal as it passes from water to air
D is refracted towards the normal as it passes from water to air
A fisherman under the water is attempting to spear a fish. The fisherman
must aim:
A above the apparent depth of the fish
B directly at the fish as he sees it
C below the apparent depth of the fish
D to the left of the apparent position of the fish
The image produced by a convex lens when the object is inside the focal length
is enlarged:
A real and upright
B real and inverted
C virtual and upright
D virtual and inverted
The image produced by a convex lens when the object is well beyond the focal
length is:
A real, inverted and diminished
B real, upright and enlarged
C virtual, inverted and diminished
D virtual, upright and enlarged
An object 4 mm high produces an image 16 mm high. The magnification is:
A 0.25
B 4
C 12
D 20
An object 16 mm high produces an image 4 mm high. The magnification is:
A 0.25
B 4
C 12
D 20
The image produced on a screen by a slide projector is:
A virtual, upright and enlarged
B virtual, inverted and diminished
C real, upright and enlarged
D real, inverted and enlarged
In an old-fashioned camera, photographic film records the images formed and is
placed where the images would be. The images formed by the lenses in a
camera must therefore be:
A real
B unreal
C virtual
D undecided, depending on the distance from the camera

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1
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
14

15

16

17
18

19
20

21
22
23

24

In a camera, the image formed is upside-down when recorded on the film. This
suggests that the lenses in a camera are probably:
A bi-concave
B bi-plano
C bi-convex
D none of the above as a camera has no lenses
In the eye disorder known as long-sightedness, the image of an object forms
behind the retina. Long-sightedness is corrected by bringing the image
forward using:
A convex lenses that bend the light less
B convex lenses that bend the light more
C concave lenses that bend the light less
D concave lenses that bend the light more
Blue skies and red sunsets are caused by the:
A dispersion of light
B refraction of light
C absorption of light
D scattering of light
In a primary rainbow, what colour is at the top of the rainbow?
A blue
B green
C orange
D red
Mirages are basically caused because light is:
A refracted differently at different temperatures
B dispersed differently at different temperatures
C reflected differently at different temperatures
D scattered differently at different temperatures
Which of the following colours of light is most strongly refracted?
A red
B yellow
C green
D violet
Two colours of light which mix to make white light are called:
A primary colours
B secondary colours
C complementary colours
D phosphors
What colour will a green leaf placed in green light appear to be?
A black
B green
C red
D blue
What colour is produced when magenta and cyan pigments are mixed?
A black
B green
C red
D blue
Which colours are absorbed by blue paint?
A blue only
B red, orange and yellow
C green, blue, indigo and violet
D red only
What colour is transmitted when cyan light is shone on a green filter?
A cyan
B blue
C green
D red

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1
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light

Section BWritten answers (60 marks)


1

If a light ray strikes a mirror at an angle


of 30o to the mirror, what is:
a

the angle of incidence?

the angle of reflection?

What is meant by the refraction of light?


2

The diagram below shows a light ray


travelling through air to the interface
between the air and a glass block.

On the diagram, draw the normal, and a


possible path for the ray in the glass.
4

Light travelling from substance A to


substance B is totally internally
reflected.
a

Which substance (A or B) has


the higher refractive index?

At what angle must the light ray


have struck the boundary of A
and B for total internal
reflection to occur?

Is light always refracted when it passes


from one material to another? Explain
your answer.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
6

The diagram below shows a pencil


placed in water. The pencil appears bent
when viewed from the air.

Complete the diagram by drawing the


position of the image of the pencil as
seen by the viewer.
7
8

10

List three advantages of optical fibres


over copper wire for transmitting data.

2
3

Which type of lens (convex or concave):


a

is fatter in the middle than at


the ends?

can produce a real image?

You have two lenses. Lens A is fat and


highly curved. Lens B is flatter, being
only slightly curved. Which lens (A or
B) can be expected to:
a

bend light the most?

have the longest focal length?

As the curvature of a lens increases:


a

is the light bent more or less?

does the focal length increase


or decrease?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
11

Complete the diagram shown below by:


a

drawing in the refracted


light rays

labelling the principal focus

labelling the focal length

4
12

The diagram below shows a partly


drawn ray-tracing diagram.

Complete the ray-tracing


diagram.

Is the image produced:


i

real or virtual?

ii

upright or inverted?

iii

enlarged or diminished?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
13

The diagram below shows the parts of a


slide projector.

14

15

What is the function of:


i

the concave mirror?

ii

the condenser lenses?

Why is the slide placed outside


the focal length of the projector
lens and not inside it?

The objective lens of a telescope


produces an image just inside the focal
length of the eyepiece lens. This image
acts as the object for the eyepiece lens.
a

For a larger first image to be


formed, should the objective
lens be thin or thick?

Explain why telescopes


are long.

Explain why the sky appears blue during


the day.
2

16

This question concerns colours.


a

Name the primary colours of


light.

Why are they called primary


colours?

Name the secondary colours of


light.

Why are they called secondary


colours?

Is black a colour? Explain your


answer.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
17

The diagram below shows combinations


of light colours.

State the name of the colours seen


in a to d.
18

19

20

What colour (if any) is transmitted


when:
a

white light is shone on a


blue filter?

red light is shone on a


green filter?

magenta light is shone on a


red filter?

What colour or colours of light are:


a

absorbed by a blue shirt?

reflected by a red shirt?

combined to produce yellow


light?

What are the three primary


colours of pigments used
in printing?

Why are they referred to as


primary colours?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
21

22

What is the name given to the:


a

spreading of light by particles


in the sky?

bending of light rays as they


pass from one material to
another?

splitting of light into


component colours by a prism?

Light from neon lamps is largely


red and orange. Suggest why some
butchers place neon lamps above their
window displays.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 66 marks

Section AMultiple choice (20 marks)


1

As a fast-moving ambulance passes by, its siren goes from:


A a high pitch to a low pitch
B a low pitch to a high pitch
C a high pitch to an even higher pitch
D there is no change in pitch

There are two answers to this question.


Compare the sound waves in front of a moving vehicle to the waves behind the
vehicle. They have a:
A shorter wavelength
B longer wavelength
C higher frequency
D lower frequency

The change in wavelength of sound waves emitted from a moving sound source
is known as:
A the Doppler effect
B Hubbles Law
C Einsteins equation
D the Big Bang theory

Which of the following statements concerning the colours of visible light


is correct?
A When light passes through a prism the colours are separated by reflection.
B Red light has a lower energy than blue light.
C Red and blue light have the same wavelength.
D Red light has a higher frequency than blue light.

When a fast-moving star is moving away from the Earth, the absorption lines on
the spectrum produced by the star will be shifted towards the:
A blue end of the spectrum (light of longer wavelength)
B red end of the spectrum (light of longer wavelength)
C blue end of the spectrum (light of shorter wavelength)
D red end of the spectrum (light of shorter wavelength)
Approximately how many years ago is the Big Bang thought to have occurred?
A 13 thousand
B 13 million
C 13 billion
D 13 trillion

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
7

8
9

10

11

12

13

14

15

A small fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the universe:


A had a temperature of one billion degrees Celsius, and chemical elements had
begun forming
B was expanding slowly and stars were beginning to form
C was cooling, and quarks were beginning to clump together to form neutrons
D inflated suddenly and was filled with particles of matter and antimatter
How many quarks clump together to form a proton?
A 2
B 3
C 4
D 5
When one proton and one neutron bond together:
A a deuterium nucleus forms
B a helium nucleus forms
C a hydrogen atom forms
D they annihilate each other, releasing light
The approximate ratio of hydrogen atoms and helium atoms in the early
universe was close to:
A 25% H : 75% He
B 50% H : 50% He
C 75% H : 25% He
D 90% H : 10% He
Approximately how old was the universe (in time after the Big Bang) when
electrons were first captured by nuclei to form atoms?
A 1 billion trillionth of a second
B 1 second
C 3 minutes
D 300 000 years
Which theory of the universe includes the idea of a contracting universe?
A open universe
B closed universe
C flat universe
D accelerating universe
The open universe theory states that the universe will:
A keep expanding forever but at a decreasing rate
B eventually stop expanding and then contract into a smaller and
smaller space
C eventually stop expanding, but not contract again
D expand at an ever-increasing rate
How long after the Big Bang did the first stars and galaxies appear?
A 3 minutes
B 300 000 years
C 1 billion years
D 13 billion years
Approximately how fast (in metres per second) does electromagnetic radiation
such as radio waves travel?
A 300
B 300 000
C 300 000 000
D 300 000 000 000

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
16

The term dark energy is used to describe:


A any light towards the high-energy end of the visible light spectrum
B subatomic particles left over from the Big Bang
C gas and dust orbiting stars that may condense to form planets
D some mysterious cosmological force that overrides gravity

Section BWritten answers (46 marks)


1

Which sound wavelength (long


or short) produces the higher
pitched sound?

Which colour of light (blue or


red) has the longer wavelength?

How does the pitch of an


ambulance siren change as it
drives past you?

Why does this change occur?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
3

The diagram below shows the spectra


produced by three stars. Star I is at a
fixed distance from Earth. Stars II and
III are moving.

What produces the dark lines on


each spectrum?

Which star (II or III) is moving


towards the Earth?

Explain the choice you made in


part b.

Complete the following statement about


a law by selecting the correct word in
each part.
Most galaxies are moving a
towards/away from the Earth. The
further away the galaxies are, the b
faster/slower they are moving. This is
known as c Dopplers/Hubbles law.

What does the Big Bang theory state?


2

What happens when particles of matter


and antimatter collide?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
7

In Einsteins equation, E = mc2, what


does each of the letters stand for?
a

For approximately 300 000 years


after the Big Bang the universe was a
foggy or opaque place. Explain why
it was foggy.
3

10

11

For what important discovery did the


physicists Arno Penzias and Robert
Wilson receive the Nobel prize?

In 1992 the COBE satellite produced an


image of the universe at age 300 000
years after the Big Bang. What did this
image show about the composition of
the universe?

Describe what would happen over time


in a closed universe.

4
12

13

14

Why is it impractical to search


for extraterrestrial life using
current spacecraft?

What do the following letters stand for?


a

COBE

SETI

Why are frequencies in the microwave


region preferred when broadcasting
messages to try to make contact with
extraterrestrial life?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
15

The diagram below shows a message


beamed from the Arechibo radio
telescope in 1974.

Match each description below to a


symbol (I to VIII) on the message.
a

DNA double helix

solar system

numbers 1 to 10 in binary

atomic numbers of
important elements

world population

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 66 marks

Section AMultiple choice (20 marks)


1

Which combination is thought to have made up the ancient supercontinent


Laurasia?
A Australia, Antarctica, South America, Africa and India
B South America, North America and Europe
C Europe, North America and most of Asia
D North America, Africa and most of Asia
Coal has been found above the Arctic Circle. This is unexpected because coal is
formed from decomposed:
A plants, and there is now not enough oxygen for plants to survive there
B plants, and it is now too cold for plants to survive there
C animals, and there is now not enough oxygen for animals to survive there
D animals, and it is now too cold for animals to survive there
In 1915, Alfred Wegener proposed the idea of a supercontinent splitting to form
the continents. His ideas were largely ignored because:
A there was no evidence to support them
B little was known about the shapes of the continents at that time
C the distribution of reptilian fossils could not be explained by
shifting continents
D it was thought that the Earth was solid rock
Studies of the magnetic stripes of rocks on the ocean floor indicate that:
A the youngest rock is next to the ridges, the oldest next to the trenches
B the youngest rock is next to the trenches, the oldest next to the ridges
C the rocks are all approximately the same age
D the rocks are older than the rocks of the continents
Which of the following boundaries between tectonic plates is also known as a
conservative boundary?
A spreading
B collision
C transform
D constructive

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
6

10

11

12

When tectonic plates collide, a variety of things can happen. Which of the
following is most likely when an ocean plate collides with another ocean plate?
A Both plates crumple and fold.
B The less dense plate is forced under the more dense plate.
C A rift valley forms.
D The faster-moving plate is forced under the slower-moving plate.
When tectonic plates collide, a variety of things can happen. Which of the
following is most likely when two continental plates collide?
A Both plates crumple and fold.
B The less dense plate is forced under the more dense plate.
C A rift valley forms.
D The faster-moving plate is forced under the slower-moving plate.
A mountain root is most likely to form when:
A two ocean plates collide
B two continental plates collide
C an ocean plate collides with a continental plate
D two plates scrape along each other
Approximately how many earthquakes occur per year?
A 10 000
B 100 000
C 1 000 000
D 1 000 000 000
Which of the following statements concerning earthquakes is incorrect?
A The focus is the point where an earthquake begins.
B Earthquakes occur on a fault line at the edges of tectonic plates.
C The epicentre is the point on the Earths surface above the focus.
D Seismic waves spread from the epicentre to the focus and beyond.
For which of the following waves is the vibration of the particles in the same
direction as the movement of the wave?
A sound
B water
C seismic Love (L) waves
D seismic secondary (S) waves
Which of the following is a property of secondary (S) body waves? S waves:
A travel through both solid and molten rock
B are the fastest-moving body waves
C are transverse waves
D hit the surface with an up-and-down or push-pull motion

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Both primary and secondary body waves:


A are transverse waves
B are refracted when they pass through rocks of different density
C travel faster when they move through less dense rock
D travel around the surface of the Earth
Which of the following is a property of Rayleigh (R) waves? R waves:
A travel through the Earth
B arrive before Love (L) waves
C are less dangerous than body waves
D are up-and-down waves like water waves
If the rock of a fault scarp is very hard, and weathering is slow, which
landscape feature is most likely to form?
A a cliff
B a gentle rise
C a volcano
D a syncline
When continental plates collide, rock may be folded to build mountain ranges.
Upward folds in the rock are called:
A horsts
B graben
C synclines
D anticlines
How do the plates move at a transcurrent fault?
A One plate slides over another.
B Two plates collide and crumple.
C Both plates move sideways.
D One plate moves upwards, the other downwards.
This question concerns the landform shown in the diagram below.

Which of the following statements is correct?


A K represents a syncline.
B C represents an unconformity.
C Rock in E is older than rock in H.
D J shows no signs of erosion.
Which type of volcano is the biggest?
A shield cones
B composite cones
C cinder cones
D batholiths
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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
20

Which of the following statements concerning fossil fuels is incorrect?


Fossil fuels:
A form from decomposed plant and animal matter
B take millions of years to form
C are usually found near weaknesses in the Earths crust
D require low pressures and high temperatures to form

Section BWritten answers (46 marks)


1

List four pieces of evidence Alfred


Wegener used to support his theory of
the splitting of an ancient supercontinent
to form the continents.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
2

List three important pieces of


information obtained when the ocean
floor was mapped during World War II.

3
3

The diagram below shows the inner


structure of the Earth (not to scale).
Complete the labelling of this
diagram by:
a

naming each layer (I to IV)

indicating the approximate


maximum depth of each
layer by selecting from the list
below:
6400 km, 2800 km, 60 km,
5100 km

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
4

The theory of plate tectonics can be


explained using an analogy with pieces
of toast floating on very thick, hot soup.
Using this analogy:

What does the soup represent?

What do the pieces of toast


represent?

If the soup is stirred, the toast


moves. What causes the soup
to be stirred?

State two ways by which the Earths


mantle remains hot.
2

This question concerns tectonic plate


boundaries.
a

Why are spreading


boundaries also called
constructive boundaries?

Why are collision boundaries


also called destructive
boundaries?

Which type of tectonic plate boundaries


form, or formed, the:
a

earthquake activity around the


San Andreas fault in
California?

East-African rift valley?

islands of Japan?

Andes Mountains and the PeruChile ocean trench which runs


parallel to them?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
8

Consider what happens when an ocean


plate collides with a continental plate.
a

Why is the ocean plate forced


under the continental plate?

What is the subduction zone?

Explain why volcanoes often


form on the continental plate
after the collision.

5
9

When an earthquake occurs, where does


the worst damage occur?

10

Why are no S waves recorded on the


Earth directly opposite the epicentre of
the earthquake?

11

The four types of seismic waves are


primary (P), secondary (S), Rayleigh (R)
and Love (L). Use the letters P, S, R and
L when answering the questions that
follow. Which waves:
a

travel through the body of


the Earth?

are recorded first by a


seismometer?

are recorded last by


a seismometer?

travel around the


Earths surface?

are rolling waves, like surf


at a beach?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
12

13

Use the graph shown below to answer


the questions that follow.

What is the distance from the


epicentre if the P and S waves
arrive 5 minutes apart?

Approximately how many


minutes are there between
the arrival times of P and S
waves if the epicentre is
2000 km away?

State whether each of the following


waves are transverse or longitudinal
waves.
a

sound waves

P waves

S waves

waves that push and pull

waves that have an up-down


motion like water waves

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
14

Explain how horsts and graben form.


Include a sketch in your answer to show
the appearance of these two landforms.

4
15

Three types of faults are shown in the


diagram below. Identify each as either a
transcurrent, normal or reverse fault.

3
16

What is meant by the term plastic


behaviour?

17

Explain how an unconformity is created.


Include a diagram in your answer.

5
18

19

Explain how a volcano could form away


from the edge of a tectonic plate.

Explain why igneous rock is unlikely to


contain fossils of plant material.
2

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
20

Yellowstone National Park in the USA


is known for its geysers and mud pools.
Explain how these features form.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 95 marks

Section AMultiple choice (21 marks)


1

Consider the food chain shown below.


phytoplankton zooplankton small fish large fish sea eagles
Which of the following correctly describes the role of the zooplankton and
large fish?
A
B
C
D

Zooplankton

Large fish

Producer
First order consumer
First order consumer
Second order consumer

Third order consumer


Fourth order consumer
Third order consumer
Fourth order consumer
1

2
3

Which of the following organisms is not a consumer?


A mushroom
B red algae
C earthworm
D elephant
Which of the following is recycled in an ecosystem?
A matter only
B matter and energy
C energy only
D neither matter nor energy

Which type of reaction ultimately provides the energy for almost all life
on Earth?
A photosynthesis
B respiration
C nuclear fusion
D decomposition

Consider the food chain shown below.


corn mouse snake kookaburra
Which component of the food chain would need to consume the most energy to
survive?
A corn
B mouse
C snake
D kookaburra
Consider the food chain shown below.
corn mouse snake kookaburra
If the corn contains 1000 units of energy, approximately how many units of
energy will the kookaburra receive?
A 1
B 10
C 100
D 1000

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
7

8
9

10

11

12

13
14

15

16

A soil sample was analysed and four species of animal were found. The
approximate numbers of each animal in the soil sample are shown below.
Species W2 000 000, Species X20, Species Y2 000, Species Z20 000.
Which species is likely to be the highest order consumer?
A W
B X
C Y
D Z
Transpiration is the name given to the loss of water by evaporation from:
A moist soil
B oceans
C animals
D plants
Approximately what percentage of all water on Earth is available as fresh water
to organisms?
A 1%
B 10%
C 50%
D 98%
Nitrifying bacteria convert:
A atmospheric nitrogen molecules to nitrate ions
B atmospheric nitrogen molecules to amino acids
C nitrate ions to atmospheric nitrogen molecules
D ammonia to nitrate ions
Which of the following is not responsible for nitrogen fixation?
A The action of lightning on atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen.
B Industrial production of nitrogen-based fertilisers.
C Rhizobium bacteria found in the root nodules of clover plants.
D Denitrifying bacteria found in the soil.
Which of the following processes removes carbon from the atmosphere?
A combustion of natural gas
B photosynthesis by green plants
C anaerobic respiration by yeast
D decomposition of fallen leaves by fungi
Which of the following is a renewable energy source?
A coal
B oil
C geothermal
D uranium
A photovoltaic cell is designed to convert:
A solar energy to sound energy
B solar energy to electrical energy
C heat energy to electrical energy
D heat energy to solar energy
Splitting one atom of uranium releases how much more energy than burning
one molecule of natural gas?
A 2.6 times as much
B 26 times as much
C 2.6 million times as much
D 26 million times as much
If the wind speed passing through a wind turbine generator is doubled, the
power generated by the turbine is multiplied by a factor of:
A 0.5
B 2
C 4
D 8

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1
1

1
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
17

18

19

20

21

Which of the following is not a property of water?


A Water can act as both acid and base.
B Solid water is denser than liquid water.
C Water is a solvent for many solutes.
D Water exists in three states on the Earth.
Osmosis is the movement of water from:
A a low salinity solution to a high salinity solution through a
semi-permeable membrane
B a low salinity solution to a high salinity solution through a
non-permeable membrane
C a high salinity solution to a low salinity solution through a
semi-permeable membrane
D a high salinity solution to a low salinity solution through a
non-permeable membrane
The use of osmotic pressure to produce energy is not suited to a country like
Switzerland because it has:
A no suitable sites for dam construction
B no active volcanoes or lava flows
C no freshwater rivers flowing into the sea
D no fossil fuel deposits
Which of the following energy sources is least used in Australia at present?
A hydroelectricity
B energy from wind
C geothermal energy
D solar energy

Biogas produced by the action of anaerobic bacteria in landfill is made up


mainly of:
A methane and carbon dioxide
B methane and oxygen
C octane and carbon dioxide
D octane and oxygen

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
Section BWritten answers (74 marks)
1

Consider the food chain shown below.


mangroves soldier crabs
spoonbills sea eagles
For this food chain, name the:

producer

first order consumer

herbivore

third order consumer

Draw a food chain with four members


based on the following description.
The grasslands of Africa are home to
many herbivores, including zebras, gnus
and gazelles. These grazing animals are
the prey of carnivores, including lions
and cheetahs. Hyenas and vultures that
scavenge for dead remains may at times
eat any of the animals of the grassland.

Explain why a food chain is unlikely to


have more than six members.

3
4

Consider the food chain shown below.


leaves caterpillar bird cat
The total energy in the leaves is much
greater than the energy received by the
cat. Describe two different ways in
which the energy of the leaves may be
lost and therefore not reach the cat.
2

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
5

State the Law of Conservation


of Energy.

Give an example of how


this law applies to energy
in ecosystems.

3
6

State the Law of Conservation


of Mass.

Give an example of how


this law applies to matter
in ecosystems.
3

Give the meaning of each of the


following and an example of each.
a

organic matter

an endothermic animal

an ectothermic animal

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
8

A diagram of the water cycle is


shown below.

Select the labels (A to F) from the


diagram that correspond to each of the
terms given below.

precipitation

evaporation

transpiration

soakage

run-off

condensation

Name a carbon compound:


a

that is a structural component of


plant cell walls

used as an energy store


in plants

that makes up approximately


0.04% of the gases in the
atmosphere

produced during photosynthesis

produced during respiration

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
10

11

12

13

Name two processes that


increase the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere.

Write a chemical equation for


one of the processes named
in a.

Name one process that removes


carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere.

Write a chemical equation for


the process named in c.

Use the list of numbers below to assign


a figure to each of the quantities listed
in a to f.
0.04, 10, 20, 65, 78, 98
a

percentage of carbon dioxide in


atmospheric gases

percentage of water on Earth


found in the saltwater of
the oceans

percentage of energy passed


from one organism to the next
in a food chain

percentage of oxygen in
atmospheric gases

percentage of the human body


made up of water

percentage of nitrogen in
atmospheric gases

Name:
a

two uses of nitrogen by plants

two ways nitrogen may leave


a plant

two ways nitrogen may leave


an animal

The greenhouse effect is caused by an


increase in the level of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere. State two ways in which
this increase has occurred.
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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
14

Complete the following table, which


shows the role of bacteria in the cycling
of nitrogen.
Bacteria type
Nitrogen fixing

Role of the
bacteria
Convert nitrogen
to
Convert ammonia
to nitrates
Convert nitrates
to

4
15

16
17

Explain what is meant by a nonrenewable energy source. Include two


examples in your answer.
State two ways in which solar energy
may be used to generate electricity.

3
2

State two disadvantages of the


use of geothermal energy to
produce electricity.

2
18

19

20

Explain how a change in blade length of


a wind turbine generator influences the
amount of power supplied.
a

State one disadvantage of


hydroelectricity.

State two advantages of


hydroelectricity.

Explain what is meant by the


term biomass.

State one direct use of biomass


for energy production.

State one indirect use of


biomass for energy production.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.


marks

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 100

Section AMultiple choice (24 marks)


1

All living things get their energy through a reaction called:


A photosynthesis
B breathing
C respiration
D inspiration
When there is no oxygen or limited oxygen, the respiration process that is
carried out is:
A aerobic
B lactic
C anaerobic
D yeast
Which of the following equations represents the process of aerobic respiration?
A
B
C
D

C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1) + energy


C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) + energy 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1)
C6H12O6(aq) + energy 2CO2(g) + 2C2H6O(aq)
C6H12O6(aq) 2CO2(g) + 2C2H6O(aq) + energy

Which of the following equations represents the process of anaerobic


respiration in yeast?
A C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1) + energy
B C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) + energy 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1)
C C6H12O6(aq) + energy 2CO2(g) + 2C2H6O(aq)
D C6H12O6(aq) 2CO2(g) + 2C2H6O(aq) + energy
Your muscles can be sore and you can suffer from cramp after a lot of exercise.
This is due to the build up in your muscles of:
A glucose
B energy
C lactic acid
D starch
Each enzyme in the human body:
A is able to catalyse a wide range of reactions
B controls a specific type of reaction
C functions best at a temperature of 100oC
D must be continually produced, as it is used up in each reaction it catalyses
Respiration is a chemical reaction which:
A occurs only in the body cells of animals
B always has oxygen as a reactant
C involves a sequence of reactions
D is endothermic (absorbs energy)
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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
8

Which of the following best summarises the two main stages of respiration.
STAGE 1

STAGE 2

A C6H12O6 C3H4O3 in
the cytoplasm.
B C6H12O6 C3H4O3 in
the mitochondria.
C C3H4O3 CO2 + H2O in
the mitochondria.
D C3H4O3 CO2 + H2O in
the cytoplasm.

C3H4O3 CO2 + H2O in the


mitochondria.
C3H4O3 CO2 + H2O in the cytoplasm.
C6H12O6 C3H4O3 in the cytoplasm.
C6H12O6 C3H4O3 in the mitochondria.
1

10

11

12

13

The basal metabolic rate (BMR):


A shows a steady increase with increasing age
B is the minimum energy required to carry out your normal daily tasks
C varies with size, state of health and sex
D varies directly with the type and level of activity a person carries out
Which of the following shows the approximate percentages of three major gases
in inhaled air?
A 50% nitrogen, 49% oxygen, 1% carbon dioxide
B 79% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide
C 79% nitrogen, 14% oxygen, 6% carbon dioxide
D 59% nitrogen, 41% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide
Which of the following is not a property of alveoli?
A Their cell walls are only one cell thick.
B They lie close to the walls of capillaries.
C They have a dry surface to allow efficient diffusion.
D They are shaped to give maximum surface area.
If carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll are placed in a test tube in the sunlight:
A glucose and bubbles of oxygen will be produced immediately
B glucose and bubbles of oxygen will be produced, but only after a long
period of time
C no reaction will occur because one reactant is missing
D no reaction will occur because necessary enzymes are missing
Which would you expect to contain the greater number of mitochondria: nerve
cells or muscle cells?
A muscle cells
B nerve cells
C neither, because both would contain the same number of mitochondria
D neither, because only plant cells contain mitochondria
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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
14

15

16

17

18

Most carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream:


A bound to haemoglobin
B as gaseous carbon dioxide molecules
C bound to ATP molecules
D as dissolved carbon dioxide molecules and hydrogen carbonate ions
Photosynthesis may be considered a two-stage process. Which of the following
occurs during stage 2?
A Energy is trapped by chlorophyll molecules.
B ATP provides the energy to carry out this stage.
C Water is split to form oxygen and hydrogen ions.
D Carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions combine to form starch molecules.
An experiment was conducted using the set-up shown below.

The volume of gas collected in the test tube after two hours would not be
affected by the:
A size of the test tube
B mass of plant used
C intensity of the light source
D temperature of the solution
Starch, cellulose and glycogen are all:
A produced by plants during photosynthesis
B types of enzymes
C made up of many glucose molecules joined together
D found in the human liver

Purple sulfur bacteria are able to carry out the process summarised in
the equation:
6CO2 + 12H2S light
C6H12O6 + 12S + 6H2O
Which of the following is the same for this process and the process of
photosynthesis carried out by green plants?
A reactants
B products
C pigment used to trap energy
D energy source

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
19

20
21

22

23

In which of these plant leaf cells is the maximum rate of photosynthesis


expected to occur?
A epidermal cells
B palisade cells
C xylem cells
D mesophyll cells
Which colour of light is not absorbed by chlorophyll?
A green
B red
C blue
D orange
The openings in plant leaves designed to allow gaseous exchange without
allowing excessive water loss are called:
A the epidermis
B stomata
C mesophyll cells
D the cuticle

1
1

The graph below shows the amount of oxygen produced by a plant as light
intensity was increased under two different sets of conditions.

Which of the following would explain the difference between X and Y?


A The data for X was obtained with the plant in orange light, the data for Y
with the plant in red light.
B The data for X was obtained with the plant at a higher temperature than for
Y.
C The data for X was obtained with the plant in a higher concentration of
carbon dioxide than for Y.
D The data for X was obtained using a larger mass of plant than for Y.
In which of the following is the animal correctly matched with its
respiratory/circulatory system?
A insectlungs and bloodstream
B fishbody surface and no circulatory system
C snakegills and a bloodstream
D earthwormmoist body surface and a bloodstream

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
24

The diagram below shows the involvement of ATP in respiration and


photosynthesis.

The terms needed to correctly complete the diagram are:


a
A photosynthesis

respiration

chlorophyll

respiration

respiration

cell activities

glucose

photosynthesis

C photosynthesis

cell activities

chlorophyll

respiration

D respiration

photosynthesis

chlorophyll

respiration

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis

Section BWritten answers (76 marks)


1

Write a chemical
equation for the process
of aerobic respiration.

Is this reaction exothermic


or endothermic?

What does the word


aerobic mean?

What is the function of


an enzyme?

Explain why the shape


of an enzyme is important
to its functioning.

4
3

When used in biochemistry,


what do the letters ATP
stand for?

ATP is used to store energy.


List three uses of the energy
stored in ATP.

Name the two products of


anaerobic respiration in
yeast cells.

State two industrial uses of the


anaerobic respiration reaction
in yeast cells.

Name the product of


anaerobic respiration in
human muscle cells.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
5

Explain why aerobic respiration releases


more energy per glucose molecule than
anaerobic respiration.

3
6

What is the name given to the


minimum amount of energy
needed by a person at rest?

State two reasons why a person


at rest would need energy.

Describe two ways in which the air


entering your lungs is different from the
air entering your nose.

Name four structures which air passes


through on its journey from the
atmosphere to an alveolus in your lungs.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
9

The questions that follow refer to


the diagram below of the human
respiratory system.

Which structure shown (use the letters


a to h to answer):
i

prevents food from entering


the trachea?

ii

contracts and flattens when you


breathe in?

iii

filters, warms and humidifies


air?

iv

contracts to raise the rib cage


when you breathe in?

is the site of gaseous exchange


between the lungs and the
bloodstream?

vi

is a bronchus?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
10

11

What happens to each of the


following structures during
expiration (breathing out)?
a

Ribs (raised or lowered?)

Diaphragm (flattens or is
dome shaped?)

Pressure in the chest cavity


(increases or decreases?)

Intercostal muscles (contract


or relax?)

Name two different


structures used by animals
for gas exchange.

State two features found in both


of these structures that enable
efficient gas exchange to occur.

4
12

13

14

Write a chemical equation for


the process of photosynthesis.

State two other requirements


(apart from the reactants) for
photosynthesis to occur.

Is this reaction exothermic or


endothermic?

In which plant cell structures do each of


the following processes occur?
a

stage 1 of respiration

stage 2 of respiration

photosynthesis

State three ways in which the glucose


produced during photosynthesis may be
used by a plant.
3

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
15

16

The graph below shows the effect of


light intensity on the rate of
photosynthesis.

Explain why the rate increases


in the first section I of the
graph.

Explain why the rate does not


increase in the second section II
of the graph.

Chemosynthetic bacteria carry out a


process similar to photosynthesis in
green plants.
a

State one difference between


the two processes.

State two similarities between


the two processes.
4

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
17

An experiment was conducted using the


flasks shown below. All flasks contained
water, were at the same temperature and
were in sunlight.

After two hours, the carbon dioxide


level in each flask was measured.
a

In which flask (AD) would the


carbon dioxide level be lowest
after two hours?

Explain how you arrived at


your choice in part a.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
18

The diagram below shows a section


through a plant leaf.

Which label (ah) represents:

19

an epidermal cell

ii

a palisade cell

iii

a xylem vessel

iv

a chloroplast

a mesophyll cell?

Which colour of light is strongly


absorbed by:
a

water?

green algae?

red algae?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
20

Suggest a reason why plants in


the desert grow very slowly.

Suggest a reason why plants are


not found at depths over 300 m
below the surface of the ocean.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 94 marks

Section AMultiple choice (20 marks)


1

5
6

When the level of carbon dioxide in your blood falls, the usual response of your
body is to:
A decrease breathing rate
B increase breathing rate
C produce the hormone oestrogen
D produce the hormone insulin
Which of the following is part of the peripheral nervous system?
A brain
B spinal cord
C heart muscle
D taste buds on the tongue
Interneurons transfer messages:
A from receptors to the central nervous system
B from the central nervous system to effectors
C within the central nervous system
D directly between sensory receptors
Which of the following correctly matches receptor cells to the energy
conversion they carry out?
A Retina cells convert sound energy to electrical energy.
B Cells in the taste buds convert chemical energy to electrical energy.
C Thermoreceptor cells convert electrical energy to thermal energy.
D Cochlea cells convert light energy to electrical energy.
Which of the following is not a hormone?
A insulin
B glucagon
C dopamine
D adrenalin
Which of the following is not a reflex action?
A blinking
B sneezing
C eating
D coughing

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1
1
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
7

8
9

10

11

12

13

The diagram below shows a sketch of the human brain.

The part labelled b is the:


A cerebrum
B cerebellum
C medulla
D spinal cord
The part of the brain that gives you the sensation of hearing is the:
A cerebrum
B cerebellum
C medulla
D spinal cord

Which of the following is usually largely controlled by the endocrine system?


A breathing
B heartbeat
C tasting
D water balance

The conditions known as gigantism and dwarfism can result from abnormal
levels of which hormone?
A adrenalin
B antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
C human growth hormone (HGH)
D oestrogen
Which hormone is known as the fight or flight hormone?
A adrenalin
B antidiuretic hormone
C growth hormone
D oestrogen
A fall in blood glucose levels is initially likely to result in the release of which
hormone into the bloodstream?
A insulin
B thyroxin
C progesterone
D glucagon
The disease diabetes mellitus is most often associated with which hormone?
A insulin
B human growth hormone
C thyroxin
D testosterone

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
14

15
16

17

18

The diagram below shows a sketch of the human endocrine system.

Which of the following correctly matches a gland (as labelled on the diagram)
with the function controlled by a hormone it releases?
A Gland L releases a hormone that controls female sexual development.
B Gland O releases a hormone that controls blood glucose levels.
C Gland M releases a hormone that controls the rate of chemical reactions
in cells.
D Gland K releases a hormone that controls water balance.
Hydrotropism is a response of plants to:
A light
B water
C the Sun
D gravity
Ethology is the study of:
A ethics
B the behaviour of animals
C the action of hormones
D the functioning of the nervous system
Which of the following is an example of the behaviour known as instinct?
A coughing when an object enters your throat
B young geese following a substitute mother
C birds migrating to a warmer climate in winter
D a chimpanzee using a stick to reach a banana hung out of its reach
Which of the following is an example of a learned behaviour?
A smiling
B withdrawing your hand from a hot object
C swallowing
D salivating when you see a picture of a certain food

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
19

20

Which of the following types of behaviour is the most complex?


A imprinting
B insight
C habituation
D conditioning
A society is a group of individuals of:
A the same species that cooperate to aid their survival
B the same species found living close together
C different species that cooperate to aid their survival
D different species found living close together

Section BWritten answers (74 marks)


1

Give two reasons why organisms


need to respond to changes in
their surroundings.
a

What is homeostasis?

Name two substances


whose levels are
homeostatically controlled.

Give the meaning of each of the


following terms and give an example
of each.
a

receptor

effector

4
4

Draw a diagram to show the stimulus


response model for what happens when
you cut your finger with a knife.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
5

Complete the following table showing


the receptors for various stimuli.
Stimulus

Receptor and
location

Light
Chemicals
Semicircular canals
in the ear
Cochlea cells in the
inner ear

4
6

What does the threshold for a


stimulus mean?

Why is it useful to
have thresholds?

3
7

Suppose your body temperature were to


increase after exercise. State:
a

one area where receptors


that detected this increase
would be located

the coordinating centre that


would receive messages

one organ or gland that might


act as an effector

one response you might detect

State two similarities between


neurons and most other
animal cells.

