MATHEMATICS REVIEW
Properties of Numbers
Systems of Numbers
All of the numbers that are used in the mathematics sections of the
SSAT^SEE are real numbers.In order to understand the real number
system, it is easiest to begin by looking at some familiar systems of
numbers that lie within the real number system.
The numbers that are used for counting
1,2,3,4,5,....
natural numbers, the counting numbers, or, most
commonly, the positiue integers. The positive integers, together with
are called the
the number O, afe called the set of tttbole numbers. Then, the
positive integers, together with O and the negatiue integers
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .
make up the set of integers.
A real number is said to be a rational number if it can be
written as the fatio of two integers, where the denominator is not O.
Thus, for example, numbers such as
25
5
16.
3'6'_ .0. 25. 12 8,
ffie rational numbers. Cleady, then, all integers and fractions are
rational numbers. Percents and decimal numbers afe tatronal as well,
since they can also be written as the ratio of fwo integers. For
example,
25%o
.8
,, at:Ld 9.125: 9:.
4'
Any real number that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two
integers is called an irrational number. The most common irrational
numbers that you will see on youf test afe squafe foots, such as
\/ I ot a/ S, and the number n, which represents the ratio of the
circumference of a circle to its diametef.
Finally, the set of rational numbers, together with the set of
irrational numbers, is called the set of real numbers
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Exomple
The number 257 is an integer. It is also rational since it can be
_257
written
, and is, of course, real.
"r 1
The number
is ration al and real, andthe numbe,
1ff
i"
irrational and real.
Rounding of Numbers
From time to time, a test question will ask you to round an answef to
a specific decimal place. The des for the rounding of numbers are
very simple. In the case of whole numbers, begin by locating the
digit to which the number is being rounded. Then, if the digit just ro
the right is 0, 1, 2, J, or 4,leave the located digit alone. Otherwise,
increase the located digit by 1. In either case, replace all digits to the
right of the one located with O's.
\illhen rounding decimal numbers, the rules are similar. Again,
begin by locating the digit to which rhe number is being rounded. As
before, if the digit just to the right is O, 1, 2, 3, or 4, leave the located
digit alone. Otherwise, increase the located digit by 1. Finally, drop
all the digits to the right of the one located.
Exomple
Round the following numbers as indicated.
6,342 to the nearest 10
Begin by locating the ten's digit, which is a 4. The number to
the right of the 4 is a 2. Thus, drop tl:re 2 and replace it with a
0, yielding 6.340.
392.451to the nearest tenth
The tenth's digir is 4. Ttle digit just to the right of it is 6, so
increase the tenth's digit by 1, making it a 5. Drop the two digits
to the right of this. The answer is 392.5.
.0472 to the nearest thousandth
Following the rules above, we obtain .047.
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Properfies of Numbers Problems
L.
Classify each of the following numbers as whole, integer,
rational, irrational, and rcal.
a. 7
1
b.=
c. 5.)
2.
d.
e.
\TG
Round each of the numbers bel0w to the indicated number of
decimal places.
a.
b.
c.
d.
to the nearest hundred
7,574,584 to the nearest hundred thousand
847.235 to the nearest hundredth
9.OO872 to the nearest thousandth
,l
l
rf
'lrl
57,38O
Solufions
ri
rl
1. a. 7 is real, rational, and an integer
1
b. ;/ is real and rational
c S?;rj .unbe written u"! unais thus teal and rutional
d. 0 is real, rational, an integer, and a whole number
e. f 8 is real and irrational
2. a. Begin by locating the hundred's digit, which is l. The digit
to the right of it is 8, so increase the hundred's digit by 1,
and replace all digits to the right with 0's. The answer is
57,4oo.
The hundred thousandth's digit is 5. The digit to the right of
it is 7, so increase the 5 by 1, and replace all digits to the
right with o's. The answer is 1,600,000.
C.
The hundredth's digit is 3. The digit just to the right of it is
5, so increase the hundredth's digit by 1, making it a 4. Dtop
the digit to the right of this. The answer is 847.24.
d. The thousandth's digit is 8. The digit just to the right of it is
7, so increase the thousandth's digit by 1, making it a 9.
Drop the digits to the right of this. The answer is 9.009.
b.
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SUBJECT REVIEWS
Set Theory and Venn Diagrams
Definitions
A sel is any collection of objects. The objects in a particular set are
called t]"].e members or the elements of the set. In mathematics, sets
afe
usually represented by capital letters, and their members are represented by lower case letters. Braces, { and }, are usually used to enclose
the members of a set. Thus, the set,4, which has members A, b, c, d, afid,
e and no other members, can be written as A :
la, b, c, d, el . Note that
the order in which the elements of a set are listed is not important; thus
the set {1, 2, 3} and the set {2, 3, 1} represent identical sets.
The symbol used to indicate that an element belongs to apafiicular
set is c , and the symbol that indicates an element does not belong
to a set
ise. Thus, tf B : {2,4,6,g},we cansay6e BandT e B.Ifisasetis
deflned so that it does not contain any elements, it is called th e enxpty set,
or the null set, and can be written as {}, or A
There are several different notational techniques that can be
used to repfesent a set. The simplest one is called numeration, in
which all of the elements of the set are listed within braces. For
example, if c is the set of all odd integers between 10 and 2o, we
.
can use numeration to repfesent the set as C: ll1, 13, 15, 17,l9l.
The other is called setbuilder notation. In this notation, a short
vertical bar is used to stand for the phrase ,,such that." For example,
the set of all integers less than 15 can be written as
{X I X
< 15, 1 is an integer}
and is read, "The set of all 1 such that
x is less than 15, and 1 is an
integer."
A set that contains a finite number of elements is called afinite
set. A set that is neither finite nor empty is called an infinite set.
'when using
the method of numeration to describe a set, we can use
three dots to indicate "and so on." Thus, the infinite set containing all
positive integers can be written as 11,2, 3, 4, .. .). The finite set
containing all of the even integers between 2 and 200 can be
numerated as 12, 4,6, . . ., 200).
Exomple I
Use numeration
to express the set of whole numbers.
lo, 1,2, 3, 4, 5, . . .l
Exomple 2
use setbuilder notation to express the set of integers that arc
greater than or equal to 200.
