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GMC Sierra 3500HD

ESSENTIAL NOTES BEFORE PROCEEDING


Safety Notice
Proper service and repair procedures are vital to the safe, reliable operation of all motor vehicles,
as well as the personal safety of those performing repairs. This information outlines procedures
for servicing and repairing vehicles using, safe, effective methods. The procedures contain many
NOTES, CAUTIONS and WARNINGS which should be followed, along with standard procedures,
to eliminate the possibility of personal injury or improper service which could damage the vehicle
or compromise its safety.
It is important to note that repair procedures and techniques, tools and parts for servicing motor
vehicles, as well as the skill and experience of the individual performing the work, vary widely. It
is not possible to anticipate all of the conceivable ways or conditions under which vehicles may
be serviced, or to provide cautions as to all possible hazards that may result. Standard and
accepted safety precautions and equipment should be used during cutting, grinding, chiseling,
prying, or any other process that can cause material removal or projectiles.
Some procedures require the use of tools specially designed for a specific purpose. Before
substituting another tool or procedure, you must be completely satisfied that neither your personal
safety, nor the performance of the vehicle, will be endangered.
Although information in the data is based on industry sources and is complete as possible at the
time of publication, the possibility exists that some vehicle manufacturers made later changes
which could not be included here. While striving for total accuracy, the Publisher cannot assume
responsibility for any errors, changes or omissions that may occur in the compilation of this data.

Part Numbers
Part numbers listed in this reference are not recommendations by the Publisher for any product
brand name. They are references that can be used with interchange manuals and aftermarket
supplier catalogs to locate each brand supplier's discrete part number.

Special Tools
Special tools are recommended by the vehicle manufacturer to perform their specific job. Use has
been kept to a minimum, but, where absolutely necessary, they are referred to in the text by the
part number of the tool manufacturer. These tools can be purchased, under the appropriate part
number, from your local dealer or regional distributor, or an equivalent tool can be purchased
locally from a tool supplier or parts outlet. Before substituting any tool for the one recommended,
read the SAFETY NOTICE at the top of this page.

PRECAUTIONS
Before servicing any vehicle, please be sure to read all of the following precautions, which deal
with personal safety, prevention of component damage, and important points to take into
consideration when servicing a motor vehicle:

Never open, service or drain the radiator or cooling system when the engine is hot;
serious burns can occur from the steam and hot coolant.
Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever servicing
the fuel system, always work in a well-ventilated area. Do not allow fuel spray or vapors
to come in contact with a spark, open flame, or excessive heat (a hot drop light, for
example). Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work area. Always keep fuel in a
container specifically designed for fuel storage; also, always properly seal fuel containers
to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion. Refer to the additional fuel system precautions
later in this section.
Fuel injection systems often remain pressurized, even after the engine has been
turned OFF. The fuel system pressure must be relieved before disconnecting any fuel
lines. Failure to do so may result in fire and/or personal injury.
Brake fluid often contains polyglycol ethers and polyglycols. Avoid contact with the eyes
and wash your hands thoroughly after handling brake fluid. If you do get brake fluid in
your eyes, flush your eyes with clean, running water for 15 minutes. If eye irritation
persists, or if you have taken brake fluid internally, IMMEDIATELY seek medical
assistance.
The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number of skin
disorders, including cancer. You should make every effort to minimize your exposure to
used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing oil. Wash your hands
and any other exposed skin areas as soon as possible after exposure to used engine oil.
Soap and water, or waterless hand cleaner should be used.
All new vehicles are now equipped with an air bag system, often referred to as a
Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) or Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR) system.
The system must be disabled before performing service on or around system
components, steering column, instrument panel components, wiring and sensors. Failure
to follow safety and disabling procedures could result in accidental air bag deployment,
possible personal injury and unnecessary system repairs.
Always wear safety goggles when working with, or around, the air bag system. When
carrying a non-deployed air bag, be sure the bag and trim cover are pointed away from
your body. When placing a non-deployed air bag on a work surface, always face the bag
and trim cover upward, away from the surface. This will reduce the motion of the module
if it is accidentally deployed. Refer to the additional air bag system precautions later in
this section.
Clean, high quality brake fluid from a sealed container is essential to the safe and proper
operation of the brake system. You should always buy the correct type of brake fluid for
your vehicle. If the brake fluid becomes contaminated, completely flush the system with
new fluid. Never reuse any brake fluid. Any brake fluid that is removed from the system
should be discarded. Also, do not allow any brake fluid to come in contact with a painted
surface; it will damage the paint.
Never operate the engine without the proper amount and type of engine oil; doing so
WILL result in severe engine damage.

Servicing Your Vehicle Safely


It is virtually impossible to anticipate all of the hazards involved with automotive
maintenance and service, but care and common sense will prevent most accidents.
The rules of safety for mechanics range from "don't smoke around gasoline," to "use the
proper tool for the job." The trick to avoiding injuries is to develop safe work habits and
take every possible precaution.

DO'S
Do keep a fire extinguisher and first aid kit handy.
Do wear safety glasses or goggles when cutting, drilling, grinding or prying, even if
you have 20-20 vision. If you wear glasses for the sake of vision, wear safety goggles
over your regular glasses.
Do shield your eyes whenever you work around the battery. Batteries contain sulfuric
acid. In case of contact with the eyes or skin, flush the area with water or a mixture of
water and baking soda, then seek immediate medical attention.
Do use safety stands (jackstands) for any undervehicle service. Jacks are for raising
vehicles; jackstands are for making sure the vehicle stays raised until you want it to
come down. Whenever the vehicle is raised, block the wheels remaining on the ground
and set the parking brake.
Do use adequate ventilation when working with any chemicals or hazardous materials.
Like carbon monoxide, the asbestos dust resulting from some brake lining wear can be
hazardous in sufficient quantities.
Do disconnect the negative battery cable when working on the electrical system. The
secondary ignition system contains EXTREMELY HIGH VOLTAGE. In some cases it can
even exceed 50,000 volts.
Do follow manufacturer's directions whenever working with potentially hazardous
materials. Most chemicals and fluids are poisonous if taken internally.
Do properly maintain your tools. Loose hammerheads, mushroomed punches and
chisels, frayed or poorly grounded electrical cords, excessively worn screwdrivers,
spread wrenches (open end), cracked sockets, slipping ratchets, or faulty droplight
sockets can cause accidents.
Likewise, keep your tools clean; a greasy wrench can slip off a bolt head, ruining the
bolt and often harming your knuckles in the process.

Do use the proper size and type of tool for the job at hand. Do select a wrench or
socket that fits the nut or bolt. The wrench or socket should sit straight, not cocked.
DON'TS
Don't run the engine in a garage or anywhere else without proper ventilation--EVER!
Carbon monoxide is poisonous; it takes a long time to leave the human body and you
can build up a deadly supply of it in your system by simply breathing in a little every day.
You may not realize you are slowly poisoning yourself. Always use power vents,
windows, fans and/or open the garage door.
Don't work around moving parts while wearing loose clothing. Short sleeves are much
safer than long, loose sleeves. Hard-toed shoes with neoprene soles protect your toes
and give a better grip on slippery surfaces. Jewelry such as watches, fancy belt buckles,
beads or body adornment of any kind is not safe working around a vehicle. Long hair
should be tied back under a hat or cap.
Don't use pockets for toolboxes. A fall or bump can drive a screwdriver deep into your
body. Even a rag hanging from your back pocket can wrap around a spinning shaft or
fan.
Don't smoke when working around gasoline, cleaning solvent or other flammable
material.
Don't smoke when working around the battery. When the battery is being charged, it
gives off explosive hydrogen gas.
Don't use gasoline to wash your hands; there are excellent soaps available. Gasoline
contains dangerous additives which can enter the body through a cut or through your
pores. Gasoline also removes all the natural oils from the skin so that bone dry hands
will suck up oil and grease.
Don't service the air conditioning system unless you are equipped with the necessary
tools and training. When liquid or compressed gas refrigerant is released to atmospheric
pressure it will absorb heat from whatever it contacts. This will chill or freeze anything it
touches. Although refrigerant is normally non-toxic, R-12 becomes a deadly poisonous
gas in the presence of an open flame. One good whiff of the vapors from burning
refrigerant can be fatal.
Don't use screwdrivers for anything other than driving screws! A screwdriver used as
an prying tool can snap when you least expect it, causing injuries. At the very least, you'll
ruin a good screwdriver.
Don't use a bumper or emergency jack (that little ratchet, scissors, or pantograph jack
supplied with the vehicle) for anything other than changing a flat! These jacks are only
intended for emergency use out on the road; they are NOT designed as a maintenance

tool. If you are serious about maintaining your vehicle yourself, invest in a hydraulic floor
jack of at least a 1 12 ton capacity, and at least two sturdy jackstands.

Fig. 1: Always support your vehicle on jackstand while


working underneath

Fig. 2: If you're using portable electric tools, make sure


they're grounded, preferably at the plug by a three wire
connector

ENGINE ELECTRICAL
Service Precautions
Before servicing any vehicle read all of the following precautions that deal with personal
safety, prevention of component damage, and important points to take into consideration
when servicing a motor vehicle:

If the battery is removed for any reason, ensure that it is reconnected with the
correct polarity. Reversing the batterys polarity may result in damage to the oneway rectifiers.
Never operate the generator with the main circuit broken. Ensure that the battery,
generator, and regulator leads are not disconnected while the engine is running.
Never attempt to polarize a generator.
When charging a battery that is installed in the vehicle, disconnect the negative
battery cable.
When utilizing a booster battery as a starting aid always connect it in parallel;
negative to negative and positive to positive.
When arc (electric) welding is to be performed on any part of the vehicle
disconnect the negative battery cable and generator leads.
Never unplug the PCM while the engine is running or with the ignition in the ON
position. Severe and expensive damage may result.
Never attempt to charge or connect jumper cables to a frozen battery. The
battery may explode. Bring the battery indoors where it can thaw before charging
the battery.
Never open, service or drain the radiator or cooling system when the engine is
hot; serious burns and blindness can occur from the steam and hot coolant.
Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever
servicing the fuel system always work in a well ventilated area. Do not allow fuel
spray or vapors to come in contact with sparks, open flame, or excessive heat (a
hot drop light, for example). Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work
area. Always keep fuel in a container specifically designed for fuel storage; and
always properly seal fuel containers to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion.
Refer to the additional fuel system precautions later in this section.
Fuel injection systems often remain pressurized, even after the engine has been
turned OFF. The fuel system pressure must be relieved before disconnecting any
fuel lines. Failure to do so may result in fire and/or personal injury.
The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number
of skin disorders including cancer. You should make every effort to minimize your
exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing oil.
Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas as soon as possible after

exposure to used engine oil. Soap and water or waterless hand cleaner should
be used.
Never operate the engine without the proper amount and type of engine oil.
Doing so will result in severe engine damage.

Timing belt maintenance is extremely important. Many models utilize an


interference-type, non-freewheeling engine. If the timing belt breaks, the valves in
the cylinder head may strike the pistons causing potentially serious (also timeconsuming and expensive) engine damage. Refer to the maintenance interval
charts in the front of this manual for the recommended replacement interval for
the timing belt, and to the timing belt section for belt replacement and inspection.
All new vehicles are now equipped with an air bag system. The system must be
disabled before performing service on or around system components, steering
column, instrument panel components, wiring and sensors. Failure to follow
safety and disabling procedures could result in accidental air bag deployment,
possible personal injury and unnecessary system repairs.
Always wear safety goggles when working with, or around, the air bag system.
When carrying a non-deployed air bag, be sure the bag and trim cover are
pointed away from your body. When placing a non-deployed air bag on a work
surface, always face the bag and trim cover upward, away from the surface. This
will reduce the motion of the module if it is accidentally deployed. Refer to the
additional air bag system precautions later in this section.
Disconnecting the negative battery cable on some vehicles may interfere with the
functions of the on-board computer system(s) and may require the computer to
undergo a relearning process once the negative battery cable is reconnected.
Batteries contain corrosive acid. Batteries supply current high enough to cause
burns. Batteries produce explosive gases. When working on batteries always
wear eye protection. Never allow battery acid to contact the skin or eyes. Do not
allow sparks or flames near the battery.

NOTE: Disconnecting the negative battery cable on some vehicles may interfere with the
functions of the on board computer system. The computer may undergo a relearning
process once the negative battery cable is reconnected.

Distributorless Ignition System


General Information
Distributorless ignition systems (EI) are used on many current engines. This system
uses the waste spark method for distributing secondary voltage. In a waste spark
system, an individual coil is used to fire one pair of engine cylinders simultaneously.
These cylinders are known as companions, since each of their pistons is at TDC at the
same time. On a typical V6 engine for example, cylinder 1 is at TDC compression while
cylinder 4 is at TDC exhaust. This is also true of cylinders 2 and 5 as well as cylinder 3
and 6.
The cylinder on the compression stroke is known as the event cylinder, while the cylinder
on the exhaust stroke is called the waste cylinder. Since secondary resistance is very
low in the cylinder on the exhaust stroke, little voltage is required to fire the plug. For this
reason, the majority of available voltage is consumed by the cylinder on the compression
stroke.
One spark plug is attached to each end of the secondary coil winding via the spark plug
wires. This series circuit arrangement causes one of the plugs to fire in a forward
direction (center electrode to outer electrode), and the other spark plug to fire in a
reverse direction (outer electrode to center electrode). The firing voltage requirements on
the waste spark ignition are significantly greater than a traditional ignition system
primarily because it takes 30% more energy to fire a plug reverse polarity. When a spark
plug is fired backwards, it fires from the outer electrode to the center electrode. This is a
high resistance path since the electrons do not flow as easily from a cold, dull surface
such as the outer electrode to a hot, sharp surface like the center electrode.
Since the coil and plugs are arranged in a series circuit, a typical plug gap of .050"
results in a total gap of .100" for the whole circuit that includes two spark plugs for the
companion cylinders. The waste spark can overcome this added resistance by producing
high secondary output voltages due to low resistance in the primary winding. Another
reason higher secondary ignition voltage is required is cylinder pressure; specifically, the
lack of it. Generally, event cylinders require 10 to 12-kV to initiate current flow across the
spark plug gap, while only 2 - 3-kV is needed to fire the waste cylinder. Therefore, the air
gap in the waste cylinder creates no more resistance than the rotor gap does in a
conventional ignition system.
There are two different methods used for coil trigger. One method sends the crankshaft
sensor signal directly to the ignition module to activate the coils, while the other sends

the crankshaft sensor signal to the PCM and the PCM controls ignition operation either
directly or through a separate ignition module.
Waste spark ignition advantages

It has fewer components than conventional distributor-type ignition systems.


No mechanical adjustments to set ignition timing.
No mechanical load (turning the distributor shaft).
No unwanted timing variations caused by gear lash or other worn distributor
components.

Another advantage of waste spark is longer coil life. To illustrate this point, consider a
six-cylinder engine with conventional ignition. At 3000 RPM, the coil must fire 9000 times
per minute. This is calculated by dividing the engine speed by 2, since the cam turns at
half crank speed, and then multiplying the distributor RPM by the total number of engine
cylinders.
In contrast, the coils on a six-cylinder engine with waste spark only work a third as hard.
This is because theres a coil for every two cylinders and each coil fires every crankshaft
revolution. This means that at 3000 RPM, the coils only fire 3000 times per minute. This
allows each coil to operate with less dwell (time that the coil is energized), resulting in
less heat buildup and longer life.
Coil Over Plug System
The coil over plug system was developed so that spark and spark timing could be better
controlled on an individual cylinder basis. Each cylinder has an ignition coil mounted
directly above the spark plug on the cylinder head cover. A short suppresser/connector
replaces the spark plug wire and links the coil to the plug. There are different methods
used for primary triggering. Some manufacturers use a combination coil/module, which
means each coil has its own control circuit that is activated by the PCM. Others use
remote mounted modules to trigger the coils.
Each individual coil is allowed to saturate while all other cylinders fire. For a V-8 engine,
this allows a period of seven firing events for coil saturation, compared to three events
for the same V-8 engine with a waste spark system. The coil over plug system also
benefits from a minimum amount of energy lost, due to the resistance of spark plug
wires.
Coil Near Plug System
The coil near plug system also features multiple ignition coils. An ignition coil/module is
mounted in proximity of each cylinder. There is a short length of spark plug wire between
the coil and the spark plug.
Each ignition coil/module has its own control circuit and is activated sequentially by the
PCM. All timing decisions are made by the PCM. This includes both ignition timing and
duration of the spark.

Camshaft Sensor
Many waste spark and coil over plug systems require a cylinder identification signal so
that the ignition coils can fire in the proper order during start up. If the computer does not
receive a cam sensor signal, some engines may not start. Some may take a few
attempts while the ignition module or PCM guesses at coil sequencing. The PCM will
attempt to synchronize and look for an increase in the mass airflow sensor (MAF) signal.
An increase in the MAF signal will indicate that the engine has started. If the PCM does
not detect an increase in the MAF signal, a re-sync will occur to the opposite cam
position. If the engine fails to start on the first attempt, try turning the key off and then try
again. If the engine starts normally on a subsequent attempt, look for a problem in the
camshaft sensor circuit. Some systems use the camshaft sensor only for control of
sequential fuel injection.
Related Symptoms
Faulty or fouled spark plugs along with a faulty ignition control system due to loose
connections, bad grounds, high resistance in the circuit, or opens in the circuit can cause
the following symptoms:

No start condition
Stalling after cold start
Stalling after hot start
Surging off idle
Extended crank time when engine is cold
Unstable idle
Running rough during off idle acceleration
Bucking
Hesitation
Stumble
Chuggle
Diesels or runs on
High idle
Poor fuel economy
Spark knock
Stalling on acceleration

Secondary Spark Test


This spark tester looks just like a spark plug. Attach the clip
to ground and crank the engine to check for spark.

This spark tester has an adjustable air-gap for measuring


spark strength and testing different voltage ignition systems.

Attach the clip to ground then crank the engine to check for
spark.

This spark tester is the easiest to use. Just place it on a


plug wire and the spark voltage is detected; the bulb on the
top will flash with each pulse.

NOTE: The best way to perform this procedure is to use a spark tester (available at most
automotive parts stores). Three types of spark testers are commonly available:

The Neon Bulb type is connected to the spark plug wire and flashes with each
ignition pulse.
The Air Gap type must be adjusted to the individual spark plug gap specified for
the engine.
The last type of spark plug tester looks like a spark plug with a grounding clip on
the side, but there is no side electrode for the spark to jump.

NOTE: The last two types of testers allow the user to not only detect the presence of
spark, but also the intensity of the spark. Orange/yellow is weak, blue is strong.
1. Disconnect a spark plug wire at the spark plug end.
2. Connect the plug wire to the spark tester and ground the tester to an appropriate
location on the engine or frame.
3. Crank the engine and check for spark at the tester.
4. If spark exists at the tester, the ignition system is functioning properly.
5. If spark does not exist at the spark plug wire, perform a diagnostic test of the
ignition system using individual component diagnosis procedures.

Firing Orders
NOTE: To avoid confusion, remove and tag the spark plug wires one at a time, for
replacement.
If a distributor is not keyed for installation with only one orientation, it could have been
removed and installed improperly and then rewired. The new wiring arrangement would
maintain the correct firing order, but could change the relative placement of the plug
towers in relation to the engine. For this reason it is imperative that you label all wires

before disconnecting any of them. Also, before removal, compare the current wiring with
the accompanying illustrations. If the current wiring does not match, make notes of the
current plug wire locations and orientation of the distributor cap.
4.3L Engine
1-6-5-4-3-2
4.8L, 5.3L & 6.6L Engine
1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3

Ignition Coil
Removal & Installation
4.8L, 5.3L & 6.6L Engines
To Remove:
Typical Ignition Coil Mounting

1. Remove or disconnect the following


Spark plug wires at the ignition coils
Ignition coil harness electrical connector
Ignition coil bolts
Ignition coil

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
The ignition coil
CAUTION
The ignition coil bolts have self-tapping threads, care must be taken, NOT
to strip the threads when installing.

Ignition coil bolts.


A. Tighten the bolts to 106 lb in (12 Nm).
Ignition coil harness electrical connector.
Spark plug wires at the ignition coils.

Charging System
General Information
The automobile charging system provides electrical power for operation of the vehicle's
ignition and starting systems as well as all electrical accessories. The battery serves as
an electrical surge, or storage tank, storing (in chemical form) the energy originally
produced by the engine driven alternator. The system also provides a means of

regulating alternator output to protect the battery from being overcharged, and to avoid
excessive voltage to the accessories.
The storage battery is a chemical device incorporating parallel lead plates in a tank
containing a sulfuric acid/water solution. Adjacent plates are slightly dissimilar, and the
chemical reaction of the two dissimilar plates produces electrical energy when the
battery is connected to a load such as the starter motor. The chemical reaction is
reversible, so that when the alternator is producing a voltage (electrical pressure) greater
than that produced by the battery, electricity is forced into the battery, and the battery is
returned to full charge.
The vehicle's alternator is driven by a belt, or belts from the engines crankshaft. In an
alternator, the field rotates while all the current produced passes only through the stator
winding. The brushes bear against continuous slip rings rather than a commutator. This
causes the current produced to periodically reverse the direction of its flow creating
alternating current (AC). Diodes (electrical one-way switches) block the flow of current
from traveling in the wrong direction. A series of diodes is wired together to permit the
alternating flow of the stator to be converted to a pulsating, but unidirectional flow at the
alternator output. The alternator's field is wired in series with the voltage regulator.
The voltage regulator consists of several circuits. Each circuit has a core, or magnetic
coil of wire, which operates a switch. Each switch is connected to ground through one or
more resistors. The coil of wire responds directly to system voltage. When the voltage
reaches the required level, the magnetic field created by the winding of wire closes the
switch and inserts a resistance into the alternator field circuit, thus reducing the output.
The contacts of the switch cycle open and closed many times each second to precisely
control voltage.

Alternator
Precautions
Several precautions must be observed when performing work on the alternator:

If the battery is removed for any reason, make sure that it is reconnected with the
correct polarity. Reversing the battery's polarity may result in damage to the oneway rectifiers.
Never operate the alternator with the main circuit broken. Make sure that the
battery, alternator, and regulator leads are not disconnected while the engine is
running.
Never attempt to polarize an alternator.
When charging a battery that is installed in the vehicle, disconnect the negative
battery cable.
When utilizing a booster battery as a starting aid, always connect it in parallel;
negative to negative, and positive to positive.
When arc (electric) welding is to be performed on any part of the vehicle,
disconnect the negative battery cable and alternator leads.
Never unplug the PCM while the engine is running or with the ignition in the ON
position. Severe and expensive damage may result.

Testing
Open Circuit Voltage Test
1. Make sure the engine is OFF, and turn on the headlights for 15 - 20 seconds to
remove any surface charge from the battery.

2. Use a DVOM (Digital Volt/Ohm Meter) set to DC volts and probe across the
battery terminals.
3. Measure the battery voltage.
4. Write down the voltage reading and proceed to the next test.
No-Load Test
1. Connect a tachometer to the engine.
CAUTION
Place the transmission in P (Park), set the emergency brake and chock the rear
wheels to prevent vehicle movement.
2. Turn off all electrical loads (radio, blower motor, wipers, etc.).
NOTE: It is a good practice to turn off all electrical accessories prior to shutting
off the engine.
3. Start the engine and increase engine speed to 1500 RPM.
4. Measure the voltage reading at the battery with the engine holding a steady 1500
RPM.
Voltage should increase at least 0.5 volts (no more than 2.5 volts)
5. If the voltage does not go up more than 0.5 volts, the charging system is not
charging.
6. If the voltage goes up more than 2.5 volts, the alternator is overcharging.
NOTE: Under and overcharging is typically caused by a defective alternator, or
its related parts (regulator). Note that the voltage regulator is internal to the
alternator assembly in many vehicles. Replacement of these items will often
repair the problem. However, faulty wiring and other problems can also cause the
charging system to malfunction. Further testing, which is not covered by this
book, will reveal the exact component failure. Many automotive parts stores have
alternator bench testers available for use by customers. An alternator bench test
is the most definitive way to determine the condition of your alternator.
7. If the voltage is within specifications, proceed to the next test.
Load Test
1. With the engine running, turn on the blower motor and the high beams (or other
electrical accessories to place a load on the charging system).
2. Increase and hold engine speed to 2000 RPM.
3. Measure the voltage reading at the battery.
4. The voltage should increase at least 0.5 volts from the voltage test. If the voltage
does not meet specifications, the charging system is malfunctioning.
NOTE: Under and overcharging are typically caused by a defective alternator, or its
related parts (regulator). The voltage regulator is internal to the alternator assembly in
many vehicles. Faulty wiring and other problems can also cause the charging system to

malfunction. Further testing, which is not covered by this book, will reveal the exact
component failure. Many automotive parts stores have alternator bench testers available
for use by customers. An alternator bench test is the most definitive way to determine
the condition of your alternator.
Removal & Installation
4.8L, 5.3L & 6.0L Engine
To Remove:
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Accessory drive belt
Engine sight shield, if necessary
Electrical connections from the generator
Mounting bolts
Generator
Alternator mounting-5.3L

To Install:
1. Install the generator.
2. Install or connect the following:
Generator mounting bolts.
A. Tighten the bolts to 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm).
Electrical connections to the generator.
A. Tighten the B+ nut to 13 ft. lbs. (18 Nm).
Engine sight shield, if removed
Accessory drive belt
3. Connect the negative battery cable.
Tighten to bolt to 13 ft. lbs. (17 Nm).

6.6L Diesel Engine


To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Accessory drive belt
Engine sight shield, if necessary
Electrical connections from the alternator
Mounting bolts
Alternator
Cable from the alternator as follows:
A. Slide the boot down, to reveal the terminal stud
B. Unfasten the cable nut from the stud, then remove the alternator
cable
Alternator mounting

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Alternator
Alternator mounting bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Electrical connections to the alternator and tighten the B+ nut
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Engine sight shield, if removed
Accessory drive belt
Connect the negative battery cable and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 13 ft. lbs. (17 Nm)
2. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

8.1L Engine
To Remove:
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Electrical connections from the generator
3. Remove the cable from the generator as follows:
Slide the boot down, to reveal the terminal stud.
Unfasten the cable nut from the stud, then remove the generator cable.
Accessory drive belt
Mounting bolts
Generator
Mounting bolts securing the generator to the brace and bracket
Generator
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Generator
Generator mounting bolts.
A. Tighten the bolts to 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm).
Accessory drive belt
Connect the generator cable, secure with the nut and tighten to 80 inch
lbs. (9 Nm). Slide the boot back over the terminal stud.
Electrical connections to the generator
2. Connect the negative battery cable.

Battery

Removal & Installation


Left Battery
To Remove:
CAUTION
Make sure to connect the correct battery cable to the correct battery terminal. Reversing
the battery's polarity may result in damage to electrical components.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Follow the precautions listed in the beginning of this section.


Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.
Turn off all lighting and accessories.
Disconnect the battery ground cable.
Remove the fender to radiator support brace.
Disconnect the battery positive cable.
Remove the battery hold down clamp bolt and retainer.
Remove the battery insulator.
Remove the battery from the tray.

To Install:
1. Install the battery on the tray.
2. Install the battery insulator.
3. Install the battery hold down retainer and bolt.
Tighten to 80 in lb (9 Nm).
4. Connect the positive battery cable.
Tighten to 13 ft lb (17 Nm).
5. Install the fender to radiator support brace.
6. Connect the negative battery cable
Tighten to 13 ft lb (17 Nm).
Right Battery
To Remove:
CAUTION
Make sure to connect the correct battery cable to the correct battery terminal. Reversing
the battery's polarity may result in damage to electrical components.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Follow the precautions listed in the beginning of this section.


Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.
Turn off all lighting and accessories.
Disconnect the battery ground cable.
Disconnect the battery positive cable.
Remove the battery hold down clamp bolt and retainer.
Remove the battery insulator.
Remove the battery from the tray.

To Install:

1. Install the battery on the tray.


2. Install the battery insulator.
3. Install the battery hold down retainer and bolt.
Tighten to 80 in lb (9 Nm).
4. Connect the positive battery cable.
Tighten to 13 ft lb (17 Nm).
5. Connect the negative battery cable
Tighten to 13 ft lb (17 Nm).

Starting System
General Information
The starting system includes the battery, starter motor and solenoid, ignition switch,
circuit protection and wiring connecting all of the components. An inhibitor switch located
in the Transmission Range (TR) sensor is included in the starting system to prevent the
vehicle from being started unless the transmission is in PARK. A similar function is
performed by the clutch switch in manual transmission vehicles.
When the ignition key is turned to the START position, current flows and energizes the
starter's solenoid coil. The solenoid plunger and clutch shift lever are activated and the
clutch pinion engages the ring gear on the flywheel. The switch contacts close, and the
starter cranks the engine until the engine starts.
To prevent damage caused by excessive starter armature rotation when the engine
starts, the starter incorporates an over-running clutch in the pinion gear. This disengages
the starter motor from the engine when the engine begins to run on its own.

Starter

Testing
Starting System Voltage Drop Tests
NOTE: The battery must be in good condition and fully charged prior to performing this
test.
There are three area of the starter motor circuits that voltage drop test can be performed
on. These include:

The starter feed circuit


The starter ground circuit
The starter solenoid.

Starter Feed Circuit


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Disable the fuel system by removing the fuel pump fuse or the fuel pump relay.
Verify that the vehicle will not start.
Connect the positive lead of a voltmeter to the positive terminal of the battery.
Connect the negative lead of a voltmeter to the starter B+ terminal.
Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage displayed on the
voltmeter.
Ideally, there should be no more than 0.1 volt drop for each connection
displayed on the voltmeter. No voltage should be consumed by the
vehicle wiring
A. If the battery cable connects directly to the starter motor there
should be no more than a 0.2 volt drop measured
B. If the vehicle uses a starter solenoid between the battery and the
starter motor terminal there should be no more than 0.4 volt
displayed on the voltmeter

Starter Ground Circuit


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Disable the fuel system by removing the fuel pump fuse or the fuel pump relay.
Verify that the vehicle will not start.
Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the case of the starter motor.
Connect the negative lead of the voltmeter to the negative terminal of the battery.
Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage displayed on the
voltmeter.
Ideally, there should be no more than 0.1 volt drop for each connection
displayed on the voltmeter. No voltage should be consumed by the
vehicle wiring
A. If the battery cable connects directly to the starter motor there
should be no more than a 0.2 volt drop measured

Starter Solenoid
1. Disable the fuel system by removing the fuel pump fuse or the fuel pump relay.
2. Verify that the vehicle will not start.

3. Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the case starter B+ terminal.
4. Connect the negative lead of the voltmeter to the lug (the starter M terminal) that
connects the starter solenoid to the starter motor.
5. Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage displayed on the
voltmeter.
Ideally, there should be no more than 0.2 volt drop across the starter
solenoid displayed on the voltmeter.
In general, there should be no more than a 1.0 volt drop throughout the entire starter
motor feed and ground circuit. Any voltage drops measured in either the feed or ground
circuits after connections have been cleaned will require replacement of the affected
battery cable. Typically, any voltage drops measured in the solenoid are repaired by
replacing the starter motor.
NOTE: Many automotive parts stores have starter bench testers available for use by
customers. A starter bench test is the most definitive way to determine the condition of
your starter.

Removal & Installation


4.8L, 5.3L & 6.6L Engine
To Remove:
CAUTION
Before servicing any electrical component, the ignition key must be in the OFF or LOCK
position and all electrical loads must be OFF, unless instructed otherwise in these
procedures.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Disconnect the negative battery cable.


Remove the bolt and reposition the engine oil dipstick tube.
Raise and support the vehicle.
Remove the protective shields as necessary.
Remove the starter to transmission close out cover bolt.
Disconnect the engine oil level sensor connection.
On 4WD vehicles, remove the front axle mounting bracket through bolt nut.
On 4WD vehicles, reposition the front axle mounting bracket through bolt until the
bolt tip is flush with the support bushing. Do not remove the bolt.
9. Remove the mounting bolts from the engine block. Slide the starter forward until
the starter clears the transmission. Remove the starter transmission close out
cover.
10. Disconnect the positive battery cable and wiring harness from the starter.
Remove the starter from the vehicle.
Starter removal-5.3L

To Install:
1. Install the starter.
2. Connect the positive battery cable to the starter.
Tighten the nut to 12 inch lbs. (16 Nm).
3. Install the starter transmission close out cover. Install the mounting bolts to the
engine block.
Tighten the bolts to 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm).
4. On 4WD vehicles, Reposition the front axle mounting bracket through bolt until
the bolt is fully seated Install the front axle mounting bracket through bolt nut.
Tighten the nut to 67 ft. lbs. (90 Nm).
5. Connect the engine oil level sensor connection.
6. Install the starter to transmission close out cover bolt.
7. Install the starter solenoid shield.
8. Install the protective shields as needed.
9. Remove the safety stands.
10. Lower the vehicle.
11. Install the engine oil dipstick tube.
12. Connect the negative battery cable.
Tighten the bolts to 13 ft. lbs. (17 Nm).
8.1L Engine
To Remove:
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
3. On 4WD vehicles, remove the front axle mounting bracket nuts. Do not remove
the bolt.
4. On 4WD vehicles, reposition the front axle mounting bracket bolt until the bolt tip
is flush with the support bushing.
5. Remove the starter mounting bolts.
6. Slide the starter forward until the starter clears the transmission.
7. Remove the wiring from the starter.
8. If necessary, remove the starter heat shield bolts, nut, and shield.
To Install:
1. If necessary, install the starter heat shield, nut and bolts.
2. Connect the wiring to the starter.
3. Install the starter on the engine.
Tighten the bolts to 37 lb ft (50 Nm).
4. On 4WD vehicles, position the front axle mounting bracket bolt until the bolt is
fully seated.
5. On 4WD vehicles, install the front axle mounting bracket nuts.
Tighten the nuts to 70 lb ft (95 Nm).
6. Lower the vehicle.
7. Connect the negative battery cable.

ENGINE & ENGINE REPAIR


Precautions
Before servicing any vehicle, please be sure to read all of the following precautions,
which deal with personal safety, prevention of component damage, and important points
to take into consideration when servicing a motor vehicle:

Never open, service or drain the radiator or cooling system when the engine is
hot; serious burns can occur from the steam and hot coolant.
Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever
servicing the fuel system, always work in a well-ventilated area. Do not allow fuel
spray or vapors to come in contact with a spark, open flame, or excessive heat (a
hot drop light, for example). Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work
area. Always keep fuel in a container specifically designed for fuel storage; also,
always properly seal fuel containers to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion.
Refer to the additional fuel system precautions later in this section.
Fuel injection systems often remain pressurized, even after the engine has been
turned OFF. The fuel system pressure must be relieved before disconnecting any
fuel lines. Failure to do so may result in fire and/or personal injury.
Brake fluid often contains polyglycol ethers and polyglycols. Avoid contact with
the eyes and wash your hands thoroughly after handling brake fluid. If you do get
brake fluid in your eyes, flush your eyes with clean, running water for 15 minutes.
If eye irritation persists, or if you have taken brake fluid internally, IMMEDIATELY
seek medical assistance.
The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number
of skin disorders, including cancer! You should make every effort to minimize
your exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when
changing oil. Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas as soon as
possible after exposure to used engine oil. Soap and water, or waterless hand
cleaner should be used.
All new vehicles are now equipped with an air bag system, often referred to as a
Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) or Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR)
system. The system must be disabled before performing service on or around
system components, steering column, instrument panel components, wiring and
sensors. Failure to follow safety and disabling procedures could result in
accidental air bag deployment, possible personal injury and unnecessary system
repairs.
Always wear safety goggles when working with, or around, the air bag system.
When carrying a non-deployed air bag, be sure the bag and trim cover are
pointed away from your body. When placing a non-deployed air bag on a work
surface, always face the bag and trim cover upward, away from the surface. This
will reduce the motion of the module if it is accidentally deployed. Refer to the
additional air bag system precautions later in this section.
Clean, high quality brake fluid from a sealed container is essential to the safe and
proper operation of the brake system. You should always buy the correct type of
brake fluid for your vehicle. If the brake fluid becomes contaminated, completely
flush the system with new fluid. Never reuse any brake fluid. Any brake fluid that

is removed from the system should be discarded. Also, do not allow any brake
fluid to come in contact with a painted surface; it will damage the paint.
Never operate the engine without the proper amount and type of engine oil; doing
so WILL result in severe engine damage.
Timing belt maintenance is extremely important! Many models utilize an
interference-type, non-freewheeling engine. If the timing belt breaks, the valves in
the cylinder head may strike the pistons, causing potentially serious (also timeconsuming and expensive) engine damage. Refer to the maintenance interval
charts in the front of this manual for the recommended replacement interval for
the timing belt, and to the timing belt section for belt replacement and inspection.
Disconnecting the negative battery cable on some vehicles may interfere with the
functions of the on-board computer system(s) and may require the computer to
undergo a relearning process once the negative battery cable is reconnected.
When servicing drum brakes, only disassemble and assemble one side at a time,
leaving the remaining side intact for reference.
Only an MVAC-trained, EPA-certified automotive technician should service the
air conditioning system or its components.

Engine
General Information
In the process of removing the engine, you will come across a number of steps which
call for the removal of a separate component or system, such as "disconnect the exhaust
system'' or "remove the radiator.'' In most instances, a detailed removal procedure can
be found elsewhere in this manual.
It is virtually impossible to list each individual wire and hose which must be
disconnected, simply because so many different model and engine combinations have
been manufactured. Careful observation and common sense are the best possible
approaches to any repair procedure.
Removal and installation of the engine can be made easier if you follow these basic
points:

If you have to drain any of the fluids, use a suitable container.


Always tag any wires or hoses and, if possible, the components they came from
before disconnecting them.
Because there are so many bolts and fasteners involved, store and label the
retainers from components separately in muffin pans, jars or coffee cans. This
will prevent confusion during installation.
Before unbolting the transmission or transaxle, always make sure it is properly
supported.
If it is necessary to disconnect the air conditioning system, have this service
performed by a qualified technician using a recovery/recycling station. If the
system does not have to be disconnected, unbolt the compressor and set it
aside.
When unbolting the engine mounts, always make sure the engine is properly
supported. When removing the engine, make sure that any lifting devices are
properly attached to the engine. If your engine is supplied with lifting hooks, it is
recommended that your lifting apparatus be attached to them.
Lift the engine from its compartment slowly, checking that no hoses, wires or
other components are still connected.
After the engine is clear of the compartment, place it on an approved engine
stand or workbench.
When the engine has been removed, you can perform a partial or full teardown of
the engine using the procedures outlined in this manual.

6.6L Engine
To Remove:
NOTE: In order to remove the engine, the vehicle must be raised and the front tires
removed. You will have to safely support the vehicle by its frame for tire removal.
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Drain the cooling system.
3. Discharge and recover the air conditioning system.
4. Drain the engine oil.
Place hood to service position

5. Raise the hood to the servicing position and move the hood hinge bolt to hold the
hood in the servicing position.
6. Disconnect the battery cables.
7. Remove the upper intake manifold sight shield as follows:
Remove the retaining bolt in the front of the shield
Lift up on the front of the shield, then left the shield off the rear bracket
8. Remove or disconnect the following:
NOTE: After you remove the duct, cover the turbocharger openings and ducts
with tape to prevent foreign objects from entering.

Air cleaner outlet duct from the air cleaner and turbocharger
Mass Air Flow (MAF) switch connector
A/C pressure cycling switch connector
Surge tank switch
Engine wire harness clip from the accumulator
Engine wire harness clips from the wheelhouse inner panel and engine
bracket
Air cleaner assembly and bracket
Surge tank
9. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
10. Remove or disconnect the following:
Front tires and wheels
Both front fender wheelhouse inner panels
11. Lower the vehicle.
12. Remove or disconnect the following:
Charged air cooler pipes and hoses from the engine and charged air
cooler
Radiator inlet hose form the radiator and engine
Upper and lower fan shrouds
Radiator outlet hose from the radiator
Outlet heater hose from the outlet radiator hose
Hose clips from the frame
Radiator outlet hose from the engine
Bolt securing the outlet heater hose pipe to the alternator mounting
bracket
Nut securing the outlet heater hose pipe to the fuel filter mounting bracket
Secure the heater hose aside
Upper radiator support
Radiator (See: Radiator)
Charged air cooler
A/C condenser
Alternator harness connector
A/C refrigerant switch connector
Dual alternator harness connector, if equipped
A/C compressor clutch connector
Harness clip from the A/C compressor bracket
Battery cable from the alternator and auxiliary alternator, if equipped
Battery cable harness clips from the bracket
Bolt securing the battery cable junction block from the power steering
pump
Move and secure the battery cables aside
Both fuel injection control module harness connectors, by flipping the
latch up
Engine wire harness from the retainer
Fuel lines at the engine
Remove the nut and the fuel line bracket from the upper valve rocker arm
cover stud
Fuel lines aside
Power supply cable from the glow plug relay
Drive belt
Suction hose from the accumulator

NOTE: You can leave the compressor end on the compressor.

A/C compressor bolts, then move the compressor, with the hoses
attached, to the right side of the engine compartment
Wiring harness to the left side of the engine and tie aside
Bolts holding the power steering pump front bracket to the pump and A/C
compressor mounting bracket
A/C compressor and power steering pump bracket. Once the battery
cables are removed from the engine, the power steering pump can be
removed further out of the way
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) oil separator from the bracket
Bolts securing the PCV separator bracket and fuel bleed valve
Right idler pulley (ribbed)
Alternator mounting bracket and secure aside
NOTE: You do not have to remove the alternator or the belt tensioner.

Inlet heater hose from the heater core inlet, using Quick ConnectDisconnect tool No. J 43181 or other suitable equivalent tool
Bolt and ground wires from the rear of the left cylinder head
13. Raise the vehicle.
14. Remove or disconnect the following:
Oil pan skid plate
Engine protection shield, if equipped
Bolt for the negative battery cable and engine wiring harness ground wire
from the left side of the engine
Bolts holding the battery cable channel retainer to the lower crankcase
Engine coolant heater cord
Starter (See: Starter)
Nut securing the battery cable bracket to the right side of the lower
crankcase
Bolt holding the auxiliary negative battery cable and the engine wiring
harness ground wires to the right side of the engine
Position the battery cables aside
Exhaust pipe-to-exhaust outlet clamp
Lower oil pan, if 4WD (See: Lower Oil Pan)
15. If equipped with an automatic transmission, matchmark the installed position of
the flywheel and torque converter.
Torque converter bolts through the starter opening
Transmission oil line clip nut if equipped with A/T
Nuts securing the transmission fluid fill tube bracket, if equipped with A/T
Transmission-to-engine stud and bolts. Note the location of the studs and
any brackets attached to the studs
Lower the vehicle to work through the wheel opening
Engine mount-to-frame bracket bolts
16. Lower the vehicle.
17. Install Engine Lifting Bracket tool No. J 36857 or other suitable engine lifting
device to the rear of the left cylinder head with a suitable bolt.
18. Install Engine Lifting Bracket tool No. J 36857 or other suitable engine lifting
device to the front of the right cylinder head with a suitable bolt.

NOTE: Install a suitable lifting device. The engine will have to be angled to
remove it. Use a load positioning sling to help in angling the engine.
19. Raise the vehicle off the engine mounts.
20. Remove the left and right engine mount frame brackets.
21. Remove the engine assembly from the vehicle.
22. Secure the engine on an engine stand by removing the following components:
Flywheel/flexplate
Rear main seal
Exhaust outlet
Oil pan
Flywheel housing
To Install:
1. Install Engine Lifting Bracket tool No. J 36857 or other suitable engine lifting
device to the rear of the left cylinder head with a suitable bolt.
Install the engine lifting bracket to the rear of the left cylinder head

2. Install Engine Lifting Bracket tool No. J 36857 or other suitable engine lifting
device to the front of the right cylinder head with a suitable bolt.
NOTE: Install a suitable lifting device. The engine will have to be angled to install
it. Use a load positioning sling to help in angling the engine.
3. Install or connect the following:
Engine in the vehicle
2 transmission-to-engine bolts, loosely
Left and right side engine mount frame brackets and tighten the bracket
bolts
A. Torque to: 55 ft. lbs. (75 Nm)
Engine mount-to-frame bracket bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 50 ft. lbs. (65 Nm)
4. Remove the engine lifting bracket tool No. J 36857 or other suitable engine lifting
device from the cylinder heads.
5. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
6. Install or connect the following:
Transmission-to-engine bolts/studs and tighten the bolts/studs
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm) }
Transmission-to-engine mounting-6.6L engine with A/

Torque converter bolts, if equipped with an A/T and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm)
Nuts retaining the transmission fluid fill tube bracket if equipped with an
automatic transmission and tighten the nuts
A. Torque to: 13 ft. lbs. (18 Nm)
Lower oil pan if 4WD
Nut retaining the transmission oil cooler line clip if equipped with an
automatic transmission and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Exhaust pipe to the exhaust outlet
Exhaust manifold pipe to the exhaust outlet clamp and tighten the clamp
A. Torque to: 30 ft. lbs. (40 Nm)

7. Lower the vehicle to work through the front fender wheelhouse openings.
8. Install or connect the following:
Bolt retaining the battery negative cable and the engine wiring harness
ground wire to the left side of the engine and tighten the bolt

A. Torque to: (34 Nm)


Bolts holding the battery cable channel retainer to the lower crankcase
and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 106 inch lbs (12 Nm)
Bolts holding the auxiliary battery negative cable and the engine wiring
harness ground wires to the right side of the engine and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm)
Nut holding the battery cable bracket to the right side of the lower
crankcase and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
Starter (See: Starter)
Cord for the engine coolant heater
Engine oil pan skid plate and tighten the oil pan skid plate bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Engine shield and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
9. Lower the vehicle.
10. Install or connect the following:
Bolt and the ground wires at the rear of the left cylinder head and tighten
the bolt
A. Torque to: 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm)
Alternator mounting bracket and bolts and tighten the bolts
Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Right idler pulley and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 32 ft. lbs. (43 Nm)
PCV oil separator bracket and the fuel bleed with the nuts to the
alternator mounting bracket and tighten the nuts
A. Torque to: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
PCV oil separator on the bracket
Nylon strap for the PCV oil separator
Air conditioning compressor and the power steering pump mounting
bracket
11. Position the engine wiring harness on the engine.
12. Position the A/C compressor.
13. Install or connect the following:
A/C compressor mounting bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
A/C suction hose to the accumulator
Drive belt
Power supply cable and nut to the glow plug relay and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 18 inch lbs. (2 Nm)
Fuel hoses at the engine
Nut and the fuel hose bracket to the valve rocker arm cover stud and
tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
Fuel injection control module harness connectors
Engine wire harness in the retainer
Cable junction block and bolt to the power steering pump and tighten the
bolt
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Battery cable to the auxiliary generator if equipped

Battery cable to the alternator and tighten the nut


A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Battery cable harness clip to the bracket
The following electrical connectors:
A. Generator harness connector
B. A/C refrigerant switch
C. Dual generator harness connector, if equipped
D. A/C compressor clutch
E. Install the harness clip to the A/C compressor bracket
Upper radiator support
A/C condenser
Charged air cooler
Radiator (See: Radiator)
Outlet radiator hose to the radiator and tighten the hose clamp
Hose clips to the frame
Outlet radiator hose to the engine and tighten the hose clamp
Lower fan shroud
Upper fan shroud
Inlet heater hose to the heater core inlet by firmly pushing the quick
connector onto the heater core pipe until you hear an audible click
Outlet heater hose to the outlet radiator hose
Nut retaining the outlet heater hose pipe to the fuel filter mounting bracket
and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Bolt retaining the heater hose pipe to the generator mounting bracket and
tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
Outlet radiator hose to the radiator and the engine and tighten the hose
clamps
Charged air cooler pipes and hoses to the turbocharger and the charged
air cooler
Both fender wheelhouse inner panels
Both front tires and wheels and tighten the lug nuts in sequence as
follows:
A. Single Wheel Axle: Torque to: 140 lb-ft. (190 Nm)
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

Surge tank
Air cleaner

The following engine wire harness connectors:


A. Mass air flow switch
B. Air continuation pressure cycling switch
C. Surge tank switch
D. Install the engine wire harness clip to the accumulator
Engine wire harness clips to tire wheelhouse inner panel
Engine wire harness clip to the engine bracket
Batteries negative cables
14. Fill the engine coolant.
15. Prelube the engine.
16. Refill the crankcase.
17. Recharge the air conditioning system.
18. Operate the engine, inspect for coolant, fuel, and exhaust leaks.
19. Inspect for proper oil pressure.
20. Inspect for proper engine operation.
21. Position the hood in the normal operating position by moving the hood hinge
bolts from service position to normal operating position and tighten the bolts.
Torque to: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
22. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Flywheel/Flexplate
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove the transmission.


