You are on page 1of 42

# MATHEMATICS REVIEW

Properties of Numbers
Systems of Numbers
All of the numbers that are used in the mathematics sections of the
SSAT^SEE are real numbers.In order to understand the real number
system, it is easiest to begin by looking at some familiar systems of
numbers that lie within the real number system.
The numbers that are used for counting

1,2,3,4,5,....
natural numbers, the counting numbers, or, most
commonly, the positiue integers. The positive integers, together with

## are called the

the number O, afe called the set of tttbole numbers. Then, the
positive integers, together with O and the negatiue integers

## -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, .

make up the set of integers.
A real number is said to be a rational number if it can be
written as the fatio of two integers, where the denominator is not O.
Thus, for example, numbers such as

2-5
5
-16-.
--3'6'_ .0. 25. 12 8,
ffie rational numbers. Cleady, then, all integers and fractions are
rational numbers. Percents and decimal numbers afe tatronal as well,
since they can also be written as the ratio of fwo integers. For
example,
25%o

.8
,, at:Ld 9.125: 9:.
4'

## Any real number that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two

integers is called an irrational number. The most common irrational
numbers that you will see on youf test afe squafe foots, such as
\/ I ot -a/ S, and the number n, which represents the ratio of the
circumference of a circle to its diametef.
Finally, the set of rational numbers, together with the set of
irrational numbers, is called the set of real numbers-

## Peterson's: wwLU.P eters ons. com

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Exomple
The number -257 is an integer. It is also rational since it can be
_257
written
, and is, of course, real.

"r 1

The number

1ff

i"

## irrational and real.

Rounding of Numbers
From time to time, a test question will ask you to round an answef to
a specific decimal place. The des for the rounding of numbers are
very simple. In the case of whole numbers, begin by locating the
digit to which the number is being rounded. Then, if the digit just ro
the right is 0, 1, 2, J, or 4,leave the located digit alone. Otherwise,
increase the located digit by 1. In either case, replace all digits to the
right of the one located with O's.
\illhen rounding decimal numbers, the rules are similar. Again,
begin by locating the digit to which rhe number is being rounded. As
before, if the digit just to the right is O, 1, 2, 3, or 4, leave the located
digit alone. Otherwise, increase the located digit by 1. Finally, drop
all the digits to the right of the one located.

Exomple
Round the following numbers as indicated.
6,342 to the nearest 10
Begin by locating the ten's digit, which is a 4. The number to
the right of the 4 is a 2. Thus, drop tl:re 2 and replace it with a
0, yielding 6.340.

## 392.451to the nearest tenth

The tenth's digir is 4. Ttle digit just to the right of it is 6, so
increase the tenth's digit by 1, making it a 5. Drop the two digits
to the right of this. The answer is 392.5.
.0472 to the nearest thousandth

## Following the rules above, we obtain .047.

Pete rso

n's SSAT/IS E E

Su

ccess

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

L.

## Classify each of the following numbers as whole, integer,

rational, irrational, and rcal.

a. -7
1

b.=

c. 5.)

2.

d.

e.

\TG

decimal places.

a.
b.
c.
d.

## to the nearest hundred

7,574,584 to the nearest hundred thousand
847.235 to the nearest hundredth
9.OO872 to the nearest thousandth

,l
l

rf

'lrl

57,38O

Solufions

ri
rl

## 1. a. -7 is real, rational, and an integer

1
b. ;/ is real and rational
c S?;rj .unbe written u"! unais thus teal and rutional
d. 0 is real, rational, an integer, and a whole number
e. f 8 is real and irrational
2. a. Begin by locating the hundred's digit, which is l. The digit
to the right of it is 8, so increase the hundred's digit by 1,
and replace all digits to the right with 0's. The answer is
57,4oo.

## The hundred thousandth's digit is 5. The digit to the right of

it is 7, so increase the 5 by 1, and replace all digits to the
right with o's. The answer is 1,600,000.
C.
The hundredth's digit is 3. The digit just to the right of it is
5, so increase the hundredth's digit by 1, making it a 4. Dtop
the digit to the right of this. The answer is 847.24.
d. The thousandth's digit is 8. The digit just to the right of it is
7, so increase the thousandth's digit by 1, making it a 9.
Drop the digits to the right of this. The answer is 9.009.

b.

P eterson's

1.D1.t)u.peters ons.

com

'i

tl

SUBJECT REVIEWS

## Set Theory and Venn Diagrams

Definitions
A sel is any collection of objects. The objects in a particular set are
called t]"].e members or the elements of the set. In mathematics, sets
afe
usually represented by capital letters, and their members are represented by lower case letters. Braces, { and }, are usually used to enclose
the members of a set. Thus, the set,4, which has members A, b, c, d, afid,
e and no other members, can be written as A :
la, b, c, d, el . Note that
the order in which the elements of a set are listed is not important; thus
the set {1, 2, 3} and the set {2, 3, 1} represent identical sets.
The symbol used to indicate that an element belongs to apafiicular
set is c , and the symbol that indicates an element does not belong
to a set
ise. Thus, tf B : {2,4,6,g},we cansay6e BandT e B.Ifisasetis
deflned so that it does not contain any elements, it is called th e enxpty set,
or the null set, and can be written as {}, or A
There are several different notational techniques that can be
used to repfesent a set. The simplest one is called numeration, in
which all of the elements of the set are listed within braces. For
example, if c is the set of all odd integers between 10 and 2o, we
.

can use numeration to repfesent the set as C: ll1, 13, 15, 17,l9l.
The other is called set-builder notation. In this notation, a short
vertical bar is used to stand for the phrase ,,such that." For example,
the set of all integers less than 15 can be written as
{X I X

## x is less than 15, and 1 is an

integer."
A set that contains a finite number of elements is called afinite
set. A set that is neither finite nor empty is called an infinite set.
'when using
the method of numeration to describe a set, we can use
three dots to indicate "and so on." Thus, the infinite set containing all
positive integers can be written as 11,2, 3, 4, .. .). The finite set
containing all of the even integers between 2 and 200 can be
numerated as 12, 4,6, . . ., 200).