{X I X > 200, 1 is an integer}
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Subsets ond the Universql Set
Suppose that J is the set containing everyone who lives in New
Jersey, and K is the set of all people living in New Jersey who are
older that 65. Then, cleady, all members of K are also members off
and we say "K is a subset of/." This relationship is written symbolically as K cJ. In general, A is a subset of B rf every element of ,4 is
also an element of B. For example, the set ,4 : {2, 4, 6} is a subset of
'
the set B : lO, 2, 4,6, 8, 1O). By convention, we agree that the null
set is a subset of every other set. Thus, we can write A c A, where ,4
is any set. Also note that rt A and B contain exactly the same elements, thenA= BandB=A. In suchacase, wewrite A: B.If A
c B but A + B, we call A aproper subset of B. This is written A c B.
Thus, if ,4 is a subset of B, andB contains at least one element that is
not in A, tll;en A is a pfoper subset of B and we write A c BIn a particular discussion, the uniuersal set represents the
largest possible set, that is, it is the set that contains all of the
possible elements under consideration. All other sets in the discussion
must therefore be subsets of the universal set, which is usually
represented by the letter LI.If Nis a subset of { thenA/', which is
called the complement of r\/, is the set of all elements from the
universal set that are not in iy'. For example, f , in a particular
problem, t/ is the set of all integers and ,A/ is the set of negative
integers, then ly'' is the set of all nonnegative integers.
Exomple I
List all of the subsets of {2, 4,61.
I2\, {4\,
161,
{2, 4}, {2,61 14,6\, 12, 4, 51, O
Exomple 2
If U :
{7
, 8, 9, 10, 11}, and Iy'
{9, 11}, find
l/'
l/'
contains all of the elements of U that are not in
N, : {7, g, lO}
,^y'.
Thus,
Venn Diogroms, Union qnd lntersection
Let U be a universal set, and l/ a subset of I/. Then, the drawing
below, called a Venn diagram, illustrates the relationship between t/,
N, and,A/'.
ON
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SUBJECT REVIEWS
The union of two sets,4 and B, indicated A tt B, is the set of all
elements that ate in either A ot B. The intersection of two sets,
indicated A a B, is the set of all elements that are in both,4 and,B.
Thus, if ,4 : {2, 4,6,8, 1O} and B : {1,2,3, 4}, we have A a B :
11,2,3,4,6,8,10)
{z,4l.rf A oB:
and
A,
thenl
andB
^B:
are said to be disjoint.
The venn diagrams below represent the operations of union and
intersection.
A^B
/x\
(f;*J)
\_jz /
AB
Sef Problems
1'.
use setbuilder notation to describe the set of all integers gfeater
than 12 and less than 49.
2.
3.
4.
Use numeration to describe the set of negative integers
List all of the subsets of the set {a, b, c, d}.
If A
{2, 4, 6}, B
A v B, A tt
5.
C,
Ao
{1, 3, 5}, and c
C,
A a B,
and
A o (B
{2, 3, 41, find
v a.
If U : {2, 4,6,9, 10, 72, 14, 16, lg,20} andw
findV.
{2,6, 12, lgl,
In problems 69, describe the sets listed in terms of D, E, and F and,
intersections, unions, and complements.
6. {XlXe DandxeB
7. {XlXe ForyeE}
8. {XlXe DandxeE}
9. {X I X e D and X is not an elemenr of either E ot fl
10. Draw a Venn
diagram to represent the set (A
aDn
C.
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Solufions
L. lXl 12 < 1 (
2.
48, y is an integer)
{. . . , 4, 3, 2,
rI
3. A, la, {b}, {c}, {d}, {a, b}, {a, c}, {a, d}, {b, c}, {b, d}, {c, d}, {a, b,
c), {a, b, d}, {a, c, d}, {b, c, d}, {a, b, c, d}.
4. Av B: {1, 2,3, 4, 5,61,A\) C :
{2,4},AaB:A,A n(Bu C):
12,3, 4,51,A
{2,41.
5. \Y : 14,8, 10, t4, L6, 2Ol
6. D rt E'
7. FvE
8. D^E
9. Dn(EvD'
10.
AnrHmrnc
whole Numbers
Definitions
we have already seen, the set of positive integers (natural
numbers, counting numbers) can be written as the set
11,2,3, 4, 5, . . .). The set of positive integers, together with the
number O, are called the set of ubole nLtmbers, and can be written
as {0, 1, 2,3, 4, . . .1.
As
Plqce Volue
in a system of tens, called tlre decimal
system. Ten digitsO, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5,7, 8, and 9are used. Each
digit differs not only inface value but also in place value, depending
on where it stands in the number.
\X{hole numbers are expressed
Exomple I
237 means:
(2.100)+(3.10)+(7.1)
The digit 2 has face value 2 but place value of 200.
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SUBJECT REVIEWS
Exomple 2
35,412 can be written
(3'
10,000) +
as:
(5'
1,000) +
(4'
100) + (1 . 10) +
(2. t)
The digit in the last place on the right is said to be in the units
or ones place, the digit to the left of that in the tens place, the
next digit to the left of that in the hundreds place and so on.
rVhen we take a whole number and write it out as in
the two
examples above, it is said to be written in expanded form.
Odd ond Even Numbers
A whole number is euen if it is divisible by 2; it is odd. if it is not
divisible by 2. Zerc is thus an even number.
Exomple
2, 4, 6,8, and 320 arc even numbers; 3, 7, 9,
Zl,
and 45 are odd
numbers.
Prime Numbers
The positive integerp is said to be a prime number (or simply a
prinxe) tt p + 1 and the only positive divisors of p are itself and 1.
The first ten primes are 2,3, 5,7, ll, 13, 17, 19,23, and 29. Nl
other positive integers tr'at are neither 1 nor prime are composite
numbers. Composite numbers can be factored, that is, expressed
as products of their divisors or factors; for example,
56 = 7 . 8 = 7 . 4' 2. In particular, composite numbers can be
expressed as products of thefu prime factors in just one way (except
for order).
To factor a composite number into its prime factofs, proceed as
follows. First try to divide the number by the prime number 2. If this
is successful, continue to divide by 2 until an odd number is obtained. Then attempt to divide the last quotient by the prime number
3 and by 3 again, as many times as possible. Then move on to
dividing by the prime number 5, and other successive primes until a
prime quotient is obtained. Express the original number as a product
of all its prime divisors.
Exomple
Find the prime factors of 2lO.
2 )2tO
3 )105
5) 35
7
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Therefore:
2LO
and
=2.