If equipped with manual transmission, remove the clutch assembly.
Remove the bolts and the engine flywheel.
Clean and inspect all parts.

To Install:
1. Install the engine flywheel.
Tighten the bolts is a star pattern to 74 ft. lbs. (100 Nm).

2. If equipped with manual transmission, install the clutch assembly.


3. Install the transmission.

Flywheel Ring Gear (M/T)


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
WARNING
Use tongs and heat resistant gloves to prevent injury from hot material.
CAUTION
Do not heat the ring gear more then 500F (260C). Use a heat indicating crayon to
determine correct temperature.
1. Remove the flywheel from the engine.
2. Heat the ring gear evenly with a torch to cause the ring gear to expand.
3. Use a brass drift and hammer to remove the ring gear from the flywheel.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Heat the new ring gear evenly with a torch to cause the ring gear to expand.
Install the ring gear on the flywheel with the bevel facing the rear of the flywheel.
Heat and tap the ring gear as needed until installed squarely on the flywheel.
Install the flywheel on the engine.

Rocker Arm (Valve) Cover


Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
Upper Left Side
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Outlet duct clamp at the upper intake manifold cover

Upper intake manifold cover from the outlet duct


Upper intake manifold cover
3. Drain the cooling system.
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cable
Air cooler inlet duct

Charged air cooler inlet duct to turbocharger clamp (A)


NOTE: Do not use a screwdriver or other tool to pry the hose loose. The
hose can be torn or damaged. Loosen the hose by twisting.

Charged air cooler inlet duct from the turbocharger


Battery cable to alternator nut
Battery cable to the auxiliary alternator if equipped
Battery cable harness clip from the bracket
Battery cable junction block bolt from the power steering pump
5. Move and secure the battery cables out of the way.
6. Remove or disconnect the following:
Fuel lines
Fuel line bracket nut

Fuel injection control module harness connectors

Fuel injection control module electrical connectors by lifting up on the


latch in order to disconnect the connectors
Fuel injection control module wiring harness clip from the bracket

Fuel injection control module harness brackets

Fuel injector feed lines

Sleeve nut plate bolts and plates


Fuel injector feed lines
Upper valve rocker arm cover bolts

Valve cover removal

1. NOTE: The valve rocker arm cover uses sealer. Pry only at the location shown in
order to avoid damage to the sealing surfaces.
2. Using a suitable tool at the prying location, loosen the upper valve rocker arm
cover.
3. Remove the upper valve rocker arm cover.
4. If required, clean and inspect the upper valve rocker arm cover.

To Install:

NOTE: Apply a 1/8 inch (2 - 3 mm) wide, by 1/16 inch (0.5 - 1.5 mm) high bead of
sealant to the upper valve rocker arm cover. Apply a bead of sealant to the area under
the injector wire harness on the lower valve rocker arm cover.
1. Install or connect the following:
Upper valve rocker arm cover
Valve cover bolt tightening sequence

Upper valve rocker arm cover bolts


Bolts 1 and 2 first, they are used to position the cover and tighten the
upper valve rocker arm cover bolts in the sequence shown as follows:
A. Tighten the bolts in a first pass, Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
B. Tighten the bolts a final pass, Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
Fuel injector feed lines and tighten the lines
A. Torque to: 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm)
Sleeve nut plates and bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 35 inch lbs. (4 Nm)
PCV hose to the upper valve rocker arm cover
Fuel injection control module electrical connector bracket bolts and
tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
Fuel injection control module electrical connectors bolts and tighten the
bolts
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (13 Nm)
Fuel injection control module electrical harness connectors
Fuel injection control module wiring harness to the retainer
Water outlet tube
Glow plug relay bracket
Auxiliary alternator if equipped
Fuel lines
Fuel hose bracket nut and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
2. Position the alternator positive cable.
3. Install or connect the following:

4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

Alternator positive cable in the clip on the engine front cover


Alternator positive cable and nut and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Positive battery cable junction block bracket and bolt to the power
steering pump and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Tape from the turbocharger openings
Charged air cooler inlet duct to the turbocharger
Align the mark on the duct with the mark on the turbocharger.
Position and tighten the clamp
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Install or connect the following:
Upper intake manifold cover
Upper intake manifold cover to the outlet duct and tighten the outlet duct
clamp at the upper intake manifold cover
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Fill the cooling system.
Connect the negative battery cable.
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Upper Right Side


To Remove:
Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Outlet duct clamp at the upper intake manifold cover
Upper intake manifold cover from the outlet duct
Upper intake manifold cover
NOTE: After removing the turbocharger air ducts, cover the turbocharger
openings with tape to prevent entry of objects.

Outlet duct clamps at the turbocharger


Mass Air Flow/Intake Air Temperature (MAF/IAT) sensor
Outlet duct from the turbocharger

Charged air cooler outlet duct

Charged air cooler outlet duct to intake hose clamp (A)


NOTE: Do not use a screwdriver or other tool to pry the hose loose. The
hose can be torn or damaged. Loosen the hose by twisting.

Charged air cooler outlet duct from the intake

Heater outlet hose removal

Heater outlet hose bolt (B) and nut (A)


Fuel filter mounting bolts
Fuel injection control module

2. Position the heater outlet hose out of the way.


3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) hose from the valve rocker arm
cover

Fuel injector feed lines removal

Sleeve nut plate bolts and plates


Fuel injector feed pipes

Valve cover removal

1.

Upper valve rocker arm cover bolts and note the location of any wire
harness clips

NOTE: The valve rocker arm cover uses sealer. Pry only at the location shown in
order to avoid damage to the sealing surfaces.
2. Using a suitable tool at the prying location, loosen the upper valve rocker arm
cover.
3. Remove the upper valve rocker arm cover.
4. If required, clean and inspect the upper valve rocker arm cover.

To Install:
NOTE: Apply a 1/8 inch (2 - 3 mm) wide, by 1/16 inch (0.5 - 1.5 mm) high bead of
sealant to the upper valve rocker arm cover. Apply a bead of sealant to the area under
the injector wire harness on the lower valve rocker arm cover.
1. Install or connect the following:
Upper valve rocker arm cover
Valve cover bolt tightening sequence

2.
3.
4.
5.

Upper valve rocker arm cover bolts by installing bolts 1 and 2 first, they
are used to position the cover and tighten the bolts in the sequence
shown as follows:
A. Tighten the bolts a first pass,
B. Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
C. Tighten the bolts a final pass, Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
Fuel injector feed lines and tighten the lines
A. Torque to: 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm)
Sleeve nut plates and bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 35 inch lbs. (4 Nm)
PCV hoses to the upper valve rocker arm cover
Fuel filter mounting bolts
Fuel injection control module
Heater outlet hose and tighten the heater hose bracket bolt and nut
A. Torque the nut to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Torque the bolt to: 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
Tape from the turbocharger openings
Charged air cooler outlet duct to the intake
Align the mark on the duct to the mark on the intake .
Position the clamp for proper clearance and tighten the clamp.
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Install or connect the following:
Outlet duct to the turbocharger
Align the outlet duct alignment indicator to the turbocharger alignment indicator.

NOTE: The outlet duct must be fully seated against the MAT/IAT sensor with the
edge of the seal in the vertical position.
6. Install or connect the following:
Outlet duct to the MAF/IAT sensor and tighten the outlet duct clamps at
the turbocharger and the MAF/IAT sensor
A. Torque the clamps to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Upper intake manifold cover
Upper intake manifold cover to the outlet duct and tighten the outlet duct
clamp at the upper intake manifold cover
A. Torque the clamp to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
7. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.
Lower Left Side
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Upper left valve rocker arm cover (See: Left Upper Valve Cover)

Left fuel injector harness removal

Fuel injector electrical connectors


NOTE: Do not drop the injector harness bolts in the cylinder head oil
return ports.

Injector harness bracket bolts for both injector harnesses

3. Loosen the encapsulated injector wire terminal nuts on each injector.


4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Injector harnesses.

Lower valve cover removal

Lower valve cover removal

Lower valve rocker arm cover bolts


Lower valve rocker arm cover
Gasket from the lower valve rocker arm cover
5. If required, clean and inspect the lower valve rocker arm cover.

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Lower valve rocker arm cover gasket
Lower valve rocker arm cover
Lower valve cover bolt tightening sequence

Lower valve rocker arm cover bolts starting with bolts 1 and 2, they are
used to position the cover and tighten the bolts in the sequence shown
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
Injector harnesses
Injector harness bracket bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
The encapsulated injector wire terminal nuts on each injector and tighten
the nuts
A. Torque to: 17 inch lbs. (2 Nm)
Fuel injector electrical connectors
Upper left valve rocker arm cover (See: Left Upper Valve Cover)
2. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.
Lower Right Side
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Upper right valve rocker arm cover

Right fuel injector harness removal

Fuel injector electrical connectors


NOTE: Do not drop the injector harness bolts in the cylinder head oil
return ports

Injector harness bracket bolts for both injector harnesses

3. Loosen the encapsulated injector wire terminal nuts on each injector.


4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Both injector harnesses

Right lower valve cover removal

Lower valve rocker arm cover bolts


Lower valve rocker arm cover
Gasket from the lower valve rocker arm cover

5. If required, clean and inspect the lower valve rocker arm cover.

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Lower valve rocker arm cover gasket
Lower valve rocker arm cover

Lower valve cover bolt tightening sequence

Lower valve rocker arm cover bolts starting with bolts 1 and 2, they are
used to position the cover and tighten the bolts in the sequence shown
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
Injector harnesses
Injector harness bracket bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Tighten the encapsulated injector wire terminal nuts on each injector
A. Torque to: 17 inch lbs. (2 Nm)
Fuel injector electrical connectors
Right upper valve rocker arm cover (See: Right Upper Valve Cover)
2. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Thermostat
Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Drain the engine coolant.
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Water outlet
6.6L Thermostat housing removal

Bolt for the fuel line bracket


Thermostat housing cover bolts
Thermostats and seals

To Install:
6.6L Thermostats and seals

1. Install or connect the following:


Thermostats and seals to the thermostat housing
NOTE: The rear thermostat (D) has 2 vent valves. Install with the vent
valves towards the rear of engine.

Thermostat housing cover with a NEW gasket


Thermostat housing cover bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
Fuel line bracket bolt and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
Water outlet
2. Fill the engine with coolant.
3. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Cylinder Head
Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
Both Sides
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Relieve the fuel system pressure (See: Fuel Pressure Relieving).
3. Drain the coolant system.
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cables
Left or right front splash shield from the fender well, as applicable
Turbocharger (See: Turbocharger)
Turbocharger charged air cooler inlet duct
Thermostat housing crossover
Left or right intake manifold, as necessary (See: Intake Manifold)
Upper left or right valve cover (See: Rocker Arm/Valve Cover - Upper)
Fuel rail assembly
Left or right exhaust manifold (See: Exhaust Manifold)
Bolt and ground straps from the rear of the cylinder head
Lower left or right valve cover (See: Rocker Arm/Valve Cover - Lower)
Rocker arm shaft assembly (See: Rocker Arm/Shafts)
Glow plugs (See: Glow Plugs)
Fuel injector return pipe eye bolts and washers
Fuel injector return pipe assembly
Fuel injector bracket bolts
Fuel injectors with the brackets, using a suitable removal tool
Injector bracket pins
Cylinder head bolts, in the proper sequence

Cylinder head bolt loosening sequence-6.6L diesel engine

Cylinder head and gasket and discard the gasket

To Install:
1. Clean the mating surfaces of the heads and block thoroughly.
2. Position a new left or right side head gasket on the block and notice that the left
and right side gaskets are not interchangeable.
NOTE: The cylinder head bolts on these vehicles are precoated with an
application of a molybdenum disulfide for thread lubrication. Do not remove the
coating or add any additional lubrication.
3. Install or connect the following:
Cylinder head and bolts and tighten in sequence as follows:
A. Step 1: M12 bolts, Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
B. Step 2: M12 bolts, Torque to: 59 ft. lbs. (80 Nm)
C. Step 3: Tighten the M12 bolts, Torque to: an additional 150
degrees using a torque angle meter
D. Step 4: M8 bolts, Torque to: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)

Cylinder head bolt tightening sequence-6.6L diesel engines

1.

New O-ring onto the fuel injectors after coating with clean engine oil
New copper washer into the fuel injector bore in the cylinder head
Fuel injector bracket pin
NOTE: If you are reusing the old injectors, clean the carbon from the tips,
but do not use a wire brush.

Fuel injector bracket bolt and tighten the bolt


A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Fuel injector return pipe assembly
Fuel injector return pipe-to-injector eye bolts and washers and tighten the
eye bolts
A. Torque to: 11 ft. lbs. (15 Nm)
Fuel return pipe-to-cylinder head eye bolts and washers and tighten the
eye bolts
A. Torque to: 11 ft. lbs. (15 Nm)
Bolt and ground straps to the rear of the cylinder head and tighten
A. Torque to: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
Valve rocker shaft assembly (See: Rocker Arm/Shafts)
Lower and upper valve covers (See: Rocker Arm/Valve Cover Upper
and Lower)
Glow plugs (See: Glow Plugs)
Exhaust manifold (Exhaust Manifold)

Fuel rail assembly


Intake manifold (See: Intake Manifold)
Thermostat housing crossover
Turbocharger charged air cooler duct
Clamp and hose to the charged air cooler and tighten
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Turbocharger (See: Turbocharger)
Fender splash shield
Negative battery cables
Cooling system with the proper type and quantity of antifreeze
Negative battery cables
New engine oil and oil filter

4. Evacuate and recharge the air conditioning system.


5. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Rocker Arms and Pushrods


Removal & Installation
Both Sides
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Lower valve rocker arm covers
Loosen the valve clearance 6.6L

3. Loosen the valve clearance lock nuts on each rocker arm


4. Loosen the valve clearance adjusting screw on each rocker arm to relieve
tension on the valvetrain

Loosen the rocker arm shaft in sequence 6.6L

NOTE: The valve rocker arm bolts retain the rocker arms on the shaft. Do not
remove the bolts from the rocker arm shaft brackets.
5. Loosen the rocker arm shaft bolts in the proper sequence and leave the bolts in
the rocker arm shaft brackets.
6. Remove or disconnect the following:
Rocker arm shaft

Valve spring caps and pushrods removal

1.

Valve spring caps


Valve lifter bridges
Pushrods

7. Clean all parts in a suitable cleaning solvent.


8. Disassemble the rocker arm shafts if needed as follows:

Rocker arm shaft disassembly

Remove the rocker arm shaft bracket bolts (A)


Remove the bracket (L), rocker arm (K), and spring (J)
Remove the remaining rocker arms, springs, and brackets

9. If required, clean and inspect the valve rocker arm and shaft.
To Install:
Rocker arm shaft assembly

1. Assemble the rocker arms if needed as follows:

2.
3.

4.
5.

Lubricate the rocker arm shaft (G) and the inside of the rocker arms with
clean engine oil
Install the rocker arm bracket (L) on one end of the rocker arm shaft with
bolt
Install the intake rocker arm (I), spring (J), exhaust rocker arm (K), and
bracket with bolt. Continue in the same sequence to the last bracket
Push the bracket to compress the springs and then install the bolt
Lubricate the top of the valves, the valve bridge stem, the valve lifter bridge, and
the valve spring caps with clean engine oil.
Install or connect the following:
Valve spring caps
Valve lifter bridges
Lubricate the valve lifter end of the pushrod with clean engine oil.
Install or connect the following:
Pushrods
NOTE: To ensure the pushrod is properly installed, gently pull up on the pushrod.
You should feel resistance from the pushrod trying to lift the valve lifter.

6. Lubricate the following with clean engine oil during installation:


Rocker arm shaft bolt threads
Tops of the push rods
Rocker arms
Rocker arm shaft
7. Install the rocker arm shaft with bolts.

Tighten the rocker arm shaft in sequence 6.6L

8. Tighten the rocker arm shaft bolts in the sequence shown


Torque to: 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm)
9. Adjust the valve clearance (See: Valve Clearance Adjust)
10. Install the lower valve rocker arm covers (See: Lower Rocker Arm Cover)
11. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Valve Clearance Adjustment


6.6L Engine
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Fan clutch (See: Fan)
Upper valve rocker arm covers (See: Upper Rocker Arm Cover)
3. Rotate the crankshaft in order to bring the number 1 cylinder to Top Dead Center
(TDC) of the compression stroke.
4. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder on the right bank.
5. The mark on the crankshaft damper should be aligned with the mark on the
engine.

Valve clearance procedure

6. Loosen the valve adjusting screws.


7. Insert a feeler gage between the tip of the rocker arm and the valve lifter bridge.
Valve clearance adjustment specifications chart

Valve locations

8. Adjust the valve lash to 0.0112 inch (0.3 mm) according to Valve Clearance
Adjustment Specifications chart to determine which valves can be adjusted when
the engine is at TDC and tighten the lock nut.
Torque to: 16 ft. lbs. (22 Nm)
9. Rotate the crankshaft one revolution in order to bring the number 1 cylinder to
TDC of the exhaust stroke.
10. Loosen the valve adjusting screws.
11. Insert a feeler gage between the tip of the rocker arm and the valve lifter bridge.
12. Adjust the valve clearance to 0.0112 inch (0.3 mm) according to Valve Clearance
Adjustment Specifications to determine which valves can be adjusted when the
engine is at TDC and tighten lock nut.
Torque to: 16 ft. lbs. (22 Nm)
13. Install or connect the following:
Upper valve rocker arm covers (See: Upper Rocker Arm Cover, for more
information)
Fan clutch (See: Fan, for more information)
14. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Intake Manifold
Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
To Remove:
NOTE: This procedure is for replacement of the left or right intake manifold.
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Drain the cooling system.
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Batteries cables
Turbocharger (See: Turbocharger)
Fuel junction block
Left or right fuel rail
Intake manifold tube
9 bolts and 2 nuts from the intake manifold
NOTE: A bolt is located in the manifold opening.
NOTE: The intake manifold uses sealer. If necessary, pry at the area by
the common rail bolt holes and be careful to avoid damaging the sealing
surfaces.

Intake manifold from the head and cover the head openings to prevent
debris from entering
4. Clean all gaskets surface.
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
A 1/8 in. (2-3mm) wide to 1/16 in (0.5-1.5mm) high bead of sealant to the
sealing surface of the intake manifold
NOTE: The left and right side manifolds are NOT interchangeable.

Intake manifold
Bolts and nuts and tighten the bolts and nuts in sequence
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)

Left side intake manifold bolt tightening sequence-6.6L engine

Right side intake manifold bolt tightening sequence-6.6L engine

Intake manifold tube


Fuel rail
Fuel junction block
Turbocharger (See: Turbocharger)
Negative battery cables
2. Fill cooling system.
3. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repair

Exhaust Manifold
Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
Left Side
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Bolts securing the left exhaust pipe heat shield. Move the heat shield
aside for access to the exhaust pipe-to-manifold bolts
Left exhaust pipe-to-manifold bolts
Left front wheel
Left front fender splash shield
Charge air cooler duct
Exhaust manifold heat shield bolts and shield
2 nuts and 6 bolts with the plain washer and bell view washer from the left
manifold
Exhaust manifold by removing it from the rear, then the front studs and
sliding it out the bottom, past the oil filter
Exhaust manifold gasket and discard
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Exhaust manifold with gasket
Exhaust manifold bolts/nuts and using the sequence shown, tighten the
exhaust manifold bolts
6.6L exhaust manifold bolt tightening sequence

A. Tighten the bolts/nut a first pass, Torque to: 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm)
B. Tighten the bolts/nuts a final pass, Torque to: 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm)

Exhaust manifold heat shield


Exhaust manifold heat shield bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
Exhaust pipe gasket. Align the tab on the gasket to face outward
Exhaust pipe and the bolts to the exhaust manifold and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 39 ft. lbs. (53 Nm)
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
3. Install or connect the following:
Exhaust pipe heat shield bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
Charged air cooler outlet duct
Wheelhouse panel
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

Wheel and tire assembly and tighten the lug nuts in sequence
A. Torque to: 140 ft. lbs. (190 Nm)

4. Lower the vehicle


5. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Right Side
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Right front wheel
Right front fender splash shield
Exhaust manifold heat shield bolts and shield
Right exhaust pipe-to-manifold bolts
2 nuts and 6 bolts with the plain washer and bell view washer from the left
manifold
Exhaust manifold by removing it from the rear, then the front studs and
sliding it out the bottom, past the oil filter
Bolt for the oil level dipstick tube, to remove the gasket
Exhaust manifold gasket and discard
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Exhaust manifold with new gasket and tighten the exhaust manifold nuts
and bolts in sequence as follows:
A. Tighten the exhaust manifold nuts and bolts on the first pass,
Torque to: 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm)
B. Tighten the exhaust manifold nuts and bolts on the second pass,
Torque to: 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm)
Oil level dipstick tube and tighten the oil level dipstick tube
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Right exhaust pipe to manifold and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 39 ft. lbs. (59 Nm)
Exhaust manifold heat shield bolts and shield and tighten the heat shield
bolts
A. Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
Right front fender splash shield

Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

1.

Wheel and tire assembly and tighten the lug nuts in sequence
A. Torque to: 140 ft. lbs. (190 Nm)
2. Lower the vehicle.
3. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Turbocharger
Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Disconnect the negative battery cables.
3. Open the hood and move the hinge bolts to the service position.
4. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
5. Drain the coolant.
6. Remove or disconnect the following:
Exhaust pipe-to-exhaust outlet clamp and move the clamp onto the
exhaust pipe
Transmission fluid fill tube-to-bell housing nuts if equipped with an A/T
and position the tube to the right side of the vehicle; it does not need to be
removed from the transmission
3 nuts and left exhaust heat shield from the front of the lower dash panel
Left exhaust pipe heat shield bolts
7. Position the left exhaust pipe heat shield to access the left exhaust pipe-tomanifold bolts but do not remove the heat shield from the vehicle at this time.
NOTE: Do not bend the exhaust pipe at the expansion area.

Left and right exhaust pipe-to-exhaust manifold bolts


Exhaust manifold gaskets and discard
Lower bolt for the exhaust outlet shield
8. Lower the vehicle.
9. Remove or disconnect the following:
Upper intake manifold sight shield front retaining bolt
Sight shield by lifting up on the front of the shield, then lifting it off the rear
bracket
Air cleaner outlet duct front he air cleaner and turbocharger and cover the
openings to prevent debris from entering
Loosen the charged air cooler outlet duct-to-intake hose clamps
Hose from the charged air cooler duct-to-intake manifold tube by twisting
it
A/C compressor clutch electrical connector
A/C cut-out switch connector
Drive belt
A/C compressor mounting bolts, then position the compressor aside with
the lines attached
Turbocharger inlet coolant hose from the bypass valve
Turbocharger outlet coolant hose from the turbocharger
PCV hose from the left valve cover and position aside
Wire connector from the intake heater
Intake air heater relay, if equipped

Heat shield-to-turbocharger bolts and heat shield


Remaining 2 bolts from the exhaust outlet heat shield
Exhaust outlet heat shield
4 bolts and 2 nuts from the exhaust outlet but you do not have to remove
the outlet for turbocharger removal
10. Move the exhaust outlet to one side in order to access the right exhaust pipe-toturbocharger bolts.
11. Remove or disconnect the following:
Exhaust outlet gasket and discard
Right exhaust pipe-to-turbocharger bolts
Right exhaust pipe and gasket
12. Move the exhaust outlet to one side for access to the left pipe.
Left exhaust pipe heat shield
Left exhaust pipe-to-turbocharger bolts
Left exhaust pipe and gasket
Turbocharger oil supply hose eye bolt and washers and move the hose
aside
Turbocharger oil drain pipe nuts from the flywheel housing
Turbocharger mounting bolts
Turbocharger with the oil drain pipe
13. If replacing the turbocharger, remove the oil drain pipe and coolant hose.
To Install:
1. Thoroughly clean the gasket surfaces.
2. Install or connect the following:
Turbocharger oil drain pipe and new gasket and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 16 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
Turbocharger inlet coolant hose
Turbocharger oil supply hose to the engine block
Turbocharger oil supply hose eye bolt and washers and tighten the eye
bolt
A. Torque to: 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm)
Turbocharger lower heat shield
Turbocharger and tighten the 3 mounting bolts
A. Torque to: 80 ft. lbs. (108 Nm)
New gasket for oil drain pipe
Oil drain pipe nuts and tighten the nuts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
NOTE: If installing a new turbocharger, pour 4-5 oz. of clean engine oil into the
turbocharger supply hose opening, while rotating the impeller.

Oil supply hose, using new washers and tighten the eye bolt
A. Torque to: 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm).

NOTE: Position the left exhaust pipe. The pipe flanges are different. Ensure the
proper pipe flange is towards the turbocharger. Align the turbocharger gaskets at
the turbocharger with the tab on the gasket facing inward. To aid in installing the
pipe to the turbocharger temporarily install one of the pipe to manifold bolts.

3.
4.

5.
6.

7.

Left exhaust pipe to the turbocharger with a new gasket and tighten the
bolts
A. Torque to: 39 ft. lbs. (53 Nm)
Position the left exhaust pipe heat shield, but do not install the bolts.
Install or connect the following:
Right exhaust pipe with a new gasket to the turbocharger
Right exhaust pipe to turbocharger bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 39 ft. lbs. (53 Nm)
Exhaust outlet with a new gasket to the turbocharger
Exhaust outlet bolts and nuts and tighten the bolts/nuts
A. Torque to: 39 ft. lbs. (53 Nm)
Exhaust outlet heat shield
Upper 2 exhaust outlet heat shield bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
Turbocharger heat shield
Turbocharger heat shield bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
PCV hose to the upper left valve rocker arm cover
Turbocharger outlet coolant hose to the turbocharger
Turbocharger inlet coolant hose to the turbocharger coolant bypass valve
Inlet air heater relay
Wire terminal and the nut to intake air heater and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 35 inch lbs. (4 Nm)
A/C compressor
A/C compressor bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Drive belt
A/C cut out switch electrical connector
A/C clutch electrical connector
Remove the tape from the turbocharger openings if necessary.
Install or connect the following:
Charged air cooler snip duct and align the mark on the duct with the mark
on the turbocharger
Clamp for proper clearance and tighten the clamp
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Charged air cooler outlet duct on the intake and align the mark on the
duct with the mark on the intake
Clamp for proper clearance and tighten the clamp
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Outlet duct to turbocharger
Align the outlet duct alignment indicator to the turbocharger alignment indicator.
NOTE: The outlet duct must be fully seated against the MAT/IAT sensor with the
edge of the seal in the vertical position.

8. Install or connect the following:


Outlet duct to the MAT/IAT sensor and tighten the outlet duct clamps at
the turbocharger and the MAT/IAT sensor
Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
9. Raise the vehicle.
10. Install or connect the following:

Lower exhaust outlet heat shield bolt and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
Right exhaust pipe with a new gasket to exhaust manifold and align the
tab on the exhaust pipe gasket facing outward
Right exhaust pipe bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 39 ft. lbs. (53 Nm)
Left exhaust pipe with a NEW gasket to exhaust manifold and align the
tab on the exhaust pipe gasket facing outward
Left exhaust pipe bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 39 ft. lbs. (53 Nm)
Left exhaust pipe heat shield
Left exhaust pipe heat shield bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
Exhaust heat shield to left font of the dash panel
Shield nuts and tighten the nuts
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Fill tube if equipped
Fill tube nuts and tighten the nuts
A. Torque to: 13 ft. lbs. (18 Nm)
Exhaust pipe clamp
NOTE: To assist in positioning the clamp on the flanges use a suitable
screw jack to hold the exhaust pipe in position.

Tighten the clamp


A. Torque to: 30 ft. lbs. (40 Nm)
11. Lower the vehicle.
12. Fill the cooling system.
13. Install or connect the following:
Upper intake manifold cover
Upper intake manifold cover to the outlet duct and tighten the outlet duct
clamp at the upper intake manifold cover
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
14. Position the hood in the normal operating position by moving the hood hinge
bolts from the service position to the normal operating position and tighten the
bolts.
Torque to: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
15. Connect the negative battery cables.
16. Road test the vehicle for normal operation.
17. Inspect for coolant, oil, or exhaust leaks.
NOTE: Operate the engine at idle for at least 3 minutes after installing the turbocharger.

Radiator
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
WARNING
To avoid being burned, do not remove the radiator cap or surge tank cap while the
engine is on or is still hot. The cooling system will release scalding fluid and steam under
pressure if radiator cap or surge tank cap is removed while the engine and radiator are
still hot.
CAUTION
If the vehicle's coolant is low, drained out, or has repeatedly needed coolant or water
added to the system, then the system should be completely flushed.
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Drain the cooling system.
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Inlet hose from the radiator
Radiator outlet hose from the radiator
Lower fan shroud
Vent inlet hose from the radiator
Surge tank hose
Engine oil cooler lines from the radiator
Transmission oil cooler lines from the radiator
Remove the radiator

Radiator bolts

Radiator from the vehicle

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Radiator to the vehicle
Radiator bolts and tighten the bolts,
A. Torque to: 18 ft-lbs (25 Nm)
Engine oil cooler lines to the radiator
Transmission oil cooler lines to the radiator
Radiator vent inlet hose to the radiator
Lower fan shroud
Outlet hose to the radiator
Inlet hose to the radiator
2. Fill the cooling system.
3. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Radiator Surge Tank


Removal & Installation
WARNING
With a pressurized cooling system, the coolant temperature in the radiator will be
considerably higher than the boiling point of the solution at atmospheric pressure.
Removal of the surge tank cap, while the cooling system is hot and under high pressure,
causes the solution to boil instantaneously with explosive force. Serious bodily injury
may result if care is not exercised when removing surge tank cap.
To Remove:
1. Drain the cooling system below the level of the surge tank.
2. Remove the air cleaner assembly.

3. Remove the surge tank overflow hose from the surge tank.
4. Remove the low coolant level switch electrical connector.
5. Reposition the surge tank inlet hose clamp.
6. Remove the surge tank inlet (upper) hose from the surge tank.
7. Reposition the surge tank outlet hose clamp.
8. Remove the surge tank inlet (lower) hose from the surge tank.
9. Remove the bolt and nut from the surge tank.
10. Remove the surge tank.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Position the surge tank on vehicle.


Install the bolt and nut.
Install the surge tank inlet (lower) hose to the surge tank and position clamp.
Install the surge tank inlet (upper) hose to the surge tank and position clamp.
Connect the low coolant level switch electrical connector.
Install the surge tank overflow hose.
Install the air cleaner assembly.
Fill the cooling system.

Fan Blade and Clutch


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove the upper fan shroud.
J41240 Fan Tool

2. Install the J 41240 or other suitable tool to the fan clutch.


Fan and Clutch removal

3. Remove fan hub nut from water pump.


4. Remove the fan clutch and blade.
5. Lay the fan blade face down on a workbench.
Fan Blade from Clutch removal

6. Remove the fan clutch bolts from the rear of the fan blade, if necessary.
7. Separate the fan clutch from the fan blade.
To Install:
CAUTION
Do not use or attempt to repair a damaged cooling fan assembly. Replace damaged fans
with new assemblies. An unbalanced cooling fan could fly apart causing personal Injury
and property damage.
1. Install or connect the following:
Fan clutch onto the fan blade
Fan clutch bolts
Fan clutch bolts and tighten the bolts;
A. Torque to: 17 ft. lbs. (23 Nm)
Fan blade and clutch
The J 41240 or other suitable tool to the fan clutch
A. Tighten the fan clutch nut; Torque to: 41 ft. lbs. (56 Nm)
Upper fan shroud
2. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Water Pump
Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Remove the left front fender wheelhouse inner panel.
3. Drain the coolant.
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Thermostat housing crossover
Fan clutch
Crankshaft damper (See: Crankshaft Damper)
6.6L Oil cooler to water pump removal

Oil cooler pipe-to-water pump nuts


Engine wiring harness retainer from the inner stud

6.6L Water pump removal

Water pump bolts, noting their locations as they are different lengths
Water pump and gasket

To Install:
1. Lubricate the water pump O-ring with engine oil.
2. Install or connect the following:
Water pump
Water pump bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Water pump-to-water pump outlet gasket
Engine wiring harness retainer on the water pump outlet pipe inner stud
Oil cooler-to-water pump nuts and tighten the nuts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Thermostat housing crossover
Crankshaft damper
Fan clutch
3. Fill the cooling system and install the left front fender wheelhouse inner panel.
4. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Drive Belt Idler Pulley


Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
2001-2004
To Remove:
1. Remove the drive belt.

2. Remove the bolt from the right side idler pulley (ribbed pulley).
3. Remove the idler pulley.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Remove the bolt from the center idler pulley (smooth pulley).
Remove the idler pulley.
Remove the bolt from the left side idler pulley (if equipped with dual generators).
Remove the left side idler pulley (if equipped with dual generators).

To Install:
1. Install the right side idler pulley and bolt.
Torque to; 37 ft-lbs (50 Nm)
2. Install the center idler pulley and bolt.
Torque to; 37 ft-lbs (50 Nm)
3. Install the left side idler pulley and bolt (if equipped with dual generators).
Torque to; 37 ft-lbs (50 Nm)
4. Install the drive belt.

Drive Belt Tensioner


Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
2001-2004
To Remove:
1. Remove the drive belt.

2. Remove the drive belt tensioner bolt.


3. Remove the drive belt tensioner.
To Install:
1. Install the drive belt tensioner by aligning the pin with the hole in the generator
bracket.
2. Install the drive belt tensioner bolt.
Torque to: 30 ft-lbs (41 Nm)
3. Install the drive belt.

Oil Pan
Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
Lower Oil Pan
To Remove:
1. Drain the engine oil.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Oil pan skid plate if equipped
Crossbar
Oil level sensor connector
Lower oil pan bolts and nuts
Lower oil pan from the lower crankcase
Lower oil pan
Oil level sensor removal

Oil level sensor (A), bolt (B) and clip (C) if necessary

To Install:
1. Clean all sealing surfaces.
2. Apply a 1/8 inch (2mm) bead of sealant to the oil pan sealing surface.
3. Install or connect the following:
Oil pan sensor, bolt and clip if necessary and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
Oil pan and tighten the bolts and nuts
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
Oil level sensor connector
Crossbar
Crossbar bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 74 lb-ft. (100 Nm)
Oil pan skid plate if equipped
Oil pan skid plate bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 lb-ft. (20 Nm)
4. Refill engine with oil.
5. Test drive to confirm the repairs.
Upper Oil Pan
To Remove:
1. Drain the engine oil.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Front differential carrier (4WD vehicles)(See: Axle Housing Front, for
detailed information)
Relay rod from the pitman arm and idler arm if equipped (See: Pitman
Arm, for detailed information)
Transmission (See: Manual Transmission or Automatic Transmission, for
detailed information)
Lower oil pan (See: Oil Pan Lower, for detailed information)
Flywheel/Flexplate (See: Flywheel/Flexplate, for detailed information)
Positive and negative battery cable bracket bolts and bracket from the
front of the upper oil pan
Positive and negative battery cable bracket nut and bracket from the right
side of the upper oil pan
2 engine flywheel housing to upper oil pan bolts (refer to denoted black
triangles on accompanying figure)

Remove only the flywheel housing-to-upper oil pan bolts designated with a black
triangle-6.6L engine

1.

Upper oil pan bolts and any brackets


Upper oil pan from the engine block
Upper oil pan

NOTE: The oil dipstick tube needs to be removed while lowering the upper oil pan.
To Install:
1. Clean all sealing surfaces.
2. Apply a 1/8 in. (2mm) bead of sealant to the oil pan and flywheel sealing
surfaces.

3. Install or connect the following:


Upper oil pan; make sure the dipstick is installed into the upper pan
Upper pan bolts and brackets and tighten the bolts in sequence
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Upper oil pan bolt tightening sequence-6.6L engine

2 engine flywheel housing to upper oil pan bolts (refer to denoted black
triangles on accompanying figure) and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Positive and negative battery cable bracket nut and bracket to the right
side of the upper oil pan
Positive and negative battery cable bracket bolts and bracket from the
front of the upper oil pan
Flywheel/Flexplate (See: Flywheel/Flexplate)

Lower oil pan (See: Oil Pan Lower)


Transmission (See: Manual Transmission or Automatic Transmission)
Relay rod from the pitman arm and idler arm if equipped (See: Pitman
Arm)
Front differential carrier (4WD vehicles)(See: Axle Housing Front)

4. Refill engine with oil.


5. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Oil Pump
Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
To Remove:
1. Drain the engine oil.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Engine flywheel housing (2WD vehicles)
Engine front cover
Upper oil pan
Oil pump pipe and screen and gasket
3. Block the crankshaft from turning with a wooden dowel.
Oil pump driven gear nut
Oil pump driven gear
NOTE: The crankshaft reluctor and oil pump drive gear are timed together
at the factory. Do not remove the reluctor from the oil pump drive gear or
damage the reluctor teeth.

Oil pump drive gear and crankshaft reluctor assembly using a brass drift
and tapping as close to the center of the reluctor assembly
3 hex head and 1 Allen head bolt
Oil pump
Oil pump O-ring seal
Oil pump gear cover bolts and cover
4. Measure the clearance between the gear teeth and oil pump housing using a
feeler gauge.
5. The production clearance is 0.0049-0.0087 in. (0.125-0.221mm) and the service
limit is 0.0087 in. (0.221mm).
6. Replace the pump if the clearance exceeds the service limit.
7. Use a feeler gauge and a straightedge to measure the clearance between the
side of the gear and the cover.
8. The production clearance is 0.0025-0.0043 in. (0.064-0.109mm) and the service
limit is 0.0043 in. (0.109mm).
9. Replace the pump if the clearance exceeds the service limit.
10. Calculate the driven gear shaft-to-bushing clearance:
Measure the driven gear shaft outside diameter
The production specification is 0.7853-0.7858 in. (19.947-19.960mm) and
the service limit is 0.7819 in. (19.86mm)
Measure the driven gear bushing inside diameter
The production value is 0.7874 in. (20mm)
Calculate the driven gear shaft-to-bushing clearance
The service limit is 0.0055 in. (0.14mm)
Replace the pump if the clearance exceeds the service limit

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Oil pump gear cover and bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
New O-ring seal for the oil pump
Oil pump and bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
2. Check the oil pump drive gear for wear and replace the gear pin if necessary.
3. Install or connect the following:
Oil pump drive gear and reluctor
Oil pump driven gear and nut
Block the crankshaft from moving and then tighten
A. Torque to: 74 ft. lbs. (100 Nm)
Oil pump pipe and screen gasket to the oil pump (4WD vehicle)
Oil pump pipe and screen (4WD vehicle)
Oil pump pipe and screen bolts and nuts (4WD vehicle) and tighten the
bolts and nuts
A. Torque to: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
Engine front cover
Engine flywheel housing (2WD vehicle)
Upper oil pan
4. Refill the crankcase with oil.
5. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Rear Main Seal


6.6L Engine
To Remove:
Please note that the entire transmission assembly must be removed before performing
this procedure. Before a new seal is installed, the Crankcase Depression Regulator
(CDR) and crankcase ventilation system should be cleaned and inspected. In addition,
use care removing the flywheel. Some models use a heavy, dual mass flywheel that
must be handled with care.
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cables
Transfer case, if equipped (See: Transfer Case)
Transmission assembly (See: Manual Transmission or Automatic
Transmission)
Clutch assembly if equipped with manual transmission (See: Pressure
Plate and Friction Disc)
Flywheel/Flexplate (See: Flywheel/Flexplate)
Crankshaft rear main oil seal by inserting a suitable crankshaft seal
removal tool and prying the seal out
To Install:
1. Clean the oil seal bore in the block thoroughly before installation of the new seal.
NOTE: Inspect the crankshaft for grit, rust or burrs and correct as necessary.
Also inspect the portion of the crankshaft where the oil seal makes contact, for
wear due to the rubbing action of the oil seal.
NOTE: Because of rear crankshaft wear or grooving, the new oil seal should be
seated in a new location. The J 39084 installation tool will control the seal
positioning. This will provide a new surface on the crankshaft for the seal to ride
on.
2. Clean the running surface of the crankshaft with a non-abrasive cleaner.
3. Lubricate the inner diameter of the new seal and the outer diameter of the
crankshaft with engine oil.
4. Install or connect the following:
Rear main oil seal using a crankshaft rear oil seal installation tool
Flywheel/Flexplate (See: Flywheel/Flexplate)
Transmission assembly (See: Manual Transmission or Automatic
Transmission)
Transfer case, if equipped (See: Transfer Case)
Negative battery cables
5. Start the engine and verify no oil leaks.
6. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Timing Chain, Sprockets, Front Cover and Seal


NOTE: The manufacturer recommends that the front cover oil seal be replaced
whenever the cover is removed.
Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
To Remove:
NOTE: The 6.6L engine uses gears in place of a timing chain. For removal and
installation, please see the Camshaft and Lifters procedure. This procedure covers the
removal of the front cover and seal.
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Remove the upper intake manifold sight shield as follows:
Remove the retaining bolt in the front of the shield
Lift up on the front of the shield, then lift the shield off the rear bracket
3. Drain the cooling system.
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cables
Right front wheel
Right front fender splash shield
Upper fan shroud
Fan clutch (See: Engine Fan and Clutch)
Drive belt
Oil dipstick tube
Thermostat housing crossover
Crankshaft damper (See: Crankshaft Damper)
Crankshaft front oil seal
Water pump (See: Water Pump)
Camshaft sensor electrical connector
Camshaft sensor bolt and sensor
Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor connector, bolt and sensor
CKP sensor spacer bolts and spacer
5 bolts securing the upper oil pan to the front cover
Bracket bolts and the bracket for the turbocharger outlet coolant pipe
Engine front cover bolts
Use a suitable seal cutter to separate the front cover from the cylinder
block and upper oil pan
NOTE: Do not bend the turbocharger outlet pipe.

O-ring from the front cover

Engine front cover-6.6L engine

Oil pressure relief valve from the front cover

To Install:
1. Clean and inspect all sealing surfaces.
2. Install or connect the following:
Oil pressure relief valve with a new O-ring and tighten the valve
A. Torque to: 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm)
3. Apply a 1/8 in. (2-3mm) wide to 1/16 in. (0.5-1.5mm) high bead of sealant to the
front cover sealing surfaces to the engine block and oil pan.
4. Install or connect the following:
New front cover O-ring after lubricating it with engine oil
Front cover and bolts and tighten the front cover bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Upper oil pan-to-front cover bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Turbocharger coolant outlet pipe bracket and bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm).
Camshaft sensor and bolt and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Camshaft sensor connector

NOTE: The CKP sensor spacers are machined with different timing
positions. If you have to replace a spacer, make sure it has the same part
number.

CKP sensor spacer and spacer bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
CKP sensor and bolt and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
Water pump (See: Water Pump)
Crankshaft front oil seal
Crankshaft damper (See: Crankshaft Damper)
Thermostat housing crossover
Oil fill tube
Drive belt
Upper fan shroud
Right front fender splash shield and wheel
Negative battery cables
5. Refill the cooling system with the proper type and quantity of antifreeze.
6. Inspect the engine for leaks.
7. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Camshaft, Bearings and Lifters


Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Properly reclaim the refrigerant from the A/C system using approved A/C
equipment.
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Both cylinder heads (See: Cylinder Head)
Valve lifter guide hold-down bracket bolts
Valve lifter guide hold-down brackets
Valve lifter guides
Valve lifters
Charged air cooler
A/C condenser
Starter (See: Starter)
4. Install the Flywheel Holding Tool No. J 44643 or other suitable crankshaft holding
tool in the starter opening.
NOTE: Make sure the tool is flush to the flywheel opening. The holding tool will
be used to remove the crankshaft damper bolt and camshaft drive gear bolt.
Proper installation of the flywheel holding tool in the starter
opening

Engine front cover (See: Timing Chain, Sprockets, Front Cover and Seal)
Oil pump driven gear nut and gear
CAUTION
The crankshaft reluctor and oil pump drive gear are timed together at the
factory. Do not remove the reluctor from the oil pump drive gear.

Oil pump drive gear and crankshaft reluctor assembly but take care not to
remove the reluctor bolts or damage the reluctor teeth
5. Using the Magnetic Base J 26900-13 and Dial Indicator J 26900-12 or other
suitable dial indicator, measure the camshaft end-play.
NOTE: The production value is 0.002-0.0045 in. (0.050-0.114mm) and the
service limit is 0.008 in. (0.20mm). Replace the cam gear or thrust plate if the
measured value exceeds the service limit.
Use the dial indicator (1) and magnetic base (2) to measure
the camshaft end-play

Camshaft reluctor screws and reluctor


NOTE: Use the flywheel holding tool to hold the engine from turning while
loosening the camshaft gear bolt.

Loosen the camshaft gear bolt and leave the bolt finger-tight
Camshaft thrust plate bolts through the holes in the camshaft gear
Camshaft with the gear attached
Cam gear bolt and gear
Thrust plate
6. Clean and inspect the camshaft and bearings.

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Camshaft thrust plate
Camshaft driven gear
Driven gear bolt (finger-tight)
Camshaft and gear assembly into the cylinder block and align the gear to
the crankshaft gear
Camshaft and crankshaft gear alignment-6.6L engine

Apply threadlock to the thrust plate bolts and tighten the thrust plate bolts
A. Torque to: 19 ft. lbs. (26 Nm)
Camshaft reluctor to the cam gear
Reluctor bolts and tighten the bolts in a crisscross pattern
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Flywheel holding tool in the starter opening If removed
Camshaft gear bolt and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 173 ft. lbs. (234 Nm)
2. Using the Magnetic Base J 26900-13 and Dial Indicator J 26900-12 or other
suitable dial indicator, measure the camshaft end-play.
NOTE: The production value is 0.002-0.0045 in. (0.050-0.114mm) and the
service limit is 0.008 in. (0.20mm). Replace the cam gear or thrust plate if the
measured value exceeds the service limit.

Oil pump drive gear and reluctor to the crankshaft taking care not to
damage the teeth of the reluctor
Oil pump driven gear and nut and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 74 ft. lbs. (100 Nm)
Engine front cover (See: Timing Chain, Sprockets, Front Cover and Seal)

3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

A/C condenser
Charged air cooler
Apply clean engine oil to the roller and outside of the lifters.
Install or connect the following:
Valve lifters
Valve lifter guides
Valve lifter guide hold-down brackets. Make sure that both tabs of the
bracket are in the holes of the valve lifter guides
Valve lifter guide hold-down bracket bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 97 inch lbs. (11 Nm)
Both cylinder heads (See: Cylinder Head)
Fill the cooling system.
Start the engine then idle until normal operating temperature is attained.
Recheck coolant level and top off as needed.
Charge the A/C system with the proper refrigerant.
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs.

Inspection
Camshaft Lobe Lift
Camshaft lobe lift is measured in two places

Camshaft lobe lift is the amount (measured in inches or millimeters) that the camshaft is
capable of moving the valve train components in order to open the valves. The lobe lift is
a measure of how much taller the "egg shaped'' portion of the camshaft lobe is above
the base or circular portion of the shaft lobe. Lift is directly proportional to how far the
valves can open. A worn camshaft (with poor lobe lift) cannot fully open the valves. The
lobe lift therefore can be directly responsible for proper or poor engine performance.
Lobe lift can be measured in 2 ways, depending on what tools are available and whether
or not the camshaft has been removed from the engine. A dial gauge can be used to
measure the lift with the camshaft installed, while a micrometer is normally only used
once the shaft has been removed from the engine.

Dial Gauge Method


Measuring camshaft run-out

Measuring camshaft straightness

Lobe lift may be checked with the camshaft installed. In all cases, a dial gauge is
positioned somewhere on the valve train (pushrod, lifter, or camshaft itself) and the
camshaft is then turned to measure the lift.