State two differences between


neurons and most other
animal cells.

Where on a neuron would you


find myelin?

What is the role of myelin?

3
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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
10

11

Neurotransmitters carry messages


across synapses.
a

State one advantage of having


synapses to connect neurons.

State two disadvantages of


neurotransmitters.

Describe three ways in which the brain


is protected from injury.

3
12

Describe the sequence of events that


make up the reflex action occurring
when a bright light is shone in
your eyes.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
13

The diagram below shows the control of


blood glucose levels.

Complete the labelling of the diagram by


naming a to f in terms of the stimulus
response model. Label c has been
completed as an example.
a
b
c

hormonal relay

d
e
f
14

State one difference between


pheromones and hormones.

Give two examples of the use


of pheromones.

4
15

Give three examples of plant activities


regulated by hormones.
3

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
16

17

The diagrams below show a series of


experiments examining phototropism.

What is phototropism?

Which group of hormones


causes phototropism?

Explain why no bending


occurred when the mica
was used.

Explain why bending occurred


when agar was used.

State what is meant by each of the


following terms and give an example
of each.
a

innate behaviour

learned behaviour
4

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
18

19

20

Courtship in many species of birds is


instinctive behaviour.
a

What is meant by instinctive


behaviour?

It can be said that courtship


ensures that mating occurs with
an appropriate partner at the
most appropriate time to aid
survival of the offspring. What
are two characteristics of an
appropriate partner?

Suggest one disadvantage


of courtship.

Name the type of learned behaviour


involved in each of the following.
a

A group of ducklings follow a


farm dog that played with them
just after they hatched.

A dog fetches the morning


newspaper.

You ignore the sound of the


trams that pass the classroom
window each hour.

Give two examples of social behaviour.


State the value of each behaviour.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 89 marks

Section AMultiple choice (21 marks)


1

3
4

Which of the following methods of reproduction produces the most


varied offspring?
A budding
B spore formation
C fusion of gametes
D fragmentation and regeneration
Hermaphrodites are organisms which:
A produce both male and female gametes
B reproduce asexually
C produce pheromones to attract the opposite sex
D can regenerate lost body parts
Which of the following organisms reproduces using spores?
A frog
B fern
C hydra
D yeast
Female gametes are usually:
A larger and more mobile than male gametes
B smaller and more mobile than male gametes
C larger and less mobile than male gametes
D smaller and less mobile than male gametes
Which of the following descriptions is correct?
A Ovulation refers to the release of egg cells from the uterus.
B Fertilisation refers to the production of female gametes.
C Menstruation refers to the shedding of the lining of the ovaries.
D Gestation refers to the time between fertilisation and birth.
The male part of a flower is made up of the:
A stigma, style and ovary
B petals and sepals
C anther and filament
D nectary and ovule

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
7

This question refers to the diagram below, which shows the human male
reproductive system.

Which of the following correctly describes the function of the


labelled structure?
A Structure c stores sperm while they continue to fully develop.
B Sperm are produced by structure e.
C Structure a releases the major male hormone, testosterone.
D Structure d is the only fluid-producing structure in the male
reproductive system.
The urethra is a tube that carries:
A sperm only
B urine only
C neither sperm nor urine
D both sperm and urine, although not together
Which of the following statements concerning gamete production in humans
is correct?
A Males have a store of gametes at birth; females produce gametes throughout
their life.
B Females have a store of gametes at birth; males produce gametes throughout
their life.
C Both males and females have a store of gametes at birth.
D Both males and females produce gametes throughout their lives.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
10

This question refers to the diagram below, which shows the human female
reproductive system.

Which of the following correctly describes the function of the


labelled structure?
A Structure d is the site of implantation.
B Structure e carries both urine and the menstrual flow.
C Sperm are deposited in structure c during sexual intercourse.
D Ova are released from structure b.
11

12
13
14

15

The site of fertilisation of the human egg cell is the:


A ovary
B fallopian tubes or oviduct
C uterus
D vagina
The major female reproductive hormone is:
A oestrogen
B testosterone
C adrenalin
D insulin
The major male reproductive hormone is:
A oestrogen
B testosterone
C adrenalin
D insulin
The term menarche refers to the time in a human females life when:
A the first menstruation occurs
B egg cells are no longer released from the ovaries
C a zygote implants in the uterus
D sexual intercourse first takes place
Which of the following shows the correct order of stages of development of a
human embryo?
A zygote, foetus, blastocyst, morula
B foetus, zygote, morula, blastocyst
C zygote, blastocyst, morula, foetus
D zygote, morula, blastocyst, foetus

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1
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
16

17

18

19

20

21

Which of the following shows events in their correct order of occurrence?


A copulation, ejaculation, fertilisation, implantation
B ejaculation, fertilisation, copulation, implantation
C implantation, ejaculation, fertilisation, copulation
D copulation, ejaculation, implantation, fertilisation
Which of the following tests conducted during pregnancy does not involve the
removal of fluid from either the mother or the foetus?
A amniocentesis
B ultrasound
C testing for alpha-fetoprotein levels in the mother
D chorionic villus sampling
Which of the following is not a sexually transmitted disease?
A HIVAIDS
B gonorrhoea
C prostate cancer
D herpes
Contraception refers to any process that prevents:
A sexual intercourse from occurring
B the transmission of STDs
C pregnancy from occurring
D gametes from being produced
Which of the following processes does not normally occur during IVF?
A Egg cells are retrieved from the ovary.
B Eggs are placed in a salt solution at 45oC.
C Sperm are added to the eggs in the salt solution.
D Fertilised eggs are transferred to the uterus after a short development time.
A teratogen is:
A a chemical released into the environment to attract the opposite sex
B a chemical released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive activity
C a substance found in urine that indicates pregnancy has occurred
D an agent, such as a drug, that can affect development of the embryo

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
Section BWritten answers (68 marks)
1

Explain what is meant by


asexual reproduction.

Give two examples of


asexual reproduction.

3
2

State three situations where


asexual reproduction may
be useful.

State one disadvantage of


asexual reproduction.

5
3

Sexual reproduction does not always


require two parents. Explain why this is,
and include an example of this situation.
3

Give two reasons why the offspring of


asexually reproducing organisms may
not all be identical.
2

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
5

Flowering plants may either be selfpollinated or cross-pollinated.


a

What is meant by crosspollination?

Suggest two ways in which


cross-pollination can be made
to occur.

What is the advantage of crosspollination?

A particular flower has its stigma placed


higher than its anthers. Could this flower
be self-pollinated? Explain your answer.

In which structure are the


human testes located?

What is the advantage of the


testes being in this structure,
rather than deep in the body?

The ovaries of a 30-year-old woman


have many scars on their surface. What
causes these scars?

This question refers to the diagram


below, which shows the human male
reproductive system.

Name each of the structures labelled


a to e.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
10

This question refers to the diagram


below, which shows the human female
reproductive system.

Name each of the structures labelled


a to e.
11

Describe or name the events occurring at


each of the following times in the human
menstrual cycle.
a

days 1 to 5

days 5 to 14

day 14

days 15 to 25

12

Describe three changes in females


at puberty.

13

Describe three changes in males


at puberty.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
14

Describe two ways in which


twins can be produced.

Which method produces


twins that are most alike?

5
15

Complete the table below, which shows


several methods of contraception.
Name of method

How it works
Rubber device
that fits over
the cervix.
Stops sperm
entering the
uterus and
prevents
implantation.

Contraceptive pills

4
16

17

Briefly describe each of the following


embryonic stages.
a

morula

blastocyst

When referring to human reproduction,


what does each of the following letters
stand for?
a

STD

IUD

AIDS

IVF

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
18

19

20

Multiple embryo transfer is usually used


during IVF procedures.
a

State one advantage of


transferring more than
one embryo.

State one disadvantage of


transferring more than
one embryo.

State the length of time (in days) for


each of the following.
a

the typical menstrual cycle


in humans

human gestation

the number of days a human


egg cell spends in the oviduct

Choose from the list below the


approximate numbers for each of the
quantities described in a to c.
one
several hundred
several hundred thousand
several million
several hundred million
a
The number of egg cells present
in each human ovary at birth.
b

The number of sperm


released by a human male at
each ejaculation.

The number of sperm that reach


the egg cell following
copulation.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: ___________ / 94 marks

Section AMultiple choice (18 marks)


1

The Bertillon system of identification involved:


A taking fingerprints
B making up a composite drawing
C measuring and recording the dimensions of a series of bony body parts
D retroactive interference

The Identikit system of identification involved:


A taking fingerprints
B making up a composite drawing
C measuring and recording the dimensions of a series of bony body parts
D retroactive interference

Which of the following is not a type of fingerprint?


A loop
B compounded
C whorl
D arch

Biometric facial recognition is the system that uses:


A photos of a face
B iris identification
C teeth impressions
D the positions of points formed by the eyes, chin, nose, ears and other facial
features.

Which of the following statement is true regarding iris and retina identification?
A False eyes can be used to bluff the iris and retina identification.
B The chances of incorrect identification is very high.
C Iris identification is less accurate than fingerprints.
D Scans are sometimes difficult to obtain from uncooperative people.

Which of the following contains your DNA and could be used to identify you?
A your dandruff
B your blood
C your saliva
D all of the above

Intaglio printing on banknotes is:


A a raised form of printing
C extremely small printing

B a watermark
D an optically active device

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
8

10

11

12

13

Chromatography is:
A a technique used to get inks to fluoresce
B when oblique lighting is used to identify writing
C a method used to counterfeit money
D a technique that separates the colours in inks and dyes allowing their
identification

Which of the following is incorrect?


Good track impressions that can be used in forensics are created when you
walk:
A onto mud, clay or snow
B out from somewhere wet onto a dry path
C through something spilt (such as blood or grease) over a hard surface
D through mud or dirt and then onto a clean surface

Which of the following is the least likely to show tool marks?


A opening a window with a screwdriver
B cutting a bone with a saw
C using pliers to open a jammed tap
D a body that has been stabbed

When your mobile phone is switched on, you can be located to within a distance
of:
A 1m
B 10 m
C 100 m
D 1 km

Which of the following would not qualify as modus operandi or MO?


A a series of burglaries committed at similar times in the daylight
B a series of assaults committed with a peculiar kind of knife
C an assault committed at a location and soon after a burglary committed
nearby
D a door forced open with a particular tool; soon after and nearby another door
forced open in a similar way

The shape of blood drips on the ground can be used to determine:


A the direction of movement of the victim
B the time the crime was committed
C the blood group of the victim
D the DNA of the victim

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
14

15

16

17

18

Which of the following is least likely to happen when someone is hit with a
blunt object?
A Bone tissue will be fractured.
B The surface of the skin will be split but the wound will not necessarily be
deep.
C Bruising will be severe.
D The wound will be deep and clean, only stopping when it hit bone.

When shot, people often die almost instantly. This is due to:
A blood loss due to the blood vessels cut by the bullet
B shock
C chemicals from the bullet poisoning them
D a pressure wave that explodes organs that the bullet strikes

Yaw marks are left by:


A a car cornering too quickly
B a tool that is used to open a window in a burglary
C on a bullet as it is shot from a gun
D a blade that is used to stab someone

Latent fingerprints are usually left on non-porous materials. This means they
would easily be found on:
A newspaper
B unpolished wood
C polished wood
D any animal without paws

A cold case is:


A a bag used to store your clothes when you go snow skiing
B a box that is used to store fruit in a cold-store
C an unsolved crime that has no more leads for police to investigate
D a person who has the flu

Section BWritten answers (76 marks)


1

Is the following statement true, false or


a bit of both? Explain your answer.
Every persons DNA is different.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
2

Draw sketches of the following types of


fingerprints, showing their main
identifying characteristics: loop, arch,
whorl.
6

Explain what retroactive interference is


and why it often makes identification
using photographs unreliable.

2
4

Give four reasons why iris identification


of someone is so reliable, with almost
no incorrect identification when it is
used.

4
5

As a forensic scientist, you have been


called to the scene of a sexual assault.
Identify four types of body tissue or
fluids that you might collect there for
DNA analysis.

A student has collapsed on the way


home from school. State four ways that
police might use to identify him/her.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
7

As a forensic scientist, you have been


called to the site of disastrous plane
crash and explosion on a remote
mountain surrounded by thick jungle.
a
Give two reasons why it might
be difficult to identify the
bodies.
b
Give two reasons that might
make it a little easier to
identify them.

4
8

Write the letter capital E. Show how


you wrote the letter by:
using a dot to show when you
started a stroke
an arrow from the dot to show
which direction you moved
your pen
numbering each arrow in the
order you made each pen
stroke (i.e. 1 = first stroke,
2 = next stroke, etc.)

Briefly describe two techniques that can


be used to identify the ink used to write
or print a document.
2

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
10

List five methods used that make it


difficult to forge Australian banknotes.

5
11

The first $100 bills in Australia were


printed on paper and were
predominantly black, white and grey in
colour. Give three reasons why these
bills were easily forged when first
introduced.
3

12

Explain how you could tell whether a


threatening document has been typed on
an old-fashioned typewriter or printed
from a computer printer.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
13

Identity theft is an increasing crime.


a
Suggest what you think the
term identity theft means.
b
Suggest three things that might
help someone commit identity
theft.

4
14

Explain why rumour and gossip have no


value in court as evidence.

2
15

Give an example of a fibre that is:


a
animal in origin
b
vegetable in origin
c
mineral or synthetic in origin

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10: Forensics
16

What tool marks are likely to be left:


a
in a house break-and-enter?
b
when important papers have
been shredded?
c
when a murdered body has
been cut up?
d
when a person is strangled?
e
in a suspicious car accident
where the brake lines seem to
have been cut?
5

17

List three features of shoes that can lead


to the identification of a criminal.
3

18

A decaying body has been found in the


bush. It is covered in different types of
insects, insect eggs, worms and
maggots. Explain how you could use
these to determine how long the body
has been there.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
19

A body has been found in an unmarked


shallow grave in the bush. An autopsy
shows that the person was drowned.
a
Explain why it is unlikely to
have been a natural drowning.
b
Nearby there is a lake, a river
and a swamp. How could a
forensic scientist work out
which was the most likely site
of the drowning?

4
20

List three ways in which you may be


electronically recorded over a day.

3
21

Explain four ways how blood splatters


and drips can tell a forensic scientist
what happened at a crime scene.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: ____________ / 124 marks

Section AMultiple choice (36 marks)


1

Which one of the following is not a property of non-metals? Non-metals are:


A normally gases or liquids at room temperature
B either poor electrical conductors, or non-conductors
C able to be hammered into sheets
D dull, with little or no shine

The atomic number of zinc (Zn) is 30. Therefore, the ion represented by the
symbol 65Zn2+ has:
A 30 protons, 35 neutrons and 28 electrons
B 65 protons, 30 neutrons and 32 electrons
C 30 protons, 65 neutrons and 28 electrons
D 30 protons, 35 neutrons and 32 electrons

The number of neutrons in a neutral atom can be calculated by:


A dividing the mass number of the atom by the atomic number of the atom
B adding together the atomic number and the mass number of the atom
C subtracting the atomic number from the mass number of the atom
D subtracting the mass number from the atomic number of the atom

An atom of chlorine (Cl) has 17 protons, 18 neutrons and 17 electrons. Which


of the following statements is incorrect about the atom of chlorine?
A It has an atomic number of 17.
B The atom would have no overall electrical charge.
C It would be in Period VII.
D It would be in Period 3.

Use the periodic table to determine which of the following statements is


incorrect about chlorine atoms.
A They form the ion Cl.
B Chlorine atoms are smaller than fluorine atoms.
C They are related to F, Br and I.
D Chlorine belongs to the halogen family.

An atom of chlorine has 17 protons, 18 neutrons and 17 electrons. The best


symbol for the atom would be:
A 18
B 17
C 34
D 35
17 Cl
17 Cl
17 Cl
18 Cl

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
7

Which of the following statements concerning the Group VIII elements in the
periodic table is incorrect?
A They are called the noble or inert gases.
B They are very stable and rarely react.
C They are also known as Group O.
D They all contain eight electrons in their outer shells.

D
1

The table below shows details of several particles.


Mass
number
39
31

Atomic
number
W
15

Number of
neutrons
19
Y

Number of
electrons
X
17

Overall
charge
+2
Z

The numbers needed to complete the table in the order W, X, Y, Z are:


A 20, 18, 16 and 2
B 20, 22, 16 and +2
C 21, 17, 15 and 0
D 20, 18, 17 and 2
9

10

Neutral atoms belonging to the same element always have:


A the same mass number
B the same atomic number
C the same number of neutrons
D more protons than electrons
An atom of uranium has the symbol
A
B
C
D

11

12

13

235
92

1
B
1

U. This atom would have:

92 protons, 235 neutrons and 92 electrons


92 protons, 143 neutrons and 92 electrons
92 protons, 143 electrons and 92 neutrons
92 neutrons, 143 protons and 143 electrons

B
1

A compound forms when:


A two or more elements chemically combine with each other
B two or more elements are physically mixed together
C a large number of identical atoms join together
D a mixture is separated into its components

The vertical columns in the periodic table are known as:


A periods, and they contain elements with the same number of
outer-shell electrons
B periods, and they contain elements with the same number of used
electron shells
C groups, and they contain elements with the same number of
outer-shell electrons
D groups, and they contain elements with the same number of used
electron shells

An atom of calcium has 20 electrons. Its electron configuration would best be


written as:
A 42
B 20
C 2, 8, 8, 2
D 2, 8, 10
20 Ca

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1: The periodic table
14

15

The electron configuration of an element in Period 3, Group IV of the periodic


table is:
A 2, 8, 6
B 2, 8, 8, 3
C 2, 8, 18, 3
D 2, 8, 4
An atom with the electron configuration 2, 8, 5 would be expected to form an
ionic charge of:
A +3

16

18

19

20

21

C +5

B 2

C +6

An aluminium atom is most likely to form the ion:


A Al3
B Al3+
C Al

1
B
1

D 5

When an atom in Group II forms an ion, the ion will most likely have a
charge of:
A +2

17

B 3

A
1

D 6
D 3Al

In the flame colour experiment, different metallic salts gave out different
colours when placed in a Bunsen burner flame. This was because:
A the heat from the Bunsen burner caused the electrons to jump to another
shell. Coloured light emerged when they jumped back.
B the heat from the Bunsen burner caused the electrons to make colour
C the electrons are moving very fast around the nucleus
D the light came from the Bunsen burner

Non-metals tend to have:


A high electronegativity, and form positively charged ions
B high electronegativity, and form negatively charged ions
C low electronegativity, and form positively charged ions
D low electronegativity, and form negatively charged ions

A particular element is shiny, malleable and a good conductor of electricity.


Which section of the periodic table would this element not be found in?
A transition elements
B Group I
C Group III
D Group VII

Moving down Group VII in the periodic table, which property would be
expected to decrease?
A the reactivity
B the number of outer-shell electrons in each atom
C the size of atoms
D the melting point

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

Moving down Group I in the periodic table, which property would be expected
to decrease?
A the mass of atoms
B the size of atoms
C the number of used electron shells in each atom
D the electronegativity

The mass of one electron is approximately equal to the mass of:


1
A 1800 protons
B
of a proton
1800
C 1 proton
D 1 neutron

Which of the following is not a physical property of an element?


A melting point
B colour
C reactivity with oxygen
D density

Which of the following lists contains only compounds?


A water (H2O), glucose (C6H12O6) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
B tungsten (W), phosphorus (P) and chlorine (Cl2)
C Vegemite, limewater (Ca(OH)2) and plutonium (Pu)
D salt (NaCl), air and iron (Fe)

Agar is:
A the flat dish metal crystals grow in
B a type of bacteria
C metal crystals
D a jelly

Petri dishes are commonly used:


A in jellyology
C in pathology

1
B in restaurants
D to eat jelly from

C
1

A metal pin is heated in a Bunsen burner, then cooled slowly. This treatment
produces a metal which is:
A harder and more brittle than the original metal
B softer and more brittle than the original metal
C harder and more ductile than the original metal
D softer and more ductile than the original metal

Quenching is when a metal is:


A heated then cooled slowly
B heated then cooled quickly
C the normal state of a metal
D heated, cooled quickly, heated again, then cooled slowly

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
30

31

32

33

In 1869, Mendeleev devised a periodic table. Which of the following did


Mendeleev not do in his periodic table?
A predict properties of undiscovered elements
B list elements with atomic numbers greater than 100
C arrange elements in order of increasing atomic mass
D place elements in vertical columns based on chemical properties

Which of the following elements would be expected to conduct electricity?


A helium (element number 2)
B chlorine (element number 17)
C scandium (element number 21)
D krypton (element number 36)

Calcium forms the compound CaSO4. Use family resemblances to determine


which of the formulas below is most unlikely to exist.
A SrSO4
B GeBr4
C PbI4
D GeF4

Sodium is a Group I element and reacts with water via this equation:
2Na + H2O Na2O + H2. Potassium is also a Group I element which reacts
with water. The most probable equation for this reaction is:
A K + H2O K2O + H2
B 2K + H2O Na2O + H2
C 2K + H2O 2KO + H2
D K + 2H2O KO2 + H2

34

Look at this reaction: F2 + H2S S + 2HF. Which of the following equations is


most unlikely?
A
A Cl2 + H2S S + HCl
B Cl2 + H2S S + 2HCl
1
C Br2 + H2S S + 2HBr
D I2 + H2S S + 2HI

35

The most likely formula for magnesium iodide is:


A MgI
B Mg2I
C Mg2I

36

D MgI2

The most likely name for the compound K3P would be:
A potassium phosphorus
B potassium phophorourside
C potassium phosphide
D potassiumide phosphide

C
1

Section BWritten answers (88 marks)


1

In a neutral atom, which two particles:

protons and electrons

are present in equal numbers?

protons and neutrons

have approximately the


same mass?

protons and electrons

have equal but opposite


charges?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
2

Write the electron shell configuration for


each of the following elements:

2, 8, 5

2, 8, 8, 1

an atom of phosphorus
(atomic number 15)

2, 5

an atom of potassium
(atomic number 19)

2, 8, 7

2, 8

an atom with atomic number 7

an atom in Period 3,
Group VII

the oxide ion (O2)

Give the chemical symbol for


any element:

Cl, Br, I or At

Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl or Ar

in the same group as


fluorine (F)

Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs or Fr

in the same period as sodium


(Na)

N, P, As (Students might also


answer Sb or Bi.)

in the group known as the


alkali metals

that would form ions of


charge 3

What is the most likely name of the


compound MgN?

Complete the following table.


Number
of
protons
10
11
16

Number
of
electrons

Charge
on the
atom
or ion
0
2

Symbol

Na+

magnesium nitride
1
Number
of
protons

Number
of
electrons

10
11
16

10
10
18

Charge
on the
atom
or ion
0
+1
2

Symbol

Ne
Na+
S 2

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
6

List three properties of non-metals.

Any three of:


poor conductors of electricity or
they are insulators
low melting points
usually gases or liquids at room
temperature
brittle and tend to crumble
to powder
dull, with little or no shine

List three properties of metals.

Any three of:


good conductors of heat
and electricity
lustrous
malleable and ductile
relatively high melting points
high density

Select the element from each pair that


has the stated property.
a

High electronegativity
calcium (Ca) or chlorine (Cl)?

Metalloidsilicon (Si)
or sulfur (S)?

Chemically unreactive
aluminium (Al) or argon (Ar)?

Cl

Si

Ar

Complete the following table.


Atom and
change
Magnesium
(Mg) atom
loses two
electrons
Nitrogen (N)
atom gains
three
electrons

Name
of ion
formed

Symbol
of ion
formed

Atom and
change
Magnesium
(Mg) atom
loses two
electrons
Nitrogen (N)
atom gains
three
electrons

Name
of ion
formed
magnesium

Symbol
of ion
formed

nitride

N3

Mg2+

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
10

Complete the table below


showing details of the three
main sub-atomic particles.
Particle
proton

Charge

Location

Particle
proton

Charge
positive

around the
nucleus

electron

negative

neutron

neutral

neutral

Location
within the
nucleus
around the
nucleus
within the
nucleus

6
11

12

Write the chemical formulas for:

CaO

calcium oxide

BaI2

barium iodide

Be3N2

beryllium nitride

Al2O3

aluminium oxide

The flame colours of metal salts are


given in the table below.
Salt
strontium
chloride
sodium chloride
potassium
chloride
barium chloride

Flame colour
red

4
Different metals gave different colours.
If colour came from the non-metal
part (Cl), then all the colours would
be the same.

orange
purple
green

What evidence is there that the colour


came from the metals and not the nonmetal part of the salts?
13

Identify the group of the periodic table


described in each statement below.

II

VII

reactive metals whose atoms


form ions with a charge of +2

VIII

reactive non-metals whose


atoms form ions with a
charge of 1

colourless gases whose atoms


are very unreactive

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
14

15

The apparatus shown below may be used


to test a property of several materials.

What property of materials is


being tested?

Which of the materials


listed below would be
expected to cause the
ammeter needle to move when
the switch is closed?
sulfur, lead, copper,
phosphorus

Explain why you chose your


answer for part b.

Give the symbol of a:

electrical conductivity

lead and copper

Both are metals. Metals


conduct electricity.

4
a

Li

Period 2 alkali metal

Ga

Period 4 element with only


3 outer-shell electrons

Cl

Group VII element with


electrons in only 3 shells

Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd,


Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb or Lu

Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd,


Ag or Cd

member of the lanthanide series

Period 5 transition element

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
16

Use the following list to complete the


table below. Part a has been completed
as an example.
a

Zn and Cr

alkali metals

different forms of the


same element

halogens

first row transition elements

Na and Li

diamond and graphite

group VII elements

Term
allotrope

Description

Term
allotrope
b
d
e

Description
c
Group I
elements
h
Elements
from
numbers
21 to 30

Examples
g
f
Cl and F
a

Examples

Group I
elements
Elements
from
numbers
21 to 30

Cl and F
a

7
17

Five diagrams, labelled v to z, are shown


below. Use the letters v to z to answer
the questions that follow.

Which diagram could represent:


a

an atom of sulfur?

a water molecule (H2O)?

a mixture of two compounds?

the potassium chloride


lattice (KCl)?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
18

State one way in which helium (He) is:

like all other gases in


Group VIII

It has a full outer shell and is


therefore unreactive.

It has 2 outer-shell electrons,


not 8.

a
b
19

State one way in which hydrogen (H) is:


a
b

20

Both form ions with a 1


charge.

Both form ions with a +1


charge.

similar to the Group I elements


a

Group VII element with H2S to


form sulfur and a strong acid

X2(g) + H2S(g) S(s) + 2HX(g)


(X is F, Cl, etc).

2X(s) + Cl2(g) 2XCl(s)


(X is Li, Na, etc).

22

similar to the Group VII


elements

Write equations to show the reaction of:


a

21

different from all other gases in


Group VIII

Group I element with Cl2 to


form a white salt

Match each Group IV element (C, Si,


Ge, Sn, Pb) to its use.
a

a major component of glass

once used extensively


in plumbing

tips of dentist drills

to coat containers for storing


baked beans

a catalyst in fluorescent tubes

Listed below are five atoms using


symbols that are not the usual symbols
of the elements. Use the letters V to Z to
answer the following questions.
40
18

20
10

40
19

39
19

40
20

Which two atoms have the


same number of neutrons?

Which atom has the smallest


mass number?

Which two atoms belong to the


same element?

Which two symbols represent


noble gases?

4
a

Si

Pb

Sn

Ge

5
a

Y and Z (20 neutrons)

X and Y (same atomic number)

V and W

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


1: The periodic table
23

Which element in each pair (atomic


numbers are given in brackets) is
more reactive?
a

Li (3) and Cs (55)

F (9) and Cl (17)

Na (11) and Mg (12)

O (8) and Ne (10)

Cs

Na

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: ____________ / 105 marks

Section AMultiple choice (24 marks)


1

Which of the following involves a chemical change?


A A piece of chocolate becomes soft when warmed.
B Dry ice (solid CO2) is warmed to form gaseous CO2.
C Fireflies glow in the dark.
D Water boils to become steam.

C
1

Which of the following lists the metals sodium (Na), gold (Au), iron (Fe) and
copper (Cu), in order of increasing reactivity?
A Na, Fe, Cu, Au
B Au, Cu, Fe, Na
C Fe, Na, Au, Cu
D Cu, Au, Na, Fe
The equation for the overall reaction in photosynthesis is:

B
1

energy + 6CO 2(g) + 6H 2O (l) C 6H12O 6(aq) + 6O 2(g)

Photosynthesis is:
A an endothermic process
C a combustion reaction
4

A
B an exothermic process
D an acidbase reaction

Magnesium is dissolved in acid. Its equation is: Mg + 2HCl + H2.


The missing chemical in the reaction is:
A MgCl
B Mg2Cl
C MgCl2
D 2MgCl
Metals like sodium and calcium are very reactive because they have:
A many outer-shell electrons, and they are readily donated
B a few outer-shell electrons, and they are readily donated
C many outer-shell electrons, and they are not readily donated
D a few outer-shell electrons, and they are not readily donated
Given that the symbol for chromium is Cr, and the formula for the sulfate ion is
SO 24 , the formula for chromium(III) sulfate is:
A CrSO4

B Cr3(SO4)2

C Cr2(SO4)3

D Cr2SO4

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C
1

B
1
C
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
7

A chemical reaction is represented by the equation shown below.

CaCO 3(s) CaO(s) + CO 2(g)

10

11

12

13

This is an example of a:
A neutralisation reaction
B displacement reaction
C precipitation reaction
D decomposition reaction
During an endothermic reaction:
A energy is released to the surroundings
B the reaction vessel becomes warm
C the products of the reaction have lower energy than the reactants
D heat must be supplied for the reaction to occur
A precipitate is:
A a clear and colourless solution
B a gas
C a solid lump
D a fine solid powder that forms when two solutions are mixed
A precipitate:
A may form when two clear solutions are mixed
B is a soluble salt
C forms because the ions in a solution repel each other
D collects at the surface when two solutions are mixed
Zinc is a more reactive metal than copper. This means that:
A electrons are easily transferred from zinc atoms to copper atoms
B zinc will deposit if copper is placed in a solution containing zinc ions
C copper atoms give up electrons more easily than zinc atoms
D copper will be produced if zinc is placed in a solution containing
copper ions
A weak acid is an acid which:
A easily donates its hydrogen ion to a base
B does not easily donate its hydrogen ion to a base
C has few solute particles dissolved in the solvent
D is highly corrosive
When solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) are
mixed, solid silver chloride (AgCl) forms. Which ions remain dissolved
in the solution?
A Na+ and Cl
C Na+ and NO 3

B Ag+ and Cl
D Ag+ and NO 3

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D
1

D
1

D
1

A
1

D
1

B
1

C
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21
22

An acid reacting with a metal hydroxide to produce salt and water is an example
of a:
C
A combustion reaction
B displacement reaction
C neutralisation reaction
D decomposition reaction
Reduction occurs when:
A a metal atom forms a positively charged ion
B
B a non-metal atom forms a negatively charged ion
C two ions combine to form a precipitate
D steam condenses to form liquid water
A combustion reaction:
A always has carbon dioxide as a product
B always has water as a product
C always has oxygen as a reactant
D is always endothermic
Which of the following is a property of bases?
A sour taste
B turn blue litmus red
C react with acids to produce a salt and hydrogen gas
D soapy feel
Which test would show that a gas sample is carbon dioxide? The gas:
A produces a pop noise when a match is placed in it
B causes a flame to flare up
C is odourless and yellow
D produces a precipitate when it is bubbled through a limewater solution
When hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium, the products are:
A salt and hydrogen gas
B salt and water
C salt, carbon dioxide and water
D salt and oxygen gas
A change from pH 3 to pH 5 means that the hydrogen ion present in the
solution:
A decreases by a factor of 2
B increases by a factor of 2
C decreases by a factor of 100
D increases by a factor of 100
What is the pH of pure or distilled water?
A 0
B 5
C 7
D 10
When a base is added to red litmus, it turns:
A red
B the colour of beetroot
C blue
D yellow
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C
1

D
1

D
1

A
1
C
1
C

C
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
23

24

A solution of pH 8 is:
A slightly basic
C strongly basic

B slightly acidic
D strongly acidic

100 mL of a solution with pH 10 is added slowly to 900 mL of cold water.


What will be the pH of the diluted solution?
A 8
B 9
C 11
D 12

A
1
B
1

Section BWritten answers (81 marks)


1

Write a chemical equation for a reaction


where the products are dissolved CaCl2,
gaseous CO2 and liquid H2O. The
reactants are solid CaCO3 and
dissolved HCl.

CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)

State three signs that a chemical reaction


has occurred.

Any three of:

Suggest two reasons why some chemical


reactions do not occur spontaneously.

CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g)+H2O(1)
2

there is a permanent
colour change

a gas is given off

energy is released or absorbed

a precipitate forms in solution

one metal deposits on another

The reaction is endothermic. (The


products have higher energy than
the reactants).
The products are more ordered than the
reactants. (Spontaneous reactions tend
to disorder.)

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
4

The table below shows the symbol or


formula of several ions.
Name of ion

Symbol or
formula

magnesium
aluminium
carbonate

Mg2+
Al3+
CO 23

hydroxide
nitride
ammonium

OH
N3
NH +4

Mg3N2

NH4OH

Al2(CO3)3

Mg(OH)2

Write the chemical formula for:

magnesium nitride

ammonium hydroxide

aluminium carbonate

magnesium hydroxide

Use the information in the previous


question to name these chemicals:
a

Al2(SO4)3

MgCO3

Ca(OH)2

Write the chemical formulas for


these compounds.

4
a

aluminium sulfate

magnesium carbonate

calcium hydroxide
3

H2O

CO2

H2

water

carbon dioxide

HCl

hydrogen gas

hydrochloric acid

HNO3

NaOH

nitric acid

NaCl

caustic soda (sodium


hydroxide)

common salt (sodium chloride)

How many atoms of each element are


there in these compounds?
a

Zn(NO3)2

(NH4)2SO4

7
a

Zn = 1, N = 2, O = 6

N = 2, H = 8, S = 1, O = 4

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
8

Predict the missing chemicals in


these equations:
a

HCl + NaOH NaCl +

2HNO3 + Zn Zn(NO3)2 +

2HCl + CaCl2 + H2O

2HNO3 + Na2CO3
2NaNO3 + H2O +

Balance these chemical equations.


a

Cl2 + H2S S + HCl

CaCO3 + H2SO4
CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O

10

11

H2O

H2

CaO

CO2

4
a

Cl2 + H2S S + 2HCl

CaCO3 + H2SO4
CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O

C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O

C3H8 + O2 CO2 + H2O

2Mg + O2 2MgO

Mg + O2 MgO

4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3

Al + O2 Al2O3

Complete each of the following word


equations.
a

acid + base

acid + metal

acid + metal oxide

Name the salt produced when:


a

hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts


with magnesium (Mg)

nitric acid (HNO3) reacts with


barium carbonate (BaCO3)

sulfuric acid (H2SO4) reacts


with iron(II) oxide (FeO)

5
a

acid + base salt + water

acid + metal salt + hydrogen

acid + metal oxide


salt + water
3

magnesium chloride (MgCl2)

barium nitrate (Ba(NO3)2)

iron(II) sulfate (FeSO4)

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
12

13

14

Two clear aqueous solutions, BaCl2 and


Na2SO4, are mixed. A white solid forms.
a

What is the solvent for this


reaction?

What is the name given to a


solid that forms when two
solutions are mixed?

What is the chemical formula


of the solid that formed in
this reaction?

Write a chemical equation for the


reaction between solid zinc (Zn) and an
aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid
(HCl). One of the products of the
reaction is a soluble salt, zinc chloride
(ZnCl2).
The table below shows the solubility of
several ions.
Negative
ion

NO 3
SO 24
Cl

Positive
ion

Solubility of
compounds

all

soluble
2+

2+

Ba Pb
others
Ag+ Pb2+
others

water

precipitate

BaSO4

3
Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)

2
a

Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq)
2NaCl(aq) + BaSO4(s)

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KCl(aq)
PbCl2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

insoluble
soluble
insoluble
soluble

Use this table to help write equations


for the following reactions. You
should include states (aq, s, etc.) in
your equations.
a

Solutions of sodium sulfate


(Na2SO4) and barium chloride
(BaCl2) are mixed.

Solutions of lead(II) nitrate


(Pb(NO3)2) and potassium
chloride (KCl) are mixed.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
15

16

17

18

The chemical reaction called respiration


gives us energy to stay alive.
a

Write a chemical equation for


the respiration reaction.

Where does this reaction occur?

Is the reaction endothermic or


exothermic?

Write the chemical formula for:

C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g)
6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1)

inside body cells

exothermic
4

N2O5

dinitrogen pentoxide

PCl3

phosphorus trichloride

SF6

sulfur hexafluoride

List three properties of acids.