3' 5'
7 (written in any order)
2lo is an integer multiple of 2, of J, of 5, and of 7.
Consecufive Whole Numbers
Numbers are consecutive if each number is the successof of the
number that precedes it. In a consecutive series of whole numbers,
an odd number is always followed by an even number, and an even
number by an odd. If three consecutive whole numbers are given,
either two of them are odd and one is even of two afe even and one
is odd.
Exomples
7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 are consecutive whole numbers.
8, 10, 12, and 14 arc consecutive even numbers.
21, 23, 25, and 27 arc consecutive odd numbers.
21, 23, and 27 ate not consecutive odd numbers because 25 is
missing.
A useful method of representing numbers geometrically makes it
easier to understand numbers. It is called tlre number line. Draw a
horizontal line, considered to extend without end in both directions.
Select some point on the line and label it with the number O. This
point is called the origin. Choose some convenient distance as a unit
of length. Take the point on the number line that lies one unit to the
right of the origin and label it with the number 1. The point on the
number line that is one unit to the right of 1 is labeled 2, and so on.
In this way, every whole number is associated with one point on the
line, but it is not true that every point on the line represents a whole
number.
The Number Line
Number line
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SUBJECT REVIEWS
Ordering of Whole Numbers
On the number line, the point representing 8 lies to the right of the
point representing 5, and we say 8 > 5 (read "8 is greater than 5,,).
One can also say 5 < 8 ("5 is less than 8"). For any two whole
numbers a and b, there are always three possibilities:
a1b,
a.=b,
of
alb,
If a = b, the points representing the numberc a
and b coincide on
the number line.
Operations with
Whole Numbers
The basic operations on whole numbers are addition (+), subtraction
(), multiplication (. or x), and division (+). These are all binary
operationsthat is, one works with two numbers at a time in order
to get a unique answer. The operations of addition and multiplication
on whole numbers are said to be closed because the answer in each
case is also a whole number. The operations of subtraction and
division on whole numbers are not closed because the unique answer
is not necessarily a member of the set of whole numbers.
Exomples
awholenumber
3+ 4=7
3 = 12 a whole number
2 5 = 3 not a whole number
3
o1
): og
notawholenumber
4.
Addition
If addition is a binary operation, how are three numbetssay, J, 4,
and 8added? One way is to write:
6+4;+8=7+8=15
Another way is to write:
3+G+8)=3+12=15
The parentheses merely group the numbers together. The fact that
the same answer, 15, is obtained either way illustrates the associatiue
property of addition:
(r+s)*t=r+(s+t)
The order in which whole numbers are added is immaterialthat is,
3 + 4 = 4 + 3. This principle is called the commutatiue property of
addition. Most people use this properry without rcalizing it when
they add a column of numbers from the top down and then check
their result by beginning over again from the bottom. (Even though
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there may be a long column of numbers, only two numbers are
added
time.)
^
If ^t0 is
added to any whole number, the whole number is
unchanged . Zero is called the identity element for addition.
Subtrqction
Subtraction is the inverse of addition. The order in which the
numbers are written is important; thefe is no commutative properry
for subtraction.
43+34
Tlre
is read "not equal."
Multiplicorion
Multiplication is a commutative operation:
43.73=73.43
The result or answer in a multiplication problem is called the
product.
If a number is multiplied by 1, the number is unchanged; the
identity element for multiplication is 1.
Zero times any number is
O:
42'O = O
Multiplication can be expressed with several different symbols:
9.7.3=9x7x3=9Q)G)
Besides being commutative, multiplication is associatiue:
Q'7)'3=63'3=789
and
9'Q '3)=9'21 = 189
A number can be quickly multiplied by 10 by adding L zero at the
right of the number. Similarly, a number can be multiplied by 100 by
adding two zeros at the right:
38.
10 = 380
and
IOO.76=7,6OO
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Division
Division is the inverse of multiplication. It is not commutative:
8+4*4+g
The parts of a division example are named as follows:
quotient
divisorfdir.idend
If a number is divided by
1, the quotient is the original number.
Division by O is not defined Qras no meaning). Zero divided by
any number other than O is 0:
0+56=O
Divisors ond Multiples
The whole number b diuides the whole number a tf therc efsts a
whole number k such that a = bk, The whole number a is then said
to be an integer multiple of b, and b is called a diuisor (ot .factor)
of a.
Exomples
3 divides 15 because 15 = 3. 5. Thus, 3 is a divisor of 15 (and
so is 5), and 15 is an integer multiple of 3 (and of 5).
3 does not divide 8 because 8
Divisors of 28 arc
I,
Mnltiples of 3 arc
3,6,9,
+ 3k for a whole
number k.
2, 4, 7, 14, and 28.
12, 15, . .
Whole Number Problems
1.. What is the prime factorization of 78?
2. W.hat are the divisors of 56?
3. Vhich properry is illustrated by the following statement?
G+5)+8=3+(5+8)
4. \7hich pfopeffy is illustfated by the following statement?
(5.7).3=(7.5).3
5. Find the first five multiples of 7.
6. Find all of the common prime factors of 3O and 105.
7. Give an example to show that subtraction on the set of real
numbers is not commulative.
8.
List all of the prime numbers between 5O and 90.
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9.
10.
Vrite the number 786,534 in expanded notation.
In each of the statements below, rcplace the # with either
of : to make a true statement.
a. I2 +
(,
13
b. t6 + o.o625
1
,. 3t #12)
7
Solutions:
1,. 78=2.39=2'3'13
2. The divisors of 56 are L, 2, 4,7, 8, L4, 28, 56
3. The Associative Property of Addition
4. The Commutative Property of Multiplication
5. 7, 14,2r,28,35
6. 3Ocanbefactored as2x3 x 5.105 canbefactoredas
3x5x
7. Thus, the common factors arc 3 and 5.
7. 45+54
8.
The prime numbers between 50 and 9O arc 53, 59,61, 57,7I,
73,79, 83, 87, and 89
9.