Exomple I
Use numeration

## to express the set of whole numbers.

lo, 1,2, 3, 4, 5, . . .l

Exomple 2
use set-builder notation to express the set of integers that arc
greater than or equal to 200.
{X I X > 200, 1 is an integer}

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

## Subsets ond the Universql Set

Suppose that J is the set containing everyone who lives in New
Jersey, and K is the set of all people living in New Jersey who are
older that 65. Then, cleady, all members of K are also members off
and we say "K is a subset of/." This relationship is written symbolically as K cJ. In general, A is a subset of B rf every element of ,4 is
also an element of B. For example, the set ,4 : {2, 4, 6} is a subset of
'
the set -B : lO, 2, 4,6, 8, 1O). By convention, we agree that the null
set is a subset of every other set. Thus, we can write A c A, where ,4
is any set. Also note that rt A and -B contain exactly the same elements, thenA= BandB=A. In suchacase, wewrite A: B.If A
c B but A + B, we call A aproper subset of B. This is written A c B.
Thus, if ,4 is a subset of B, andB contains at least one element that is
not in A, tll;en A is a pfoper subset of B and we write A c BIn a particular discussion, the uniuersal set represents the
largest possible set, that is, it is the set that contains all of the
possible elements under consideration. All other sets in the discussion
must therefore be subsets of the universal set, which is usually
represented by the letter LI.If Nis a subset of { then-A/', which is
called the complement of r\/, is the set of all elements from the
universal set that are not in iy'. For example, f , in a particular
problem, t/ is the set of all integers and ,A/ is the set of negative
integers, then ly'' is the set of all nonnegative integers.

Exomple I
List all of the subsets of {2, 4,61.
I2\, {4\,

161,

Exomple 2

If U :

{7

l/'

l/'

N, : {7, g, lO}

,^y'.

Thus,

## Venn Diogroms, Union qnd lntersection

Let U be a universal set, and l/ a subset of I/. Then, the drawing
below, called a Venn diagram, illustrates the relationship between t/,
N, and,A/'.

ON
Pe ters on's

: uww.Petersons. com

SUBJECT REVIEWS

## The union of two sets,4 and B, indicated A tt B, is the set of all

elements that ate in either A ot B. The intersection of two sets,
indicated A a B, is the set of all elements that are in both,4 and,B.
Thus, if ,4 : {2, 4,6,8, 1O} and B : {1,2,3, 4}, we have A a B :

11,2,3,4,6,8,10)

{z,4l.rf A oB:

and

A,

thenl

andB

^B:
are said to be disjoint.
The venn diagrams below represent the operations of union and

intersection.

A^B

/--x\
(f;*J)
\-_jz -/
AB

Sef Problems

1'.

## use set-builder notation to describe the set of all integers gfeater

than 12 and less than 49.

2.
3.
4.

If A

{2, 4, 6}, B

A v B, A tt

5.

C,

Ao

C,

A a B,

and

A o (B

v a.

findV.

## In problems 6-9, describe the sets listed in terms of D, E, and F and,

intersections, unions, and complements.

6. {XlXe DandxeB
7. {XlXe ForyeE}
8. {XlXe DandxeE}
9. {X I X e D and X is not an elemenr of either E ot fl
1-0. Draw a Venn

aDn

C.

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

Solufions

L. lXl 12 < 1 (

2.

48, y is an integer)

## {. . . , -4, -3, -2,

-rI

3. A, la|, {b}, {c}, {d}, {a, b}, {a, c}, {a, d}, {b, c}, {b, d}, {c, d}, {a, b,
c), {a, b, d}, {a, c, d}, {b, c, d}, {a, b, c, d}.

## 4. Av B: {1, 2,3, 4, 5,61,A\) C :

{2,4},AaB:A,A n(Bu C):

12,3, 4,51,A
{2,41.

## 5. \Y : 14,8, 10, t4, L6, 2Ol

6. D r-t E'
7. FvE
8. D^E
9. Dn(EvD'
10.

AnrHmrnc

whole Numbers

Definitions
we have already seen, the set of positive integers (natural
numbers, counting numbers) can be written as the set
11,2,3, 4, 5, . . .). The set of positive integers, together with the
number O, are called the set of ubole nLtmbers, and can be written
as {0, 1, 2,3, 4, . . .1.
As

Plqce Volue

## in a system of tens, called tlre decimal

system. Ten digits-O, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5,7, 8, and 9-are used. Each
digit differs not only inface value but also in place value, depending
on where it stands in the number.

## \X{hole numbers are expressed

Exomple I
237 means:

(2.100)+(3.10)+(7.1)
The digit 2 has face value 2 but place value of 200.

## Peterson's : totul,u. petersons. com

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Exomple 2
35,412 can be written

(3'

10,000) +

as:

(5'

1,000) +

(4'

100) + (1 . 10) +

(2. t)

The digit in the last place on the right is said to be in the units
or ones place, the digit to the left of that in the tens place, the
next digit to the left of that in the hundreds place and so on.
rVhen we take a whole number and write it out as in
the two
examples above, it is said to be written in expanded form.

## Odd ond Even Numbers

A whole number is euen if it is divisible by 2; it is odd. if it is not
divisible by 2. Zerc is thus an even number.

Exomple
2, 4, 6,8, and 320 arc even numbers; 3, 7, 9,

Zl,

## and 45 are odd

numbers.

Prime Numbers
The positive integerp is said to be a prime number (or simply a
prinxe) tt p + 1 and the only positive divisors of p are itself and 1.
The first ten primes are 2,3, 5,7, ll, 13, 17, 19,23, and 29. Nl
other positive integers tr'at are neither 1 nor prime are composite
numbers. Composite numbers can be factored, that is, expressed
as products of their divisors or factors; for example,
56 = 7 . 8 = 7 . 4' 2. In particular, composite numbers can be
expressed as products of thefu prime factors in just one way (except
for order).
To factor a composite number into its prime factofs, proceed as
follows. First try to divide the number by the prime number 2. If this
is successful, continue to divide by 2 until an odd number is obtained. Then attempt to divide the last quotient by the prime number
3 and by 3 again, as many times as possible. Then move on to
dividing by the prime number 5, and other successive primes until a
prime quotient is obtained. Express the original number as a product
of all its prime divisors.

Exomple
Find the prime factors of 2lO.
2 )2tO
3 )105

5) 35
7

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

Therefore:
2LO

and

=2.