Use any of the terms in the list below


to label each of the reactions shown in
a to d.
decomposition, precipitation,
displacement, combustion,
neutralisation
a

sour taste

turn blue litmus red

conduct electricity in
aqueous solution

precipitation

combustion

displacement

decomposition

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KCl(aq)
PbCl2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g)
6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1)

Mg(s) + ZnCl2(aq)
MgCl2(aq) +
Zn(s)

d
19

2MgO(s) 2Mg(s) + O2(g)

Write a chemical equation for the


reaction between solid magnesium oxide
(MgO) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). One
of the products is the soluble salt
magnesium sulfate (MgSO4).

4
MgO(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) +
H2O(1)

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
20

b
21

22

23

Which substance in the


following list could not be
an acid?
HBr, CH3COOH, K2CO3

K2CO3

Acids donate hydrogen ions.


This substance does not
contain hydrogen, so cannot
be an acid.

Explain how you reached your


answer in part a.

In a solution of pH 7, what colour is:


a

red litmus?

blue litmus?

Use numbers from the list below to give


the approximate pH of the solutions
described in a to c.
1, 5, 7, 8, 13
a

a concentrated solution of a
strong acid

a neutral solution

a dilute solution of a
weak base

Use numbers from the list below to give


the approximate pH of the substances
described in a to e.
2, 4, 5, 7.5, 13

3
a

red

blue
2

3
a

13

coffee

oven cleaner

7.5

orange juice

rust remover

human blood

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


2: Chemical reactions
24

25

The diagram below shows the colour


changes of several indicators.

Name an indicator that would


show the same colour at pH 3
and pH 5.

Name an indicator that would


show different colours for
solutions of pH 9 and pH 11.

Which two indicators would


give exactly the same results at
both pH 3 and pH 10?

You are provided with 10 mL of a


solution of pH 4. Describe how you
would prepare a solution of pH 5.

various answers, e.g.


bromothymol blue, litmus,
phenolphthalein

phenolphthalein and universal


indicator

litmus and universal indicator

3
Slowly add the 10 mL of acid to 90 mL
of cold water.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 84 marks

Section AMultiple choice (24 marks)


1

Which ray below is the one that is reflected from a plane mirror?
B
1

Perspex has a higher refractive index than air. Light entering air from
perspex will:
A slow down slightly and be bent towards the normal
B slow down slightly and be bent away from the normal
C speed up slightly and be bent towards the normal
D speed up slightly and be bent away from the normal
When a light ray passing from glass to air strikes the boundary at the critical
angle of incidence, the light ray:
A is totally internally reflected
B passes through to the air without any change in its direction
C skims the surface of the glass
D is reflected back along its original path
When a light ray passing from air to glass strikes the glass perpendicular to its
boundary, the light ray will:
A speed up as it enters the glass and bend away from the normal
B pass through the glass without any change in its direction
C be totally internally reflected
D slow down as it enters the glass and bend towards the normal
A light ray strikes a glass surface at a small angle and passes through the glass.
The ray emerging from the glass into the air will be:
A parallel to the ray entering the glass
B in the same straight line as the ray entering the glass
C bent towards the normal as it exits the glass
D at right angles to the ray entering the glass

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D
1

C
1

B
1

A
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
6

10
11
12

13

When a pencil is viewed through water, it appears bent because light:


A slows down as it passes from water to air
B is reflected at the surface of the water
C is refracted away from the normal as it passes from water to air
D is refracted towards the normal as it passes from water to air
A fisherman under the water is attempting to spear a fish. The fisherman
must aim:
A above the apparent depth of the fish
B directly at the fish as he sees it
C below the apparent depth of the fish
D to the left of the apparent position of the fish
The image produced by a convex lens when the object is inside the focal length
is enlarged:
A real and upright
B real and inverted
C virtual and upright
D virtual and inverted
The image produced by a convex lens when the object is well beyond the focal
length is:
A real, inverted and diminished
B real, upright and enlarged
C virtual, inverted and diminished
D virtual, upright and enlarged
An object 4 mm high produces an image 16 mm high. The magnification is:
A 0.25
B 4
C 12
D 20
An object 16 mm high produces an image 4 mm high. The magnification is:
A 0.25
B 4
C 12
D 20
The image produced on a screen by a slide projector is:
A virtual, upright and enlarged
B virtual, inverted and diminished
C real, upright and enlarged
D real, inverted and enlarged

C
1

B
1
C
1
A
1
B
A

1
1

D
1

In an old-fashioned camera, photographic film records the images formed and is


placed where the images would be. The images formed by the lenses in a
camera must therefore be:
A
A real
B unreal
C virtual
1
D undecided, depending on the distance from the camera

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
14

15

16

17
18

19
20

21
22
23

24

In a camera, the image formed is upside-down when recorded on the film. This
suggests that the lenses in a camera are probably:
A bi-concave
B bi-plano
C bi-convex
D none of the above as a camera has no lenses
In the eye disorder known as long-sightedness, the image of an object forms
behind the retina. Long-sightedness is corrected by bringing the image
forward using:
A convex lenses that bend the light less
B convex lenses that bend the light more
C concave lenses that bend the light less
D concave lenses that bend the light more
Blue skies and red sunsets are caused by the:
A dispersion of light
B refraction of light
C absorption of light
D scattering of light
In a primary rainbow, what colour is at the top of the rainbow?
A blue
B green
C orange
D red
Mirages are basically caused because light is:
A refracted differently at different temperatures
B dispersed differently at different temperatures
C reflected differently at different temperatures
D scattered differently at different temperatures
Which of the following colours of light is most strongly refracted?
A red
B yellow
C green
D violet
Two colours of light which mix to make white light are called:
A primary colours
B secondary colours
C complementary colours
D phosphors
What colour will a green leaf placed in green light appear to be?
A black
B green
C red
D blue
What colour is produced when magenta and cyan pigments are mixed?
A black
B green
C red
D blue
Which colours are absorbed by blue paint?
A blue only
B red, orange and yellow
C green, blue, indigo and violet
D red only
What colour is transmitted when cyan light is shone on a green filter?
A cyan
B blue
C green
D red

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C
1

1
D
1
D

A
1
D

C
1
B
D

1
1

B
1
C

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light

Section BWritten answers (60 marks)


1

If a light ray strikes a mirror at an angle


of 30o to the mirror, what is:
a

the angle of incidence?

the angle of reflection?

What is meant by the refraction of light?

60o

60o
2

The bending of a light ray as it passes


from one substance into another
substance.

The diagram below shows a light ray


travelling through air to the interface
between the air and a glass block.

On the diagram, draw the normal, and a


possible path for the ray in the glass.
4

Light travelling from substance A to


substance B is totally internally
reflected.
a

Which substance (A or B) has


the higher refractive index?

At what angle must the light ray


have struck the boundary of A
and B for total internal
reflection to occur?

Is light always refracted when it passes


from one material to another? Explain
your answer.

2
a

an angle greater than the critical


angle

2
No. When a light ray strikes
perpendicular to a boundary, it is not
bent.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
6

The diagram below shows a pencil


placed in water. The pencil appears bent
when viewed from the air.

Complete the diagram by drawing the


position of the image of the pencil as
seen by the viewer.
7

10

List three advantages of optical fibres


over copper wire for transmitting data.
Which type of lens (convex or concave):
a

is fatter in the middle than at


the ends?

can produce a real image?

You have two lenses. Lens A is fat and


highly curved. Lens B is flatter, being
only slightly curved. Which lens (A or
B) can be expected to:
a

bend light the most?

have the longest focal length?

As the curvature of a lens increases:


a

is the light bent more or less?

does the focal length increase


or decrease?

2
Various answers, e.g. thinner, cheaper,
more durable, can carry more
information
a

convex

convex

2
a

Lens A

Lens B

2
a

more

decrease

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
11

Complete the diagram shown below by:


a

drawing in the refracted


light rays

labelling the principal focus

labelling the focal length

4
12

The diagram below shows a partly


drawn ray-tracing diagram.

Complete the ray-tracing


diagram.

b
i

real

Is the image produced:

ii

inverted

real or virtual?

iii

diminished

ii

upright or inverted?

iii

enlarged or diminished?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
13

The diagram below shows the parts of a


slide projector.

b
a

14

15

16

What is the function of:


i

the concave mirror?

ii

the condenser lenses?

It reflects light from the


lamp through the
condenser lenses.

ii

They concentrate the light.

If the slide is inside the focal


length, a virtual image will be
formed. A real image is
produced with the slide outside
the focal length.

Why is the slide placed outside


the focal length of the projector
lens and not inside it?

The objective lens of a telescope


produces an image just inside the focal
length of the eyepiece lens. This image
acts as the object for the eyepiece lens.
a

For a larger first image to be


formed, should the objective
lens be thin or thick?

Explain why telescopes


are long.

Explain why the sky appears blue during


the day.

This question concerns colours.


a

Name the primary colours of


light.

Why are they called primary


colours?

4
a

thin

Thin lenses have long


focal lengths.

2
Blue light is scattered by particles in the
atmosphere more than other colours.
More blue light therefore reaches our
eyes from particles in the sky.
a

Red, green and blue.

They can be combined in


various proportions to form all
the other colours.

Cyan, magenta and yellow.

Name the secondary colours of


light.

They are produced when just


two primary colours overlap.

Why are they called secondary


colours?

No. Black is the absence of


any colour.

Is black a colour? Explain your


answer.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
17

The diagram below shows combinations


of light colours.

cyan

magenta

white

yellow

State the name of the colours seen


in a to d.
18

19

20

What colour (if any) is transmitted


when:
a

white light is shone on a


blue filter?

red light is shone on a


green filter?

magenta light is shone on a


red filter?

What colour or colours of light are:

4
a

blue

no light

red

3
a

all colours other than blue

absorbed by a blue shirt?

red

reflected by a red shirt?

red and green

combined to produce yellow


light?

What are the three primary


colours of pigments used
in printing?

3
a

cyan, magenta and yellow

Each subtracts one of the


primary colours.

Why are they referred to as


primary colours?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


3: Light
21

22

What is the name given to the:


a

spreading of light by particles


in the sky?

bending of light rays as they


pass from one material to
another?

splitting of light into


component colours by a prism?

Light from neon lamps is largely


red and orange. Suggest why some
butchers place neon lamps above their
window displays.

scattering

refraction

dispersion

3
The meat appears redder in the red
light than it does in white light.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 66 marks

Section AMultiple choice (20 marks)


1

As a fast-moving ambulance passes by, its siren goes from:


A a high pitch to a low pitch
B a low pitch to a high pitch
C a high pitch to an even higher pitch
D there is no change in pitch

There are two answers to this question.


Compare the sound waves in front of a moving vehicle to the waves behind the
vehicle. They have a:
A shorter wavelength
B longer wavelength
C higher frequency
D lower frequency

A
C
2

The change in wavelength of sound waves emitted from a moving sound source
is known as:
A the Doppler effect
B Hubbles Law
C Einsteins equation
D the Big Bang theory

Which of the following statements concerning the colours of visible light


is correct?
A When light passes through a prism the colours are separated by reflection.
B Red light has a lower energy than blue light.
C Red and blue light have the same wavelength.
D Red light has a higher frequency than blue light.

When a fast-moving star is moving away from the Earth, the absorption lines on
the spectrum produced by the star will be shifted towards the:
A blue end of the spectrum (light of longer wavelength)
B
B red end of the spectrum (light of longer wavelength)
C blue end of the spectrum (light of shorter wavelength)
D red end of the spectrum (light of shorter wavelength)
Approximately how many years ago is the Big Bang thought to have occurred?
C
A 13 thousand
B 13 million
C 13 billion
D 13 trillion

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1
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
7

8
9

10

11

12

13

14

15

A small fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the universe:


A had a temperature of one billion degrees Celsius, and chemical elements had
begun forming
B was expanding slowly and stars were beginning to form
C was cooling, and quarks were beginning to clump together to form neutrons
D inflated suddenly and was filled with particles of matter and antimatter
How many quarks clump together to form a proton?
A 2
B 3
C 4
D 5
When one proton and one neutron bond together:
A a deuterium nucleus forms
B a helium nucleus forms
C a hydrogen atom forms
D they annihilate each other, releasing light

The approximate ratio of hydrogen atoms and helium atoms in the early
universe was close to:
A 25% H : 75% He
B 50% H : 50% He
C 75% H : 25% He
D 90% H : 10% He

Approximately how old was the universe (in time after the Big Bang) when
electrons were first captured by nuclei to form atoms?
A 1 billion trillionth of a second
B 1 second
C 3 minutes
D 300 000 years
Which theory of the universe includes the idea of a contracting universe?
A open universe
B closed universe
C flat universe
D accelerating universe
The open universe theory states that the universe will:
A keep expanding forever but at a decreasing rate
B eventually stop expanding and then contract into a smaller and
smaller space
C eventually stop expanding, but not contract again
D expand at an ever-increasing rate
How long after the Big Bang did the first stars and galaxies appear?
A 3 minutes
B 300 000 years
C 1 billion years
D 13 billion years
Approximately how fast (in metres per second) does electromagnetic radiation
such as radio waves travel?
A 300
B 300 000
C 300 000 000
D 300 000 000 000

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D
1
1

A
1

1
D
1
B
1

A
1
C
1
C
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
16

The term dark energy is used to describe:


A any light towards the high-energy end of the visible light spectrum
B subatomic particles left over from the Big Bang
C gas and dust orbiting stars that may condense to form planets
D some mysterious cosmological force that overrides gravity

D
1

Section BWritten answers (46 marks)


1

b
2

Which sound wavelength (long


or short) produces the higher
pitched sound?

short

red

Which colour of light (blue or


red) has the longer wavelength?
How does the pitch of an
ambulance siren change as it
drives past you?
Why does this change occur?

2
a

It changes from high to low.

Sound waves in front of the


moving ambulance have a
shorter wavelength than sound
waves behind the ambulance.
Sound with a shorter
wavelength has a higher pitch.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
3

The diagram below shows the spectra


produced by three stars. Star I is at a
fixed distance from Earth. Stars II and
III are moving.

What produces the dark lines on


each spectrum?

Which star (II or III) is moving


towards the Earth?

Explain the choice you made in


part b.

Complete the following statement about


a law by selecting the correct word in
each part.
Most galaxies are moving a
towards/away from the Earth. The
further away the galaxies are, the b
faster/slower they are moving. This is
known as c Dopplers/Hubbles law.

What does the Big Bang theory state?

What happens when particles of matter


and antimatter collide?

Some light is absorbed by


atoms in the atmosphere of
the star, leaving black lines
on the spectrum.

III

The light is of shorter


wavelength. The spectrum
lines are shifted towards the
blue end (shorter wavelength)
of the spectrum.

4
a

away

faster

Hubbles

3
The universe exploded into existence
from a single point (a singularity)
containing an enormous and incredibly
concentrated amount of energy.

They annihilate each other, releasing a


burst of light (a photon).

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
7

In Einsteins equation, E = mc2, what


does each of the letters stand for?
a

energy

mass (in kilograms)

speed of light (about


300 000 000 m/s)
3

For approximately 300 000 years


after the Big Bang the universe was a
foggy or opaque place. Explain why
it was foggy.

The universe was filled with atomic


nuclei and electrons. Light was
continuously bouncing off these
subatomic particles, and so was unable
to travel in straight lines. This resulted in
a lack of clear images.
3

For what important discovery did the


physicists Arno Penzias and Robert
Wilson receive the Nobel prize?

They detected the background radiation


(the afterglow) left over from the very
beginning of the universe.

In 1992 the COBE satellite produced an


image of the universe at age 300 000
years after the Big Bang. What did this
image show about the composition of
the universe?

The universe was not the same


throughout. Matter had begun to
clump together.

Describe what would happen over time


in a closed universe.

The universe would stop expanding.

10

11

2
Gravitational attraction would pull all
the matter closer together and the
universe would contract into a smaller
and smaller space.
Matter would become superheated and
atoms would disintegrate.
A big crunch would pack everything
into a single black hole.

12

13

14

Why is it impractical to search


for extraterrestrial life using
current spacecraft?
What do the following letters stand for?
a

COBE

SETI

Why are frequencies in the microwave


region preferred when broadcasting
messages to try to make contact with
extraterrestrial life?

It would take 80 000 years to reach the


nearest star.
1
a

Cosmic Background Explorer

Search for Extraterrestrial


Intelligence

There is less background interference


when using these frequencies.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


4: Origin of the universe
15

The diagram below shows a message


beamed from the Arechibo radio
telescope in 1974.

IV

VII

II

Match each description below to a


symbol (I to VIII) on the message.
a

DNA double helix

solar system

numbers 1 to 10 in binary

atomic numbers of
important elements

world population

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 66 marks

Section AMultiple choice (20 marks)


1

Which combination is thought to have made up the ancient supercontinent


Laurasia?
A Australia, Antarctica, South America, Africa and India
B South America, North America and Europe
C Europe, North America and most of Asia
D North America, Africa and most of Asia
Coal has been found above the Arctic Circle. This is unexpected because coal is
formed from decomposed:
A plants, and there is now not enough oxygen for plants to survive there
B plants, and it is now too cold for plants to survive there
C animals, and there is now not enough oxygen for animals to survive there
D animals, and it is now too cold for animals to survive there
In 1915, Alfred Wegener proposed the idea of a supercontinent splitting to form
the continents. His ideas were largely ignored because:
A there was no evidence to support them
B little was known about the shapes of the continents at that time
C the distribution of reptilian fossils could not be explained by
shifting continents
D it was thought that the Earth was solid rock
Studies of the magnetic stripes of rocks on the ocean floor indicate that:
A the youngest rock is next to the ridges, the oldest next to the trenches
B the youngest rock is next to the trenches, the oldest next to the ridges
C the rocks are all approximately the same age
D the rocks are older than the rocks of the continents
Which of the following boundaries between tectonic plates is also known as a
conservative boundary?
A spreading
B collision
C transform
D constructive

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C
1

B
1

A
1
C
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
6

10

11

12

When tectonic plates collide, a variety of things can happen. Which of the
following is most likely when an ocean plate collides with another ocean plate?
A Both plates crumple and fold.
B The less dense plate is forced under the more dense plate.
C A rift valley forms.
D The faster-moving plate is forced under the slower-moving plate.
When tectonic plates collide, a variety of things can happen. Which of the
following is most likely when two continental plates collide?
A Both plates crumple and fold.
B The less dense plate is forced under the more dense plate.
C A rift valley forms.
D The faster-moving plate is forced under the slower-moving plate.
A mountain root is most likely to form when:
A two ocean plates collide
B two continental plates collide
C an ocean plate collides with a continental plate
D two plates scrape along each other
Approximately how many earthquakes occur per year?
A 10 000
B 100 000
C 1 000 000
D 1 000 000 000
Which of the following statements concerning earthquakes is incorrect?
A The focus is the point where an earthquake begins.
B Earthquakes occur on a fault line at the edges of tectonic plates.
C The epicentre is the point on the Earths surface above the focus.
D Seismic waves spread from the epicentre to the focus and beyond.
For which of the following waves is the vibration of the particles in the same
direction as the movement of the wave?
A sound
B water
C seismic Love (L) waves
D seismic secondary (S) waves
Which of the following is a property of secondary (S) body waves? S waves:
A travel through both solid and molten rock
B are the fastest-moving body waves
C are transverse waves
D hit the surface with an up-and-down or push-pull motion

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D
1

A
1

B
1
C
1

D
1
A
1

C
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
13

14

15

16

17

18

Both primary and secondary body waves:


A are transverse waves
B are refracted when they pass through rocks of different density
C travel faster when they move through less dense rock
D travel around the surface of the Earth
Which of the following is a property of Rayleigh (R) waves? R waves:
A travel through the Earth
B arrive before Love (L) waves
C are less dangerous than body waves
D are up-and-down waves like water waves
If the rock of a fault scarp is very hard, and weathering is slow, which
landscape feature is most likely to form?
A a cliff
B a gentle rise
C a volcano
D a syncline
When continental plates collide, rock may be folded to build mountain ranges.
Upward folds in the rock are called:
A horsts
B graben
C synclines
D anticlines
How do the plates move at a transcurrent fault?
A One plate slides over another.
B Two plates collide and crumple.
C Both plates move sideways.
D One plate moves upwards, the other downwards.
This question concerns the landform shown in the diagram below.

B
1

B
1
A
1
D
1

C
1

19

Which of the following statements is correct?


A K represents a syncline.
B C represents an unconformity.
C Rock in E is older than rock in H.
D J shows no signs of erosion.
Which type of volcano is the biggest?
A shield cones
B composite cones
C cinder cones
D batholiths
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1
A
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
20

Which of the following statements concerning fossil fuels is incorrect?


Fossil fuels:
A form from decomposed plant and animal matter
B take millions of years to form
C are usually found near weaknesses in the Earths crust
D require low pressures and high temperatures to form

D
1

Section BWritten answers (46 marks)


1

List four pieces of evidence Alfred


Wegener used to support his theory of
the splitting of an ancient supercontinent
to form the continents.

Any four of:

fossils of ferns and reptiles


found across the southern
continents suggested a common
ancestry, followed by
movement as the landmass split
and the pieces drifted apart

rock and mountain formations


on one continent are similar to
those on another continent
(e.g. those in the USA are
similar to those in Europe)

evidence of glaciers is found


in places now too cold for
their formation

decomposed plant material (e.g.


coal) is found in places now too
cold for plants to grow there

mini-magnets in ancient rocks


only align properly when the
continents are joined together

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
2

List three important pieces of


information obtained when the ocean
floor was mapped during World War II.

The diagram below shows the inner


structure of the Earth (not to scale).
Complete the labelling of this
diagram by:
a

naming each layer (I to IV)

indicating the approximate


maximum depth of each
layer by selecting from the list
below:
6400 km, 2800 km, 60 km,
5100 km

Any three of:

volcanic ranges run down the


centre of most oceans

rocks of the ocean floor vary in


age from new to 200 million
years old and are younger than
continental rocks

deep ocean trenches exist

continental rock is less dense


than ocean floor rock

magnetic stripes on ocean


rocks indicate the oldest rock is
next to the trenches, the
youngest next to the ridges

I = crust
II = mantle
III = outer core
IV = inner core

I = 60 km
II = 2800 km
III = 5100 km
IV = 6400 km

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
4

The theory of plate tectonics can be


explained using an analogy with pieces
of toast floating on very thick, hot soup.
Using this analogy:

What does the soup represent?

What do the pieces of toast


represent?

If the soup is stirred, the toast


moves. What causes the soup
to be stirred?

State two ways by which the Earths


mantle remains hot.
This question concerns tectonic plate
boundaries.
a

Why are spreading


boundaries also called
constructive boundaries?

Why are collision boundaries


also called destructive
boundaries?

Which type of tectonic plate boundaries


form, or formed, the:
a

earthquake activity around the


San Andreas fault in
California?

East-African rift valley?

islands of Japan?

Andes Mountains and the PeruChile ocean trench which runs


parallel to them?

the mantle

slabs of the Earths crust

convection currents within


the mantle

3
The crust keeps the heat in.
Decay of radioactive elements such as
uranium releases heat.
a

New rock is being made on the


ocean floor.

Rock is melted and returned


for recycling.

2
a

transform (or scraping)

spreading (or constructive)

collision (or destructive)

collision (or destructive)

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
8

Consider what happens when an ocean


plate collides with a continental plate.
a

Why is the ocean plate forced


under the continental plate?

What is the subduction zone?

Explain why volcanoes often


form on the continental plate
after the collision.

The ocean plate is denser than


the continental plate.

The angled dive (at 20o to 60o


to the surface) that the ocean
plate makes when it collides
with the continental plate.

Steam forms when water enters


the fault line between the
plates. This steam is carried
down into the subduction zone.
The resulting gas-filled molten
rock forces its way to the
surface as a volcano.

When an earthquake occurs, where does


the worst damage occur?

At the epicentre.

10

Why are no S waves recorded on the


Earth directly opposite the epicentre of
the earthquake?

S waves cannot travel through molten


rock. The liquid outer core blocks the
path of the S waves through the Earth.

11

The four types of seismic waves are


primary (P), secondary (S), Rayleigh (R)
and Love (L). Use the letters P, S, R and
L when answering the questions that
follow. Which waves:
a

travel through the body of


the Earth?

are recorded first by a


seismometer?

are recorded last by


a seismometer?

travel around the


Earths surface?

are rolling waves, like surf


at a beach?

5
1

P and S

R and L

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
12

13

Use the graph shown below to answer


the questions that follow.

What is the distance from the


epicentre if the P and S waves
arrive 5 minutes apart?

Approximately how many


minutes are there between
the arrival times of P and S
waves if the epicentre is
2000 km away?

State whether each of the following


waves are transverse or longitudinal
waves.
a

sound waves

P waves

S waves

waves that push and pull

waves that have an up-down


motion like water waves

3400 km

3 minutes

2
a

longitudinal

longitudinal

transverse

longitudinal

transverse

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
14

Explain how horsts and graben form.


Include a sketch in your answer to show
the appearance of these two landforms.

Two faults allow blocks of rock to thrust


upwards, forming horsts. Sunken blocks
form graben.

4
15

Three types of faults are shown in the


diagram below. Identify each as either a
transcurrent, normal or reverse fault.

normal

reverse

transcurrent

3
16

What is meant by the term plastic


behaviour?

To be able to change shape without


breaking.

17

Explain how an unconformity is created.


Include a diagram in your answer.

Erosion wears away the rock at the


top of a fold. New sediments are laid on
top of these eroded old rocks, forming
an unconformity.

5
18

19

Explain how a volcano could form away


from the edge of a tectonic plate.
Explain why igneous rock is unlikely to
contain fossils of plant material.

At hot spots or plumes the magma is


under so much pressure that it forces its
way through the plate.

Igneous rock forms when magma cools


below the surface. The intense heat
would destroy plant material.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


5: The fragile crust
20

Yellowstone National Park in the USA


is known for its geysers and mud pools.
Explain how these features form.

The park is located over a hot spot.


Magma boils underground water, which
then forces its way to the surface.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 95 marks

Section AMultiple choice (21 marks)


1

Consider the food chain shown below.


phytoplankton zooplankton small fish large fish sea eagles
Which of the following correctly describes the role of the zooplankton and
large fish?
A
B
C
D

Zooplankton

Large fish

Producer
First order consumer
First order consumer
Second order consumer

Third order consumer


Fourth order consumer
Third order consumer
Fourth order consumer

1
2
3

Which of the following organisms is not a consumer?


A mushroom
B red algae
C earthworm
D elephant
Which of the following is recycled in an ecosystem?
A matter only
B matter and energy
C energy only
D neither matter nor energy
Which type of reaction ultimately provides the energy for almost all life
on Earth?
A photosynthesis
B respiration
C nuclear fusion
D decomposition

A
1
C
1

Consider the food chain shown below.


corn mouse snake kookaburra
Which component of the food chain would need to consume the most energy to
survive?
A corn
B mouse
C snake
D kookaburra
Consider the food chain shown below.
corn mouse snake kookaburra

If the corn contains 1000 units of energy, approximately how many units of
energy will the kookaburra receive?
A 1
B 10
C 100
D 1000

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
7

8
9

10

11

12

13
14

15

16

A soil sample was analysed and four species of animal were found. The
approximate numbers of each animal in the soil sample are shown below.
Species W2 000 000, Species X20, Species Y2 000, Species Z20 000.
Which species is likely to be the highest order consumer?
A W
B X
C Y
D Z
Transpiration is the name given to the loss of water by evaporation from:
A moist soil
B oceans
C animals
D plants
Approximately what percentage of all water on Earth is available as fresh water
to organisms?
A 1%
B 10%
C 50%
D 98%
Nitrifying bacteria convert:
A atmospheric nitrogen molecules to nitrate ions
B atmospheric nitrogen molecules to amino acids
C nitrate ions to atmospheric nitrogen molecules
D ammonia to nitrate ions
Which of the following is not responsible for nitrogen fixation?
A The action of lightning on atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen.
B Industrial production of nitrogen-based fertilisers.
C Rhizobium bacteria found in the root nodules of clover plants.
D Denitrifying bacteria found in the soil.
Which of the following processes removes carbon from the atmosphere?
A combustion of natural gas
B photosynthesis by green plants
C anaerobic respiration by yeast
D decomposition of fallen leaves by fungi
Which of the following is a renewable energy source?
A coal
B oil
C geothermal
D uranium
A photovoltaic cell is designed to convert:
A solar energy to sound energy
B solar energy to electrical energy
C heat energy to electrical energy
D heat energy to solar energy
Splitting one atom of uranium releases how much more energy than burning
one molecule of natural gas?
A 2.6 times as much
B 26 times as much
C 2.6 million times as much
D 26 million times as much
If the wind speed passing through a wind turbine generator is doubled, the
power generated by the turbine is multiplied by a factor of:
A 0.5
B 2
C 4
D 8

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B
1
D

A
1

D
1

D
1

B
1
C

B
1
D
1
D
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
17

18

19

20

21

Which of the following is not a property of water?


A Water can act as both acid and base.
B Solid water is denser than liquid water.
C Water is a solvent for many solutes.
D Water exists in three states on the Earth.
Osmosis is the movement of water from:
A a low salinity solution to a high salinity solution through a
semi-permeable membrane
B a low salinity solution to a high salinity solution through a
non-permeable membrane
C a high salinity solution to a low salinity solution through a
semi-permeable membrane
D a high salinity solution to a low salinity solution through a
non-permeable membrane
The use of osmotic pressure to produce energy is not suited to a country like
Switzerland because it has:
A no suitable sites for dam construction
B no active volcanoes or lava flows
C no freshwater rivers flowing into the sea
D no fossil fuel deposits
Which of the following energy sources is least used in Australia at present?
A hydroelectricity
B energy from wind
C geothermal energy
D solar energy
Biogas produced by the action of anaerobic bacteria in landfill is made up
mainly of:
A methane and carbon dioxide
B methane and oxygen
C octane and carbon dioxide
D octane and oxygen

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B
1

C
1
C
1
A
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
Section BWritten answers (74 marks)
1

Consider the food chain shown below.


mangroves soldier crabs
spoonbills sea eagles
For this food chain, name the:

producer

first order consumer

herbivore

third order consumer

Draw a food chain with four members


based on the following description.
The grasslands of Africa are home to
many herbivores, including zebras, gnus
and gazelles. These grazing animals are
the prey of carnivores, including lions
and cheetahs. Hyenas and vultures that
scavenge for dead remains may at times
eat any of the animals of the grassland.

mangroves

soldier crabs

soldier crabs

sea eagles

4
For example:
grass zebra cheetah hyena
grass gnu lion vulture

Explain why a food chain is unlikely to


have more than six members.

Energy is lost at each step in a food


chain. Each organism receives only
around 10% of the energy available from
the previous organism in the chain. The
last organism in a chain of six would
receive too little energy to survive.
3

Consider the food chain shown below.


leaves caterpillar bird cat

Any two of:

The total energy in the leaves is much


greater than the energy received by the
cat. Describe two different ways in
which the energy of the leaves may be
lost and therefore not reach the cat.

movement by the caterpillar


(and bird) as it searches
for food

sounds made by the bird

heat used to maintain the body


temperature of the bird

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
5

State the Law of Conservation


of Energy.

Give an example of how


this law applies to energy
in ecosystems.

State the Law of Conservation


of Mass.

Give an example of how


this law applies to matter
in ecosystems.

Give the meaning of each of the


following and an example of each.
a

organic matter

an endothermic animal

an ectothermic animal

Energy is neither created


nor destroyed, but can only
be converted from one form
to another.

When energy is passed along a


food chain, around 10% is
passed from one organism to
the next. The remaining 90% is
converted to other forms of
energy such as energy of
movement, heat, sound, etc.

Atoms are not created or


destroyed in chemical reactions,
just rearranged.

A carbon atom that is now part


of your body was once in the
atmosphere as a carbon dioxide
molecule, and once part of
another organism.

Matter that contains the carbon


atom and is derived from either
plants or animals, e.g.
chlorophyll in a plant leaf.

An animal that maintains a


constant body temperature,
e.g. a cat.

An animal whose body


temperature depends on that
of the external environment,
e.g. a snake.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
8

A diagram of the water cycle is


shown below.

Select the labels (A to F) from the


diagram that correspond to each of the
terms given below.

precipitation

evaporation

transpiration

soakage

run-off

condensation

Name a carbon compound:

6
a

cellulose

that is a structural component of


plant cell walls

starch

carbon dioxide

used as an energy store


in plants

glucose

that makes up approximately


0.04% of the gases in the
atmosphere

carbon dioxide

produced during photosynthesis

produced during respiration

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
10

d
11

13

Write a chemical equation for


one of the processes named
in a.
Name one process that removes
carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere.

respiration and combustion

C6H12O6 + 6O2
6CO2 + 6H2O
or C + O2 CO2

photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O
C6H12O6 + 6O2

Write a chemical equation for


the process named in c.

6
a

0.04

98

10

percentage of carbon dioxide in


atmospheric gases

20

65

percentage of water on Earth


found in the saltwater of
the oceans

78

percentage of energy passed


from one organism to the next
in a food chain

percentage of oxygen in
atmospheric gases

percentage of the human body


made up of water

percentage of nitrogen in
atmospheric gases

Use the list of numbers below to assign


a figure to each of the quantities listed
in a to f.
0.04, 10, 20, 65, 78, 98
a

12

Name two processes that


increase the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere.

Name:
a

two uses of nitrogen by plants

two ways nitrogen may leave


a plant

two ways nitrogen may leave


an animal

The greenhouse effect is caused by an


increase in the level of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere. State two ways in which
this increase has occurred.

6
a

making amino acids and nucleic


acids

fallen leaves eaten by


an animal

waste products like urine eaten


by another animal

deforestation (removal of trees


leading to less photosynthesis)

excessive combustion of
fossil fuels

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


6: Ecosystems
14

Complete the following table, which


shows the role of bacteria in the cycling
of nitrogen.
Bacteria type
Nitrogen fixing

Role of the
bacteria
Convert nitrogen
to
Convert ammonia
to nitrates
Convert nitrates
to

Bacteria type
Nitrogen fixing
Nitrifying
Denitrifying

Role of the
bacteria
Convert nitrogen
to nitrates
Convert ammonia
to nitrates
Convert nitrates
to nitrogen

4
15

16
17

18

19

20

Explain what is meant by a nonrenewable energy source. Include two


examples in your answer.
State two ways in which solar energy
may be used to generate electricity.
State two disadvantages of the
use of geothermal energy to
produce electricity.

Explain how a change in blade length of


a wind turbine generator influences the
amount of power supplied.

Energy sources that cannot be replaced.


Examples include coal, oil, natural gas
and uranium.

solar ponds

solar (photovoltaic) cells

not all countries have access to


this source

changes in underground
pressures caused by this
technique may result in
earthquakes and rock cracking

gaseous pollutants are produced

The power supplied is proportional to


the blade length squared. If blade length
is doubled, the power is multiplied by a
factor of four.

State one disadvantage of


hydroelectricity.

construction of dams
destroys habitats

State two advantages of


hydroelectricity.

renewable source and low


running costs

Explain what is meant by the


term biomass.

State one direct use of biomass


for energy production.

organic material that has


recently died and that can be
used to generate energy

burning of wood for heating

conversion of wastes from


crops into fuels such as ethanol

State one indirect use of


biomass for energy production.

Any two of:

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.


marks

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 100

Section AMultiple choice (24 marks)


1

All living things get their energy through a reaction called:


A photosynthesis
B breathing
C respiration
D inspiration
When there is no oxygen or limited oxygen, the respiration process that is
carried out is:
A aerobic
B lactic
C anaerobic
D yeast
Which of the following equations represents the process of aerobic respiration?
A
B
C
D

C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1) + energy


C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) + energy 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1)
C6H12O6(aq) + energy 2CO2(g) + 2C2H6O(aq)
C6H12O6(aq) 2CO2(g) + 2C2H6O(aq) + energy

C
1
C
1

A
1

Which of the following equations represents the process of anaerobic


respiration in yeast?
A C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1) + energy
B C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) + energy 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1)
C C6H12O6(aq) + energy 2CO2(g) + 2C2H6O(aq)
D C6H12O6(aq) 2CO2(g) + 2C2H6O(aq) + energy
Your muscles can be sore and you can suffer from cramp after a lot of exercise.
This is due to the build up in your muscles of:
A glucose
B energy
C lactic acid
D starch
Each enzyme in the human body:
A is able to catalyse a wide range of reactions
B controls a specific type of reaction
C functions best at a temperature of 100oC
D must be continually produced, as it is used up in each reaction it catalyses
Respiration is a chemical reaction which:
A occurs only in the body cells of animals
B always has oxygen as a reactant
C involves a sequence of reactions
D is endothermic (absorbs energy)
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D
1
c
1

B
1

C
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
8

Which of the following best summarises the two main stages of respiration.
STAGE 1

STAGE 2

A C6H12O6 C3H4O3 in
the cytoplasm.
B C6H12O6 C3H4O3 in
the mitochondria.
C C3H4O3 CO2 + H2O in
the mitochondria.
D C3H4O3 CO2 + H2O in
the cytoplasm.