786,534: 7(100,000) + 8(10,000) + 6(1,000)
3Qo) + 4
10. a. 12 < 13
b. l6
: 0.O625
1
l2
c.3=)3=
2t
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SUBJECT REVIEWS
Fractions
Definirions
If a and b are whole numbers and b
0, the symbol
(or a/b) is
called a fraction. The upper part, A, is called tlire numerator, and tlrre
lower parl, b, is called tlre denominator. The denominator indicates
into how many parts something is divided, and the numerator tells
how many of these parts are taken. A fraction indicates division:
a
':8)7
8',
If the numerator of a fraction is 0, the value of the fraction is 0. If the
denominator of a fraction is 0, the fraction is not defined (has no
meaning):
t7
t7
0
not defined (has no meaning)
If the denominator of a fraction is
1, the value of the fraction is the
same as the numerator:
18
1
=18
If the numeratot and denominator are the
the fraction is 1:
same number, the value
of
=l
7
Equivolenf Frqctions
Fractions that represent the same numbef are said to be equiualent.
If m is a counting number ana?is
rn
because=landlx
ln
aa
bb
a fraction, then:
*'?
mxb=2b
Exomple
246
369t2
These fractions are all equivalent.
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lnequoliry of Frocfions
If two fractions are not equivalent, one is smaler than
the other. The
ideas of "less than" and "greater than" were previousry
defined and
used for whole numbers.
For the fractions
bb^na
9,
AC
ba
brf
alc
That is, if two fractions have the same denominator,
the one with the
smaller numefatof has the smaller value.
If two fractions have different denominators, find a common
denominator by multiplying one denominator by the
other. Then use
the common denominator to compare numerators.
Exomple I
srhich is smalk
=tt ror ?
8 . 7 = 56 = common denominator
57354832
7 56 x7"855
:X=,
8
Since 32
32
56
< 35.
( 354s
*andjt
Exomple 2
which of the
4
fr'actrons, 2 j,3
t. ", .
Sfle begin by comparing the
is the largest?
first fwo fractions. Since
211315r
:
:
we can see that j it uigg.r. Now, we
1 Ji and j
;'
3 4: : 33 , 4 : 2g
compare
Since
",^^^3
7," lt.
;and ;
;,we can see rhar
J
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is the biggest of the three fractions.
{r
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Reducing to Lowesf Terms
The principle that
rnxa
*"b=
a
b
can be particulady useful in reducing fractions to lowest terms.
Fractions are expressed 1n loutest terms when the numerator and
denominator have no common factor except 1. To reduce a fraction
to an equivalent fraction in lowest tems, express the numerator and
denominator as products of their prime factors. Each time a prime
appears in the numefator over the same prime
in the denominator,4,

substitute its equal value,
1.
Exomple I
30
Reduce 1^ to an equivalent fraction in lowest tems:
42
30 2.3.5
42 2.3.7
:==
l'I
5
7
'=
In practice, this can be done even more quickly by dividing numefator and denominator by any number, prime or not, that will divide
both evenly. Repeat this process until there is no prime factor
remaining that is common to both numefatof and denominator:
30155
422t7
Exomple 2
Reduce
77
*r97 to an equivalent fraction in lowest tems:
Txll
197 3x5x13
Since the numefator and the denominator have no common
factors, the fraction is already in lowest terms.
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Proper Fractions, Improper Fractions,
and Mixed Numbers
Definirions
fraction is a fraction whose numerator is smaller than its
A proper
denominator. Proper fractions always have a value less than
1:
357270
481321
An improper fraction is a fraction with numerator equal to of gfeatef
than the denominator. Improper fractions always have a value equal
to or greater than 1:
317
217114
915
A mixed number is a number composed of a whole number and
proper fraction. It is always greater than I in value:
7t3 5311
'4
8
t4
77
The svmbol 3: means J + ;
88
and is read "three and seveneighths."
To Chonge q Mixed Number info on lmproper Frqction
Multiply the denominator by the whole number and add this product
to the numeratof. Use the sum so obtained as the new numeratof,
and keep the original denominator.
Exomple
Write 9
4
o_'
11
,,
as an improper fraction:
(71x9)+4_99+4=103
11
11
11
Note: In any calculations with mixed numbers, first change the
mixed numbers to improper fractions.
Pe
Ie
rso
n's: u u u.pete
rso
s.co
SUBJECT REVIEWS
To Chonge on lmproper Froction into q Mixed Number
Divide the numerator by the denominator. The result is the wholenumber part of the mixed number. If there is a remainder in the
division process because the division does not come out evenly, put
the remainder over the denominator (divisor). This gives the fractional part of the mixed number:
20' 6 2
7)2O
3 = ':'8 6J
 remainder
Multiplication
Proper ond lmproper Frqctions
Multiply the two numerators and then multiply the two denominators. If the numerator obtained is larger than the denominator, divide
the numerator of the resulting fraction by its denominator:
3t545
8 11 88
1226610
875656
Multiplication of fractions is commutative.
Three or mofe fractions are multiplied in the same way; two numefators are done at a time, and the result is multiplied by the next
numefatof.
The product in the multiplication of fractions is usually expressed in lowest terms.
Conceling
In multiplying fractions, if any of the numerators and denominators
have a common divisor (factor), divide each of them by this common
factor and the value of the fraction remains the same. This process is
called canceling or cancellation.
Exomple
910
96
,n
.+8^N'
v2
2 100
2790279
18 300 18
30
Divide second fraction by
10
10
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Succes
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
9r
4r'
*a 26
Cancel: 18 and 9 each divisible by 9;27 and
each divisible by 3
2to
9xl
2x1O
3O
Multiply numefatofs; multiply denominators
20
Another method:
J)
fl ,/ 3x3
36 2xlo
tA
2to
20
Cancel: 27 and 18 have cofllmon factor 9:
common factot
9 and 3O have
Note: Canceling can take place only between a numeratot and a
denominator in the same of a different fraction, nevef between two
numerators of between two denominators.
Mixed Numbers
Mixed numbers should be changed to improper fractions before
multiplying. Then multiply as described above.
Exomple
multiply
4\
x3:
7"8
change
rt
3;l' to an improper fraction:
_5 (8x3)+5 21+5
"8888
29
Multiply
1
.( 2g_ 29
7 yt4
2
The answer can be left in this form or changed to a mixed
number
Peterson's : wuu.p eterso ns. com
27
ll
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Froctions with Whole Numbers
Write the whole number as a fraction with a denominator of 1 and
then multiply:
37
2t
X7=x=544144
Note: When any fraction is multiplied by l, its value remains unchanged. V/hen any fraction is multiplied by 0, the product is 0.
Division
Reciprocols
Division of fractions involves reciprocals. One fraction is the reciprocal of another if the product of the fractions is 1.