1. Remove the valve cover for access to the camshaft.


2. Install a dial indicator so that the actuating point of the indicator is directly placed
on the camshaft.
3. Check the lift of each lobe in consecutive order and make note of the readings.
NOTE: A remote starter may be used to turn the engine over during the next
steps. If a remote starter is not available, remove the spark plugs to relieve
engine compression. Then rotate the crankshaft using a large wrench or socket
on the crankshaft damper bolt. be sure to only turn the engine in the normal
direction of rotation.
4. Rotate the crankshaft until the tappet is on the base circle of the camshaft lobe.
5. Zero the dial indicator. Continue to rotate the crankshaft slowly until the pushrod
(or camshaft lobe) is in the fully raised position.
6. Compare the total lift recorded on the dial indicator with the elevation
specification shown in the Engine Specification chart.
NOTE: To check the accuracy of the original indicator reading, continue to rotate
the crankshaft until the indicator reads zero. If the lift on any lobe is below
specified wear limits listed the camshaft and the valve tappets must be replaced.
7. Install the valve cover(s).
Micrometer
A micrometer may used to measure camshaft lobe lift, but only after it has been removed
from the engine. Once the valve cover is removed from the engine, access may be
possible (though a little awkward) to measure the camshaft lobes using a micrometer.
Two measurements are necessary for each lobe; Measurement "Y" or the total LOBE
HEIGHT, and measurement "X" or the total LOBE WIDTH. To find the lobe lift, you
simply subtract "X" from "Y" (subtract the width from the height).
Note each measurement, and then make your calculation to determine the lift. Note the
final results and repeat the process on the remaining camshaft lobes. Finally, you should
compare your results to the specification charts and decide if a new camshaft is in your
future.

DRIVABILITY & EMISSIONS CONTROLS


Emissions Controls System Overview
General Information
The first emissions controls implemented in the mid 1960s consisted of engine
modifications and add on pollution control devices. These pollution control systems
moderately lowered emissions, but they also caused a reduction in engine performance
and increased fuel consumption.
In 1972 the federal government initiated a standardized test procedure for measuring
vehicle compliance with federal emissions standards. This test incorporates a chassis
dynamometer to provide a consistent and accurate way to measure the amount of HC,
NOx, CO, and CO2 that a vehicle produces. This Federal Test Procedure (FTP) applies
to both Light-Duty Vehicles (LDV) and Light-Duty Trucks (LDT). Over the years it has
been tailored to the support the amended federal emissions requirements.
The FTP is designed to simulate typical driving conditions in urban areas. This FTP
certification is a requirement of all pre-production vehicles that are to be sold in the U.S.
Being compliant includes being able to pass the FTP throughout the vehicle's useful life.
Because of this, the FTP is also used on in-use vehicles.
In 1975, catalytic converters were introduced to help lower the emissions of HC and CO.
Catalytic converter efficiency of this era was poor and required cumbersome air
management systems. By cleaning-up the exhaust (post-combustion) instead of
reducing engine emissions (pre-combustion), auto manufacturers were able to address
the Federal Government's concerns regarding pollution contributed by automobiles,
however this did nothing for fuel efficiency.
The Federal Government's emissions standards combined with the price and availability
of fuel at the time created a demand for the auto manufacturers to produce vehicles that
were more fuel efficient and had lower emissions. At the time, the easiest way to reduce
both fuel consumption and vehicle emissions was to lower the engine displacement and
lean the air/fuel ratio out. Though emissions were lowered, the smaller, leaner engines
created additional hurdles including a lack of performance.
One hurdle caused by the smaller engines pulling heavy vehicle weights was
compounded by the leaner air fuel mixtures, which resulted in increased cylinder
temperatures. These increased cylinder temperatures caused a dramatic rise in the
production of oxides of nitrogen (NOX).
The air that enters the combustion chamber consists of approximately 20.8 percent
oxygen, 78 percent nitrogen and 1.2 percent mixed gases. As the air/fuel mixture enters
the combustion chamber and ignition occurs, the nitrogen forms various compounds with
the oxygen. These compounds have varying amounts of oxygen and are know as NOX oxides of nitrogen.

Emission Control Systems


In order to help reduce emissions and improve fuel economy in the 1980s,
manufacturers started equipping vehicles with three-way catalysts and electronic fuel
metering systems. By 1988, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) began
regulation of the OBD systems sold in California. These OBD systems were designed to
monitor fuel, ignition, and emissions system components to determine if they were
operating correctly. When a system was found to be operating out of specification, a fault
code was stored in the Engine Control Module (ECM). In some cases, a "check engine
light" would illuminate. Technicians could connect to the ECM through a Data Link
Connector (DLC) and download fault codes.
The new emission control systems were a significant departure from traditional engine
systems. Instead of using mechanical systems to control key engine components, such
as the carburetor and ignition system, these components are controlled by the on-board
computer known as the ECM. Control of emissions is now geared toward the precise
tuning of combustion for each set of operating conditions as determined by the input
from specific sensors. This minimizes engine emissions while improving performance.
Three-way catalysts are effective in simultaneously reducing emissions of HC, CO and
NOX . Proper operation of a three-way catalyst requires precise control of the fuel
metering system. If there's too much air, the converter will not reduce NOX emissions. If
there's too much fuel, the converter will not reduce HC and CO emissions.
To achieve this precise control, electronic fuel metering systems began incorporating
oxygen sensors in the exhaust to provide feedback to the ECM on whether the air/fuel
mixture was rich (too much fuel) or lean (too much air). When these electronic fuel
metering systems read the input from the oxygen sensor, they are said to be running in
"closed loop". "Open loop" describes the mode of operation when these electronic fuel
metering systems disregard the oxygen sensor signal.
A closed loop fuel control system precisely controls the air/fuel mixture. The vehicle's
ECM maintains the air/fuel mixture at the optimum conditions for minimizing emissions,
while maximizing performance.
The fuel system and catalytic converter must have the proper balance of air and fuel in
order to maintain low emissions. The stoichiometric 14.7:1 air/fuel ratio is the proper
reference point in which catalyst efficiency is greatest in uniformly reducing all
emissions. The carbon monoxide emissions will be lower at a fuel mixture leaner than
14.7:1, but a sacrifice is made with an increase in hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen.
The fuel program that the engine uses is based on an air/fuel ratio of 14.7:1 for optimum
catalyst efficiency. This balance is difficult to maintain under normal circumstances
because of the changing variables such as RPM and engine load. To overcome the
difficulties of maintaining balance, the fuel management system forces the system rich
for approximately 300 milliseconds and then forces the system lean for the same amount
of time. If the system stayed rich longer then it stayed lean, the system is correcting for a
lean condition and is still considered to be in "closed loop" fuel control. The carbureted
fuel control systems of this era were only capable of making approximately 10 changes
in a second.

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 recognized the fact that vehicles with
malfunctioning emissions control systems could go undetected for extended periods.
Annual emissions inspection programs were not enough. The EPA required vehicle
manufacturers to produce vehicle OBD systems capable of immediately identifying the
vehicle operator of emissions faults, effective from 1996. As part of the OBD II system,
all emissions-related components would be monitored for malfunction or deterioration.
On today's new vehicles, HC and CO emissions are reduced by more than 95% when
compared to a 1960's vintage vehicle; NOX emissions are reduced by 90%.
The exhaust emissions of automotive engines contain a number of harmful pollutants. In
order to minimize the amount of harmful pollutants being produced, manufacturers have
developed automotive emissions controls. The following is a list of the harmful exhaust
gases manufacturers plan to reduce, which includes how the gases are formed and why
they are dangerous.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Consists of carbon & oxygen. This colorless, odorless, poisonous gas is the product of
incomplete combustion. By weight, carbon monoxide accounts for the 47% of air
pollution.
Hydrocarbon (HC)
Hydrocarbons consist of carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons are emitted in an
unburned form from equipment which uses a petroleum product as a source of fuel.
Hydrocarbons are one of the key elements responsible for the production of
photochemical smog.
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX)
Oxides of nitrogen consist of nitrogen combined with varying amounts of oxygen. NO X
are produced by heat and pressure during the combustion process. NOX are also a main
component in smog.
Photochemical Smog
Photochemical smog, commonly referred to simply as smog, is a by-product of the
combination of HC and NOX . In the presence of sunlight these two elements form ozone
(O3), nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen nitrate; all of which cause respiratory problems.
Nitrogen dioxide is a light brown colored gas which can affect visibility in the air corridors
around major airport terminals and above highways.
Particulates
Particulates are tiny particles of liquids and solids which are dispersed into the
atmosphere during any burning process. Particulates are composed of carbon, ash, oil,
grease, and metal oxides. Smoke, haze, and dust are types of air pollution which are
readily visible and are known to complicate respiratory problems cause by smog.

Emission Controls
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) Valve
Operation
The Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) system takes blow-by and other vapors and
draws them into the intake manifold under high vacuum signal conditions. They are
mixed with the air/fuel mixture and burned to reduce HC emissions. This allows oil vapor
to be introduced into the combustion process also alleviating crankcase pressure and
reducing the possibility of oil leaks.
Hydrocarbon vapors present in blow-by gasses provide additional enrichment and may
promote elevated levels of both hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Lack of
scheduled oil changes can allow sludge and moisture to build up in the PCV system and
lead to blockage of the oil and PCV passages. Fuel contaminated oil can be verified by
monitoring tailpipe emissions and temporarily disabling the PCV valve.
Related Symptoms

Improper PCV system operation can cause oil leaks, oil consumption, poor idle,
stalling, increased crankcase pressures, and excessive wear. Increased
crankcase pressure due to poor circulation will result in increased levels of blowby gases and possibly an oil saturated air filter. If the PCV system is leaking, it
can cause a vacuum leak or result in a leaner air-fuel mixture at idle. A blocked
PCV system can cause a rich air-fuel mixture.

Removal & Installation


6.6L Diesel Engine
To Remove:
Upper intake manifold cover removal

1. Remove or disconnect the following:

Outlet duct clamp at the upper intake manifold cover


Upper intake manifold cover from the outlet duct
Upper intake manifold cover
NOTE: After removing the turbocharger air ducts, cover the turbocharger
openings with tape to prevent entry of objects
Right side outlet duct removal

Outlet duct clamps at the turbocharger and the mass air flow/intake air
temperature (MAF/IAT) sensor if removing the right side valve
Outlet duct

Right side charged air cooler outlet duct

2. If removing the right side valve, loosen the charged air cooler outlet duct to intake
hose clamp (A)
NOTE: Do not use a screwdriver or other tool to pry the hose loose. The hose
can be torn or damaged. Loosen the hose by twisting
3. Remove the charged air cooler outlet duct from the intake

Left side charged air cooler outlet duct

4. If removing the left side valve, loosen the charged air cooler inlet duct to
turbocharger clamp (1)
NOTE: Do not use a screwdriver or other tool to pry the hose loose. The hose
can be torn or damaged. Loosen the hose by twisting
5. Remove or disconnect the following:
Charged air cooler inlet duct from the turbocharger

Heater outlet hose removal

Heater outlet hose nut (A) in order to access the right side valve
Heater outlet hose bolt (B)

6. Position the heater outlet hose out of the way

PCV diaphragm removal

7. Remove or disconnect the following:


Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) diaphragm cover screws
Diaphragm cover
Diaphragm and spring
8. Clean the diaphragm cover, spring, and screws
9. Inspect the diaphragm for cuts or damage
10. Discard the diaphragm if damage is found

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Spring, diaphragm and cover
PCV diaphragm cover screws and tighten the screws
A. Torque to: 35 inch lbs. (4 Nm)
Heater outlet hose nut and bolt and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
2. Remove the tape from the turbocharger openings
3. Align the mark on the duct with the mark on the turbocharger
4. Install or connect the following:
Charged air cooler inlet duct to the turbocharger
Duct clamp for proper clearance and tighten the clamp
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Charged air cooler outlet duct to the intake by aligning the mark on the
duct with the mark on the intake
Duct clamp for proper clearance and tighten the clamp
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Outlet duct to the turbocharger Align the outlet duct alignment indicator to
the turbocharger alignment indicator
NOTE: The outlet duct must be fully seated against the MAT/IAT sensor
with the edge of the seal in the vertical position.
Install or connect the following:

Outlet duct to the MAT/IAT sensor and tighten the outlet duct clamps at
the turbocharger and the MAF/IAT sensor
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Upper intake manifold cover
Upper intake manifold cover to the outlet duct and tighten the outlet duct
clamp at the upper intake manifold cover
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
5. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

EVAP Canister Vent Valve


Operation
The EVAP vent valve controls evaporative emissions by storing fuel vapor and purging
the vapor into the engine at specific times. The EVAP vent valve is closed when the
engine is OFF, and opens during start up to purge the vapor so it can be burned during
the combustion cycle. The ECM monitors fuel tank pressure during normal operation and
opens the valve periodically to relieve pressure and evacuate fuel vapor. When activated
the evaporative canister purge valve allows the fuel vapor to flow from the EVAP canister
to the engine. The normally closed evaporative canister purge valve is pulse width
modulated by the Engine Management System in order to control the vapor flow.
Related Symptoms
The following symptoms can be caused by a faulty EVAP vent valve.

Poor fuel economy


Stalls after start
Emissions related failure DTC codes

Exhaust Gas Recirculation System


Operation
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) gases are regulated by the Engine Management
System (EMS). The EGR opens and closes based on engine coolant temperature,
engine speed, vehicle speed, throttle angle and manifold absolute pressure (MAP). The
operation of the EGR system is monitored by the EMS that allows gases to flow at a
calculated rate and compares it against MAP sensor and oxygen sensor activity. The
EMS anticipates an increase in MAP voltage and an increase in O2 sensor voltage.
Electrically operated vacuum control solenoids used to control the flow of vacuum to the
EGR valve rely on pulse-width duty cycle commands from the EMS to control its
operation. Using input values and the operating conditions previously mentioned the
EMS completes the electrical circuit for the solenoid to allow vacuum operation of the
EGR.
In addition to solenoids controlling vacuum flow the incorporation of a back pressure
transducer regulates vacuum signals independently of electrical signals. When back
pressure in the exhaust system is low the transducer pintle is open and manifold vacuum
is allowed to bleed off. As back pressure increases the amount of vacuum allowed to
bleed off is reduced resulting in more vacuum being applied to the valve. This allows air
pressure to open the valve.

Related Symptoms
A faulty EGR system can exhibit the following symptoms due to loose connection, bad
grounds, high-resistance in the circuit, or open circuits:

Stalling on deceleration
Stalls at idle
Surging off idle
Unstable idle
Running rough off idle
Hesitation
Stumble
Chuggle
Low idle
Poor fuel economy
Spark knock
Stalling on acceleration

Removal & Installation


6.6L Diesel Engine
To Remove:
1. Drain cooling system
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Air cleaner outlet duct
Turbo boost sensor

Turbocharger boost sensor bracket bolt


Turbocharger boost sensor with bracket
Intake heater and gasket
Upper intake manifold tube nuts and upper tube
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve vacuum hose
EGR inlet cooling hose

EGR inlet cooling hose (B) from cooling tube (A)

EGR outlet cooling hose

EGR outlet cooling hose (A) from cooling tube (B)


EGR assembly to intake manifold nuts

EGR exhaust nuts

EGR assembly to exhaust pipe nuts


EGR assembly to EGR bracket (B) bolts
EGR assembly from the engine
EGR valve removal

EGR to EGR cooling tube bolts (A)


EGR valve from the EGR cooling tube

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
EGR valve to the EGR cooling tube
EGR to EGR cooling tube bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
EGR assembly to the engine
EGR assembly to EGR bracket bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
EGR assembly to exhaust pipe nuts and tighten the nuts
Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
EGR assembly to intake manifold nuts and tighten the nuts
A. Torque to: 14 ft. lbs. (19 Nm)
EGR outlet cooling hose to EGR cooling tube
EGR inlet cooling hose to the EGR cooling tube
EGR vacuum hose to the EGR valve
Upper intake manifold tube and nuts and tighten the nuts
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
Intake heater and gasket and tighten the heater
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Turbocharger boost sensor with bracket
Turbocharger boost sensor bracket bolt and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
2. Install air cleaner outlet duct
3. Fill cooling system
4. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Electronic Engine Controls


Powertrain Control Module (PCM)
Operation
The OBD II Engine Management System (EMS) computer can be a single computer
comprised of several solid-state components or a multi-microcomputer device. This
computer controls the functions of the EMS and performs OBD II diagnostic routines.
These two distinct portions of the OBD II EMS computer function in conjunction with
each other. The computer architecture and software design allows the OBD II EMS
computer to adapt its operating strategies to a variety of conditions to optimize the EMS.
Federal guidelines require the EMS OBD II computer to continuously monitor the
operating conditions of the EMS. It must also record and report any system or
component failure that may cause tailpipe emissions to exceed typically 1- times the
federal test procedure.
The OBD II EMS computer is specifically designed to perform powertrain system
management and monitoring. Regardless of the manufacturers' design and
implementation of operating strategies, all computers are designed and built following
the same basic considerations.
All computers contain one or more microprocessors. They are constructed with a
complex arrangement of digital circuits. One microprocessor may contain upwards of
250,000 logic circuits. These are housed in a silicon-based integrated circuit (IC) no
bigger than an area of approximately 1/4 inch square. The microprocessor cannot
perform calculations and decisions without instructions that are programmed into the
computer.
IC Micro Processor
One single microprocessor called the Central Processing Unit (CPU) is dedicated to
maintaining control over the entire computer. The CPU performs all of the calculations
and logistical decisions. Operating instructions for the CPU are preprogrammed into
other memory locations and are read-only programs. These programs are permanent
and generally cannot be altered by service personnel in the field.
A program is a set of instructions arranged in a specific order to accomplish a specific
task. Each instruction in the program is assigned to a specific location or address within
the computers memory. Only the address of where the instruction is stored is retained in
the CPU. When the CPU requires information to perform a calculation it looks for the
address of the required data and then copies the data from the memory location. This
copy is retrieved and temporarily retained by the CPU for processing. Retrieving
programs in this manner ensures that the information programmed in memory is retained
and does not change.

Related Symptoms
The following symptoms can be caused by open circuits, dead-shorts to ground, short to
power or excessive resistance in the power and ground circuits; data line communication
malfunctions and /or component failure:

No Crank
No Start condition
No communication with scan tools
No communication with other modules
MIL lamp illumination
Intermittent component functions
Poor fuel economy
High emissions
Drivability concerns (stalling, bucking, stumble etc.)
Charging system malfunctions

Removal & Installation


NOTE: OBD-II compliant ECM's are sealed to prevent unauthorized tampering with
circuits.
To Remove:
CAUTION
To prevent internal PCM damage, the ignition switch must be OFF when disconnecting
or reconnecting power to the PCM.
NOTE: Use a scan tool to read the percentage of remaining engine oil life from the
existing PCM so the information can be programmed to the replacement PCM.
1. Remove any debris from around the PCM connector surfaces before servicing
the PCM. Inspect the PCM module connector gaskets when diagnosing or
replacing the PCM. Ensure that the gaskets are installed correctly. The gaskets
prevent contaminant intrusion into the PCM.
NOTE: The replacement PCM must be programmed.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Disconnect the negative battery cable.


Release the PCM cover mounting tabs.
Release the PCM cover from the mounting brackets.
Remove the PCM cover.

6. Loosen the PCM electrical connector bolts (B).

7. Disconnect the PCM electrical connectors.


8. Release the spring latch from the PCM.
9. Release the PCM mounting tabs from the PCM.
10. Remove the PCM

To Install:
1. Install the PCM. Ensure that the mounting tabs are engaged.
2. Secure the spring latch to the PCM.
3. Connect the PCM electrical connectors.

4. Tighten the PCM electrical connector bolts.


Torque to: 71 in. lbs. (8.0 Nm).
5. Install the PCM cover.
6. Ensure the mounting tabs are engaged into the mounting holes in the cover.
7. Connect the negative battery cable.
8. If a NEW PCM was installed, the PCM will have to be programmed.

Oxygen Sensor
Operation
Although the oxygen sensor is termed a sensor in actuality it is a galvanic battery. The
oxygen sensor compares the potential difference between the ambient oxygen content
around the exhaust and the oxygen content present in the exhaust stream. When the
exhaust sample is lean there is more oxygen in the exhaust as compared to the
atmosphere. When the exhaust sample is rich there is less oxygen content in the
exhaust as compared to the atmosphere. The greater the difference between ambient
oxygen and exhaust oxygen content the greater the voltage produced.
For the oxygen sensor(s) to operate properly it has to reach an operating temperature of
approximately 600F before a consistent voltage potential can be generated.
The Engine Management System (EMS) determines the state of readiness of the oxygen
sensor(s) by supplying a bias voltage of approximately 400 - 500mVDC to the oxygen
sensor. As the sensor begins to warm up the voltage produced increases due to rich
exhaust mixtures commanded by the EMS. When the EMS senses a return voltage
greater than the bias voltage the computer will command the fuel mixture lean. When the
output voltage from the sensor drops below bias voltage levels the computer will
command a rich mixture again. When the EMS determines that the O2 sensor has
responded properly and within a predetermined amount of time it will begin using the
sensor as an input to adjust the air/fuel mixture.
Typically oxygen sensors used in OBD II engine management systems incorporate
heaters. These heaters raise the sensors up to operating temperature quickly. The
sooner the oxygen sensor gets to operating temperature the sooner the EMS can
maintain closer control over emissions, economy and performance. The oxygen sensor
along with other sensors provides the computer with necessary information to maintain
favorable operating conditions for the catalytic converter. The role of the catalytic
converter is to store oxygen for the reduction of HC, CO and NOX emissions. The
oxygen sensor input is used by the EMS to protect the catalytic converter by cycling the
air/fuel mixture rich and lean. This provides adequate oxygen for storage while
maintaining cool enough operating temperatures to prevent catalyst damage.
In addition to controlling the catalytic converter's operating conditions for emissions
control the computer uses oxygen sensor data to tailor air/fuel mixture, providing a
balance between fuel economy and performance.
Abnormal sensor activity has a profound effect on pulse-width and air/fuel mixture
strategies. Sensor values that indicate lean conditions will cause the computer to
command changes in short term fuel strategies. Conditions such as secondary misfires
create excessive HC levels. This also produces high oxygen levels in the exhaust. The
oxygen sensor will "sense" only the increased oxygen content and input to the computer
will be below bias voltage levels. The computer will respond by commanding additional
fuel.
OBD II vehicles use oxygen sensors downstream of the catalytic converter(s) to monitor
the efficiency of the catalyst. When the catalyst performs properly available oxygen is

used resulting in low oxygen levels in the exhaust sample after the catalyst. While
downstream oxygen sensors are constructed the same as upstream oxygen sensors the
values that they generate are different. With relatively richer mixtures present around the
downstream oxygen sensor voltage inputs to the computer will be above the 450mV bias
voltage. If the catalyst is operating effectively the downstream oxygen sensor will cycle
when the catalyst is flooded with oxygen. Typical values from the downstream oxygen
sensor(s) are between 550- 900mV at idle.
While the downstream oxygen sensor is used to monitor catalyst efficiency the upstream
sensor has a pronounced effect on engine performance. Lean oxygen sensor values will
result in an increased pulse-width, excessive emissions, surging, hesitation, and catalyst
damage. Additional fuel can cause the catalyst temperatures to rise due to an
afterburner effect in the converter. The oxygen sensor is the only post-combustion input
to the EMS. Other malfunctioning systems also affect its operation.
An improper rich condition will cause the oxygen sensor to lean operating conditions.
This may result in loss of power, hesitation, surging, poor idle quality and possibly
converter damage. Sensors that do not switch properly, or are lazy, do not provide
accurate information to allow the computer to properly maintain the air/fuel mixture.
Faulty heaters do not allow the sensors to reach operating temperature fast enough and
the vehicle may remain in open loop for longer periods of time. Malfunctioning heaters
also allow the sensors to cool down during periods of extended idle.
Related Symptoms
A faulty oxygen sensor due to loose connections, bad grounds, high resistance in the
circuit, or opens in the circuit can cause the following symptoms.

Surging at idle
Unstable idle
Running rough off idle
Hesitation
Stumble
Chuggle
Poor fuel economy
Spark knock
Stalling on acceleration

Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor


Operation
The Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor (ECT) input to the EMS is a primary input for
the calculation strategies and control of fuel delivery and spark timing. The ECT is also
used to determine loop status (open/closed) timer requirements (inside the EMS) and to
support cooling fan operation. ECT failures can cause excessive rich conditions,
increased injector pulse-width and retarded spark timing. The ECT reads the coolant
temperature at the intake manifold. When the engine coolant is cold the information
given to the ECM causes the fuel mixture to richen. As the coolant temperature gradually
increases the voltage signal from the ECT changes signaling the ECM to adjust the fuel
mixture accordingly.
Related Symptoms
The following symptoms can be caused by a faulty Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
or circuit loose connections:

Extended crank time when the engine is cold


Poor fuel economy
Spark knock
Lack of engine power
Erratic and/or high idle
Engine cooling fan stays running all the time
Engine cooling fan fails to turn on
Engine overheating

Mass Airflow / Intake Air Temperature Sensor


Operation
Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor measures the weight and rate of air moving through a
passage of a known volume or size. MAF sensors utilize hot wire or thick film
technology. Signals generated may be analog or digital depending on the manufacturer.
As more air passes through the MAF sensor the voltage or frequency increases
proportionally. The EMS uses this information to calculate injector pulse-width and spark
advance. Performance issues from MAF sensor failures range from no-start conditions to
stalling, hesitation, stumble and improper air/fuel mixtures.
The Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor is a variable temperature sensitive resistor.
Sensor resistance will change based on air temperature. The higher the temperature, the
lower the resistance. The Engine Management System (EMS) provides a reference
voltage and monitors the voltage drop between a fixed value internal resistance and the
sensor resistance. This is called a voltage divider circuit.
IAT sensor values are used by the EMS to assist with the calculation of idle speed, fuel
mixture and spark advance.
Related Symptoms
A faulty MAF sensor due to loose connections, bad grounds, high resistance in the
circuit, or opens in the circuit can cause the following symptoms:

A no start condition
Stalls at idle
Surging idle
Extended crank time when engine is cold
Hesitation
Stumble
Chuggle
Poor fuel economy

Throttle Position Sensor


Operation
Throttle Position Sensors (TPS) are the only sensor in the Engine Management System
(EMS) that the vehicle operator has direct control. The sensor is a potentiometer
providing an analog signal to the computer. This signal represents how far the throttle
plates have opened.
Engine Management Systems calculate how much air should have entered the engine
and compares this value with the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor or Mass Air
Flow (MAF) sensor value. The EMS uses this information to calculate fuel delivery and
ignition timing requirements.
Engine Management Systems on vehicles equipped with an electronic transmission
utilize the TPS sensor in combination with MAP and MAF sensor values to determine
shift schedules and torque converter clutch application.
Some vehicles will also incorporate a throttle switch. The throttle switch is used to notify
the EMS when the throttle is either at wide-open throttle or at idle.
Related Symptoms
A faulty throttle position sensor or switch due to loose connections, bad grounds, high
resistance in the circuit, or opens in the circuit can cause the following symptoms:

Bucking
Hesitation
Stumble
Chuggle
Stalling on Acceleration

Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) Sensor


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove the panel from under the left instrument panel.
2. Disconnect the connector from the accelerator position sensor.
3. Remove the accelerator pedal mounting bolts, and then the accelerator pedal.
To Install:
1. Install the accelerator pedal to the support bracket.
NOTE: A torque wrench should be used to tighten the fasteners.
2. Install the accelerator pedal mounting bolts.
Tighten the bolts to 15 lb ft (20 Nm).
3. Connect the accelerator position sensor connector.
4. Check the operation of the accelerator position sensor with a scan tool while the
ignition is ON and engine OFF. The accelerator pedal should operate freely
without binding between full closed throttle and wide open throttle.
5. Install the panel under the left instrument panel.

Camshaft Position Sensor


Operation
Engine Management Systems (EMS) use the camshaft position sensor to manage
sequential fuel injection and as part of misfire diagnosis. The EMS constantly monitors
the number of pulses on the signal circuit. The EMS compares the number of camshaft
sensor reference pulses and the number of crankshaft position sensor reference pulses
received. If the EMS receives an incorrect number of pulses, Diagnostic Trouble Codes
(DTCs) should be stored in the EMS. Some engine management systems will then
default to multi-port or "gang-fire" injector operation. The camshaft position sensor signal
is required to sequence the injector operation to the proper cylinder timing. If the
camshaft position sensor or circuit is faulty most engines will start. The EMS misfire
diagnostic will likely be affected.

Related Symptoms
The following symptoms can be caused by intermittent wiring connections or faulty signal
to the EMS:

Extended crank time with a cold engine


Intermittent rough running
Unstable idle
Bucking
Hesitation
Stumble
Chuggle
Poor fuel economy
Stalling on acceleration

Removal & Installation


6.6L Diesel Engine
To Remove:

6.6L CMP sensor

1. Remove or disconnect the following:


Cooling fan pulley (B)
Camshaft position (CMP) sensor electrical connector (A)
CMP sensor bolt
CMP sensor
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
CMP sensor
CMP sensor bolt and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
Cooling fan pulley
CMP sensor electrical connector
2. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Crankshaft Position Sensor


Operation
Engine speed is an important input to the Engine Management System (EMS).
Crankshaft speed and position are the basis for many calculations made by the
computer. Crankshaft position values are transmitted to the computer by pickup coils
also known as Permanent Magnet (P/M) generators, Hall Effect sensors or optical
sensors. The Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP) also known as an engine speed sensor
is typically located in close proximity to the crankshaft.
In addition the EMS uses the CKP sensor in conjunction with the camshaft position
sensor to calculate and perform misfire diagnostics.
Related Symptoms

A No Start / Intermittent Start condition Can be caused by a faulty crankshaft


position sensor due to loose connections, bad grounds, high resistance in the
circuit, or opens in the circuit.
Engine Misfire Diagnostic Trouble Codes

NOTE: Engine Mechanical conditions can also create the same or similar symptoms.
(Dont overlook basic mechanical integrity).

Removal & Installation


6.6L Diesel Engine
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cable

6.6L CKP sensor

Crankshaft position (CKP) sensor electrical connector


CKP sensor bolt (B)
CKP sensor (A)

To Install:
1. Lubricate the O-ring on the sensor with clean engine oil
2. Install or connect the following:
CKP sensor
CKP sensor bolt and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
CKP sensor electrical connector
Negative battery cable
3. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

CKP System Variation Learn Procedure


The scan tool monitors certain component signals to determine if all conditions are met
to continue with the procedure. The scan tool only displays the condition that inhibits the
procedure while monitoring the following components:

CKP sensors activity-If there is a CKP sensor condition, refer to the applicable
DTC that was set
Camshaft position (CMP) sensor activity-If there is a CMP sensor condition, refer
to the applicable DTC that was set
Engine coolant temperature (ECT)-If the ECT is not warm enough, idle the
engine until the ECT reaches normal operating temperature

NOTE: For additional diagnostic information refer to DTC P0315 or P1336.


1. Install a scan tool.
2. Monitor the powertrain control module for diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs). If
other DTCs are set, except DTC P0315 or P1336, refer to the Diagnostic Trouble
Code List for the applicable DTC that was set
3. Select the crankshaft position (CKP) variation learn procedure on the scan tool.
4. Observe the fuel cut-off.
5. The scan tool instructs you to perform the following:
Block the drive wheels
Apply the vehicles parking brake
Cycle the ignition from OFF to ON
Maintain pressure on the brake pedal
Start and idle the engine
6. Place the vehicles transmission in Park (A/T) or Neutral (M/T).
7. With the scan tool, enable the CKP system variation learn procedure.
8. Slowly increase the engine speed to the RPM that you observed.
NOTE: While the learn procedure is in progress release the throttle immediately
when the engine starts to decelerate. The engine control is returned to the
operator and the engine responds to throttle position after the learn procedure is
complete.
9. Immediately release the throttle when fuel cut-off is reached.
10. The scan tool should display the Learn Status: "Learned this ignition"
If the scan tool does not display this message and no additional DTCs set
refer to Symptoms - Engine
If a DTC set, refer to Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) List for the
applicable DTC that set
11. Turn OFF the ignition for 30 seconds after the learn procedure is completed
successfully.

Vehicle Speed Sensor


Operation
Vehicle Speed (VSS) Sensor(s) input is used by the EMS to determine vehicle speed.
The VSS generates a signal that increases in frequency proportionate to vehicle speed.
The EMS has a base frequency stored in memory for a distance of one mile. By
comparing the input and stored value the EMS calculates vehicle speed.
VSS types include: photo-optic, permanent magnet generators or Hall Effect technology.
The EMS may use other sensors on the vehicle such as ABS wheel speed to validate
VSS operation.
VSS information is used to calculate vehicle loads including: torque converter
application, cruise control, fuel cutoff/speed governance strategies, instrument panel
speedometer and more.
Modified drivetrain components such as final gear sets and/or tires can alter VSS input
values to the EMS. Improper signals can alter torque converter clutch (TCC) application,
shift points, cruise control operation as well as many other systems relying on vehicle
speed input.
Related Symptoms
A faulty speed sensor due to loose connections, bad grounds, high resistance in the
circuit, or opens in the circuit can cause the following symptoms.

Overheated transmission
Increased emissions
Poor fuel economy
Stalling on deceleration
Improper shift points
Cruise control inoperative

Removal & Installation


To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Raise and safely support the vehicle.


Disconnect the vehicle speed sensor (VSS) electrical connector
Remove the VSS bolt
Remove the VSS
Remove the O-ring seal

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Install the O-ring seal onto the VSS


Coat the O-ring seal with a thin film of transmission fluid.
Install the VSS
Install the VSS bolt
Tighten the bolt to 97 in. lbs. (11 Nm).
5. Connect the VSS electrical connector

6. Lower the vehicle.


7. Refill the fluid as required.

Pressure Sensors
General Information
The Engine Management System (EMS) uses several different pressure sensors to
gather and control various emissions and driveability aspects of the vehicle. These may
include but are not limited to:

MAP Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor


BARO Barometric Pressure sensor
FTP Fuel Tank Pressure sensor

These sensors provide critical information to the EMS such as, barometric pressure,
atmospheric pressure, intake manifold/engine vacuum, fuel tank pressures and changes
as the vehicle is operated.
MAP Sensor
The EMS uses the MAP sensor on systems that have a Mass Airflow Sensor (MAF) as a
backup. The EMS also uses the MAP sensor as an EGR diagnostic device and as an
engine load verification device. The EMS system uses this information to calculate
engine load and EGR flow rates. The EMS uses speed-density calculations (non-mass
airflow sensor systems) to determine the required amount of fuel delivery.
BARO Sensor
The EMS uses a barometric (BARO) sensor on some vehicles to help compensate for
barometric changes at different altitudes. Barometric pressure changes with the weather
and with altitude. Essentially the density and humidity associated with the air around the
vehicle is monitored so the EMS can adjust for varying conditions. Since barometric
pressure affects the density of the air entering the engine and ultimately the air/fuel ratio,
some engine management systems use a barometric pressure sensor so that the spark
advance and EGR flow can be regulated to control emissions more precisely.
FTP Sensor
The Fuel Tank Pressure (FTP) sensor is part of the evaporative emissions system. The
Engine Management System (EMS) monitors gasoline vapor pressures in the fuel tank
to determine fuel tank sealing. The FTP sensor can be used in conjunction with an EVAP
vent valve and an EVAP canister purge valve.
Canister Purge Valve Only Vehicles
When ambient temperatures are above 68 Fahrenheit the gasoline in the fuel tank
vaporizes increasing fuel tank pressure. The FTP sensor is used to determine how much
evaporative pressure is being maintained in fuel tank. This is a test for gross evaporative
emissions leaks.

Vehicles with Canister Purge & Vent Valves


Some vehicles will route a small amount of engine vacuum through the canister purge
valve to the fuel tank. When both the canister purge valve and vent solenoid valve are
closed the vacuum is trapped between the fuel tank and canister purge valve. The fuel
tank pressure sensor signals the EMS that the vacuum is present. The vacuum in the
system should reach a certain level and remain for a pre-determined amount of time.
This is used to test for minute system pressure leaks.
Related Symptoms
The following symptoms can be caused by a loose connection, bad grounds, opens or
shorts in the circuit, high resistance in the circuit, or a damaged sensor
MAP & BARO Sensors

No start condition (non-MAF System)


Stalls at idle (non-MAF System)
Surging off idle
Extended Crank Time when engine is cold (non-MAF System)
Hesitation
Stumble
Chuggle
Poor Fuel Economy (non-MAF System)
Stalling on Acceleration
False EGR fault codes (the EMS system may store an EGR flow rate code)

FTP Sensor
MIL Lamp and DTC Set - If there is a leak in the system it will fail the evaporative
emissions diagnostic monitor test. Verify that all vapor lines are properly routed and
connected and that the correct fuel cap is properly installed before doing any other
diagnostics.

Fuel Tank Pressure Sensor


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove the fuel tank.
2. Remove the fuel pressure sensor.

To Install:
1. Install the fuel pressure sensor.
2. Install the fuel tank.

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor / Switch Replacement


Removal & Installation
6.6L Diesel Engine
To Remove:
1. Raise and safely support the vehicle
NOTE: Clean the area around the sensor. Do not allow debris to enter the engine
6.6L Oil pressure sensor

2. Remove or disconnect the following:


1. Engine oil pressure sensor electrical connector
2. Engine oil pressure sensor using a suitable tool

To Install:
1. Apply sealant to the threads of the oil pressure sensor
2. Install or connect the following:
Engine oil pressure sensor and tighten the sensor
A. Torque to: 22 ft. lbs. (30 Nm)
Engine oil pressure sensor electrical connector
3. Lower the vehicle
4. If required, check and adjust the engine oil level
5. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Diagnostic Information
General Information
Scan Tools
All late-model vehicles utilize computers to monitor and control the functions of on-board
systems. These modules are known by many names such as Engine Control Unit (ECU),
Engine Control Module (ECM), Powertrain Control Module (PCM), Transmission Control
Module (TCM) and Vehicle Control Module (VCM). When problems occur in control
circuits these modules record a diagnostic trouble code that can be used to help solve
the problem. There is also freeze frame data and an OBD status report available to the
technician. Over the years there have been many different variations of systems, each
with their own unique way of retrieving these codes. On a good number of the older
systems the stored codes were flashed on check engine lights (found in the dash cluster)
once a small jumper wire was placed across the proper diagnostic terminals. However
the use of a hand-held scan tool was still preferred for these systems by dealership
service departments.
For some models produced during the 1995 model year and on almost every single 1996
and later model a new form of trouble code reporting was developed which required the
use of a scan tool. On Board Diagnostic-II (OBD-II) compliant vehicles use a 5 digit,
alpha-numeric code which would be difficult or impossible to read using a flashing light.
Trouble code reading on an OBD-II compliant vehicle requires a scan tool. Flashing
trouble codes are a thing of the past.
The scan tool allows any stored codes to be read from the ECM. The tool also allows the
operator to view the data being used by the engine management computer while the
engine is running, or with the engine OFF and the key ON. This ability has obvious
diagnostic advantages; the use of the scan tool is frequently required for component
testing. The scan tool makes collecting information easier; the data must be correctly
interpreted by an operator familiar with the vehicles operating systems.
An example of the usefulness of the scan tool may be seen in the case of a temperature
sensor which has changed its electrical characteristics. The computer module is reacting
to an apparently warmer engine (causing a driveability problem) but the sensors voltage
has not changed enough to set a fault code. The voltage signal being sent to the module
may be viewed by connecting a scan tool. Comparison to normal values or a known
good vehicle reveals the problem quickly.

Manufacturer Specific Codes


DTC Description
P1031 O2 Sensor Heater Control Circuit Problem
P1105 Secondary Vacuum Sensor Circuit
P1106 MAP sensor circuit voltage intermittent high or low
P1107 MAP Sensor Voltage Intermittent Low
P1108 BARO to MAP sensor circuit comparison too high
P1109 Secondary port throttle system
P1111 Intake Air Temperature Sensor circuit intermittent high voltage
P1112 Intake Air Temperature Sensor circuit intermittent low voltage
P1113 Intake Resonance Switchover Valve Control
P1114 Engine Coolant Temperature intermittent high or low
P1115 Engine Coolant Temperature intermittent high or low
P1116 Engine Coolant Temperature erratic
P1117 Engine Coolant Temperature below Min Voltage
P1118 Engine Coolant Temperature above Max Voltage
P1119 Engine Coolant Temperature out of range
P1120 Throttle Position Sensor 1 circuit
P1121 Ignition Control Circuit 4x, or TPS out of range
P1122 Ignition Control Circuit 4x, or TPS out of range
P1125 Average Pump Period, or pedal position system
P1133 A/C Pressure sensor high voltage, or O2 sensor B1S1 sluggish
P1134 5 volt reference 2 circuit, or O2 sensor B1S1
P1135 02 sensor B1S1 reading lean, or 4/5 shift solenoid stuck ON
P1136 5 volt reference 2 circuit, or O2 sensor B1S1 reading rich
P1137 02 sensor low voltage during power enrichment
P1138 02 Sensor high voltage during fuel cutoff
P1139 Brake Booster vacuum sensor (low vac), or 02 sensor insufficient switching B1S2
P1140 02 sensor sluggish B1S2
P1141 02 sensor heater control circuit B1S2
P1143 02 sensor reading low or low voltage B1S3
P1144 02 sensor reading high or high voltage B1S3
P1145 02 sensor sluggish (slow crosscounts) B1S3
P1153 A/C Pressure sensor Low Voltage, or 02 Sensor low switching B2S1
P1154 02 sensor low transition time B2S1
P1155 A/C evap temp switch high voltage, or 02 sensor reading lean B2S1
P1156 A/C high pressure switch high voltage, or 02 Sensor reading rich B2S1
P1157 02 sensor rich or high voltage B2S2
P1158 02 sensor rich or high voltage B2S2, or engine overtemp protection fault
P1159 02 sensor crosscounts B2S2
P1161 02 heater Control Circuit B2S2
P1163 02 Sensor lean or low voltage B2S3
P1164 02 sensor rich or high voltage B2S3
P1165 02 sensor crosscounts B2S3
P1170 Bank to Bank fuel trim offset
P1171 Fuel System Lean during Acceleration
P1185 Engine Temperature Sensor circuit
P1186 Engine Oil Temperature circuit performance

P1187 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor circuit low voltage


P1190 Vacuum leak
P1191 lntake air duct leak
P1200 lnjector control circuit
P1211 Mass Airflow circuit intermittent high
P1212 Mass Airflow circuit intermittent low
P1214 lnjection Pump Timing Offset
P1215 Ground fault detection indicated {generator driver circuit)
P1216 Fuel Solenoid response time too short
P1217 Fuel Solenoid response time too long
P1218 lnjection Pump calibration circuit
P1219 Throttle Position Sensor reference voltage
P1220 Throttle Position Sensor circuit fault
P1221 Fuel pump second circuit low
P1222 lnjector circuit cylinder 1 intermittent
P1225 lnjector circuit cylinder 2 intermittent
P1228 lnjector circuit cylinder 3 intermittent
P1231 lnjector circuit cylinder 4 intermittent
P1234 lnjector circuit cylinder 5 intermittent
P1237 lnjector circuit cylinder 6 intermittent
P1240 lnjector circuit cylinder 7 intermittent
P1243 lnjector circuit cylinder 8 intermittent
P1250 Early fuel evaporation heater circuit
P1257 Boost Control fault
P1258 Engine overtemperature protection
P1260 Fuel Pump Speed Relay control circuit
P1271 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor 1-2 correlation
P1272 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor 2-3 correlation
P1273 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor 1-3 correlation
P1361 lgnition control cylinder #1 not toggling after enable
P1362 lgnition control cylinder #2 not toggling after enable
P1363 lgnition control cylinder #3 not toggling after enable
P1364 lgnition control cylinder #4 not toggling after enable
P1365 lgnition control cylinder #5 not toggling after enable
P1366 lgnition control cylinder #6 not toggling after enable
P1367 lgnition control cylinder #7 not toggling after enable
P1368 lgnition control cylinder #8 not toggling after enable
P1370 Too many ignition reference pulses
P1371 Too few ignition reference pulses
P1372 Crankshaft Position Sensor A-B correlation
P1374 Crankshaft position sensor
P1375 24X Reference circuit voltage too high
P1376 Reference voltage low
P1377 lgnition control module CAM pulse to 4X reference pulse comparison
P1380 ABS rough road/misfire diagnosis prevented
P1381 Misfire detected
P1401 Exhaust Gas Recirculation flow test fault
P1403 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Solenoid 1 error
P1404 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Solenoid 2 error
P1405 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Solenoid 3 error
P1406 Exhaust Gas Recirculation pintle position error

P1407 EGR valve air leak


P1408 EGR valve vacuum failure
P1409 EGR valve vacuum leak
P1410 EGR valve vacuum restriction
P1415 AIR system Bank 1
P1416 AIR system Bank 2
P1431 Fuel Level Sensor 2 circuit
P1432 Fuel Level Sensor 2 circuit low voltage
P1433 Fuel Level Sensor 2 circuit voltage high
P1441 EVAP Canister continuous open purge flow
P1442 EVAP monitor circuit/vacuum switch high voltage
P1450 Barometric Pressure Sensor (BARO) circuit
P1451 Barometric Pressure Sensor performance
P1460 Cooling Fan control system
P1483 Engine cooling system performance
P1500 Starter signal circuit
P1501 Vehicle speed sensor circuit intermittent
P1502 Theft deterrent system no password received
P1503 Theft deterrent system password improper
P1508 ldle Air Control system --idle too low
P1509 ldle Air Control system --idle too high
P1510 Backup power supply
P1511 Throttle Control System -backup system performance
P1514 Airflow to throttle position sensor too high
P1515 Electronic throttle module throttle position
P1516 Electronic throttle module throttle position
P1517 Electronic throttle module
P1518 No communication between electronic throttle module and PCM
P1519 Throttle Actuator Control Module
P1520 Park/Neutral Switch circuit. gear indicator system
P1523 Electronic throttle control throttle return
P1524 Throttle Position Sensor out of range or misadjusted
P1525 Throttle Body Service required
P1526 Throttle position learn process not complete
P1527 Transmission range/pressure switch comparison
P1528 Governor control system
P1530 lgnition timing adjustment switch circuit
P1531 A/C low refrigerant
P1532 Engine coolant temperature sensor intermittent
P1533 A/C Low Side Temperature Sensor circuit
P1535 A/C High Side Temperature Sensor circuit
P1536 A/C system ECT overtemperature
P1537 A/C request circuit voltage low
P1538 A/C request circuit voltage high
P1539 A/C High Pressure Switch circuit voltage high
P1540 A/C system high pressure
P1542 A/C system high pressure or high temperature
P1543 A/C system performance out of range
P1545 A/C Clutch Relay Control circuit
P1546 A/C Clutch Relay control circuit voltage low
P1550 Cruise control

P1554 Speed Control status circuit


P1555 Electric Variable Orifice fault (Saturn)
P1558 Speed Control (SPS low)
P1560 Speed Control System/Transaxle not in Drive
P1561 Speed Control Vent Solenoid
P1562 Speed Control Vacuum Solenoid
P1564 ECM battery voltage loss (Catera only)
P1565 Speed Control Servo Position Sensor
P1566 Speed Control System/Engine RPM too high
P1567 Speed Control Master Switch P1568 Speed Control (SPS high)
P1570 Speed Control System/Traction Control active
P1571 Traction Control System desired torque circuit
P1572 Traction Control System active circuit voltage low too long
P1573 PCM/EBTCM serial data circuit communication malfunction
P1574 EBTCM system/stop lamp circuit voltage high
P1575 Stop lamp control circuit (97-98 Corvette only)
P1576 Brake Booster Vacuum Sensor circuit voltage high
P1577 Brake Booster Vacuum Sensor circuit voltage low
P1578 Brake Booster Vacuum Sensor circuit low vacuum
P1579 Park/Neutral to Drive/Reverse at high throttle angle
P1580 Cruise Control Module move circuit
P1581 Cruise Control Module move circuit
P1582 Cruise Control Module direction circuit
P1583 Cruise Control Module direction circuit
P1584 Cruise control disabled
P1585 Cruise Control inhibit output circuit
P1586 Cruise Control Brake Switch 2 circuit
P1599 Engine stall detected
P1600 Powertrain control module battery
P1601 ECM overtemperature
P1602 PCM to ABS module communication problem
P1603 Serial data communication problem
P1604 IPC Serial data communication problem
P1605 Serial data communication problem HVAC module
P1607 Engine Oil Level Switch circuit
P1610 Loss of PZM serial data
P1611 Loss of CVRTD serial data
P1617 Engine Oil Level Switch circuit
P1619 Engine Oil Life Monitor reset circuit
P1620 Engine coolant low (Saturn)
P1621 Powertrain control module memory error
P1623 PCM Prom error
P1624 Powertrain control module software reset
P1625 Powertrain control module system reset
P1626 Anti-theft system fuel enable circuit (Passkey error)
P1627 AlD performance
P1628 PCM Engine Control Temperature Pull-up Resistor
P1629 Anti-theft divide cranking signal or Passkey cranking error
P1630 System voltage too high/too low
P1631 0xygen sensor #1 slow response
P1632 Anti-theft fuel disable signal received