C3H4O3 CO2 + H2O in the


mitochondria.
C3H4O3 CO2 + H2O in the cytoplasm.

C6H12O6 C3H4O3 in the cytoplasm.


C6H12O6 C3H4O3 in the mitochondria.
1

10

11

12

13

The basal metabolic rate (BMR):


A shows a steady increase with increasing age
B is the minimum energy required to carry out your normal daily tasks
C varies with size, state of health and sex
D varies directly with the type and level of activity a person carries out

C
1

Which of the following shows the approximate percentages of three major gases
in inhaled air?
A 50% nitrogen, 49% oxygen, 1% carbon dioxide
B
B 79% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide
C 79% nitrogen, 14% oxygen, 6% carbon dioxide
D 59% nitrogen, 41% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide
Which of the following is not a property of alveoli?
A Their cell walls are only one cell thick.
C
B They lie close to the walls of capillaries.
C They have a dry surface to allow efficient diffusion.
D They are shaped to give maximum surface area.
If carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll are placed in a test tube in the sunlight:
A glucose and bubbles of oxygen will be produced immediately
B glucose and bubbles of oxygen will be produced, but only after a long
period of time
C no reaction will occur because one reactant is missing
D no reaction will occur because necessary enzymes are missing
Which would you expect to contain the greater number of mitochondria: nerve
cells or muscle cells?
A muscle cells
B nerve cells
C neither, because both would contain the same number of mitochondria
D neither, because only plant cells contain mitochondria
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D
1

A
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
14

15

16

Most carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream:


A bound to haemoglobin
B as gaseous carbon dioxide molecules
C bound to ATP molecules
D as dissolved carbon dioxide molecules and hydrogen carbonate ions
Photosynthesis may be considered a two-stage process. Which of the following
occurs during stage 2?
A Energy is trapped by chlorophyll molecules.
B ATP provides the energy to carry out this stage.
C Water is split to form oxygen and hydrogen ions.
D Carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions combine to form starch molecules.
An experiment was conducted using the set-up shown below.

D
1

B
1

17

18

The volume of gas collected in the test tube after two hours would not be
affected by the:
A size of the test tube
B mass of plant used
C intensity of the light source
D temperature of the solution
Starch, cellulose and glycogen are all:
A produced by plants during photosynthesis
B types of enzymes
C made up of many glucose molecules joined together
D found in the human liver

C
1

Purple sulfur bacteria are able to carry out the process summarised in
the equation:
6CO2 + 12H2S light
C6H12O6 + 12S + 6H2O
Which of the following is the same for this process and the process of
photosynthesis carried out by green plants?
A reactants
B products
C pigment used to trap energy
D energy source

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
19

20
21

22

In which of these plant leaf cells is the maximum rate of photosynthesis


expected to occur?
A epidermal cells
B palisade cells
C xylem cells
D mesophyll cells
Which colour of light is not absorbed by chlorophyll?
A green
B red
C blue
D orange
The openings in plant leaves designed to allow gaseous exchange without
allowing excessive water loss are called:
A the epidermis
B stomata
C mesophyll cells
D the cuticle

B
1
A

B
1

The graph below shows the amount of oxygen produced by a plant as light
intensity was increased under two different sets of conditions.

23

Which of the following would explain the difference between X and Y?


A The data for X was obtained with the plant in orange light, the data for Y
with the plant in red light.
B The data for X was obtained with the plant at a higher temperature than for
Y.
C The data for X was obtained with the plant in a higher concentration of
carbon dioxide than for Y.
D The data for X was obtained using a larger mass of plant than for Y.
In which of the following is the animal correctly matched with its
respiratory/circulatory system?
A insectlungs and bloodstream
B fishbody surface and no circulatory system
C snakegills and a bloodstream
D earthwormmoist body surface and a bloodstream

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D
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
24

The diagram below shows the involvement of ATP in respiration and


photosynthesis.

The terms needed to correctly complete the diagram are:


a
A photosynthesis

respiration

chlorophyll

respiration

respiration

cell activities

glucose

photosynthesis

C photosynthesis

cell activities

chlorophyll

respiration

D respiration

photosynthesis

chlorophyll

respiration

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis

Section BWritten answers (76 marks)


1

Is this reaction exothermic


or endothermic?

What does the word


aerobic mean?

What is the function of


an enzyme?

Explain why the shape


of an enzyme is important
to its functioning.

Write a chemical
equation for the process
of aerobic respiration.

When used in biochemistry,


what do the letters ATP
stand for?

C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g)
6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1) + energy

exothermic

with oxygen (using oxygen)

Enzymes speed up a chemical


reaction without being used up
in the reaction.

Enzymes have a particular


shape which exactly matches
the shape of reactant molecules.
The reactants lock into a place
on the enzymes. This
interlocking makes the reaction
occur more easily, and therefore
more quickly.
4

adenosine triphosphate

Various answers, e.g. making


large molecules like protein,
growth of cells, transport of
substances into/out of cells,
transmission of messages
between cells

ATP is used to store energy.


List three uses of the energy
stored in ATP.
Name the two products of
anaerobic respiration in
yeast cells.

carbon dioxide and ethanol

beer/winemaking and
bread making

State two industrial uses of the


anaerobic respiration reaction
in yeast cells.

lactic acid

Name the product of


anaerobic respiration in
human muscle cells.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
5

Explain why aerobic respiration releases


more energy per glucose molecule than
anaerobic respiration.

b
7

What is the name given to the


minimum amount of energy
needed by a person at rest?
State two reasons why a person
at rest would need energy.

The products of anaerobic respiration


(ethanol and lactic acid) contain large
amounts of energy. This energy was not
released during the respiration process.
The products of aerobic respiration
(carbon dioxide and water) contain very
little energy.
a

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

Various answers, e.g. heartbeat,


breathing, repair of tissues,
kidney function

Describe two ways in which the air


entering your lungs is different from the
air entering your nose.

Various answers, e.g. warmer,


moistened, filtered (fewer dust particles,
etc.)

Name four structures which air passes


through on its journey from the
atmosphere to an alveolus in your lungs.

Various answers, e.g. nose, pharynx,


trachea, larynx, bronchus, bronchiole

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
9

The questions that follow refer to


the diagram below of the human
respiratory system.

ii

iii

iv

vi

Which structure shown (use the letters


a to h to answer):
i

prevents food from entering


the trachea?

ii

contracts and flattens when you


breathe in?

iii

filters, warms and humidifies


air?

iv

contracts to raise the rib cage


when you breathe in?

is the site of gaseous exchange


between the lungs and the
bloodstream?

vi

is a bronchus?

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
10

11

12

What happens to each of the


following structures during
expiration (breathing out)?
a

Ribs (raised or lowered?)

Diaphragm (flattens or is
dome shaped?)

Pressure in the chest cavity


(increases or decreases?)

Intercostal muscles (contract


or relax?)

14

lowered

dome shaped

increases

relax

Name two different


structures used by animals
for gas exchange.

Various answers, e.g. lungs,


gills, moist skin, trachea (in
insects)

State two features found in both


of these structures that enable
efficient gas exchange to occur.

Various answers, e.g. large


surface area, moist surface, thin
surface, close to bloodstream or
other circulatory mechanism

Write a chemical equation for


the process of photosynthesis.

State two other requirements


(apart from the reactants) for
photosynthesis to occur.

c
13

6CO2(g) + 6H2O(1)
C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g)

light and chlorophyll

endothermic

Is this reaction exothermic or


endothermic?

In which plant cell structures do each of


the following processes occur?
a

stage 1 of respiration

stage 2 of respiration

photosynthesis

State three ways in which the glucose


produced during photosynthesis may be
used by a plant.

4
a

cytoplasm

mitochondria

chloroplasts
3

Various answers, e.g. converted to starch


for storage, converted to cellulose for
cell walls, used in respiration for energy,
converted to other sugars for transport,
converted to oils and proteins
3

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
15

16

The graph below shows the effect of


light intensity on the rate of
photosynthesis.

Explain why the rate increases


in the first section I of the
graph.

Explain why the rate does not


increase in the second section II
of the graph.

Chemosynthetic bacteria carry out a


process similar to photosynthesis in
green plants.
a
b

State one difference between


the two processes.
State two similarities between
the two processes.

Greater light intensity means


more light energy is available,
enabling faster photosynthesis.

In this section some other factor


(e.g. carbon dioxide level) is
limiting the rate of reaction.

4
a

Chemosynthetic bacteria
obtain energy from chemical
reactions. Plants obtain
energy from sunlight.

Any two of: same reactants


(carbon dioxide and water),
same products (glucose
and oxygen), both processes
are endothermic

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
17

An experiment was conducted using the


flasks shown below. All flasks contained
water, were at the same temperature and
were in sunlight.

flask D

Photosynthesis would occur in


flasks C and D. This would
lower the carbon dioxide
level. Respiration would also
occur in these flasks, but more
so in flask C, which contains
both plant and animal.
Respiration would raise the
carbon dioxide level.
Overall, the level would
be lower in flask D.

After two hours, the carbon dioxide


level in each flask was measured.
a

In which flask (AD) would the


carbon dioxide level be lowest
after two hours?

Explain how you arrived at


your choice in part a.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
18

The diagram below shows a section


through a plant leaf.

ii

iii

iv

Which label (ah) represents:

19

an epidermal cell

ii

a palisade cell

iii

a xylem vessel

iv

a chloroplast

a mesophyll cell?

Which colour of light is strongly


absorbed by:
a

water?

green algae?

red algae?

5
a

red

red

blue (or green)

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


7: Respiration and photosynthesis
20

Suggest a reason why plants in


the desert grow very slowly.

Suggest a reason why plants are


not found at depths over 300 m
below the surface of the ocean.

Desert plants must close their


stomata during the heat of the
day to avoid water loss. With
stomata closed, gaseous
exchange is stopped. Therefore,
photosynthesis cannot
occur at these times.

Light cannot penetrate to these


depths. Without light,
photosynthesis (and therefore
plant growth) is not possible.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 94 marks

Section AMultiple choice (20 marks)


1

5
6

When the level of carbon dioxide in your blood falls, the usual response of your
body is to:
A decrease breathing rate
B increase breathing rate
C produce the hormone oestrogen
D produce the hormone insulin
Which of the following is part of the peripheral nervous system?
A brain
B spinal cord
C heart muscle
D taste buds on the tongue
Interneurons transfer messages:
A from receptors to the central nervous system
B from the central nervous system to effectors
C within the central nervous system
D directly between sensory receptors
Which of the following correctly matches receptor cells to the energy
conversion they carry out?
A Retina cells convert sound energy to electrical energy.
B Cells in the taste buds convert chemical energy to electrical energy.
C Thermoreceptor cells convert electrical energy to thermal energy.
D Cochlea cells convert light energy to electrical energy.
Which of the following is not a hormone?
A insulin
B glucagon
C dopamine
D adrenalin
Which of the following is not a reflex action?
A blinking
B sneezing
C eating
D coughing

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A
1
D
1

C
1

B
1
C
C

1
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
7

The diagram below shows a sketch of the human brain.

8
9

10

11

12

13

The part labelled b is the:


A cerebrum
B cerebellum
C medulla
D spinal cord
The part of the brain that gives you the sensation of hearing is the:
A cerebrum
B cerebellum
C medulla
D spinal cord
Which of the following is usually largely controlled by the endocrine system?
A breathing
B heartbeat
C tasting
D water balance
The conditions known as gigantism and dwarfism can result from abnormal
levels of which hormone?
A adrenalin
B antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
C human growth hormone (HGH)
D oestrogen
Which hormone is known as the fight or flight hormone?
A adrenalin
B antidiuretic hormone
C growth hormone
D oestrogen
A fall in blood glucose levels is initially likely to result in the release of which
hormone into the bloodstream?
A insulin
B thyroxin
C progesterone
D glucagon
The disease diabetes mellitus is most often associated with which hormone?
A insulin
B human growth hormone
C thyroxin
D testosterone

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A

D
1
C
1
A
1
D
1
A
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
14

The diagram below shows a sketch of the human endocrine system.

15
16

17

18

Which of the following correctly matches a gland (as labelled on the diagram)
with the function controlled by a hormone it releases?
A Gland L releases a hormone that controls female sexual development.
B Gland O releases a hormone that controls blood glucose levels.
C Gland M releases a hormone that controls the rate of chemical reactions
in cells.
D Gland K releases a hormone that controls water balance.
Hydrotropism is a response of plants to:
A light
B water
C the Sun
D gravity
Ethology is the study of:
A ethics
B the behaviour of animals
C the action of hormones
D the functioning of the nervous system
Which of the following is an example of the behaviour known as instinct?
A coughing when an object enters your throat
B young geese following a substitute mother
C birds migrating to a warmer climate in winter
D a chimpanzee using a stick to reach a banana hung out of its reach
Which of the following is an example of a learned behaviour?
A smiling
B withdrawing your hand from a hot object
C swallowing
D salivating when you see a picture of a certain food

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B

B
1

C
1

D
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
19

20

Which of the following types of behaviour is the most complex?


A imprinting
B insight
C habituation
D conditioning
A society is a group of individuals of:
A the same species that cooperate to aid their survival
B the same species found living close together
C different species that cooperate to aid their survival
D different species found living close together

B
1

A
1

Section BWritten answers (74 marks)


1

Give two reasons why organisms


need to respond to changes in
their surroundings.

For example: to escape predators, to find


food, to avoid extremes of temperature.
2

What is homeostasis?

Name two substances


whose levels are
homeostatically controlled.

The maintenance of a constant


internal environment despite
changes in the surroundings

Any two of glucose, water,


carbon dioxide

Give the meaning of each of the


following terms and give an example
of each.
a

receptor

effector

A specialised area sensitive to


changes in a particular
condition, e.g. retina cells in the
eye respond to changes in light

An organ or gland that causes a


response to a stimulus, e.g. the
pancreas releases insulin in
response to increased blood
glucose levels

Draw a diagram to show the stimulus


response model for what happens when
you cut your finger with a knife.

4
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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
5

Complete the following table showing


the receptors for various stimuli.
Stimulus

Receptor and
location

Light
Chemicals

Stimulus
Light
Chemicals

Semicircular canals
in the ear
Cochlea cells in the
inner ear

Gravity
Sound

Receptor and
location
Retina cells in
the eye
Receptors on the
tongue and in
the nose
Semicircular canals
in the ear
Cochlea cells in the
inner ear

4
6

What does the threshold for a


stimulus mean?

Why is it useful to
have thresholds?

Suppose your body temperature were to


increase after exercise. State:
a

one area where receptors


that detected this increase
would be located

the coordinating centre that


would receive messages

one organ or gland that might


act as an effector

one response you might detect

State two similarities between


neurons and most other
animal cells.

State two differences between


neurons and most other
animal cells.

Where on a neuron would you


find myelin?

What is the role of myelin?

The minimum intensity that


causes a response for that
stimulus

To prevent a response occurring


every time a stimulus is
encountered, because the
stimulus at very low levels
may not be important
3

the skin (thermoreceptors)

the brain

sweat glands in the skin

sweating

4
a

Any two of: nucleus,


cytoplasm, cell membrane

Any two of: dendrites, axon,


myelin sheath
4

around the axon

Myelin insulates the axon,


enabling messages to pass
more quickly.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
10

Neurotransmitters carry messages


across synapses.
a
b

11

12

State one advantage of having


synapses to connect neurons.

They direct messages to


appropriate places or they play
a role in memory and learning.

Chemicals easily affect them.


They slow the passage of
messages along neurons.

State two disadvantages of


neurotransmitters.

Describe three ways in which the brain


is protected from injury.

Describe the sequence of events that


make up the reflex action occurring
when a bright light is shone in
your eyes.

a bony case (the skull)

layers of connective tissue


(the meninges)

a jacket of fluid
(cerebrospinal fluid)

Receptors detect a change in


light intensity.

An impulse is sent along a


sensory neuron to the brain.

An impulse is sent along a


motor neuron to iris muscles.

Iris muscles contract, causing


the pupil to narrow.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
13

The diagram below shows the control of


blood glucose levels.

stimulus

receptor

hormonal relay

effector

response

feedback

Complete the labelling of the diagram by


naming a to f in terms of the stimulus
response model. Label c has been
completed as an example.
a
b
c

hormonal relay

d
e
f
14

15

State one difference between


pheromones and hormones.

Give two examples of the use


of pheromones.

Give three examples of plant activities


regulated by hormones.

Hormones are released into the


bloodstream. Pheromones are
released into the environment.

For example:

Many insects use


pheromones to attract
mates.

Ants use pheromones to


mark food trails.

phototropism

fruit development

seed germination

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
16

17

The diagrams below show a series of


experiments examining phototropism.

What is phototropism?

Which group of hormones


causes phototropism?

Explain why no bending


occurred when the mica
was used.

Explain why bending occurred


when agar was used.

State what is meant by each of the


following terms and give an example
of each.
a

innate behaviour

learned behaviour

growth of plants towards light

auxins

The mica prevents diffusion of


the hormone from the tip to the
lower part of the shoot.

Agar allows the hormone to


diffuse from the tip to the lower
part of the shoot.

4
a

Genetically controlled
behaviour, e.g. the reflex
action of withdrawing from
a hot object

Behaviour involving a choice


of responses to a given
stimulus, e.g. trying to
answer these questions

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


8: Responding and controlling
18

Courtship in many species of birds is


instinctive behaviour.
a
b

c
19

20

What is meant by instinctive


behaviour?
It can be said that courtship
ensures that mating occurs with
an appropriate partner at the
most appropriate time to aid
survival of the offspring. What
are two characteristics of an
appropriate partner?

Behaviour that is innate, but


involves a complicated set of
responses to a stimulus

Any two of: same species,


opposite sex, sexually mature

Involves considerable time


and energy

Suggest one disadvantage


of courtship.

Name the type of learned behaviour


involved in each of the following.
a

A group of ducklings follow a


farm dog that played with them
just after they hatched.

A dog fetches the morning


newspaper.

You ignore the sound of the


trams that pass the classroom
window each hour.

Give two examples of social behaviour.


State the value of each behaviour.

5
a

imprinting

trial and error

habituation

3
For example:

Honey bees communicate


by dancing. This tells the
other bees where nectar is
to be found.

Birds fly in flocks. This gives


an increased chance of the
birds finding food.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: _____________ / 89 marks

Section AMultiple choice (21 marks)


1

3
4

Which of the following methods of reproduction produces the most


varied offspring?
A budding
B spore formation
C fusion of gametes
D fragmentation and regeneration
Hermaphrodites are organisms which:
A produce both male and female gametes
B reproduce asexually
C produce pheromones to attract the opposite sex
D can regenerate lost body parts
Which of the following organisms reproduces using spores?
A frog
B fern
C hydra
D yeast
Female gametes are usually:
A larger and more mobile than male gametes
B smaller and more mobile than male gametes
C larger and less mobile than male gametes
D smaller and less mobile than male gametes
Which of the following descriptions is correct?
A Ovulation refers to the release of egg cells from the uterus.
B Fertilisation refers to the production of female gametes.
C Menstruation refers to the shedding of the lining of the ovaries.
D Gestation refers to the time between fertilisation and birth.
The male part of a flower is made up of the:
A stigma, style and ovary
B petals and sepals
C anther and filament
D nectary and ovule

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1

A
1
B

C
1

D
1
C
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
7

This question refers to the diagram below, which shows the human male
reproductive system.

Which of the following correctly describes the function of the


labelled structure?
A Structure c stores sperm while they continue to fully develop.
B Sperm are produced by structure e.
C Structure a releases the major male hormone, testosterone.
D Structure d is the only fluid-producing structure in the male
reproductive system.
The urethra is a tube that carries:
A sperm only
B urine only
C neither sperm nor urine
D both sperm and urine, although not together
Which of the following statements concerning gamete production in humans
is correct?
A Males have a store of gametes at birth; females produce gametes throughout
their life.
B Females have a store of gametes at birth; males produce gametes throughout
their life.
C Both males and females have a store of gametes at birth.
D Both males and females produce gametes throughout their lives.

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D
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
10

This question refers to the diagram below, which shows the human female
reproductive system.

Which of the following correctly describes the function of the


labelled structure?
A Structure d is the site of implantation.
B Structure e carries both urine and the menstrual flow.
C Sperm are deposited in structure c during sexual intercourse.
D Ova are released from structure b.
11

12
13
14

15

The site of fertilisation of the human egg cell is the:


A ovary
B fallopian tubes or oviduct
C uterus
D vagina
The major female reproductive hormone is:
A oestrogen
B testosterone
C adrenalin
D insulin
The major male reproductive hormone is:
A oestrogen
B testosterone
C adrenalin
D insulin
The term menarche refers to the time in a human females life when:
A the first menstruation occurs
B egg cells are no longer released from the ovaries
C a zygote implants in the uterus
D sexual intercourse first takes place
Which of the following shows the correct order of stages of development of a
human embryo?
A zygote, foetus, blastocyst, morula
B foetus, zygote, morula, blastocyst
C zygote, blastocyst, morula, foetus
D zygote, morula, blastocyst, foetus

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1
B
1
A
B

1
1

A
1

D
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
16

17

18

19

20

21

Which of the following shows events in their correct order of occurrence?


A copulation, ejaculation, fertilisation, implantation
B ejaculation, fertilisation, copulation, implantation
C implantation, ejaculation, fertilisation, copulation
D copulation, ejaculation, implantation, fertilisation
Which of the following tests conducted during pregnancy does not involve the
removal of fluid from either the mother or the foetus?
A amniocentesis
B ultrasound
C testing for alpha-fetoprotein levels in the mother
D chorionic villus sampling
Which of the following is not a sexually transmitted disease?
A HIVAIDS
B gonorrhoea
C prostate cancer
D herpes
Contraception refers to any process that prevents:
A sexual intercourse from occurring
B the transmission of STDs
C pregnancy from occurring
D gametes from being produced
Which of the following processes does not normally occur during IVF?
A Egg cells are retrieved from the ovary.
B Eggs are placed in a salt solution at 45oC.
C Sperm are added to the eggs in the salt solution.
D Fertilised eggs are transferred to the uterus after a short development time.
A teratogen is:
A a chemical released into the environment to attract the opposite sex
B a chemical released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive activity
C a substance found in urine that indicates pregnancy has occurred
D an agent, such as a drug, that can affect development of the embryo

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A
1

B
1
C
1

C
1

B
1

D
1

Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
Section BWritten answers (68 marks)
1

Explain what is meant by


asexual reproduction.

production of a new organism


without the fusion of gametes

Give two examples of


asexual reproduction.

Any two of:

State three situations where


asexual reproduction may
be useful.

State one disadvantage of


asexual reproduction.

Sexual reproduction does not always


require two parents. Explain why this is,
and include an example of this situation.

Give two reasons why the offspring of


asexually reproducing organisms may
not all be identical.

fission

budding

spores

regeneration

parthenogenesis

Any three of:

a constant environment

the organisms are well


suited to the environment

the organisms are rare or


isolated from others

the organisms are unable


to move freely

The offspring are genetically


identical. This is unfavourable
in times of changing conditions.

Some organisms are hermaphrodites,


producing both male and female
gametes, e.g. many flowers contain both
male and female parts and selffertilisation may occur.

Mutations may occur, resulting


in new characteristics.

Different environmental
conditions may result in
different characteristics.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
5

Flowering plants may either be selfpollinated or cross-pollinated.


a

What is meant by crosspollination?

Suggest two ways in which


cross-pollination can be made
to occur.

What is the advantage of crosspollination?

A particular flower has its stigma placed


higher than its anthers. Could this flower
be self-pollinated? Explain your answer.
a

In which structure are the


human testes located?

What is the advantage of the


testes being in this structure,
rather than deep in the body?

The ovaries of a 30-year-old woman


have many scars on their surface. What
causes these scars?
This question refers to the diagram
below, which shows the human male
reproductive system.

Pollen is transferred from the


anther of one flower to the
stigma of another flower.

By wind or the action of insects

Cross-pollination results in
greater genetic variation in
the offspring.
4

No. The pollen cannot fall upwards


from the anther to the stigma.
2
a

the scrotum

The scrotum allows the testes to


be at a lower temperature than
body temperature. This is better
for sperm production.
3

Each time an egg cell is released from


the surface of the ovary, the follicle is
left behind and leaves a scar.
a

prostate gland

seminal vesicle

urethra

penis

epididymis

Name each of the structures labelled


a to e.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
10

This question refers to the diagram


below, which shows the human female
reproductive system.

oviduct

uterus

cervix

vagina

bladder

Name each of the structures labelled


a to e.
11

12

13

Describe or name the events occurring at


each of the following times in the human
menstrual cycle.
a

days 1 to 5

days 5 to 14

day 14

days 15 to 25

Describe three changes in females


at puberty.

Describe three changes in males


at puberty.

5
a

menstruation (shedding of the


uterine lining)

development of follicles in the


ovary; repair of the uterine
lining

ovulation (release of an egg


cell)

thickening of the uterine lining

Any three of:

growth spurt

breasts and buttocks develop

hips become wider

pubic and underarm hair


develops

menstruation begins

Any three of:

growth spurt

increased muscle development

body and facial hair growth

voice deepens

testes develop and sperm


production begins

penis enlarges

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
14

Describe two ways in which


twins can be produced.

Which method produces


twins that are most alike?

15

Complete the table below, which shows


several methods of contraception.
Name of method

How it works
Rubber device
that fits over
the cervix.
Stops sperm
entering the
uterus and
prevents
implantation.

Any two of:

two separate eggs are


fertilised (fraternal twins)

a single fertilised egg


splits in two (identical
twins)

an egg splits before


fertilisation and each half
is fertilised by a different
sperm (half-identical
twins)

Identical twins are formed


when a single fertilised egg
splits in two.

Name of method
Cap or diaphragm
IUD (intra-uterine
device)

Contraceptive pills

Contraceptive pills

How it works
Rubber device
that fits over
the cervix.
Stops sperm
entering the
uterus and
prevents
implantation.
Consist of
hormones that
stop ovulation.

4
16

17

Briefly describe each of the following


embryonic stages.
a

morula

blastocyst

When referring to human reproduction,


what does each of the following letters
stand for?
a

STD

IUD

AIDS

IVF

A clump of about 80 cells

A fluid-filled ball with more


cells than the morula
2

sexually transmitted disease

intra-uterine device

acquired immune
deficiency syndrome

in-vitro fertilisation

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


9: Reproduction
18

19

20

Multiple embryo transfer is usually used


during IVF procedures.
a

State one advantage of


transferring more than
one embryo.

State one disadvantage of


transferring more than
one embryo.

State the length of time (in days) for


each of the following.
a

the typical menstrual cycle


in humans

human gestation

the number of days a human


egg cell spends in the oviduct

Choose from the list below the


approximate numbers for each of the
quantities described in a to c.
one
several hundred

increases the chances of


successful implantation

increases the risk of


multiple pregnancies

2
a

28 days

280 days

78 days

3
a

several hundred thousand


(500 000)

several hundred million

several hundred

several hundred thousand


several million
several hundred million
a
The number of egg cells present
in each human ovary at birth.
b

The number of sperm


released by a human male at
each ejaculation.

The number of sperm that reach


the egg cell following
copulation.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
Name: _______________________

Class: __________

Instructions: Write answers in the right-hand column.

Date: _______

Score: ___________ / 94 marks

Section AMultiple choice (18 marks)


1

The Bertillon system of identification involved:


A taking fingerprints
B making up a composite drawing
C measuring and recording the dimensions of a series of bony body parts
D retroactive interference

The Identikit system of identification involved:


A taking fingerprints
B making up a composite drawing
C measuring and recording the dimensions of a series of bony body parts
D retroactive interference

Which of the following is not a type of fingerprint?


A loop
B compounded
C whorl
D arch

Biometric facial recognition is the system that uses:


A photos of a face
B iris identification
C teeth impressions
D the positions of points formed by the eyes, chin, nose, ears and other facial
features.

Which of the following statement is true regarding iris and retina identification?
A False eyes can be used to bluff the iris and retina identification.
B The chances of incorrect identification is very high.
C Iris identification is less accurate than fingerprints.
D Scans are sometimes difficult to obtain from uncooperative people.

Which of the following contains your DNA and could be used to identify you?
A your dandruff
B your blood
C your saliva
D all of the above

Intaglio printing on banknotes is:


A a raised form of printing
C extremely small printing

B a watermark
D an optically active device

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
8

10

11

12

13

Chromatography is:
A a technique used to get inks to fluoresce
B when oblique lighting is used to identify writing
C a method used to counterfeit money
D a technique that separates the colours in inks and dyes allowing their
identification

Which of the following is incorrect?


Good track impressions that can be used in forensics are created when you
walk:
A onto mud, clay or snow
B out from somewhere wet onto a dry path
C through something spilt (such as blood or grease) over a hard surface
D through mud or dirt and then onto a clean surface

Which of the following is the least likely to show tool marks?


A opening a window with a screwdriver
B cutting a bone with a saw
C using pliers to open a jammed tap
D a body that has been stabbed

When your mobile phone is switched on, you can be located to within a distance
of:
C
A 1m
B 10 m
C 100 m
D 1 km

Which of the following would not qualify as modus operandi or MO?


A a series of burglaries committed at similar times in the daylight
B a series of assaults committed with a peculiar kind of knife
C an assault committed at a location and soon after a burglary committed
nearby
D a door forced open with a particular tool; soon after and nearby another door
forced open in a similar way

The shape of blood drips on the ground can be used to determine:


A the direction of movement of the victim
B the time the crime was committed
C the blood group of the victim
D the DNA of the victim

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
14

15

16

17

18

Which of the following is least likely to happen when someone is hit with a
blunt object?
A Bone tissue will be fractured.
B The surface of the skin will be split but the wound will not necessarily be
deep.
C Bruising will be severe.
D The wound will be deep and clean, only stopping when it hit bone.

When shot, people often die almost instantly. This is due to:
A blood loss due to the blood vessels cut by the bullet
B shock
C chemicals from the bullet poisoning them
D a pressure wave that explodes organs that the bullet strikes

Yaw marks are left by:


A a car cornering too quickly
B a tool that is used to open a window in a burglary
C on a bullet as it is shot from a gun
D a blade that is used to stab someone

Latent fingerprints are usually left on non-porous materials. This means they
would easily be found on:
A newspaper
B unpolished wood
C polished wood
D any animal without paws

A cold case is:


A a bag used to store your clothes when you go snow skiing
B a box that is used to store fruit in a cold-store
C an unsolved crime that has no more leads for police to investigate
D a person who has the flu

Section BWritten answers (76 marks)


1

Is the following statement true, false or


a bit of both? Explain your answer.
Every persons DNA is different.

All except identical twins have different


DNA. Hence the statement is true for
most people. It is technically false
because it does not cover identical twins.
It is therefore a bit of both.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
2

Draw sketches of the following types of


fingerprints, showing their main
identifying characteristics: loop, arch,
whorl.

Diagrams similar to those found on


p. 289, Figure 10.1.7 of Science
Dimensions 3.
6

Explain what retroactive interference is


and why it often makes identification
using photographs unreliable.

Give four reasons why iris identification


of someone is so reliable, with almost
no incorrect identification when it is
used.

Retroactive interference is when new


information interferes with the recall of
old information. Your memory of a
particular person can be interfered with
by looking at photos trying to identify
them. Other memories can also interfere
with your recall of what a person looked
like. The more photos you look at, the
less reliable your memory becomes.

Two scans are taken, one of


each eye.
It cannot be forged with a false
eye. A real iris moves
constantly.
An iris has 266 identifiable
features.
Your iris never changes, even as
you age.
4

As a forensic scientist, you have been


called to the scene of a sexual assault.
Identify four types of body tissue or
fluids that you might collect there for
DNA analysis.

Blood, semen/sperm, saliva, hair, skin,


dandruff

A student has collapsed on the way


home from school. State four ways that
police might use to identify him/her.

Any four of:

school student card


library card
L or P plate license
credit card
school uniformcontact school
and check photos
mobile phone address book
4

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
7

As a forensic scientist, you have been


called to the site of disastrous plane
crash and explosion on a remote
mountain surrounded by thick jungle.
a
Give two reasons why it might
be difficult to identify the
bodies.
b
Give two reasons that might
make it a little easier to
identify them.

a
It took a long time to get to
the site and so bodies are
badly decomposed by the
time you get there.
Bodies were badly burnt by
the explosion.
b
Airlines have detailed lists of
passengers and their seats on
the aircraft.
Passengers can be matched
with their luggage for
identification.
Passengers will usually have
some identification on them
(e.g. passport).
Passengers often travel in
families or in groups.
Identification of one victim
might assist in identification
of those near them.
4

Write the letter capital E. Show how


you wrote the letter by:
using a dot to show when you
started a stroke
an arrow from the dot to show
which direction you moved
your pen
numbering each arrow in the
order you made each pen
stroke (i.e. 1 = first stroke,
2 = next stroke, etc.)

Briefly describe two techniques that can


be used to identify the ink used to write
or print a document.

Various answers possible.


Answers similar to those found on p. 299,
Figure 10.2.1 of Science Dimensions 3.

3
Many inks fluoresce under different
coloured lights. Inks can be separated
into their components using
chromatography.

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
10

11

List five methods used that make it


difficult to forge Australian banknotes.

The first $100 bills in Australia were


printed on paper and were
predominantly black, white and grey in
colour. Give three reasons why these
bills were easily forged when first
introduced.

Any five of :
notes made of special
polymer film (plastic)
intaglio printing (raised
printing)
microprinting (very small
details, sentences, initials,
etc.)
water marks
metal bands
fluorescent inks
optically active devices
serial numbers

Few people knew what a $100 bill looked


like and so they could easily be bluffed.
The colours were easily reproduced using
simple printing or photocopying.
The bills were on paper and not on
polymer film (plastic).
3

12

Explain how you could tell whether a


threatening document has been typed on
an old-fashioned typewriter or printed
from a computer printer.

Each brand and model of typewriter


produces characteristic letter shapes.
Each typewriter produces particular faults
in the letters due to dirt and/or pits and
cracks in the hammer.
Computer printouts will often show
tracks of the feed mechanisms when lit
obliquely.
2

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
13

Identity theft is an increasing crime.


a
Suggest what you think the
term identity theft means.
b
Suggest three things that might
help someone commit identity
theft.

Identify theft is when someone


uses someone elses identity
(either their whole identity or
some identifying
card/document) for purchases or
access to a secure area.
Any three of:

personal cards without photos


(e.g. credit cards).
PIN numbers or access codes
for Internet banking/ATM
banking.
tax file numbers/drivers
licence number/Medicare
number
address/phone number/date of
birth/mothers maiden name
bills and letters to the person
Note that any document that has a photo
is unlikely to be helpful unless there is a
striking resemblance.
4
14

Explain why rumour and gossip have no Although rumour and gossip might have
value in court as evidence.
some factual basis, they cannot be
confirmed as fact. Evidence must be
factual, in the form of verbal testimony of
what a person has actually seen or heard
or in the form of physical evidence such
as DNA or fingerprints.
2

15

Give an example of a fibre that is:


a
animal in origin
b
vegetable in origin
c
mineral or synthetic in origin

a
b
c

fur, wool, hair, feathers, silk


cotton, string, linen, hessian
rock, wool, glass fibres,
polyester, nylon, rayon

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
16

What tool marks are likely to be left:


a
in a house break-and-enter?
b
when important papers have
been shredded?
c
when a murdered body has
been cut up?
d
when a person is strangled?
e
in a suspicious car accident
where the brake lines seem to
have been cut?

a
b
c
d
e

screw driver, jemmy bar


scissors, guillotine, mechanical
shredder
axe, saw
rope marks, bruising
scissors, wire cutters, saw

5
17

18

List three features of shoes that can lead


to the identification of a criminal.

A decaying body has been found in the


bush. It is covered in different types of
insects, insect eggs, worms and
maggots. Explain how you could use
these to determine how long the body
has been there.

size of shoe
track impression: shape and
pattern
track impression: wear and
tear and characteristic cuts
and marks

The stage in the lifecycles of the different


insects will give a good idea as to how
long they have been breeding and
growing on the body. From this, the time
the body has been there can be
determined.
2

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Science Dimensions 3 TEST


10: Forensics
19

A body has been found in an unmarked


shallow grave in the bush. An autopsy
shows that the person was drowned.
a
Explain why it is unlikely to
have been a natural drowning.
b
Nearby there is a lake, a river
and a swamp. How could a
forensic scientist work out
which was the most likely site
of the drowning?

20

List three ways in which you may be


electronically recorded over a day.

21

Explain four ways how blood splatters


and drips can tell a forensic scientist
what happened at a crime scene.