3' 5'

## Consecufive Whole Numbers

Numbers are consecutive if each number is the successof of the
number that precedes it. In a consecutive series of whole numbers,
an odd number is always followed by an even number, and an even
number by an odd. If three consecutive whole numbers are given,
either two of them are odd and one is even of two afe even and one
is odd.

Exomples
7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 are consecutive whole numbers.

## 8, 10, 12, and 14 arc consecutive even numbers.

21, 23, 25, and 27 arc consecutive odd numbers.
21, 23, and 27 ate not consecutive odd numbers because 25 is
missing.

## A useful method of representing numbers geometrically makes it

easier to understand numbers. It is called tlre number line. Draw a
horizontal line, considered to extend without end in both directions.
Select some point on the line and label it with the number O. This
point is called the origin. Choose some convenient distance as a unit
of length. Take the point on the number line that lies one unit to the
right of the origin and label it with the number 1. The point on the
number line that is one unit to the right of 1 is labeled 2, and so on.
In this way, every whole number is associated with one point on the
line, but it is not true that every point on the line represents a whole
number.

## The Number Line

Number line

P e te rs o n's :

u wu. Pete

rs o ns. co

rrl

SUBJECT REVIEWS

## Ordering of Whole Numbers

On the number line, the point representing 8 lies to the right of the
point representing 5, and we say 8 > 5 (read "8 is greater than 5,,).
One can also say 5 < 8 ("5 is less than 8"). For any two whole
numbers a and b, there are always three possibilities:

a1b,

a.=b,

of

alb,

## If a = b, the points representing the numberc a

and b coincide on

Operations with
Whole Numbers

## The basic operations on whole numbers are addition (+), subtraction

(-), multiplication (. or x), and division (+). These are all binary
operations-that is, one works with two numbers at a time in order
to get a unique answer. The operations of addition and multiplication
on whole numbers are said to be closed because the answer in each
case is also a whole number. The operations of subtraction and
division on whole numbers are not closed because the unique answer
is not necessarily a member of the set of whole numbers.

Exomples
awholenumber
3+ 4=7
3 = 12 a whole number
2- 5 = -3 not a whole number
3
o-1
): o-g
notawholenumber

4.

Addition
If addition is a binary operation, how are three numbets-say, J, 4,
and 8-added? One way is to write:

6+4;+8=7+8=15
Another way is to write:

3+G+8)=3+12=15
The parentheses merely group the numbers together. The fact that
the same answer, 15, is obtained either way illustrates the associatiue
property of addition:

(r+s)*t=r+(s+t)
The order in which whole numbers are added is immaterial-that is,
3 + 4 = 4 + 3. This principle is called the commutatiue property of
addition. Most people use this properry without rcalizing it when
they add a column of numbers from the top down and then check
their result by beginning over again from the bottom. (Even though

## Peterso n's SSAT/IS

EE

Serccess

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

## there may be a long column of numbers, only two numbers are

added
time.)
^
If ^t0 is
added to any whole number, the whole number is
unchanged . Zero is called the identity element for addition.

Subtrqction
Subtraction is the inverse of addition. The order in which the
numbers are written is important; thefe is no commutative properry
for subtraction.

4-3+3-4
Tlre

## is read "not equal."

Multiplicorion
Multiplication is a commutative operation:

43.73=73.43
The result or answer in a multiplication problem is called the
product.
If a number is multiplied by 1, the number is unchanged; the
identity element for multiplication is 1.
Zero times any number is

O:

42'O = O
Multiplication can be expressed with several different symbols:

9.7.3=9x7x3=9Q)G)
Besides being commutative, multiplication is associatiue:

Q'7)'3=63'3=789
and

## 9'Q '3)=9'21 = 189

A number can be quickly multiplied by 10 by adding L zero at the
right of the number. Similarly, a number can be multiplied by 100 by
adding two zeros at the right:

38.

10 = 380

and

IOO.76=7,6OO

P e te rs o n's :

utplu, P eterso

n s. co

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Division
Division is the inverse of multiplication. It is not commutative:

8+4*4+g
The parts of a division example are named as follows:
quotient
divisorfdir.idend

If a number is divided by

## 1, the quotient is the original number.

Division by O is not defined Qras no meaning). Zero divided by
any number other than O is 0:

0+56=O
Divisors ond Multiples
The whole number b diuides the whole number a tf therc efsts a
whole number k such that a = bk, The whole number a is then said
to be an integer multiple of b, and b is called a diuisor (ot .factor)
of a.

Exomples
3 divides 15 because 15 = 3. 5. Thus, 3 is a divisor of 15 (and
so is 5), and 15 is an integer multiple of 3 (and of 5).

## 3 does not divide 8 because 8

Divisors of 28 arc

I,

Mnltiples of 3 arc

3,6,9,

+ 3k for a whole

number k.

12, 15, . .

## 1.. What is the prime factorization of 78?

2. W.hat are the divisors of 56?
3. Vhich properry is illustrated by the following statement?
G+5)+8=3+(5+8)
4. \7hich pfopeffy is illustfated by the following statement?
(5.7).3=(7.5).3
5. Find the first five multiples of 7.
6. Find all of the common prime factors of 3O and 105.
7. Give an example to show that subtraction on the set of real
numbers is not commulative.

8.

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

9.
10.

## Vrite the number 786,534 in expanded notation.

In each of the statements below, rcplace the # with either
of : to make a true statement.

a. -I2 +

(,

13

b. t6 + o.o625
1

,. 3t #1-2)
7

Solutions:

1,. 78=2.39=2'3'13
2. The divisors of 56 are L, 2, 4,7, 8, L4, 28, 56
3. The Associative Property of Addition
4. The Commutative Property of Multiplication
5. 7, 14,2r,28,35
6. 3Ocanbefactored as2x3 x 5.105 canbefactoredas

3x5x

7. 4-5+5-4
8.

## The prime numbers between 50 and 9O arc 53, 59,61, 57,7I,

73,79, 83, 87, and 89

9.