Exomple I
74
and: are reciprocals since
,
43
11
Z ,( lxl
X=
A',1
11
Ix
Exomple 2
1
;)
and J are reciprocals since
1
1,/
x .5
1
To find the reciprocal of a fraction, interchange the numerator and
denominatorthat is, invert the fraction, or turn it upside down.
Proper ond lmproper Frocfions
Multiply the first fraction (dividend) by the reciprocal of the second
fraction (divisor). Reduce by cancellation if possible. If you wish to,
change the answer to a mixed number when possible:
Exomple
9497
The reciprocal
'7474of
*=X:
2724
4/+/
;is;becauSe:x;
63
8
7
/g
Pe te rso
n's SSAT4
SE
E S u ccess
MATHEMATICS
REVIEW
?
i
Mixed Numbers qnd/or Whole Numbers
Both mixed numbers and whole numbers must first be changed to
equivalent improper fractions. Then proceed as described above.
Note: If a fraction or a mixed number is divided by 1, its value is
unchanged. Division of a fraction or a mixed number by O is not
defined. If a fraction is divided by itself or an equivalent fraction, the
quotient is 1:
1919197197
77719'719
=1x1=1
tddition
Fractions can be added only if their denominators are the same
(called the common denominator). Add the numerators; the denominator remains the same. Reduce the sum to the lowest tems:
3 2  3+2+I 6
8'8
=?
When the fractions have different denominators, you must find a
common denominator. One way of doing this is to find the product
of the different denominators.
rl!
lt!
Exomple
51
6' 4'
L?
A common denominatot is 5 . 4 = 24.
5420
16 6
1x_ = and :X=64244624
t20 6
5
*
6
4 24' 24
f
2O+5
24
26
24
13
t2
1
=l T2
P eterson's:
uww.petersons. com
lll
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Leqst Common Denominqtor
A denominator can often be found that is smaller than the product of
the different denominators. If the denominator of each fraction will
divide into such a number evenly and it is the smallest such number.
it is called t}re least (or lotuest) cotnmon denorninator, abbreviated
as LCD. Finding a least common denominator may make
it
unneces
to reduce the answer and enables one to work with smaller
numbers. There are two common methods.
sary
First Mefhod: By lnspection
5t
64
t2
LCD = 12 because 12 is the smallest number into which 6 and 4
divide evenly. Therefore:
12+6=2
multiolv2r?=!
"6 2 t2
t2+4=3
multiply]><1=A
'43t2
Then:
5110
3
6 4 12 12
t3
t2
I
=1l2
Second Method: By Foctoring
This method can be used when the LCD is not recognized by
inspection. Factor each denominator into its prime factors. The
LCD is the product of the highest power of each separate factor,
where poluer refers to the number of times a factot occufs.
Exomple
5r
L2
6' 4'
Factoring denominators gives:
6=2.3 and 4=2.2
LCD = 2.2.3
=12
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
Convert to LCf):
t3
5210
X=12
43
=X=6212
5  10
J
641272
I
13
12
1t2
The denominators 4 and6 factot into 2'2 and2.i,respectively. Although the factor 2 appears three times, its power is 22
from factoring 4. Ttre factor 3 appearc once, so its power is 31.
Therefore, the LCD as a producf of the bigbest pouer of eacb
separate factor is 2 x 2 x 3.
The factoring method of adding fractions can be extended to
three or more fractions.
Exomple
131
**?
4812

Factoring denominators gives:
4=2.2
8=2.2.2
LCD = 2.2.2.3
=24
Convert to
LCD:
{tt
16 6 33
46248324
_
_v_
1))
12224
13 t 6 9 t
:+_f=+
4A12242424
6+9+2
24
17
24
Peterson's : ut utp.petersons. com
I
12=2.2.3
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Addirion of Mixed Numbers
Change any mixed numbers to fractions. If the fractions have the
same denorninatof, add the numefators. If the fractions have different
denominators, flnd the LCD of the several denominators and then add
numeratofs. Reduce the answer if possible. Write the answer as a
mixed number if you wish.
Exomple
212
2+5+1=?
329
Factoring denominators gives:
3=3
2=2
9=3'3
2'3.3
LCD =
=18
Convert to LCD:
8 648
11999
2 918
3618
2I
281111
2+5+
'2 1
11 2 22
9 278
93 2 9
48 99 22
=+
18 18 18
48+99+22
18
=#=e*
Subtraction
Fractions can be subtracted only if the denominators are the same.
the denominators are the same, find the difference between the
numeratofs. The denominator remains unchanged.
If
Exomple
192
___=7
33
192
3
t7
t
2
=JJ
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
When fractions have different denominators, find equivalent fractions
with a common denominator and then subtract numefators.
Exomple
73
=7
84
Factoring denominators gives:
8=2.2.2
LCD =
4=2'2
2'2.2
=$
Conveft to LCD:
77
326
88
42
7376
=8 4 8 8
7
6
8
Mixed Numbers
To subtract mixed numbers, change each mixed number to a
fraction. Find the LCD for the fractions. Write each fraction as an
equivalent fraction whose denominator is the cofilmon denominator.
Find the difference between the numerators.
Exomple
t122=t
8
6
LCD = 24
352717
71"8686
81
24
68
24
73
24
If zero is subtracted from a fraction, the result
3_ 1l  3 03
4 "4 44
Peterson's : Lauu. petersons, com
is the original fraction:
fll
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Fr<rcfion Problems
In the following problems, perform the indicated operations and
reduce the answers to lowest tems.
>+
t2 t5
t3
) :2'8
52
3.
t23
25
4.
3tt
t4
3x"3
5
47
6. '7'5  )3
1..
9.
't1
): + 1:
55
632
_X_X_
743
,25
6xx2=
36
)7
10.
2+l39
Solutions
11
l.
3.
5 4 t /
t2 15=r(
w*7
33
13181,8
2423233
9
4
4
:v
525813
123t21212
2522157
311333333
1l2
f__f
4.
141041{482
t. 3t*t=Trt=T^ft=21
1
4 1397 tt7 35 82 _7
 __?_:_:___6.
\I5
15 t5't5
5353
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE
Succs
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
)
313 +:38
72+
5
5
5
5
8.
53 x2
x/4
)
9.
2
6217
6x x265 :xx;136
10.
Decimals
:a:
7.
113113
xx:xx:217117
37
2
36
x;x
4
10
34
99
163
2
78168
2+ 1::x
9393
)
11;
:)
X:
r6
3t3
x:122
Eadier, we stated that whole numbers are expressed in a system of
tens, or the decimal system, using the digits from 0 to 9. This system
can be extended to fractions by using a period called a decimal
point. The digits after a decimal point form a decimal fraction.