The person could not have


drowned and then buried
themselves.
In a legitimate accidental
drowning:
it would probably be in police
records
the grave would be deep and
not in the bush but in a
cemetery
the grave would be marked
There would probably still be
water in the lungs of the body.
Samples would show which
diatoms (single-celled aquatic
organisms) are present. Each
body of water (lake, river,
swamp, etc.) has its own unique
colonies of diatoms. Matching
of diatoms should lead to
identification of the body of
water.
4
CCTV (closed circuit TV) at
stations, shopping malls,
banks, offices etc.)
Mobile phone records of
locations of all calls and SMS
messages
Computer hard disk records
all files and information
accessed
3

Any four of:

movement (shape)
height (size)
fine sprays (gunshot)
splattering on ceiling
(repeated striking)
fading (time of attack)
analysis (DNA and blood
grouping)

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Science Dimensions 3 has been designed for the Victorian Essential Learning Standards at Level
6. It includes material that addresses standards in the following Strands, Domains and Dimensions:
Strand

Domain

Dimension

Physical, Personal and Social


Learning

Health and Physical Education

Movement and physical


activity
Health knowledge and
promotion

Interpersonal Development

Building social relationships


Working in teams

Personal Learning

The individual learner


Managing personal learning

Civics and Citizenship

Civics knowledge and


understanding
Community engagement

Discipline-based Learning

Science

Science knowledge and


understanding
Science at work

Interdisciplinary Learning

Communication

Listening, viewing and


responding
Presenting

Design, Creativity and


Technology

Investigating and designing


Producing
Analysing and evaluating

Information and
Communications Technology
(ICT)

ICT for visualising thinking


ICT for creating
ICT for communicating

Thinking

Reasoning, processing and


inquiry
Creativity
Reflection, evaluation and
metacognition

The grid that follows more closely maps the Standards to each unit in the coursebook.

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

they extend their concept of science as a way of knowing to include an


understanding of how scientific theories and models drawn from
traditional and emerging sciences are based on evidence that may
initially be tentative and limited

Units
1.2
2.2
3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1
6.1, 6.3
7.1
8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4

Units
1.4
2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.3, 4.4
5.3, 5.4
6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6
7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

examples include: atomic structure, natural selection and evolution,


development of medicines, genetic inheritance, and the genesis of the
universe

Units
1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1
3.3
4.1, 4.2
9.1
10.1

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3
2.1, 2.3
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
7.3
9.3, 9.4

they explore the ways in which scientific theories are both powerful (in
guiding thinking and investigation) and tentative (in being open to
change) at the same time

Units
1.2
3.3
4.2, 4.3
5.1
6.1, 6.3
8.2, 8.4
9.4
10.1, 10.3, 10.4

Units
1.4
2.2, 2.4
3.1, 3.3
4.4
5.3, 5.4
7.3, 7.4
8.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

they understand that the features of science as a way of knowing lead to


it being empirical and non-empirical, creative and methodical, and
speculative and logical

All chapters

All chapters

they develop a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the


relationships between force, mass and movement

Unit
4.2

Units
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6
7.1, 7.2, 7.3

they consider how coordination and regulation of functions occurs in


plants and animals

Units
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4

Units
6.1, 6.2

Discipline-based Learning Strand:


Science
Learning focus
As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 standards
in Science

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

they investigate the adaptive behaviours which enable plants and


animals to survive in their environments

Units
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1

Units
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4

they consider possible adaptive behaviours which may be needed for


future survival

Units
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1

Units
3.1, 3.2, 3.4
4.4
5.3
7.3, 7.4
9.2

they explore the role of DNA and genes in determining patterns


of inheritance

Units
9.1
10.1

Units
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.5

they investigate how energy may be responsible for the


changes observed in biological, chemical and physical processes
and applications

Units
2.1, 2.2
3.1, 3.3
4.2
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.2, 8.3
9.1, 9.3

Units
1.2, 1.3
2.1, 2.2
6.7
7.1, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.3, 9.4

examples include: electromagnetism, polarisation of light, the operation


of electronic systems, endothermic and exothermic reactions, rate of
reaction, production of new materials, photosynthesis and respiration,
cell division (mitosis and meiosis), action of micro-organisms, energy
flow through ecosystems, optics, photonics, transmission of nerve
impulses, energy flow through ecosystems, and the cycling of matter
(including water, carbon and minerals) in ecosystems

Units
1.5
2.2, 2.3
3.1, 3.2
5.1, 5.2, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.2, 8.3
9.1, 9.3, 9.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
4.1, 4.3, 4.4
5. 2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
7.1, 7.2
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3

they investigate sources of waste generated within the community and


consider waste treatment and management options

Units
6.1, 6.2

Units
1.2, 1.4
2.2, 2.3, 2.4
5.5
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

they learn how wastes are generated in the processing of natural


materials and how the management of these wastes contribute to
environmental sustainability

Units
6.1, 6.2, 6.3

Units
1.2
2.2, 2.3, 2.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

they investigate, create and produce a range of strategies and products


that explore, encourage and communicate the responsible use and
management of natural and processed resources

Units
6.2, 6.3

Units
1.2, 1.3
2.2, 2.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

they make links across related areas of sciencefor example,


biotechnology, communication satellites, neuroscience, resource
management and green chemistry and habitat renewal

Units
2.4
3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.4
2.1, 2.2, 2.4
3.3, 3.4
4.3, 4.4
5.5
6.1
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

they explore the opportunities for employment in science-related


occupations and industries in their community, and consider the
dynamic and collaborative nature of these roles

Units
3.3
9.3
10.1, 10.2, 10.4

they learn that scientific theories are both powerful and never final

Units
1.2
3.1
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1
10.1

Units
1.4
2.4
3.3, 3.4
4.4
5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
7.4
8.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

they learn that clarity is always assumed to be a significant attribute of


science theories, and that the use of a theory to successfully predict the
consequences of changes to situations is important in the validation
of the theory

Units
1.3
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
4.2
5.1, 5.2
6.1, 6.2
7.1, 7.3
8.2, 8.3
9.1

Units
1.2, 1.3
2.1, 2.2
3.2, 3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.2, 5.3
6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7
8.1, 8.2
9.1

they design and conduct scientific investigations of their choice


in ways that lead to the collection, interpretation and presentation of
valid data

Units
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
6.1, 6.3
7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.4
9.1

Units
1.5
6.2, 6.3, 6.7
8.2

they learn to use correct units of measurement when


recording quantities

Units
2.1, 2.4
8.1

Units
5.1
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
8.2, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

they use Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) when appropriate

Science
Dimensions 4
Units
1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4

using a variety of formats, they prepare investigation reports learning to


use symbols and diagrams extensively to illustrate procedures and data
analysis, and support the conclusions drawn
and presented

All chapters

All chapters

they develop an understanding of the constancy of the big ideas of


science (matter, energy, time and space) and science methodologies
across different areas and contexts

Units
1.2, 1.3
2.2
4.1, 4.2
5.1
6.1, 6.2
7.1, 7.3
9.1

Units
2.1
3.2
4.1, 4.3
6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7
8.1, 8.2
9.1, 9.3, 9.4

they debate, from the basis of scientific knowledge, the merits and
problems of science-related issues that are reported in the popular
media, particularly those that embrace a clear ethical dimension

Units
1.1
6.3
7.1
9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.3

Units
1.2
2.4
3.4
4.4
5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.3, 6.6
7.3, 7.4
8.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

they also explore the ways in which science concepts, language and
perspectives can be misunderstood and misrepresented

Units
1.1
3.1, 3.3
9.4
10.1, 10.2

Units
3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.4
5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.3, 6.6
9.1, 9.2

they apply their conceptual understandings to the consideration of


issues significant to themselves as individuals and to the broader society
in which they livefor example, stem cell research, personal safety, a
clean and healthy environment, energy use, ecological footprints and
robotics

Units
2.3, 2.4
3.3
4.3
5.3
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

for example, tourism in space

Unit
7.3

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

for example, electronic gadgets

Science
Dimensions 4
Units
1.4
8.4

for example, the history and philosophy of science

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.3
4.1, 4.2
5.1, 5.3
6.3
7.1, 7.3
8.2
9.4
10.1, 10.2

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4
2.2, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.3, 4.4
5.3, 5.4
6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

for example, ethics and science research

Units
7.1
9.4
10.1, 10.3

Units
1.2, 1.4
2.4
3.4
4.4
5.3, 5.4
7.3, 7.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

explain the behaviour and properties of materials in terms of their


constituent particles and the forces holding them together

Units
1.1, 1.3, 1.4
2.1
4.2

Units
1.1, 1.3, 1.5
2.1
9.2, 9.3, 9.4

explain how similarities in the chemical behaviour of elements and their


compounds and their atomic structures are represented in the way the
periodic table has been constructed

Units
1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5

Units
1.1. 1.4
2.1, 2.3

use the periodic table to write electronic configurations for a range


of elements representative of the major groups and periods in the
periodic table

Units
1.3, 1.5
2.1

Unit
2.1

use atomic symbols and balanced chemical equations to


summarise chemical reactions, including neutralisation,
precipitation and combustion

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
6.1
7.1, 7.3

Unit
1.2, 1.3
2.1, 2.2, 2.3

identify and classify the sources of wastes generated, and describe their
management, within the community and in industry

Units
6.1, 6.2, 6.3

Units
1.2, 1.4
2.3, 2.4
9.3, 9.4

Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


At Level 6, students

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

use a specific example to explain the sustainable management of


a resource

Units
6.2, 6.3

Units
2.2, 2.4
9.1, 9.4

explain change in terms of energy in a range of biological, chemical and


physical contexts

Units
2.2, 2.3
3.3
4.1, 4.2
5.1, 5.2, 5.3
6.1, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.2, 8.3
10.3, 10.4

Units
1.2, 1.3. 1.5
2.1, 2.2
6.7
7.1
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

demonstrate the link between natural selection and evolution

Units
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4

explain the role of DNA and genes in cell division and


genetic inheritance

Units
9.1
10.1

Units
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.5
9.3, 9.4

explain how the coordination and regulatory functions within plants and
animals assist them to survive in their environments

Units
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4

Units
3.1, 3.3

explain how the action of micro-organisms can be both beneficial and


detrimental to society

Units
6.1, 6.2
7.1
9.4
10.1, 10.3

Units
2.4
5.2, 5.3, 5.4

apply concepts of geological time to elaborate their explanations


of both natural selection and evolution, and the origin and evolution of
the universe
give both qualitative and quantitative explanations of the relationships
between force, mass and movement

Units
3.3, 3.4
Unit
4.3

Units
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

describe the science base of science-related occupations in their


local community

Units
3.1, 3.3
4.3
5.1
8.2, 8.4
9.3
10.1, 10.2, 10.3

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3. 1.4
2.2, 2.3
3.4
4.2, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.2, 6.3, 6.7
7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.3, 9.4

use the relevant science concepts and relationships as one dimension of


debating contentious and/or ethically based science-related issues of
broad community concern

Units
4.3
5.1, 5.2, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2
8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.4
2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.6,
6.7
7.1, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

demonstrate an awareness of the ways in which scientific vocabulary is


used incorrectly in the mass media, distinguishing between the intended
meaning of such terms and their meaning in non-scientific contexts

Units
1.1
2.1
4.3
6.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.4

Units
1.3, 1.5
3.1, 3.2, 3.4
4.4
5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.2, 6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.3, 7.4
8.2
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

provide two examples of the work of scientists that demonstrate


different approaches to developing scientific knowledge or solving a
scientific problem

Units
1.2
3.3
4.2
5.1
7.3

Units
3.1
4.1, 4.4
5.1, 5.5
6.6
9.1

Standards: Science at work


At Level 6, students

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

formulate their own hypotheses and plan and conduct investigations in


order to prove or disprove them

Units
2.3
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
6.1, 6.3
7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1
10.1

Units
1.4, 1.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.6,
6.7
8.2
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

use chemicals (including biomaterials), equipment, electronic


components and instruments responsibly and safely

All chapters

All chapters

select appropriate equipment and measurement procedures that will


ensure a high degree of reliability in data collected and enable valid
conclusions to be drawn

All chapters

All chapters

construct working models and visual aids that demonstrate


scientific ideas

Units
1.1
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
4.1
6.2, 6.3
7.4
8.2
9.2
10.1, 10.2, 10.3

Units
1.2, 1.4
2.1, 2.3
3.3, 3.4
4.2, 4.3
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.5
7.1, 7.2
8.1, 8.2, 8.4
9.3

present experimental results using appropriate data presentation


formats, and comment on the nature of experimental errors

All chapters

All chapters

use Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and risk assessment to


evaluate the safety of their investigations
evaluate the appropriateness of the experimental design and
methodology used to investigate their predictions

Units
1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
All chapters

All chapters

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2
4.3
5.4
6.1, 6.2
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.2
9.3
10.1, 10.2, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

Interdisciplinary Learning Strand:


Communication
Standards: Listening, viewing and responding
At Level 6, students
identify the ways in which complex messages are effectively conveyed
and apply this knowledge to their communication

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

when listening, viewing and responding, consider alternative views,


recognise multiple possible interpretations and respond
with insight

Units
1.2
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
4.3
5.2
6.3
7.1
9.1, 9.2
10.3

Units
1.2, 1.3, 1.4
2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

use complex verbal and non-verbal cues, subject-specific language, and


a wide range of communication forms

All chapters

All chapters

use pertinent questions to explore, clarify and elaborate


complex meaning.

Units
2.1, 2.3
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.2, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1,6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

demonstrate their understanding of the relationship between form,


content and mode, and select suitable resources and technologies to
effectively communicate

Units
1.1, 1.4, 1.5
2.1
3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.2
8.2
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

Units
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.3, 7.4
8.2, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

use subject-specific language and conventions in accordance with the


purpose of their presentation to communicate complex information

All chapters

All chapters

provide constructive feedback to others and use feedback and reflection


in order to inform their future presentations

Units
4.3
6.3
7.1
10.3

Units
5.2, 5.5
6.3
9.1, 9.4

Standards: Presenting
At Level 6, students

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

identify considerations and constraints within a design brief

Units
1.1
3.2, 3.3
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.2, 7.3
8.1, 9.3, 8.4
9.3

Units
1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.3
3.4
5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6,
6.7
7.1, 7.3
8.2
9.2, 9.3

undertake research relevant to the design brief

Units
1.1
3.2, 3.3
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.3, 8.4
9.3

Units
1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.3
3.4
5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6,
6.7
7.1, 7.3

locate and use relevant information to help their design thinking and
identify the needs of a variety of client/user groups

Unit
9.3

Units
6.1
9.2, 9.3

Interdisciplinary Learning Strand:


Design, Creativity and Technology
Standards: Investigating and designing
At Level 6, students

when designing, generate a range of alternative possibilities,


use appropriate technical language, and justify their preferred
option, explaining how it provides a solution to the problem,
need or opportunity
make critical decisions on materials/ingredients, systems components
and techniques based on their understanding of the properties and
characteristics of materials/ingredients and/or of the relationship
between inputs, processes and outputs

Units
3.4
6.1
7.3
9.2
Units
1.1
3.2, 3.3

Units
6.1
7.3

effectively use ICT equipment, techniques and procedures to support


the development of their design and planning

Units
1.3
6.7

take account of function and performance, energy requirements,


aesthetics, costs, and ethical and legal considerations that address the
requirements of design briefs

Unit
7.3

identify a range of criteria for evaluating their products and/or


technological systems

Unit
3.4

plan a realistic and logical sequence of the production stages,


incorporating time, cost and resources needed for production

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

implement a range of production processes accurately, consistently,


safely/hygienically and responsibly, and select and use personal
protective clothing and equipment when necessary

Units
7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.2
10.1

Units
1.3, 1.4
3.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, 6.7
8.1, 8.2

produce products/systems using complex tools, equipment, machines,


materials/ingredients and/or systems components with precision

Units
7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.3, 8.4

Units
1.4, 1.5
3.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6,
6.7
8.1, 8.2

Standards: Producing
At Level 6, students

clearly explain decisions about the suitability of materials/ingredients,


systems components, energy requirements and production techniques
based on their understanding of the properties and characteristics of
materials/ingredients, and the inputs, processes and outputs of systems
in response to changing circumstances, adapt their methods of
production and provide a sound explanation for deviation from the
design proposal
make products/systems that meet the quality, aesthetics, functionality
and performance requirements outlined in the design brief

Units
1.4
9.2

Standards: Analysing and evaluating


At Level 6, students
use evaluation criteria they have previously developed, and critically
analyse processes, materials/ingredients, systems components and
equipment used, and make appropriate suggestions for changes to these
that would lead to an improved outcome

Unit
10.2

use a range of suitable safe testing methods in this analysis

Unit
10.2

relate their findings to the purpose for which the product and/or system
was designed and the appropriate and ethical use of resources
synthesise data, analyse trends and draw conclusions about the social,
cultural, legal and environmental impacts of their own and others
designs and the products/systems, and evaluate innovative new
technology in the manufacturing industry

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

use a range of ICT tools and data types to visualise


their thinking strategies when solving problems and developing
new understanding

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

use visualising thinking tools and apply ICT techniques to support


causal reasoning and to model and describe the dynamic relationship
between variable and constant data values to test hypotheses

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

are efficient and effective in their use of appropriate ICT tools and
editing techniques for assisting in visualising thinking

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

Interdisciplinary Learning Strand:


Information and Communications
Technology
Standards: ICT for visualising thinking
At Level 6, students

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

when solving problems, discriminate between such


tools and strategies based on their suitability for problem solving
in new situations

Unit
1.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4
5.3
6.2, 6.4, 6.6
7.4
9.1, 9.3

Unit
1.1

Units
1.4
3.4
5.1
6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.6
7.4
9.3

Standards: ICT for creating


At Level 6, students
appraise different strategies for organising and
managing resources involved in problem solving and creating
information products

use ICT to devise detailed plans that sequence tasks to be done,


resources needed, and timelines for completion

Unit
6.4

annotate their plans to explain changes made during the project


individually, and as team members, apply a range of techniques,
equipment and procedures that minimise the cost, effort and time of
processing ICT solutions and maximise the accuracy, clarity and
completeness of the information

Units
1.1, 1.2
6.2
9.1

Units
1.4
3.4
4.4
5.1
6.2, 6.4, 6.6
7.4
9.3

apply strategies that protect their files from being corrupted, stolen or
accidentally lost

Units
6.3
9.1

Units
1.2, 1.4
4.4
5.1
6.2, 6.4, 6.6
7.4
9.3

produce products that demonstrate a clear sense of purpose and respect


for the audience

Units
1.4
4.4
7.4
9.3

apply processing practices that take into account their legal obligations
and ethical considerations
compare their own solutions with others and justify suggestions to
improve quality

Unit
7.4

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

Standards: ICT for communicating


At Level 6, students
exchange ideas and considered opinions with others through online
forums and websites

apply techniques to locate more precise information from websites,


including searching general and specialised directories, and applying
proximity operators

Units
1.2
3.1
4.4
Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4

use accepted protocols to communicate regularly online with peers,


experts, and others, expressing their messages in language appropriate
to the selected form of communication, and demonstrating respect for
cultural differences

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3
Units
1.2
3.1
4.4
9.2, 9.3

Interdisciplinary Learning Strand:


Thinking
Standards: Reasoning, processing and inquiry
At Level 6, students
discriminate in the way they use a variety of sources

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.3
10.1, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

generate questions that explore perspectives

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.2, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.3
10.1, 10.3, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.2, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

process and synthesise complex information and complete activities


focusing on problem solving and decision making, which involve a
wide range and complexity of variables and solutions

Units
1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
4.1, 4.2
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.3
10.1, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4
2.2, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.6
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

employ appropriate methodologies for creating and verifying


knowledge in different disciplines
make informed decisions based on their analysis of various perspectives
and, sometimes contradictory, information

Units
5.5
6.1
Units
1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.2, 2.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.3
10.1, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

experiment with innovative possibilities within the parameters


of a task

Units
1.1, 1.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5
3.1
4.4
5.2, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.3
8.2, 8.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

take calculated risks when defining tasks and generating solutions

Units
1.1, 1.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.4
3.1
4.4
5.2, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6
7.1, 7.3
8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

apply selectively a range of creative thinking strategies to broaden


their knowledge and engage with contentious, ambiguous, novel and
complex ideas

Units
1.1, 1.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.4
3.1
4.4
5.2, 5.5
6.3, 6.6
8.3
9.1, 9.4

Standards: Creativity
At Level 6, students

Standards: Reflection, evaluation and metacognition


At Level 6, students
when reviewing information and refining ideas and beliefs, explain
conscious changes that may occur in their own and others thinking and
analyse alternative perspectives and perceptions

Unit
8.2

explain the different methodologies used by different disciplines to


create and verify knowledge
use specific terms to discuss their thinking, select and use thinking
processes and tools appropriate to particular tasks, and evaluate
their effectiveness

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

Physical, Personal and Social Learning


Strand: Health and Physical Education
Standards: Movement and physical activity
At Level 6, students
demonstrate proficiency in the execution of manipulative and
movement skills during complex activities

Units
6.1
8.1, 8.2
9.3

demonstrate advanced skills in selected physical activities

Unit
6.1

use training methods to improve their fitness level, and participate in


sports, games, recreational and leisure activities that maintain regular
participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity
employ and devise skills and strategies to counter tactical challenges in
games situations
assume responsibility for conduct of aspects of a sporting competition
in which roles are shared and display appropriate sporting behaviour
Standards: Health knowledge and promotion
At Level 6, students
identify and describe a range of social and cultural factors that influence
the development of personal identity and values

Units
2.1, 2.3
7.1
8.2
9.1, 9.3, 9.4
10.3

Units
4.3, 4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6,
6.7
7.3
8.3
9.1, 9.4

identify and explain the rights and responsibilities associated with


developing greater independence, including those related to sexual
matters and sexual relationships

Units
2.4
8.3
9.3, 9.4

Units
4.4
5.3, 5.4, 5.5

describe mental health issues relevant to young people

Units
8.2
9.3, 9.4

Units
4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.5
6.7
8.3

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

compare and evaluate perceptions of challenge, risk and safety

Units
2.1, 2.3, 2.4
5.2
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.3, 9.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
4.2
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.2, 8.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

demonstrate understanding of appropriate assertiveness and


resilience strategies

Units
8.2
9.3, 9.4

Units
1.2, 1.3, 1.4
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
5.5

analyse the positive and negative health outcomes of a range of personal


behaviours and community actions

Units
2.1, 2.3, 2.4
5.2
7.1
8.2
9.1, 9.3, 9.4

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
4.4
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
7.1, 7.3
8.1, 8.2, 8.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

identify the health services and products provided by government and


non-government bodies and analyse how these can be used to support
the health needs of young people

Units
2.4
9.3, 9.4

Units
4.2
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5

identify and describe strategies that address current trends in the


nutritional status of Australians

Units
1.1
6.1
7.1

Units
5.1, 5.5

analyse and evaluate the factors that affect food consumption


in Australia

Units
1.1
6.1
7.1

Units
5.1, 5.5

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

demonstrate awareness of complex social conventions, behaving


appropriately when interacting with others

Units
2.4
4.3
6.3
7.1
8.2, 8.4
9.1, 9.3
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4

Units
1.1, 1.2
3.1, 3.4
4.2, 4.4
5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.3, 6.5, 6.6
7.3
9.1, 9.3, 9.4

describe how local and global values and beliefs determine their own
and others social relationships

Units
4.3
6.3
7.1
8.4
9.13
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4

Units
3.1, 3.4
4.4
5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.3, 6.6
7.1, 7.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

evaluate their own behaviour in relationships, identify potential conflict


and employ strategies to avoid and/or resolve it

Unit
8.4

Units
1.1, 1.2
3.1
4.4
6.6
7.3

Units
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
4.3
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3
10.1, 10.2, 10.3
All pracs

Units
1.1, 1.4, 1.5
3.3
4.2, 4.3
5.2, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
8.1, 8.2
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4
All pracs

Physical, Personal and Social Learning


Strand: Interpersonal Development
Standards: Building social relationships
At Level 6, students

Standards: Working in teams


At Level 6, students
work collaboratively, negotiate roles and delegate tasks to complete
complex tasks in teams

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

working with the strengths of a team, achieve agreed goals within


set timeframes

Units
3.2, 3.3
4.3
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.3
10.1, 10.2, 10.3
All pracs

Units
1.1, 1.4, 1.5
3.3
4.2, 4.3
5.2, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5,
6.6, 6.7
8.1, 8.2
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4
All pracs

describe how they respect and build on the ideas and opinions of team
members and clearly articulate or record their reflections on the
effectiveness of learning in a team

Units
4.3
6.3
7.1
10.3

Units
6.3, 6.6
9.1, 9.4
All pracs

develop and implement strategies for improving their contributions to


achieving the team goals

Units
3.1
4.3
6.3
7.1
10.3
All pracs

Units
1.1, 1.4
5.2, 5.5
6.3, 6.6
8.2
9.1, 9.3, 9.4
All pracs

All chapters

All chapters

Physical, Personal and Social Learning


Strand: Personal Learning
Standards: The individual learner
At Level 6, students
work independently to implement a range of strategies, as appropriate,
to maximise their learning
monitor and reflect on and discuss their progress as autonomous
learners, identifying areas for improvement in their learning and
implementing actions to address them
seek and respond to feedback from peers, teachers and other adults to
develop and refine their content knowledge and understanding,
identifying areas for further investigation
evaluate the effectiveness of their learning strategies, study techniques
and learning habits, and make appropriate modifications
identify their interests, strengths and weaknesses and use these
to determine future learning needs, especially in relation to the postcompulsory pathways

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This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

identify the ethical frameworks that underpin their own and others
beliefs and values and describe how the conflicts and dilemmas they
identify may affect learning

Science
Dimensions 4
Units
1.2
3.1
4.4
5.3

determine, monitor and modify learning improvement goals, taking into


account current and future learning needs
determine the factors that contribute to the creation of positive learning
environments and establish, follow and monitor protocols for a variety
of learning situations
Standards: Managing personal learning
At Level 6, students
initiate personal short-term and long-term learning goals and negotiate
appropriate courses of action to achieve them

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.2., 3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4

All chapters

allocate appropriate time and identify and utilise appropriate resources


to manage competing priorities and complete tasks, including learnerdirected projects, within set timeframes

Units
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
3.1, 3.2., 3.3
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4
6.1, 6.2, 6.3
7.1, 7.2
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4

All chapters

initiate and negotiate a range of independent activities with their


teachers, providing progress and summative reports for teachers
and stakeholders
monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of their task and resource
management skills, reflecting on their progress and suggesting and
implementing appropriate management strategies for improvement

Units
1.2, 1.3, 1.4
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
Units
3.1, 3.2, 3.3

Unit
6.3

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Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

take responsibility for their learning environments, both at school and at


home, anticipating the consequences of their actions

Units
4.3
6.3
7.1
10.3

Units
1.2, 1.3, 1.4
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
5.2, 5.5
6.3
9.1, 9.4

demonstrate control of impulses and mood modulation. Students review


and modify the criteria they use to check that their work is relevant,
accurate and meets task objectives and make appropriate changes to
completed tasks using these criteria

Units
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
4.3
6.3
7.1, 7.2, 7.3
8.1, 8.3, 8.4
10.3

Units
1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
5.2, 5.5
6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.6,
6.7
8.2
9.1, 9.4

identify and refine the strategies they use to study, organise and revise
their work, both at school and at home

All end-of-chapter
reviews

All end-of-chapter
reviews

Units
4.3
5.2, 5.4
6.1
7.1
10.1, 10.2, 10.3

Units
1.2, 1.4
3.1, 3.4
4.4
5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.3
7.1, 7.3, 7.4
8.1, 8.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

Physical, Personal and Social Learning


Strand: Civics and Citizenship
Standards: Civic knowledge and understanding
At Level 6, students
describe the origins and nature of Australias federal political system
and present a considered point of view on an issue about change in the
political system and the law
explain how the Australian Constitution affects their lives, and human
rights issues, both national and international
explain how citizens influence government policy through participation
in political parties, elections and membership of interest groups
explain the development of a multicultural society and the values
necessary to sustain it
describe the election processes in Australia and how to vote
explain the roles and responsibilities of courts at state and federal levels
and evaluate a change in the law
analyse how well democratic values are reflected in aspects of the
Australian political system
take a global perspective when analysing an issue, and describe the role
of global organisations in responding to international issues

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006.
This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Level 6 Standards for Science Dimensions 3 and 4


Standards information

Science
Dimensions 3

Science
Dimensions 4

draw on a range of resources, including the mass media, to articulate


and defend their own opinions about political, social and environmental
issues in national and global contexts

Units
4.3
5.2, 5.4
6.1
7.1
8.2
9.1

Units
1.2, 1.4
3.1, 3.4
4.4
5.3, 5.4
6.6
7.1, 7.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

contest, where appropriate, the opinions of others

Units
6.3
7.1
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4

Units
1.2, 1.4
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
4.4
5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
6.3
7.1, 7.4
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

develop an action plan which demonstrates their knowledge of a social


or environmental issue and suggest strategies to raise community
awareness of it

Units
4.3
5.4
6.1, 6.3
7.1
10.3

Units
3.1
4.4
5.2, 5.5
6.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

participate in a range of citizenship activities including those with a


national or global perspective, at school and in the local community

Units
4.3
6.1, 6.3
7.1
10.3

Units
5.2, 5.5
6.3
9.1, 9.2, 9.4

Standards: Community engagement


At Level 6, students

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apply this understanding, for example, to atomic structure

explore the ways in which scientific theories are both powerful (in guiding thinking and investigation) and tentative (in being open to change) at the same time

understand that the features of science as a way of knowing lead to it being empirical and non-empirical, creative and methodical, and speculative and logical

learn that scientific theories are both powerful and never final, that clarity is always assumed to be a significant attribute of science theories and that the use of a
theory to successfully predict the consequences of changes to situations is important in the validation of the theory

prepare investigation reports using a variety of formats, learning to use symbols and diagrams extensively to illustrate procedures and data analysis, and support the
conclusions drawn and presented

develop an understanding of the constancy of the big ideas of science (matter, energy, time and space) and science methodologies across different areas
and contexts

debate, from the basis of scientific knowledge, the merits and problems of science-related issues that are reported in the popular media, particularly those that
embrace a clear ethical dimension

explore the ways in which science concepts, language and perspectives can be misunderstood and misrepresentedfor example, the history and philosophy
of science

explain how similarities in the chemical behaviour of elements and their compounds and their atomic structure are represented in the way the periodic table has
been constructed

use the periodic table to write electronic configurations for a range of elements representative of the major groups and periods in the periodic table

use atomic symbols and balanced chemical equations to summarise chemical reactions, including neutralisation, precipitation and combustion.

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

explain the behaviour and properties of materials in terms of their constituent particles and the forces holding them together

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


Students:

understand how scientific theories and models are based on evidence that may initially be tentative and limited

1: The periodic table

VELS Level 6 Learning Focus


As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 in Science, they:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

explain the behaviour and properties of materials in terms of their constituent particles and the forces holding them together

explain how similarities in the chemical behaviour of elements and their compounds and their atomic structure are represented in the way the periodic table has
been constructed

use the periodic table to write electronic configurations for a range of elements representative of the major groups and periods in the periodic table

use atomic symbols and balanced chemical equations to summarise chemical reactions, including neutralisation, precipitation and combustion

provide two examples of the work of scientists that demonstrate different approaches to developing scientific knowledge or solving a scientific problem

use chemicals (including biomaterials) and equipment responsibly and safely

select appropriate equipment and measuring procedures that will ensure a high degree of reliability in data collected and enable valid conclusions to be drawn

construct working models and visual aids that demonstrate scientific ideas

present experimental results using appropriate data presentation formats, and comment on the nature of experimental errors

evaluate the appropriateness of the experimental design and methodology used to investigate their predictions

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

CSFII Outcomes:
Chemical science 6.2, 6.3

demonstrate an awareness of the ways in which scientific vocabulary is used incorrectly in the mass media, distinguishing between the intended meaning of such
terms and their meaning in non-scientific contexts

1: The periodic table

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science at work


Students:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Prac 2: Compounds in
soft drinks (p. 8)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Comics and the
periodic table (p. 7)

Surfing: Researching
energy shells (p. 18)

Prac 2: Ions get together!


(p. 20)

Prac 1: Firework colours


(p. 19)

Prac 2: Comparing
elements (p. 14)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Mendeleevs
original table (p. 13)

Researching scientists
(p. 13)

Prac 1: Investigating a
physical property (p. 13)

Playing: Element bingo


(p. 13)

Constructing: Making
models (p. 7)

Imagining: Journey to the


centre of the atom (p. 7)

Researching isotopes
(p. 7)

Researching food elements


(p. 7)

Prac 1: Making the


compound CO2 (p. 8)

Collecting: Nutrition
information (p. 7)

Practical activities

Homework book 1.4:


Ions get together!

Homework book 1.3:


Changes in properties
across the periodic table

Homework book 1.2:


The periodic table

Homework book 1.1:


Element symbols

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Interactive animation:
Atom (p. 17)

Web Destinations:
Mendeleevs original table
(p. 13)

Teacher Resource (p. 13)

Interactive animation:
Interactive periodic table
(p. 11)

Web Destinations:
Comics and the periodic
table (p. 7)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Whats the
matter? (p. 5)

QuickTime video:
Mixtures and compounds
(p. 5)

Companion Website
activities

1: The periodic table

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 1.3: The role


of electrons

Unit 1.2: Development


of the periodic table

Unit 1.1: Whats the


matter?

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Prac 2: Teacher
Demonstration: The
alkali metals (p. 35)

Constructing: Line
graphs (p. 33)

Prac 4: Group IV (p. 35)

Prac 3: The alkaline


earths (p. 35)

Prac 1: Halogen
precipitates (p. 34)

Prac 5: Using metals to


make non-metals (p. 27)

Prac 4: Changing the


properties of metals (p. 26)

Prac 3: More crystals


(p. 26)

Prac 2: Metal crystals


(p. 25)

Prac 1: Observing
elements (p. 24)

Surfing: Researching
element families (p. 33)

Imagining: War of the


electrons (p. 24)

Surfing: Researching
metals and non-metals
(p. 24)

Practical activities

Homework book 1.7:


Sci-words

Homework book 1.6:


Periodic table crossword

Homework book 1.5:


What am I?