3Qo) + 4

b. l6
--: 0.O625
1

l2
c.3=)3=
2t

Pe te rs o n's :

## u uu. p e ters on s. co?rl

5(100) +

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Fractions

Definirions
If a and b are whole numbers and b

0, the symbol

(or a/b) is

called a fraction. The upper part, A, is called tlire numerator, and tlrre
lower parl, b, is called tlre denominator. The denominator indicates
into how many parts something is divided, and the numerator tells
how many of these parts are taken. A fraction indicates division:
a

':8)7
8',
If the numerator of a fraction is 0, the value of the fraction is 0. If the
denominator of a fraction is 0, the fraction is not defined (has no
meaning):

t7

t7
--0

18
1
-=18

## If the numeratot and denominator are the

the fraction is 1:

## same number, the value

of

-=l
7
Equivolenf Frqctions
Fractions that represent the same numbef are said to be equiualent.

## If m is a counting number ana?is

rn

because-=landlx
ln

aa
bb

a fraction, then:

*'?
mxb=2b

Exomple

246
369t2

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

lnequoliry of Frocfions
If two fractions are not equivalent, one is smaler than
the other. The
ideas of "less than" and "greater than" were previousry
defined and
used for whole numbers.
For the fractions

bb^na

9,

AC

ba

brf

alc

## That is, if two fractions have the same denominator,

the one with the
smaller numefatof has the smaller value.
If two fractions have different denominators, find a common
denominator by multiplying one denominator by the
other. Then use
the common denominator to compare numerators.

Exomple I

srhich is smalk
=tt ror -?
8 . 7 = 56 = common denominator

57354832
7 56 -x--7"8-55

:X-=----,
8
Since 32
32
---56

< 35.

( 354s

*andjt

Exomple 2
which of the

4
fr'actrons, 2 j,3
t. ", -.

is the largest?

## first fwo fractions. Since

211315r
:
:
we can see that j it uigg.r. Now, we
1 Ji and j
;'
3 4: : 33 , 4 :- 2g
compare
Since
",^^^3
7," lt.
;and ;
;,we can see rhar
J

{r

SUBJECT REVIEWS

## Reducing to Lowesf Terms

The principle that

rnxa
*"b=

a
b

## can be particulady useful in reducing fractions to lowest terms.

Fractions are expressed 1n loutest terms when the numerator and
denominator have no common factor except 1. To reduce a fraction
to an equivalent fraction in lowest tems, express the numerator and

## denominator as products of their prime factors. Each time a prime

appears in the numefator over the same prime
in the denominator,4,
-

1.

Exomple I
30

## Reduce 1^ to an equivalent fraction in lowest tems:

42

30 2.3.5
42 2.3.7

--:-=-=

l'I

5
7

'-=-

In practice, this can be done even more quickly by dividing numefator and denominator by any number, prime or not, that will divide
both evenly. Repeat this process until there is no prime factor
remaining that is common to both numefatof and denominator:

30155
422t7
Exomple 2
Reduce
77

Txll

197 3x5x13

## Since the numefator and the denominator have no common

factors, the fraction is already in lowest terms.

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

## Proper Fractions, Improper Fractions,

and Mixed Numbers
Definirions
fraction is a fraction whose numerator is smaller than its

A proper

## denominator. Proper fractions always have a value less than

1:

357270
481321
An improper fraction is a fraction with numerator equal to of gfeatef
than the denominator. Improper fractions always have a value equal
to or greater than 1:

317

217114

915

## A mixed number is a number composed of a whole number and

proper fraction. It is always greater than I in value:

7t3 5311
'4
-8
t4
77
The svmbol 3: means J + ;
8-8

## To Chonge q Mixed Number info on lmproper Frqction

Multiply the denominator by the whole number and add this product
to the numeratof. Use the sum so obtained as the new numeratof,
and keep the original denominator.

Exomple
Write 9
4
o_'

11

,,

as an improper fraction:

(71x9)+4_99+4=103

11

11

11

## Note: In any calculations with mixed numbers, first change the

mixed numbers to improper fractions.

Pe

Ie

rso

n's: u u u.pete

rso

s.co

SUBJECT REVIEWS

## To Chonge on lmproper Froction into q Mixed Number

Divide the numerator by the denominator. The result is the wholenumber part of the mixed number. If there is a remainder in the
division process because the division does not come out evenly, put
the remainder over the denominator (divisor). This gives the fractional part of the mixed number:

20'- 6 2
7)2O
-3 = -':'8 -6-J
- remainder

Multiplication

## Proper ond lmproper Frqctions

Multiply the two numerators and then multiply the two denominators. If the numerator obtained is larger than the denominator, divide
the numerator of the resulting fraction by its denominator:

3t545
8 11 88

1226610
875656

## Multiplication of fractions is commutative.

Three or mofe fractions are multiplied in the same way; two numefators are done at a time, and the result is multiplied by the next

numefatof.
The product in the multiplication of fractions is usually expressed in lowest terms.

Conceling
In multiplying fractions, if any of the numerators and denominators
have a common divisor (factor), divide each of them by this common
factor and the value of the fraction remains the same. This process is

Exomple

910
96

,-n

.+8^-N-'
-v--2
2 100
2790279
18 300 18

30

10
10

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Succes

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

9r
-4r'
*a 26

## Cancel: 18 and 9 each divisible by 9;27 and

each divisible by 3

2to

9xl

2x1O

3O

20

Another method:
J)

-fl ,/ 3x3
36 2xlo
-tA
2to

20

common factot

9 and 3O have

## Note: Canceling can take place only between a numeratot and a

denominator in the same of a different fraction, nevef between two
numerators of between two denominators.

Mixed Numbers
Mixed numbers should be changed to improper fractions before
multiplying. Then multiply as described above.

Exomple
multiply
4\

-x3:
7"8
change

rt

_5 (8x3)+5 21+5
"8888

29

Multiply
1

.( 2g_ 29

7 yt4
2

number

27

ll

SUBJECT REVIEWS

## Froctions with Whole Numbers

Write the whole number as a fraction with a denominator of 1 and
then multiply:

37

2t

-X7=-x------=544144

Note: When any fraction is multiplied by l, its value remains unchanged. V/hen any fraction is multiplied by 0, the product is 0.

Division

Reciprocols
Division of fractions involves reciprocals. One fraction is the reciprocal of another if the product of the fractions is 1.

Exomple I

74
and: are reciprocals since

,
43
11
Z ,( lxl

-X-=
A',1
11

Ix

Exomple 2
1

;)

1

1,/
--x .5
1

## To find the reciprocal of a fraction, interchange the numerator and

denominator-that is, invert the fraction, or turn it upside down.