P1633 lgnition power circuit low voltage


P1634 lgnition power circuit low voltage
P1635 5 volt reference voltage to sensors low
P1636 Powertrain control module fault
P1637 Alternator warning lamp control signal "L" terminal problem
P1638 Alternator Field (F) terminal circuit
P1639 Powertrain Control Module 5 volt reference voltage low
P1640 Powertrain control module fault
P1641 EVAP fuel tank pressure sensor circuit voltage high
P1642 Fan control relay
P1643 Powertrain control module fault
P1644 Throttle position sensor circuit
P1645 Boost control solenoid circuit
P1646 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 1)
P1647 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 1)
P1650 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 2)
P1651 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 2)
P1652 Cooling fan relay 2
P1653 Traction control circuit (Pontiac)
P1654 A/C relay circuit
P1655 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 2)
P1656 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 2)
P1657 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 2)
P1660 Cooling fan circuit
P1661 EVAP fuel tank pressure sensor circuit
P1662 PCM quad driver fault
P1663 Alternator warning lamp circuit
P1664 Powertrain control model fault (quad driver 3)
P1665 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 3)
P1667 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 3)
P1670 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 4)
P1671 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) circuit fault
P1672 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 4)
P1673 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 4)
P1674 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 4)
P1675 EVAP vent solenoid control circuit
P1676 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 4)
P1677 Powertrain control module fault (quad driver 4)
P1680 Powertrain control module fault
P1681 Powertrain control module fault
P1682 Powertrain control module fault
P1683 Powertrain control module fault
P1684 Powertrain control module fault
P1685 Powertrain control module fault
P1686 Powertrain control module fault
P1687 Powertrain control module fault
P1689 Traction Control System delivered torque control circuit
P1690 Powertrain control module loop overrun
P1691 Coolant gauge circuit voltage low
P1692 Coolant gauge circuit voltage high
P1693 Tachometer circuit voltage low

P1694 Tachometer circuit voltage high


P1695 Remote keyless entry circuit
P1696 Remote keyless entry circuit
P1700 Malfunction Indicator Lamp requested by trans control module
P1701 Malfunction Indicator Lamp request circuit
P1740 Torque control/management request circuit
P1760 Transmission Control Module supply voltage interrupted
P1780 Park/Neutral Position Switch circuit
P1781 Engine torque signal circuit
P1792 ECM to Transmission Control Module engine coolant signal
P1800 ECM to Transmission Control Module engine coolant signal
P1810 ATF pressure manual valve position switch malfunction
P1811 Long shift and maximum adaptation limit reached
P1812 TOT condition
P1814 Torque converter clutch (TCC) overstress
P1819 Transmission range switch out of range
P1820 Transmission range switch A voltage low
P1822 Transmission range switch B voltage high
P1823 Transmission range switch P voltage low
P1825 Transmission range switch A
P1826 Transmission range switch C voltage high
P1835 Kickdown Switch circuit
P1842 1-2 Shift Solenoid circuit low input
P1843 1-2 Shift Solenoid circuit high input
P1845 2-3 Shift Solenoid circuit low input
P1847 2-3Shift Solenoid circuit high input
P1850 Brake Band Apply Solenoid
P1860 Torque Converter Clutch (TCC) PWM Solenoid circuit
P1864 TCC Enable Solenoid circuit
P1868 Transmission Fluid life
P1870 Transmission component slipping
P1873 0xygen sensor bank 2 sensor 2 crosscounts
P1874 0xygen sensor bank 1 sensor 3 crosscounts
P1875 4WD Low Switch circuit electrical
P1886 Transaxle Shift
P1887 TCC Release Switch malfunction
P1890 Throttle Position signal input
P1891 Throttle position sensor circuit signal low
P1892 Throttle position sensor circuit signal high
P1895 Engine torque delivered circuit
U1016 Loss of serial communication over CAN bus

Generic Codes
DTC Description
P0109 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Intermittent
P0110 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit
P0111 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit Range/Performance
P0112 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit Low
P0113 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit High
P0114 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit Intermittent
P0115 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit
P0116 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Range/Performance
P0117 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Low
P0118 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit High
P0119 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Intermittent
P0120 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit
P0121 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0122 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0123 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit High
P0124 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0125 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Closed Loop Fuel Control
P0126 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Stable Operation
P0127 Intake Air Temperature Too High
P0128 Coolant Thermostat (Coolant Temp Below Thermostat Operating Temp
P0129 Barometric Pressure Too Low
P0130 O2 Sensor Circuit - Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0131 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage - Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0132 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage - Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0133 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response - Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0134 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected - Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0135 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit - Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0136 O2 Sensor Circuit - Bank 1 Sensor 2
P0137 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage - Bank 1 Sensor 2
P0138 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage - Bank 1 Sensor 2
P0139 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response - Bank 1 Sensor 2
P0140 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected - Bank 1 Sensor 2
P0141 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit - Bank 1 Sensor 2
P0142 O2 Sensor Circuit - Bank 1 Sensor 3
P0143 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage - Bank 1 Sensor 3
P0144 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage - Bank 1 Sensor 3
P0145 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response - Bank 1 Sensor 3
P0146 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected - Bank 1 Sensor 3
P0147 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit - Bank 1 Sensor 3
P0148 Fuel Delivery Error
P0149 Fuel Timing Error
P0150 O2 Sensor Circuit - Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0151 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage - Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0152 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage - Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0153 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response - Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0154 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected - Bank 2 Sensor 1

P0155 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit - Bank 2 Sensor 1


P0156 O2 Sensor Circuit - Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0157 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage - Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0158 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage - Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0159 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response - Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0160 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected - Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0161 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0162 O2 Sensor Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 3
P0163 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage Bank 2 Sensor 3
P0164 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage Bank 2 Sensor 3
P0165 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response Bank 2 Sensor 3
P0166 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected Bank 2 Sensor 3
P0167 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 3
P0168 Fuel Temperature Too High
P0169 Incorrect Fuel Composition
P0170 Fuel Trim Bank 1
P0171 System Too Lean Bank 1
P0172 System Too Rich Bank 1
P0173 Fuel Trim Bank 2
P0174 System Too Lean Bank 2
P0175 System Too Rich Bank 2
P0176 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit
P0177 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0178 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Low
P0179 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit High
P0180 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit
P0181 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0182 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Low
P0183 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit High
P0184 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Intermittent
P0185 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit
P0186 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0187 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Low
P0188 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit High
P0189 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Intermittent
P0190 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit
P0191 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0192 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Low
P0193 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit High
P0194 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0195 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor
P0196 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0197 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Low
P0198 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor High
P0199 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Intermittent
P0200 Injector Circuit/Open
P0201 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 1
P0202 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 2
P0203 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 3
P0204 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 4
P0205 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 5

P0206 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 6


P0207 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 7
P0208 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 8
P0209 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 9
P0210 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 10
P0211 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 11
P0212 Injector Circuit/Open Cylinder 12
P0213 Cold Start Injector 1
P0214 Cold Start Injector 2
P0215 Engine Shutoff Solenoid
P0216 Injector/Injection Timing Control Circuit
P0217 Engine Coolant Over Temperature Condition
P0218 Transmission Fluid Over Temperature Condition
P0219 Engine Overspeed Condition
P0220 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit
P0221 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P0222 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0223 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit High
P0224 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Intermittent
P0225 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "C" Circuit
P0226 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "C" Circuit Range/Performance
P0227 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "C" Circuit Low
P0228 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "C" Circuit High
P0001 Fuel Volume Regulator Control Circuit/Open
P0002 Fuel Volume Regulator Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0003 Fuel Volume Regulator Control Circuit Low
P0004 Fuel Volume Regulator Control Circuit High
P0005 Fuel Shutoff Valve "A" Control Circuit/Open
P0006 Fuel Shutoff Valve "A" Control Circuit Low
P0007 Fuel Shutoff Valve "A" Control Circuit High
P0008 Engine Position System Performance Bank 1
P0009 Engine Position System Performance Bank 2
P0010 a) "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit Bank 1
P0011 a) "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance A
P0012 a) "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded Bank 1
P0013 b) "B" Camshaft Position - Actuator Circuit Bank 1
P0014 b) "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance
P0015 b) "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded Bank 1
P0016 Crankshaft Position Camshaft Position Correlation Bank 1 Sensor A
P0017 Crankshaft Position Camshaft Position Correlation Bank 1 Sensor B
P0018 Crankshaft Position Camshaft Position Correlation Bank 2 Sensor A
P0019 Crankshaft Position Camshaft Position Correlation Bank 2 Sensor B
P0020 a) "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit Bank 2
P0021 a) "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance
P0022 a) "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded Bank 2
P0023 b) "B" Camshaft Position - Actuator Circuit Bank 2
P0024 b) "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance
P0025 b) "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded Bank 2
P0026 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1
P0027 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1
P0028 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2

P0029 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2


P0030 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0031 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0032 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0033 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit
P0034 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit Low
P0035 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit High
P0036 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Bank 1 Sensor 2
P0037 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low Bank 1 Sensor 2
P0038 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High Bank 1 Sensor 2
P0039 Turbo/Super Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0040 O2 Sensor Signals Swapped Bank 1 Sensor 1/ Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0041 O2 Sensor Signals Swapped Bank 1 Sensor 2/ Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0042 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Bank 1 Sensor 3
P0043 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low Bank 1 Sensor 3
P0044 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High Bank 1 Sensor 3
P0045 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Control Solenoid Circuit/Open
P0046 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Control Solenoid Circuit Range/Performance
P0047 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Control Solenoid Circuit Low
P0048 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Control Solenoid Circuit High
P0049 Turbo/Super Charger Turbine Overspeed
P0050 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0051 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0052 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0053 HO2S Heater Resistance Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0054 HO2S Heater Resistance Bank 1 Sensor 2
P0055 HO2S Heater Resistance Bank 1 Sensor 3
P0056 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0057 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0058 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0059 HO2S Heater Resistance Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0060 HO2S Heater Resistance Bank 2 Sensor 2
P0061 HO2S Heater Resistance Bank 2 Sensor 3
P0062 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 3
P0063 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low Bank 2 Sensor 3
P0064 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High Bank 2 Sensor 3
P0065 Air Assisted Injector Control Range/Performance
P0066 Air Assisted Injector Control Circuit or Circuit Low
P0067 Air Assisted Injector Control Circuit High
P0068 MAP/MAF Throttle Position Correlation
P0069 Manifold Absolute Pressure Barometric Pressure Correlation
P0070 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0071 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0072 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P0073 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P0074 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0075 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Bank 1
P0076 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low Bank 1
P0077 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High Bank 1
P0078 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Bank 1
P0079 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low Bank 1

P0080 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High Bank 1


P0081 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Bank 2
P0082 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low Bank 2
P0083 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High Bank 2
P0084 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Bank 2
P0085 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low Bank 2
P0086 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High Bank 2
P0087 Fuel Rail/System Pressure - Too Low
P0088 Fuel Rail/System Pressure - Too High
P0089 Fuel Pressure Regulator 1 Performance
P0090 Fuel Pressure Regulator 1 Control Circuit
P0091 Fuel Pressure Regulator 1 Control Circuit Low
P0092 Fuel Pressure Regulator 1 Control Circuit High
P0093 Fuel System Leak Detected Large Leak
P0094 Fuel System Leak Detected Small Leak
P0095 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit
P0096 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Range/Performance
P0097 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Low
P0098 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit High
P0099 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Intermittent/Erratic
P0100 Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit
P0101 Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit Range/Performance
P0102 Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit Low Input
P0103 Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit High Input
P0104 Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit Intermittent
P0105 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit
P0106 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Range/Performance
P0107 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Low Input
P0108 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit High Input
P0229 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "C" Circuit Intermittent
P0230 Fuel Pump Primary Circuit
P0231 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Low
P0232 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit High
P0233 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Intermittent
P0234 Turbo/Super Charger Overboost Condition
P0235 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor "A" Circuit
P0236 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0237 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor "A" Circuit Low
P0238 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor "A" Circuit High
P0239 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor "B" Circuit
P0240 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P0241 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor "B" Circuit Low
P0242 Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor "B" Circuit High
P0243 Turbo/Super Charger Wastegate Solenoid "A"
P0244 Turbo/Super Charger Wastegate Solenoid "A" Range/Performance
P0245 Turbo/Super Charger Wastegate Solenoid "A" Low
P0246 Turbo/Super Charger Wastegate Solenoid "A" High
P0247 Turbo/Super Charger Wastegate Solenoid "B"
P0248 Turbo/Super Charger Wastegate Solenoid "B" Range/Performance
P0249 Turbo/Super Charger Wastegate Solenoid "B" Low
P0250 Turbo/Super Charger Wastegate Solenoid "B" High

P0251 Injection Pump Fuel Metering Control "A" (Cam/Rotor/Injector)


P0252 Injection Pump Fuel Metering Control "A" Range/Performance
(Cam/Rotor/Injector)
P0253 Injection Pump Fuel Metering Control "A" Low (Cam/Rotor/Injector)
P0254 Injection Pump Fuel Metering Control "A" High (Cam/Rotor/Injector)
P0255 Injection Pump Fuel Metering Control "A" Intermittent (Cam/Rotor/Injector)
P0256 Injection Pump Fuel Metering Control "B" (Cam/Rotor/Injector)
P0257 Injection Pump Fuel Metering Control "B" Range/Performance
(Cam/Rotor/Injector)
P0258 Injection Pump Fuel Metering Control "B" Low (Cam/Rotor/Injector)
P0259 Injection Pump Fuel Metering Control "B" High (Cam/Rotor/Injector)
P0260 Injection Pump Fuel Metering Control "B" Intermittent (Cam/Rotor/Injector)
P0261 Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit Low
P0262 Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit High
P0263 Cylinder 1 Contribution/Balance
P0264 Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit Low
P0265 Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit High
P0266 Cylinder 2 Contribution/Balance
P0267 Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit Low
P0268 Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit High
P0269 Cylinder 3 Contribution/Balance
P0270 Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit Low
P0271 Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit High
P0272 Cylinder 4 Contribution/Balance
P0273 Cylinder 5 Injector Circuit Low
P0274 Cylinder 5 Injector Circuit High
P0275 Cylinder 5 Contribution/Balance
P0276 Cylinder 6 Injector Circuit Low
P0277 Cylinder 6 Injector Circuit High
P0278 Cylinder 6 Contribution/Balance
P0279 Cylinder 7 Injector Circuit Low
P0280 Cylinder 7 Injector Circuit High
P0281 Cylinder 7 Contribution/Balance
P0282 Cylinder 8 Injector Circuit Low
P0283 Cylinder 8 Injector Circuit High
P0284 Cylinder 8 Contribution/Balance
P0285 Cylinder 9 Injector Circuit Low
P0286 Cylinder 9 Injector Circuit High
P0287 Cylinder 9 Contribution/Balance
P0288 Cylinder 10 Injector Circuit Low
P0289 Cylinder 10 Injector Circuit High
P0290 Cylinder 10 Contribution/Balance
P0291 Cylinder 11 Injector Circuit Low
P0292 Cylinder 11 Injector Circuit High
P0293 Cylinder 11 Contribution/Balance
P0294 Cylinder 12 Injector Circuit Low
P0295 Cylinder 12 Injector Circuit High
P0296 Cylinder 12 Contribution/Balance
P0297 Vehicle Overspeed Condition
P0298 Engine Oil Over Temperature
P0299 Turbo/Super Charger Underboost

P0300 Random/Multiple Cylinder Misfire Detected


P0301 Cylinder 1 Misfire Detected
P0302 Cylinder 2 Misfire Detected
P0303 Cylinder 3 Misfire Detected
P0304 Cylinder 4 Misfire Detected
P0305 Cylinder 5 Misfire Detected
P0306 Cylinder 6 Misfire Detected
P0307 Cylinder 7 Misfire Detected
P0308 Cylinder 8 Misfire Detected
P0309 Cylinder 9 Misfire Detected
P0310 Cylinder 10 Misfire Detected
P0311 Cylinder 11 Misfire Detected
P0312 Cylinder 12 Misfire Detected
P0313 Misfire Detected Low Fuel
P0314 Single Cylinder Misfire (Cylinder not Specified)
P0315 Crankshaft Position System Variation Not Learned
P0316 Engine Misfire Detected on Startup (First 1000 Revolutions)
P0317 Rough Road Hardware Not Present
P0318 Rough Road Sensor "A" Signal Circuit
P0319 Rough Road Sensor "B"
P0320 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit
P0321 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance
P0322 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal
P0323 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent
P0324 Knock Control System Error
P0325 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Bank 1 or Single Sensor
P0326 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1 or Single Sensor
P0327 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Low Bank 1 or Single Sensor
P0328 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit High Bank 1 or Single Sensor
P0329 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Input Intermittent Bank 1 or Single Sensor
P0330 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Bank 2
P0331 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2
P0332 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Low Bank 2
P0333 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit High Bank 2
P0334 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Input Intermittent Bank 2
P0335 Crankshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit
P0336 Crankshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0337 Crankshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Low
P0338 Crankshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit High
P0339 Crankshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0340 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Bank 1 or Single Sensor
P0341 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1or Single
Sensor
P0342 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Low Bank 1 or Single Sensor
P0343 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit High Bank 1 or Single Sensor
P0344 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent Bank 1 or Single Sensor
P0345 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Bank 2
P0346 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2
P0347 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Low Bank 2
P0348 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit High Bank 2
P0349 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent Bank 2

P0350 Ignition Coil Primary/Secondary Circuit


P0351 Ignition Coil "A" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0352 Ignition Coil "B" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0353 Ignition Coil "C" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0354 Ignition Coil "D" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0355 Ignition Coil "E" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0356 Ignition Coil "F" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0357 Ignition Coil "G" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0358 Ignition Coil "H" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0359 Ignition Coil "I" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0360 Ignition Coil "J" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0361 Ignition Coil "K" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0362 Ignition Coil "L" Primary/Secondary Circuit
P0363 Misfire Detected Fueling Disabled
P0364 Reserved
P0365 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Bank 1
P0366 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1
P0367 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low Bank 1
P0368 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High Bank 1
P0369 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent Bank 1
P0370 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal "A"
P0371 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal "A" Too Many Pulses
P0372 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal "A" Too Few Pulses
P0373 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal "A" Intermittent/Erratic Pulses
P0374 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal "A" No Pulse
P0375 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal "B"
P0376 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal "B" Too Many Pulses
P0377 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal "B" Too Few Pulses
P0378 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal "B" Intermittent/Erratic Pulses
P0379 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal "B" No Pulses
P0380 Glow Plug/Heater Circuit "A"
P0381 Glow Plug/Heater Indicator Circuit
P0382 Glow Plug/Heater Circuit "B"
P0383 P0384 Reserved by document
P0385 Crankshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit
P0386 Crankshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P0387 Crankshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low
P0388 Crankshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High
P0389 Crankshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent
P0390 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Bank 2
P0391 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2
P0392 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low Bank 2
P0393 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High Bank 2
P0394 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent Bank 2
P0400 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow
P0401 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Insufficient Detected
P0402 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Excessive Detected
P0403 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control Circuit
P0404 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0405 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "A" Circuit Low
P0406 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "A" Circuit High

P0407 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "B" Circuit Low


P0408 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "B" Circuit High
P0409 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "A" Circuit
P0410 Secondary Air Injection System
P0411 Secondary Air Injection System Incorrect Flow Detected
P0412 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve "A" Circuit
P0413 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve "A" Circuit Open
P0414 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve "A" Circuit Shorted
P0415 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve "B" Circuit
P0416 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve "B" Circuit Open
P0417 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve "B" Circuit Shorted
P0418 Secondary Air Injection System Control "A" Circuit
P0419 Secondary Air Injection System Control "B" Circuit
P0420 Catalyst System Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 1
P0421 Warm Up Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 1
P0422 Main Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 1
P0423 Heated Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 1
P0424 Heated Catalyst Temperature Below Threshold Bank 1
P0425 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Bank 1
P0426 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Range/Performance Bank 1
P0427 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Low Bank 1
P0428 Catalyst Temperature Sensor High Bank 1
P0429 Catalyst Heater Control Circuit Bank 1
P0430 Catalyst System Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 2
P0431 Warm Up Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 2
P0432 Main Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 2
P0433 Heated Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 2
P0434 Heated Catalyst Temperature Below Threshold Bank 2
P0435 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Bank 2
P0436 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Range/Performance Bank 2
P0437 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Low Bank 2
P0438 Catalyst Temperature Sensor High Bank 2
P0439 Catalyst Heater Control Circuit Bank 2
P0440 Evaporative Emission System
P0441 Evaporative Emission System Incorrect Purge Flow
P0442 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detected (small leak)
P0443 Evaporative Emission System Purge Control Valve Circuit
P0444 Evaporative Emission System Purge Control Valve Circuit Open
P0445 Evaporative Emission System Purge Control Valve Circuit Shorted
P0446 Evaporative Emission System Vent Control Circuit
P0447 Evaporative Emission System Vent Control Circuit Open
P0448 Evaporative Emission System Vent Control Circuit Shorted
P0449 Evaporative Emission System Vent Valve/Solenoid Circuit
P0450 Evaporative Emission System Pressure Sensor/Switch
P0451 Evaporative Emission System Pressure Sensor/Switch Range/Performance
P0452 Evaporative Emission System Pressure Sensor/Switch Low
P0453 Evaporative Emission System Pressure Sensor/Switch High
P0454 Evaporative Emission System Pressure Sensor/Switch Intermittent
P0455 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detected (large leak)
P0456 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detected (very small leak)
P0457 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detected (fuel cap loose/off)

P0458 Evaporative Emission System Purge Control Valve Circuit Low


P0459 Evaporative Emission System Purge Control Valve Circuit High
P0460 Fuel Level Sensor "A" Circuit
P0461 Fuel Level Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0462 Fuel Level Sensor "A" Circuit Low
P0463 Fuel Level Sensor "A" Circuit High
P0464 Fuel Level Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0465 EVAP Purge Flow Sensor Circuit
P0466 EVAP Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0467 EVAP Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Low
P0468 EVAP Purge Flow Sensor Circuit High
P0469 EVAP Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0470 Exhaust Pressure Sensor
P0471 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0472 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Low
P0473 Exhaust Pressure Sensor High
P0474 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Intermittent
P0475 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve
P0476 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Range/Performance
P0477 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Low
P0478 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve High
P0479 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Intermittent
P0480 Fan 1 Control Circuit
P0481 Fan 2 Control Circuit
P0482 Fan 3 Control Circuit
P0483 Fan Rationality Check
P0484 Fan Circuit Over Current
P0485 Fan Power/Ground Circuit
P0486 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "B" Circuit
P0487 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Position Control Circuit
P0488 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Position Control Range/Performance
P0489 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control Circuit Low
P0490 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control Circuit High
P0491 Secondary Air Injection System Insufficient Flow Bank 1
P0492 Secondary Air Injection System Insufficient Flow Bank 2
P0493 Fan Overspeed
P0494 Fan Speed Low
P0495 Fan Speed High
P0496 Evaporative Emission System High Purge Flow
P0497 Evaporative Emission System Low Purge Flow
P0498 Evaporative Emission System Vent Valve Control Circuit Low
P0499 Evaporative Emission System Vent Valve Control Circuit High
P0500 Vehicle Speed Sensor "A"
P0501 Vehicle Speed Sensor "A" Range/Performance
P0502 Vehicle Speed Sensor "A" Circuit Low Input
P0503 Vehicle Speed Sensor "A" Intermittent/Erratic/High
P0504 Brake Switch "A"/"B" Correlation
P0505 Idle Air Control System
P0506 Idle Air Control System RPM Lower Than Expected
P0507 Idle Air Control System RPM Higher Than Expected
P0508 Idle Air Control System Circuit Low

P0509 Idle Air Control System Circuit High


P0510 Closed Throttle Position Switch
P0511 Idle Air Control Circuit
P0512 Starter Request Circuit
P0513 Incorrect Immobilizer Key
P0514 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0515 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0516 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P0517 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P0518 Idle Air Control Circuit Intermittent
P0519 Idle Air Control System Performance
P0520 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor/Switch Circuit
P0521 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor/Switch Range/Performance
P0522 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor/Switch Low Voltage
P0523 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor/Switch High Voltage
P0524 Engine Oil Pressure Too Low
P0525 Cruise Control Servo Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0526 Fan Speed Sensor Circuit
P0527 Fan Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0528 Fan Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0529 Fan Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0530 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor "A" Circuit
P0531 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0532 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor "A" Circuit Low
P0533 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor "A" Circuit High
P0534 Air Conditioner Refrigerant Charge Loss
P0535 A/C Evaporator Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0536 A/C Evaporator Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0537 A/C Evaporator Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P0538 A/C Evaporator Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P0539 A/C Evaporator Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0540 Intake Air Heater "A" Circuit
P0541 Intake Air Heater "A" Circuit Low
P0542 Intake Air Heater "A" Circuit High
P0543 Intake Air Heater "A" Circuit Open
P0544 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0545 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0546 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High Bank 1 Sensor 1
P0547 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0548 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0549 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High Bank 2 Sensor 1
P0550 Power Steering Pressure Sensor/Switch Circuit
P0551 Power Steering Pressure Sensor/Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P0552 Power Steering Pressure Sensor/Switch Circuit Low Input
P0553 Power Steering Pressure Sensor/Switch Circuit High Input
P0554 Power Steering Pressure Sensor/Switch Circuit Intermittent
P0555 Brake Booster Pressure Sensor Circuit
P0556 Brake Booster Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0557 Brake Booster Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0558 Brake Booster Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0559 Brake Booster Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent

P0560 System Voltage


P0561 System Voltage Unstable
P0562 System Voltage Low
P0563 System Voltage High
P0564 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "A" Circuit
P0565 Cruise Control On Signal
P0566 Cruise Control Off Signal
P0567 Cruise Control Resume Signal
P0568 Cruise Control Set Signal
P0569 Cruise Control Coast Signal
P0570 Cruise Control Accelerate Signal
P0571 Brake Switch "A" Circuit
P0572 Brake Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0573 Brake Switch "A" Circuit High
P0574 Cruise Control System - Vehicle Speed Too High
P0575 Cruise Control Input Circuit
P0576 Cruise Control Input Circuit Low
P0577 Cruise Control Input Circuit High
P0578 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "A" Circuit Stuck
P0579 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0580 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "A" Circuit Low
P0581 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "A" Circuit High
P0582 Cruise Control Vacuum Control Circuit/Open
P0583 Cruise Control Vacuum Control Circuit Low
P0584 Cruise Control Vacuum Control Circuit High
P0585 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "A"/"B" Correlation
P0586 Cruise Control Vent Control Circuit/Open
P0587 Cruise Control Vent Control Circuit Low
P0588 Cruise Control Vent Control Circuit High
P0589 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "B" Circuit
P0590 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "B" Circuit Stuck
P0591 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P0592 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "B" Circuit Low
P0593 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input "B" Circuit High
P0594 Cruise Control Servo Control Circuit/Open
P0595 Cruise Control Servo Control Circuit Low
P0596 Cruise Control Servo Control Circuit High
P0597 Thermostat Heater Control Circuit/Open
P0598 Thermostat Heater Control Circuit Low
P0599 Thermostat Heater Control Circuit High
P0600 Serial Communication Link
P0601 Internal Control Module Memory Check Sum Error
P0602 Control Module Programming Error
P0603 Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error
P0604 Internal Control Module Random Access Memory (RAM) Error
P0605 Internal Control Module Read Only Memory (ROM) Error
P0606 ECM/PCM Processor
P0607 Control Module Performance
P0608 Control Module VSS Output "A"
P0609 Control Module VSS Output "B"
P0610 Control Module Vehicle Options Error

P0611 Fuel Injector Control Module Performance


P0612 Fuel Injector Control Module Relay Control
P0613 TCM Processor
P0614 ECM / TCM Incompatible
P0615 Starter Relay Circuit
P0616 Starter Relay Circuit Low
P0617 Starter Relay Circuit High
P0618 Alternative Fuel Control Module KAM Error
P0619 Alternative Fuel Control Module RAM/ROM Error
P0620 Generator Control Circuit
P0621 Generator Lamp/L Terminal Circuit
P0622 Generator Field/F Terminal Circuit
P0623 Generator Lamp Control Circuit
P0624 Fuel Cap Lamp Control Circuit
P0625 Generator Field/F Terminal Circuit Low
P0626 Generator Field/F Terminal Circuit High
P0627 Fuel Pump "A" Control Circuit /Open
P0628 Fuel Pump "A" Control Circuit Low
P0629 Fuel Pump "A" Control Circuit High
P0630 VIN Not Programmed or Incompatible ECM/PCM
P0631 VIN Not Programmed or Incompatible TCM
P0632 Odometer Not Programmed ECM/PCM
P0633 Immobilizer Key Not Programmed ECM/PCM
P0634 PCM/ECM/TCM Internal Temperature Too High
P0635 Power Steering Control Circuit
P0636 Power Steering Control Circuit Low
P0637 Power Steering Control Circuit High
P0638 Throttle Actuator Control Range/Performance Bank 1
P0639 Throttle Actuator Control Range/Performance Bank 2
P0640 Intake Air Heater Control Circuit
P0641 Sensor Reference Voltage "A" Circuit/Open
P0642 Sensor Reference Voltage "A" Circuit Low
P0643 Sensor Reference Voltage "A" Circuit High
P0644 Driver Display Serial Communication Circuit
P0645 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit
P0646 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit Low
P0647 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit High
P0648 Immobilizer Lamp Control Circuit
P0649 Speed Control Lamp Control Circuit
P0650 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) Control Circuit
P0651 Sensor Reference Voltage "B" Circuit/Open
P0652 Sensor Reference Voltage "B" Circuit Low
P0653 Sensor Reference Voltage "B" Circuit High
P0654 Engine RPM Output Circuit
P0655 Engine Hot Lamp Output Control Circuit
P0656 Fuel Level Output Circuit
P0657 Actuator Supply Voltage "A" Circuit/Open
P0658 Actuator Supply Voltage "A" Circuit Low
P0659 Actuator Supply Voltage "A" Circuit High
P0660 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit/Open Bank 1 a)
P0661 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit Low Bank 1 a)

P0662 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit High Bank 1 a)


P0663 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit/Open Bank 2 a)
P0664 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit Low Bank 2 a)
P0665 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit High Bank 2 a)
P0666 PCM/ECM/TCM Internal Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0667 PCM/ECM/TCM Internal Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0668 PCM/ECM/TCM Internal Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P0669 PCM/ECM/TCM Internal Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P0670 Glow Plug Module Control Circuit
P0671 Cylinder 1 Glow Plug Circuit
P0672 Cylinder 2 Glow Plug Circuit
P0673 Cylinder 3 Glow Plug Circuit
P0674 Cylinder 4 Glow Plug Circuit
P0675 Cylinder 5 Glow Plug Circuit
P0676 Cylinder 6 Glow Plug Circuit
P0677 Cylinder 7 Glow Plug Circuit
P0678 Cylinder 8 Glow Plug Circuit
P0679 Cylinder 9 Glow Plug Circuit
P0680 Cylinder 10 Glow Plug Circuit
P0681 Cylinder 11 Glow Plug Circuit
P0682 Cylinder 12 Glow Plug Circuit
P0683 Glow Plug Control Module to PCM Communication Circuit
P0684 Glow Plug Control Module to PCM Communication Circuit Range/Performance
P0685 ECM/PCM Power Relay Control Circuit /Open
P0686 ECM/PCM Power Relay Control Circuit Low
P0687 ECM/PCM Power Relay Control Circuit High
P0688 ECM/PCM Power Relay Sense Circuit /Open
P0689 ECM/PCM Power Relay Sense Circuit Low
P0690 ECM/PCM Power Relay Sense Circuit High
P0691 Fan 1 Control Circuit Low
P0692 Fan 1 Control Circuit High
P0693 Fan 2 Control Circuit Low
P0694 Fan 2 Control Circuit High
P0695 Fan 3 Control Circuit Low
P0696 Fan 3 Control Circuit High
P0697 Sensor Reference Voltage "C" Circuit/Open
P0698 Sensor Reference Voltage "C" Circuit Low
P0699 Sensor Reference Voltage "C" Circuit High
P0700 Transmission Control System (MIL Request)
P0701 Transmission Control System Range/Performance
P0702 Transmission Control System Electrical
P0703 Brake Switch "B" Circuit
P0704 Clutch Switch Input Circuit Malfunction
P0705 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Malfunction (PRNDL Input)
P0706 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0707 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Low
P0708 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit High
P0709 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0710 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor "A" Circuit
P0711 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0712 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor "A" Circuit Low

P0713 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor "A" Circuit High


P0714 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0715 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor "A" Circuit
P0716 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0717 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor "A" Circuit No Signal
P0718 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0719 Brake Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0720 Output Speed Sensor Circuit
P0721 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0722 Output Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0723 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0724 Brake Switch "B" Circuit High
P0725 Engine Speed Input Circuit
P0726 Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance
P0727 Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal
P0728 Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent
P0729 Gear 6 Incorrect Ratio
P0730 Incorrect Gear Ratio
P0731 Gear 1 Incorrect Ratio
P0732 Gear 2 Incorrect Ratio
P0733 Gear 3 Incorrect Ratio
P0734 Gear 4 Incorrect Ratio
P0735 Gear 5 Incorrect Ratio
P0736 Reverse Incorrect Ratio
P0737 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit
P0738 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit Low
P0739 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit High
P0740 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit/Open
P0741 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Performance or Stuck Off
P0742 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Stuck On
P0743 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Electrical
P0744 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Intermittent
P0745 Pressure Control Solenoid "A"
P0746 Pressure Control Solenoid "A" Performance or Stuck Off
P0747 Pressure Control Solenoid "A" Stuck On
P0748 Pressure Control Solenoid "A" Electrical
P0749 Pressure Control Solenoid "A" Intermittent
P0750 Shift Solenoid "A"
P0751 Shift Solenoid "A" Performance or Stuck Off
P0752 Shift Solenoid "A" Stuck On
P0753 Shift Solenoid "A" Electrical
P0754 Shift Solenoid "A" Intermittent
P0755 Shift Solenoid "B"
P0756 Shift Solenoid "B" Performance or Stuck Off
P0757 Shift Solenoid "B" Stuck On
P0758 Shift Solenoid "B" Electrical
P0759 Shift Solenoid "B" Intermittent
P0760 Shift Solenoid "C"
P0761 Shift Solenoid "C" Performance or Stuck Off
P0762 Shift Solenoid "C" Stuck On
P0763 Shift Solenoid "C" Electrical

P0764 Shift Solenoid "C" Intermittent


P0765 Shift Solenoid "D"
P0766 Shift Solenoid "D" Performance or Stuck Off
P0767 Shift Solenoid "D" Stuck On
P0768 Shift Solenoid "D" Electrical
P0769 Shift Solenoid "D" Intermittent
P0770 Shift Solenoid "E"
P0771 Shift Solenoid "E" Performance or Stuck Off
P0772 Shift Solenoid "E" Stuck On
P0773 Shift Solenoid "E" Electrical
P0774 Shift Solenoid "E" Intermittent
P0775 Pressure Control Solenoid "B"
P0776 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Performance or Stuck off
P0777 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Stuck On
P0778 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Electrical
P0779 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Intermittent
P0780 Shift Error
P0781 1-2 Shift
P0782 2-3 Shift
P0783 3-4 Shift
P0784 4-5 Shift
P0785 Shift/Timing Solenoid
P0786 Shift/Timing Solenoid Range/Performance
P0787 Shift/Timing Solenoid Low
P0788 Shift/Timing Solenoid High
P0789 Shift/Timing Solenoid Intermittent
P0790 Normal/Performance Switch Circuit
P0791 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "A" Circuit
P0792 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0793 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "A" Circuit No Signal
P0794 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0795 Pressure Control Solenoid "C"
P0796 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Performance or Stuck off
P0797 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Stuck On
P0798 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Electrical
P0799 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Intermittent
P0800 Transfer Case Control System (MIL Request)
P0801 Reverse Inhibit Control Circuit
P0802 Transmission Control System MIL Request Circuit/Open
P0803 1-4 Upshift (Skip Shift) Solenoid Control Circuit
P0804 1-4 Upshift (Skip Shift) Lamp Control Circuit
P0805 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit
P0806 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0807 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Low
P0808 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit High
P0809 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0810 Clutch Position Control Error
P0811 Excessive Clutch Slippage
P0812 Reverse Input Circuit
P0813 Reverse Output Circuit
P0814 Transmission Range Display Circuit

P0815 Upshift Switch Circuit


P0816 Downshift Switch Circuit
P0817 Starter Disable Circuit
P0818 Driveline Disconnect Switch Input Circuit
P0819 Up and Down Shift Switch to Transmission Range Correlation
P0820 Gear Lever X-Y Position Sensor Circuit
P0821 Gear Lever X Position Circuit
P0822 Gear Lever Y Position Circuit
P0823 Gear Lever X Position Circuit Intermittent
P0824 Gear Lever Y Position Circuit Intermittent
P0825 Gear Lever Push-Pull Switch (Shift Anticipate)
P0826 Up and Down Shift Switch Circuit
P0827 Up and Down Shift Switch Circuit Low
P0828 Up and Down Shift Switch Circuit High
P0829 5-6 Shift
P0830 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit
P0831 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0832 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit High
P0833 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit
P0834 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0835 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit High
P0836 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit
P0837 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P0838 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit Low
P0839 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit High
P0840 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit
P0841 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0842 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0843 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit High
P0844 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0845 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit
P0846 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P0847 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0848 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit High
P0849 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Intermittent
P0850 Park/Neutral Switch Input Circuit
P0851 Park/Neutral Switch Input Circuit Low
P0852 Park/Neutral Switch Input Circuit High
P0853 Drive Switch Input Circuit
P0854 Drive Switch Input Circuit Low
P0855 Drive Switch Input Circuit High
P0856 Traction Control Input Signal
P0857 Traction Control Input Signal Range/Performance
P0858 Traction Control Input Signal Low
P0859 Traction Control Input Signal High
P0860 Gear Shift Module Communication Circuit
P0861 Gear Shift Module Communication Circuit Low
P0862 Gear Shift Module Communication Circuit High
P0863 TCM Communication Circuit
P0864 TCM Communication Circuit Range/Performance
P0865 TCM Communication Circuit Low

P0866 TCM Communication Circuit High


P0867 Transmission Fluid Pressure
P0868 Transmission Fluid Pressure Low
P0869 Transmission Fluid Pressure High
P0870 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "C" Circuit
P0871 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "C" Circuit Range/Performance
P0872 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "C" Circuit Low
P0873 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "C" Circuit High
P0874 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "C" Circuit Intermittent
P0875 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "D" Circuit
P0876 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "D" Circuit Range/Performance
P0877 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "D" Circuit Low
P0878 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "D" Circuit High
P0879 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "D" Circuit Intermittent
P0880 TCM Power Input Signal
P0881 TCM Power Input Signal Range/Performance
P0882 TCM Power Input Signal Low
P0883 TCM Power Input Signal High
P0884 TCM Power Input Signal Intermittent
P0885 TCM Power Relay Control Circuit/Open
P0886 TCM Power Relay Control Circuit Low
P0887 TCM Power Relay Control Circuit High
P0888 TCM Power Relay Sense Circuit
P0889 TCM Power Relay Sense Circuit Range/Performance
P0890 TCM Power Relay Sense Circuit Low
P0891 TCM Power Relay Sense Circuit High
P0892 TCM Power Relay Sense Circuit Intermittent
P0893 Multiple Gears Engaged
P0894 Transmission Component Slipping
P0895 Shift Time Too Short
P0896 Shift Time Too Long
P0897 Transmission Fluid Deteriorated
P0898 Transmission Control System MIL Request Circuit Low
P0899 Transmission Control System MIL Request Circuit High
P0900 Clutch Actuator Circuit/Open
P0901 Clutch Actuator Circuit Range/Performance
P0902 Clutch Actuator Circuit Low
P0903 Clutch Actuator Circuit High
P0904 Gate Select Position Circuit
P0905 Gate Select Position Circuit Range/Performance
P0906 Gate Select Position Circuit Low
P0907 Gate Select Position Circuit High
P0908 Gate Select Position Circuit Intermittent
P0909 Gate Select Control Error
P0910 Gate Select Actuator Circuit/Open
P0911 Gate Select Actuator Circuit Range/Performance
P0912 Gate Select Actuator Circuit Low
P0913 Gate Select Actuator Circuit High
P0914 Gear Shift Position Circuit
P0915 Gear Shift Position Circuit Range/Performance
P0916 Gear Shift Position Circuit Low

P0917 Gear Shift Position Circuit High


P0918 Gear Shift Position Circuit Intermittent
P0919 Gear Shift Position Control Error
P0920 Gear Shift Forward Actuator Circuit/Open
P0921 Gear Shift Forward Actuator Circuit Range/Performance
P0922 Gear Shift Forward Actuator Circuit Low
P0923 Gear Shift Forward Actuator Circuit High
P0924 Gear Shift Reverse Actuator Circuit/Open
P0925 Gear Shift Reverse Actuator Circuit Range/Performance
P0926 Gear Shift Reverse Actuator Circuit Low
P0927 Gear Shift Reverse Actuator Circuit High
P0928 Gear Shift Lock Solenoid Control Circuit/Open
P0929 Gear Shift Lock Solenoid Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0930 Gear Shift Lock Solenoid Control Circuit Low
P0931 Gear Shift Lock Solenoid Control Circuit High
P0932 Hydraulic Pressure Sensor Circuit
P0933 Hydraulic Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0934 Hydraulic Pressure Sensor Circuit Low
P0935 Hydraulic Pressure Sensor Circuit High
P0936 Hydraulic Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0937 Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0938 Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0939 Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P0940 Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P0941 Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0942 Hydraulic Pressure Unit
P0943 Hydraulic Pressure Unit Cycling Period Too Short
P0944 Hydraulic Pressure Unit Loss of Pressure
P0945 Hydraulic Pump Relay Circuit/Open
P0946 Hydraulic Pump Relay Circuit Range/Performance
P0947 Hydraulic Pump Relay Circuit Low
P0948 Hydraulic Pump Relay Circuit High
P0949 Auto Shift Manual Adaptive Learning Not Complete
P0950 Auto Shift Manual Control Circuit
P0951 Auto Shift Manual Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0952 Auto Shift Manual Control Circuit Low
P0953 Auto Shift Manual Control Circuit High
P0954 Auto Shift Manual Control Circuit Intermittent
P0955 Auto Shift Manual Mode Circuit
P0956 Auto Shift Manual Mode Circuit Range/Performance
P0957 Auto Shift Manual Mode Circuit Low
P0958 Auto Shift Manual Mode Circuit High
P0959 Auto Shift Manual Mode Circuit Intermittent
P0960 Pressure Control Solenoid "A" Control Circuit/Open
P0961 Pressure Control Solenoid "A" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0962 Pressure Control Solenoid "A" Control Circuit Low
P0963 Pressure Control Solenoid "A" Control Circuit High
P0964 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Control Circuit/Open
P0965 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0966 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Control Circuit Low
P0967 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Control Circuit High

P0968 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Control Circuit/Open


P0969 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0970 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Control Circuit Low
P0971 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Control Circuit High
P0972 Shift Solenoid "A" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0973 Shift Solenoid "A" Control Circuit Low
P0974 Shift Solenoid "A" Control Circuit High
P0975 Shift Solenoid "B" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0976 Shift Solenoid "B" Control Circuit Low
P0977 Shift Solenoid "B" Control Circuit High
P0978 Shift Solenoid "C" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0979 Shift Solenoid "C" Control Circuit Low
P0980 Shift Solenoid "C" Control Circuit High
P0981 Shift Solenoid "D" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0982 Shift Solenoid "D" Control Circuit Low
P0983 Shift Solenoid "D" Control Circuit High
P0984 Shift Solenoid "E" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0985 Shift Solenoid "E" Control Circuit Low
P0986 Shift Solenoid "E" Control Circuit High
P0987 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "E" Circuit
P0988 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "E" Circuit Range/Performance
P0989 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "E" Circuit Low
P0990 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "E" Circuit High
P0991 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "E" Circuit Intermittent
P0992 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "F" Circuit
P0993 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "F" Circuit Range/Performance
P0994 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "F" Circuit Low
P0995 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "F" Circuit High
P0996 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "F" Circuit Intermittent
P0997 Shift Solenoid "F" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P0998 Shift Solenoid "F" Control Circuit Low
P0999 Shift Solenoid "F" Control Circuit High
P0A00 Motor Electronics Coolant Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0A01 Motor Electronics Coolant Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0A02 Motor Electronics Coolant Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P0A03 Motor Electronics Coolant Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P0A04 Motor Electronics Coolant Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0A05 Motor Electronics Coolant Pump Control Circuit/Open
P0A06 Motor Electronics Coolant Pump Control Circuit Low
P0A07 Motor Electronics Coolant Pump Control Circuit High
P0A08 DC/DC Converter Status Circuit
P0A09 DC/DC Converter Status Circuit Low Input
P0A10 DC/DC Converter Status Circuit High Input
P0A11 DC/DC Converter Enable Circuit/Open
P0A12 DC/DC Converter Enable Circuit Low
P0A13 DC/DC Converter Enable Circuit High
P0A14 Engine Mount Control Circuit/Open
P0A15 Engine Mount Control Circuit Low
P0A16 Engine Mount Control Circuit High
P0A17 Motor Torque Sensor Circuit
P0A18 Motor Torque Sensor Circuit Range/Performance

P0A19 Motor Torque Sensor Circuit Low


P0A20 Motor Torque Sensor Circuit High
P0A21 Motor Torque Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0A22 Generator Torque Sensor Circuit
P0A23 Generator Torque Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0A24 Generator Torque Sensor Circuit Low
P0A25 Generator Torque Sensor Circuit High
P0A26 Generator Torque Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0A27 Battery Power Off Circuit
P0A28 Battery Power Off Circuit Low
P0A29 Battery Power Off Circuit High
P2000 NOx Trap Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 1
P2001 NOx Trap Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 2
P2002 Particulate Trap Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 1
P2003 Particulate Trap Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 2
P2004 Intake Manifold Runner Control Stuck Open Bank 1 a)
P2005 Intake Manifold Runner Control Stuck Open Bank 2 a)
P2006 Intake Manifold Runner Control Stuck Closed Bank 1 a)
P2007 Intake Manifold Runner Control Stuck Closed Bank 2 a)
P2008 Intake Manifold Runner Control Circuit/Open Bank 1 a)
P2009 Intake Manifold Runner Control Circuit Low Bank 1 a)
P2010 Intake Manifold Runner Control Circuit High Bank 1 a)
P2011 Intake Manifold Runner Control Circuit/Open Bank 2 a)
P2012 Intake Manifold Runner Control Circuit Low Bank 2 a)
P2013 Intake Manifold Runner Control Circuit High Bank 2 a)
P2014 Intake Manifold Runner Position Sensor/Switch Circuit Bank 1 a)
P2015 Intake Manifold Runner Position Sensor/Switch Circuit Range/Performance Bank
1 a)
P2016 Intake Manifold Runner Position Sensor/Switch Circuit Low Bank 1 a)
P2017 Intake Manifold Runner Position Sensor/Switch Circuit High Bank 1 a)
P2018 Intake Manifold Runner Position Sensor/Switch Circuit Intermittent Bank 1 a)
P2019 Intake Manifold Runner Position Sensor/Switch Circuit Bank 2 a)
P2020 Intake Manifold Runner Position Sensor/Switch Circuit Range/Performance Bank
2 a)
P2021 Intake Manifold Runner Position Sensor/Switch Circuit Low Bank 2 a)
P2022 Intake Manifold Runner Position Sensor/Switch Circuit High Bank 2 a)
P2023 Intake Manifold Runner Position Sensor/Switch Circuit Intermittent Bank 2 a)
P2024 Evaporative Emissions (EVAP) Fuel Vapor Temperature Sensor Circuit
P2025 Evaporative Emissions (EVAP) Fuel Vapor Temperature Sensor Performance
P2026 Evaporative Emissions (EVAP) Fuel Vapor Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
Voltage
P2027 Evaporative Emissions (EVAP) Fuel Vapor Temperature Sensor Circuit High
Voltage
P2028 Evaporative Emissions (EVAP) Fuel Vapor Temperature Sensor Circuit
Intermittent
P2029 Fuel Fired Heater Disabled
P2030 Fuel Fired Heater Performance
P2031 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Bank 1 Sensor 2
P2032 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Bank 1 Sensor 2
P2033 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High Bank 1 Sensor 2
P2034 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 2