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Review quiz (p. 36)

Interactive crossword:
Periodic table crossword
(p. 36)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Families of
elements (p. 32)

QuickTime video:
Sodium and potassium in
water (p. 30)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Ions and
atoms (p. 22)

QuickTime video:
Periodic trends:
Electronegativity (p. 22)

Companion Website
activities

1: The periodic table

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Chapter review

Unit 1.5: Families


of importance

Unit 1.4: Metals, nonmetals and metalloids

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

apply this understanding, for example, to atomic structure

understand that the features of science as a way of knowing lead to it being empirical and non-empirical, creative and methodical, and speculative and logical

investigate how energy may be responsible for the changes observed in chemical processes and applications

apply this understanding, for example, to endothermic and exothermic reactions and rate of reactions

learn that scientific theories are both powerful and never final, that clarity is always assumed to be a significant attribute of science theories and that the use of a
theory to successfully predict the consequences of changes to situations is important in the validation of the theory

learn to use correct units of measurement when recording quantities

prepare investigation reports using a variety of formats, learning to use symbols and diagrams extensively to illustrate procedures and data analysis, and support the
conclusions drawn and presented

develop an understanding of the constancy of the big ideas of science (matter, energy, time and space) and science methodologies across different areas
and contexts

apply their conceptual understandings to the consideration of issues significant to themselves as individuals and to the broader society in which they livefor
example, personal safety and the history and philosophy of science

use the periodic table to write electronic configurations for a range of elements representative of the major groups and periods in the periodic table

use atomic symbols and balanced chemical equations to summarise chemical reactions, including neutralisation, precipitation and combustion

explain change in terms of energy in a range of biological, chemical and physical contexts

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

explain the behaviour and properties of materials in terms of their constituent particles and the forces holding them together

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


Students:

understand how scientific theories and models are based on evidence that may initially be tentative and limited

2: Chemical change

VELS Level 6 Learning Focus


As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 in Science, they:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Surfing: Companion
Website: Balancing
equations (p. 53)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Dihydrogen
monoxide (p. 45)

Using graphs: Solubility


curves (p. 44)

Prac 1: Signs of chemical


change (p. 53)

Prac 3: Making a
supersaturated
solution (p. 46)

Prac 2: Action of heat on


compounds (p. 45)

Prac 1: Colours of the


transition metal ions in
solution (p. 45)

Homework book 2.2:


Chemical and
physical change

Homework book 2.1:


Ionic compounds, names
and formulas

Interactive animation:
Physical vs. chemical
change (p. 47)

Companion Website:
Alchemists

On Website:
Element bingo

Web Destinations:
Dihydrogen monoxide
(p. 45)

Interactive animation:
Naming ionic compounds
(p. 40)

Companion Website
activities

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 2.2: Chemical


reactions

Unit 2.1: The language


of chemistry

Science at work
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

evaluate the appropriateness of the experimental design and methodology used to investigate their predictions

Homework book
activities

present experimental results using appropriate data presentation formats, and comment on the nature of experimental errors

Practical activities

select appropriate equipment and measuring procedures that will ensure a high degree of reliability in data collected and enable valid conclusions to be drawn

CSFII Outcomes:
Chemical science 6.1, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5 extension

use chemicals (including biomaterials) and equipment responsibly and safely

2: Chemical change

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science at work


Students:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Prac 1: Common
indicators (p. 68)
Prac 2: Natural indicators

Researching stingers
(p. 68)

Prac 3: Electroplating
(p. 61)

Prac 2: Precipitation of
unknowns (p. 60)

Prac 1: Decomposition
reactions (p. 60)

Surfing: Companion
Website: pH (p. 68)

Analysing: What am I?
(p. 60)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Industrial silver
plating (p. 60)

Prac 2: Light sticks


chemiluminescence (p. 54)

Practical activities

Homework book
2.4: Acids, bases and the
pH scale

Homework book 2.3:


Classifying reaction types

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Drag and Drop


interactive: Acidbase
reactions (p. 63)

Web Destinations:
Industrial silver plating
(p. 60)

QuickTime video:
Precipitation reactions
(p. 56)

QuickTime video:
Air bags (p. 56)

QuickTime video:
Formation of sodium
chloride (p. 55)

Web Destinations:
Balancing equations
(p. 53)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Chemical
reactions (p. 52)

Interactive animation:
Representation of a
chemical equation (p. 51)

Companion Website
activities

2: Chemical change

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 2.4: Acids and


bases

Unit 2.3: Reaction types

Researching Lavoisier
(p. 53)

Researching
bioluminescence (p. 53)

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Prac 6: Acids and metal


carbonates (p. 71)

Prac 5: Acids and metals


(p. 70)

Prac 4: Testing household


solutions (p. 70)

Prac 3: Universal
indicator (p. 69)

Practical activities

Homework book 2.7:


Chemical change
crossword
Homework book 2.8: Sciwords

Homework book
2.6: A neutralisation
reaction

Homework book
2.5: pH levels of common
drinks

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Interactive crossword:
Chemical change
crossword (p. 72)
Review Quiz (p. 72)

Web Destinations: pH
(p. 68)

Companion Website
activities

2: Chemical change

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Chapter review

Researching anaphylactic
shock (p. 68)

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

explore the ways in which scientific theories are both powerful (in guiding thinking and investigation) and tentative (in being open to change) at the same time

understand that the features of science as a way of knowing lead to it being empirical and non-empirical, creative and methodical, and speculative and logical

investigate how energy may be responsible for the changes observed in physical processes and applications

apply this understanding, for example, to polarisation of light, optics and photonics

make links across related areas of sciencefor example, communication satellites (physics and astronomy)

explore the opportunities for employment in science-related occupations and industries in their community, and consider the dynamic and collaborative nature of
these roles

learn that scientific theories are both powerful and never final, that clarity is always assumed to be a significant attribute of science theories and that the use of a
theory to successfully predict the consequences of changes to situations is important in the validation of the theory

design and conduct scientific investigations of their choice in ways that lead to the collection, interpretation and presentation of valid data

prepare investigation reports using a variety of formats, learning to use symbols and diagrams extensively to illustrate procedures and data analysis, and support the
conclusions drawn and presented

explore the ways in which science concepts, language and perspectives can be misunderstood and misrepresented

apply their conceptual understandings to the consideration of issues significant to themselves as individuals and to the broader society in which they livefor
example, the history and philosophy of science

explain change in terms of energy in a range of biological, chemical and physical contexts

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


Students:

understand how scientific theories and models are based on evidence that may initially be tentative and limited

3: Light

VELS Level 6 Learning Focus


As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 in Science, they:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

evaluate the appropriateness of the experimental design and methodology used to investigate their predictions

Prac 2: Apparent depth


(p. 81)
Prac 3: Measuring
apparent depth (p. 81)

Researching fibre optics


(p. 80)

Investigating: Coin in a
bowl (p. 80)
Prac 4: Teacher
Demonstration: Fibre
optics (p. 82)

Prac 1: Measuring
angles of refraction
(p. 80)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Refraction
(p. 80)

Interactive animation:
Refraction (p. 76)
Drag and Drop interactive:
Bending light (p. 78)
Web Destinations:
Refraction (p. 80)

Homework book 3.1:


Revising reflection
Homework book 3.2:
Refraction
Homework book 3.3:
Snells Law

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 3.1: Changing


directions

Companion Website activities

present experimental results using appropriate data presentation formats, and comment on the nature of experimental errors

Suggested datalogging
activities

construct working models and visual aids that demonstrate scientific ideas

Homework book
activities

select appropriate equipment and measuring procedures that will ensure a high degree of reliability in data collected and enable valid conclusions to be drawn

Practical activities

use equipment and instruments responsibly and safely

Science at work
activities

formulate their own hypotheses and plan and conduct investigations in order to prove or disprove them

CSFII Outcome:
Physical science 6.1

describe the science base of science-related occupations in their local community

3: Light

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science at work


Students:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Investigating: Data
logging (p. 103)

Investigating: Rainbows
(p. 97)

Constructing: Colour
wheels (p. 97)

Surfing: Researching
remote sensing (p. 103)

Science at work:
Remote sensing

Researching colour
(p. 97)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Telescopes,
microscopes, binoculars
and cameras (p. 97)

Constructing: A field
telescope (p. 89)

Hollow lenses (p. 89)

Investigating: Droplet
magnification (p. 88)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Researching
lenses (p. 88)

Prac 3: Seeing things in


a different light (p. 99)

Prac 2: Mixing coloured


light (p. 98)

Prac 1:
Dispersionsplitting
white light (p. 98)

Prac 4: How telescopes


and microscopes work
(p. 91)
Homework book 3.6:
Colour mixing wheels

Homework book 3.5:


Ray tracing for lenses

Prac 2: Images in a
convex lens (p. 90)
Prac 3: Images in a
concave lens (p. 91)

Homework book 3.4:


Ray tracing for mirrors

Homework book
activities

Prac 1: Lenses and a


light box (p. 89)

Practical activities

Investigating: Data
logging (p. 103)

Suggested datalogging
activities

Web Destinations: Telescopes,


microscopes, binoculars and
cameras (p. 97)

Interactive animation: Mixing


pigments (p. 94)

Web Destinations:
Lenses (p. 88)

Drag and Drop interactive:


Various types of lenses (p. 83)

Companion Website activities

3: Light

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 3.3: Colour

Unit 3.2: Lenses

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Practical activities

Review quiz (p. 104)

Homework book 3.8:


Sci-words

Companion Website activities

Interactive crossword: Light


crossword (p. 104)

Suggested datalogging
activities

Homework book 3.7:


Light crossword

Homework book
activities

3: Light

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Chapter review

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

apply this understanding, for example, to the genesis of the Universe

explore the ways in which scientific theories are both powerful (in guiding thinking and investigation) and tentative (in being open to change) at the same time

understand that the features of science as a way of knowing lead to it being empirical and non-empirical, creative and methodical, and speculative and logical

develop a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the relationships between force, mass and movement

investigate how energy may be responsible for the changes observed in biological, chemical and physical processes and applications

make links across related areas of sciencefor example, communication satellites (physics and astronomy)

learn that scientific theories are both powerful and never final, that clarity is always assumed to be a significant attribute of science theories and that the use of a
theory to successfully predict the consequences of changes to situations is important in the validation of the theory

develop an understanding of the constancy of the big ideas of science (matter, energy, time and space) and science methodologies across different areas
and contexts

apply their conceptual understandings to the consideration of issues significant to themselves as individuals and to the broader society in which they livefor
example stem cell research, and the history and philosophy of science.

explain change in terms of energy in a range of biological, chemical and physical contexts

apply concepts of geological time to elaborate their explanations of both natural selection and evolution, and the origin and evolution of the Universe

give a qualitative explanation of the relationships between force, mass and movement

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

explain the behaviour and properties of materials in terms of their constituent particles and the forces holding them together

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


Students:

understand how scientific theories and models are based on evidence that may initially be tentative and limited

4: Origin of the universe

VELS Level 6 Learning Focus


As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 in Science, they:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Researching the Universe


(p. 115)

Surfing: Companion
Website: History of the
universe (p. 115)

Researching the sonic


boom (p. 110)

Researching Hubble
(p. 110)

Surfing: Companion
Website: The Doppler
effect (p. 110)

Web Destinations: History


of the universe (p. 115)

Drag and Drop interactive:


Big Bang (p. 112)

Web Destinations: The


Doppler effect (p. 110)

Prac 2: A balloon
universe (p. 111)

Homework book 4.1:


Big Bang to the present

Drag and Drop interactive:


Doppler effect (p. 109)

Prac 1: Using a
spectroscope (p. 111)

Companion Website
activities

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 4.2: The Big Bang

Unit 4.1: The expanding


universe

Science at work
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

construct working models and visual aids that demonstrate scientific ideas.

Homework book
activities

use chemicals (including biomaterials), equipment, electronic components and instruments responsibly and safely

Practical activities

provide two examples of the work of scientists that demonstrate different approaches to developing scientific knowledge or solving a scientific problem

CSFII Outcomes:
Earth and space sciences 6.3, 6.4 extension

use the relevant science concepts and relationships as one dimension of debating contentious and/or ethically based science-related issues of broad
community concern

4: Origin of the universe

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science at work


Students:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Imagining: Prepare for


contact! (p. 119)

Debating: Is contact
wise? (p. 119)

Review quiz (p. 120)

Interactive crossword:
Origin of the universe
crossword (p. 120)

Homework book 4.5:


Sci-words

Web Destinations: SETI


(p. 119)

Drag and Drop interactive:


Searching for life (p. 118)

Companion Website
activities

Drag and Drop interactive:


The expanding universe
(p. 120)

Suggested datalogging
activities

Homework book 4.4:


Origin of the universe
crossword

Homework book 4.3:


Future civilisations

Researching SETI
(p. 119)

Reviewing: Contact
(p. 119)

Homework book 4.2:


Time travel

Homework book
activities

Surfing: Companion
Website: SETI (p. 119)

Practical activities

4: Origin of the universe

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Chapter review

Unit 4.3: Are we alone?

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

explore the ways in which scientific theories are both powerful (in guiding thinking and investigation) and tentative (in being open to change) at the same time

understand that the features of science as a way of knowing lead to it being empirical and non-empirical, creative and methodical, and speculative and logical

investigate how energy may be responsible for the changes observed in physical processes and applications

apply this understanding, for example, to the production of new materials

learn that scientific theories are both powerful and never final, that clarity is always assumed to be a significant attribute of science theories and that the use of a
theory to successfully predict the consequences of changes to situations is important in the validation of the theory

prepare investigation reports using a variety of formats, learning to use symbols and diagrams extensively to illustrate procedures and data analysis, and support the
conclusions drawn and presented

develop an understanding of the constancy of the big ideas of science (matter, energy, time and space) and science methodologies across different areas
and contexts

apply their conceptual understandings to the consideration of issues significant to themselves as individuals and to the broader society in which they livefor
example, the history and philosophy of science

explain change in terms of energy in a range of biological, chemical and physical contexts

give a qualitative explanation of the relationships between force, mass and movement

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

explain the behaviour and properties of materials in terms of their constituent particles and the forces holding them together

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


Students:

understand how scientific theories and models are based on evidence that may initially be tentative and limited

5: The fragile crust

VELS Level 6 Learning Focus


As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 in Science, they:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

construct working models and visual aids that demonstrate scientific ideas

present experimental results using appropriate data presentation formats, and comment on the nature of experimental errors

evaluate the appropriateness of the experimental design and methodology used to investigate their predictions

Surfing: Companion
Website: Continental shift
(p. 126)
Researching scientists
(p. 126)
Researching sonar
(p. 126)
Researching the
continental shelf (p. 126)

Prac 1: The planet


Splatter (p. 127)
Prac 2: Convection
currents (p. 128)
Prac 3: Future Earth
(p. 129)

Homework book 5.1:


The planet Splatter
Homework book 5.2:
Future Earth

Drag and Drop


interactive: The ocean
floor (p. 124)
Drag and Drop
interactive: Plate
tectonics (p. 125)
Web Destinations:
Continental shift (p. 126)

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 5.1: Plate tectonics

Science at work
activities

Companion Website
activities

select appropriate equipment and measuring procedures that will ensure a high degree of reliability in data collected and enable valid conclusions to be drawn

Suggested datalogging
activities

use chemicals, equipment and instruments responsibly and safely

Homework book
activities

provide two examples of the work of scientists that demonstrate different approaches to developing scientific knowledge or solving a scientific problem

Practical activities

use the relevant science concepts and relationships as one dimension of debating contentious and/or ethically based science-related issues of broad
community concern

CSFII Outcomes:
Earth and space sciences 6.1, 6.2

describe the science base of science-related occupations in their local community

5: The fragile crust

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science at work


Students:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Prac 2: Shaping
volcanoes (p. 151)

Surfing: Researching
fossil fuels (p. 150)

Imagining: Darwin, an
outer suburb of Hong
Kong! (p. 150)

Researching Australian
volcanoes (p. 150)

Prac 1: Modelling faults


and folds (p. 150)

Homework book 5.5:


Comparing S and P waves

Prac 2: Locating the


epicentre (p. 143)

Homework book 5.7:


Volcanoes: where are
they?

Homework book 5.6:


Locating the epicentre

Homework book 5.4:


Where do quakes happen?

Homework book 5.3:


Where are the ocean
trenches?

Homework book
activities

Prac 1: Slinky springs


(p. 142)

Prac 2: Colliding plates


(p. 136)

Prac 1: Plates that


separate (p. 135)

Locating: Features and


faults (p. 149)

Researching earthquakes
(p. 142)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Earthquake
zones (p. 142)

Imagining: Tell them


where to stick it! (p. 135)

Locating: Geographical
features (p. 134)

Researching plate
boundaries (p. 134)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Colliding
tectonic plates (p. 134)

Practical activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Interactive animation:
Moving volcanoes
(p. 148)

Web Destination:
Earthquake zones (p. 142)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Quake
(p. 139)

Web Destinations:
Colliding tectonic plates
(p. 134)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Plate
boundaries (p. 133)

Companion Website
activities

5: The fragile crust

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 5.4: Landscaping the


crust

Unit 5.3: Earthquakes

Unit 5.2: At the edges

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Practical activities

Review quiz (p. 153)

Homework book 5.9:


Sci-words

Companion Website
activities

Interactive crossword:
The fragile crust
crossword (p. 153)

Suggested datalogging
activities

Homework book 5.8:


The fragile crust
crossword

Homework book
activities

5: The fragile crust

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Chapter review

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

explore the ways in which scientific theories are both powerful (in guiding thinking and investigation) and tentative (in being open to change) at the same time

understand that the features of science as a way of knowing lead to it being empirical and non-empirical, creative and methodical, and speculative and logical

investigate how energy may be responsible for the changes observed in biological processes and applications

apply this understanding, for example, to photosynthesis and respiration, action of micro-organisms, energy flow through ecosystems and the cycling of matter
(including water, carbon and minerals) in ecosystems

investigate sources of waste generated within the community and consider waste treatment and management options

learn how wastes are generated in the processing of natural materials (for example, oil, water, brown coal and ores), and how the procedures used to manage these
wastes contribute to environmental sustainability

investigate, create and produce a range of strategies and products that explore, encourage and communicate the responsible use and management of natural and
processed resources

make links across related areas of sciencefor example, resource management (chemistry and earth and environmental science)

learn that the use of a theory to successfully predict the consequences of changes to situations is important in the validation of the theory

design and conduct scientific investigations of their choice in ways that lead to the collection, interpretation and presentation of valid data

prepare investigation reports, using a variety of formats, learning to use symbols and diagrams extensively to illustrate procedures and data analysis, and support the
conclusions drawn and presented

develop an understanding of the constancy of the big ideas of science (matter, energy, time and space) and science methodologies across different areas
and contexts

debate, from the basis of scientific knowledge, the merits and problems of science-related issues that are reported in the popular media, particularly those that
embrace a clear ethical dimension

apply their conceptual understandings to the consideration of issues significant to themselves as individuals and to the broader society in which they livefor
example, to ecological footprints and the history and philosophy of science

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

understand how scientific theories and models are based on evidence that may initially be tentative and limited

6: Ecosystems

VELS Level 6 Learning Focus


As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 in Science, they:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

identify and classify the sources of wastes generated, and describe their management, within the community and in industry

use a specific example to explain the sustainable management of a resource

explain how the action of micro-organisms can be both beneficial and detrimental to society

apply concepts of geological time to elaborate their explanations of both natural selection and evolution, and the origin and evolution of the Universe

give both qualitative and quantitative explanations of the relationships between force, mass and movement

demonstrate an awareness of the ways in which scientific vocabulary is used incorrectly in the mass media, distinguishing between the intended meaning of such
terms and their meaning in non-scientific contexts

formulate their own hypotheses and plan and conduct investigations in order to prove or disprove them

use chemicals (including biomaterials), equipment, electronic components and instruments responsibly and safely

select appropriate equipment and measuring procedures that will ensure a high degree of reliability in data collected and enable valid conclusions to be drawn

construct working models and visual aids that demonstrate scientific ideas

present experimental results using appropriate data presentation formats, and comment on the nature of experimental errors

evaluate the appropriateness of the experimental design and methodology used to investigate their predictions

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

CSFII Outcomes:
Biological science 6.1, 6.2

use the relevant science concepts and relationships as one dimension of debating contentious and/or ethically based science-related issues of broad
community concern

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science at work


Students:

use atomic symbols and balanced chemical equations to summarise chemical reactions, including neutralisation, precipitation and combustion

6: Ecosystems

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


Students:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Creating: History of a
carbon atom (p. 172)

Researching coal (p. 172)

Researching the
phosphorus cycle (p. 172)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Interactive
carbon and water cycles
(p. 172)

Science at Work:
Bioaccumulation

Imagining: An alien food


web (p. 161)

Creating: A food chain


game (p. 161)

Investigating: Foods
(p. 161)

Surfing: Researching
bioaccumulation (p. 165)

Researching food chains


(p. 160)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Interactive food
chains (p. 160)

Homework book 6.4:


Too big for our boots!

Prac 2: Observing
decomposition (p. 173)
Prac 3: Testing for CO2
(p. 173)

Homework book 6.3:


Cycles in nature

Homework book 6.2:


Analysis of food chains
and webs

Prac 2: A tree producer


(p. 162)

Prac 1: Testing for H2O


(p. 172)

Homework book 6.1:


A food web

Homework book
activities

Prac 1: Exploring
endothermy (p. 161)

Practical activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Web Destinations:
Interactive carbon and
water cycles (p. 172)

Interactive animation:
The water cycle (p. 167)

Web Destinations:
Interactive food chains
(p. 160)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Energy and
matter (p. 158)

Companion Website
activities

6: Ecosystems

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 6.2: Recycling in


nature

Unit 6.1: Energy:


prerequisite for life

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Prac 2: Observing
osmosis (p. 185)
Prac 3: Peanut power
(p. 186)

Designing: Helping the


environment (p. 184)

Surfing: Researching
moments in history
(p. 184)

Imagining: The energy


machine (p. 184)

Debating: The energy


crisis (p. 184)

Researching your town


(p. 184)

Prac 1: Solar ponds


(p. 185)

Constructing: Windmills
(p. 184)

Practical activities

Homework book 6.7:


Sci-words

Homework book 6.6:


Ecosystems crossword

Homework book 6.5:


Energy in the community

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Review quiz (p. 187)

Interactive crossword:
Ecosystems crossword
(p. 187)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Sources of
energy (p. 182)

Companion Website
activities

6: Ecosystems

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Chapter review

Unit 6.3: Energy crisis!

Constructing: The water


cycle (p. 172)

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

understand that the features of science as a way of knowing lead to it being empirical and non-empirical, creative and methodical, and speculative and logical

investigate how energy may be responsible for the changes observed in biological processes and applications

apply this understanding, for example, to exothermic reactions, rate of reaction, photosynthesis and respiration and energy flow through ecosystems

learn that scientific theories are both powerful and never final, that clarity is always assumed to be a significant attribute of science theories and that the use of a
theory to successfully predict the consequences of changes to situations is important in the validation of the theory

design and conduct scientific investigations of their choice in ways that lead to the collection, interpretation and presentation of valid data

prepare investigation reports using a variety of formats, learning to use symbols and diagrams extensively to illustrate procedures and data analysis, and support the
conclusions drawn and presented

develop an understanding of the constancy of the big ideas of science (matter, energy, time and space) and science methodologies across different areas
and contexts

apply their conceptual understandings to the consideration of issues significant to themselves as individuals and to the broader society in which they livefor
example the history and philosophy of science, ethics and science research

explain change in terms of energy in a range of biological contexts

explain how the action of micro-organisms can be both beneficial and detrimental to society

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

use atomic symbols and balanced chemical equations to summarise chemical reactions, including neutralisation, precipitation and combustion

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


Students:

understand how scientific theories and models are based on evidence that may initially be tentative and limited

7: Photosynthesis and respiration

VELS Level 6 Learning Focus


As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 in Science, they:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

evaluate the appropriateness of the experimental design and methodology used to investigate their predictions

Debating: Animal rights


(p. 198)

Prac 3: Anaerobic
respiration (p. 197)

Prac 2: Energy
production in respiration
(p. 196)

Surfing: Researching
enzymes (p. 195)

Researching bread and


wine (p. 195)

Prac 1: A product of
respiration (p. 195)

Reviewing: Supersize Me
(p. 195)

Homework book 7.1:


Respiration and yeast

Drag and Drop


interactive: Revising
respiration (p. 193)

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 7.1: Respiration:


releasing energy for use

Companion Website
activities

present experimental results using appropriate data presentation formats, and comment on the nature of experimental errors

Suggested datalogging
activities

select appropriate equipment and measuring procedures that will ensure a high degree of reliability in data collected and enable valid conclusions to be drawn

Homework book
activities

use chemicals (including biomaterials), equipment and instruments responsibly and safely

Practical activities

formulate their own hypotheses and plan and conduct investigations in order to prove or disprove them

Science at work
activities

provide two examples of the work of scientists that demonstrate different approaches to developing scientific knowledge or solving a scientific problem

CSFII Outcomes:
Biological science 6.4

use the relevant science concepts and relationships as one dimension of debating contentious and/or ethically based science-related issues of broad
community concern

7: Photosynthesis and respiration

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science at work


Students:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Surfing: Researching
leaves (p. 216)

Collecting: Leaf samples


(p. 216)

Prac 1: Leaves under the


microscope (p. 216)

Prac 2: Green leaves and


photosynthesis (p. 212)

Investigating: Light
intensity and
photosynthesis (p. 210)

Looking back: Searching


for information (p. 210)

Prac 1: A product of
photosynthesis (p. 211)

Prac 1: Inhaled and


exhaled air (p. 205)

Surfing: Researching
fertilisers (p. 210)

Surfing: Researching
respiratory systems
(p. 205)

Investigating: Exercise
and breathing (p. 204)

Practical activities

Homework book 7.8:


Sci-words

Homework book 7.7:


Respiration and
photosynthesis crossword

Homework book 7.6:


Leaves

Homework book 7.5:


Photosynthesis and
respiration

Homework book 7.4:


The effect of temperature
on photosynthesis

Homework book 7.3:


Other respiratory systems

Homework book 7.2:


Asthma

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Review quiz (p. 217)

Interactive crossword:
Respiration and
photosynthesis crossword
(p. 217)

Drag and Drop


interactive: The structure
of a leaf (p. 213)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Comparing
photosynthesis and
respiration (p. 208)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Human
respiratory system
(p. 199)

Companion Website
activities

7: Photosynthesis and respiration

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Chapter review

Unit 7.4: Leaves and


photosynthesis

Unit 7.3: Photosynthesis


in plants

Unit 7.2: The human


respiratory system

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

explore the ways in which scientific theories are both powerful (in guiding thinking and investigation) and tentative (in being open to change) at the same time

understand that the features of science as a way of knowing lead to it being empirical and non-empirical, creative and methodical, and speculative and logical

consider how coordination and regulation of functions occurs in plants and animals.

investigate the adaptive behaviours which enable plants and animals to survive in their environments

consider possible adaptive behaviours which may be needed for future survival

investigate how energy may be responsible for the changes observed in biological processes and applications

investigate sources of waste generated within the community and consider waste treatment and management options

make links across related areas of sciencefor example, biotechnology (biology and chemistry) and neuroscience (psychology, biology and chemistry)

learn that the use of a theory to successfully predict the consequences of changes to situations is important in the validation of the theory

design and conduct scientific investigations of their choice in ways that lead to the collection, interpretation and presentation of valid data

learn to use correct units of measurement when recording quantities

prepare investigation reports using a variety of formats, learning to use symbols and diagrams extensively to illustrate procedures and data analysis, and support the
conclusions drawn and presented

apply their conceptual understandings to the consideration of issues significant to themselves as individuals and to the broader society in which they livefor
example, the history and philosophy of science

give both qualitative and quantitative explanations of the relationships between force, mass and movement

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

explain how the coordination and regulatory function in plants and animals assist them to survive in their environments

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


Students:

understand how scientific theories and models are based on evidence that may initially be tentative and limited

8: Responding and controlling

VELS Level 6 Learning Focus


As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 in Science, they:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

evaluate the appropriateness of the experimental design and methodology used to investigate their predictions

Prac 2: Teacher
Demonstration: Sound
frequency threshold
(p. 225)

Investigating: Sound
intensity threshold
(p. 223)

Researching hyper/
hypothermia (p. 224)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Reaction time
(p. 224)

Prac 1: Sweet and salty


(p. 225)

Comparing: Human
thermostats (p. 223)

Homework book 8.1:


Reaction times

Web Destinations:
Reaction time (p. 224)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Receptors
and stimuli (p. 221)

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 8.1: Responding

Companion Website
activities

present experimental results using appropriate data presentation formats, and comment on the nature of experimental errors

Suggested datalogging
activities

construct working models and visual aids that demonstrate scientific ideas

Homework book
activities

select appropriate equipment and measuring procedures that will ensure a high degree of reliability in data collected and enable valid conclusions to be drawn

Practical activities

use chemicals (including biomaterials), equipment and instruments responsibly and safely

Science at work
activities

formulate their own hypotheses and plan and conduct investigations in order to prove or disprove them

CSFII Outcomes:
Biological science 6.3

describe the science base of science-related occupations in their local community

8: Responding and controlling

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science at work


Students:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Remembering: Early
memories (p. 237)

Surfing: Researching dj
vu (p. 237)

Science at work: Memory

Modelling: the brain


(p. 233)

Researching phrenology
(p. 233)

Researching drugs
(p. 233)

Researching animals
(p. 233)

Researching technology
(p. 233)

Researching brain and


spinal damage (p. 233)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Reflex tester
(p. 233)
Homework book 8.3:
Concussion in football

Prac 2: Eat your brain


(p. 234)
Prac 3: Brain wars: the
Stroop effect (p. 235)

Homework book 8.2:


The nervous system

Homework book
activities

Prac 1: Brain dissection


(p. 233)

Practical activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Web Destinations:
Reflex tester (p. 233)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Revising the
reflex arc (p. 231)

Interactive animation:
Brain wars (p. 231)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Neuron
structure (p. 227)

Companion Website
activities

8: Responding and controlling

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 8.2: Nervous control

Researching blood pH
(p. 224)

Researching fevers
(p. 224)

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Prac 2: Human behaviour


(p. 253)

Researching ethology
(p. 252)

Investigating: Baby
behaviour (p. 252)

Profiling: Careers
(p. 252)

Prac 1: Animal behaviour


(p. 253)

Prac 1: A plant tropism


(p. 247)

Surfing: Researching
societies (p. 252)

Investigating: Plants and


gravity (p. 246)

Researching pheromones
(p. 246)

Researching hormones
(p. 246)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Interactive
endocrine system (p. 246)

Practical activities

Homework book 8.6:


Behaviour

Homework book 8.5:


DiabetesType I

Homework book 8.4:


Hormonal control and the
menstrual cycle

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Drag and Drop


interactive: Behaviour
(p. 251)

Web Destinations:
Interactive endocrine
system (p. 246)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Major human
endocrine glands (p. 239)

Companion Website
activities

8: Responding and controlling

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 8.4: Behaviour

Unit 8.3: Chemical


control

Distractions (p. 238)

Chunking (p. 238)

Investigating: Smellies
(p. 237)

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Practical activities

Homework book 8.8:


Sci-words

Homework book 8.7:


Responding and
controlling crossword

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Review quiz (p. 254)

Interactive crossword:
Responding and
controlling crossword
(p. 254)

Companion Website
activities

8: Responding and controlling

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Chapter review

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

apply this understanding, for example, to genetic inheritance

explore the ways in which scientific theories are both powerful (in guiding thinking and investigation) and tentative (in being open to change) at the same time

consider how coordination and regulation of functions occurs in plants and animals

investigate the adaptive behaviours which enable plants and animals to survive in their environments

consider possible adaptive behaviours which may be needed for future survival

explore the role of DNA and genes in determining patterns of inheritance

investigate how energy may be responsible for the changes observed in biological, chemical and physical processes and applications

apply this understanding, for example, to cell division (mitosis and meiosis)

make links across related areas of sciencefor example, biotechnology (biology and chemistry)

explore the opportunities for employment in science-related occupations and industries in their community, and consider the dynamic and collaborative nature of
these roles

learn that the use of a theory to successfully predict the consequences of changes to situations is important in the validation of a theory

design and conduct scientific investigations of their choice in ways that lead to the collection, interpretation and presentation of valid data

prepare investigation reports using a variety of formats, learning to use symbols and diagrams extensively to illustrate procedures and data analysis, and support the
conclusions drawn and presented

develop an understanding of the constancy of the big ideas of science (matter, energy, time and space) and science methodologies across different areas
and contexts

debate, from the basis of scientific knowledge, the merits and problems of science-related issues that are reported in the popular media, particularly those that
embrace a clear ethical dimension

explore the ways in which science concepts, language and perspectives can be misunderstood and misrepresented

apply their conceptual understandings to the consideration of issues significant to themselves as individuals and to the broader society in which they livefor
example, personal safety, the history and philosophy of science, and ethics and science research

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

understand how scientific theories and models are based on evidence that may initially be tentative and limited

9: Reproduction

VELS Level 6 Learning Focus


As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 in Science, they:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

explain how the action of micro-organisms can be both beneficial and detrimental to society

use the relevant science concepts and relationships as one dimension of debating contentious and/or ethically based science-related issues of broad
community concern

demonstrate an awareness of the ways in which scientific vocabulary is used incorrectly in the mass media, distinguishing between the intended meaning of such
terms and their meaning in non-scientific contexts

formulate their own hypotheses and plan and conduct investigations in order to prove or disprove them

use chemicals (including biomaterials), equipment, electronic components and instruments responsibly and safely

select appropriate equipment and measuring procedures that will ensure a high degree of reliability in data collected and enable valid conclusions to be drawn

construct working models and visual aids that demonstrate scientific ideas

present experimental results using appropriate data presentation formats, and comment on the nature of experimental errors

evaluate the appropriateness of the experimental design and methodology used to investigate their predictions

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

CSFII Outcomes:
Biological science 6.4

describe the science base of science-related occupations in their local community

9: Reproduction

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science at work


Students:

explain the role of DNA and genes in cell division and genetic inheritance

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


Students:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Prac 2: Examining spores


(p. 266)
Prac 3: Flower dissection
(p. 266)

Researching birthrates
(p. 265)

Investigating: Twins
(p. 265)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Miscarriages
(p. 278)

Surfing: Companion
Website: Sex hormones
(p. 272)

Modelling: Reproductive
systems (p. 272)

Constructing: Slang
words (p. 272)

Prac 1: Asexual
reproduction in plants
(p. 265)

Surfing: Companion
website: Dolly the sheep
(p. 265)

Practical activities

Homework book 9.4:


Stages of pregnancy

Homework book 9.3:


Fertility and temperature

Homework book 9.2:


Male and female
reproductive systems

Homework book 9.1:


Strange plant sex

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Drag and Drop


interactive: Conception
(p. 277)

Web Destinations: Sex


hormones (p. 272)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Human
reproductive systems
(p. 271)

Drag and Drop


interactive: The female
reproductive system
(p. 268)

Drag and Drop


interactive: The male
reproductive system
(p. 268)

Web Destinations: Dolly


the sheep (p. 265)

Drag and Drop


Interactive: Parts of a
flower (p. 262)

Companion Website
activities

9: Reproduction

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 9.3: Fertilisation to


birth

Unit 9.2: Human


reproductive systems

Unit 9.1: Reproduction


with and without sex

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Surfing: Companion
Website: IVF (p. 283)

Investigating/creating:
Sexually transmitted
diseases (p. 283)

Practical activities

Homework book 9.7:


Sci-words

Homework book 9.6:


Reproduction crossword

Homework book 9.5:


STDs

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Review quiz (p. 284)

Interactive crossword:
Reproduction crossword
(p. 284)

Web Destinations: IVF


(p. 283)

Web Destinations:
Miscarriages (p. 278)

Companion Website
activities

9: Reproduction

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Chapter review

Unit 9.4: Reproductive


problems

Creating: A healthy mum


(p. 278)

Researching
contraceptives (p. 279)

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

apply this understanding, for example, to genetic inheritance

explore the ways in which scientific theories are both powerful (in guiding thinking and investigation) and tentative (in being open to change) at the same time

understand that the features of science as a way of knowing lead to it being empirical and non-empirical, creative and methodical, and speculative and logical

explore the role of DNA and genes in determining patterns of inheritance

make links across related areas of sciencefor example, biotechnology (biology and chemistry) and neuroscience (psychology, biology and chemistry)

explore the opportunities for employment in science-related occupations and industries in their community, and consider the dynamic and collaborative nature of
these roles

prepare investigation reports using a variety of formats, learning to use symbols and diagrams extensively to illustrate procedures and data analysis, and support the
conclusions drawn and presented

debate, from the basis of scientific knowledge, the merits and problems of science-related issues that are reported in the popular media, particularly those that
embrace a clear ethical dimension

explore the ways in which science concepts, language and perspectives can be misunderstood and misrepresented

apply their conceptual understandings to the consideration of issues significant to themselves as individuals and to the broader society in which they livefor
example, the history and philosophy of science, ethics and science research

explain how the action of micro-organisms can be both beneficial and detrimental to society

give both qualitative and quantitative explanations of the relationships between force, mass and movement

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

explain change in terms of energy in a range of biological, chemical and physical contexts

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science knowledge and understanding


Students:

understand how scientific theories and models are based on evidence that may initially be tentative and limited

10: Forensics

VELS Level 6 Learning Focus


As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 in Science, they:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

select appropriate equipment and measuring procedures that will ensure a high degree of reliability in data collected and enable valid conclusions to be drawn

construct working models and visual aids that demonstrate scientific ideas

present experimental results using appropriate data presentation formats, and comment on the nature of experimental errors

evaluate the appropriateness of the experimental design and methodology used to investigate their predictions

Prac 2: Collecting and


identifying fingerprints
(p. 295)
Prac 3: Collecting teeth
impressions (p. 295)

Researching Peter
Falconio (p. 294)

Prac 1: Make your own


identikit (p. 294)

Investigating: Stride
length (p. 293)

Surfing: Companion
website: Ted Bundy
(p. 293)

Practical activities

Homework book 10.1:


Fingerprints

Web Destinations: Ted


Bundy (p. 293)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Forensic jobs
(p. 292)

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Unit 10.1: Forensics

Science at work
activities

Companion Website
activities

use chemicals (including biomaterials), equipment, electronic components and instruments responsibly and safely

Suggested datalogging
activities

demonstrate an awareness of the ways in which scientific vocabulary is used incorrectly in the mass media, distinguishing between the intended meaning of such
terms and their meaning in non-scientific contexts

Homework book
activities

use the relevant science concepts and relationships as one dimension of debating contentious and/or ethically based science-related issues of broad
community concern

CSFII Outcomes:
Biological science 6.5, Physical science 6.3, 6.4, 6.5 extension

describe the science base of science-related occupations in their local community

10: Forensics

VELS Level 6 Standards: Science at work


Students:

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Reviewing: CSI (p. 321)

Unit 10.4: Who, what and


why?
Prac 2: Injury physics
stab wounds (p. 322)

Prac 1: Making and


examining blood drips
(p. 322)

Prac 3: Collecting foot


impressions (p. 315)

Prac 2: Fibre analysis


(p. 314)

Prac 1: Comparing
fingerprints (p. 314)

Prac 3: Forging a
photograph (p. 305)

Prac 2: Chromatography
catches a criminal (p. 304)

Prac 1: Writing
impressions (p. 304)

Prac 4: Forensic
anthropometry (p. 296)

Practical activities

Homework book 10.3:


Forensics careers

Homework book 10.2:


Time of death

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Drag and Drop


interactive: Crime time
(p. 320)

Web Destinations:
JFK and Lee Harvey
Oswald (p. 306)

Web Destinations: The


Unabomber, coins and
banknotes (p. 303)

Drag and Drop


interactive: Money
protection (p. 301)

Companion Website
activities

10: Forensics

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Surfing: Researching
Jack the Ripper (p. 321)

Debating: Euthanasia
(p. 313)

Surfing: Companion
Website: JFK and Lee
Harvey Oswald (p. 306)

Examining: Money
(p. 303)

Reviewing: Catch Me If
You Can (p. 303)

Surfing: Companion
Website: The Unabomber,
coins and banknotes
(p. 303)

Unit 10.3: Collecting


evidence

Unit 10.2: Is it real?

