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Research Title:
Evaluation and Comparison of the Antilithiatic Properties of Sambong, Turmeric and Coconut In
Vitro Using Artificial Urine.

II. Proposal Abstract

Three plants (i.e., Sambong, turmeric and coconut) will be evaluated for their antilithiatic
properties in vitro using artificial urine. Formation of calcium oxalate, believed to be the most
common cause of renal calculi, will be induced in vitro in artificial urine containing the three
different plant extracts and one negative control. Rate of calcium oxalate formation will be
measured and calculated spectrophotometrically. The rates will be statistically compared and
analyzed among the four groups to determine whether the said plant extract were able to inhibit
calcium oxalate formation in vitro.

III. Introduction
Urolithiasis is a condition characterized by renal calculi (stone) formation affecting people
across the globe. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals make up more than 75% renal calculi
extracted from human patients (Alok et al., 2013). Treatment involves

Several traditional herbal remedies from other countries have been studied and reviewed.
However, literature/studies involving local plants are relatively scarce, hence the purpose of this
The artificial urine (AU) was prepared according to the method Burns and Finlayson7
with slight modification and the following composition: sodium chloride 105.5 mM,
sodium phosphate 32.3 mM, sodium citrate 3.21 mM, magnesium sulfate 3.85 mM,
sodium sulfate 16.95 mM, potassium chloride 63.7 mM, calcium chloride 4.5 mM,
sodium oxalate 0.32 mM, ammonium hydroxide 17.9 mM, and ammonium chloride
0.0028 mM. The AU was prepared fresh each time and pH adjusted to 6.0.
Study without inhibitor
A volume of 1.0 ml of AU was transferred into the cell and 0.5 ml of distilled water
added to it and blank reading was taken. The 0.5 ml of 0.01M sodium oxalate was
added, to the previous volume, and the measurement is immediately started for a
period of ten minutes.