P2035 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Bank 2 Sensor 2


P2036 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High Bank 2 Sensor 2
P2037 Reductant Injection Air Pressure Sensor Circuit
P2038 Reductant Injection Air Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P2039 Reductant Injection Air Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P2040 Reductant Injection Air Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P2041 Reductant Injection Air Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P2042 Reductant Temperature Sensor Circuit
P2043 Reductant Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P2044 Reductant Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Input
P2045 Reductant Temperature Sensor Circuit High Input
P2046 Reductant Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P2047 Reductant Injector Circuit/Open Bank 1 Unit 1
P2048 Reductant Injector Circuit Low Bank 1 Unit 1
P2049 Reductant Injector Circuit High Bank 1 Unit 1
P2050 Reductant Injector Circuit/Open Bank 2 Unit 1
P2051 Reductant Injector Circuit Low Bank 2 Unit 1
P2052 Reductant Injector Circuit High Bank 2 Unit 1
P2053 Reductant Injector Circuit/Open Bank 1 Unit 2
P2054 Reductant Injector Circuit Low Bank 1 Unit 2
P2055 Reductant Injector Circuit High Bank 1 Unit 2
P2056 Reductant Injector Circuit/Open Bank 2 Unit 2
P2057 Reductant Injector Circuit Low Bank 2 Unit 2
P2058 Reductant Injector Circuit High Bank 2 Unit 2
P2059 Reductant Injection Air Pump Control Circuit/Open
P2060 Reductant Injection Air Pump Control Circuit Low
P2061 Reductant Injection Air Pump Control Circuit High
P2062 Reductant Supply Control Circuit/Open
P2063 Reductant Supply Control Circuit Low
P2064 Reductant Supply Control Circuit High
P2065 Fuel Level Sensor "B" Circuit
P2066 Fuel Level Sensor "B" Performance
P2067 Fuel Level Sensor "B" Circuit Low
P2068 Fuel Level Sensor "B" Circuit High
P2069 Fuel Level Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent
P2070 Intake Manifold Tuning (IMT) Valve Stuck Open a)
P2071 Intake Manifold Tuning (IMT) Valve Stuck Closed a)
P2075 Intake Manifold Tuning (IMT) Valve Position Sensor/Switch Circuit a)
P2076 Intake Manifold Tuning (IMT) Valve Position Sensor/Switch Circuit
Range/Performance a)
P2077 Intake Manifold Tuning (IMT) Valve Position Sensor/Switch Circuit Low a)
P2078 Intake Manifold Tuning (IMT) Valve Position Sensor/Switch Circuit High a)
P2079 Intake Manifold Tuning (IMT) Valve Position Sensor/Switch Circuit Intermittent a)
P2080 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2081 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2082 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2083 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2084 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1 Sensor 2
P2085 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent Bank 1 Sensor 2
P2086 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2 Sensor 2
P2087 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent Bank 2 Sensor 2

P2088 1) "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Control Circuit Low Bank 1 b)


P2089 1) "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Control Circuit High Bank 1 b)
P2090 1) "B" Camshaft Position Actuator Control Circuit Low Bank 1 c)
P2091 1) "B" Camshaft Position Actuator Control Circuit High Bank 1 c)
P2092 1) "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Control Circuit Low Bank 2 b)
P2093 1) "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Control Circuit High Bank 2 b)
P2094 1) "B" Camshaft Position Actuator Control Circuit Low Bank 2 c)
P2095 1) "B" Camshaft Position Actuator Control Circuit High Bank 2 c)
P2096 Post Catalyst Fuel Trim System Too Lean Bank 1
P2097 Post Catalyst Fuel Trim System Too Rich Bank 1
P2098 Post Catalyst Fuel Trim System Too Lean Bank 2
P2099 Post Catalyst Fuel Trim System Too Rich Bank 2
P2100 Throttle Actuator Control Motor Circuit/Open
P2101 Throttle Actuator Control Motor Circuit Range/Performance
P2102 Throttle Actuator Control Motor Circuit Low
P2103 Throttle Actuator Control Motor Circuit High
P2104 Throttle Actuator Control System - Forced Idle
P2105 Throttle Actuator Control System - Forced Engine Shutdown
P2106 Throttle Actuator Control System - Forced Limited Power
P2107 Throttle Actuator Control Module Processor
P2108 Throttle Actuator Control Module Performance
P2109 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "A" Minimum Stop Performance
P2110 Throttle Actuator Control System - Forced Limited RPM
P2111 Throttle Actuator Control System - Stuck Open
P2112 Throttle Actuator Control System - Stuck Closed
P2113 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "B" Minimum Stop Performance
P2114 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "C" Minimum Stop Performance
P2115 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "D" Minimum Stop Performance
P2116 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "E" Minimum Stop Performance
P2117 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "F" Minimum Stop Performance
P2118 Throttle Actuator Control Motor Current Range/Performance
P2119 Throttle Actuator Control Throttle Body Range/Performance
P2120 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "D" Circuit
P2121 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "D" Circuit Range/Performance
P2122 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "D" Circuit Low Input
P2123 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "D" Circuit High Input
P2124 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "D" Circuit Intermittent
P2125 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "E" Circuit
P2126 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "E" Circuit Range/Performance
P2127 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "E" Circuit Low Input
P2128 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "E" Circuit High Input
P2129 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "E" Circuit Intermittent
P2130 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "F" Circuit
P2131 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "F" Circuit Range Performance
P2132 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "F" Circuit Low Input
P2133 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "F" Circuit High Input
P2134 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "F" Circuit Intermittent
P2135 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "A" / "B" Voltage Correlation
P2136 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "A" / "C" Voltage Correlation
P2137 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "B" / "C" Voltage Correlation
P2138 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "D" / "E" Voltage Correlation

P2139 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "D" / "F" Voltage Correlation


P2140 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch "E" / "F" Voltage Correlation
P2141 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Control Circuit Low
P2142 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Control Circuit High
P2143 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Vent Control Circuit/Open
P2144 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Vent Control Circuit Low
P2145 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Vent Control Circuit High
P2146 Fuel Injector Group "A" Supply Voltage Circuit/Open
P2147 Fuel Injector Group "A" Supply Voltage Circuit Low
P2148 Fuel Injector Group "A" Supply Voltage Circuit High
P2149 Fuel Injector Group "B" Supply Voltage Circuit/Open
P2150 Fuel Injector Group "B" Supply Voltage Circuit Low
P2151 Fuel Injector Group "B" Supply Voltage Circuit High
P2152 Fuel Injector Group "C" Supply Voltage Circuit/Open
P2153 Fuel Injector Group "C" Supply Voltage Circuit Low
P2154 Fuel Injector Group "C" Supply Voltage Circuit High
P2155 Fuel Injector Group "D" Supply Voltage Circuit/Open
P2156 Fuel Injector Group "D" Supply Voltage Circuit Low
P2157 Fuel Injector Group "D" Supply Voltage Circuit High
P2158 Vehicle Speed Sensor "B"
P2159 Vehicle Speed Sensor "B" Range/Performance
P2160 Vehicle Speed Sensor "B" Circuit Low
P2161 Vehicle Speed Sensor "B" Intermittent/Erratic
P2162 Vehicle Speed Sensor "A" / "B" Correlation
P2163 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "A" Maximum Stop Performance
P2164 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "B" Maximum Stop Performance
P2165 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "C" Maximum Stop Performance
P2166 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "D" Maximum Stop Performance
P2167 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "E" Maximum Stop Performance
P2168 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor "F" Maximum Stop Performance
P2169 Exhaust Pressure Regulator Vent Solenoid Control Circuit/Open
P2170 Exhaust Pressure Regulator Vent Solenoid Control Circuit Low
P2171 Exhaust Pressure Regulator Vent Solenoid Control Circuit High
P2172 Throttle Actuator Control System Sudden High Airflow Detected
P2173 Throttle Actuator Control System High Airflow Detected
P2174 Throttle Actuator Control System Sudden Low Airflow Detected
P2175 Throttle Actuator Control System Low Airflow Detected
P2176 Throttle Actuator Control System Idle Position Not Learned
P2177 System Too Lean Off Idle Bank 1
P2178 System Too Rich Off Idle Bank 1
P2179 System Too Lean Off Idle Bank 2
P2180 System Too Rich Off Idle Bank 2
P2181 Cooling System Performance
P2182 Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit
P2183 Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Range/Performance
P2184 Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Low
P2185 Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit High
P2186 Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Intermittent/Erratic
P2187 System Too Lean at Idle Bank 1
P2188 System Too Rich at Idle Bank 1
P2189 System Too Lean at Idle Bank 2

P2190 System Too Rich at Idle Bank 2


P2191 System Too Lean at Higher Load Bank 1
P2192 System Too Rich at Higher Load Bank 1
P2193 System Too Lean at Higher Load Bank 2
P2194 System Too Rich at Higher Load Bank 2
P2195 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Lean Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2196 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Rich Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2197 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Lean Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2198 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Rich Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2199 Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 / 2 Correlation
P2200 NOx Sensor Circuit Bank 1
P2201 NOx Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1
P2202 NOx Sensor Circuit Low Input Bank 1
P2203 NOx Sensor Circuit High Input Bank 1
P2204 NOx Sensor Circuit Intermittent Input Bank 1
P2205 NOx Sensor Heater Control Circuit/Open Bank 1
P2206 NOx Sensor Heater Control Circuit Low Bank 1
P2207 NOx Sensor Heater Control Circuit High Bank 1
P2208 NOx Sensor Heater Sense Circuit Bank 1
P2209 NOx Sensor Heater Sense Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1
P2210 NOx Sensor Heater Sense Circuit Low Input Bank 1
P2211 NOx Sensor Heater Sense Circuit High Input Bank 1
P2212 NOx Sensor Heater Sense Circuit Intermittent Bank 1
P2213 NOx Sensor Circuit Bank 2
P2214 NOx Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2
P2215 NOx Sensor Circuit Low Input Bank 2
P2216 NOx Sensor Circuit High Input Bank 2
P2217 NOx Sensor Circuit Intermittent Input Bank 2
P2218 NOx Sensor Heater Control Circuit/Open Bank 2
P2219 NOx Sensor Heater Control Circuit Low Bank 2
P2220 NOx Sensor Heater Control Circuit High Bank 2
P2221 NOx Sensor Heater Sense Circuit Bank 2
P2222 NOx Sensor Heater Sense Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2
P2223 NOx Sensor Heater Sense Circuit Low Bank 2
P2224 NOx Sensor Heater Sense Circuit High Bank 2
P2225 NOx Sensor Heater Sense Circuit Intermittent Bank 2
P2226 Barometric Pressure Circuit
P2227 Barometric Pressure Circuit Range/Performance
P2228 Barometric Pressure Circuit Low
P2229 Barometric Pressure Circuit High
P2230 Barometric Pressure Circuit Intermittent
P2231 O2 Sensor Signal Circuit Shorted to Heater Circuit Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2232 O2 Sensor Signal Circuit Shorted to Heater Circuit Bank 1 Sensor 2
P2233 O2 Sensor Signal Circuit Shorted to Heater Circuit Bank 1 Sensor 3
P2234 O2 Sensor Signal Circuit Shorted to Heater Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2235 O2 Sensor Signal Circuit Shorted to Heater Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 2
P2236 O2 Sensor Signal Circuit Shorted to Heater Circuit Bank 2 Sensor 3
P2237 O2 Sensor Positive Current Control Circuit/Open Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2238 O2 Sensor Positive Current Control Circuit Low Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2239 O2 Sensor Positive Current Control Circuit High Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2240 O2 Sensor Positive Current Control Circuit/Open Bank 2 Sensor 1

P2241 O2 Sensor Positive Current Control Circuit Low Bank 2 Sensor 1


P2242 O2 Sensor Positive Current Control Circuit High Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2243 O2 Sensor Reference Voltage Circuit/Open Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2244 O2 Sensor Reference Voltage Performance Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2245 O2 Sensor Reference Voltage Circuit Low Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2246 O2 Sensor Reference Voltage Circuit High Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2247 O2 Sensor Reference Voltage Circuit/Open Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2248 O2 Sensor Reference Voltage Performance Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2249 O2 Sensor Reference Voltage Circuit Low Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2250 O2 Sensor Reference Voltage Circuit High Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2251 O2 Sensor Negative Current Control Circuit/Open Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2252 O2 Sensor Negative Current Control Circuit Low Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2253 O2 Sensor Negative Current Control Circuit High Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2254 O2 Sensor Negative Current Control Circuit/Open Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2255 O2 Sensor Negative Current Control Circuit Low Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2256 O2 Sensor Negative Current Control Circuit High Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2257 Secondary Air Injection System Control "A" Circuit Low
P2258 Secondary Air Injection System Control "A" Circuit High
P2259 Secondary Air Injection System Control "B" Circuit Low
P2260 Secondary Air Injection System Control "B" Circuit High
P2261 Turbo/Super Charger Bypass Valve - Mechanical
P2262 Turbo Boost Pressure Not Detected - Mechanical
P2263 Turbo/Super Charger Boost System Performance
P2264 Water in Fuel Sensor Circuit
P2265 Water in Fuel Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P2266 Water in Fuel Sensor Circuit Low
P2267 Water in Fuel Sensor Circuit High
P2268 Water in Fuel Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P2269 Water in Fuel Condition
P2270 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Lean Bank 1 Sensor 2
P2271 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Rich Bank 1 Sensor 2
P2272 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Lean Bank 2 Sensor 2
P2273 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Rich Bank 2 Sensor 2
P2274 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Lean Bank 1 Sensor 3
P2275 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Rich Bank 1 Sensor 3
P2276 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Lean Bank 2 Sensor 3
P2277 O2 Sensor Signal Stuck Rich Bank 2 Sensor 3
P2278 O2 Sensor Signals Swapped Bank 1 Sensor 3 / Bank 2 Sensor 3
P2279 Intake Air System Leak
P2280 Air Flow Restriction / Air Leak Between Air Filter and MAF
P2281 Air Leak Between MAF and Throttle Body
P2282 Air Leak Between Throttle Body and Intake Valves
P2283 Injector Control Pressure Sensor Circuit
P2284 Injector Control Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P2285 Injector Control Pressure Sensor Circuit Low
P2286 Injector Control Pressure Sensor Circuit High
P2287 Injector Control Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P2288 Injector Control Pressure Too High
P2289 Injector Control Pressure Too High Engine Off
P2290 Injector Control Pressure Too Low
P2291 Injector Control Pressure Too Low Engine Cranking

P2292 Injector Control Pressure Erratic


P2293 Fuel Pressure Regulator 2 Performance
P2294 Fuel Pressure Regulator 2 Control Circuit
P2295 Fuel Pressure Regulator 2 Control Circuit Low
P2296 Fuel Pressure Regulator 2 Control Circuit High
P2297 O2 Sensor Out of Range During Deceleration Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2298 O2 Sensor Out of Range During Deceleration Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2299 Brake Pedal Position / Accelerator Pedal Position Incompatible
P2300 Ignition Coil "A" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2301 Ignition Coil "A" Primary Control Circuit High
P2302 Ignition Coil "A" Secondary Circuit
P2303 Ignition Coil "B" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2304 Ignition Coil "B" Primary Control Circuit High
P2305 Ignition Coil "B" Secondary Circuit
P2306 Ignition Coil "C" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2307 Ignition Coil "C" Primary Control Circuit High
P2308 Ignition Coil "C" Secondary Circuit
P2309 Ignition Coil "D" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2310 Ignition Coil "D" Primary Control Circuit High
P2311 Ignition Coil "D" Secondary Circuit
P2312 Ignition Coil "E" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2313 Ignition Coil "E" Primary Control Circuit High
P2314 Ignition Coil "E" Secondary Circuit
P2315 Ignition Coil "F" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2316 Ignition Coil "F" Primary Control Circuit High
P2317 Ignition Coil "F" Secondary Circuit
P2318 Ignition Coil "G" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2319 Ignition Coil "G" Primary Control Circuit High
P2320 Ignition Coil "G" Secondary Circuit
P2321 Ignition Coil "H" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2322 Ignition Coil "H" Primary Control Circuit High
P2323 Ignition Coil "H" Secondary Circuit
P2324 Ignition Coil "I" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2325 Ignition Coil "I" Primary Control Circuit High
P2326 Ignition Coil "I" Secondary Circuit
P2327 Ignition Coil "J" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2328 Ignition Coil "J" Primary Control Circuit High
P2329 Ignition Coil "J" Secondary Circuit
P2330 Ignition Coil "K" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2331 Ignition Coil "K" Primary Control Circuit High
P2332 Ignition Coil "K" Secondary Circuit
P2333 Ignition Coil "L" Primary Control Circuit Low
P2334 Ignition Coil "L" Primary Control Circuit High
P2335 Ignition Coil "L" Secondary Circuit
P2336 Cylinder #1 Above Knock Threshold
P2337 Cylinder #2 Above Knock Threshold
P2338 Cylinder #3 Above Knock Threshold
P2339 Cylinder #4 Above Knock Threshold
P2340 Cylinder #5 Above Knock Threshold
P2341 Cylinder #6 Above Knock Threshold
P2342 Cylinder #7 Above Knock Threshold

P2343 Cylinder #8 Above Knock Threshold


P2344 Cylinder #9 Above Knock Threshold
P2345 Cylinder #10 Above Knock Threshold
P2346 Cylinder #11 Above Knock Threshold
P2347 Cylinder #12 Above Knock Threshold
P2400 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detection Pump Control Circuit/Open
P2401 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detection Pump Control Circuit Low
P2402 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detection Pump Control Circuit High
P2403 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detection Pump Sense Circuit/Open
P2404 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detection Pump Sense Circuit
Range/Performance
P2405 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detection Pump Sense Circuit Low
P2406 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detection Pump Sense Circuit High
P2407 Evaporative Emission System Leak Detection Pump Sense Circuit
Intermittent/Erratic
P2408 Fuel Cap Sensor/Switch Circuit
P2409 Fuel Cap Sensor/Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P2410 Fuel Cap Sensor/Switch Circuit Low
P2411 Fuel Cap Sensor/Switch Circuit High
P2412 Fuel Cap Sensor/Switch Circuit Intermittent/Erratic
P2413 Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Performance
P2414 O2 Sensor Exhaust Sample Error Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2415 O2 Sensor Exhaust Sample Error Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2416 O2 Sensor Signals Swapped Bank 1 Sensor 2 / Bank 1 Sensor 3
P2417 O2 Sensor Signals Swapped Bank 2 Sensor 2 / Bank 2 Sensor 3
P2418 Evaporative Emission System Switching Valve Control Circuit /Open
P2419 Evaporative Emission System Switching Valve Control Circuit Low
P2420 Evaporative Emission System Switching Valve Control Circuit High
P2421 Evaporative Emission System Vent Valve Stuck Open
P2422 Evaporative Emission System Vent Valve Stuck Closed
P2423 HC Adsorption Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 1
P2424 HC Adsorption Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold Bank 2
P2425 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooling Valve Control Circuit/Open
P2426 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooling Valve Control Circuit Low
P2427 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooling Valve Control Circuit High
P2428 Exhaust Gas Temperature Too High Bank 1
P2429 Exhaust Gas Temperature Too High Bank 2
P2430 Secondary Air Injection System Air Flow/Pressure Sensor Circuit Bank 1
P2431 Secondary Air Injection System Air Flow/Pressure Sensor Circuit
Range/Performance Bank 1
P2432 Secondary Air Injection System Air Flow/Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Bank 1
P2433 Secondary Air Injection System Air Flow/Pressure Sensor Circuit High Bank 1
P2434 Secondary Air Injection System Air Flow/Pressure Sensor Circuit
Intermittent/Erratic Bank 1
P2435 Secondary Air Injection System Air Flow/Pressure Sensor Circuit Bank 2
P2436 Secondary Air Injection System Air Flow/Pressure Sensor Circuit
Range/Performance Bank 2
P2437 Secondary Air Injection System Air Flow/Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Bank 2
P2438 Secondary Air Injection System Air Flow/Pressure Sensor Circuit High Bank 2
P2439 Secondary Air Injection System Air Flow/Pressure Sensor Circuit
Intermittent/Erratic Bank 2

P2440 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve Stuck Open Bank 1
P2441 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve Stuck Closed Bank 1
P2442 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve Stuck Open Bank 2
P2443 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve Stuck Closed Bank 2
P2444 Secondary Air Injection System Pump Stuck On Bank 1
P2445 Secondary Air Injection System Pump Stuck Off Bank 1
P2446 Secondary Air Injection System Pump Stuck On Bank 2
P2447 Secondary Air Injection System Pump Stuck Off Bank 2
P2500 Generator Lamp/L-Terminal Circuit Low
P2501 Generator Lamp/L-Terminal Circuit High
P2502 Charging System Voltage
P2503 Charging System Voltage Low
P2504 Charging System Voltage High
P2505 ECM/PCM Power Input Signal
P2506 ECM/PCM Power Input Signal Range/Performance
P2507 ECM/PCM Power Input Signal Low
P2508 ECM/PCM Power Input Signal High
P2509 ECM/PCM Power Input Signal Intermittent
P2510 ECM/PCM Power Relay Sense Circuit Range/Performance
P2511 ECM/PCM Power Relay Sense Circuit Intermittent
P2512 Event Data Recorder Request Circuit/ Open
P2513 Event Data Recorder Request Circuit Low
P2514 Event Data Recorder Request Circuit High
P2515 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor "B" Circuit
P2516 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P2517 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor "B" Circuit Low
P2518 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor "B" Circuit High
P2519 A/C Request "A" Circuit
P2520 A/C Request "A" Circuit Low
P2521 A/C Request "A" Circuit High
P2522 A/C Request "B" Circuit
P2523 A/C Request "B" Circuit Low
P2524 A/C Request "B" Circuit High
P2525 Vacuum Reservoir Pressure Sensor Circuit
P2526 Vacuum Reservoir Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P2527 Vacuum Reservoir Pressure Sensor Circuit Low
P2528 Vacuum Reservoir Pressure Sensor Circuit High
P2529 Vacuum Reservoir Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P2530 Ignition Switch Run Position Circuit
P2531 Ignition Switch Run Position Circuit Low
P2532 Ignition Switch Run Position Circuit High
P2533 Ignition Switch Run/Start Position Circuit
P2534 Ignition Switch Run/Start Position Circuit Low
P2535 Ignition Switch Run/Start Position Circuit High
P2536 Ignition Switch Accessory Position Circuit
P2537 Ignition Switch Accessory Position Circuit Low
P2538 Ignition Switch Accessory Position Circuit High
P2539 Low Pressure Fuel System Sensor Circuit
P2540 Low Pressure Fuel System Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P2541 Low Pressure Fuel System Sensor Circuit Low
P2542 Low Pressure Fuel System Sensor Circuit High

P2543 Low Pressure Fuel System Sensor Circuit Intermittent


P2544 Torque Management Request Input Signal "A"
P2545 Torque Management Request Input Signal "A" Range/Performance
P2546 Torque Management Request Input Signal "A" Low
P2547 Torque Management Request Input Signal "A" High
P2548 Torque Management Request Input Signal "B"
P2549 Torque Management Request Input Signal "B" Range/Performance
P2550 Torque Management Request Input Signal "B" Low
P2551 Torque Management Request Input Signal "B" High
P2552 Throttle/Fuel Inhibit Circuit
P2553 Throttle/Fuel Inhibit Circuit Range/Performance
P2554 Throttle/Fuel Inhibit Circuit Low
P2555 Throttle/Fuel Inhibit Circuit High
P2556 Engine Coolant Level Sensor/Switch Circuit
P2557 Engine Coolant Level Sensor/Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P2558 Engine Coolant Level Sensor/Switch Circuit Low
P2559 Engine Coolant Level Sensor/Switch Circuit High
P2560 Engine Coolant Level Low
P2561 A/C Control Module Requested MIL Illumination
P2562 Turbocharger Boost Control Position Sensor Circuit
P2563 Turbocharger Boost Control Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P2564 Turbocharger Boost Control Position Sensor Circuit Low
P2565 Turbocharger Boost Control Position Sensor Circuit High
P2566 Turbocharger Boost Control Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P2567 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Temperature Sensor Circuit
P2568 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Temperature Sensor Circuit
Range/Performance
P2569 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P2570 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P2571 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent/Erratic
P2572 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Deterioration Sensor Circuit
P2573 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Deterioration Sensor Circuit
Range/Performance
P2574 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Deterioration Sensor Circuit Low
P2575 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Deterioration Sensor Circuit High
P2576 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Deterioration Sensor Circuit Intermittent/Erratic
P2577 Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold
P2600 Coolant Pump Control Circuit/Open
P2601 Coolant Pump Control Circuit Range/Performance
P2602 Coolant Pump Control Circuit Low
P2603 Coolant Pump Control Circuit High
P2604 Intake Air Heater "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P2605 Intake Air Heater "A" Circuit/Open
P2606 Intake Air Heater "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P2607 Intake Air Heater "B" Circuit Low
P2608 Intake Air Heater "B" Circuit High
P2609 Intake Air Heater System Performance
P2610 ECM/PCM Internal Engine Off Timer Performance
P2611 A/C Refrigerant Distribution Valve Control Circuit/Open
P2612 A/C Refrigerant Distribution Valve Control Circuit Low
P2613 A/C Refrigerant Distribution Valve Control Circuit High

P2614 Camshaft Position Signal Output Circuit/Open


P2615 Camshaft Position Signal Output Circuit Low
P2616 Camshaft Position Signal Output Circuit High
P2617 Crankshaft Position Signal Output Circuit/Open
P2618 Crankshaft Position Signal Output Circuit Low
P2619 Crankshaft Position Signal Output Circuit High
P2620 Throttle Position Output Circuit/Open
P2621 Throttle Position Output Circuit Low
P2622 Throttle Position Output Circuit High
P2623 Injector Control Pressure Regulator Circuit/Open
P2624 Injector Control Pressure Regulator Circuit Low
P2625 Injector Control Pressure Regulator Circuit High
P2626 O2 Sensor Pumping Current Trim Circuit/Open Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2627 O2 Sensor Pumping Current Trim Circuit Low Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2628 O2 Sensor Pumping Current Trim Circuit High Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2629 O2 Sensor Pumping Current Trim Circuit/Open Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2630 O2 Sensor Pumping Current Trim Circuit Low Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2631 O2 Sensor Pumping Current Trim Circuit High Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2632 Fuel Pump "B" Control Circuit /Open
P2633 Fuel Pump "B" Control Circuit Low
P2634 Fuel Pump "B" Control Circuit High
P2635 Fuel Pump "A" Low Flow / Performance
P2636 Fuel Pump "B" Low Flow / Performance
P2637 Torque Management Feedback Signal "A"
P2638 Torque Management Feedback Signal "A" Range/Performance
P2639 Torque Management Feedback Signal "A" Low
P2640 Torque Management Feedback Signal "A" High
P2641 Torque Management Feedback Signal "B"
P2642 Torque Management Feedback Signal "B" Range/Performance
P2643 Torque Management Feedback Signal "B" Low
P2644 Torque Management Feedback Signal "B" High
P2645 "A" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit/Open Bank 1
P2646 "A" Rocker Arm Actuator System Performance or Stuck Off Bank 1
P2647 "A" Rocker Arm Actuator System Stuck On Bank 1
P2648 "A" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit Low Bank 1
P2649 "A" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit High Bank 1
P2650 "B" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit/Open Bank 1
P2651 "B" Rocker Arm Actuator System Performance or Stuck Off Bank 1
P2652 "B" Rocker Arm Actuator System Stuck On Bank 1
P2653 "B" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit Low Bank 1
P2654 "B" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit High Bank 1
P2655 "A" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit/Open Bank 2
P2656 "A" Rocker Arm Actuator System Performance or Stuck Off Bank 2
P2657 "A" Rocker Arm Actuator System Stuck On Bank 2
P2658 "A" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit Low Bank 2
P2659 "A" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit High Bank 2
P2660 "B" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit/Open Bank 2
P2661 "B" Rocker Arm Actuator System Performance or Stuck Off Bank 2
P2662 "B" Rocker Arm Actuator System Stuck On Bank 2
P2663 "B" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit Low Bank 2
P2664 "B" Rocker Arm Actuator Control Circuit High Bank 2

P2665 Fuel Shutoff Valve "B" Control Circuit/Open


P2666 Fuel Shutoff Valve "B" Control Circuit Low
P2667 Fuel Shutoff Valve "B" Control Circuit High
P2668 Fuel Mode Indicator Lamp Control Circuit
P2669 Actuator Supply Voltage "B" Circuit /Open
P2670 Actuator Supply Voltage "B" Circuit Low
P2671 Actuator Supply Voltage "B" Circuit High
P2700 Transmission Friction Element "A" Apply Time Range/Performance
P2701 Transmission Friction Element "B" Apply Time Range/Performance
P2702 Transmission Friction Element "C" Apply Time Range/Performance
P2703 Transmission Friction Element "D" Apply Time Range/Performance
P2704 Transmission Friction Element "E" Apply Time Range/Performance
P2705 Transmission Friction Element "F" Apply Time Range/Performance
P2706 Shift Solenoid "F"
P2707 Shift Solenoid "F" Performance or Stuck Off
P2708 Shift Solenoid "F" Stuck On
P2709 Shift Solenoid "F" Electrical
P2710 Shift Solenoid "F" Intermittent
P2711 Unexpected Mechanical Gear Disengagement
P2712 Hydraulic Power Unit Leakage
P2713 Pressure Control Solenoid "D"
P2714 Pressure Control Solenoid "D" Performance or Stuck Off
P2715 Pressure Control Solenoid "D" Stuck On
P2716 Pressure Control Solenoid "D" Electrical
P2717 Pressure Control Solenoid "D" Intermittent
P2718 Pressure Control Solenoid "D" Control Circuit / Open
P2719 Pressure Control Solenoid "D" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P2720 Pressure Control Solenoid "D" Control Circuit Low
P2721 Pressure Control Solenoid "D" Control Circuit High
P2722 Pressure Control Solenoid "E"
P2723 Pressure Control Solenoid "E" Performance or Stuck Off
P2724 Pressure Control Solenoid "E" Stuck On
P2725 Pressure Control Solenoid "E" Electrical
P2726 Pressure Control Solenoid "E" Intermittent
P2727 Pressure Control Solenoid "E" Control Circuit / Open
P2728 Pressure Control Solenoid "E" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P2729 Pressure Control Solenoid "E" Control Circuit Low
P2730 Pressure Control Solenoid "E" Control Circuit High
P2731 Pressure Control Solenoid "F"
P2732 Pressure Control Solenoid "F" Performance or Stuck Off
P2733 Pressure Control Solenoid "F" Stuck On
P2734 Pressure Control Solenoid "F" Electrical
P2735 Pressure Control Solenoid "F" Intermittent
P2736 Pressure Control Solenoid "F" Control Circuit/Open
P2737 Pressure Control Solenoid "F" Control Circuit Range/Performance
P2738 Pressure Control Solenoid "F" Control Circuit Low
P2739 Pressure Control Solenoid "F" Control Circuit High
P2740 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor "B" Circuit"
P2741 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor "B" Circuit Range Performance
P2742 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor "B" Circuit Low
P2743 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor "B" Circuit High

P2744 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent


P2745 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "B" Circuit
P2746 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P2747 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "B" Circuit No Signal
P2748 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent
P2749 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "C" Circuit
P2750 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "C" Circuit Range/Performance
P2751 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "C" Circuit No Signal
P2752 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor "C" Circuit Intermittent
P2753 Transmission Fluid Cooler Control Circuit/Open
P2754 Transmission Fluid Cooler Control Circuit Low
P2755 Transmission Fluid Cooler Control Circuit High
P2756 Torque Converter Clutch Pressure Control Solenoid
P2757 Torque Converter Clutch Pressure Control Solenoid Control Circuit Performance
or Stuck Off
P2758 Torque Converter Clutch Pressure Control Solenoid Control Circuit Stuck On
P2759 Torque Converter Clutch Pressure Control Solenoid Control Circuit Electrical
P2760 Torque Converter Clutch Pressure Control Solenoid Control Circuit Intermittent
P2761 Torque Converter Clutch Pressure Control Solenoid Control Circuit/Open
P2762 Torque Converter Clutch Pressure Control Solenoid Control Circuit
Range/Performance
P2763 Torque Converter Clutch Pressure Control Solenoid Control Circuit High
P2764 Torque Converter Clutch Pressure Control Solenoid Control Circuit Low
P2765 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor "B" Circuit
P2766 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P2767 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor "B" Circuit No Signal
P2768 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent
P2769 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Low
P2770 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit High
P2771 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Low Switch Circuit
P2772 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Low Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P2773 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Low Switch Circuit Low
P2774 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Low Switch Circuit High
P2775 Upshift Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P2776 Upshift Switch Circuit Low
P2777 Upshift Switch Circuit High
P2778 Upshift Switch Circuit Intermittent/Erratic
P2779 Downshift Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P2780 Downshift Switch Circuit Low
P2781 Downshift Switch Circuit High
P2782 Downshift Switch Circuit Intermittent/Erratic
P2783 Torque Converter Temperature Too High
P2784 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor "A"/"B" Correlation
P2785 Clutch Actuator Temperature Too High
P2786 Gear Shift Actuator Temperature Too High
P2787 Clutch Temperature Too High
P2788 Auto Shift Manual Adaptive Learning at Limit
P2789 Clutch Adaptive Learning at Limit
P2790 Gate Select Direction Circuit
P2791 Gate Select Direction Circuit Low
P2792 Gate Select Direction Circuit High

P2793 Gear Shift Direction Circuit


P2794 Gear Shift Direction Circuit Low
P2795 Gear Shift Direction Circuit High
P2A00 O2 Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1 Sensor 1
P2A01 O2 Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1 Sensor 2
P2A02 O2 Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 1 Sensor 3
P2A03 O2 Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2 Sensor 1
P2A04 O2 Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2 Sensor 2
P2A05 O2 Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Bank 2 Sensor 3
P3400 Cylinder Deactivation System Bank 1
P3401 Cylinder 1 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3402 Cylinder 1 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3403 Cylinder 1 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3404 Cylinder 1 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3405 Cylinder 1 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3406 Cylinder 1 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3407 Cylinder 1 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3408 Cylinder 1 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3409 Cylinder 2 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3410 Cylinder 2 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3411 Cylinder 2 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3412 Cylinder 2 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3413 Cylinder 2 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3414 Cylinder 2 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3415 Cylinder 2 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3416 Cylinder 2 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3417 Cylinder 3 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3418 Cylinder 3 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3419 Cylinder 3 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3420 Cylinder 3 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3421 Cylinder 3 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3422 Cylinder 3 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3423 Cylinder 3 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3424 Cylinder 3 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3425 Cylinder 4 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3426 Cylinder 4 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3427 Cylinder 4 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3428 Cylinder 4 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3429 Cylinder 4 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3430 Cylinder 4 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3431 Cylinder 4 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3432 Cylinder 4 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3433 Cylinder 5 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3434 Cylinder 5 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3435 Cylinder 5 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3436 Cylinder 5 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3437 Cylinder 5 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3438 Cylinder 5 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3439 Cylinder 5 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3440 Cylinder 5 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3441 Cylinder 6 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open

P3442 Cylinder 6 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance


P3443 Cylinder 6 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3444 Cylinder 6 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3445 Cylinder 6 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3446 Cylinder 6 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3447 Cylinder 6 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3448 Cylinder 6 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3449 Cylinder 7 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3450 Cylinder 7 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3451 Cylinder 7 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3452 Cylinder 7 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3453 Cylinder 7 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3454 Cylinder 7 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3455 Cylinder 7 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3456 Cylinder 7 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3457 Cylinder 8 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3458 Cylinder 8 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3459 Cylinder 8 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3460 Cylinder 8 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3461 Cylinder 8 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3462 Cylinder 8 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3463 Cylinder 8 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3464 Cylinder 8 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3465 Cylinder 9 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3466 Cylinder 9 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3467 Cylinder 9 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3468 Cylinder 9 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3469 Cylinder 9 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3470 Cylinder 9 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3471 Cylinder 9 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3472 Cylinder 9 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3473 Cylinder 10 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3474 Cylinder 10 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3475 Cylinder 10 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3476 Cylinder 10 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3477 Cylinder 10 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3478 Cylinder 10 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3479 Cylinder 10 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3480 Cylinder 10 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3481 Cylinder 11 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3482 Cylinder 11 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3483 Cylinder 11 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3484 Cylinder 11 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High
P3485 Cylinder 11 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3486 Cylinder 11 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3487 Cylinder 11 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3488 Cylinder 11 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3489 Cylinder 12 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit/Open
P3490 Cylinder 12 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Performance
P3491 Cylinder 12 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit Low
P3492 Cylinder 12 Deactivation/Intake Valve Control Circuit High

P3493 Cylinder 12 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit/Open


P3494 Cylinder 12 Exhaust Valve Control Performance
P3495 Cylinder 12 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit Low
P3496 Cylinder 12 Exhaust Valve Control Circuit High
P3497 Cylinder Deactivation System Bank 2
U0001 High Speed CAN Communication Bus
U0002 High Speed CAN Communication Bus Performance
U0003 High Speed CAN Communication Bus (+) Open
U0004 High Speed CAN Communication Bus (+) Low
U0005 High Speed CAN Communication Bus (+) High
U0006 High Speed CAN Communication Bus () Open
U0007 High Speed CAN Communication Bus () Low
U0008 High Speed CAN Communication Bus () High
U0009 High Speed CAN Communication Bus () shorted to Bus (+)
U0010 Medium Speed CAN Communication Bus
U0011 Medium Speed CAN Communication Bus Performance
U0012 Medium Speed CAN Communication Bus (+) Open
U0013 Medium Speed CAN Communication Bus (+) Low
U0014 Medium Speed CAN Communication Bus (+) High
U0015 Medium Speed CAN Communication Bus () Open
U0016 Medium Speed CAN Communication Bus () Low
U0017 Medium Speed CAN Communication Bus () High
U0018 Medium Speed CAN Communication Bus () shorted to Bus (+)
U0019 Low Speed CAN Communication Bus
U0020 Low Speed CAN Communication Bus Performance
U0021 Low Speed CAN Communication Bus (+) Open
U0022 Low Speed CAN Communication Bus (+) Low
U0023 Low Speed CAN Communication Bus (+) High
U0024 Low Speed CAN Communication Bus () Open
U0025 Low Speed CAN Communication Bus () Low
U0026 Low Speed CAN Communication Bus () High
U0027 Low Speed CAN Communication Bus () shorted to Bus (+)
U0028 Vehicle Communication Bus A
U0029 Vehicle Communication Bus A Performance
U0030 Vehicle Communication Bus A (+) Open
U0031 Vehicle Communication Bus A (+) Low
U0032 Vehicle Communication Bus A (+) High
U0033 Vehicle Communication Bus A () Open
U0034 Vehicle Communication Bus A () Low
U0035 Vehicle Communication Bus A () High
U0036 Vehicle Communication Bus A () shorted to Bus A (+)
U0037 Vehicle Communication Bus B
U0038 Vehicle Communication Bus B Performance
U0039 Vehicle Communication Bus B (+) Open
U0040 Vehicle Communication Bus B (+) Low
U0041 Vehicle Communication Bus B (+) High
U0042 Vehicle Communication Bus B () Open
U0043 Vehicle Communication Bus B () Low
U0044 Vehicle Communication Bus B () High
U0045 Vehicle Communication Bus B () shorted to Bus B (+)
U0046 Vehicle Communication Bus C

U0047 Vehicle Communication Bus C Performance


U0048 Vehicle Communication Bus C (+) Open
U0049 Vehicle Communication Bus C (+) Low
U0050 Vehicle Communication Bus C (+) High
U0051 Vehicle Communication Bus C () Open
U0052 Vehicle Communication Bus C () Low
U0053 Vehicle Communication Bus C () High
U0054 Vehicle Communication Bus C () shorted to Bus C (+)
U0055 Vehicle Communication Bus D
U0056 Vehicle Communication Bus D Performance
U0057 Vehicle Communication Bus D (+) Open
U0058 Vehicle Communication Bus D (+) Low
U0059 Vehicle Communication Bus D (+) High
U0060 Vehicle Communication Bus D () Open
U0061 Vehicle Communication Bus D () Low
U0062 Vehicle Communication Bus D () High
U0063 Vehicle Communication Bus D () shorted to Bus D (+)
U0064 Vehicle Communication Bus E
U0065 Vehicle Communication Bus E Performance
U0066 Vehicle Communication Bus E (+) Open
U0067 Vehicle Communication Bus E (+) Low
U0068 Vehicle Communication Bus E (+) High
U0069 Vehicle Communication Bus E () Open
U0070 Vehicle Communication Bus E () Low
U0071 Vehicle Communication Bus E () High
U0072 Vehicle Communication Bus E () shorted to Bus E (+)
U0073 Control Module Communication Bus Off
U0074 Reserved by Document
U0075 Reserved by Document
U0076 Reserved by Document
U0077 Reserved by Document
U0078 Reserved by Document
U0079 Reserved by Document
U0080 Reserved by Document
U0081 Reserved by Document
U0082 Reserved by Document
U0083 Reserved by Document
U0084 Reserved by Document
U0085 Reserved by Document
U0086 Reserved by Document
U0087 Reserved by Document
U0088 Reserved by Document
U0089 Reserved by Document
U0090 Reserved by Document
U0091 Reserved by Document
U0092 Reserved by Document
U0093 Reserved by Document
U0094 Reserved by Document
U0095 Reserved by Document
U0096 Reserved by Document
U0097 Reserved by Document

U0098 Reserved by Document


U0099 Reserved by Document
U0100 Lost Communication ECM/PCM "A"
U0101 Lost Communication TCM
U0102 Lost Communication Transfer Case Control Module
U0103 Lost Communication Gear Shift Module
U0104 Lost Communication Cruise Control Module
U0105 Lost Communication Fuel Injector Control Module
U0106 Lost Communication Glow Plug Control Module
U0107 Lost Communication Throttle Actuator Control Module
U0108 Lost Communication Alternative Fuel Control Module
U0109 Lost Communication Fuel Pump Control Module
U0110 Lost Communication Drive Motor Control Module
U0111 Lost Communication Battery Energy Control Module "A"
U0112 Lost Communication Battery Energy Control Module "B"
U0113 Lost Communication Emissions Critical Control Information
U0114 Lost Communication Four-Wheel Drive Clutch Control Module
U0115 Lost Communication ECM/PCM "B"
U0116 Reserved by Document
U0117 Reserved by Document
U0118 Reserved by Document
U0119 Reserved by Document
U0120 Reserved by Document
U0121 Lost Communication Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Control Module
U0122 Lost Communication Vehicle Dynamics Control Module
U0123 Lost Communication Yaw Rate Sensor Module
U0124 Lost Communication Lateral Acceleration Sensor Module
U0125 Lost Communication Multi-axis Acceleration Sensor Module
U0126 Lost Communication Steering Angle Sensor Module
U0127 Lost Communication Tire Pressure Monitor Module
U0128 Lost Communication Park Brake Control Module
U0129 Lost Communication Brake System Control Module
U0130 Lost Communication Steering Effort Control Module
U0131 Lost Communication Power Steering Control Module
U0132 Lost Communication Ride Level Control Module
U0133 Reserved by Document
U0134 Reserved by Document
U0135 Reserved by Document
U0136 Reserved by Document
U0137 Reserved by Document
U0138 Reserved by Document
U0139 Reserved by Document
U0140 Lost Communication Body Control Module
U0141 Lost Communication Body Control Module "A"
U0142 Lost Communication Body Control Module "B"
U0143 Lost Communication Body Control Module "C"
U0144 Lost Communication Body Control Module "D"
U0145 Lost Communication Body Control Module "E"
U0146 Lost Communication Gateway "A"
U0147 Lost Communication Gateway "B"
U0148 Lost Communication Gateway "C"

U0149 Lost Communication Gateway "D"


U0150 Lost Communication Gateway "E"
U0151 Lost Communication Restraints Control Module
U0152 Lost Communication Side Restraints Control Module Left
U0153 Lost Communication Side Restraints Control Module Right
U0154 Lost Communication Restraints Occupant Sensing Control Module
U0155 Lost Communication Instrument Panel Cluster (IPC) Control Module
U0156 Lost Communication Information Center "A"
U0157 Lost Communication Information Center "B"
U0158 Lost Communication Head Up Display
U0159 Lost Communication Parking Assist Control Module
U0160 Lost Communication Audible Alert Control Module
U0161 Lost Communication Compass Module
U0162 Lost Communication Navigation Display Module
U0163 Lost Communication Navigation Control Module
U0164 Lost Communication HVAC Control Module
U0165 Lost Communication HVAC Control Module Rear
U0166 Lost Communication Auxiliary Heater Control Module
U0167 Lost Communication Vehicle Immobilizer Control Module
U0168 Lost Communication Vehicle Security Control Module
U0169 Lost Communication Sunroof Control Module
U0170 Lost Communication "Restraints System Sensor A"
U0171 Lost Communication "Restraints System Sensor B"
U0172 Lost Communication "Restraints System Sensor C"
U0173 Lost Communication "Restraints System Sensor D"
U0174 Lost Communication "Restraints System Sensor E"
U0175 Lost Communication "Restraints System Sensor F"
U0176 Lost Communication "Restraints System Sensor G"
U0177 Lost Communication "Restraints System Sensor H"
U0178 Lost Communication "Restraints System Sensor I"
U0179 Lost Communication "Restraints System Sensor J"
U0180 Lost Communication Automatic Lighting Control Module
U0181 Lost Communication Headlamp Leveling Control Module
U0182 Lost Communication Lighting Control Module Front
U0183 Lost Communication Lighting Control Module Rear
U0184 Lost Communication Radio
U0185 Lost Communication Antenna Control Module
U0186 Lost Communication Audio Amplifier
U0187 Lost Communication Digital Disc Player/Changer Module "A"
U0188 Lost Communication Digital Disc Player/Changer Module "B"
U0189 Lost Communication Digital Disc Player/Changer Module "C"
U0190 Lost Communication Digital Disc Player/Changer Module "D"
U0191 Lost Communication Television
U0192 Lost Communication Personal Computer
U0193 Lost Communication "Digital Audio Control Module A"
U0194 Lost Communication "Digital Audio Control Module B"
U0195 Lost Communication Subscription Entertainment Receiver Module
U0196 Lost Communication Rear Seat Entertainment Control Module
U0197 Lost Communication Telephone Control Module
U0198 Lost Communication Telematic Control Module
U0199 Lost Communication "Door Control Module A"

U0200 Lost Communication "Door Control Module B"


U0201 Lost Communication "Door Control Module C"
U0202 Lost Communication "Door Control Module D"
U0203 Lost Communication "Door Control Module E"
U0204 Lost Communication "Door Control Module F"
U0205 Lost Communication "Door Control Module G"
U0206 Lost Communication Folding Top Control Module
U0207 Lost Communication Moveable Roof Control Module
U0208 Lost Communication "Seat Control Module A"
U0209 Lost Communication "Seat Control Module B"
U0210 Lost Communication "Seat Control Module C"
U0211 Lost Communication "Seat Control Module D"
U0212 Lost Communication Steering Column Control Module
U0213 Lost Communication Mirror Control Module
U0214 Lost Communication Remote Function Actuation
U0215 Lost Communication "Door Switch A"
U0216 Lost Communication "Door Switch B"
U0217 Lost Communication "Door Switch C"
U0218 Lost Communication "Door Switch D"
U0219 Lost Communication "Door Switch E"
U0220 Lost Communication "Door Switch F"
U0221 Lost Communication "Door Switch G"
U0222 Lost Communication "Door Window Motor A"
U0223 Lost Communication "Door Window Motor B"
U0224 Lost Communication "Door Window Motor C"
U0225 Lost Communication "Door Window Motor D"
U0226 Lost Communication "Door Window Motor E"
U0227 Lost Communication "Door Window Motor F"
U0228 Lost Communication "Door Window Motor G"
U0229 Lost Communication Heated Steering Wheel Module
U0230 Lost Communication Rear Gate Module
U0231 Lost Communication Rain Sensing Module
U0232 Lost Communication Side Obstacle Detection Control Module Left
U0233 Lost Communication Side Obstacle Detection Control Module Right
U0234 Lost Communication Convenience Recall Module
U0235 Lost Communication Cruise Control Front Distance Range Sensor
U0300 Internal Control Module Software Incompatibility
U0301 Software Incompatibility ECM/PCM
U0302 Software Incompatibility Transmission Control Module
U0303 Software Incompatibility Transfer Case Control Module
U0304 Software Incompatibility Gear Shift Control Module
U0305 Software Incompatibility Cruise Control Module
U0306 Software Incompatibility Fuel Injector Control Module
U0307 Software Incompatibility Glow Plug Control Module
U0308 Software Incompatibility Throttle Actuator Control Module
U0309 Software Incompatibility Alternative Fuel Control Module
U0310 Software Incompatibility Fuel Pump Control Module
U0311 Software Incompatibility Drive Motor Control Module
U0312 Software Incompatibility Battery Energy Control Module A
U0313 Software Incompatibility Battery Energy Control Module B
U0314 Software Incompatibility Four-Wheel Drive Clutch Control Module

U0315 Software Incompatibility Anti-Lock Brake System Control Module


U0316 Software Incompatibility Vehicle Dynamics Control Module
U0317 Software Incompatibility Park Brake Control Module
U0318 Software Incompatibility Brake System Control Module
U0319 Software Incompatibility Steering Effort Control Module
U0320 Software Incompatibility Power Steering Control Module
U0321 Software Incompatibility Ride Level Control Module
U0322 Software Incompatibility Body Control Module
U0323 Software Incompatibility Instrument Panel Control Module
U0324 Software Incompatibility HVAC Control Module
U0325 Software Incompatibility Auxiliary Heater Control Module
U0326 Software Incompatibility Vehicle Immobilizer Control Module
U0327 Software Incompatibility Vehicle Security Control Module
U0328 Software Incompatibility Steering Angle Sensor Module
U0329 Software Incompatibility Steering Column Control Module
U0330 Software Incompatibility Tire Pressure Monitor Module
U0331 Software Incompatibility Body Control Module "A"
U0400 Invalid Data Received
U0401 Invalid Data Received From ECM/PCM
U0402 Invalid Data Received From Transmission Control Module
U0403 Invalid Data Received From Transfer Case Control Module
U0404 Invalid Data Received From Gear Shift Control Module
U0405 Invalid Data Received From Cruise Control Module
U0406 Invalid Data Received From Fuel Injector Control Module
U0407 Invalid Data Received From Glow Plug Control Module
U0408 Invalid Data Received From Throttle Actuator Control Module
U0409 Invalid Data Received From Alternative Fuel Control Module
U0410 Invalid Data Received From Fuel Pump Control Module
U0411 Invalid Data Received From Drive Motor Control Module
U0412 Invalid Data Received From Battery Energy Control Module A
U0413 Invalid Data Received From Battery Energy Control Module B
U0414 Invalid Data Received From Four-Wheel Drive Clutch Control Module
U0415 Invalid Data Received From Anti-Lock Brake System Control Module
U0416 Invalid Data Received From Vehicle Dynamics Control Module
U0417 Invalid Data Received From Park Brake Control Module
U0418 Invalid Data Received From Brake System Control Module
U0419 Invalid Data Received From Steering Effort Control Module
U0420 Invalid Data Received From Power Steering Control Module
U0421 Invalid Data Received From Ride Level Control Module
U0422 Invalid Data Received From Body Control Module
U0423 Invalid Data Received From Instrument Panel Control Module
U0424 Invalid Data Received From HVAC Control Module
U0425 Invalid Data Received From Auxiliary Heater Control Module
U0426 Invalid Data Received From Vehicle Immobilizer Control Module
U0427 Invalid Data Received From Vehicle Security Control Module
U0428 Invalid Data Received From Steering Angle Sensor Module
U0429 Invalid Data Received From Steering Column Control Module
U0430 Invalid Data Received From Tire Pressure Monitor Module
U0431 Invalid Data Received From Body Control Module "A"

FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel System Service Precautions

Safety is the most important factor when performing not only fuel system
maintenance, but any type of maintenance. Failure to conduct maintenance and
repairs in a safe manner may result in serious personal injury or death.
Maintenance and testing of the vehicle's fuel system components can be
accomplished safely and effectively by adhering to the following rules and
guidelines.
To avoid the possibility of fire and personal injury, always disconnect the negative
battery cable unless the repair or test procedure requires that battery voltage be
applied.
Always relieve the fuel system pressure prior to disconnecting any fuel system
component (injector, fuel rail, pressure regulator, etc.), fitting or fuel line
connection. Exercise extreme caution whenever relieving fuel system pressure,
to avoid exposing skin, face and eyes to fuel spray. Please be advised that fuel
under pressure may penetrate the skin or any part of the body that it contacts.
Always place a shop towel or cloth around the fitting or connection prior to
loosening to absorb any excess fuel due to spillage. Ensure that all fuel spillage
(should it occur) is quickly removed from engine surfaces. Ensure that all fuel
soaked cloths or towels are deposited into a suitable waste container.
Always keep a dry chemical (Class B) fire extinguisher near the work area.
Do not allow fuel spray or fuel vapors to come into contact with a spark or open
flame.
Always use a backup wrench when loosening and tightening fuel line connection
fittings. This will prevent unnecessary stress and torsion to fuel line piping.
Always replace worn fuel fitting O-rings with new. Do not substitute fuel hose or
equivalent, where fuel pipe is installed.
Before servicing the vehicle, make sure to refer to the precautions in the
beginning of this section as well.