Reviewing: Evil Angels


(p. 298)

Researching the
Chamberlain case (p. 297)

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Practical activities

Homework book 10.5:


Sci-words

Homework book 10.4:


Forensics crossword

Homework book
activities

Suggested datalogging
activities

Review quiz (p. 323)

Interactive crossword:
Forensics crossword
(p. 323)

Companion Website
activities

10: Forensics

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Chapter review

Science at work
activities

Science Dimensions 3 Teaching Program

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Making the compound CO2

Irritant
R38Irritating to skin
R41Risk of serious damage
to eyes

R34Causes burns
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Ca(OH2)
solid
Limewatersaturated
solution of Ca(OH2)

Calcium hydroxide

NA

Corrosive

8
Corrosive

Hydrochloric acid

6.812 M
HCI 24% to less than
43%
Mr: 36.46

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will prepare the compound carbon dioxide.


Chemicals required: In labelled containers, class sets of limewater, marble chips, 2 M hydrochloric acid
Equipment: 2 test tubes, test-tube rack, drinking straw, 1-hole rubber stopper with glass tubing, limewater, marble chips, 2 M hydrochloric acid, safety
glasses

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

NA

Risk phrases

<10% HCl is not classified as hazardous by NOHSC. However,


protective clothing and glasses must be worn. Wash affected area
immediately if contact occurs.

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Prepare solutions of acid in a fume cupboard. Never add water
to concentrated acid; add the acid to the water, or purchase dilute acid to minimise the use and storage and handling of concentrated acid. Minimise the
quantity and volume of acid provided in the class sets. Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases.The concentration may be able to be reduced to 1 M
hydrochloric acid and still provide effective results. Check old stocks of limewater for reactivity before dispensing into class sets (it can deteriorate over time).
Check the glass tubing has no sharp edges.
Part A: Students must wear safety glasses and use a new straw. Instruct students to blow gently to avoid spray coming into contact with their eyes. A long
piece of tubing with a disposable straw end will increase the distance of the limewater from students faces. A 2-hole stopper (one hole with tubing that can be
inserted into the limewater and the other hole to allow pressure equalisation) with tubing and a disposable straw mouthpiece would minimise risk of limewater
spraying into students eyes.

Other hazards and safety considerations

(marble chips)

Calcium carbonate

NA

NA

NA

Hydrochloric acid

2M

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Making the compound CO2

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

Unit 1.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Making the compound CO2

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeacid/base for neutralisation.
Allow the reactions to be completed. Wear PPE and remove marble chips. A sieve is helpful (these can be washed and recycled). Check the pH and adjust as
necessary to between a pH of 6 and 9. Discard the waste to the sewer with plenty of water.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 1.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Investigating a physical property

Toxic

NA

Lead

R33Danger of cumulative
effects
R62Possible risk of impaired
fertility
R61(1)May cause harm to the
unborn child
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause
long-term adverse effects
in the aquatic environment

Risk phrases

Brass

Copper wire

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Consider omitting lead. If lead is used, provide gloves and ensure hands are washed well and bench areas are thoroughly wiped.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Aluminium

Zinc

S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical


advice immediately.
S53Avoid exposureobtain special instructions before use.
S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S20/21When using, do not eat, drink or smoke.

Safety phrases

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

Pb
metal

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will investigate the density of various items.


Chemicals required: Cubes or cylinders of aluminium, brass, lead, copper wire
Equipment: Cubes or cylinders of aluminium, brass, lead, wood, ice; a collection of small items such as pebbles, candles, chunks of concrete or cement,
copper wire; access to electronic balance, rulers, beakers and measuring cylinders

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Investigating a physical property

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

No waste generated by technical activity. Prac waste: recycle samples.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Trays can be used to contain spills.

Unit 1.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Comparing elements

Irritant
Harmful,
corrosive,
dangerous
for the
environment

Toxic

NA

8
Corrosive

NA

Carbon

Iodine

R33Danger of cumulative
effects
R62Possible risk of impaired
fertility
R61(1)May cause harm to the
unborn child
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause long-term

R34Causes burns
R50Very toxic to aquatic
organisms
R20/21Harmful by inhalation
and in contact with skin

R36Irritating to eyes

Risk phrases

S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical


advice immediately.
S53Avoid exposure. Obtain special instructions before use.
S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S20/21When using, do not eat, drink or smoke.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S25 Avoid contact with eyes.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Pb
metal

Lead

I2
crystals

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will examine the physical and chemical properties of common elements.
Chemicals required: Sulfur, aluminium, carbon, iodine, silicon, tin, zinc, lead, magnesium, calcium, iron; steel wool
Equipment: Samples of sulfur, aluminium, carbon, iodine, silicon, tin, zinc, lead, magnesium, calcium, iron; steel wool; 3 to 4 test tubes and rack; power pack
about 2 V or battery; wires with alligator clips; light globe; safety glasses

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.2

Science Dimensions 3

Irritant,
highly
flammable

Irritant,
highly
flammable

4.1
Flammable
solid

4.3
Dangerous
when wet

Magnesium ribbon

Calcium

S8Keep container dry.


S43(1)In case of fire use alcohol resistant foam/dry powder/CO2.
Never use water.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

Safety phrases

S8Keep container dry.


S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S43In case of fire, use foam or carbon dioxide.
S7/8Keep container tightly closed and dry.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

MSDS
issue

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

R15Contact with water


liberates extremely flammable
gases

4.3
Dangerous
when wet

Calcium granules

Highly
flammable

4.1
Flammable
solid

Sulfur

S
solid

Risk phrases

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

R15Contact with water


liberates extremely flammable
gases
R36/38Irritating to eyes and
skin

R11Highly flammable
R15Contact with water
liberates extremely flammable
gases
R17Spontaneously flammable
in air
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

adverse effects in the aquatic


environment

Risk phrases

Reactant substance

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

Ca
metal

Mg

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Comparing elements

Dangerous
good

Prac 2

Reactant substance

Unit 1.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Comparing elements

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Steel wool

Iron

Sodium thiosulfate 4%

Tin

Zinc

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Test iodine in the fume cupboard.

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

No waste generated by technical activity. Prac waste: where possible, recycle element samples. Wear PPE and adhere to lab safety procedures. Separate
solid element samples from the water and allow to dry. Decolourise small quantities of iodine with sodium thiosulfate 4% and flush to the sewer with plenty of
water. Larger quantities of iodine can be recycled or discarded via a chemical waste disposal company. Sulfur and hazardous elements should be discarded

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Consider setting up this prac at stations around the room to which students rotate. Power supplies should be checked for damaged leads and malfunction
prior to use. Instruct students on safe use of power supplies. Construct the circuit with the power off. Do not touch the circuit while the power is on. Use only
the recommended voltage. Do not allow power supplies/electrical equipment to come into contact with liquids. Incorrect connection of ammeters can damage
them. The red (positive) terminal must be connected closest to the red (positive) terminal of the power supply. Use sulfur roll to test conductivity and sulfur
powder for the solubility test. Testing the conductivity of iodine can result in iodine spills. A method of containing the iodine and its vapours is to place it in a
sealed container with two electrodes fixed through a plastic lid. Students can touch the conductivity kit to these electrodes without opening the container.
Iodine spills can be decolourised with sodium thiosulfate 4%. Wipe up and flush to the sewer with plenty of water. A carbon electrode makes an ideal carbon
sample as it minimises the irritant nature of carbon powder. Provide only a small quantity of calcium and forceps to handle it (calcium granules are a safer
option). Consider omitting lead or placing it in a sealed container with electrodes through the lid as for iodine. If alligator clips will not clip to the samples,
provide electrodes (nails work well) that can be touched onto the sample to complete the circuit.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Silicon

Aluminium

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

Unit 1.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Comparing elements

via a chemical waste disposal company.

Unit 1.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Firework colours

8
Corrosive

8
Corrosive

Copper(I) chloride

Copper(II) chloride

Harmful,
irritant,
dangerous
for the
environment

R50Very toxic to aquatic


organisms
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed
R36/38Irritating to eyes and
skin

R22Harmful if swallowed
R50Very toxic to aquatic
organisms

R20Harmful by inhalation
R25Toxic if swallowed

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/safety data sheet.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical
advice immediately.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

(cupric chloride)
CuCl2.2H2O
powder

(cuprous chloride)
CuCl
powder

Harmful

Toxic

6.1
Toxic

Barium chloride

BaCl2.2H2O
powder

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will identify elements by the coloured flames they produce.
Chemicals required: In labelled containers, class sets of barium chloride, copper chloride, potassium chloride, sodium chloride and strontium chloride
(suggested concentration 0.1 M) to soak icy-pole sticks in
Equipment: Bunsen burner, bench mat and matches; tongs; safety glasses; wooden icy-pole sticks soaked overnight in: distilled water and solutions of
barium chloride, copper chloride, potassium chloride, sodium chloride and strontium chloride; spectroscope (optional)
Results: Barium apple green, Copper emerald green, Potassium lilac, Sodium yellow orange, Strontium crimson

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.3

Science Dimensions 3

Irritant

NA

Strontium chloride

R41Risk of serious damage to


eyes

Risk phrases

S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of


water and seek medical advice.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and


eye/face protection.

Sodium chloride NaCl powder

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Use tall, labelled jars. Soak the icy-pole sticks in the solutions
overnight then decant off most of the solution. After the prac you can rinse and discard the remaining icy-pole sticks, return the solution to the jar, replace the
lid and store the chemical solutions for the next time. Be aware of the sensitivity of your fire alarm system. Instruct students not to burn the icy-pole sticks. Do
not breathe in any vapours or fumes. Provide a beaker of water to place used icy-pole sticks in (this extinguishes them and rinses off chemical residues).
Do not allow chemical-soaked icy-pole sticks to come in contact with skinuse tongs to handle them. When using the spectroscope, do not aim the
spectroscope, or look directly, at the sun. Refer teacher to Risk Assessment: Heating.

Other hazards and safety considerations

powder

Potassium chloride KCl

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

SrCl2.6H20
powder

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Firework colours

Dangerous
good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 1.3

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Firework colours

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Any spills should be cleaned up according to normal lab procedures. Prac waste for disposal: separate used icy-pole
sticks from the water (sieve). Discard icy-pole sticks via the school waste system. Discard the dousing/rinsing water to the sewer with plenty of water.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 1.3

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Observing elements

NA

Toxic
R33Danger of cumulative
effects
R62Possible risk of impaired
fertility
R61(1) May cause harm to the
unborn child
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed.
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause
long-term adverse effects
in the aquatic environment

R15Contact with water


liberates extremely flammable
gases
R36/38Irritating to eyes and
skin

Risk phrases

S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical


advice immediately.
S53Avoid exposure. Obtain special instructions before use.
S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S20/21When using, do not eat, drink or smoke

S8Keep container dry.


S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

metal

Pb

Lead

metal

Dangerous
when wet

Irritant,
highly
flammable

4.3

Calcium

Ca

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will observe and compare elements.


Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Suggestions: aluminium, calcium, carbon rod, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, mercury (thermometer), nickel,
platinum, sodium, sulphur, tin, zinc
Equipment: A range of elements in sealed jars or vials

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Hg

4.3
Dangerous
when wet

Corrosive

R34Causes burns
R14/15Reacts violently with
water, liberating extremely
flammable gases

R40(3)Possible risk of
irreversible effects
R43May cause sensitisation by
skin contact

R23Toxic by inhalation
R33Danger of cumulative
effects

R11Highly flammable
R15Contact with water
liberates extremely flammable
gases
R17Spontaneously flammable
in air
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

Risk phrases

S8Keep container dry.


S43In case of fire, use carbon dioxide.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice
immediately.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S25Avoid contact with eyes.
S46If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this
container or label.
S36Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.

S7Keep container tightly closed.


S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S44If you feel unwell, contact a doctor or Poisons Information
Centre immediately (show the label where possible).
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S43In case of fire, use foam or carbon dioxide.
S7/8Keep container tightly closed and dry.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

metal
Na
(in liquid paraffin)

Sodium

Ni
metal

Nickel

metal

Harmful

Toxic

8
Corrosive

Mercury

NA

Irritant,
highly
flammable

4.1
Flammable
solid

Magnesium ribbon

Mg

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Observing elements

Dangerous
good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

4.1

Sulfur solid

Risk phrases

Tin

Platinum

Zinc

Carbon rod

Copper

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

If mercury is used, a mercury spill kit and spill plan must be in place. To further minimise risks, students could be asked to only observe and not to handle the
thermometer. Assess spill procedures for the other hazardous chemicals prior to the prac. Sodium should be stored in liquid paraffin to minimise exposure to
oxygen and water. The containers should be sealed and not prone to leaking or breaking if they are dropped (particularly if the element is classified as
hazardous). Empty gas jars can be labelled (e.g. hydrogen, helium) to simulate colourless gases. This eliminates any hazards.
If other elements are used, risks will need to be assessed. Students are not exposed to the elements in this prac; the elements are in sturdy, sealed
containers. In the event of a spill, refer to the lab tech risk assessment and MSDS for each substance.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Calcium

Aluminium

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Observing elements

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Observing elements

Date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

No waste generated by technical activity. No prac waste generated.


Return the samples to their appropriate storage areas after the prac has been completed.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Metal crystals

5.1
Oxidising
agent
6.1
Toxic

9
Misc

Lead nitrate

Copper(II) sulfate

Harmful,
irritant,
dangerous
for the
environment

R22Harmful if swallowed
R36/38Irritating to eyes and
skin.
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause long-term
adverse effects in the aquatic

R33Danger of cumulative
effects
R62Possible risk of impaired
fertility
R61(1)May cause harm to the
unborn child
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed

R34Causes burns

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S60This material must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S13Keep away from food, drink, animal food.


S22Do not breathe dust.
S20/21When using, do not eat, drink or smoke.
S36/37Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.

S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical


advice immediately.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

CuSO4.5H2O
solid

Pb(NO3)2
solid

Toxic

Corrosive

5.1
Oxidising
agent

Silver nitrate

AgNO3
solid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Equipment: Sterilised Petri dish; 250 mL beaker; Bunsen burner; tripod; gauze mat; bench mat; 1 cm 4 cm strip clean zinc sheet; one 0.3 g sample of silver
nitrate, lead nitrate, copper sulfate or tin chloride; 0.5 g agar powder; 40 mL distilled water; stirring rod; stereo microscope (optional); safety glasses; gloves

Chemicals required: In labelled containers, class sets of 1 cm 4 cm strip clean zinc sheet; one 0.3 g sample of silver nitrate, lead nitrate, copper sulfate or
tin chloride; 0.5 g agar powder

Aim: Students will examine the crystal shapes of compounds containing metal ions.

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Hazard
category

Harmful,
irritant

NA

Stannous chloride

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S7/8Keep container tightly closed and dry.
S20/21When using, do not eat, drink or smoke.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and


eye/face protection.

environment
R22Harmful if swallowed
R36/37/38Irritating to eyes,
respiratory system and skin

Safety phrases

Risk phrases

Agar powder

Sodium thiosulfate 4%
(silver nitrate spill clean-up)

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Consider providing the chemical samples pre-weighed in small containers (especially the silver nitrate, which stains, and the lead nitrate, which is toxic). This
prac is suitable as a teacher demonstration or prepared agar plates could be provided for student observation.
Wear PPE. Adhere to standard laboratory safety procedures; dispense of required chemicals using a spatula. Minimise the quantity and volume provided.
Silver nitrate stains: spills can be decolourised with sodium thiosulfate 4%. Agar plates should not be opened if any microbial growth is observed. Do not
inhale fine metal dust resulting from cleaning the zinc. Clean the area. Refer teacher to Risk Assessment: Heating.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Zinc sheet

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

SnCl2.2H2O
solid

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Metal crystals

Dangerous
good

Prac 2

Reactant substance

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Metal crystals

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeagar with metal crystals.
The agar contains metal crystals. Collect and discard via a waste disposal company.
Liquification of the agar and straining out the metal crystals will reduce the waste and minimise possible bacterial growth.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 3

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

More crystals

8
Corrosive

Silver nitrate
environment

S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special


instructions/MSDS.

S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical


advice immediately.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

(silver nitrate spill clean-up)

Sodium thiosulfate 4%

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Consider providing the silver nitrate in stoppered flasks. (This
will minimise student contact with the silver nitrate and the risk of spills.) Silver nitrate stains: spills can be decolourised with sodium thiosulfate 4%.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Copper wire/foil

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

0.1 M

solid

R34Causes burns

Risk phrases

Dangerous R51/53Toxic to aquatic


organisms; may cause long-term
for the
environment adverse effects in the aquatic

Corrosive

5.1
Oxidising
agent

Silver nitrate

AgNO3

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will make silver metal crystals.


Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Class sets: silver nitrate solution, 10 to 15 cm length of copper wire and/or strip of copper foil
Equipment: 100 mL conical flask, cork or rubber stopper, silver nitrate solution, 10 to 15 cm length of copper wire and/or strip of copper foil

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Yes

Yes

Yes

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

More crystals

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal. Discard waste via a chemical waste company.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Gloves

Prac 3

Protective measures

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 5

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Using metals to make non-metals

Irritant,
highly
flammable

Corrosive

4.1
Flammable
solid

8
Corrosive

Magnesium ribbon

Hydrochloric acid

R34Causes burns
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

R11Highly flammable
R15Contact with water
liberates extremely flammable
gases
R17Spontaneously flammable
in air
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

Risk phrases

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S43In case of fire, use foam or carbon dioxide.
S7/8Keep container tightly closed and dry.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

6.8 12 M
liquid
HCl 24% to less
than 43%
Mr: 36.46

Mg

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will make a non-metal compound from a metal.


Chemicals required: Class sets in labelled containers: magnesium, iron and copper, 2 M hydrochloric acid
Equipment: Samples of magnesium, iron and copper; 1 M to 2 M hydrochloric acid in a dropping bottle; test tubes and rack; matches; safety glasses

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 5

NA

NA

Risk phrases

<10% HCl is not classified as hazardous by NOHSC. However,


protective clothing and glasses must be worn. Wash affected area
immediately if contact occurs.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases.

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Prepare solutions of acid in a fume cupboard. Never add water
to concentrated acid; add the acid to the water or purchase dilute acid to minimise the use and storage and handling of concentrated acid. Minimise the
quantity and volume of acid provided in the class sets. Reducing the concentration to 1 M should still provide effective results. Provide stoppers rather than
using fingers to collect the gas. Refer teacher to Risk Assessment: Heating.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Cu
metal

Copper

Fe
metal

Iron

NA

NA

NA

Hydrochloric acid

NA

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

2M
HCI
liquid

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Using metals to make non-metals

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 5

Using metals to make non-metals

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeacid for neutralisation and solid metal waste.
Wearing PPE, staff should separate any solid metal pieces. A sieve is helpful (wash the sieve immediately or it will corrode). Check the pH of the liquid and
adjust as necessary to a pH of between 6 and 9. Discard to the sewer with plenty of water. Collect the metal waste for disposal by a chemical waste company.
Magnesium is not suitable for discarding via the school waste system. If all the magnesium has reacted, rinse the copper and iron and discard via the school
waste system.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 1.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Halogen precipitates

6.1
Toxic

Potassium fluoride

S13Keep away from food, drink, animal food.


S22Do not breathe dust.
S20/21When using, do not eat, drink or smoke.
S36/37Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.

Safety phrases

R23/24/25Toxic by inhalation, in S1/2Keep locked up and out of reach of children.


contact with skin and if swallowed S22Do not breathe dust.
S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

R33Danger of cumulative
effects
R62Possible risk of impaired
fertility
R61(1)May cause harm to the
unborn child
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed

Risk phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

KF
solid

Toxic

Toxic

5.1
Oxidising
agent
6.1
Toxic

Lead nitrate

Pb(NO3) 2
solid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will examine how halogen salts precipitate.


Chemicals required: Class sets in labelled containers: saturated solutions of lead nitrate, potassium fluoride, potassium chloride, potassium bromide and
potassium iodide
Equipment: Test-tube rack, 5 test tubes, filter funnel and 4 filter papers, beaker, wash bottle with water, disposable gloves, eye-droppers, safety glasses,
saturated lead nitrate solution, dropping bottles of saturated solutions of potassium fluoride, potassium chloride, potassium bromide and potassium iodide

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

NA

Toxic

Irritant

Hazard
category

R33Danger of cumulative
effects
R62Possible risk of impaired
fertility
R61(1)May cause harm to the
unborn child
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause
long-term adverse effects
in the aquatic environment

R36/37/38Irritating to eyes,
respiratory system and skin

Risk phrases

Halogen precipitates

S53Avoid exposure. Obtain special instructions before use.


S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.
S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.

S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.


S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Potassium iodide KI solid

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Consider modifying this prac to reduce the concentration and handling of toxic chemicals and the lead precipitates that are produced.
Suggestions: Reduce concentrations: 0.1 M produces a good reaction for all solutions except KCl, which requires 1.0 M. Reduce the volumes useduse small
test tubes or well plates. Do not filter the solutions; allow the precipitates to settle and observe them (eliminates handling of filter papers with toxic chemicals
and eliminates production of fine powders of toxic chemicals). Have a demonstration set up in case results are difficult to determine.
Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Protect yourself from inhalation of these solids (minimise dust
when handling the chemicals; use a fume cupboard, mask, etc.). Minimise the quantity and volume provided in the class sets.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Potassium chloride KCl solid

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

except those
specifically listed by
NOHSC > 5%

Lead compounds

KBr
solid

Potassium bromide NA

Dangerous
good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Halogen precipitates

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeinorganic waste, lead compounds and contaminated filter papers.
Collect filter papers containing lead compounds for disposal by a chemical waste company. Collect the solutions as metal salts or inorganic waste for disposal
by a chemical waste company.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Gloves

Prac 1

Protective measures

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

The alkali metals

8
Corrosive

Corrosive

Corrosive

R35Causes severe burns

R34Causes burns
R14/15Reacts violently with
water, liberating extremely
flammable gases

R34Causes burns
R14/15Reacts violently with
water liberating extremely
flammable gases.

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S8Keep container dry.


S43In case of fire, use carbon dioxide.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.

S8Keep container dry.


S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice
immediately.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Dry solid; never use
water.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

NaOH
pellets

Sodium hydroxide

Na
metal
(in liquid paraffin)

Sodium

4.3
Dangerous
when wet

Corrosive

4.3
Dangerous
when wet

Lithium

Li
metal
(in liquid paraffin)

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will examine the reactivity of the alkali earth metals.
Chemicals required: In labelled containers: small samples of lithium and sodium metals in paraffin oil, phenolphthalein, dilute acid, dilute alkaline solution
(suggested concentration 0.1 M)
Equipment: Perspex screen, safety glasses, pneumatic trough, scalpel/spatula, filter paper/paper towel, small samples of lithium and sodium metals in
paraffin oil, phenolphthalein, three 250 mL beakers: one filled with water, one with a dilute acid and the other with a dilute alkaline solution

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Corrosive

8
Corrosive

Hydrochloric acid

NA

NA

Hydrochloric acid

R11Highly flammable

Risk phrases

R34Causes burns
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

Risk phrases

<0.5% NaOH is not classified as hazardous by NOHSC. However,


protective clothing and glasses must be worn. Wash affected area

<10% HCl is not classified as hazardous by NOHSC. However,


protective clothing and glasses must be worn. Wash affected area
immediately if contact occurs.

S16Keep away from sources of ignition. No smoking.

Safety phrases

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

MSDS
issue

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Sodium hydroxide

NA

NA

NA

Paraffin oil

NA

Highly
flammable

3
Flammable
liquid

Phenolphthalein
indicator

0.1 M
HCl

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

6.812 M
liquid
HCl 24% to less than
43%

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

The alkali metals

Dangerous
good

Prac 2

Reactant substance

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Hazard
category
immediately if contact occurs.

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases.

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Use a fume hood when decanting flammable liquids.
Prepare acid and base solutions in a fume cupboard. Never add water to concentrated acid; add the acid to the water. Purchase diluted solutions of corrosive
chemicals to minimise the risks associated with the handling and storage of the concentrated corrosives. Ensure appropriate spill kits, eye wash and shower
stations are operational. Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases. Decant solutions over a tray or bounded area to contain spills. Sodium hydroxide solid
and water is an exothermic reactionuse a heat-proof container. The hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are provided to demonstrate the colour of
phenolphthalein indicator.
Protective clothing and glasses must be worn when handling dilute corrosive solutions not classified as hazardous by NOHSC. Wash affected area
immediately if contact occurs.
Lithium and sodium are reactive with air. Ensure that the paraffin oil covers the metal samples. Minimise the quantity and volume of metals provided to the
teacher. Handle the metals with forcepsthey react with moisture on the skin and give a nasty burn. Do not allow metals to have contact with water except
under controlled conditions. Ensure dry forceps and scalpels are used. Provide a few in case they become wet. Teachers must use only tiny samples. Dispose
of old oxidised stocks via a waste disposal companythey can be unstable and unpredictable.

Risk phrases

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

The alkali metals

Other hazards and safety considerations

0.1 M
NaOH

Dangerous
good

Prac 2

Reactant substance

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

The alkali metals

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. No prac waste.


Return unused metals to the stock container and check the level of paraffin oil covers the metals completely. Wear PPE when cleaning up the equipment.
Treat all the equipment as if there are traces of the metals on the forceps, etc. Check visually, then safely immerse all the equipment in water prior to washing.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 3

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

The alkaline earths

Irritant,
highly
flammable

Irritant,
highly
flammable

4.1
Flammable
solid

4.3
Dangerous
when wet

Magnesium ribbon

Calcium

R15Contact with water


liberates extremely flammable
gases
R36/38Irritating to eyes
and skin

R11Highly flammable
R15Contact with water
liberates extremely flammable
gases
R17Spontaneously flammable
in air
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

Risk phrases

S8Keep container dry.


S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S43In case of fire, use foam or carbon dioxide.
S7/8Keep container tightly closed and dry.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Ca
metal

Mg

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will examine the reactivity of the alkaline earth elements.
Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Class sets: 5 cm strip of magnesium, small sample of calcium, phenolphthalein
Equipment: 2 test tubes and rack, Bunsen burner, bench mat, matches, tongs, safety glasses, distilled water, one 5 cm strip of magnesium, steel wool or
emery paper, small sample of calcium, phenolphthalein

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 3

Highly
flammable
Highly
flammable

3
Flammable
liquid

4.3
Dangerous
when wet

Phenolphthalein
indicator

Calcium granules

R15Contact with water


liberates extremely flammable
gases

R11Highly flammable

Risk phrases

S8Keep container dry.


S43(1)In case of fire use alcohol resistant foam/dry powder/CO2.
Never use water.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S16Keep away from sources of ignition. No smoking.

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Use a fume hood when decanting flammable liquids. Minimise
the quantity and volume of the metals provided in the class sets. Handle calcium with forceps; calcium reacts with moisture and can cause burns (calcium
granules are effective and provide convenient small samples). Students perform a pop test detecting the presence of hydrogen. Students may need to lightly
stopper the test tube to collect enough gas. Instruct students to gently hold the stopper in place, otherwise pressure build-up may eject it. Refer teacher to
Risk Assessment: Heating.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

The alkaline earths

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 3

The alkaline earths

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typesolid metal waste.
Use a sieve to separate the metals from the liquid. Hazardous metals should be discarded via a chemical waste disposal company. The weak alkaline liquid
can be flushed to the sewer with plenty of water.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 4

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Group IV

Irritant

Toxic

NA

NA

Graphite

Lead

R33Danger of cumulative
effects
R62Possible risk of impaired
fertility
R61(1)May cause harm to the
unborn child
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause
long-term adverse effects
in the aquatic environment

R36/37/38Irritating to eyes,
respiratory system and skin

Risk phrases

S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice


immediately.
S53Avoid exposure. Obtain special instructions before use.
S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S20/21When using, do not eat, drink or smoke.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

Silicon

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Charcoal

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

Pb
metal

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will examine family similarities in Group IV elements.


Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Class sets: charcoal, graphite, silicon, lead
Equipment: Samples of charcoal, graphite, silicon, lead; power pack or battery; leads with alligator clips; light

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 4

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Group IV

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

No waste generated by technical activity. No prac waste generated. Collect the samples for reuse.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Assess procedures. Minimise the handling of lead by staff and students. Wear gloves.
Power supplies should be checked for damaged leads and malfunction prior to use. Instruct students on safe use of power supplies. Construct the circuit with
the power off. Use only the voltage recommended by the teacher (6 V or less). Do not allow power supplies/electrical equipment to contact liquids. Incorrect
connection of ammeters can damage them. The red (positive) terminal must be connected closest to the red (positive) terminal of the power supply. A carbon
electrode makes an ideal carbon sample as it minimises the irritant nature of carbon powder. Consider having the lead set up as a demonstration or place a
lead sample in a sealed container with electrodes through the lid that touch the lead. Students can then touch the conductivity meter to the electrodes without
opening the sealed container. If alligator clips will not clip to the samples, provide electrodes (nails work well) that can be touched onto the sample to
complete the circuit.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Unit 1.5

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Colours of transition metal ions in solution

Toxic,
dangerous to
the
environment

Harmful,
irritant,
dangerous for
the
environment

Harmful,
irritant,
dangerous for

9
Misc

9
Misc

NA

Cobalt(II) chloride

Copper(II) sulfate

Nickel sulphate

R22Harmful if swallowed
R40(3)Possible risk of
irreversible effects

R22Harmful if swallowed
R36/38Irritating to eyes
and skin
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause longterm adverse effects in the
aquatic environment

R22Harmful if swallowed
R49(2)May cause cancer by
inhalation
R42/43May cause
sensitisation by inhalation and
skin contact.
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause longterm adverse effects in the
aquatic environment

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S25Avoid contact with eyes.
S46If swallowed seek medical advice immediately and show this

S22Do not breathe dust.


S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.
S53Avoid exposureobtain special instructions before use.
S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

NiSO4.6H2O

CuSO4.5H2O
solid

(cobaltous chloride)
CoCl2.6H2O
solid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will explore the colours of transition metal ions.


Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Class sets: 0.1 M CoCl2, 0.1 M CuSO4, 0.1 M NiSO4, 1 M NH3, 1 M NaCl
Equipment: 0.1 M solutions of CoCl2, CuSO4, NiSO4, 1 M NH3, 1 M NaCl, 2 Pasteur pipettes, 3 test tubes, test-tube holder

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 2.1

Science Dimensions 3

Corrosive,
dangerous
for the
environment

8
Corrosive

Dangerous
for the

R51/53Toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause

Risk phrases

R34Causes burns
R50Very toxic to aquatic
organisms

R42/43May cause
sensitisation by inhalation and
skin contact
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause longterm
adverse effects in the aquatic
environment

R36/37Irritating to eyes and


respiratory system

Risk phrases

S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special


instructions/MSDS.

<5% ammonia solution is not classified as hazardous. However,


wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. Do
not breathe in vapours.

Safety phrases

S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of


water and seek medical advice.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.
S61 Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.

S60This material and its container must be disposed of as


hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection

container or label.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Copper (II) sulfate

9
Misc

8
Corrosive

Ammonia

1 M solution

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

aqueous solution
Ammonium hydroxide
(NH4OH)
>10% = 2.9 M

Ammonia

solid
Hazard cut-offs
unavailable

Hazard
category
the
environment

Colours of transition metal ions in solution

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Dangerous
good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 2.1

Science Dimensions 3

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeinorganic waste
Wearing PPE, staff should collect the waste for disposal by a chemical waste disposal company. Locating the waste collection container in the fume cupboard
will minimise ammonia fumes in the lab.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Use spatulas to dispense solids. Protect yourself from
inhalation of these solids (minimise dust when handling the chemicals, use a fume cupboard, mask, etc.). Minimise the quantity and volume provided in the
class sets. Prepare solutions of ammonia in a fume cupboard.

in the aquatic environment

Other hazards and safety considerations

Sodium chloride

<0.4M (<10%)

Hazard
Risk phrases
category
environment long-term adverse effects

Colours of transition metal ions in solution

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Dangerous
good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 2.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Colours of transition metal ions in solution

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

Unit 2.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Action of heat on compounds

Harmful,
irritant,
oxidising

Irritant

5.1
Oxidising
agent

NA

Potassium nitrate

Graphite

R36/37/38Irritating to eyes,
respiratory system and skin

R8Contact with combustible


material may cause fire
R22Harmful if swallowed
R36/373Irritating to eyes,
respiratory system and skin

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

Sodium chloride

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Wear PPE. Adhere to standard laboratory safety procedures. Minimise the quantity and volume provided in the class sets of chemicals, using a spatula to
dispense solids. Provide large spoon spatulas. Instruct students that spatulas become a burn risk unless held by tongs. Alternatively, place samples in test
tubes. Refer teacher to Risk Assessment: Heating.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Waxcandle or paraffin

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

KNO3
solid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will investigate the effect of heat on different compounds.


Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Class sets: waxcandle or paraffin, graphite, sodium chloride, potassium nitrate
Equipment: Solid samples of various ionic and covalent compounds that do not produce toxic fumes on heating (e.g. waxcandle or paraffin, graphite,
sodium chloride, potassium nitrate), Bunsen burner, heat mat, metal spatulas, wooden pegs, safety glasses, lab coats

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 2.1

Science Dimensions 3

Yes

Yes

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Action of heat on compounds

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typesolid chemical residues.
Very little waste is generated. Small quantities of graphite can be discarded via the school waste system. Sodium chloride and small quantities of potassium
nitrate can be discarded via the sewer with plenty of water. Otherwise, discard potassium nitrate waste via a chemical waste disposal company.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Gloves

Prac 2

Protective measures

Unit 2.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Signs of chemical change

Harmful,
irritant

Irritant,
highly flammable

NA

4.1
Flammable
solid

Copper carbonate

Mg

R11Highly flammable
R15Contact with water liberates
extremely flammable gases
R17Spontaneously flammable
in air
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

R22Harmful if swallowed
R36/37/38Irritating to eyes,
respiratory system and skin

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S43In case of fire, use foam or carbon dioxide.
S7/8Keep container tightly closed and dry.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S2Keep out of reach of children.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S44If you feel unwell, contact a doctor or Poisons Information
Centre immediately (show the label where possible).
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Magnesium ribbon

CuCO3
solid

Hazard
category

Dangerous good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will observe changes during chemical reactions.


Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Class sets: copper carbonate, magnesium, dilute nitric acid, dilute sodium hydroxide, dilute barium nitrate, dilute
sodium sulfate, dilute copper sulfate, solid zinc (0.1 M is an appropriate concentration for these solutions, but 1 M is good for the acid so that enough gas is
produced to test.)
Equipment: Solid copper(II) carbonate, magnesium, dilute nitric acid, splint, matches, Bunsen burner, test-tube holder, test-tube rack, dilute sodium hydroxide, thermometer, dilute barium nitrate, dilute sodium sulfate, dilute copper(II) sulfate, solid zinc, 5 test tubes (1 with stopper), lab coats, safety glasses

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 2.2

Science Dimensions 3

R35Causes severe burns

R34Causes burns

R8Contact with combustible


material may cause fire

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and


eye/face protection

S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical


advice immediately

S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.

S2Keep out of reach of children.


S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.
S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

NaOH
solid

Sodium hydroxide

HNO3
solution
>0.8 M conc < 4 M
> = 5% conc < 20%

Corrosive

Corrosive

8
Corrosive

Nitric acid

8
Corrosive

Oxidising,
very
corrosive

8
Corrosive

Nitric acid

HNO3
liquid
conc > = 20%

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Signs of chemical change

Dangerous good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 2.2

Science Dimensions 3

Harmful,
oxidising

Harmful,
oxidising

Harmful,
irritant,
dangerous
for the
environment

5.1
Oxidising
agent
6.1
Toxic

5.1
Oxidising
agent
6.1
Toxic

9
Misc

Barium nitrate

Barium nitrate

Copper(II) sulfate

R22Harmful if swallowed
R36/38Irritating to eyes and
skin
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause long-term
adverse effects in the aquatic
environment

R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed

R8Contact with combustible


material may cause fire
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S28After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty


of water.
S46If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this
container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and


eye/face protection.

S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S17Keep away from combustible material.


S22Do not breathe dust.
S28After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty
of water.
S46If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this
container or label.