Decimal fractions are smaller than lfor example, .3, .37, .372, and
.105. The first position to the right of the decimal point is called the
tentbs' place, since the digit in that position tells how many tenths
there are. The second digit to the right of the decimal point is in the
bundred.tlts' place. The third digit to the right of the decimal point is
in the tlsousandtlts' place, and so on.
Exomple I
.3 is a decimal fraction that means
r3
3x__
"1010
read "threetenths."
Exomple 2
The decimal fraction of .37 means
1110
"3x+ix=Jx*7x10
100  100
30737
100 100
100
I
100
rcad " thirtyseven hundredths. "
Exomple 3
The decimal fraction .372 means
300 70
r.000 1,000
T
1,000
372
1,000
read "three hundred seventyfwo thousandths."
Peterson'S : Luwtt
).p
etersons, COm
SUBJECT REVIEWS
(unwritten) decimal polrri
to the right of the last digit (i.e., 4 = 4.O). Decimal fractions can
be combined with whole numbers to make decimalsfor
SThole numbers have an understood
example, 3.245, 10.85, and 4.7.
Note: Adding zeros to the right:of a decimal after the last digit
does not change the value of the decimal.
Decimals a'flld
Fractions
Chonging q Decimql to q Frqction
Place the digits to the right of the decimal point over the value of the
place in which the last digit appears and reduce if possible. The
whole number remains the same.
Exomple
Change 2.14 to a fraction or mixed number. Observe that 4 is
the last digit and is in the hundredths' place.
147
.74=
100 50
Therefore:
2.14 =
2
50
Chonging q Froction to o Decimql
rl
Li
Divide the numerator of the fraction by the denominator. First put a
decimal point followed by zeros to the right of the number in the
numerator. Add and divide until there is no remainder. The decimal
point in the quotient is aligned directly above the decimal point in
the dividend.
Exomple
'l
:
Chanse:toadecimal.
"8
Divide
.375
8E.ooo
24
60
56
<o
40
'When
the division does not terminate with a 0 remainder, fwo
courses aEe possible.
Pete rso
n's SSAT/ISE E Szccess
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
First Method
.833
6Eroo
48c
20
18
zo
18
2
The 3 in the quotient will be repeated indefinitely. It is called an
infinite decimal and is written .833 . . . .
Second Mefhod
Divide until there are two decimal places in the quotient and then
write the remainder over the divisor.
Exomple
Change
;o to a decimal.
.833
6/5.000
l48)
.83;
zo
18
zo
Addition
Addition of decimals is both commutative and associative. Decimals
are simpler to add than fractions. Place the decimals in a column with
the decimal points aligned under each other. Add in the usual way.
The decimal point of the answer is also aligned under the other
decimal points.
Exomple
43+2.73+.9+3.OI=?
43.
77
.9
3.ol
4%4
Peterson's : utuLa.petersons. com
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Subtraction
For subtraction, the decimal points must be aligned under each other.
Add zeros to the right of the decimal point if desired. Subtract as
with whole numbers.
Exomples
Multiplication
21.567
21.567
39.00
9.4
12:t67
9.48
13.087
17.48
2L52
Multiplication of decimals is commutative and associative:
j.39x.O4=.O4x5.39
(.7 x .O2) x .1 = .7 '(.O2x .7)
Multiply the decimals as if they were whole numbers. The total
number of decimal places in the product is the sum of the number of
places (to the right of the decimal point) in all of the numbers
multiplied.
Exomple
8.64 x.003 =
8.64 2
.003 + 3
.02592
places to right of decimal point
places to right of decimal point
places to right of decimal point
L zero had to be added to the left of the product
before wriring
the decimal point to ensure that there would be five decimal
places in the product.
Note: To multiply a decimal by 10, simply move the decimal
point one place to the right; to multiply by 100, move the
decimal point two places to the right.
Division
To divide one decimal (the dividend) by another (the divisor), move
the decimal point in the divisor as many places as necessary to the
right to make the divisor a whole number. Then move the decimal
point in the dividend (expressed or understood) a corresponding
number of places, adding zeros if necessary. Then divide as with
whole numbers. The decimal point in the quotient is placed above
the decimal point in the dividend after the decimal point has been
moved.
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
Exomple
Divide 7.6 by .32.
23.75
a2F so = 3zF6aoo
64
no
96
uo
224
160
160
Note: "Divide 7.5by .32" canbe writren
is multiplieO Uy *,
^#
If this fracrion
an equivalent fraction is obtained
loo
whole number in the denominator:
with
7.6 100 760
.32 100 32
Moving the decimal point two places to the right in both divisor
and dividend is equivalent to multiplying each number by 100.
Speciol Coses
If the dividend has a decimal point and the divisor does not, divide as
with whole numbers and place the decimal point of the quotient
above the decimal point in the divisor.
If both dividend and divisor are whole numbers but the quotient
is a decimal, place a decimal point after the last digit of the dividend
and add zeros as necessary to get the required degree of accuracy.
(See Changing a Fraction to a Decimal, page 162.)
Note: To divide any number by 10, simply move its decimal point
(understood to be after the last digit for a whole number) one place
to the left; to divide by 100, move the decimal point two places to
the left; and so on.
Peterson's : utL,w.petersons. com
Ir
il
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Decimol Problems
L.
Change the following decimals into fractions and reduce.
a.
b.
2.
1.76
15.a5
Change the following fractions inro decimals.
a
)
8
b.; 5
In the following problems, perform the indicated operations.
3. 3.762 + 23.43
4. 1.358  .559
5. 8.7 x .8
6. .o4j + .j
7. 73  .46
8. 5.43 + .r54 +
9. 7.2 x .OO2
10. 2.2 + 8
17
1.L. \7'hich of the three
decimals .0p, .769, and.8 is the smallest?
Solufions
1.
L.
,1684
l.16=1=1l100 50
b.
15.05
25
5r
= 15100= 1520
lrI = 8)3.000
.375
2.
a.
24
?o
)()
40
b.
2 .666...
_
= il2.O0
a
"18
io
18
20
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
3.
3.762
+23.43
zl tgz
4.
1.368
.559
.809
5.
8.7
x.8
5.96
5.
7.
o.09
.5.8.o.4s
(.c
73.OO
.46
72.54
8.