## Proper ond lmproper Frocfions

Multiply the first fraction (dividend) by the reciprocal of the second
fraction (divisor). Reduce by cancellation if possible. If you wish to,
change the answer to a mixed number when possible:

Exomple

9497

The reciprocal
'7474of

-*-=-X-:

2724

4/+/
;is;becauSe:x;-

63
8
7

-/g

Pe te rso

n's SSAT4

SE

E S u ccess

MATHEMATICS

REVIEW

?
i

## Mixed Numbers qnd/or Whole Numbers

Both mixed numbers and whole numbers must first be changed to
equivalent improper fractions. Then proceed as described above.

## Note: If a fraction or a mixed number is divided by 1, its value is

unchanged. Division of a fraction or a mixed number by O is not
defined. If a fraction is divided by itself or an equivalent fraction, the
quotient is 1:

1919197197
77719'719
=1x1=1

tddition

## Fractions can be added only if their denominators are the same

(called the common denominator). Add the numerators; the denominator remains the same. Reduce the sum to the lowest tems:

3 2 | 3+2+I 6

8'8

=?

## When the fractions have different denominators, you must find a

common denominator. One way of doing this is to find the product
of the different denominators.

rl!

lt!

Exomple

51
6' 4-'

-L--?

## A common denominatot is 5 . 4 = 24.

5420
16 6
1x_ =--- and -:X-=--64244624
t20 6
5
-*
6
4- 24' 24
---f-

2O+5
24

26
24
13

t2
1

=l- T2

P eterson's:

uww.petersons. com

lll

SUBJECT REVIEWS

## Leqst Common Denominqtor

A denominator can often be found that is smaller than the product of
the different denominators. If the denominator of each fraction will
divide into such a number evenly and it is the smallest such number.
it is called t}re least (or lotuest) cotnmon denorninator, abbreviated
as LCD. Finding a least common denominator may make

it

unneces-

## to reduce the answer and enables one to work with smaller

numbers. There are two common methods.
sary

5t

64

-t--2

## LCD = 12 because 12 is the smallest number into which 6 and 4

divide evenly. Therefore:

12+6=2

multiolv2r?=!
"6 2 t2

t2+4=3

multiply]><1=A
'43t2

Then:

5110
3
6- 4- 12- 12
t3
t2
I
=1-l2
Second Method: By Foctoring
This method can be used when the LCD is not recognized by
inspection. Factor each denominator into its prime factors. The
LCD is the product of the highest power of each separate factor,
where poluer refers to the number of times a factot occufs.

Exomple

5r
-L--2

6' 4-'
Factoring denominators gives:

LCD = 2.2.3
=12

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

Convert to LCf):

t3

5210

-X-=12
43

=X-=6212

5 | 10
J

641272

---I-

13
12

-1-t2
The denominators 4 and6 factot into 2'2 and2.i,respectively. Although the factor 2 appears three times, its power is 22
from factoring 4. Ttre factor 3 appearc once, so its power is 31.
Therefore, the LCD as a producf of the bigbest pouer of eacb
separate factor is 2 x 2 x 3.
The factoring method of adding fractions can be extended to
three or more fractions.

Exomple

131

*-*--?
4812

--

4=2.2
8=2.2.2
LCD = 2.2.2.3
=24
Convert to

LCD:

{tt

16 6 33
46248324

_--

_v_--

1))

12224
13 t 6 9 t
--:+_f-=------+
4A12242424
6+9+2
24
17

24

I

12=2.2.3

SUBJECT REVIEWS

## Addirion of Mixed Numbers

Change any mixed numbers to fractions. If the fractions have the
same denorninatof, add the numefators. If the fractions have different
denominators, flnd the LCD of the several denominators and then add
numeratofs. Reduce the answer if possible. Write the answer as a

## mixed number if you wish.

Exomple

212
2-+5-+1-=?
329
Factoring denominators gives:

3=3

2=2

9=3'3

2'3.3

LCD =

=18
Convert to LCD:

8 648
11999
2 918
3618
2I
281111
2-+5-+
'2 1---

11 2 22
9 278

93 2 9
48 99 22
=-+
18 18 18
48+99+22
18

=#=e*
Subtraction

## Fractions can be subtracted only if the denominators are the same.

the denominators are the same, find the difference between the
numeratofs. The denominator remains unchanged.

If

Exomple

192
___=7

33

19-2
3

t7

t
2

=J-J

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

## When fractions have different denominators, find equivalent fractions

with a common denominator and then subtract numefators.

Exomple

73

---=7
84
Factoring denominators gives:

8=2.2.2
LCD =

4=2'2

2'2.2

=\$
Conveft to LCD:

77
326
88
42
7376
---=--8 4 8 8
7

-6
8

Mixed Numbers
To subtract mixed numbers, change each mixed number to a
fraction. Find the LCD for the fractions. Write each fraction as an
equivalent fraction whose denominator is the cofilmon denominator.
Find the difference between the numerators.

Exomple

t1-22=t
-8
6
LCD = 24

352717

7--1"8-686
81
24

68
24

73

24

3_ 1l - 3 03

4 "-4 4-4

## is the original fraction:

fll

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Fr<rcfion Problems
In the following problems, perform the indicated operations and
reduce the answers to lowest tems.

>+
t2 t5
t3
) --:2'8
52
3.
t23
25
4.
3tt
t4
3-x"3
5
47
6. '7'5 - )--3
1..

9.

't1

):- + 1:

55
632
_X_X_
743
,25
6x-x2=
36
)-7

10.

2-+l39

Solutions

11

l.

3.

5 4 t /
t2 15=-r(
w*7
33
13181,8
2423233

9
4
4

-:---v---

525813
123t21212
2522157
311333333

1l2

-f_-_f

4.

141041{482

t. 3t*t=Trt=T^-ft=21
1

4 1397 tt7 35 82 _7
- -__?_-:_:___6.
-\I5
15- t5-'t5
5353
Peterson's SSAT/ISEE

Succs

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

)
313 +-:38
72-+
5
5
5
5

8.

53 x-2
-x/4
)

9.

2
6217
6x- x2-65 :-x-x---;136

10.

Decimals

:a:

7.