S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

CuSO4.5H2O
solid

>0.04M
Ba(NO3)2
solution

Ba(NO3)2
solid

Hazard
category

Signs of chemical change

Dangerous good

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Reactant substance

Unit 2.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

aquatic environment

S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special


instructions/MSDS.

Zinc

Sodium hydroxide 0.1 M

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases.

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Prepare solutions of acid in a fume cupboard. Never add water
to concentrated acid; add the acid to the water, or purchase dilute acid to minimise the use and storage and handling of concentrated acid. Refer to RA:
Preparing dilute acids and bases. Minimise the quantity and volume of chemicals provided in the class sets. Use spatulas to dispense solids and decant
liquids over a bounded area to contain spills. Students produce small quantities of oxygen in the prac, which does not pose a hazard. Refer teacher to Risk
Assessment: Heating.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Sodium sulfate

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

< 0.4 M (<10%)

Dangerous R51/53Toxic to aquatic


organisms; may cause long-term
for the
environment adverse effects in the

9
Misc

Copper(II) sulfate

Risk phrases

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Signs of chemical change

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

Unit 2.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Signs of chemical change

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeinorganic waste.
Collect waste for disposal by a chemical waste company.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 2.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Decomposition reactions

Harmful,
irritant

Harmful,
irritant,
dangerous
for the
environment

NA

9
Misc

Copper carbonate

R22Harmful if swallowed
R36/38Irritating to eyes
and skin
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause long-term
adverse effects in the aquatic
environment

R22Harmful if swallowed
R36/37/38Irritating to eyes,
respiratory system and skin

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S2Keep out of reach of children.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S44If you feel unwell, contact a doctor or Poisons Information
Centre immediately (show the label where possible).
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

CuSO4.5H2O
solid

Copper(II) sulfate

CuCO3
solid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will observe decomposition reactions.


Chemicals required: solid hydrated copper(II) sulfate, solid copper(II) carbonate
Equipment: heat mat, Bunsen burner, 2 test tubes, 2 spatulas, solid hydrated copper(II) sulfate, solid copper(II) carbonate

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 2.3

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Decomposition reactions

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeinorganic waste.
Collect waste for disposal by a chemical waste company.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Minimise the quantity and volume of chemicals provided in the class sets. Use spatulas to dispense solids over a bounded area to contain spills.
Refer teacher to Risk Assessment: Heating.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Unit 2.3

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Precipitation of unknowns

R34Causes burns
Corrosive,
dangerous
for the
environment

5.1
Oxidising
agent

R8Contact with combustible


material may cause fire
R22Harmful if swallowed

Harmful,
oxidising

S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical


advice immediately.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S17Keep away from combustible material.


S22Do not breathe dust.
S46If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this
container or label

S22Do not breathe dust.


S25Avoid contact with eyes.
S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

AgNO3
solid

Silver nitrate

NaNO3
solid
Hazard cut-offs not
available

Sodium nitrate

R36Irritating to eyes

Risk phrases

5.1
Oxidising
agent

Irritant

NA

Sodium carbonate

anhyd
Na2CO3
solid
Hazard cut-offs not
available

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will identify an unknown solution through systematic precipitation.


Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Class sets: 0.1 M solutions labelled A, B, C, D, E of sodium iodide, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, sodium
carbonate and sodium nitrate; 0.1 M solutions of silver, lead, calcium and barium nitrate
Equipment: Unknown 0.1 M solutions labelled A, B, C, D, E. These are (not in order) sodium iodide, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate and
sodium nitrate; 0.1 M solutions of silver, lead, calcium and barium nitrate; 4 semi-micro test tubes, eye-droppers, safety glasses, disposable gloves

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 2.3

Science Dimensions 3

5.1
Oxidising
agent
6.1
Toxic

5.1
Oxidising
agent

Lead nitrate

Calcium nitrate

Irritant,
oxidising
R8Contact with combustible
material may cause fire
R36Irritating to eyes

R33Danger of cumulative
effects
R61(1)May cause harm to the
unborn child
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed

R33Danger of cumulative
effects
R62Possible risk of impaired
fertility
R61(1)May cause harm to the
unborn child
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed

S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of


water and seek medical advice.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S53Avoid exposure. Obtain special instructions before use.


S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice
immediately.
S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.

S13Keep away from food, drink and animal feed.


S22Do not breathe dust.
S20/21When using, do not eat, drink or smoke.
S36/37Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.

S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special


instructions/MSDS.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Ca(NO3)2.4H2O
solid
Hazard cut-offs not
available

Pb(NO3)2
0.1 M
solution

Pb(NO3)2
solid

Toxic

Toxic

5.1
Oxidising
agent
6.1
Toxic

in the aquatic environment

Lead nitrate

AgNO3
0.1 M
solution

Dangerous R51/53Toxic to aquatic


organisms; may cause
for the
environment long-term adverse effects

8
Corrosive

Silver nitrate

Risk phrases

Hazard
category

Precipitation of unknowns

Dangerous
good

Prac 2

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Reactant substance

Unit 2.3

Science Dimensions 3

Harmful,
oxidising

Harmful,
oxidising

5.1
Oxidising
agent
6.1
Toxic

5.1
Oxidising
agent
6.1
Toxic

Barium nitrate

Barium nitrate

R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed

R8Contact with combustible


material may cause fire
R20/22Harmful by inhalation
and if swallowed

Risk phrases

solid

solid

solid

Sodium sulfate

0.1 M solution

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Protect yourself from inhalation of these solids (minimise dust
when handling the chemicals, use a fume cupboard, mask, etc.). Minimise the quantity and volumes provided in the class sets. Students reuse their test
tubes. Provide a waste beaker for each group of students; this can be emptied to the waste container at the end of the class. It will minimise the movement of
students around the lab carrying hazardous chemicals.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Sodium chloride

Sodium iodide

Sodium carbonate

S28After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of water.


S46If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this
container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S17Keep away from combustible material.


S22Do not breathe dust.
S28After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty
of water.
S46If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this
container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

Ba(NO3)2
solution > 1% = 0.04 M

Ba(NO3)2
solid

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Precipitation of unknowns

Dangerous
good

Prac 2

Reactant substance

Unit 2.3

Science Dimensions 3

Yes

Yes

Yes

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Precipitation of unknowns

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeinorganic waste.
Wear PPE and adhere to laboratory safety practices when handling the waste. The waste will contain hazardous precipitates (including lead precipitates). It is
not suitable for disposal via the sewer.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Gloves

Prac 2

Protective measures

Unit 2.3

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 3

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Electroplating

Irritant,
dangerous
for the
environment

Oxidising,
very
corrosive

9
Misc

8
Corrosive

Zinc sulfate

R8Contact with combustible


material may cause fire.

R36/38Irritating to eyes and


skin
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause long-term
adverse effects in the aquatic
environment

Risk phrases

S2Keep out of reach of children.


S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.
S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

HNO3
liquid
conc > = 20%

Nitric acid

solution 20%

ZnSO4.7H2O

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Equipment: 6 V DC power source, 250 mL beaker, 2 insulated wires with crocodile clips on one end, 1 very thin 7 4 cm strip of copper metal (coiled copper
wire may also be used), 1 stainless steel electrode, sandpaper, tongs, washbottle of distilled water, 1 M zinc sulfate solution, 2 M nitric acid, lab coat, safety
glasses, gloves

Aim: Students will investigate electroplating as a useful technique for putting a coat of metal on another metal.
Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Class sets: copper metal/coiled copper wire, stainless steel electrode, 1 M zinc sulfate solution, 2 M nitric acid

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 2.3

Science Dimensions 3

Corrosive

8
Corrosive

Nitric acid

R34Causes burns

Risk phrases
S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.
S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Stainless steel electrode

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases.

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Minimise the quantity and volume provided in the class sets.
Power supplies should be checked for damaged leads and malfunction prior to use. Instruct students on safe use of power supplies. Construct the circuit with
the power off. Do not touch the circuit while the power is on. Use only the recommended voltage. Do not allow power supplies/electrical equipment to come
into contact with liquids. Collect the electrodes for recycling; they can be cleaned with steel wool or fine sandpaper. Protect yourself from inhaling fine metal
dust.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Copper metal / copper wire

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

HNO3
solution
> 0.8 M conc < 4 M
> = 5 % conc < 20%

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Electroplating

Dangerous
good

Prac 3

Reactant substance

Unit 2.3

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 3

Electroplating

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeinorganic waste/metal waste, solid metal.
Collect the electrodes for recycling; they can be cleaned with steel wool or fine sandpaper. Wear PPE. Zinc sulfate solution can be reused or discarded.
Reduce your waste. Place the waste in a metal waste container. Precipitate the metal ion by the addition of sodium carbonate. Allow the precipitate to settle.
The supernatant can be flushed to the sewer with plenty of water. Dispose of the precipitate via a chemical waste company.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 2.3

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Common indicators

8
Corrosive

Hydrochloric acid

R34Causes burns
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

R35Causes severe burns

Risk phrases

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

6.812 M
liquid
HCl
24% to < 43%

Corrosive

Corrosive

8
Corrosive

Sodium hydroxide

NaOH
pellets

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Equipment: 0.1 M solutions of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid, distilled water, 3 test tubes, test-tube rack, 3 100 mL beakers, liquid red and blue
litmus, universal indicator, methyl orange, methyl red, bromothymol blue, phenolphthalein, lab coat, safety glasses

Aim: Students will investigate the uses of various indicators in acidic and basic solutions.
Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Class sets: 0.1 M solutions of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid, liquid red and blue litmus, universal
indicator, methyl orange, methyl red, bromothymol blue, phenolphthalein

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

Irritant

Toxic,
irritant
Harmful

NA

6.1
Toxic

NA

Litmus

Methyl orange

Methyl red

3
Flammable
liquid

NA

Risk phrases

R22Harmful if swallowed

R25Toxic if swallowed
R36/38Irritating to eyes
and skin

R36/37/38Irritating to eyes,
respiratory system and skin

Risk phrases

<0.5% NaOH is not classified as hazardous by NOHSC. However,


protective clothing and glasses must be worn. Wash affected area
immediately if contact occurs.

<10% HCl is not classified as hazardous by NOHSC. However,


protective clothing and glasses must be worn. Wash affected area
immediately if contact occurs.

Safety phrases

S46If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this


container or label.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S36Wear suitable protective clothing.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

S36/S37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and


eye/face protection.

MSDS
issue

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

solution

Universal indicator

0.1 M

Sodium hydroxide

NA

NA

NA

Hydrochloric acid

0.1 M

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

solid

solid

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Common indicators

Dangerous
good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

6.1
Toxic

3
Flammable
liquid

Methyl orange

Phenolphthalein

Highly
flammable
R11Highly flammable

R25Toxic if swallowed
R36/38Irritating to eyes
and skin

Risk phrases

S16Keep away from sources of ignition. No smoking.

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S46If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this
container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Litmus solution

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Protect yourself from inhalation of toxic solids (minimise dust
when handling the chemicals, use a fume cupboard, mask, etc.). Minimise the quantity and volume provided in the class sets. Prepare solutions of acid in a
fume cupboard. Never add water to concentrated acid; add the acid to the water or purchase dilute acid to minimise the use and storage and handling of
concentrated acid. Minimise the quantity and volume of acid provided in the class sets. Indicators stain; gloves can be provided. Do not use flammable liquids
near ignition sources.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Bromothymol blue solid

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

indicator

solution

3
Flammable
liquid

Methyl red

solution

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Common indicators

Dangerous
good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes
Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases.

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Common indicators

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeacid/base waste for neutralisation.
Collect all liquid waste. Wear PPE. Check the pH and adjust as necessary to between a pH of 6 and 9. Discard the liquid waste to the sewer with plenty of
water.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Gloves

Prac 1

Protective measures

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 5

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Acids and metals

Irritant,
highly
flammable

Very
corrosive

Corrosive

4.1
Flammable
solid

8
Corrosive
3
Flammable
liquid

8
Corrosive

Magnesium ribbon

Acetic acid glacial

Hydrochloric acid

R34Causes burns
R37Irritating to respiratory

R10Flammable
R35Causes severe burns

R11Highly flammable
R15Contact with water
liberates extremely flammable
gases
R17Spontaneously flammable
in air
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

Risk phrases

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of

S2Keep out of reach of children.


S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.
S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S43In case of fire, use foam or carbon dioxide.
S7/8Keep container tightly closed and dry.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

conc

CH3COOH
> 90%

Mg

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will observe the reaction of an acid with a metal.


Chemicals required: Class sets in labelled containers: aluminium, magnesium, zinc, iron and tin, 1.0 M solutions of hydrochloric, sulfuric and acetic acids
Equipment: 5 test tubes with stoppers, test-tube rack, matches, 100 mL beaker; small pieces of aluminium, magnesium, zinc, iron and tin; 1.0 M solutions of
hydrochloric, sulfuric and acetic acids, lab coat, safety glasses

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

Irritant

8
Corrosive

Sulfuric acid

8
Corrosive

Hydrochloric acid

Risk phrases

R36/38Irritating to eyes and


skin

R35Causes severe burns

system

Risk phrases

Not classified as hazardous. However, students must wear


protective clothing and glasses and adhere to standard laboratory
safety procedures. Wash affected area immediately if contact
occurs.

Safety phrases

S2Keep out of reach of children.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

S2Keep out of reach of children.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S30Never add water to this product.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

water and seek medical advice.


S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

MSDS
issue

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

1.0 M
Solution

Hazard
category

Dangerous
Good

Reactant Substance

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

1.0 M
solution

conc
H2SO4
liquid

Very
corrosive

8
Corrosive

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Acids and metals

Sulfuric acid

HCl
liquid

Dangerous
good

Prac 5

Reactant substance

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

8
Corrosive

Acetic acid

Risk phrases

Zinc solid

Iron solid

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases.

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Prepare solutions of acid in a fume cupboard, Never add water
to concentrated acid; add the acid to the water or purchase dilute acid to minimise the use and storage and handling of concentrated acid. Minimise the
quantity and volume of acid provided in the class sets. 1.0 M solutions of hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and acetic acid are not classified as hazardous by
NOHSC. However, protective clothing and glasses must be worn. Wash affected area immediately if contact occurs. Students produce, and test for, hydrogen.
The quantity of gas produced is not hazardous in a well-ventilated area. Refer teacher to Risk Assessment: Heating.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Aluminium solid

Tin solid

Not classified as hazardous. However, students must wear


protective clothing and glasses and adhere to standard laboratory
safety procedures. Wash affected area immediately if contact
occurs.

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

1.0 M
solution

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Acids and metals

Dangerous
Good

Prac 5

Reactant Substance

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 5

Acids and metals

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeacid waste for neutralisation and metal pieces.
Allow the reactions to be completed. Wear PPE and remove solid metal pieces. A sieve is helpful. Check the pH and adjust as necessary to a pH of between
6 and 9. Discard the liquid waste to the sewer with plenty of water. Magnesium is not suitable for disposal via the school waste system. Discard via a chemical
waste company.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 6

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Acids and metal carbonates

8
Corrosive

Oxidising,
very
corrosive

Irritant

R8Contact with combustible


material may cause fire

R36Irritating to eyes

R38Irritating to skin
R41Risk of serious damage
to eyes

Risk phrases

S2Keep out of reach of children.


S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.
S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical

S22Do not breathe dust.


S25Avoid contact with eyes.
S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

HNO3
liquid

Nitric acid conc

anhyd
Na2CO3
solid

Sodium carbonate

NA

Irritant

NA

Calcium hydroxide

(limewater)
Ca(OH)2
solid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will observe the reaction of an acid with metal carbonates.
Chemicals required: In labelled containers. Class sets: limewater; solid samples of sodium hydrogen carbonate, lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate and
ammonium carbonate; 1.0 M solutions of nitric and hydrochloric acids
Equipment: 4 test tubes, test-tube rack, stopper, 100 mL beaker, matches, limewater; solid samples of sodium hydrogen carbonate, lithium carbonate,
sodium carbonate and ammonium carbonate; spatula, 1.0 M solutions of nitric and hydrochloric acids, lab coat, safety glasses

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

Corrosive
R34Causes burns
R37Irritating to respiratory
system

R34Causes burns

Risk phrases

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice immediately.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

advice immediately.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

HCl
conc

Hydrochloric acid

8
Corrosive

Corrosive

8
Corrosive

Nitric acid

HNO3
solution
> 0.8 M conc < 4 M
> = 5% conc < 20%

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Acids and metal carbonates

Dangerous
good

Prac 6

Reactant substance

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 6

8 corrosive

Hydrochloric acid

Risk phrases

Lithium carbonate solid

Sodium carbonate solid

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases.

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Prepare solutions of acid in a fume cupboard. Never add water
to concentrated acid; add the acid to the water or purchase dilute acid to minimise the use and storage and handling of concentrated acid. Minimise the
quantity and volume of acid provided in the class sets. Students produce, and test for, carbon dioxide (extinguish a match). The quantity of gas produced is
not hazardous in a well-ventilated area. Refer teacher to Risk Assessment: Heating.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Sodium hydrogen carbonate


Sodium bicarbonate solid

MSDS
issue

Ammonium carbonate solid

<10% HCl is not classified as hazardous by NOHSC. However,


students must wear protective clothing and glasses and adhere to
standard laboratory safety procedures. Wash affected area
immediately if contact occurs.

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

1M
solution

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Acids and metal carbonates

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 6

Acids and metal carbonates

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeacid waste for neutralisation and metal pieces.
Allow the reactions to be completed. Wear PPE. Check the pH and adjust as necessary to a pH of between 6 and 9. Discard the liquid waste to the sewer with
plenty of water. Remaining carbonate sediments can be added to your inorganic/metal waste container. Discard via a chemical waste company.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 2.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Convection currents

Harmful,
oxidising,
dangerous
for the
environment

5.1
Oxidising
agent

Potassium
permanganate

R8Contact with combustible


material may cause fire
R22Harmful if swallowed
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause long-term
adverse effects in the aquatic
environment.

Risk phrases

S17 Keep away from combustible material.


S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Potassium permanganate stains. Provide minimal quantities in class sets. Handle individual crystals with forceps. (Potassium permanganate can be
decolourised by a solution of oxalic acid DG 6: toxic). Refer to MSDS. It should only be used by staff after risks have been assessed.) Refer teacher to Risk
Assessment: Heating.

Other hazards and safety considerations

KMnO4
solid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will investigate the movement of convection currents.


Chemicals required:: Class sets in labelled containers: potassium permanganate
Equipment: Large (500 mL or 1000 mL) beaker, potassium permanganate, tweezers, hot plate or Bunsen burner, bench mat, tripod, gauze mat, plastic bag,
ice

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 5.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Convection currents

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Prac waste for disposal: waste typeinorganic waste.
Reduce the potassium permanganate with a weak reducing agent such as sodium thiosulfate and neutralise with dilute hydrochloric acid. The minimal
quantities used could be flushed to the sewer with plenty of water or disposed via a chemical waste company.

Disposal of wastes

Unit 5.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Testing for H20

Toxic,
dangerous
for the
environment

Harmful,
irritant,
dangerous
for the
environment

9
Misc

9
Misc

Cobalt(II) chloride

Copper(II) sulfate

R22Harmful if swallowed
R36/38Irritating to eyes
and skin
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause
long-term adverse effects
in the aquatic environment

R22Harmful if swallowed
R49(2)May cause cancer by
inhalation
R42/43May cause
sensitisation by inhalation and
skin contact
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic
organisms; may cause
long-term adverse effects
in the aquatic environment

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice
immediately.
S53Avoid exposureobtain special instructions before use.
S60This material and its container must be disposed of as
hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

anhyd
CuSO4 anhyd
solid

(cobaltous chloride)
CoCl2.6H2O
solid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will test for the presence of water in different liquids.
Chemicals required: Class sets in labelled containers: cobalt chloride paper, anhydrous copper(II) sulfate, tap water, methylated spirits, salt water, sucrose
solution, acetic acid (2 M), unknown solution X (choose solutions from those listed)
Equipment: Cobalt chloride paper, anhydrous copper(II) sulphate, watch-glass, eye-dropper, spatula, paper towels, various liquids (e.g. tap water, methylated
spirits, salt water, sucrose solution, strong or 2 M acetic acid), unknown X solution (choose solutions from those listed)

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 6.2

Science Dimensions 3

Very
corrosive

Harmful

8
Corrosive
3
Flammable
liquid

8
Corrosive

Acetic acid

Acetic acid glacial

NA

Salt water

R11Highly flammable

Risk phrases

R36/38Irritating to eyes
and skin

R10Flammable
R35Causes severe burns

Risk phrases

S16Keep away from sources of ignition.

Safety phrases

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

S2Keep out of reach of children.


S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.
S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.

MSDS
issue

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

NA

NA

3
Flammable
liquid

Methylated spirits

100%
liquid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

2M
>10 conc < 25%
CH3COOH
solution

glacial
> 90%
CH3COOH
solution

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Testing for H20

Dangerous
good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 6.2

Science Dimensions 3

NA

NA

Sucrose solution

Risk phrases

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Forceps. Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases.

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal. Wear PPE. Collect the cobalt chloride paper for disposal by a chemical waste
company. Copper sulfate is not suitable for disposal via the sewer, collect the waste for disposal by a chemical waste disposal company.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE. Prepare solutions according to recipes and standard laboratory safety procedures. Minimise the quantity and volume provided in the class sets.
Prepare acid solutions in a fume cupboard. Never add water to concentrated acid; add the acid to the water or purchase dilute acid to minimise the use and
storage and handling of concentrated acid. Minimise the quantity and volume of acid provided in the class sets. Decant flammable liquids into class sets in the
fume cupboard. Use methylated spirits and the acetic acid in a fume cupboard or a well-ventilated area away from ignition sources. Minimise fumes; do not
leave stoppers off the bottles. Purchase cobalt chloride paper and eliminate the hazards involved in preparing it. (Soak filter paper cut into strips in a 25%
aqueous cobalt chloride solution; carefully dry in an incubator.) Handle cobalt chloride paper with forceps and keep it on a watch-glass or a container to
minimise leaving residues on benches, etc.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Hazard
category

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Testing for H20

Dangerous
good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 6.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Testing for H20

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

Unit 6.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 3

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Testing for CO2

Irritant

NA

Calcium hydroxide

R38Irritating to skin
R41Risk of serious damage to
eyes

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Fume cupboard

Other

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE and apply standard laboratory safety procedures. Prepare limewater (see recipe). Provide the limewater in the flasks to minimise student contact
with the limewater. The stopper eliminates the possibility of limewater spray contacting the eyes. The stopper will require a small second hole with no tubing to
allow air to escape. Use a straw as a disposable mouth piece. Use fresh straws for each student using the apparatus. Discard straws after use. Instruct
students to breathe slowly. Only breathe out. Do not aspirate limewater.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Ca(OH)2
solid
limewater
saturated solution

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: To investigate the gases that are exhaled.


Chemicals: Class sets in labelled containers: limewater
Equipment: conical flask, rubber stopper with a glass tube inserted, 100 mL measuring cylinder, limewater

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 6.2

Science Dimensions 3

Glasses

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Testing for CO2

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect demo waste for disposal: waste typeinorganic waste.
Neutralise limewater with acid, adjusting the pH until it is between 6 and 9, then flush to the sewer with plenty of water. Otherwise collect for disposal by a
chemical waste company.

Gloves

Prac 3

Disposal of wastes

Lab coat

Unit 6.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

A product of respiration

8
Corrosive

8
Corrosive

Sodium hydroxide

Corrosive

R34Causes burns

R35Causes severe burns

R38Irritating to skin
R41Risk of serious damage to
eyes

Risk phrases

S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice
immediately.
S62If swallowed do not induce vomiting; seek medical advice
immediately show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

NaOH
0.331 M

NaOH
pellets

Sodium hydroxide

Corrosive

Irritant

NA

Calcium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2
solid
limewatersaturated
solution

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will investigate the products of respiration.


Chemicals: Class sets in labelled containers: sodium hydroxide solution (dilute), limewater
Equipment: Flasks and glassware as shown in Figure 7.1.12, filter pump, sodium hydroxide solution, limewater, several insects or earthworms

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 7.1

Science Dimensions 3

Hazard
category
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice
immediately.
S62If swallowed do not induce vomiting, seek medical advice
immediately and show this container or label.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Refer to RA: Preparing dilute acids and bases.

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect demo waste for disposal: waste typeinorganic waste.
Neutralise limewater and sodium hydroxide with acid (hydrochloric or citric acid), adjusting the pH until it is between 6 and 9, and then flush to the sewer with
plenty of water. Otherwise collect for disposal by a chemical waste company.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE and apply standard laboratory safety procedures when preparing limewater and sodium hydroxide (see recipe). Set up glassware as demonstrated
in Figure 7.1.12 in a position where minimal relocation will be required; on a trolley may be of benefit. Ensure the pump gently draws air through the system.

Risk phrases

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

A product of respiration

Other hazards and safety considerations

Dangerous
good

Prac 1

Reactant substance

Unit 7.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

A product of respiration

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Unit 7.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 3

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Anaerobic respiration

irritant

NA

Calcium hydroxide

NA

NA

Sodium
hypochlorite

Risk phrases

R38Irritating to skin
R4 Risk of serious damage to
eyes

Risk phrases

S23Do not breathe fumes/vapour/spray.


S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear protective clothing, gloves and eye/face
protection.

Safety phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

4%
(household bleach)

Hazard
category

Dangerous
Good

Reactant Substance

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria

Ca(OH)2
solid
limewater
saturated solution

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will investigate anaerobic respiration.


Chemicals required: Class sets in labelled containers: 10% glucose solution, 10% yeast suspension (prepared by adding dried yeast to cooled, boiled water),
limewater, paraffin oil
Equipment: 2 wide-mouth thermos flasks, 2 thermometers, cotton wool, glassware as shown in Fig 7.1.15, 10% glucose solution, 10% yeast suspension
(prepared by adding dried yeast to cooled, boiled water), limewater, paraffin oil

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 7.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 3

Anaerobic respiration

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Yeast suspension

Paraffin oil

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal.


Neutralise limewater with acid (hydrochloric or citric acid), adjusting the pH until it is between 6 and 9, and then flush to the sewer with plenty of water.
Otherwise collect for disposal by a chemical waste company. Sterilise cultures by adding bleach to the cultures for a few hours prior to discarding via the
sewer with plenty of water.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE and apply standard laboratory safety procedures when preparing limewater and sodium hydroxide (see recipe). Yeasts used for food production
present a minimal potential pathogen risk. However cultures can become infected with bacteria. Prepare fresh yeast/sugar cultures for use in class. Do not
allow students to handle the flasks. Ensure your set-up does not expose students to live cultures of possible pathogens. Treat all cultures as if they contain
pathogens. Refer to RA: Agar preparation and waste decontamination. Use spirit thermometers rather than mercury thermometers.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Glucose solution

NOT hazardous as classified by NOHSC criteria (with NO allocated Dangerous Goods class)

Unit 7.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 3

Anaerobic respiration

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

Unit 7.1

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Inhaled and exhaled air

Irritant

NA

Calcium hydroxide

R38Irritating to skin
R41Risk of serious damage to
eyes

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical advice.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Wear PPE and apply standard laboratory safety procedures. Prepare limewater (see recipe). Set up the glassware as detailed in Figure 7.2.17. Placing it on a
tray will allow it to be easily moved. Use disposable straws as mouthpieces. Supply fresh straws for each student using the apparatus. Discard straws after
use. Do not allow students to use the apparatus unless it is thoroughly checked prior to use. Incorrect set-ups may result in aspirating the limewater. Use a
minimum of liquid in the flasks and instruct students to breathe slowly; this will minimise risk of aspirating the limewater and also hyperventilating. This prac
can be performed very satisfactorily as a demonstration.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Ca(OH)2
solid
limewatersaturated
solution

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will investigate the gases that are inhaled and exhaled.
Chemicals required: Class sets in labelled containers: limewater
Equipment: Flasks and glassware as shown in Figure 7.2.17 ( 2 flasks, 2 stoppers with 2 holes, 4 pieces of straight glass tubbing, 3 pieces of flexible tubing,
a Y connector, disposable straws, limewater

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 7.2

Science Dimensions 3

Yes

Yes

Yes

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Inhaled and exhaled air

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

No waste generated by technical activity. Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typeinorganic waste.
Neutralise limewater with acid, adjusting the pH until it is between 6 and 9, then flush to the sewer with plenty of water. Otherwise collect for disposal by a
chemical waste company.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Gloves

Prac 1

Protective measures

Unit 7.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Green leaves and photosynthesis

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Harmful,
corrosive,
dangerous
for the
environment

8
Corrosive

Iodine

R34Causes burns
R50Very toxic to aquatic
organisms
R20/21Harmful by inhalation
and in contact with skin

Risk phrases

3
Flammable

Methylated spirits
100%

R11Highly flammable

R11Highly flammable

Risk phrases

S16Keep away from sources of ignition.

S7Keep container tightly closed.


S16Keep away from sources of ignition.

Safety phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty
of water and seek medical advice.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/ MSDS.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

NA

NA

3
Flammable
liquid

Ethanol 100%

liquid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

NOT a hazardous substance as classified by NOHSC criteria

I2
crystals

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS substance as classified by NOHSC criteria

Description of procedure/requirements
Aim: Students will examine where the products of photosynthesis are stored in leaves.
Chemicals required: Class sets in labelled containers: ethanol / methylated spirits, iodine solution
Equipment: Potted plant with variegated leaves, potted plant of the same species with completely green leaves (suitable plant types include Coleus and
Geranium), 3 beakers of boiling water (these should ONLY be heated using an electric hot plate), 2 large test tubes containing ethanol or methylated spirits,
iodine solution, forceps, scissors, 2 watch-glasses or 2 glass Petri dishes, safety goggles

Unit 7.3

Science Dimensions 3

9
Misc

Iodine

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Dangerous
for the
environment

Hazard
category
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

Collect for waste for disposal: waste typeorganic waste.


Provide a container for flammable liquid (ethanol) collection (preferably within an operating fume hood). A sieve may be useful for separating plant material
from the waste. Dispose of flammable liquids via a waste disposal company. Rinse plant material with water or allow residual ethanol to evaporate off in an
operating fume hood then discard via the school waste system.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE and apply standard laboratory safety procedures. Decant ethanol / methylated spirits in a fume hood. Do not store or use ethanol near any flame or
ignition source. Provide hot plates rather than Bunsen burners. Do not provide plants that are common allergens.

R51Toxic to aquatic organisms

Risk phrases

Green leaves and photosynthesis

Other hazards and safety considerations

0.05 M
solution

liquid

Dangerous
good
liquid

Prac 2

Reactant substance

Unit 7.3

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Green leaves and photosynthesis

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Unit 7.3

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Stomata and chloroplasts

Harmful,
corrosive,
dangerous
for the
environment

Harmful

8
Corrosive

NA

Iodine

R22Harmful if swallowed

R34Causes burns
R50Very toxic to aquatic
organisms
R20/21Harmful by inhalation
and in contact with skin

Risk phrases

S20When using, do not eat or drink.


S22Do not breathe dust.
S38If insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory
equipment.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

S22Do not breathe dust.


S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty
of water and seek medical advice.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/ MSDS.
S24/25 Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
eye/face protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

solid

Methylene blue

I2
crystals

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS substance as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will examine stomata and chloroplasts in leaves.


Equipment: Compound microscope, microscope slides and cover slips, dropper, tweezers, razor blade, stain such as methylene blue or iodine, leaves from
various plants such as rhubarb, agapanthus and elodea (a water plant)
Method: Part AStomata: 1 Set up the microscope. 2 Peel the lower epidermis (outer layer) from the bottom of a leaf. Using tweezers may help. 3 Place the
epidermis flat on the microscope slide. 4 Add a drop of water and carefully lower the cover slip on top. Be careful not to trap any air bubbles under the slip. 5
Add a drop of stain at one edge of the cover slip and hold a piece of paper towel at the opposite edge to draw the stain under the cover slip and across the
leaf sample. 6 View the slide under the microscope; identify and draw the stomata. 7 Try looking at the stomata of other plant leaves in the same way. 8
Choose another leaf and try to find stomata on the upper epidermis.
Part BChloroplasts: 1 Take a leaf of elodea. 2 Use a razor blade to cut a very thin slice off the leaf. Your teacher may do this for you. 3 Place the leaf slice
on a microscope slide and add a drop of water and a cover slip. 4 View the slide under the microscope. Identify and draw the cells containing green
chloroplasts.

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 7.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Stomata and chloroplasts

Dangerous
for the
environment

9
Misc

Iodine

R51Toxic to aquatic organisms

Risk phrases
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special
instructions/MSDS.

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

Waste disposal: The volume of iodine is very small. The stained plant material can be discarded via the school waste system.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE and apply standard laboratory safety procedures when preparing solutions (refer to recipe list). Iodine solution deteriorates in lightstore in a dark
bottle. Decant minimum volumes of iodine solution into class sets. Provide 4% sodium thiosulfate to decolourise iodine spills. Gloves can be provided to
students. Microscope slides should be discarded via a sharps or glass bin. To minimise cuts, instruct students and monitor the safe use of razors (provide
one-sided safety razors or scalpels). Consider having a staff member perform the slicing of the plants.

Other hazards and safety considerations

0.05 M
solution

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

Safety phrases

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

NOT a hazardous substance as classified by NOHSC criteria

Unit 7.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Stomata and chloroplasts

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Unit 7.4

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 2

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Chromatography catches a criminal

3
Flammable
liquid

Methylated spirits

R11Highly flammable

R11Highly flammable

Risk phrases

S16Keep away from sources of ignition.

S7Keep container tightly closed.


S16Keep away from sources of ignition.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Yes

Yes

Yes

Gloves

Yes

Fume cupboard

Other

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE and apply standard laboratory safety procedures. Ethanol can be substituted with methylated spirits. Decant ethanol/methylated spirits in a fume
hood. Do not store or use ethanol methylated spirits near any flame or ignition source. Ethanol and methylated spirits are highly flammable. After use, decant
class sets into a stock bottle and store it in a cabinet suitable for flammable liquids.

Other hazards and safety considerations

100%
liquid

NA

NA

3
Flammable
liquid

Ethanol

100%
liquid

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

NOT a hazardous substance as classified by NOHSC criteria

Aim: Students will determine which pen wrote a ransom note.


Chemicals required: Class sets in labelled container: ethanol
Equipment: A ransom note written with an unknown felt pen, several different black felt pens including the one that wrote the note, the name of each suspect
attached, gas jars, scissors, paper

Description of procedure/requirements

Unit 10.2

Science Dimensions 3

Glasses

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard
Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Chromatography catches a criminal

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Date: __________________

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims all responsibility for actions taken or not taken in relation to this Risk Assessment Sheet.

To be a valid assessment, the MSDS expiry dates should be added and this risk assessment should be signed and dated.
This assessment is valid for 5 years from the earliest MSDS expiry date.

Assessor/s: _____________________________

Collect prac waste for disposal: waste typesolid waste and organic waste.
Provide a container for flammable liquid (ethanol) collection (preferably within an operating fume hood). Recycle the ethanol or discard it via a chemical waste
disposal company. Allow ethanol to evaporate from the paper in a fume hood. Discard the paper via the school waste system.

Gloves

Prac 2

Disposal of wastes

Lab coat

Unit 10.2

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Comparing fingerprints

Risk assessmentFor LAB TECH activity

Irritant

NA

Graphite

R36/37/38Irritating to eyes,
respiratory system and skin

Risk phrases

S22Do not breathe dust.


S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face
protection.

Safety phrases

MSDS
issue

Yes

Gloves

Other

Tie long hair back.

Fume cupboard

Wipe bench/wash hands on completion of prac.

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

No waste generated by technical activity. No prac waste generated.

Disposal of wastes

Glasses

Lab coat

Protective measures

Wear PPE and apply standard laboratory safety procedures. Use spatulas to dispense the graphite. Minimise the quantity and volume provided in the class
sets. Students use such small quantities that the risks are minimal. Trays may assist in containing excess graphite.

Other hazards and safety considerations

Hazard
category

Dangerous
good

Reactant substance

HAZARDOUS as classified by NOHSC criteria

Description of procedure/requirements
Aim: Students will create fingerprints and then identify fingerprint types.
Chemicals required: Class sets in labelled containers: graphite
Equipment: Clean microscope slides, small soft bristle brushes or puff-brushes, graphite powder, sticky tape, paper

Unit 10.3

Science Dimensions 3

Prac 1

Earliest MSDS expiry date: __________________

Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2006. This page from the Science Dimensions 3 Teachers Edition CD may be photocopied for classroom use.

Disclaimer: This Risk Assessment Sheet is provided to offer guidance only. It must not be construed to waive or modify any legal obligation of the school to
ensure the safety of students when conducting the experiment or activity. It is the responsibility of the school to have the content of this sheet checked against
the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturer of chemicals used in the schools laboratories. This sheet must not be used in the
schools laboratories until it has been checked against the schools MSDS, signed and dated. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the Publisher
disclaims