5.43
.154
+ 17.OOO
22.584
9.
7.2
.002
 .u44
10.
(One digit to the right of the decimal point)
(Three digits to the right of the decimal point)
(Four digits to the right of the decimal point)
o.275
8D2
1L.
Percents
The easiest way to determine the smallest decimal number is to
append 0's to the end of each of the numbers until they all have
the same number of digits. Then, ignore the decimal points and
:
see which number is the smallest. Thus, .09 : .090, .769
.769, .8: .800. Clearly, the smallest number is .09
Percents, like fractions and decimals, ate ways of expressing parts of
whole numbers, as 93%o, 5O%, and 22.4%. Percents afe expfessions of
hundredthsthat is, of fractions whose denominator is 100. The
symbol for percent is "%o".
Exomple
25% = fwenty_five hundredths
zj
100
=z
The word percent means per bundred. lts main use is in
comparing fractions with equal denominators of 100.
Peterson's: lt)ww.Peters ons. com
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Relationship with
Fractions
and Decimals
Chonging q Percenf to q Decimql
Divide the percent by 100 and drop the symbol for percent. Add
zeros to the left when necessary:
3O%
.3O
l%o
.O1
Remember that the short method of dMding by 100 is ro move the
decimal point two places to the left.
Chonging o Decimql to q Percent
Multiply the decimal by 100 by moving the decimal point two places
to the right, and add the symbol for percent:
.375 =
37.5%
.OOl
= .l%
Chonging q Percent fo q Frocfion
Drop the percent sign. Write the number as a numerator ovcr a
denominator of 100. If the numerator has a decimal point, move the
decimal point to the right the necessary number of places to make
the numerator a whole number. Add the same number of zeros to the
right of the denominator as you moved places to the right in the
numefator. Reduce where possible.
Exomples
2oo/o
36.5v"
2021
100 10 5
36.5 365
100 I,000
73
200
Chonging q Frqcfion fo q Percent
Use either of two methods.
Firsf Mefhod
change the fraction into an equivalent fraction with a denominator of
100. Drop rhe denominator (equivalent to multiplying by 100) and
add the % sign.
Exomple
6
Express_asapercent.
'20
6530
20 5 100
:: X:
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
Second Merhod
Divide the numerator by the denominator to get a decimal with two
places (express the remainder as a fuaction if necessary). Change the
decimal to a pefcent.
Exomple
Express
a percent.
^as
'30
= 3O%
20= 2O)6.O0
60
Percent Problems
l.
Change the following percents into decimals:
L.
b.
2.
Change the following decimals into percents:
a.
b.
3.
37.5%
o.5%
O.625
3.75
Change the following fractions into percents:
7
a'8
b'
4.
Change the following percents into fractions:
a.
b.
Peterson's : rDtDw. Petersons. com
73
2oo
87.5%
o.o2%
1
).
Change 12, % to a decimal.
6.
Vrite
.07% as both a decimal and a fraction.
Write
j11
8.
V;rite 1.25
9.
W"hich of the following is the largest:
16
as
both a decimal and a percent.
as
both a percent and a fraction.
5r,
er , ot .628?
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Solutions
1,. a.
b.
37.5% = O.375
OO.5%
= 0.005
J
2. a. O.625 = 62.5%
(:
b. 3.75
(: = 375%
3.
a.
= 8F.ooo  87.j%
o.165
/J
b.
4.
0.875
2OO=
200,)73.000 = 36.5%
87.5%= 0.875
L.
b.
O.O2%
/s:
12 .
6.
.O7%:0.0007
7.
11
r6
875
1,000=3:=7
40 g
O.OO02 =
5.
10,000
5,000
12.25%: O.1225
10,000
.6875
r5Et.oooo :68.75%
:2
8. 1.25: I25%:125
lo0 4
9.
In order to determine the largest number, we must write them
all in the same form. Wriring 7 u,
"8 ^decimal, we obtain .625.If
we write 62o/o as a decimal, we get .62. Thus, .628 is the largest
of the three numbers.
Solving Percent Problems
There are several different types of word problems involving percents
that might appeaJ on your test. In addition to generic percent
problems, other applications you might be asked to solve involve
taxation, commission, profit and loss, discount, and interest. All of
these problems are solved in essentially the same way, as the examples that follow illustrate.
Note that when solving percent problems, it is often easier to
change the percent to a decimal or a fraction before computing.
When we take a percent of a certain number, that number is called
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
ttle base, the percent we take is called tl;'e rate, and the result is
called the part. If we let B represent the base, R represent the rate,
and P represent the part, the relationship between these three
quantities can be expressed by the following formula
P: RxB
All percent problems can be solved with the help of this formula.
The first four examples below show how to solve all types of
generic percent problems. The remaining examples involve specific
financial applications.
Exomple I
In a class of 24 students,
25%o
received an A. How many students
received an A?
The number of students (24) is thebase, and 25% is tlrre rate. Change
the rate to a fraction for ease of handling and apply the formula.
='5 =!
1004
P=RxB
25o/n
L21
r'1
1
= 6 students
To choose between changing the percent (rate) to a decimal or a
fraction, simply decide which would be easier to work with. In
Example 1, the fraction is easier to work with because cancellation is possible. In Example 2, the situation is the same except for
a different rate. This time the decimal form is easier.
Exomple 2
In a class of 24 students, 29.17% received an A. How many
students received an A? Changing the rate to a fraction yields
29.17 2917
100 10,000
You can quickly see that the decimal is the better choice.
29.17%
.2917
P=RxB
= .2917 x 24
= 7 students
Peterson's : Luu)l,u.petersons. com
.29t7
x24
r.1668
5.834
7.0008
SUBJECT RFVIEWS
Exomple 3
\[hat percent of
a 4Ohour week is a 16hour schedule?
40 hours is the base and 16 hours is the part. p = R x B
16=Rx4O
Divide each side of the equation by 40.
t6
=R
40
2
:=R
4O%=R
Exomple 4
A woman paid $15,000 as a down payment on a house. If this
amount was 2O% of the price, what did the house cost?
The part (or percentage) is $15,000, the fate is 2o%, and we
must find the base. Change the rate to a fraction.
1
=:
P=RxB
2O%o
$1i.000xB
5
Mulriply each side of the equation by
5.
$75,Ooo = B = cost of house
Exomple 5
A salesperson sells a new car for $Z4,SOO and receive s a
commission. How much commission does he receive?