113113
x-x-:-x-x-:217117

37

2
36
x;x
4

10-

34

99
163

2
78168
2-+ 1-:-:---x
9393
)

11;
:)

X-:
r6

3t3

-x-:122

## Eadier, we stated that whole numbers are expressed in a system of

tens, or the decimal system, using the digits from 0 to 9. This system
can be extended to fractions by using a period called a decimal
point. The digits after a decimal point form a decimal fraction.
Decimal fractions are smaller than l-for example, .3, .37, .372, and
.105. The first position to the right of the decimal point is called the
tentbs' place, since the digit in that position tells how many tenths
there are. The second digit to the right of the decimal point is in the

bundred.tlts' place. The third digit to the right of the decimal point is
in the tlsousandtlts' place, and so on.

Exomple I
.3 is a decimal fraction that means

r3
3x_-_
"1010
read "three-tenths."

Exomple 2
The decimal fraction of .37 means

1110
"3x-+ix-=Jx-*7x10
100 - 100
30737
100 100

100

I-

100

## rcad " thirty-seven hundredths. "

Exomple 3
The decimal fraction .372 means

300 70
r.000 1,000
--T--

1,000

372
1,000

## read "three hundred seventy-fwo thousandths."

Peterson'S : Luwtt

).p

etersons, COm

SUBJECT REVIEWS

## (unwritten) decimal polrri

to the right of the last digit (i.e., 4 = 4.O). Decimal fractions can
be combined with whole numbers to make decimals-for
SThole numbers have an understood

## example, 3.245, 10.85, and 4.7.

Note: Adding zeros to the right:of a decimal after the last digit
does not change the value of the decimal.

Decimals a'flld
Fractions

## Chonging q Decimql to q Frqction

Place the digits to the right of the decimal point over the value of the
place in which the last digit appears and reduce if possible. The
whole number remains the same.

Exomple
Change 2.14 to a fraction or mixed number. Observe that 4 is
the last digit and is in the hundredths' place.

147
.74--=
100 50
Therefore:
2.14 =

2-

50

rl

Li

## Divide the numerator of the fraction by the denominator. First put a

decimal point followed by zeros to the right of the number in the
numerator. Add and divide until there is no remainder. The decimal
point in the quotient is aligned directly above the decimal point in
the dividend.

Exomple

'l
:

Chanse:toadecimal.
"8
Divide
.375

8E.ooo
24

60
56
<o

40
'When

Pete rso

## n's SSAT/ISE E Szccess

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

First Method
.833

6Eroo
48c
-20
18

zo
18
2

## The 3 in the quotient will be repeated indefinitely. It is called an

infinite decimal and is written .833 . . . .

Second Mefhod
Divide until there are two decimal places in the quotient and then
write the remainder over the divisor.

Exomple
Change

;o to a decimal.

.833

6/5.000
-l48)

.83;

zo
18

zo

Addition

## Addition of decimals is both commutative and associative. Decimals

are simpler to add than fractions. Place the decimals in a column with
the decimal points aligned under each other. Add in the usual way.
The decimal point of the answer is also aligned under the other
decimal points.

Exomple

43+2.73+.9+3.OI=?
43.

-77

.9

3.ol

4%4

## Peterson's : utuLa.petersons. com

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Subtraction

For subtraction, the decimal points must be aligned under each other.
Add zeros to the right of the decimal point if desired. Subtract as
with whole numbers.

Exomples

Multiplication

21.567

21.567

39.00

-9.4
12:t67

-9.48
13.087

-17.48
2L52

## Multiplication of decimals is commutative and associative:

j.39x.O4=.O4x5.39
(.7 x .O2) x .1 = .7 '(.O2x .7)
Multiply the decimals as if they were whole numbers. The total
number of decimal places in the product is the sum of the number of
places (to the right of the decimal point) in all of the numbers
multiplied.

Exomple
8.64 x.003 =

8.64 2
.003 + 3

.02592

## places to right of decimal point

places to right of decimal point
places to right of decimal point

## L zero had to be added to the left of the product

before wriring
the decimal point to ensure that there would be five decimal
places in the product.

## Note: To multiply a decimal by 10, simply move the decimal

point one place to the right; to multiply by 100, move the
decimal point two places to the right.

Division

## To divide one decimal (the dividend) by another (the divisor), move

the decimal point in the divisor as many places as necessary to the
right to make the divisor a whole number. Then move the decimal
point in the dividend (expressed or understood) a corresponding
number of places, adding zeros if necessary. Then divide as with
whole numbers. The decimal point in the quotient is placed above
the decimal point in the dividend after the decimal point has been
moved.

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

Exomple
Divide 7.6 by .32.
23.75

a2F so = 3zF6aoo
64

no
96

uo
224
16-0

160

## Note: "Divide 7.5by .32" canbe writren

is multiplieO Uy *,

^#

If this fracrion

## an equivalent fraction is obtained

loo
whole number in the denominator:

with

## 7.6 100 760

.32 100 32
Moving the decimal point two places to the right in both divisor
and dividend is equivalent to multiplying each number by 100.

Speciol Coses
If the dividend has a decimal point and the divisor does not, divide as
with whole numbers and place the decimal point of the quotient
above the decimal point in the divisor.
If both dividend and divisor are whole numbers but the quotient
is a decimal, place a decimal point after the last digit of the dividend
and add zeros as necessary to get the required degree of accuracy.
(See Changing a Fraction to a Decimal, page 162.)
Note: To divide any number by 10, simply move its decimal point
(understood to be after the last digit for a whole number) one place
to the left; to divide by 100, move the decimal point two places to
the left; and so on.

Ir

il

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Decimol Problems

L.

a.
b.
2.

1.76
15.a5

a-

)
8

b.; 5

3. 3.762 + 23.43
4. 1.358 - .559
5. 8.7 x .8
6. .o4j + .j
7. 73 - .46
8. 5.43 + .r54 +
9. 7.2 x .OO2
10. 2.2 + 8

17

## decimals .0p, .769, and.8 is the smallest?

Solufions
1.

L.

,1684
l.16=1-=1--l100 50

b.

15.05

25

5r

= 15100= 1520

lr-I = 8)3.000

.375

2.

a.

-24

?o
-)()

-40
b.

2 .666...
_
= il2.O0
a
"18

-io
-18

-20

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

3.

3.762
+23.43

zl tgz

4.