Diesel Fuel System


Service Precautions
WARNING
Some diesel fuel lines use extremely high pressures and will remain pressurized for long
periods of time after the engine is shutdown. This high pressure is extremely dangerous
and can release with extreme force which may result in personal injury. These fuel
pressures must be relieved before any servicing of the fuel system begins.
CAUTION
When disconnecting the high fuel pressure line, a large amount of fuel will spill out, so
observe these procedures.

Work carefully to prevent fuel from spilling


Disconnect the fuel tank main tube

Drain the fuel remained inside the fuel tank main tube
Protect the disconnected fuel tank main tube from damage and foreign material
by covering it with a vinyl bag

NOTE: Check that there is no dirt or mud on the fuel lines and around the connector
before disconnecting them and clean the dirt away.
WARNING
Adhere to the following procedures any time the fuel system is being worked on in order
to reduce the risk of fire and personal injury:

Keep a dry chemical (Class B) fire extinguisher near the work area.
Place a "CAUTION FLAMMABLE" sign in the work area.
Work in a well-ventilated area. Do not smoke, and keep sparks and open flames
away.
Wear eye protection.
Use caution when working near the catalytic converter to prevent the possibility
of burns or fire. (The temperatures within the converter can exceed 537 degrees
C (1000 degrees F).
Relieve the fuel system pressure prior to disconnecting fuel system components.
Disconnect the negative battery cable except for tests where battery voltage is
required.
Use a suitable container to store or catch fuel.
Do not replace fuel line with fuel hose.
Plug all disconnected fuel line fittings and hoses.
After making any fuel system repairs ALWAYS inspect for fuel leaks.

WARNING
Wrap a shop towel around the fuel pressure connection to avoid spillage and in order to
reduce the risk of fire and personal injury.

The towel will absorb any fuel leakage that occurs during the connection of the
fuel pressure gage.
Place the towel in an approved container when the connection of the fuel
pressure gage is complete.
Never store the fuel in an open container due to the possibility of a fire or an
explosion

CAUTION
Whenever fuel line fittings are loosened or removed, wrap a shop cloth around the fitting
and have an approved container available to collect any fuel.
CAUTION
Whenever fuel lines are removed, place fuel in an approved container. Container
opening must be a minimum of 300 mm (12 in.) diameter to adequately catch fuel.
WARNING
Do not drain the fuel into an open container. Never store the fuel in an open container
due to the possibility of a fire or an explosion.

Fuel Feed & Fuel Return Line Purge Procedure


6.6L Fuel system prime pump

1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Pump Primer located on top of the fuel filter 30 times or until stiff
3. Attempt to start and run the engine. If the engine does not start, repeat step 1
4. Allow to run for 5 minutes at idle
5. Check for fuel leaks
6. Clear all engine diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs)
7. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Fuel System Priming


NOTE: In order for the DURAMAX diesel engine fuel system to work properly, the fuel
lines must be full of fuel and contain no air. If air gets into the fuel lines, it will be
necessary to prime the fuel system to eliminate the air before operating the vehicle. Air
could have entered to system in one of the following ways:

The vehicle ran out of fuel.


The filter was removed for service or replacement.
The fuel lines were removed or disconnected for servicing.
The fuel filter water drain cock was opened while the engine was running.

If one or more of the above occurred, air has entered the fuel system and you will need
to prime the system prior to operating the vehicle.
NOTE: Prior to priming the engine, ensure that the following is complete:

There is fuel in the fuel tank.


The fuel filter has been installed and properly tightened.
The fuel lines are properly connected.
The fuel filter is cool to the touch.
Any dirt or debris is removed from the fuel filter head and vent valve
6.6L Fuel system vent valve screw

1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Open the vent valve by turning the screw counterclockwise several full turns
6.6L Fuel system prime pump

3. Operate the priming pump until a small amount of fuel seeps from the vent valve
4. Allow the pump to return upwards between pumps
5. When fuel is present, the filter is full of fuel and the system should be primed
6. Close the vent valve
7. Clean any fuel which accumulated on the fuel filter
8. Start the engine and allow it to idle for a few minutes
9. Check the filter for leaks
10. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Water-In-Fuel Draining Procedure


6.6L Fuel systems water draining procedure

1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Attach a small piece of hose to the drain cock onto the water-in-fuel sensor
3. Place an approved fuel-resistant container under the fuel filter
4. Open the drain cock three or four turns or until the water contaminated fuel seeps
from the drain cock

6.6L Fuel system prime pump

5. Operate the priming pump until only diesel fuel is visible. Allow the pump to
return upwards between pushes
6. Tighten the drain cock
7. Remove the container and hose
8. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Fuel Filter
To Remove:
Fuel filter/water separator (6.6L diesel engine)

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Drain the fuel from the fuel filter.


Disconnect the Fuel heater and water in fuel sensor connectors.
Disconnect the fuel hoses from the fuel filter/heater element housing.
Disconnect the electrical and vacuum lines from the following:
The EGR valve vent solenoid
The EGR valve vacuum sensor
The EGR valve solenoid
Remove the fuel filter bracket mounting bolts.
Remove the fuel filter/heater element housing.
Remove the bracket from the housing.
Remove the fuel filter from the element housing.
Inspect the fuel filter and replace as necessary.

To Install:
1. Install the fuel filter to the housing.
2. Install the bracket to the housing.
Tighten the bolts to 15 lb ft (20 Nm).

3. Install the fuel filter bracket bolts.


Tighten the bolts to 15 lb ft (20 Nm).
4. Connect the electrical and vacuum to the following:
The EGR valve vent solenoid
The EGR valve vacuum sensor
The EGR valve solenoid
5. Connect the fuel hoses to the fuel filter/heater element housing.
6. Prime the fuel system.
7. Connect the fuel heater and water-in-fuel sensor connectors:
8. Connect the negative battery cable.
9. Start the engine and inspect for fuel leaks.

Fuel Injector Lines


Removal & Installation
Right Side
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
6.6L Charged cooler outlet duct

2. Remove or disconnect the following:


Air cleaner outlet duct
Charged air cooler outlet duct clamp (A)
NOTE: Do not use a screwdriver or other tool to pry the hose loose. The
hose can be torn or damaged. Loosen the hose by twisting.

Charged air cooler outlet duct

6.6L heater outlet hose

Heater outlet hose bolt (B) from the generator bracket


Fuel filter
Fuel injection control module

3. Position the heater outlet hose out of the way


4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve

6.6L right side fuel injector feed lines removal

Fuel injector feed line retainer bolts and retainers


Fuel injector feed lines

To Install
1. Install or connect the following:
Fuel injector feed lines and tighten the fittings
A. Torque to: 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm)
fuel injector feed line retainers and bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 35 inch lbs. (4 Nm)
EGR valve
Heater outlet hose
Fuel filter

2.
3.

4.
5.

Fuel injection control module


Heater outlet hose bolt to the generator bracket and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
Charged air cooler outlet duct to the intake
Align the mark on the duct with the mark on the turbocharger
Install or connect the following:
Charged air cooler duct clamp for proper clearance and tighten the clamp
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Install the air cleaner outlet duct
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Left Side
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Loosen the outlet duct clamp at the upper intake manifold cover.
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Upper intake manifold cover from the outlet duct
Upper intake manifold cover
4. Drain the cooling system
5. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cable
6.6L Charged cooler outlet duct

6. Loosen the charged air cooler inlet duct to turbocharger clamp (A)

NOTE: Do not use a screwdriver or other tool to pry the hose loose. The hose
can be torn or damaged. Loosen the hose by twisting.
7. Remove or disconnect the following:
Charged air cooler inlet duct from the turbocharger
Battery cable to alternator nut
Battery cable to auxiliary alternator nut if equipped
Battery cable harness clip from the bracket
Battery cable junction block bolt from the power steering pump
8. Move and secure the battery cables out of the way
9. Remove or disconnect the following:
Fuel lines from the chassis lines
Fuel hose bracket nut from the upper valve rocker arm cover

6.6L Engine wiring harness connectors

Engine wiring harness connectors by lifting up on the latch in order to disconnect the
connectors

6.6L Engine wiring harness connectors removal

Engine wiring harness bulk electrical connectors bolts (A)


Engine wiring harness bracket bolts (B)
Water outlet tube
Glow plug relay bracket

Auxiliary alternator, if equipped


PCV hose from the upper valve rocker arm cover

6.6L left side fuel injector feed lines removal

Fuel injector feed line retainer bolts and retainers


Fuel injector feed lines

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Fuel injector feed lines and tighten the fittings
A. Torque to: 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm)
Fuel injector feed line retainers and bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 35 inch lbs. (4 Nm)
PCV hose to the upper valve rocker arm cover
PCV hose clamp
Engine wiring harness bracket bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
Engine wiring harness bulk electrical connector bolts and tighten the bolts
Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
Engine wiring harness bulk electrical connectors
Water outlet tube
Glow plug relay bracket
auxiliary generator, if equipped
fuel lines to the chassis lines
fuel hose bracket nut to the valve rocker arm cover and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm)
Alternator positive cable
Alternator positive cable in the clip on the engine front cover
Alternator positive cable and nut to the alternator and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Battery positive cable junction block bracket and bolt to the power
steering pump and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
charged air cooler inlet duct to the turbocharger
2. Align the mark on the duct with the mark on the turbocharger
3. Install or connect the following:
Air cooler inlet duct clamp for proper clearance and tighten the clamp
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
Negative battery cable
4. Fill the cooling system
5. Install or connect the following:
Upper intake manifold cover
Upper intake manifold cover to the outlet duct and tighten the outlet duct
clamp at the upper intake manifold cover
A. Torque to: 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm)
6. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Injectors
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
CAUTION
Always install new injector O-rings when servicing the fuel injectors. Lubricate the new
injector O-rings with clean engine oil
CAUTION
Be extremely careful while working on an operating engine, make sure you have no
dangling jewelry, extremely loose clothes, power tool cords or other items that might get
caught in a moving part of the engine.
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Lower valve cover (See: Rocker Arm/Valve Cover Lower)
6.6L Fuel pressure lines removal

Fuel injector pressure line from fuel injectors


NOTE: When the fuel injector pressure lines are removed, debris may fall
into the fuel injector inlet fitting. Remove any debris from the inlet fitting of
the fuel injector.

Bolt from the fuel injector bracket

6.6L Fuel injector removal

1. Install J 44639 (B) or other suitable injector tool onto the injector retainer bracket
2. Install a wrench onto J 44639 (B) or other suitable injector tool and pry away from
the fuel injector (A)
NOTE: Confirm which side of the banjo washers have the largest hole.
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Fuel injector(s)
Copper compression washer from the injector hole if the washer was not
removed with the injector
To Install:
6.6L Fuel injector sleeves

1. If the fuel injector sleeve was pulled from the cylinder head when removing the
injector, the injector sleeve installation procedure is as follows:
Set the new injector sleeve gaskets (A) to the injector sleeve (B)
NOTE: An injector sleeve with scoring or other damage must be replaced.

Apply sealant to the lower sealing area of injector sleeve


6.6L Fuel injector sleeve installation

Using a large brass drift (D), drive the injector sleeve (B) into the cylinder
head until fully seated
2. Install or connect the following:
Copper compression washer and assembly grease may be needed to
hold the washer in place
New injector(s)
Bolt on the injector bracket and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 36 ft. lbs. (49 Nm)
Fuel injector pressure line to the fuel injectors
New copper gaskets on the fuel injector lines and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 106 inch lbs. (12 Nm)
Lower valve cover (See: Rocker Arm/Valve Cover Lower)
3. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Fuel Supply Pump


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Loosen the fuel fill cap to relieve the fuel system pressure
6.6L Fuel supply pump electrical connector

3. Raise and safely support the vehicle


4. Remove or disconnect the following:
1. Fuel pump electrical connector (A)
5. Clean the fuel line connections and surrounding areas at the pump before
disconnecting to avoid possible fuel system contamination
6. Remove or disconnect the following:
1. Fuel lines from the pump

6.6L Fuel supply pump removal

Fuel pump out of the bracket


7. Cap the fuel lines
To Install:
1. Remove the caps from the fuel lines
2. Install or connect the following:
New fuel line O-rings
New pump in the pump bracket
Fuel lines to the fuel pump using a backup wrench to prevent the pump
from turning and tighten the fittings
A. Torque to: 22 ft. lbs. (30 Nm)
3. Connect the fuel pump electrical connector
4. Lower the vehicle
5. Install the fuel fill cap
6. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Injection Pump
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cable
Air intake duct between the air cleaner and the turbocharger inlet housing
3. Drain the cooling system
NOTE: Cover the air intake pipe end with duct tape to prevent the infiltration of
dirt.
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Upper fan shroud
Fan (See: Engine Fan and Clutch)
Drive belt
Bolt holding the positive battery cable junction box and bracket and move
out of the way
A/C compressor
NOTE: Remove only the air conditioning/power steering bracket. Do not
discharge the A/C or remove the A/C and power steering lines.

Power steering pump and position the A/C compressor and power
steering pump aside (See: Power Steering Pump)
Oil filler tube
Air conditioning/power steering bracket
Alternator (See: Alternator)
Thermostat housing bracket, wiring and fuel test port, and two nuts
Positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) catch tank from the PCV bracket and
bolt below holding lower line, and move to the side
Alternator bracket
Turbo cooling hose return line clamp and hose
Upper radiator hose at the outlet pipe
Bracket and support the bracket at the valve cover, and swing out of the
way
Bolt holding wiring support bracket at thermostat housing
5. Move the main wiring harness by disconnecting the following:
The fuel pressure regulator connector on the fuel injection pump
The fuel injection control module connectors
6. Flip the wire harness and harness tray towards the back and set aside
7. Remove or disconnect the following:
Heater pipe bolt and temperature sensor wire from the thermostat
housing
Air intake pipe
Water crossover

Hose to the turbo water feed line


All high pressure fuel lines and remove supply pipe and hose at the fuel
injection pump and function block
NOTE: Cap all of the open fuel connections with suitable plastic plugs in
order to prevent infiltration of dirt.

6.6L Injector pump supply and return hose removal

Supply hose from the fuel injection pump


Fuel return hose from fuel injection pump

High pressure line from the injection pump to the junction block
Fuel injection pump from the block using two screwdrivers to work the
pump from the block towards rear of engine keeping the pump straight

6.6L Injector pump removal

Fuel injection pump

8. Preparing The Fuel Pump:


Hold the fuel pump by the drive gear in a vise with copper jaw liners
Loosen the gear nut until the nut is even with the end of the gear shaft
Remove the gear from the tapered shaft of the pump

Separate the pump and adapter by removing the three bolts and spacers
Inspect the O-ring for damage on pump adapter and replace, if necessary
Lubricate the O-ring with clean engine oil
Clean all mating surfaces
Install the adapter on the pump
Using the three bolts and spacers to reassemble the pump and tighten
the bolts
1. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Replace the gear and nut and tighten the nut
1. Torque to: 52 ft. lbs. (70 Nm)

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Fuel injection pump
Fuel injection pump bolts to the front of the engine front cover and tighten
the bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Fuel return line banjo bolt at the junction block and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 11 ft. lbs. (15 Nm)
Fuel supply hose and hose clamp to the fuel injection pump
Fuel return hose and hose clamp to the fuel injection pump
High pressure lines to the injection pump to the junction block and tighten
the fittings
A. Torque to: 32 ft. lbs. (44 Nm)
Fuel pressure sensor connector at the junction block
Hose to turbocharger water feed line
Water crossover
Air intake pipe
Heater pipe using the following procedure:
A. New O-ring lubricated with clean engine oil
B. Heater pipe bracket bolt and tighten the bolt, Torque to: 15 ft. lbs.
(20 Nm)
C. Heater pipe to water crossover bolts and tighten the bolts, Torque
to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Engine wiring harness
Upper radiator hose at outlet pipe using the following procedure:
Upper radiator hose mounting bolts and brackets
Upper radiator hose clamp and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
Turbo cooling hose return and clamp
Left idler pulley and bolt
PCV catch tank, hose clamp and bolt to the right front of the engine
Thermostat housing bracket, wiring, fuel test port and nuts
Alternator
New O-ring to the oil fill tube and lubricate the O-ring with clean engine oil
Oil fill tube
Air conditioning/power steering bracket and bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 34 ft. lbs. (46 Nm)
Power steering pump (See: Power Steering Pump)
Air conditioning compressor

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

Positive battery cable junction box and bolt


Serpentine belt
Fan blade (See: Engine Fan and Clutch)
Upper fan shroud
Refill the coolant
Install or connect the following:
Air intake duct between the air cleaner and the turbocharger inlet housing
Negative battery cables
All of the hold down ties
Start the engine and check for leaks or noises
After the engine warms up, refill coolant reservoir to proper level
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Fuel Pressure Regulator


To Remove:
1. Remove the air intake duct.
2. Disconnect the electrical connectors from the A/C compressor clutch and A/C cut
out switch.
3. Remove the A/C compressor mounting bolts, and then place the compressor with
hoses attached on the right side of the engine compartment.
4. Remove the water outlet pipe.
5. Disconnect both main harness electrical connectors and remove the main
harnesses from the bracket.
6. Disconnect the following:
engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor
barometric pressure (BARO) sensor
glow plug relay connectors
fuel rail temperature sensor
left front and rear fuel injector connectors
fuel pressure regulator connector
oil level sensor harness connector
7. Disconnect the PCV hoses from each valve cover.
8. Disconnect the injection pump inlet hose from the fuel feed distribution (leak-off)
block and move the hoses out of the way.
9. Clean the fuel pressure regulator and high pressure injection pump thoroughly
with solvent and dry with compressed air.
10. Remove the 3 screws using a T25 TORX and remove the fuel pressure
regulator.
11. Perform the following to remove dire from the regulator bore:
Place a clean rag over the bore to absorb spilled fuel
Bump the engine over to flush any dirt out of the regulator bore

Fuel pressure regulator (6.6L diesel engine)

To Install:
1. If the regulator is being re-used, check the O-rings and replace if necessary.
Make sure to lubricate the O-rings with clean engine oil.
2. Install the fuel pressure regulator. It is important to install the regulator straight to
prevent damage to the O-rings.
3. Install the fuel pressure regulator mounting screws.
Tighten the screws first to 35 lb in (4 Nm) and then a second time to 62
lb in (7 Nm).
4. Connect the injection pump inlet hose to the fuel feed distribution (leak) block.
5. Install the PCV hoses to the valve covers.
6. Connect the following:
oil level sensor connector
fuel pressure regulator connector
left rear and front fuel injector electrical connectors
fuel rail temperature sensor connector
glow plug relay connectors
BARO sensor connector

ECT sensor connector


7. Install the main harnesses in the original positions.
8. Install the water outlet pipe.
9. Install the A/C compressor and drive belt.
10. Connect the A/C cut out switch and A/C compressor clutch connectors.
11. Install the air intake duct.

Glow Plugs
Removal & Installation
Both Banks
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cables
Front wheel and tire
Inner splash shield from the fender well
Air cleaner outlet duct
Electrical nuts from the glow plug(s)
Harness from the glow plug(s)
NOTE: On vehicles with Federal emissions systems, there is a buss bar
connecting the glow plugs on each bank of the engine.
6.6L Glow plug removal

Glow plug(s)

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Glow plug and tighten the glow plug
A. Torque to: 13 ft. lbs. (18 Nm)
Buss bar and wiring
Glow plug electrical nut and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 13 inch lbs. (1.5 Nm)
Air cleaner outlet duct
Splash shield to the fender well
Negative battery cables
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

CHASSIS ELECTRICAL
Chassis Electrical Overview
Understanding Electrical Systems
Basic Electrical Theory
Electricity is based on the principle that electrons are attracted to protons. Electron
movement can be created when the atomic structure of a material is forced to become
imbalanced. Atoms are made up of an equal quantity of positively and negatively
charged parts. The nucleus contains protons, with a positive charge, and neutrons with a
neutral charge. The negative charge or electrons constantly orbit around the nucleus in
valence rings.
If an electron were to be separated from an atom it would assume a net positive charge
and become a position ion. On the other hand, if an element were to "acquire" an
electron it would have a net negative charge and become a negative ion. If we were to
store these positive and negative ions in a container we would have a power source, or
battery.
Voltage
Electricity is the flow of electrons from a greater potential (more electrons) to a lesser
potential (less electrons). If a path were provided for the electrons from the negative ions
to flow to the positive ions each ion could then maintain its balanced condition. The
pressure that the electrons exert when returning to its source is called voltage. When
voltage (V) is measured with a voltmeter, the value displayed represents the attractive
force, or electromotive force available to get the atoms in balance again.
Amperage
Amperage is a measure of the actually quantity of electrons that flow from the net
negative charge to the net positive charge. This movement of electrons, or current, is
what actually does the work in an electrical circuit. Current flow is measured in units of
Amperes, or Amps (A). Amperage is a time-based unit. One Amp is equal to 6.28 x 1028
electrons moving past one point in one second. When an ammeter is connected in series
with a circuit, the actual quantity of electrons that flow through the circuit are measured.
Resistance
Resistance is an elements ability to oppose current flow. The resistance of an element
depends upon its atomic structure- specifically how many electrons are held in orbit in
the outermost or valence ring. Up to eight electrons can occupy the valence ring of an
atom. When fewer electrons are present in the valence ring there is more "room" for
electrons to flow across the surface of an atom.

Electrically speaking, elements can be categorized as conductors, insulators and semiconductors. Conductors are elements with between one and three electrons in their
valence ring. Insulators are elements that contain between five and eight valence ring
electrons. Semi-conductors are elements that contain four electrons in their valence ring.
Impedance is something that restricts flow. If you put a number of connections along an
electrical circuit, each connection becomes a source of resistance slowing the flow of
electricity to its final destination. A common analogy would be a coke bottle; if you turn a
coke bottle upside down to empty its contents it takes a longer period of time to do so.
There is resistance within the bottle to empty a large volume of fluid through a low
volume orifice. Now, take the same bottle turned on its side so there is air space present
at the mouth of the bottle while pouring out the fluid. The process takes less time due to
low impedance (less resistance). The resistance we find in an electrical circuit is
measured in Ohms. The resistance of a circuit varies depending on the amount and type
of components used in the circuit. When an Ohmmeter is used to measure resistance.
Current is applied to the component from a power source (battery) in the meter. The
voltage that returns to the meter is converter to a resistive value.
The main factors which determine resistance are the material used, the size and cross
section of the wire, the length of the wire and the temperature that these items operate.
Some materials have more resistance than others. Those with high resistance are said
to be insulators. Rubber materials (or rubber-like plastics) are some of the most common
insulators used in vehicles as they have a very high resistance to electricity. Very low
resistance materials are said to be conductors. Copper wire is among the best
conductors. Most automotive wiring is made of copper. Silver is actually a superior
conductor to copper and is used in some relay contacts, but its high cost prohibits its use
as common wiring. Airbag systems commonly use gold plated terminal to ensure that
current will readily flow through the system. Gold, while cost prohibitive, will not react to
air and contaminants that can contribute to unwanted voltage drops.
Larger diameter wires provide more surface area for current flow. The larger the wire
size being used, the less resistance the wire will have. Solid conductors provide less
surface area when compared to stranded conductors. Stranded conductors have the
capacity to carry greater currents when compared to solid conductors of the same gauge
(size). This is because the individual strands of a stranded conductor contribute to
greater surface area. This is why components which use large amounts of electricity
have larger wires supplying current to them. All elements offer some degree of
resistance. While copper wire, as an example, is a conductor, it too has a resistive value.
For a given thickness of wire, the longer the wire, the greater the resistance. The shorter
the wire, the less the resistance. When determining the proper wire for a circuit, both
size (gauge) and length must be considered to design a circuit that can handle the
current needed to provide enough power to the component being powered. With many
materials, the higher the temperature, the greater the resistance (positive temperature
coefficient). Some materials exhibit the opposite trait of lower resistance with higher
temperatures (negative temperature coefficient). These principles are used in many of
the sensors on the engine. As voltage flows through the wiring, these varying properties
effect the overall performance of the electrical system, but the current is what actually
does the work.

How Does Electricity Work: The Water Analogy


Many people have been taught electrical theory using an analogy with water. In a
comparison with water flowing through a pipe, the electrons would be the water and the
wire can be considered the pipe.
The flow of electricity can be measured much like the flow of water through a pipe. You
can equate amperage, or electron flow to the volume of water flowing through a pipe.
When relatively few electrons flow through a circuit, the amperage is low. When many
electrons flow, the amperage is high. Electrical pressure is what forces electrons through
a circuit just as pressure forces water through a pipe. Water pressure is measured in
units such as pounds per square inch (PSI).
Resistance is what regulates current flow. Electrical resistance can be equated to a
valve installed in the end of our water pipe. As the valve is closed, more resistance is
added and the actual quantity of water that flows from the pipe is reduced. It is important
to realize that the pressure before the valve is still the same as if the valve were not
installed in the pipe.
Ohm's Law
There is a direct relationship between current, voltage and resistance. The relationship
between current, voltage and resistance can be summed up by a statement known as
Ohm's law.
Voltage (E) is equal to amperage (I) times resistance (R); or,
E=I x R
One volt will push one amp of current through one Ohm of resistance in one seconds
time.
Ohms law can also be expressed as:
R=E/I or I=E/R
In each of these formulas, "E" is the voltage, "I" represents current (expressed in Amps)
and "R" is resistance, expressed in Ohms. A majority of the electrical circuits in an
automobile are designed to function at a voltage typically between 13.8 and 14.4 volts.
When a stable voltage range is maintained, current flow is regulated by the resistance of
the loads in any given circuit. The basic point to remember is that as the resistance of a
circuit goes up, the amount of current that flows in the circuit will go down, so long as
voltage remains the same.
Wattage
The amount of work that can be performed in an electrical circuit is the product of
pressure (voltage) forcing current through a circuit. This combination of amperage and

voltage is power. The unit of power is the watt (W). The relationship between power,
voltage and current in direct current (DC) circuits is expressed as:
Power (W) is equal to amperage (I) times voltage (E); or,
W=I x E
For as much as power can be an indication of how much work can be performed it is
also a requirement. A certain amount of current has to be forced through a component in
order for that component to function.
Circuits
For any 12 volt, negative ground, electrical system, or circuit, to operate, the electricity
must travel in a complete path. As a rule, electrons move from negative to positive. If
youve ever seen slow motion footage of a lightning strike no doubt youve seen lightning
originate in the clouds and move to the earth. The earth is actually the positive pole and
the clouds are the negative. We consider conventional current to flow from positive to
negative. In all actuality the negative electrons are moving to positive, jumping over the
positive electrons that are being moved back to negative, thus completing the cycle of
returning to the source. Simply put, current (power)flows from a source from the positive
(+) terminal of the battery) and eventually returns back to to the source. Throughout this
cycle, current flows through an endless maze of wiring, fuses, switches, and relays. If
current is interrupted the component fed by that circuit ceases to function.
The easiest way to visualize a circuit is to think of connecting a 12-volt light bulb with
two wires attached to the battery. One wire is attached to the negative terminal and the
other to the positive terminal of the battery. This is a single load, series circuit. When
both terminals are attached to the battery the circuit is complete and the light bulb would
illuminate. Current follows a path from the battery through the light bulb and returns to
the battery. On a typical electrical circuit this circuit would contain switches and/or
controls and fuse protection.
This example illustrates a simple circuit. When the switch is
closed, power from the positive battery terminal flows
through the fuse and the switch, and then through the light
bulb. The light illuminates and the circuit is completed
through the ground wire back to the negative battery
terminal. In reality, the two ground points shown in the
illustration are attached to the metal frame of the vehicle
that completes the circuit back to the battery

Most automotive circuits differ from this simple example. Instead of having a "return wire"
from the bulb to the battery, the current travels through the frame of the vehicle. Since
the negative battery cable is attached to the frame (made of electrically conductive
metal), the frame of the vehicle can serve as a ground wire to complete the circuit.
Three kinds or circuit configurations can be found in the automobile: the series circuit,
the parallel circuit and the series-parallel circuit.
Series Circuit
Series circuits have only one path for current to flow. Voltage is consumed as current
flows through a series circuit. Current flow is consistent. Using a 12-volt circuit as an
example voltage measured before the load would equal source voltage. Voltage
measured after the load would be zero volts. An ammeter placed in series would read
the same amperage if it were placed in the circuit before or after the load. There are
relatively fewer series circuits used in automotive applications. They are commonly used
to isolate circuits where higher current flow, such as a blower motor circuit.
Parallel Circuits
Parallel circuits have multiple paths for current to flow. As additional paths are added to
a parallel circuit, the amount of current flow increases because there are more paths for
current to flow through. The branches of a parallel circuit have the same voltage
available to them. One advantage of using parallel circuits is that the amount of wiring
used to provide power to components is reduced. One single conductive path can
provide the same power to multiple components.
Series-Parallel Circuits

Series parallel circuits incorporate a series portion and a parallel portion. Typically, a
load is installed in the series portion to limit how much voltage is applied to the remaining
parallel portion of the circuit. One example of a series-parallel circuit that can be found in
automotive applications is the instrument panel illumination circuit. The dimmer, or
rheostat, is a variable resistance installed in the series portion of the circuit. All of the
instrument panel illumination lamps are wired in parallel. As the dimmer is rotated,
voltage is regulated to the illumination lamps. The higher the resistance of the rheostat,
the less voltage is allowed to flow through the illumination lamps. In turn, the brightness,
of the lamps decreases.
Electrical Components
Power Source
There are two power sources in the automobile: the battery and the alternator. The
battery supplies electrical power during starting or during periods when the current
demand of the vehicles electrical system exceeds the output capacity of the alternator.
The alternator supplies electrical current when the engine is running. Alternators contain
a voltage regulator that works like an on/off switch. The regulator monitors the condition
of the battery and when the battery drops below a specific voltage the regulator turns on
the alternator to replenish the battery. Under high load situations the alternator will turn
on to meet the increased demand.
The Battery
In Most modern vehicles use a lead/acid electrochemical storage device called a battery.
Twelve volt batteries consist of six 2.1 volt cells connected in series, so that the entire
unit is capable of producing 12.6 volts of electrical pressure. Each cell consists of a
series of positive and negative plates separated by insulators suspended in a weak
solution of sulfuric acid and water. Typically a battery at full charge will contain 13.2
Volts. The negative and positive plates are made of dissimilar materials with unlike
charges (positive and negative). The combination of these dissimilar materials with a
sulfuric acid solution creates a chemical reaction within the battery. It is this reaction
which produces current flow from the battery when its positive and negative terminals
are connected to an electrical load.
A Batterys Capacity To Store Electrons Is Based On Its Physical Construction. Batteries
With A Greater Surface Area (More Plates) Have The Ability To Deliver Greater Amounts
Of Power. This Storage Capacity Is Commonly Referred To As Cold Cranking Amps
(CCA). Essentially It Describes How Many Amps Are Available At A Median
Temperature Of 32-Degrees Fahrenheit. When Power Is Depleted From The Battery It Is
Replaced By The Alternator, Restoring The Battery To Its Original Chemical State.
The Alternator
Maintaining a stable electrical environment is critical for engine management. This
environment provides the means for electrical components to function properly as well
provide a reference for the Engine Management System (EMS).

The alternating-current generator is the electrical systems primary source of power while
the engine is running. The generator must produce enough power to meet the demands
of the loads in the electrical system (e.g. ignition system, fuel pump, headlamps, blower
motor, turn signal) and recharge the battery. It converts mechanical energy into
alternating-current electricity, which is then rectified through diodes that alter it to direct
current for the electrical system and for recharging the battery. The generator is belt
driven.
There three basic parts of the automotive generator (alternator). They include the rotor,
the stator and the rectifier. The rotor is made up of a single conductor wound into many
turns. The stator is made up of three sets of windings. The wire that the stator is made
up of is larger than the wiring used in the rotor. The rotor spins inside of the stator and
does not physically touch it. As current flows through the rotor, it is induced into the
stator. Regulating current through the rotor of the generator controls generator output.
The greater the field current through the rotor, the greater the current induced into the
stator. The induced current in the stator flows through a rectifier bridge to the battery
because the battery is at a lower voltage potential than the stator.
The rectifier bridge splits the AC voltage inducted into the stator. The positive portion of
the AC voltage flows through three of the diodes and on to the positive side of the
battery. The negative portion of the AC voltage flows through the remaining diodes and
on to the negative side of the battery.
Ground
Ground provides an area of lower potential so that current can flow through electrical
circuits. Two types of grounds are used in automotive electric circuits. Direct ground
components are grounded to the frame through their mounting points. All other
components use some sort of ground wire which is attached to the frame or chassis of
the vehicle. The electrical current runs through the chassis of the vehicle and returns to
the battery through the ground () cable. If you look, you'll see that the battery ground
cable connects between the battery and the frame or chassis of the vehicle.

Fuses and Circuit Breakers


Most vehicles use one or more fuse panels. This one is
located on the drivers side kick panel

It is possible for large surges of current to pass through the electrical system of your
vehicle. If this surge of current were to reach the load in the circuit, this surge could burn
it out or cause severe damage to the vehicles electrical system. It can overload the
wiring, causing the harness to get hot and melt the insulation. To protect vehicle wiring,
fuses, circuit breakers and/or fusible links are typically installed into the power supply
wires throughout the electrical system. These items are nothing more than a built-in
weak spot in the system. When an excessive amount of current flows through a circuit it
causes an increase in heat throughout the wiring. Fuses and circuit breakers are
designed as the weak link in the system and will disconnect the circuit to prevent
damage to the components contained within that circuit. Components are equipped with
connectors so they may be replaced in situations where they were damaged due to a
power surge.
The following are descriptions as to how fuses and circuit breakers protect the electrical
system:

Fuse- A fuse is a weak link in the system designed to create an open circuit when
the amperage flowing through that circuit exceeds the limits of the fuse. As the
amperage increases, the conductor within the fuse heats up and eventually melts
and breaks apart. This open circuit interrupts the flow of current and protects the
components in the circuit.
Circuit Breaker- A circuit breaker is a "self-repairing" fuse. It will open the circuit
in the same fashion as a fuse. The surge creates heat the same way that a fuse
is affected. When the surge subsides and the circuit cools down, the circuit
breaker will reset and allow current to flow through the circuit. Typically circuit
breakers do not need to be replaced.

Fusible Link- A fusible link (fuse link or main link) is a short length of special, high
temperature insulated wire that acts as a fuse. When an excessive electrical
current passes through a fusible link, the thin gauge wire inside the link melts,
creating an open to protect the circuit. To repair the circuit, the link must be
replaced. Some newer type fusible links are housed in plug-in modules, which
are simply replaced like a fuse, while older type fusible links must be cut and
spliced if they melt

CAUTION
Always replace fuses, circuit breakers and fusible links with identically rated
components. Under no circumstances should a protection device of higher or lower
amperage rating be substituted.
Switches
Switches are used in electrical circuits to control current flow. The most common use of
relays and switches is to open and close circuits between the battery and various
electrical loads in a circuit. loads are rated according to the amount of amperage they
can handle. All of the current that the controlled load uses flows through a switch. Using
a switch with an amperage rating lower than what the circuit is rated for could overload
and cause damage to the components located on that circuit. Relays
The underhood fuse and relay panel contains fuses, relays,
flashers and fusible links

Relays are used to control high-current loads with lower currents. Since these some
loads require a large amount of current, the thickness of the wire in the circuit is also
greater. If a switch were used to control the circuit, all of the current required to power
the high-current load would have to pass through the switch.

From a design standpoint, relays are used to limit current through switches and reduce
the amount of heavy gauge wiring in the vehicle.
Relays are constructed of a set of switch contacts and a small electro-magnetic coil.
When current flow through the coil a magnetic field is created. This field causes the
contacts to touch, in turn completing the high-current circuit. Typically, relays are
constructed so that the secondary contacts are open when the relay is de-energized
(turned off). Circuits where relays are used include, but are not limited to, the horns,
headlights, starter motor, electric fuel pump, blower motor and cooling fan motor.
Relays are composed of a coil and a set of switch contacts.
The large wires connect a high current power source to one
side of the relay switch contacts and from the other side of
the relay switch contacts to the load. The smaller wires
connect a low current power source to the relay control coil
and from the control coil to the control switch and then to
ground.

Load
Every electrical circuit must include a "load'' (something to consume voltage from the
power source). Loads are resistances included in circuits to limit current flow. Loads are
the components installed in circuits, such as headlights, wiper motors, door lock
solenoids. Without a load, the battery would flow all of its energy through a circuit directly
to ground. This is called a "dead-short to ground". The unchecked flow of electricity
would cause a great amount of damage to the circuit by developing a tremendous
amount of heat. Short circuits can develop sufficient heat to melt the insulation of
surrounding wires, even reducing a multiple wire cable to a lump of plastic and copper.

Vehicle Wiring & Harnesses


Automotive wiring or circuit conductors can either be single stranded wire, multi-stranded
wire. Where space is limited printed circuits can be used instead of traditional wiring.
Single strand wire has a solid metal core and is usually used inside such components as
alternators, motors, relays and other devices. Multi-strand wire has a core made of many
small strands of wire twisted together to form a single conductor. Most wiring in an
automotive electrical system is made up of multi-strand wire. Multi-stranded wire has
more surface area when compared to solid-core wire and can carry more current.
Automotive wiring is color coded on the insulator to identify individual circuits.
Printed circuits are constructed of a thin film of copper or other conductive material that
is bonded to a non-conductive backing. Occasionally, the conductive material is
sandwiched between two sheets of plastic for added protection. A complete printed
circuit consisting of conductors, insulating material and connectors for lamps or other
components is called a printed circuit board. Printed circuitry is used in place of
conventional wiring in places such as the instrument cluster, computer modules and, in
some cases, taillight assemblies.
The wire gauge number is an expression of the cross-section area of the conductor. .
The most common system for expressing wire size is the American Wire Gauge (AWG)
system. As gauge number increases, area decreases and the wire becomes smaller. An
18-gauge wire is smaller than a 4-gauge wire. In this instance, the higher the wire gauge,
the smaller load it can carry, and the smaller the wire gauge the higher the load
capability. Vehicles from countries that use the metric system will typically describe the
wire size as its cross-sectional area in square millimeters (mm2). Simply put, the larger
the wire, the greater the number. Gauge wire size refers to the size of the strands of the
conductor, not the size of the complete wire with insulator. It is possible, therefore, to
have two wires of the same gauge with different diameters because one may have
thicker insulation than the other.
Since automotive electrical systems are vulnerable to changes in resistance, the
selection of properly sized wire is critical when systems are repaired. A loose or
corroded connection or a replacement wire that is too small for the circuit will add extra
resistance in turn limiting current flow.
An average vehicle contains a great deal of wiring with hundreds of individual
connections. To protect vehicle wiring from damage and to keep them organized, they
are grouped into bundles enclosed in plastic conduit or taped together to form a wiringharness. Harnesses route power and ground to different parts of the vehicle. Individual
wires are color-coded to help identify circuits where sections are hidden from view.
It is essential to understand how a circuit works before trying to figure out why it doesn't.
An electrical schematic shows the path of electrical current through a circuit. Schematics
visually break down the entire electrical system into individual circuits for diagnosis and
repair of vehicle wiring. In a schematic, usually no attempt is made to represent wiring
and components as they physically appear on the vehicle; switches and other
components are drawn to show current flow through them. Wiring schematics show the
cavity and/or terminal locations in multi-pin connectors to help locate test points. The

schematic shows the technician the components in a circuit, the pin locations at the
ECM, and provides a diagnostic tool to isolate electrical faults within a circuit.
Connectors
Three types of connectors are commonly used in automotive applications:

Weatherproof connectors are used where the connector is exposed to the


elements. Terminals are protected against moisture and dirt by sealing rings
which provide a weather tight seal. All repairs to this style of connector require
the use of a special replacement terminals and tools. Unlike standard blade type
terminals, these weatherproof terminals cannot be straightened once they are
bent. Ensure that the connectors are properly seated and all of the sealing rings
are in place when connecting leads
Molded connectors have their terminals completely encased in a molded
insulation typically made of rubber. Molded connectors require complete
replacement of the connector if found to be defective. This means splicing a new
connector assembly into the harness. All splices should be soldered to ensure
proper contact
Hard Shell Connectors have replaceable connectors. Replacement usually
involves the use of a special terminal removal tool that depresses the locking
tangs (barbs) on the connector terminal and allows the connector to be removed
from the rear of the shell. The connector shell should be replaced if it shows any
evidence of burning, melting, cracks, or breaks. Replace individual terminals that
are burnt, corroded, distorted or loose

Weatherproof connectors are most commonly used in the


engine compartment or where the connector is exposed to
the elements

Hard shell (left) and weatherproof (right) connectors have


replaceable terminals

Use care when probing harness connections or replacing terminals, as it is possible to


damage terminals or create a short circuit between terminals. If a short occurs between
the wrong pair of terminals it is possible to damage vehicle wiring and components.
Always use fused jumper wires between connectors for circuit checking and never probe
through weatherproof seals or molded connectors.
Test Equipment
Pinpointing the exact cause of electrical circuit requires the use of special test
equipment. Here are descriptions of commonly used test equipment and a brief
explanation of how they're used in the diagnosis of electrical problems. In addition to the
information covered, the tool manufacturer's instruction booklet (provided with the test
equipment) should be read and clearly understood before attempting any test
procedures.
Jumper Wires
CAUTION
Always use a fused jumper made from the same gauge wire thats used by that circuit.
The fuse offers protects from accidentally creating shorts where a great deal of current
would flow. A five amp fuse should be used. Never use jumper wires made from a
thinner gauge wire than the circuit being tested. If the jumper wire is too small it may
overheat and possibly melt. Never use jumpers to bypass high resistance loads in a
circuit. Bypassing resistance, in effect, creates a short circuit. This can cause damage
and fire. Jumper wires should only be used to bypass portions of a circuits wiring or
switches.