5%
The cost of the car ($24,8O0) is the base, and the rate is 5%. S[e
are looking for the amount of commission, which is the part.
P:5% x $24,800: .05 x $24,8OO:61,240
Thus, the salesperson receives a commission of $1,240.
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
Exomple 6
Janet buys alaptop computer for $1,199 and has to pay 7% sales
tax. Vhat is the amount of sales tax she owes, and what is the
total price of the computer?
The cost of the computer ($1,199) is the base, and the rate is7%o.
We are looking for the amount of sales tax, which is the part.
P:7%o x $1,199
.O7
x $1,199:
$83.93
Thus, the sales tax is $83.93, and the total cost of the computer
is $1,199 + $83.93 : $t,282.93.
Discounf
The amount of discount is the difference between the original price
and the sale, or discount, price. The rate of discount is usually given
as a ftaction or as a percent. Use the formula of the percent problems
P = R x fl but now P stands for the part or discount, R is the rate,
and B, the base, is the original price.
Exomple 7
A table listed at $160 is marked 20% off. What is the sale price?
P=RxB
=
.2O
x $160 =
$32
This is the amount of discount, or how much must be subtracted from the original price. Then:
$160
$32 = $128 sale price
Exomple 8
A car priced at $9,000 was sold for $7,200. What was the rate of
discount?
Amount of discount
$9,OOO
$7,ZOO
$1,800
Discount = rate x original price
$1,800=Rx$9,000
Divide each side of the equation by $9,000:
20
*,EO1
.
yfr60
100
P eterson's:
uwtD,p etersons. con1.
20
100
=R=2Oo/o
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Successive Discounting
rillhen an item is discounted more than once,
it is called successive
discounting.
Exomple 9
In one store, a dress tagged at $40 was discounted 15%. When it did
not sell at the lowerprice, itwas discounted afl additionallo%.what
was the final selling price?
Discount = R x original price
First discount = .15 x $40 = $6
$6 = $34 selling price after first discounr
Second discount = .10 x $j4 = $j.4O
$40
$34
Exomple
$3.4o = $30.60 final selling price
IO
In another store, an identical dress was also tagged at $4O. When
it did not sell, it was discounted 25o/o all at once. Is the final
selling price lower or higher than in Example l?
Discount = R x original price
= .25 x $4O
= $10
$40  $10 = $30 finat selling price
This is a lower selling price than in Example 9, where two
successive discounts were taken. Although the two discounts
from Example 9 add up to the discount of Example 10, the final
selling price is not the same.
lnferest
Interest problems are similar to discount and percent problems. If
money is left in the bank for a year and the interest is calculated at
the end of the year, the usual formula p = R x B can be used, where
P is the interest, R is the rate, and B is the principat (original amount
of money borrowed or loaned).
Exomple I I
A certain bank pays interest on savings accounts at the rate of
4% per year.If a mafl has $6,700 on deposit, find the interest
earned aftet 1 yeat.
P=RxB
Intefest = fat\.. principal
P = .o4 x $6,700 = $z6s inrerest
Interest problems frequently involve more or less time than
year. Then the formula becomes:
Intefest = tate x principal x time
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success
MATHEMATICS REVIEW
Exomple
l2
If the money is left in the bank for 3 yearc at simple interest (the
kind we are discussing), the interest is
3x$.268=$go4
Exomple
l3
Suppose $6,700 is deposited in the bank at 4Yo intetest for 3
months. How much interest is earned?
ll
Interest = rate x principal x time
Here the
4%o
rate is
for I vear. Since 3 months o
Interest = .o4 x$6,700
+=,
!4 = 16,
Percent of Chonge Problems
The percent of change problem is a special, yet very common, type
of percent problem. In such a problem, there is a quantity that has a
certain starting value (usually called the "original value"). This original
value changes by a certain amount (either an increase or a decrease),
leading to what is called the "new value." The problem is to express
this increase or decrease as a percent.
Percent of change problems are solved by using a method
analogous to that used in the problems above. First calculate the
amount of the increase or decrease. This amount plays the role of
the part P in the formula P : R x B. The base, B, is the original
amount regardless of whether there was a gain or a loss.
Exomple
I4
By what percent does Mary's salary increase if her present salary
is $20,000 and she accepts a new job at a salary of $28,000?
Amount of increase is:
$28,000
$20,000 = $8,000
P=RxB
$8,000=Rx$20,000
Divide each side of the equation by $20,000. Then:
40
8OO 40
=zrp6oloo"n4o%increase
100
Pe t ers o n's
: ulaw. p etersons. com
tr
1l
SUBJECT REVIEWS
Exomple
l5
On Tuesday, the price of Alpha stock closed at $56 a share. On
'Wednesday,
the stock closed at a price that was $14 higher than
the closing price on Tuesday. \[hat was the percent of increase
in the closing price of the stock?
In this problem, we are given the amount of increase of $14. Thus,
P:RxB
14:Rx56.Thus,
t4
R:;:,:25o/o'
)b4
The percent of increase in the closing price of the stock is 25%.
Percent Word Problems
1.
Janet received a rent increase of 15%.If her rent was $7g5
monthly before the increase, what is her new rent?
2.
School bus fares rose from $25 per month to $30 per month.
Find the percent of increase.
3.
A dress originally priced at $90 is marked down 35%, then
discounted a further lO%. \that is the new, reduced price?
4.
Dave delivers flowers for a salary of $45 a day, plus a lZ%
commission on all sales. One day his sales amounted to $220.
How much money did he earfi that dly?
5.
A certain bank pays interest on money market accounts ataf?lte of 6%
ayeat. If Brett deposits $7 ,2OO, find the interest eamed after one year.
6.
A small business office bought a used copy machine for 75% of
the original price. If the original price was $3,500, how much
did they pay for the copy machine?
7.
A lawyer who is currently earning $4ZJ\O annually receives
6.5% nise. rWhat is his new annual salary?
8.
An industrial plant reduces its number of employees, which was originally 3,76O,by 5%. How many employees now work at the plant?
9.
The value of a mutual fund investment of $3,750 increased $500.
What is the percent of increase in the price of the mutual fund?
10.
Due to a decrease in demand for a particular computer printer, a
computer supply store feduces the number of orders for the
printer from 35 per month to 20 per month. rVhat percent of
decrease does this represent? Round off your answer to the
neafest whole number percent.
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Szccess