1.368

-.559
.809

5.

8.7

x.8

5.96
5.

7.

o.09

.5.8.o.4s
(.c
73.OO

.46

72.54
8.

5.43

.154
+ 17.OOO

22.584
9.

7.2

.002

- .u44
10.

## (One digit to the right of the decimal point)

(Three digits to the right of the decimal point)
(Four digits to the right of the decimal point)

o.275

8D2

1L.

Percents

## The easiest way to determine the smallest decimal number is to

append 0's to the end of each of the numbers until they all have
the same number of digits. Then, ignore the decimal points and
:
see which number is the smallest. Thus, .09 : .090, .769
.769, .8: .800. Clearly, the smallest number is .09

## Percents, like fractions and decimals, ate ways of expressing parts of

whole numbers, as 93%o, 5O%, and 22.4%. Percents afe expfessions of
hundredths-that is, of fractions whose denominator is 100. The

## symbol for percent is "%o".

Exomple
25% = fwenty_five hundredths

zj
100

=z

## The word percent means per bundred. lts main use is in

comparing fractions with equal denominators of 100.

## Peterson's: lt)ww.Peters ons. com

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Relationship with
Fractions
and Decimals

## Chonging q Percenf to q Decimql

Divide the percent by 100 and drop the symbol for percent. Add
zeros to the left when necessary:
3O%

.3O

l%o

.O1

## Remember that the short method of dMding by 100 is ro move the

decimal point two places to the left.

## Chonging o Decimql to q Percent

Multiply the decimal by 100 by moving the decimal point two places
to the right, and add the symbol for percent:
.375 =

37.5%

.OOl

= .l%

## Chonging q Percent fo q Frocfion

Drop the percent sign. Write the number as a numerator ovcr a
denominator of 100. If the numerator has a decimal point, move the
decimal point to the right the necessary number of places to make
the numerator a whole number. Add the same number of zeros to the
right of the denominator as you moved places to the right in the
numefator. Reduce where possible.

Exomples
2oo/o

36.5v"

2021
100 10 5
36.5 365
100 I,000

73

200

## Chonging q Frqcfion fo q Percent

Use either of two methods.

Firsf Mefhod
change the fraction into an equivalent fraction with a denominator of
100. Drop rhe denominator (equivalent to multiplying by 100) and
add the % sign.

Exomple
6

Express_asapercent.
'20

6530
20 5 100

:-: X:

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

Second Merhod
Divide the numerator by the denominator to get a decimal with two
places (express the remainder as a fuaction if necessary). Change the
decimal to a pefcent.

Exomple
Express

a percent.

^as
'30

= 3O%
20= 2O)6.O0
60

Percent Problems

l.

L.
b.
2.

a.
b.
3.

37.5%
o.5%

O.625

3.75

7

a'8

b'
4.

a.
b.

73

2oo

87.5%
o.o2%
1

).

6.

Vrite

Write

j11

8.

V;rite 1.25

9.

16

as

as

## both a percent and a fraction.

5r,

er , ot .628?

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Solutions

1,. a.

b.

37.5% = O.375

OO.5%

= 0.005

J
2. a. O.625 = 62.5%
(:
b. 3.75
(: = 375%
3.

a.

= 8F.ooo -- 87.j%
o.165

/J

b.

4.

0.875

2OO=

200,)73.000 = 36.5%

87.5%= 0.875

L.

b.

O.O2%

/s:

12 .

6.

.O7%:0.0007

7.

11

r6

875

1,000=3:=7
40 g

O.OO02 =

5.

10,000

5,000

12.25%: O.1225

10,000

.6875

r5Et.oooo :68.75%

:2
8. 1.25: I25%:125
lo0 4
9.

## In order to determine the largest number, we must write them

all in the same form. Wriring 7 u,
"8 ^decimal, we obtain .625.If
we write 62o/o as a decimal, we get .62. Thus, .628 is the largest
of the three numbers.

## Solving Percent Problems

There are several different types of word problems involving percents
that might appeaJ| on your test. In addition to generic percent
problems, other applications you might be asked to solve involve
taxation, commission, profit and loss, discount, and interest. All of
these problems are solved in essentially the same way, as the examples that follow illustrate.
Note that when solving percent problems, it is often easier to
change the percent to a decimal or a fraction before computing.
When we take a percent of a certain number, that number is called

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

ttle base, the percent we take is called tl;'e rate, and the result is
called the part. If we let B represent the base, R represent the rate,
and P represent the part, the relationship between these three
quantities can be expressed by the following formula

P: RxB
All percent problems can be solved with the help of this formula.
The first four examples below show how to solve all types of
generic percent problems. The remaining examples involve specific
financial applications.

Exomple I
In a class of 24 students,

25%o

## received an A. How many students

received an A?
The number of students (24) is thebase, and 25% is tlrre rate. Change
the rate to a fraction for ease of handling and apply the formula.

='5 =!
-1004
P=RxB

25o/n

L21

r'1
1

= 6 students
To choose between changing the percent (rate) to a decimal or a
fraction, simply decide which would be easier to work with. In
Example 1, the fraction is easier to work with because cancellation is possible. In Example 2, the situation is the same except for
a different rate. This time the decimal form is easier.

Exomple 2
In a class of 24 students, 29.17% received an A. How many
students received an A? Changing the rate to a fraction yields

29.17 2917
100 10,000
You can quickly see that the decimal is the better choice.
29.17%

.2917

P=RxB
= .2917 x 24
= 7 students

.29t7

x24

r.1668
5.834
7.0008

SUBJECT RFVIEWS

Exomple 3
\[hat percent of

16=Rx4O

## Divide each side of the equation by 40.

t6

-=R
40
2

:=R
4O%=R

Exomple 4
A woman paid \$15,000 as a down payment on a house. If this
amount was 2O% of the price, what did the house cost?
The part (or percentage) is \$15,000, the fate is 2o%, and we
must find the base. Change the rate to a fraction.
1

=:
P=RxB

2O%o

\$1i.000--xB
5

5.

## \$75,Ooo = B = cost of house

Exomple 5
A salesperson sells a new car for \$Z4,SOO and receive s a
commission. How much commission does he receive?

5%

The cost of the car (\$24,8O0) is the base, and the rate is 5%. S[e
are looking for the amount of commission, which is the part.