Jumper wires are simple, yet extremely valuable pieces of test equipment. They are
basically wires that are used to bypass sections of a circuit. Although jumper wires can
be purchased, they can be fabricated from lengths of standard automotive wire and
whatever type of connector (alligator clip, spade connector or pin connector) that is
required for the particular application being tested. Insulated boots should cover the
jumper wire terminals to prevent accidental grounding.
Jumper wires are used primarily to locate opens in electrical circuits. If an electrical
component fails to operate, connect the jumper wire between the component and a good
ground. If the component operates with the jumper installed in the ground circuit, the
ground circuit is open. If the ground circuit is good, but the component does not operate,
the circuit between the power feed and component may be open.
You can sometimes connect the jumper wire directly from the battery to the "hot"
terminal of the component. Make sure the component operates on 12 volts. Some
electrical components, such as sensors, are designed to operate on 5 volts. Running 12
volts directly to these components will cause damage.
Test Lights
A 12 volt test light is used to detect the presence of voltage
in a circuit

Test lights are used to check for electrical current in circuits and components when a
circuit is powered. Test lights are used to test for voltage and ground. To use a 12-volt
test light, connect the ground clip to a good ground and probe wherever necessary with
the pick. The test light will illuminate when voltage is detected. If the test light does not
illuminate; there is an open circuit (no power). Move the test light in successive steps
back toward the power source until the light in the handle illuminates. The open is
between the test light and a point that was previously probed.

Test lights only indicate that power is available. This does not necessarily mean that
adequate voltage (or any particular amount of voltage) is present; it only means that
some voltage is present. Before using the test light, verify that it work by touching its
ground clip to the negative battery terminal and probe the positive battery terminal to
ensure that the light is operating.
WARNING
Do not use a test light to probe electronic ignition, spark plug or coil wires. Never use a
pick-type test light to probe wiring on computer controlled systems unless specifically
instructed. Any wire insulation that is pierced by the test light probe should be sealed
after testing with liquid tape.
The self-powered test light is similar in design to the 12 volt test light, but contains a 1.5
volt battery in the handle. It is most often used in place of a Digital Volt- Ohm Meter
(DVOM) to check for open circuits. The self-powered test light can also be used to
perform continuity checks when power is isolated from the circuit.
The battery in a self-powered test light does not provide much current. A weak battery
may not provide enough power to illuminate the test light even when a complete circuit is
made (especially if the circuit has high resistance). Always make sure that the battery in
the self-powered test light has a sufficient charge. To check the battery, remove the
battery from the tester and connect to a DVOM to check the total voltage available.
Replace the battery if the voltage is less than adequate.
NOTE: A self-powered test light should not be used on any computer controlled system
or component. The small amount of power applied to the circuit or component from the
test light is enough to damage many electronic automotive components.
Multimeters
Multimeters are an extremely useful tool for troubleshooting electrical problems. They
can be purchased in either analog or digital form and have a price range to suit any
budget. A multimeter is a voltmeter, ammeter and ohmmeter (along with other features)
combined into one instrument. It is often used when testing solid state circuits because
of its high input impedance (usually 10 Mega-Ohms or more). A brief description of the
multimeter main test functions follows:
Voltmeter- This meter function is used to measure voltage at any point in a circuit, or to
measure the voltage drop across any part of a circuit. Voltmeters usually have various
scales and a selector switch to allow different voltage in various voltage ranges. The
voltmeter has a positive and a negative lead. Note that the voltmeter's negative lead will
always be black and that the positive will always be some color other than black (usually
red).

To avoid damage to an analog meter, always connect the negative lead to the
negative side of the circuit (to ground or nearest the ground side of the circuit)
and connect the positive lead to the positive side of the circuit (to the power
source or the nearest power source)

Digital multi-meters are not polarity sensitive and can be installed backwards in a
circuit. If a digital multi-meter is installed opposite of how current flows through
the circuit a negative value will be displayed

Ohmmeter- this meter function is used to read resistance (measured in Ohms) of a


circuit or component. Most ohmmeters will have a selector switch which permits the
measurement of different ranges of resistance (usually the selector switch allows the
multiplication of the meter reading by 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000). Some ohmmeters are
"auto-ranging" which means the meter itself will determine which scale to use.
Since the ohmmeter function uses an internal battery, the circuit should be isolated from
any vehicle power sources when it is tested. When the ohmmeter is connected, current
from the ohmmeter flows through the circuit or component being tested. Since the
ohmmeter's internal resistance and voltage are known values, the amount of current flow
through the meter depends on the resistance of the circuit or component being tested.
The ohmmeter can also be used to perform a continuity test for suspected open circuits.
When using the meter for continuity checks, do not be concerned with the actual
resistance reading. Zero resistance, or any Ohm reading, indicates continuity in the
circuit. Infinite resistance indicates an open in the circuit. High resistance readings,
where there should be none, indicate a circuit problem. Short circuits checks are made in
the same manner as open circuit checks, except that the circuit must be isolated from
both power and normal ground. Infinite resistance indicates no continuity, while zero
resistance indicates a dead short.
WARNING
Never use an ohmmeter to check the resistance of a component or wire while there is
voltage applied to the circuit.
Ammeter- This function is used to Measure the amount of current flowing through a
circuit in units called Amperes or Amps. All circuits have a characteristic amount of
amperes, called "current draw'' which can be measured using an ammeter. By referring
to a specified current-draw rating, then measuring the amperes and comparing the two
values, what is happening within the circuit can be used to diagnose the circuit.

Excessive resistance will cause current to decrease. The value displayed on the
ammeter will be lower than expected
An open circuit will not allow any current to flow, so the ammeter display will be
zero
A shorted circuit or component will have more current flowing through it, the
value displayed on the meter will be higher than expected

Excessive current draw can blow fuses and drain the battery, while a reduced current
draw can cause motors to run slowly, lights to dim and other components to not operate
properly.
The ammeter is always connected in series with the circuit being tested. All of the
current that flows through the circuit must also flow through the ammeter. The ammeter
itself has very little resistance to current flow and typically will not affect circuit operation.

Troubleshooting Electrical Systems


Diagnosing specific problems requires organized troubleshooting. Modern automobiles
with complex electronic systems require diagnostics in a logical, organized manner. Most
problems tend to result from a relatively simple and obvious cause, such as loose or
corroded connectors, bad grounds or damaged wire insulation that causes a short. This
makes careful visual inspection of components during testing essential to quick and
accurate troubleshooting. There are certain troubleshooting techniques that can apply to
all scenarios.
Problem Parameters
Does the problem appear only under certain conditions? Were there any noises, odors
or other unusual symptoms? Isolate the problem area. To do this, make some simple
tests and observations, and then eliminate the systems that are working properly. Check
for obvious problems, such as broken wires and loose or dirty connections. Always
check the obvious before assuming something complicated is the cause.
Systemic Problems
Determine the cause once the problem area is isolated. Are all the components
functioning properly? Is there power going to electrical switches and motors. Performing
careful, systematic checks will often turn up most causes on the first inspection, without
wasting time checking components that have little or no relationship to the problem.
Redundant Testing
Test all repairs after the work is done to ensure the problem is repaired. Some causes
can be traced to more than one component, so a careful verification of repair work is
important in order to pick up additional malfunctions that may cause a problem to
reappear or a different problem to arise. A blown fuse, for example, is a simple problem
that may require more than another fuse to repair. If you don't look for a problem that
caused a fuse to blow, a shorted wire (for example) may go undetected.

Testing
Available Battery Voltage
Determining voltage available at the battery should be the first step in any electrical
troubleshooting procedure, after a visual inspection. Many electrical problems, especially
on computer controlled systems, can be caused by a low state of charge in the battery.
Excessive corrosion at the battery cable terminals will inhibit proper charging and proper
battery current flow.
1. Ensure that the engine is not running and all electrical accessories are turned off
2. Set the voltmeter selector switch to the 20V position (minimum)
3. Connect the multi-meter negative lead to the battery's negative post or terminal
and the positive lead to the battery's positive post or terminal.
A fully charged battery will have 12.6 volts
A battery voltage under 12.4 volts will require the battery to be charged
before continuing any diagnosis
When battery voltage is higher than 12.6 volts, the battery is holding a
surface charge. The surface charge can be removed by turning on the
headlights for 15 seconds and then turning them off. Allow the battery to
rest for fifteen seconds and measure battery voltage again
Open Circuits
The infinite reading on this multimeter indicates that the
circuit is open

NOTE: This test already assumes the existence of an open in the circuit and it is used to
help locate the open portion.
1. Isolate the circuit from power and ground

2. Connect the self-powered test light or ohmmeter ground clip to the ground of the
circuit
3. Probe sections of the circuit systematically
If the light is out or there is infinite resistance, the open is between the
probe and the circuit ground
If the light is on or the meter shows continuity, the open is between the
probe and the end of the circuit toward the power source
Short Circuits
NOTE: Never use a self-powered test light to perform checks for opens or shorts when
power is applied to the circuit. The test light can be damaged by outside power.
1. Isolate the circuit from power and ground
2. Connect the test light or ohmmeter ground clip to a good ground. Probe any
easy-to-reach point in the circuit
If the light comes on or there is continuity, there is a short somewhere in
the circuit
3. To isolate the short, probe a test point at either end of the isolated circuit
The light should be on or the meter should indicate continuity
4. Leave the test light probe engaged and sequentially open connectors or
switches, remove parts, etc., until the light goes out or continuity is broken
When the light goes out, the short is between the last two circuit
components that were opened
Voltage Drop
When current flows through a load, the voltage after the load decreases. This voltage
drop is due to the resistance of the load. Voltage drops also occur because of unwanted
resistance created by corrosion at connectors and damaged portions of vehicle wiring.
The maximum allowable voltage drop under load is critical.
This voltage drop test revealed high resistance (low voltage)
in the circuit

NOTE: Voltage drops should be performed systematically through a circuit. Verify power
portions of the circuit and then the ground portions. These steps outline performing
voltage drop tests on the wiring that provides power to loads, not the loads themselves.
1. Set the voltmeter selector switch to the 20V position
2. Connect the negative lead of the multi-meter to the most negative portion of the
circuit (closest to the load) of the portion of the circuit to be tested
3. Connect the positive lead of the multi-meter to the most positive portion of the
circuit (closest to the power source) of the portion of the circuit to be tested
4. Operate the circuit and check the voltage displayed on the meter
The voltage displayed is the voltage consumed through that portion of the
circuit
There should be little or no voltage drop in the circuit before or after the
load in the circuit
If a voltage drop exists, the wiring or connectors in the circuit are suspect.
Diagnose and repair any cause of excessive resistance
5. Repeat the test for section of wire in the circuit

Resistance
Checking the resistance of a coolant temperature sensor
with an ohmmeter. Reading is 1.04 kilohms

Spark plug wires can be checked for excessive resistance


using an ohmmeter

WARNING
Never use an ohmmeter with power applied to the circuit. The ohmmeter is designed to
operate on its own power supply. The normal 12V electrical system voltage could
damage the meter!

CAUTION
Ensure that the ignition key is OFF when disconnecting any components or the battery.
The voltage spike and current that can flow though a circuit when a component or he
battery is disconnected can damage sensitive electronic components, switch contacts
and terminals.
1. Isolate the circuit from the vehicle's power source
Where necessary, also isolate at least one side of the circuit to be
checked, in order to avoid reading parallel resistance. Parallel circuit
resistance will always give a lower reading than the actual resistance of
either of the branches
2. Set the range selector to the proper scale for the circuit being
If the resistance of the circuit is not known, start at a higher scale and
incrementally scale down the meter to obtain the most accurate value
3. Connect the meter leads to both sides of the circuit (wire or component)
The value, displayed in Ohms, represents the resistance of that portion of
the circuit.

Chassis Electrical
Wire and Connector Repair
Almost anyone can replace damaged wires, as long as the proper tools and parts are
available. Wire and terminals are available to fit almost any need. Even the specialized
weatherproof, molded and hard shell connectors are now available from aftermarket
suppliers.
Be sure the ends of all the wires are fitted with the proper terminal hardware and
connectors. Wrapping a wire around a stud is never a permanent solution and will only
cause trouble later. Replace wires one-at-a-time to avoid confusion. Always route wires
exactly the same as the factory.
NOTE: If connector repair is necessary, only attempt it if you have the proper tools.
Weatherproof and hard shell connectors require special tools to release the terminal pins
inside the connector. Attempting to repair these connectors with conventional hand tools
will cause damage.

Battery Cables
Disconnecting The Cables
Before you disconnect the cable(s), first turn the ignition to the OFF position. This will
prevent a draw on the battery which could cause arcing (electricity trying to ground itself
to the body of a vehicle, just like a spark plug jumping the gap) and damaging
components such as the alternator diodes.
When working on any electrical component in the vehicle, it is always a good idea to
disconnect the negative battery cable. This will prevent potential damage to many
sensitive electrical components such as the Engine Control Module (ECM), radio and
alternator.
Disconnecting the negative battery cable first will also prevent accidentally grounding the
positive terminal to the body of the vehicle when disconnecting the battery creating a
short to ground.
Reconnect battery cables by installing the positive cable first. Then connect the negative
cable. This will reduce the possibility for voltage spike to occur that can affect the
operation of sensitive electronic components. Be sure to check that your lights,
windshield wipers and other electrically operated safety components are working
correctly. If your vehicle contains an electronically tuned radio dont forget to also reset
your radio stations and clock.

Circuit Protection

Hazard and Turn Signal Flasher


To Remove:

1. Remove the knee bolster.


2. Release the flasher retainer from the fuse box tab.
3. Pull the flasher out of the fuse box cavity.
To Install:
1. Press the flasher into the fuse box cavity until the retainer locks in place.
2. Install the knee bolster.

Entertainment Systems
Radio
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Obtain the radio station presets before attempting to remove the radio, if
applicable.
2. Apply the parking brake.
3. Move the shift lever to the lowest position.
4. Move the steering wheel to the lowest position.
5. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
6. Remove the instrument panel trim plate bezel by pulling it out carefully to release
the retaining clips.
7. Remove the radio from the instrument panel.
On early models press down on the retainers to remove the radio.
On later models remove the mounting screws.
8. Slide the radio out of instrument panel pocket. Disconnect the wiring harness and
antenna cable connectors.
To Install:
1. Position the radio to the instrument panel. Connect the wiring harness and
antenna cable connector.
2. Guide the radio locator tabs onto the instrument panel locator pins.

On early models the radio will lock into place when it is fully seated.

On late models install the radio mounting screws.


A. Tighten to 14 in lb (1.6 Nm).
3. Install the instrument panel trim plate bezel.
4. Connect the negative battery cable.
5. Using a scan tool perform the radio set up procedure. This procedure will
configure the following:
Country code
Diagnostic codes
Chime level
Class 2 radio messages
Chime volume
12/24 hour clock
Steering wheel controls
Learn VIN

Digital Radio Receiver


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Remove the right instrument panel (IP) end panel.


Remove the fuse block by pressing in the locking tabs.
Pull the fuse block out of the I/P to gain access to the mounting bolt.
Loosen the mounting bolt and separate the wire harness block from the fuse
block.
Set the I/P wiring harness block aside.
Lower the glove box door to the full open position.
Remove the two mounting screws through the junction block opening.
Remove the receiver and bracket assembly.
Disconnect the harness electrical connector and coaxial cable.
Digital radio receiver

To Install:
1. Connect the harness electrical connector and coaxial cable to the receiver.
2. Position the receiver and bracket assembly in the I/P.
3. Install the two mounting screws through the junction block opening.
Tighten to 14 in lb (1.6 Nm).
4. Close the glove box door.
5. Attach the wire harness block to the fuse block and tighten the mounting bolt.
6. Install the right (IP) end panel.

Base Amplifier
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Lower the glove box door.


Disconnect the electrical connectors.
Push the spring clip up to release the amplifier.
Lift the amplifier up and remove it from the mounting tray.
Base Amplifier

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Position the amplifier into the mounting tray.


Press the amplifier into the spring clip.
Connect the electrical connectors.
Close the glove box door.

Amplifier (Console Mounted)


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. If equipped with a Bose amplifier, remove the radio amp fuse located in the
under hood electrical center.
2. Remove the floor console bezel using the following procedure:
Using a trim removal tool carefully pry the bezel from the console.
Disconnect the electrical connectors.
Remove the bezel from the console.
3. Remove the front cupholder by pulling firmly from the center.
4. Remove the mounting bolts that fasten the console to the instrument panel (I/P).
5. Remove the console storage bin mounting screws and bolts. Remove the storage
bin from the console.
6. Remove the center console end panel using the following procedure:
Lower the rear cupholder.
Insert a flat bladed tool between the cupholder hinge and the end panel.
Pry the cupholder from the console.
Remove the top 2 end panel mounting screws.
Pull the end panel back and disconnect the electrical connectors.
7. Disconnect the audio amplifier electrical connectors.
8. Remove the 4 screws that fasten the upper console bracket to the lower console
bracket.
9. Move both front seats fully forward.
10. Reposition the inboard seat track trim to access the rear console side panel
screw.
11. Remove both rear console side panel screws.
12. Move both front seats to the full rear position.
13. Remove both front console side panel screws.
14. Disconnect the floor console electrical connector.
15. Remove the console assembly from the vehicle.
16. Remove the 4 audio amplifier mounting screws and the amplifier.

Amplifier (console mounted)

To Install:
1. Position the amplifier to the floor console lower bracket.
2. Install the amplifier mounting screws.
Tighten to 30 lb in (3.4 Nm).
3. Position the floor console to the IP.
4. Connect the floor console electrical connector.
5. Position the upper console bracket to the lower console bracket. Install the
mounting screws.
6. Install the console to I/P mounting bolts.
Tighten to 35 lb in (4 Nm).
7. Install both front console side panel trim screws.
Tighten to 18 lb in (2 Nm).
8. Move both front seats to the forward position.
9. Install both rear console side panel trim screws.
Tighten to 18 lb in (2 Nm).
10. Reposition the inboard seat track trim.
11. Connect the amplifier electrical connectors.
12. Connect the floor console electrical connector.
13. Install the center console end panel.
14. Install the console storage bin.
15. Install the console cupholder.
16. Install the console bezel.
17. Install the radio amp fuse.
18. If the amplifier was replaced, perform the audio amplifier set up procedure.

Remote Compact Disc Player (W/screw-in console bezel)


Remote CD W/screw-in console bezel

Removal & Installation


To Remove:
1. Remove the trim bezel mounting screws from the console extension.
2. Press the trim bezel locking tabs in under the top of the trim bezel using a small
trim tool.
3. If equipped with a luxury model use the following procedure:
Remove the floor console upper bezel by firmly pulling on the corners.
Open the cupholder and ashtray lid.
Open the center console storage lid.
Pull carefully on the front of the lower bezel to release the retainers.
Pull out the lower bezel and remove the harness electrical connectors.
Remove the lower bezel from the center console.
4. Use a small screwdriver to release the CD player retainers.
5. Slide the CD player out of the console.
6. Disconnect the electrical connector.

To Install:
1. Connect the CD player electrical connector.
2. Carefully insert the CD player into the console until fully seated and the retainers
lock in place.
3. Install the trim bezel with the mounting screws.
Tighten to 18 lb in (2 Nm).
4. If equipped with a luxury console use the following procedure:
Open the ashtray and cupholder lid.
Partially install the bezel.
Connect the bezel electrical connectors.
Install the lower bezel to the console.
Push on the corners until the fasteners are locked in place.
Align the locating pins on the upper bezel and press in on the bezel until
the fasteners are seated.

Remote Compact Disc Player (W/snap-in console bezel)


Remote CD W/snap-in console bezel

Removal & Installation


To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Apply the parking brake.


Move the shift lever to the lowest position.
Move the steering wheel to the lowest position.
Remove the instrument panel trim plate bezel by pulling it out carefully to release
the retaining clips.
5. Using a flat bladed trim tool pry the CD player bezel from the console.
6. Disconnect the bezel electrical connectors and remove the bezel.
7. Remove the CD player from the console.
To Install:
1. Carefully insert the CD player into the cavity until fully seated and the tabs lock in
place.
2. Connect the bezel electrical connectors and press the bezel on the corners until
the retainers snap in place.
3. Install the instrument panel trim plate bezel.

Rear Seat Audio Control


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove the rear seat audio control unit from the console end panel by prying
between the audio control and the console end panel with a flat bladed trim tool.
2. Disconnect the electrical connectors from the rear seat audio control.
To Install:
1. Connect the electrical connectors to the rear seat audio control.
2. Install the rear seat audio control to the console end panel.

Wiper & Washer


Windshield Wiper Blade and Arm
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Open the hood.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Washer hose
Nut cover
Nut from the wiper arm
Wiper arm
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Wiper arm.
Secure the wiper arm with the nut.
A. Tighten to: 18 ft-lb (25 Nm)
Nut cover
Washer hose
2. Close the hood.

Windshield Wiper Motor


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cable
Wiper arms
Air inlet panel
Four mounting bolts and the reinforcement panel
Electrical connector
Two mounting bolts and the wiper transmission assembly
Transmission linkage from the motor crank arm with J 39232 or
equivalent
Two wiper motor mounting bolts from the transmission assembly
Wiper motor
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Wiper motor to transmission assembly with the two mounting bolts.
A. Tighten to: 71 in lbs (8.0 Nm)
Transmission linkage to the motor crank arm with J 39232 or equivalent
Two mounting bolts and the wiper transmission assembly.
A. Tighten to: 80 in lbs (9.0 Nm)
Electrical connector
Four mounting bolts and the reinforcement panel.
A. Tighten to: 80 in lbs (9.0 Nm)
Air inlet panel
Wiper arms
Negative battery cable

Windshield Washer Pump


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cable
Left front left wheel
Screws and the front wheel well splash shield
Electrical connector
Washer hose
Washer pump

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Washer pump
Washer hose
Electrical connector
Front wheel well splash shield with the screws.
A. Tighten to: 13 in lbs (1.5 Nm)
Front left wheel
Negative battery cable

Instruments and Switches


Instrument Cluster
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Negative battery cable
Instrument cluster trim panel
Screws and the instrument cluster
Electrical connectors
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Electrical connectors
Instrument cluster with the screws
Instrument cluster trim panel
Negative battery cable

Headlight Switch
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
Instrument Cluster Bezel removal

1. Remove or disconnect the following:


The instrument cluster bezel
A. Unsnap the switch from the housing
The electrical connectors
Headlight switch removal

The switch

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
The electrical connectors
The headlamp switch by snapping the headlamps switch into place
The bezel to the instrument panel
2. Operate the headlights to check performance

Turn Signal / Multifunction Switch

Removal & Installation


To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Disable the SIR system.
3. Disconnect or remove the following:
Negative battery cable
The upper and lower trim covers
NOTE: The abrasion sleeve located on the steering column wire harness
assembly must be reinstalled. Make note of what connector is coming out
of the abrasion sleeve for installation purposes.

The wire harness assembly (A) from the wire harness strap (B)
The turn signal and multifunction switch assembly connector from the SIR
system coil connector
A. Slide the 2 connectors (B) of the turn signal and multifunction
switch assembly out of the bulkhead connector (A)

The 2 pan head tapping screws (A) and (C) from the turn signal and
multifunction switch assembly (B)
The turn signal and multifunction switch assembly (B) from the steering
column tilt head assembly

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
The turn signal and multifunction switch assembly (B) onto the steering
column tilt head assembly
NOTE: Refer to Fastener Note.
NOTE: Be sure that the electrical contact of the turn signal and
multifunction switch assembly (B) rests on the turn signal cancel cam
assembly.

Screw the 2 pan head tapping screws (A) and (C) into the turn signal and
multifunction assembly (B)
Tighten the top pan head tapping screw (A)
A. Tighten to: 27 inch lbs (3 Nm)
Tighten the side pan head tapping screw (C)

A. Tighten to: 62 inch lbs (7.0 Nm)


B. Slide the 2 connectors (B) of the turn signal and multifunction
switch assembly into the bulkhead connector (A)
The turn signal and multifunction switch assembly connector to the SIR
coil connector
A. The abrasion sleeve must be installed back onto the steering
column wire harness assembly
B. The ignition lock cylinder case wires and connector must be
hanging out of the middle of the abrasion sleeve
The wire harness assembly (A) into the wire harness strap (B)
The upper and lower trim covers
2. Enable the SIR system.
3. Install the negative battery cable.
4. Operate the turn signals to check performance.

Brake Light Switch


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Disconnect or remove the following:
The electrical connector
The pushrod retaining clip
The brake light switch
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
The brake light switch
The pushrod retaining clip
The electrical connector

Fog Light Switch


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Disconnect or remove the following:
The instrument cluster bezel
The fog light switch from the housing
The electrical connectors
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
The electrical connectors
The fog/cargo light switch into the housing
The instrument cluster bezel

Lighting
Headlights
Removal & Installation
Old Style
To Remove:
Old style headlight assembly

1. Open the hood.


2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Headlight retainer pins (rotate to remove)
Headlight assembly
Electrical connectors
Headlamp bulb
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Headlight bulb
Electrical connectors
Headlight assembly
Headlight assembly retainer pins (rotate to lock)

New Style
New style headlight assembly

To Remove:
1. Open the hood.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Upper grille cover
Headlight retainer pins
Headlight assembly
Electrical connectors
Headlamp bulb
Headlamp seal (GMC diesel)
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Headlamp seal (GMC diesel)
Headlight bulb
Electrical connectors
Headlight assembly
Headlight assembly retainer pins
Upper grille cover

Aiming The Headlights


Headlights must be properly aimed to provide the best road illumination. The lights
should be checked for proper aim and adjusted as necessary. Certain state and local
authorities have requirements for headlight aim; these should be checked before
adjustment is made.
When adjusted properly, the lights should not glare in oncoming traffic's windshields, nor
should they illuminate the passenger compartment of vehicles driving in front of you.
These adjustments are rough and should always be fine-tuned with approved, headlight
aiming tools. Improper adjustments may be both dangerous and illegal. Temporary
headlight adjustment may be made using a wall, using the following procedure, or on the
rear of another vehicle.
CAUTION
When headlights are replaced or any time front-end work is performed on your vehicle,
the headlights should be accurately aimed using the proper equipment. Headlights not
properly aimed can make it virtually impossible to see and may blind other drivers on the
road, causing injury or death. The following procedure is a temporary fix, until you can
take your vehicle to a repair shop for a proper adjustment.
NOTE: Because the composite headlight assembly is bolted into position, no adjustment
should be necessary or possible. Some applications, however, may be bolted to an
adjuster plate or may be retained by adjusting screws. If so, follow this procedure when
adjusting the lights, but always have the adjustment checked by a qualified shop.
For most of the vehicles covered by this manual, horizontal and vertical aiming of each
sealed beam unit is provided by two adjusting screws that move the retaining ring and
adjusting plate against the tension of a spring. There are no adjustments for focus; this is
done during headlight manufacturing.
Before removing a headlight bulb or disturbing the headlamp in any way, note the
current settings in order to ease headlight adjustment upon reassembly. If the high or
low beam setting of the old lamp still works, this can be done using the wall of a garage
or a building:
1. Park the vehicle on a level-surface, with the fuel tank about 1/2 full and with the
vehicle empty of all extra cargo (unless normally carried)
The vehicle should be facing a wall that is no less than six feet (1.8m)
high and 12 feet (3.7m) wide
The front of the vehicle should be about 25 feet from the wall
If aiming is to be performed outdoors, wait until dusk to properly see the
headlight beams on the wall
If done in a garage, darken the area around the wall as much as possible
by closing shades or hanging cloth over windows
2. Turn the headlights ON
3. Mark the wall at the center of each light's low beam
4. Turn on the high beams and mark the center of each headlight's high beam.
A short length of masking tape that is visible from the front of the vehicle
may be used.

NOTE: Although marking all four positions is advisable, marking one position
from each light should be sufficient.
Low-beam headlight pattern alignment

5. Perform any necessary repairs


Make sure the vehicle is not moved, or is returned to the exact spot from
where the lights were marked
6. Turn the headlights ON
7. Adjust the beams to match the marks on the wall

Roof Marker Lights


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove the roof marker lamp lens mounting screws.


Remove the roof marker lamp lens.
Disconnect the roof marker lamp electrical connector.
Remove the marker lamp assembly.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Install the roof marker lamp assembly.


Connect the roof marker lamp electrical connector.
Install the roof marker lamp lens.
Install the roof marker lens mounting screws.
Tighten to 17 in lbs (1.9 Nm).

Front Turn Signal and Parking Lights


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Headlight assembly
Inboard retainer clip and the parking/turn signal lamp assembly
Electrical connector
Bulb
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Bulb
Electrical connector
Parking/turn signal lamp assembly
Headlight assembly

License Plate Lights


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
License light lens
Bulb
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Bulb
License light lens

Fog Lights
Removal & Installation
Except Z71
To Remove:
Fog light

1. Remove or disconnect the following:


Push pin fasteners from the inner fender
Fasteners from the front fascia, if necessary
The inner fender top harness retaining clips
Inner fender from the wheel opening
Fog lamp electrical connector
Fog lamp mounting bracket nuts
Fog lamp assembly off mounting studs
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Fog lamp assembly on the mounting studs
Fog lamp mounting bracket nuts.
A. Tighten to 89 lb in (10 Nm)
Fog lamp electrical connector
Inner fender to the wheel opening
The inner fender top harness retaining clips
Fasteners to the front fascia, if necessary
Push pin fasteners to the inner fender

Z71
To Remove:
Z71 Fog/Driving light removal

1. Remove or disconnect the following:


Electrical connectors from the fog lamps
2 nuts from the back of the fog lamps
Fog lamps from the lower fascia
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Fog lamps into the lower fascia
2 nuts on the back of the fog lamps tighten the nuts
A. Tighten to 80 in lbs (9 Nm).
Electrical connectors to the fog lamps
2. Turn on the fog lamps to check performance

To Remove:
Fog light

1. Remove or disconnect the following:


Push pin fasteners from the inner fender
Fasteners from the front fascia, if necessary
The inner fender top harness retaining clips
Inner fender from the wheel opening
Fog lamp electrical connector
Fog lamp mounting bracket nuts
Fog lamp assembly off mounting studs
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Fog lamp assembly on the mounting studs
Fog lamp mounting bracket nuts.
A. Tighten to 89 lb in (10 Nm)
Fog lamp electrical connector
Inner fender to the wheel opening
The inner fender top harness retaining clips
Fasteners to the front fascia, if necessary
Push pin fasteners to the inner fender

Dome Lamp
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
Remove dome lamp lens

1. Remove or disconnect the following:


Lamp lens assembly using a small screw driver
Dome lamp assembly from the headliner
Electrical connector.
Bulb.
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Bulb
Electrical connector.
Dome lamp assembly from the headliner
Lamp lens assembly using a small screw driver

Installing Aftermarket Auxiliary Lighting


NOTE: Before installing any aftermarket lighting, ensure that it is legal for road use. Most
acceptable lights will have a Department of Transportation (DOT) approval number. Also
check your local and regional inspection regulations. In certain areas, aftermarket
lighting must be installed in a particular manner or they may not be legal for your state's
inspection regulations.
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable
2. Unpack the contents of the light kit purchased. Place the contents in an open
space where you can easily retrieve a piece if needed
3. Choose a location for the lights. If you are installing fog lights, pick a location
below the bumper and apart from each other. Most fog lights are mounted below
or very close to the headlights. If you are installing driving lights, pick a location
above the bumper and close together. Most driving lights are mounted between
the headlights
4. Drill the needed hole(s) to mount the lights. Install the lights, and secure them
using the supplied retainer nut and washer. Tighten the light mounting hardware,
but not the light adjustment nut or bolt
NOTE: Attach all of the necessary wires to the relay before finding a permanent
installing to a permanent location. Once all of the wires are attached, you will be
aware of all the mounting options before drilling holes that cannot be used.
5. Using the wire supplied in the kit, locate the ground terminal on the relay, and
connect a length of wire from this terminal to a good ground source. You can drill
a hole and screw this wire to an inside piece of metal; just scrape the paint away
from the hole to ensure a good connection
6. Locate the light terminal on the relay; and attach a length of wire between this
terminal and the fog/driving lamps
7. Locate the ignition terminal on the relay, and connect a length of wire between
this terminal and the light switch
8. Install the relay that came with the light kit in the engine compartment, in a rigid
area, such as the fender, radiator support, or firewall
Always install the relay with the terminals facing down. This will help to
prevent water from entering the relay assembly
9. Find a suitable mounting location for the light switch and install.
Some examples of mounting areas are a location close to the main light
switch, auxiliary light position in the dash panel, if equipped, or in the
center of the dash panel
You will need to fish the wire through the firewall and into the driver's
compartment to connect to the switch. Use an existing firewall grommet to
maneuver the wire through, or drill an additional hole and insulate the
hole with a rubber grommet
NOTE: Depending on local and regional regulations, the other end of the switch
may be connected to a constant power source such as the battery, an ignition
opening in the fuse panel, or a parking or headlight wire.

10. Locate the power terminal on the relay, and connect a wire with an in-line fuse of
at least 10 amperes between the terminal and the battery
11. With all the wires connected and secured, connect the negative battery cable
12. Turn the lights ON and adjust the light pattern, as required
Aiming
1. Park the vehicle on level ground, so it is perpendicular to and, facing a flat wall
about 25 ft. (7.6m) away
2. Remove any stone shields, if equipped, and switch ON the lights
3. Loosen the mounting hardware of the lights so you can aim them as follows:
The horizontal distance between the light beams on the wall should be
the same as between the lights themselves
The vertical height of the light beams above the ground should be 4 in.
(10cm) less than the distance between the ground and the center of the
lamp lenses for fog lights. For driving lights, the vertical height should be
even with the distance between the ground and the center of the lamp
4. Tighten the mounting hardware
5. Test to make sure the lights work correctly, and the light pattern is even

6. Trailer Wiring
7. Wiring a vehicle for towing is fairly easy. There are a number of good wiring kits
available and these should be used rather than trying to design your own.
8. All trailers need brake lights and turn signals. They also require taillights and
side-marker lights. Most states require extra marker lights for oversized trailers.
Also, most states have recently required back-up lights for trailers. Most trailer
manufacturers have been building trailers with back-up lights for several years.
9. Additionally, some Class I, most Class II and just about all Class III and IV are
equipped with electric brakes. Add any wiring to power any accessories and to
operate trailer internal equipment or to charge the trailer's battery, and there can
be as many as seven wires in the harness.
10. Determine the equipment on your trailer and buy the wiring kit required for your
application. The kit will contain all the wires needed, plus a plug adapter set that
includes the female plug (mounted on the bumper or hitch) and the male plug
(wired into, or plugged into the trailer harness).
11. When installing the kit, follow the manufacturer's instructions. The color coding of
the wires is usually standard throughout the industry. One point to note: some
domestic vehicles, and most imported vehicles, have separate turn signals. On
most domestic vehicles, the brake lights and rear turn signals operate with the
same bulb. For those vehicles without separate turn signals, you can purchase
an isolation unit so that the brake lights won't blink whenever the turn signals are
operated.
12. One, final point, the best kits are those with a spring loaded cover on the vehicle
mounted socket. This cover prevents dirt and moisture from corroding the
terminals. Never let the vehicle socket hang loosely; always mount it securely to
the bumper or hitch.
13. NOTE: To protect the trailer plug terminals from corrosion, coat them with silicon
dielectric grease. This grease promotes good electrical connection and places a
water barrier on the terminals.

Doors
Door Lock Actuator
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise the window glass.
2. If equipped, remove the switch panel using the following procedure:
Pry into the slots of the switch assembly with a flat trim removal tool.
Remove the switch assembly harness electrical connector.
3. Remove the outside mirror mounting bolt trim cover by pulling the front edge out.
4. If equipped, remove the window crank handle by using a retaining clip removal
tool.
5. Remove the door handle bezel by inserting a flat trim removal tool between the
door panel and handle bezel to release the locking tabs.
6. Remove all door panel electrical connectors .
7. Remove the door panel push pins and trim screws. Lift the door panel up and out
to release the door panel locking tabs.
8. Remove the water shield.
9. Remove the rubber plug and disengage the outside handle rod retainer.
10. Disconnect the cylinder lock rod.
11. Remove the door lock actuator mounting bolts from the door panel.
12. Remove the door lock actuator and control rod assembly.
13. Disconnect the door lock actuator electrical connector.
14. Remove the control rods.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Install the control rods to the actuator assembly.


Connect the electrical connectors to the door lock actuator.
Connect the control rod to the outside door handle.
Connect the cylinder lock rod.
Position the door lock actuator to the door. Install the door lock actuator to door
mounting screws.
Tighten to 80 lb in (9 Nm).
6. Connect the manual door lock to the door retainer clips.
7. Connect the inside door handle control rod to the lock assembly.
8. Connect the inside door lock rod to the handle retainer clip.
9. Install the water shield.
10. Install all door panel electrical connectors.
11. Position the door panel tabs to the door panel. Install and secure the door panel
push pins and trim screws.
12. If equipped, connect the manual lock lever to the door trim panel.
13. If equipped, install the door handle bezel.
14. If equipped, install the window crank handle.
15. Install the outside mirror mounting bolt trim cover.
16. If equipped, Install the switch assembly harness electrical connector and press
the switch into the door panel.

Front Window Regulator Motor


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise the window and support the glass.
2. If the window motor does not operate it will be necessary to remove the glass to
access the window motor mounting bolts. Remove or disconnect:
Upper trim panel extension
Manual door-lock lever.
Door switch panel, if equipped
Electrical connectors
Door panel
Water deflector.
Window run channel front mounting bolt.
Loosen but do not remove the 2 window assembly mounting bolts.
Window glass from the door by sliding it out through the top of the door.
3. Disconnect the harness connector from the window motor.
4. Remove the 2 window glass mounting bolts from the window regulator.
5. Remove window regulator mounting bolts from the door panel.
6. Fold both sides of the window regulator assembly together. Remove the window
regulator assembly from the door.
NOTE: The spool will unwind if it comes out of the housing. Hold the gear/spool
into the housing while separating the regulator motor from the housing.
Separating window regulator motor from housing

7. Hold the motor and housing together and remove the remaining motor to housing
mounting bolt.
8. Slide the motor partially out of the gear/spool. Hold the gear/spool into the
housing and remove the motor.
To Install:
1. Position the regulator motor on the housing.
2. Align the gear teeth and housing mounting holes while pushing the motor into the
gear/spool.
3. Install the motor to housing mounting bolt first.
4. Slide the motor and housing assembly onto the rail and install the remaining 2
mounting bolts.
Tighten to 44 lb in (5 Nm).
5. Position the window regulator on the door panel. Install the regulator mounting
bolts using Permatex threadlocker 24200 or equivalent.
Tighten to 80 lb in (9 Nm).
6. Install the window glass to the regulator. Install the mounting bolts.
Tighten to 80 lb in (9 Nm).
7. Connect the window motor harness connector.
8. Install or connect:
Water deflector
Electrical connectors
Door panel
Door switch panel, if equipped
Manual door-lock lever
Upper trim panel extension

Rear Window Regulator Motor


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise the window and support the glass.
2. If the window motor does not operate it will be necessary to remove the glass to
access the window motor mounting bolts.
3. Remove or disconnect:
Upper trim panel extension
Manual door-lock lever.
Door switch panel, if equipped
Door panel
Electrical connectors
Water deflector.
Window run channel front mounting bolt.
Loosen but do not remove the 2 window assembly mounting bolts.
Window glass from the door by sliding it out through the top of the door.
4. If equipped, remove the door speaker.
5. Disconnect the window regulator motor harness connector.
6. Remove the 3 window motor mounting bolts.
Rear window regulator motor

7. NOTE: Do not allow the cable gear come out of the housing. If the cable comes
off the spool the regulator will not operate.
8. Separate the regulator motor from the cable housing by using a rocking motion
on the window motor.
9. Mark the window motor for reassembly.
10. Remove the motor from the window regulator assembly.
To Install:
1. Install the motor to the cable housing by using a rocking motion.
2. Install the 3 window motor mounting bolts.
Tighten to 44 lb in (5 Nm).
3. Install the window, if removed.
4. Connect the window regulator motor wiring harness.
5. Remove the window support.
6. Install or connect the following:
If equipped, the speaker.
Water deflector.
Electrical connectors
Door panel.
Door switch panel, if equipped
Manual door-lock lever.
Upper trim panel extension

DRIVE TRAIN
Automatic Transaxle
Understanding the Automatic Transmission
The automatic transmission allows engine torque and power to be transmitted to the rear
wheels within a narrow range of engine operating speeds. It will allow the engine to turn
fast enough to produce plenty of power and torque at very low speeds, while keeping it
at a sensible rpm at high vehicle speeds (and it does this job without driver assistance).
The transmission uses a light fluid as the medium for the transmission of power. This
fluid also works in the operation of various hydraulic control circuits and as a lubricant.
Because the transmission fluid performs all of these functions, trouble within the unit can
easily travel from one part to another. For this reason, and because of the complexity
and unusual operating principles of the transmission, a very sound understanding of the
basic principles of operation will simplify troubleshooting.
Torque Converter
The torque converter replaces the conventional clutch. It has three functions:
1. It allows the engine to idle with the vehicle at a standstill, even with the
transmission in gear.
2. It allows the transmission to shift from range-to-range smoothly, without requiring
that the driver close the throttle during the shift.
3. It multiplies engine torque to an increasing extent as vehicle speed drops and
throttle opening is increased. This has the effect of making the transmission more
responsive and reduces the amount of shifting required.
The torque converter is a metal case which is shaped like a sphere that has been
flattened on opposite sides. It is bolted to the rear end of the engine's crankshaft.
Generally, the entire metal case rotates at engine speed and serves as the engine's
flywheel.
The case contains three sets of blades. One set is attached directly to the case. This set
forms the impeller or pump. Another set is directly connected to the output shaft, and
forms the turbine. The third set is mounted on a hub which, in turn, is mounted on a
stationary shaft through a one-way clutch. This third set is known as the stator.
A pump, which is driven by the converter hub at engine speed, keeps the torque
converter full of transmission fluid at all times. Fluid flows continuously through the unit
to provide cooling.
Under low speed acceleration, the torque converter functions as follows:

The torque converter housing is rotated by the engine's


crankshaft, and turns the impeller--The impeller then spins
the turbine, which gives motion to the turbine shaft, driving
the gears

The impeller is turning faster than the turbine. It picks up fluid at the center of the
converter and, through centrifugal force, slings it outward. Since the outer edge of the
converter moves faster than the portions at the center, the fluid picks up speed.
The fluid then enters the outer edge of the turbine blades. It then travels back toward the
center of the converter case along the turbine blades. In impinging upon the turbine
blades, the fluid loses the energy picked up in the impeller.
If the fluid was now returned directly into the impeller, both halves of the converter would
have to turn at approximately the same speed at all times, and torque input and output
would both be the same.
In flowing through the impeller and turbine, the fluid picks up two types of flow, or flow in
two separate directions. It flows through the turbine blades, and it spins with the engine.
The stator, whose blades are stationary when the vehicle is being accelerated at low
speeds, converts one type of flow into another. Instead of allowing the fluid to flow
straight back into the impeller, the stator's curved blades turn the fluid almost 90 toward
the direction of rotation of the engine. Thus the fluid does not flow as fast toward the
impeller, but is already spinning when the impeller picks it up. This has the effect of
allowing the impeller to turn much faster than the turbine. This difference in speed may
be compared to the difference in speed between the smaller and larger gears in any
gear train. The result is that engine power output is higher, and engine torque is
multiplied.

As the speed of the turbine increases, the fluid spins faster and faster in the direction of
engine rotation. As a result, the ability of the stator to redirect the fluid flow is reduced.
Under cruising conditions, the stator is eventually forced to rotate on its one-way clutch
in the direction of engine rotation. Under these conditions, the torque converter begins to
behave almost like a solid shaft, with the impeller and turbine speeds being almost
equal.
Planetary Gearbox
The ability of the torque converter to multiply engine torque is limited. Also, the unit tends
to be more efficient when the turbine is rotating at relatively high speeds. Therefore, a
planetary gearbox is used to carry the power output of the turbine to the driveshaft.
Planetary gears work in a similar fashion to manual
transmission gears, but are composed of three parts

Planetary gears function very similarly to conventional transmission gears. However,


their construction is different in that three elements make up one gear system, and, in
that all three elements are different from one another. The three elements are: an outer
gear that is shaped like a hoop, with teeth cut into the inner surface; a sun gear,
mounted on a shaft and located at the very center of the outer gear; and a set of three
planet gears, held by pins in a ring-like planet carrier, meshing with both the sun gear
and the outer gear. Either the outer gear or the sun gear may be held stationary,
providing more than one possible torque multiplication factor for each set of gears. Also,
if all three gears are forced to rotate at the same speed, the gear set forms, in effect, a
solid shaft.

Planetary gears in the maximum reduction (low) range. The


ring gear is held and a lower gear ratio is obtained

Planetary gears in the minimum reduction (drive) range. The


ring gear is allowed to revolve, providing a higher gear ratio

Most automatics use the planetary gears to provide various reductions ratios. Bands and
clutches are used to hold various portions of the gear sets to the transmission case or to
the shaft on which they are mounted. Shifting is accomplished, then, by changing the
portion of each planetary gear set which is held to the transmission case or to the shaft.

Servos/Accumulators
The servos are hydraulic pistons and cylinders. They resemble the hydraulic actuators
used on many other machines, such as bulldozers. Hydraulic fluid enters the cylinder,
under pressure, and forces the piston to move to engage the band or clutches.
Servos, operated by pressure, are used to apply or release
the bands, to either hold the ring gear or allow it to rotate

The accumulators are used to cushion the engagement of the servos. The transmission
fluid must pass through the accumulator on the way to the servo. The accumulator
housing contains a thin piston, which is sprung away from the discharge passage of the
accumulator. When fluid passes through the accumulator on the way to the servo, it
must move the piston against spring pressure, and this action smoothes out the action of
the servo.

Hydraulic Control System


The hydraulic pressure used to operate the servos comes from the main transmission oil
pump. This fluid is channeled to the various servos through the shift valves. There is
generally a manual shift valve, which is operated by the transmission selector lever, and
an automatic shift valve for each automatic up shift the transmission provides.
NOTE: Many new transmissions such as the one in this vehicle are electronically
controlled, on these models; electrical solenoids are used to better control the hydraulic
fluid. Generally, the solenoids are regulated by an electronic control module.
There are two pressures which affect the operation of these valves. One is the governor
pressure which is affected by vehicle speed. The other is the modulator pressure which
is affected by intake manifold vacuum or throttle position. Governor pressure rises with
an increase in vehicle speed, and modulator pressure rises as the throttle is opened
wider. By responding to these two pressures, the shift valves cause the up shift points to
be delayed with increased throttle opening to make the best use of the engine's power
output.
Most transmissions also make use of an auxiliary circuit for downshifting. This circuit
may be actuated by the throttle linkage, vacuum that actuates the modulator, or by a
cable or solenoid. It applies pressure to a special downshift surface on the shift valve or
valves.
The transmission modulator also governs the line pressure, used to actuate the servos.
In this way, the clutches and bands will be actuated with a force matching the torque
output of the engine.

Transmission Assembly
Removal & Installation
4L60E/4L65E
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Transmission fluid
Transmission oil level indicator tube and seal from the transmission
Plug the oil level indicator tube opening in the transmission.
Remove or disconnect the following:
Shift cable end from the transmission shift lever ball stud
If equipped with a transfer case, remove the front propeller shaft.
Rear propeller shaft.
2. Plug the transmission oil cooler line connectors in the transmission case.
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Starter motor.
Transfer case, if equipped.
4. Support the transmission with a transmission jack.
5. Remove the transmission mount nuts.
6. Remove the transmission crossmember.
7. Remove or disconnect the following:
Torque converter access plug
4L60E/4L65E removal

Flywheel to torque converter bolts


The two bolts securing the transmission rear mount to the transmission
The transmission vent hose, fuel lines, and the wiring harness from the
transmission
The stud and the bolt securing the transmission to the engine
The six studs and one bolt securing the transmission to the engine. Install
tool J21366 onto the transmission bell housing to retain the torque
converter. Pull the transmission straight back.