## P:5% x \$24,800: .05 x \$24,8OO:61,240

Thus, the salesperson receives a commission of \$1,240.

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

Exomple 6
Janet buys alaptop computer for \$1,199 and has to pay 7% sales
tax. Vhat is the amount of sales tax she owes, and what is the
total price of the computer?
The cost of the computer (\$1,199) is the base, and the rate is7%o.
We are looking for the amount of sales tax, which is the part.

P:7%o x \$1,199

.O7

x \$1,199:

\$83.93

Thus, the sales tax is \$83.93, and the total cost of the computer
is \$1,199 + \$83.93 : \$t,282.93.

Discounf
The amount of discount is the difference between the original price
and the sale, or discount, price. The rate of discount is usually given
as a ftaction or as a percent. Use the formula of the percent problems
P = R x fl but now P stands for the part or discount, R is the rate,
and B, the base, is the original price.

Exomple 7
A table listed at \$160 is marked 20% off. What is the sale price?

P=RxB
=

.2O

x \$160 =

\$32

This is the amount of discount, or how much must be subtracted from the original price. Then:
\$160

## \$32 = \$128 sale price

Exomple 8
A car priced at \$9,000 was sold for \$7,200. What was the rate of
discount?

Amount of discount

\$9,OOO

\$7,ZOO

\$1,800

## Discount = rate x original price

\$1,800=Rx\$9,000
Divide each side of the equation by \$9,000:
20

*,EO1
----.
-yfr60
100

P eterson's:

## uwtD,p etersons. con1.

20
100

=R=2Oo/o

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Successive Discounting
rillhen an item is discounted more than once,
it is called successive
discounting.

Exomple 9
In one store, a dress tagged at \$40 was discounted 15%. When it did
not sell at the lowerprice, itwas discounted afl additionallo%.what
was the final selling price?

## Discount = R x original price

First discount = .15 x \$40 = \$6

## \$6 = \$34 selling price after first discounr

Second discount = .10 x \$j4 = \$j.4O
\$40

\$34

Exomple

IO

## In another store, an identical dress was also tagged at \$4O. When

it did not sell, it was discounted 25o/o all at once. Is the final
selling price lower or higher than in Example l?
Discount = R x original price
= .25 x \$4O
= \$10
\$40 - \$10 = \$30 finat selling price
This is a lower selling price than in Example 9, where two
successive discounts were taken. Although the two discounts
from Example 9 add up to the discount of Example 10, the final
selling price is not the same.

lnferest
Interest problems are similar to discount and percent problems. If
money is left in the bank for a year and the interest is calculated at
the end of the year, the usual formula p = R x B can be used, where
P is the interest, R is the rate, and B is the principat (original amount
of money borrowed or loaned).

Exomple I I
A certain bank pays interest on savings accounts at the rate of
4% per year.If a mafl has \$6,700 on deposit, find the interest
earned aftet 1 yeat.

P=RxB
Intefest = fat\.. principal
P = .o4 x \$6,700 = \$z6s inrerest
Interest problems frequently involve more or less time than
year. Then the formula becomes:
Intefest = tate x principal x time

## Peterson's SSAT/ISEE Success

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

Exomple

l2

If the money is left in the bank for 3 yearc at simple interest (the
kind we are discussing), the interest is
3x\$.268=\$go4

Exomple

l3

## Suppose \$6,700 is deposited in the bank at 4Yo intetest for 3

months. How much interest is earned?

ll

Here the

4%o

rate is

+=,

!4 = 16,

## Percent of Chonge Problems

The percent of change problem is a special, yet very common, type
of percent problem. In such a problem, there is a quantity that has a
certain starting value (usually called the "original value"). This original
value changes by a certain amount (either an increase or a decrease),
leading to what is called the "new value." The problem is to express
this increase or decrease as a percent.
Percent of change problems are solved by using a method
analogous to that used in the problems above. First calculate the
amount of the increase or decrease. This amount plays the role of
the part P in the formula P : R x B. The base, B, is the original
amount regardless of whether there was a gain or a loss.

Exomple

I4

## By what percent does Mary's salary increase if her present salary

is \$20,000 and she accepts a new job at a salary of \$28,000?

## Amount of increase is:

\$28,000

\$20,000 = \$8,000

P=RxB
\$8,000=Rx\$20,000
Divide each side of the equation by \$20,000. Then:
40

8OO 40
=zrp6o-loo-"-n-4o%increase
100

Pe t ers o n's

tr

1l

SUBJECT REVIEWS

Exomple

l5

## On Tuesday, the price of Alpha stock closed at \$56 a share. On

'Wednesday,
the stock closed at a price that was \$14 higher than
the closing price on Tuesday. \[hat was the percent of increase

## in the closing price of the stock?

In this problem, we are given the amount of increase of \$14. Thus,

P:RxB
14:Rx56.Thus,

t4

R:-;:,:25o/o'
)b4
The percent of increase in the closing price of the stock is 25%.

1.

## Janet received a rent increase of 15%.If her rent was \$7g5

monthly before the increase, what is her new rent?

2.

School bus fares rose from \$25 per month to \$30 per month.
Find the percent of increase.

3.

## A dress originally priced at \$90 is marked down 35%, then

discounted a further lO%. \that is the new, reduced price?

4.

## Dave delivers flowers for a salary of \$45 a day, plus a lZ%

commission on all sales. One day his sales amounted to \$220.
How much money did he earfi that dly?

5.

## A certain bank pays interest on money market accounts ataf?lte of 6%

ayeat. If Brett deposits \$7 ,2OO, find the interest eamed a-fter one year.

6.

## A small business office bought a used copy machine for 75% of

the original price. If the original price was \$3,500, how much
did they pay for the copy machine?

7.

## A lawyer who is currently earning \$4ZJ\O annually receives

6.5% nise. rWhat is his new annual salary?

8.

An industrial plant reduces its number of employees, which was originally 3,76O,by 5%. How many employees now work at the plant?

9.

## The value of a mutual fund investment of \$3,750 increased \$500.

What is the percent of increase in the price of the mutual fund?

1-0.

## Due to a decrease in demand for a particular computer printer, a

computer supply store feduces the number of orders for the
printer from 35 per month to 20 per month. rVhat percent of
decrease does this represent? Round off your answer to the
neafest whole number percent.