The transmission from the vehicle


8. Flush the transmission oil cooler and cooling lines when you remove the
transmission.

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Tool J21366 onto the transmission bell housing to retain the torque
converter.
Support the transmission with a transmission jack.
2. Raise the transmission into place and remove the tool from the transmission.
3. Slide the transmission straight onto the locating pins while lining up the marks on
the flywheel and the torque converter. The torque converter must be flush onto
the flywheel and rotate freely by hand.
4. Install or connect the following:
Six studs and one bolt securing the transmission to the engine. Tighten
the studs and the bolt to 50 Nm (37 ft. lbs.).
Stud and bolt securing the transmission to the engine. Tighten the stud
and the bolt to 50 Nm (37 ft. lbs.).
Flywheel to torque converter bolts. Tighten the stud and the bolt to 46 Nm
(63 ft. lbs.).
Torque converter access plug.
Transmission vent hose, fuel lines, and the wiring harness to the
transmission.
Two bolts securing the heat shield to the transmission. Tighten the bolt to
17 Nm (13 ft. lbs.).
Two bolts securing the transmission rear mount to the transmission.
Tighten the bolts to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
Install the transmission crossmember. Tighten the nuts and bolts to 70 ft.
lbs. (95 Nm).
5. Remove the transmission jack from the transmission.
6. Unplug the transmission oil cooler line connectors in the transmission case.
7. Install or connect the following:
Starter
Transmission oil cooler lines to the transmission
If equipped with a transfer case, install the front propeller shaft.
The rear propeller shaft
The shift cable end to the transmission shift lever ball stud
8. Unplug the oil level indicator tube opening in the transmission.
9. Install the transmission oil level indicator tube and seal to the transmission.
10. Tighten the oil pan bolts and fill the transmission with transmission fluid.
11. Lower the vehicle.
4L80E/4L85E
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Transmission fluid
Transmission oil level indicator tube and seal from the transmission

2. Plug the oil level indicator tube opening in the transmission.


3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Shift cable from the transmission shift lever ball stud
If 4WD vehicle, remove the propeller shaft.
If RWD vehicle, remove the propeller shaft.
The transmission oil cooler lines from the transmission
4. Plug the transmission oil cooler line connectors in the transmission case.
5. Remove or disconnect the following:
Starter motor
6. Support the transmission with a transmission jack.
7. Remove or disconnect the following:
The two bolts securing the heat shield to the transmission
The transmission vent hose, fuel lines, and the wiring harness from the
transmission
One nut and one bolt securing the transmission brace to the engine
bracket and transmission
The two bolts securing the torque converter cover to the engine
The four bolts securing the torque converter cover to the transmission
The six flywheel to torque converter bolts
The two bolts and nut securing the transmission rear mount to the
transmission
The stud and the bolt on the right side securing the transmission to the
engine
The remaining six studs and the one bolt securing the transmission to the
engine
Tool J21366 onto the transmission bell housing to retain the torque
converter
4L80E/4L85E removal

8. Pull the transmission straight back. Remove the transmission from the vehicle.
9. Flush the transmission oil cooler and cooling lines when you remove the
transmission.

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Tool J21366 onto the transmission bell housing to retain the torque
converter
2. Support the transmission with a transmission jack.
3. Raise the transmission into place and remove the tool from the transmission.
4. Slide the transmission straight onto the locating pins while lining up the marks on
the flywheel and the torque converter. The torque converter must be flush onto
the flywheel and rotate freely by hand.
5. Install or connect the following:
Six studs and one bolt securing the transmission to the engine. Tighten
the studs and the bolt to 50 Nm (37 ft. lbs.).
The stud and bolt on the right side securing the transmission to the
engine. Tighten the stud and the bolt to 50 Nm (37 ft. lbs.).
Six flywheel to torque converter bolts. Tighten the bolts to 60 Nm (44 ft.
lbs.).
The two bolts securing the torque converter cover to the engine. Tighten
the bolt to 50 Nm (37 ft. lbs.).
The four bolts securing the torque converter cover to the transmission.
Tighten the stud and the bolt to 33 Nm (24 ft. lbs.).
The transmission vent hose, fuel lines, and the wiring harness to the
transmission.
The two bolts securing the heat shield to the transmission. Tighten the
bolt to 17 Nm (13 ft. lbs.).
The two bolts and nut securing the transmission rear mount to the
transmission. Tighten the bolts and nut to 25 Nm (18 ft. lbs.).
The flywheel to torque converter bolts.
One nut and one bolt securing the transmission brace to the engine
bracket and transmission. Tighten the bolts and nut to 50 Nm (37 ft. lbs.).
6. Remove the transmission jack from the transmission.
7. Install or connect the following:
Starter motor
8. Unplug the transmission oil cooler line connectors in the transmission case.
9. Connect the transmission oil cooler lines to the transmission.
10. Install or connect the following:
The transfer case
The rear propeller shaft
The shift cable end to the transmission shift lever ball stud
11. Unplug the oil level indicator tube opening in the transmission.
12. Install the transmission oil level indicator tube and seal to the transmission.
13. Tighten the oil pan bolts and fill the transmission with transmission fluid.
14. Lower the vehicle.

Transmission Fluid
Fluid Level Checking
Pre-Check Procedure
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface and start the engine.
2. Apply the parking brake and make sure the shift lever in PARK (P).
3. Depress the brake pedal and move the shift lever through each gear range,
pausing for about 3 seconds in each range. Then, return the shift lever back to
PARK (P).
4. Allow the engine to idle 500-800 RPM for at least 1 minute. Slowly release the
brake pedal.
5. Keep the engine running and observe the transmission fluid temperature (TFT)
using the Driver Information Center (DIC) or a scan tool.
6. Using the TFT reading, determine and perform the appropriate check procedure.
If the TFT reading is not within the required temperature ranges, allow the vehicle
to cool, or operate the vehicle until the appropriate TFT is reached.
Cold Check Procedure
CAUTION
Use the cold check procedure only as a reference to determine if the transmission has
enough fluid to be operated safely until the hot check procedure can be made.
NOTE: Use this cold check procedure to check fluid level when the fluid temperature is
between 80-90F (27-32C).
Start the engine and remove the dipstick from the tube, then wipe the dipstick end with a
clean rag or paper towel. Install the dipstick completely in the dipstick tube, wait three
seconds and then pull it back out again.
CAUTION
Always check the fluid level at least twice. Consistent readings are important to
maintaining proper fluid level. If inconsistent readings are noted, inspect the transmission
vent assembly to ensure it is clean and unclogged.
Keep the dipstick pointing down and check both sides of the dipstick, and read the lower
level. Repeat the check procedure to verify the reading. If the fluid level is below the
COLD check line, add only enough fluid as necessary to bring the level into the COLD
line. It does not take much fluid, generally less than one pint. Do not overfill. If the fluid
level is in the acceptable range, install the dipstick in the tube and flip the handle down to
lock it in place. Perform the hot check when the transmission reaches a normal operating
temperature between 180-200F (82-93C).

Hot Check Procedure


CAUTION
Use this procedure to check the transmission fluid level when the fluid temperature is
between 180-200F (82-93C). The fluid level rises as fluid temperature increases, so it
is important to ensure the transmission temperature is within range.
1. Start the engine and remove the dipstick from the tube, then wipe the dipstick
end with a clean rag or paper towel.
2. Install the dipstick completely in the tube, wait three seconds and then pull it back
out.
CAUTION
Always check the fluid level at least twice. Consistent readings are important to
maintaining proper fluid level. If inconsistent readings are noted, inspect the
transmission vent assembly to ensure it is clean and unclogged.
3. Keep the dipstick tip pointing down and check both sides of the dipstick. Read
the lower level. Repeat the check procedure to verify the reading.
4. A safe operating fluid level is within the HOT crosshatch band on the dipstick. If
the fluid level is not within the HOT band, and the transmission temperature is
between 180-200F (82-93C), add or drain fluid as necessary to bring the level
into the HOT band. If the fluid level is low, add only enough fluid to bring the level
into the HOT band.
5. If the fluid level is low, add only enough fluid to bring the level into the HOT band.
It does not take much fluid, generally less than one pint. Do not overfill. Also, if
the fluid level is low, inspect the transmission for leaks.
6. If the fluid level is in the acceptable range, push the dipstick back into the dipstick
tube all the way, and then flip the handle down to lock the dipstick in place.
7. If equipped, reset the transmission oil life monitor if the fluid was changed.

Transmission Park/Neutral Position (PNP) Switch


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Apply the park brake.


Shift the transmission into neutral.
Raise and suitably support the vehicle.
Remove the front propeller shaft, if equipped with 4-wheel drive.
Disconnect the electrical connector from the park/neutral position (PNP) switch.
Remove the nut from the manual shaft.
Remove the control lever from the manual shaft.
Remove the PNP switch mounting bolts.
Remove the switch from the manual shaft.
Transmission Position Sensor Removal

NOTE: If the PNP switch did not slide off the manual shaft, file the outer edge of the
manual shaft in order to remove any burrs.
To Install:
1. Install the PNP switch on the manual shaft by aligning the flats in the switch with
the flat surfaces on the manual shaft.
2. Slide the switch on the manual shaft until the switch contacts the mounting
bosses on the transmission.
NOTE: New switches will come with a positive assurance bracket. The positive
assurance bracket aligns the new switch in its proper position for installation and
the use of the park neutral switch aligner will not be necessary.

3. Install the PNP switch bolts finger tight.


Transmission Position Sensor adjustment

4. onto the PNP switch. Make sure the two slots on the switch where the manual
shaft is inserted are lined up with the lower two tabs on the tool.
5. Rotate the tool until the upper locator pin on the tool is lined up with the slot on
the top of the switch.
Tighten the bolts to 18 lb ft (25 Nm).
6. or positive assurance bracket from the switch.
7. Install the control lever on the manual shaft.
Tighten the nut to 18 lb ft (25 Nm).
8. Connect the electrical connector to the PNP switch.
9. Install the front propeller shaft of equipped.
10. Lower the vehicle.
11. Check the switch for proper operation. The engine must start in the park or
neutral positions only.
Adjustment
To Adjust:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Place the transmission range selector in the neutral position.


With an assistant in the drivers seat, raise and suitably support the vehicle.
Loosen the park/neutral position (PNP) switch mounting bolts.
While the vehicle is in neutral, rotate the switch while the assistant attempts to
start the engine.
Following a successful start, turn the engine off.
Tighten the PNP mounting bolts to 18 lb ft (25 Nm).
Lower the vehicle.
Check the PNP switch for proper operation.
Replace the PNP switch if proper operation can not be achieved.

Extension Housing Seal


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Remove the rear propeller shaft.


Remove the transmission mount.
Support the transmission with a transmission jack.
Place a drain pan under the vehicle.
Remove the case extension mounting bolts.
Remove the transmission case extension.
Remove and discard the case extension O-ring seal.

To Install:
1. Install a new case extension O-ring seal.
2. Install the case extension and mounting bolts.
Tighten the bolts to 33 lb ft (45 Nm).
3. Install the transmission mount.
4. Remove the drain pan and the transmission jack.
5. Install the front propeller shaft.
6. Fill the transmission to the proper level with DEXRON III transmission fluid.

Fluid Pan & Filter


Removal & Installation
4L60E/4L65E
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Raise and safely support the vehicle.


Place a drain pan under the transmission.
If equipped with a drain plug, drain the transmission fluid.
If necessary, remove the bolts and position aside the range selector cable
bracket for clearance while lowering the pan. It is not necessary to remove the
cable from the lever or bracket.
5. Remove the catalytic converter.
6. Remove the oil pan bolts from the front and sides of the pan only.
7. Loosen the rear oil pan mounting bolts about 4 turns.
8. Lightly tap the oil pan with a rubber mallet in order to loosen the pan and allow
the fluid to drain.
9. Remove the remaining oil pan bolts.
10. Remove the oil pan and the gasket.
11. Remove the filter by twisting and pulling on it.
12. Remove and discard the filter seal. The filter seal may be stuck in the pump; if
necessary, carefully use pliers or another suitable tool to remove the seal.
13. Clean the transmission and the oil pan sealing surfaces with solvent, and air dry.
You must remove all traces of the old gasket material.
To Install:
1. Coat the new filter seal with transmission fluid.
2. Install the new filter seal into the transmission case. Tap the seal into place using
a suitable size socket.
3. Install the new filter.
4. Install the oil pan and new gasket.
Tighten the bolts alternately and evenly to 97 lb in (11 Nm).
5. Install the catalytic converter.
6. If previously removed, install the range selector cable bracket and bolts.
Tighten the bolts to 18 lb ft (25 Nm).
7. Apply a small amount of sealant GM P/N 12346004 (Canadian P/N 10953480),
or equivalent to the threads of the oil pan drain plug, if equipped.
8. Install the oil pan drain plug, if equipped.
Tighten the plug to 13 lb ft (18 Nm).
9. Lower the vehicle.
10. Fill the transmission to the proper level with DEXRON III transmission fluid.
11. Check the COLD fluid level reading for initial fill only.
12. Inspect the oil pan gasket for leaks.

4L80E/4L85E
To Remove:
1. Raise and suitably support the vehicle.
2. Place a drain pan under the transmission oil pan. Drain the transmission fluid and
install the plug.
Tighten the drain plug to 13 lb ft (18 Nm).
3. Support the transmission with a transmission jack.
4. Remove the transmission crossmember.
5. Disconnect the range selector cable end from the transmission range selector
lever ball stud.
NOTE: It is not necessary to remove the selector cable from the bracket.
6. Remove the transmission range selector cable bracket. Reposition the bracket
and cable.
7. Remove the oil pan bolts.
NOTE: The transmission oil pan gasket is reusable. Replace as needed.
8. Remove the oil pan and gasket.
9. Remove the magnet from the bottom of the pan, if necessary.
10. Remove the oil filter and neck seal.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Clean the transmission and the oil pan sealing surfaces with solvent.
Install the filter neck seal and filter.
Install the oil pan gasket to the pan.
Install the magnet into the bottom of the pan, if necessary.
Install the oil pan and bolts.
Tighten the oil pan bolts to 18 lb ft (24 Nm).
6. Install the transmission range selector cable bracket.
Tighten the bolts to 18 lb ft (25 Nm).
7. Connect the range selector cable end to the transmission range selector lever
ball stud.
8. Install the transmission crossmember.
Tighten the fasteners to 70 lb ft (95 Nm).
9. Install the transmission mount nuts.
Tighten the nuts to 30 lb ft (40 Nm).
10. Remove the transmission jack.
11. Lower the vehicle.
12. Fill the transmission to the proper level with DEXRON III transmission fluid.

Manual Transmission
Understanding the Manual Transmission
Because of the way an internal combustion engine breathes, it can produce torque (or
twisting force) only within a narrow speed range. Most overhead valve pushrod engines
must turn at about 2500 rpm to produce their peak torque. Often by 4500 rpm, they are
producing so little torque that continued increases in engine speed produce no power
increases.
The torque peak on overhead camshaft engines is, generally, much higher, but much
narrower.
The manual transmission and clutch are employed to vary the relationship between
engine RPM and the speed of the wheels so that adequate power can be produced
under all circumstances. The clutch allows engine torque to be applied to the
transmission input shaft gradually, due to mechanical slippage. The vehicle can,
consequently, be started smoothly from a full stop.
The transmission changes the ratio between the rotating speeds of the engine and the
wheels by the use of gears. 4-speed or 5-speed transmissions are most common. The
lower gears allow full engine power to be applied to the rear wheels during acceleration
at low speeds.
The clutch driveplate is a thin disc, the center of which is splined to the transmission
input shaft. Both sides of the disc are covered with a layer of material which is similar to
brake lining and which is capable of allowing slippage without roughness or excessive
noise.
The clutch cover is bolted to the engine flywheel and incorporates a diaphragm spring,
which provides the pressure to engage the clutch. The cover also houses the pressure
plate. When the clutch pedal is released, the driven disc is sandwiched between the
pressure plate and the smooth surface of the flywheel, thus forcing the disc to turn at the
same speed as the engine crankshaft.
The transmission contains a mainshaft, which passes all the way through the
transmission, from the clutch to the driveshaft. This shaft is separated at one point, so
that front and rear portions can turn at different speeds.
Power is transmitted by a countershaft in the lower gears and reverse. The gears of the
countershaft mesh with gears on the mainshaft, allowing power to be carried from one to
the other. Countershaft gears are often integral with that shaft, while several of the
mainshaft gears can either rotate independently of the shaft or be locked to it. Shifting
from one gear to the next causes one of the gears to be freed from rotating with the shaft
and locks another to it. Gears are locked and unlocked by internal dog clutches, which
slide between the center of the gear and the shaft. The forward gears usually employ
synchronizers; friction members, which smoothly bring gear and shaft to the same speed
before the toothed dog clutches are engaged.

Back-Up Light Switch


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise and safely support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Electrical connector from back-up light switch
Back-up light switch
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Back-up light switch
Electrical connector to back-up light switch
2. Lower the vehicle
3. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Manual Transmission Assembly


Removal & Installation
NV3500
To Remove:
1. Shift the transmission into 3rd or 4th speed gear
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Shift lever
Shift tower
Transmission oil
If equipped with a transfer case, remove the front driveshaft
Rear drive shaft (See: Drive Shaft)
Two transfer case shields if equipped
Manual transfer case shift linkage
NV3500 removal

3.

4.
5.
6.

Bolt securing the left side support brace to the transmission if equipped
with a transfer case
Bolt and stud securing the left side support brace to the transfer case if
equipped with a transfer case
Bolt securing the right side support brace to the transmission if equipped
with a transfer case
Bolt securing the right side support brace to the transfer case if equipped
with a transfer case
Using tool J42371 or other suitable tool, push back on the white plastic sleeve on
the quick connect in order to separate the hydraulic clutch line from the
concentric slave cylinder quick connect
Disconnect the wiring harness and connector from the vehicle speed sensor,
backup lamp switch, and transmission harness retainers
Support the transmission with a transmission jack
Remove or disconnect the following:

Two bolts securing the clutch housing cover if equipped with a 4.3L
engine
Transmission rear mount
The bolts securing the bottom right side of the transmission to the engine
The stud securing the right side of the transmission to the engine
The bolt and six studs securing the transmission to the engine
7. Pull the transmission straight back on the clutch hub splines
NOTE: Do not let the transmission hang from the clutch plate and the clutch
cover.
8. Remove or disconnect the following:
Transmission from the vehicle
Clutch plate and the clutch cover from the engine flywheel if required
To install:
1. Install or connect the following:
2. Clutch plate and the clutch cover to the engine flywheel if removed
NOTE: Make sure the transmission is positioned in the 3rd or 4th speed gear
3. Rotate the transmission clockwise onto the clutch hub splines.
4. Install or connect the following:
Install the bolt and the studs securing the transmission to the engine and
tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
The stud securing the right side of the transmission to the engine and
tighten the stud
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
The bolts securing the bottom right side of the transmission to the engine
and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Clutch housing cover using the two bolts and tighten the bolts if equipped
with a 4.3L engine
A. Torque to: 10 ft. lbs. (14 Nm)
The transmission rear mount
Clutch line to the concentric slave cylinder
Bolt securing the right side support brace to the transmission and tighten
the bolts if equipped with a transfer case
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Bolt securing the right side support brace to the transfer case and tighten
the bolts if equipped with a transfer case
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Bolt and stud securing the left side support brace to the transfer case and
tighten the bolts if equipped with a transfer case
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Bolt securing the left side support brace to the transmission and tighten
the bolts if equipped with a transfer case
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)

Manual transfer case shift linkage if equipped with a manual transfer case
Two transfer case shields if equipped
Front driveshaft if equipped with a transfer case
The rear drive shaft (See: Drive Shaft)
The shift tower
5. Fill the transmission with transmission fluid
6. Install the shift lever
7. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs
NV4500
To Remove:
1. Shift the transmission into 3rd or 4th speed gear
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
The shift lever
The shift tower
The transmission oil
Front driveshaft if equipped with a transfer case
The rear drive shaft (See: Drive Shaft)
The two transfer case shields
Manual transfer case shift linkage if equipped with a manual transfer case
The two bolts securing the right side support bracket to the transmission
3. Using tool J42371, push back on the white plastic sleeve on the quick connect in
order to separate the hydraulic clutch line from the concentric slave cylinder quick
connect
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
The wiring harness and connector from the vehicle speed sensor, backup
lamp switch, and transmission harness retainers
NV4500

The four bolts securing the clutch housing cover to the transmission
The bolt securing the left side transmission to engine cover
The bolt securing the right side transmission to engine cover

The transmission rear mount and support the transmission with a


transmission jack
The bolts and studs securing the transmission to the engine
5. Pull the transmission straight back on the clutch hub splines
NOTE: Do not let the transmission hang from the clutch plate and the clutch
cover.
6. Remove or disconnect the following:
Transmission from the vehicle
Clutch plate and the clutch cover from the engine flywheel if required
To install:
1. Install or connect the following:
The clutch plate and the clutch cover to the engine flywheel if removed
2. Ensure the transmission is positioned in the 3rd or 4th speed gear
3. Rotate the transmission clockwise onto the clutch hub splines.
4. Install or connect the following:
Bolt and the studs securing the transmission to the engine and tighten the
bolts
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
The bolt securing the right side transmission to engine cover and tighten
the bolt
A. Torque to: 10 ft. lbs. (14 Nm)
The bolt securing the left side transmission to engine cover and tighten
the bolt
A. Torque to: 10 ft. lbs. (14 Nm)
The four bolts securing the clutch cover to the transmission and tighten
the bolt
A. Torque to: 10 ft. lbs. (14 Nm)
The transmission rear mount
Clutch line to the concentric slave cylinder
The two bolts securing the right side support bracket to the transmission
and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Manual transfer case shift linkage if equipped with a manual transfer case
Two transfer case shields if equipped
Front driveshaft if equipped with a transfer case
The rear drive shaft (See: Drive Shaft)
The shift tower
5. Fill the transmission with transmission fluid
6. Install the shift lever
7. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Extension Housing Seal


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise and safely support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Rear drive shaft (See: Rear Drive Shaft)
NV4500 rear drive shaft yoke removal

Main shaft nut


Drive shaft yoke washer
Main shaft washer
Yoke
NV4500 rear oil seal removal

Rear seal using J 6125-B (A) and 123129 (B) or other suitable seal
removal tools

To Install:
NV3500 rear oil seal installation

1. Install or connect the following:


New rear oil seal using J 36503 or other suitable seal installer
Yoke
New main shaft washer
New drive shaft yoke washer
Main shaft nut
NV4500 rear yoke tightening

2. If required, use J 8614-01 or other suitable tool in order to keep the yoke from
rotating and tighten the main shaft nut
Torque to: 325 ft. lbs. (441 Nm)

3.
4.
5.
6.

Install the rear drive shaft (See: Rear Drive Shaft)


Check the transmission fluid level and add if necessary
Lower the vehicle
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Shift Lever
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
NOTE: Make sure that the control levers positioned into the mechanical third or fourth
gear prior to removal of the shift lever from the transmission. The transmission must
remain in this state when the shift lever is removed. Do not disassemble the
transmission shift lever. Internal parts for this shift lever are not available. Opening the
shift lever voids the warranty. When removing the shift lever from the transmission, use
the exposed bolts on the base of the lever.

3500 Shift lever assembly removal

4500 and ZF S6-650 Shift lever assembly removal

1. Remove or disconnect the following:


Control lever and boot
ZF S6-650 Shift tower bolts access

2. With a flat bladed tool, pull back the insulator between the body and transmission
to access the shift tower bolts on the ZF S6-650 transmission only

3. Remove or disconnect the following:


Boot
Shift level bolts
Shift lever and seal
Shift lever insulator
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
New shift lever insulator
Shift lever seal and lever
Shift lever bolts and tighten the shift lever bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Boot
Control lever and boot
2. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Clutch
Understanding the Clutch
The clutch is a thin disc, the center of which is splined to the transmission input (main)
shaft. Both sides of the disc are covered with a layer of material which is similar to brake
lining and which is capable of allowing slippage without roughness or excessive noise.
The clutch pressure plate is bolted to the engine flywheel and incorporates a diaphragm
spring, which provides the pressure to engage the clutch. The clutch disc is sandwiched
between the pressure plate and flywheel. When the clutch pedal is released, the clutch
disc is pressed against the smooth surface of the flywheel, thus forcing the clutch disc to
turn at the same speed as the engine crankshaft.
The transmission contains a mainshaft, which passes all the way through the
transmission, from the clutch to the driveshaft. This shaft is separated at one point, so
that front and rear portions can turn at different speeds.
CAUTION
The clutch driven disc may contain asbestos, which has been determined to be a cancer
causing agent. Never clean clutch surfaces with compressed air! Avoid inhaling dust
from any clutch surface! When cleaning clutch surfaces, use a commercially available
brake cleaning fluid.

Clutch Disc & Pressure Plate


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Manual Transmission (See: Manual Transmission)
Quick disconnect from the slave cylinder
2. Install a clutch alignment tool
3. Mark the flywheel and a clutch pressure plate lug for the installation alignment
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Pressure plate bolts and the washers
5. Secure the clutch pressure plate and the clutch driven plate to the flywheel
6. Remove the clutch alignment tool
To install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Bolts and the washers securing the clutch pressure plate and the clutch
driven plate to the flywheel
Clutch alignment tool
2. Align the marks made during removal or, if new align the lightest part of the
clutch pressure plate identified by a yellow dot, to the heaviest part of the

3.
4.

5.
6.

flywheel, identified by an "X". Tighten the clutch pressure plate to the flywheel
bolts
Torque to: 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm)
Remove the clutch alignment tool
Install or connect the following:
Manual Transmission (See: Manual Transmission)
Quick disconnect to the concentric slave cylinder
Bleed the clutch hydraulic system if necessary
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Clutch Master Cylinder


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Clutch pedal postion switch electrical connector removal

Clutch pedal position switch electrical connector (A)


NOTE: Push the clutch pedal in and squeeze the pushrod bushing tabs
in, in order to release the pushrod bushing from the clutch pedal.

3500 and 4500 Clutch slave cylinder to master cylinder line disconnect

ZF S6-650 Clutch slave cylinder to master cylinder line


disconnect

Clutch slave cylinder to clutch master cylinder quick connect fitting


Clutch master cylinder clip from the brake pressure module valve pipe

Unlock the clutch master cylinder

2. Rotate the clutch master cylinder 45 degrees clockwise to the unlocked position
3500 and 4500 clutch master cylinder removal

ZF S6-650 clutch master cylinder removal

3. Clutch master cylinder

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Clutch master cylinder
Master cylinder by pushing in and rotating the clutch master cylinder 45
degrees counterclockwise to the locked position
Clutch slave cylinder to clutch master cylinder quick connect fitting
Clutch master cylinder clip to the brake pressure module valve pipe
2. Apply light pressure to the clutch pedal to couple the pushrod socket to the clutch
pedal while connecting the clutch pedal position switch electrical connector
3. Pump the clutch pedal a few times before starting the vehicle to be sure
connection is complete
4. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Hydraulic System
Bleeding
NOTE: Bleeding air from the hydraulic clutch system is necessary whenever any part of
the system has been disconnected or the fluid level (in the reservoir) has been allowed
to fall so low, that air has been drawn into the master cylinder.

Fill master cylinder reservoir with new brake fluid conforming to DOT 3
specifications
Have an assistant fully depress and hold the clutch pedal, then open the bleeder
screw
Close the bleeder screw and have your assistant release the clutch pedal
Repeat the procedure until all of the air is evacuated from the system
Check and refill master cylinder reservoir as required to prevent air from being
drawn through the master cylinder
NOTE: Never release a depressed clutch pedal with the bleeder screw open or
air will be drawn into the system.

Test the clutch for proper operation.

Slave Cylinder
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Manual transmission (See: Manual Transmission)
Clutch slave cylinder removal

Clutch slave cylinder bolts


Clutch slave cylinder

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Clutch slave cylinder
Clutch slave cylinder bolts and tighten the clutch slave cylinder bolts
A. Torque to: 71 inch lbs. (8 Nm)
Manual transmission (See: Manual Transmission)
2. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Driveshaft & U-Joints


Driveshaft
Removal & Installation
Front Driveshaft
To Remove:
1. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
2. Remove the transfer case shield, if equipped.
3. If equipped with the double clamp style boot, remove the clamp at the transfer
case by prying up the exposed end of the clamp with a flat-bladed tool.
4. Reference mark the relationship of the propeller shaft to the front axle pinion
yoke.
CAUTION
Do not attempt to remove the shaft by pounding on the yoke ears or using a tool
between the yoke and the universal joint. If the propeller shaft is removed by
using such means, the injection joints may fracture and lead to premature failure
of the joint.
5. Remove the bolts and yoke retainers from the front axle pinion yoke. Be careful
not to drop the bearing cap assemblies of the yoke.
6. Disconnect the drive shaft from the front axle pinion yoke.
7. Wrap the bearing caps with tape in order to prevent the loss of bearing rollers.
8. If equipped with the single clamp style boot, disconnect the boot from the groove
on the transfer case output shaft.
9. If equipped with the double clamp style boot, disconnect the boot from the groove
on the transfer case output shaft.
10. Remove the drive shaft from the transfer case output shaft by sliding the drive
shaft forward.
To Install:
1. Lubricate the shaft splines with grease, GM P/N 12345879 (Canadian P/N
10953511), or equivalent lubricant meeting GM Specification 9985830.
2. If equipped with the double clamp style boot, install a new clamp in the groove of
the drive shaft boot.
3. Install the drive shaft splines in the transfer case output shaft.
4. If equipped with the single clamp style boot, install the drive shaft splines into the
transfer case output shaft.
5. Install the drive shaft to the front axle yoke. Align the reference marks made
during removal.
6. Install the yoke retainers and the bolts.
Tighten the bolts to 18 lb ft (25 Nm).
7. Install the boot onto the transfer case output shaft until the boot snaps into the
groove on the output shaft.

8. If equipped with the double clamp style boot, crimp the clamp until the
dimensions shown in the illustration are obtained.
9. Install the transfer case shield, if equipped.
10. Lower the vehicle.
Front driveshaft boot clamp installation

Rear Driveshaft
One-Piece Driveshaft
To Remove:
NOTE: To preserve balance and reduce vibration, accurately reference mark all driveline
components relative to the propeller shaft and axles before disassembly. These
components include the propeller shafts, the drive axles, the pinion flanges, the output
shafts, etc. All components must be reassembled in the original locations.
1. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
2. Reference mark the propeller shaft to the rear pinion yoke.
3. Reference mark the propeller shaft to the transmission or transfer case if
equipped.
4. Remove the yoke retainers from the rear pinion yoke.
CAUTION
Do not attempt to remove the shaft from the yoke by pounding on the yoke ears
or using a tool between the yoke and the universal joint. Damage to the universal
joint may occur.
5. Slide the propeller shaft forward to remove it from the rear pinion yoke.
6. Slide the propeller shaft rearward in order to disconnect the propeller shaft from
the transmission or transfer case.
7. Remove the propeller shaft from the vehicle.

To Install:
1. Lubricate the shaft splines with grease, GM P/N 12345879 (Canadian P/N
10953511), or equivalent lubricant meeting GM Specification 9985830.
2. Install the propeller shaft into the transmission or transfer case. Align the
reference marks made during removal.
3. Align the reference marks made during removal and install the propeller shaft to
the rear pinion yoke.
4. Install the yoke retainers.
Tighten the bolts to 19 lb ft (25 Nm).
5. Lower the vehicle.
Two-Piece Driveshaft
To Remove:
1. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
2. Reference mark the propeller shaft to the pinion flange and the slip yoke to the
transmission or transfer case.
3. Remove the bolts and yoke retainers from the rear axle pinion flange.
4. Remove the clamps securing the boot to the slip yoke and the stub shaft.
5. Slide the drive shaft forward to remove it from the rear axle pinion flange.
6. Slide the drive shaft rearward to remove it from the transmission or transfer case.
7. Remove the drive shaft from the vehicle.
8. Remove the boot.
9. Remove the center bearing support nuts and support.
10. Remove the drive shaft from the transmission or transfer case.
11. Clean all parts with solvent.
12. Inspect the outer diameter of the slip yoke for burrs that may damage
transmission seal.
13. Inspect the universal joint bearings for wear and replace as needed.
To Install:
1. Lubricate the slip joint splines.
2. Install the drive shaft into the transmission or transfer case.
3. Install the center bearing support.
Tighten the nuts to 30 lb ft (40 Nm).
4. Install the boot on the stub shaft. Lubricate the stub shaft.
5. Install the stub shaft onto the slip yoke.
6. Mate the missing tooth in the yoke with the bridged tooth on the shaft.
7. Align the reference marks made during removal. Install the drive shaft to the rear
axle pinion flange.
Tighten the yoke retainer bolts to 19 lb ft (25 Nm).
8. Install the clamps onto the stub shaft and the slip yoke boot.
9. Lower the vehicle.

Universal Joint
Removal & Installation
NOTE: Never clamp drive shaft tubing in a vise. Clamping could dent or deform the tube
causing an imbalance or unsafe condition. Always clamp on one of the yokes and
support the shaft horizontally. Avoid damaging the slip yoke sealing surface. Nicks may
damage the bushing or cut the lip seal.
Snapring Type
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove the driveshaft(s) from the truck.


Remove the lockrings from the yoke and remove the lubrication fitting.
Support the yoke in a bench vise. Never clamp the driveshaft tube.
Use a soft drift pin and hammer to drive against one trunnion bearing to drive the
opposite bearing from the yoke.
NOTE: The bearing cap cannot be driven completely out.

5.
6.
7.
8.

Grasp the cap and work it out.


Support the other side of the yoke and drive the other bearing cap from the yoke.
Remove the trunnion from the driveshaft yoke.
If equipped with a sliding sleeve, remove the trunnion bearings from the sleeve
yoke in the same manner as above. Remove the seal retainer from the end of the
sleeve and pull the seal and washer from the retainer.

To Install:
1. If re-using the universal joint, repack the bearings with grease and replace the
trunnion dust seals after any operation that requires disassembly of the U-joint.
But be sure that the lubricant reservoir at the end of the trunnion is full of
lubricant. Fill the reservoirs with lubricant from the bottom.
2. Install the trunnion into the driveshaft yoke and press the bearings into the yoke
over the trunnion hubs as far as it will go.
3. Install the lockrings.
4. Hold the trunnion in one hand and tap the yoke slightly to seat the bearings
against the lockrings.
5. On the rear driveshafts, install the sleeve yoke over the trunnion hubs and install
the bearings in the same manner as above.

Installing the retaining ring<em dash>snapring-type

Seating the U-joint snapring

Exploded view of the internal snapring U-joint

Exploded view of the external snapring U-joint

Molded Retainer Type


To Remove:
1. Remove the driveshaft.
2. Support the driveshaft in a horizontal position. Place the U-joint so that the lower
ear of the shaft yoke is supported by a 1 1/8 in. socket. Press the lower bearing
cup out of the yoke ear. This will shear the plastic retaining the lower bearing
cup.
CAUTION
Never clamp the driveshaft tubing in a vise. This may damage the tube.
3. If the bearing cup is not completely removed, lift the cross, insert a spacer and
press the cup completely out.
4. Rotate the driveshaft, shear the opposite plastic retainer, and press the other
bearing cup out in the same manner.
5. Remove the cross from the yoke. Production U-joints cannot be reassembled.
There are no bearing retainer grooves in the cups. Discard all parts that we
removed and substitute those in the overhaul kit.
6. Remove the sheared plastic bearing retainer. Drive a small pin or punch through
the injection holes to aid in removal.
7. If the front U-joint is serviced, remove the bearing cups from the slip yoke in the
manner previously described.
To Install:
1. Be sure that the seals are installed on the service bearing cups to hold the
needle bearings in place for handling. Grease the bearings if they aren't pregreased.
2. Install one bearing cup partway into one side of the yoke and turn this ear to the
bottom.
3. Insert the opposite bearing cup partway. Be sure that both trunnions are started
straight into the bearing cups.
4. Press against opposite bearing cups, working the cross constantly to be sure that
it is free in the cups. If binding occurs, check the needle rollers to be sure that
one needle has not become lodged under an end of the trunnion.
5. As soon as one bearing retainer groove is exposed, stop pressing and install the
bearing retainer snapring.
6. Continue to press until the opposite bearing retainer can be installed. If difficulty
installing the snaprings is encountered, tap the yoke with a hammer to spring the
yoke ears slightly.
7. Assemble the other half of the U-joint in the same manner.

Pressing out the U-joint

Using the spacer<em dash>molded-type

Partially inserted bearing cup

Align the trunnion between the bearing cups

Differential Carrier Bushing


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove the differential carrier from the vehicle.
2. Use a commercially available bushing remover/installer to remove the bushing
from the axle housing.
To Install:
1. Install the bushing with a commercially available bushing remover/installer.
2. Install the differential carrier in the vehicle.

Pinion Seal
Removal & Installation

To Remove:
Measuring the pinion rotating torque

Scribed marks

Removing the pinion nut

Removing the pinion flange

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Raise and safely support the vehicle.


Matchmark and disconnect the front driveshaft at the carrier.
Remove the wheels.
Dismount the calipers and wire them up, out of the way.
Place an inch pound torque wrench on the pinion nut. Measure the torque
needed to rotate the pinion one full revolution. Record the measurement.
6. Matchmark the pinion flange, shaft and nut. Count and record the number of
exposed threads on the pinion shaft.
7. Hold the flange and remove the nut and washer.
8. Using a puller, remove the flange.
9. Carefully pry the seal from its bore. Be careful to avoid scratching the seal bore.
10. Remove the deflector from the flange.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Clean the seal bore thoroughly.


Remove any burrs from the deflector staking on the flange.
Tap the deflector onto the flange and stake it in three places.
Position the new seal in the carrier bore and drive it into place until flush. Coat
the seal lips with wheel bearing grease.
5. Coat the outer edge of the flange neck with wheel bearing grease and slide it
onto the pinion shaft.
6. Place a new washer and nut onto the pinion shaft and tighten it to the position
originally recorded. That is, the alignment marks are aligned, and the recorded
number of threads are exposed on the pinion shaft.
CAUTION
Never hammer the flange onto the pinion!
7. Measure the rotating torque of the pinion. Compare this to the original torque.
Tighten the pinion nut, in small increments, until the rotating torque is 3 inch lbs.
(0.35 Nm) GREATER than the original torque.
8. Install the driveshaft.
9. Install the calipers and install the wheels.

Rear Axle
Axle Housing Assembly
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise and safely support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Wheel and tire assemblies
Axle lubricant into a suitable container
Rear driveshaft
Parking brake cable
Brake calipers
Shock absorbers from the axle brackets
Vent hose from the rear axle vent fitting
Nuts and the washers from the U-bolts
U-bolts, spring plates and spacers from the axle assembly
3. Lower the axle assembly from the vehicle
To Install:
1. Place the rear axle assembly under the vehicle
2. Align the rear axle assembly with the springs then connect the spacers, spring
plates and the U-bolts to the rear axle
3. Raise the rear axle assembly into position
4. Install or connect the following:
Washers and nuts to the U-bolts; Torque to: 59 lb-ft. (80 Nm) then,
Torque to: 89 lb-ft. (120 Nm)
Vent hose to the rear axle vent fitting
Shock absorbers to the rear axle
Brake calipers (See: Brake Caliper)
Parking brake cable (See: Parking Brake Cable)
Rear driveshaft (See: Rear Driveshaft)
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Fill the rear axle with lubricant


Bleed the brake system (See: Brake Bleeding)
Install the wheel and tire assemblies
Lower the vehicle to the ground
Torque lug nuts as follows:
Single Wheel: Torque to: 140 lb-ft. (190 Nm)
Dual Wheel: Torque to: 175 lb-ft. (240 Nm)
10. Road test the vehicle to check performance

Axle Shaft, Bearing & Seal


Removal & Installation
Semi-Floating Non-Locking Differentials

To Remove:
Remove the differential pinion shaft lock screw

Remove the pinion shaft

Remove the C-lock from the inner (button) end of the shaft

1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheel and tire assembly but do not remove the
lug nuts
3. Raise and support the vehicle
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Wheel and tire assembly
Brake drums (See: Brake Drum)
Differential cover
5. Turn the differential until you can reach the differential pinion shaft lock screw
6. Remove the lock screw and the pinion shaft
7. Push in on the axle end
8. Remove the C-Clip from the inner (button) end of the shaft
9. Remove the shaft being careful of the oil seal
NOTE: You can pry the oil seal out of the housing by placing the inner end of the axle
shaft behind the steel case of the seal, then prying it out carefully. A puller or a slide
hammer is required to remove the bearing from the housing.
To Install:
1. Pack the new or existing bearing with wheel bearing grease then lubricate the
cavity between the seal lips with the same grease
NOTE: The bearing has to be driven into the housing.
NOTE: Do not use a drift as you might cock the bearing in its bore. Use a piece
of pipe or a large socket instead. Drive only on the outer bearing race. In a similar
manner drive the seal in flush with the end of the tube.
2. Slide the shaft into place turning it slowly until the splines are engaged with the
differential being careful of the oil seal
3. Install the C-Clip on the inner axle end

4. Pull the shaft out so that the C-Clip seats in the counter bore of the differential
side gear
5. Position the differential pinion shaft through the case and the pinion gears
aligning the lock screw hole
6. Install the lock screw
7. Install the cover with a new gasket then tighten the bolts evenly in a crisscross
pattern
8. Fill the axle with lubricant
9. Install the brake drums (See: Brake Drum)
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

10. Install the wheel and tire assembly


11. Lower the vehicle to the ground
12. Torque lug nuts as follows:
Single Wheel: Torque to: 140 lb-ft. (190 Nm)
Dual Wheel: Torque to: 175 lb-ft. (240 Nm)
13. Road test the vehicle to check performance
Remove the axle shaft from the vehicle

Use a puller to remove the oil seal

Install the oil seal using a seal installer

Semi-Floating Locking Differentials


To Remove:
NOTE: This axle uses a thrust block on the differential pinion shaft.
1. Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheel and tire assembly but do not remove the
lug nuts
2. Raise and support the vehicle
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Wheel and tire assembly
Brake drums if equipped
A. Clean off the differential cover area then loosen the cover to drain
the lubricant into a suitable container
Differential cover

Positioning the case for the best clearance-semi-floating


axle w/locking differential

Aligning the lock-semi-floating axle w/locking differential

5. Rotate the differential case so that you can remove the lock screw then support
the pinion shaft so it can't fall into the housing
6. Remove the differential pinion shaft lock screw
7. Carefully pull the pinion shaft partway out then rotate the differential case until
the shaft touches the housing at the top
8. Use a screwdriver to position the C-Clip with its open end directly inward
NOTE: You cannot push in the axle shaft until you do this.
9. Push the axle shaft in then remove the C-Clip
10. Remove the shaft being careful of the oil seal
NOTE: You can pry the oil seal out of the housing by placing the inner end of the axle
shaft behind the steel case of the seal then prying it out carefully. A puller or a slide
hammer is required to remove the bearing from the housing.

To Install:
1. Pack the new or existing bearing with wheel bearing grease then lubricate the
cavity between the seal lips with the same grease
NOTE: The bearing has to be driven into the housing. Don't use a drift as you
might cock the bearing in its bore. Use a piece of pipe or a large socket instead.
Drive only on the outer bearing race. In a similar manner drive the seal in flush
with the end of the tube.
2. Slide the shaft into place turning it slowly until the splines are engaged with the
differential being careful of the oil seal
3. Keep the pinion shaft partway out of the differential case while installing the CClip on the axle shaft
4. Place the C-Clip on the axle shaft then carefully pull out on the axle shaft until the
C-Clip is clear of the thrust block
5. Position the differential pinion shaft through the case and the pinion gears
aligning the lock screw hole
6. Install the lock screw
7. Install the cover with a new gasket then tighten the bolts evenly in a crisscross
pattern
8. Fill the axle with lubricant
9. Install the brake drums if equipped
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

10. Install the wheel and tire assembly


11. Lower the vehicle to the ground
12. Torque lug nuts to specification
13. Road test the vehicle to check performance
Full-Floating Axles
To Remove:
NOTE: The procedures are the same for locking and non-locking axles.
NOTE: The best way to remove the bearings from the wheel hub is with an arbor press.
Use of a press reduces the chances of damaging the bearing races, cocking the bearing

in its bore, or scoring the hub walls. A local machine shop is probably equipped with the
tools to remove and install bearings and seals. However, if one is not available, the
hammer and drift method outlined can be used.
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Loosen the lug nuts on the wheel and tire assembly but do not remove the lug
nuts
3. Raise and support the vehicle
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Wheel and tire assembly
Bolts and lock washers that attach the axle shaft flange to the hub
Exploded view of the axle, hub and drum assembly-full-floating axle, 9 3/4 and 10 1/2 in.

Removing the bearing adjusting nut-full-floating axle, 9 3/4


and 10 1/2 in.

Removing the bearing outer cup-full-floating axle, 9 3/4 and


10 1/2 in.

Tightening the adjusting nut-full-floating axle, 9 3/4 and 10


1/2 in.

5. Tap on the flange with a soft faced hammer to loosen the shaft
6. Grip the rib on the end of the flange with a pair of locking pliers then twist to start
shaft removal
7. Remove the shaft from the axle tube

NOTE: The hub and drum assembly must be removed to remove the bearings
and oil seals. You will need a large socket to remove and later adjust the bearing
adjustment nut. There are also special tools available.
8. Disengage the tang of the locknut retainer from the slot or slat of the locknut then
remove the locknut from the housing tube
9. Disengage the tang of the retainer from the slot or flat of the adjusting nut then
remove the retainer from the housing tube
10. Remove the adjusting nut from the housing tube
11. Remove the thrust washer from the housing tube
12. Pull the hub and drum straight off the axle housing
13. Remove the oil seal then discard
14. Use a hammer and a long drift to knock the inner bearing, cup, and oil seal from
the hub assembly
15. Remove the outer bearing snap-ring with a pair of pliers
NOTE: It may be necessary to tap the bearing outer race away from the retaining
ring slightly by tapping on the ring to remove.
16. Drive the outer bearing from the hub with a hammer and drift
To Install:
1. Place the outer bearing into the hub
NOTE: The larger outside diameter of the bearing should face the outer end of
the hub. Drive the bearing into the hub using a washer that will cover both the
inner and outer races of the bearing. Place a socket on top of this washer then
drive the bearing into place with a series of light taps. If available an arbor press
should be used for this job.
2. Drive the bearing past the snap-ring groove then install the snap-ring
3. Rotate the hub assembly then drive the bearing back against the snap-ring
NOTE: Protect the bearing by placing a washer on top of it. You can use the
thrust washer that fits between the bearing and the adjusting nut for the job.
4. Place the inner bearing into the hub
5. The thick edge should be toward the shoulder in the hub then press the bearing
into the hub until it seats against the shoulder using a washer and socket as
outlined earlier
NOTE: Ensure that the bearing is not cocked and that it is fully seated on the
shoulder.
6. Pack the cavity between the oil seal lips with wheel bearing grease then position
it in the hub bore
7. Carefully press it into place on top of the inner bearing
8. Pack the wheel bearings with grease then lightly coat the inside diameter of the
hub bearing contact surface and the outside diameter of the axle housing tube

9. Ensure that the inner bearing, oil seal, axle housing oil deflector, and outer
bearing are properly positioned
10. Install the hub and drum assembly on the axle housing being careful not to
damage the oil seal or dislocate other internal components
11. Install the thrust washer so that the tang on the inside diameter of the washer is
in the keyway on the axle housing
12. Install the adjusting nut;
Torque to: 50 lb-ft. (68 Nm) while rotating the hub
A. On vehicles with an 11 in. ring gear back off the nut 1/4 turn then
Re-torque to: 35 lb-ft. (47 Nm).
B. On vehicles with a 10-1/2 in. ring gear, Torque to: 13 lb-ft. (17
Nm)
13. Install the tang retainer against the inner adjusting nut
14. Align the adjusting nut so that the short tang of the retainer will engage the
nearest slot on the adjusting nut
15. Install the outer locknut;
Torque to: 65 lb-ft. (88 Nm)
16. Bend the long tang of the retainer into the slot of the outer nut
17. This method of adjustment should provide 0.001 0.010 in. (0.0254 0.254mm)
end-play
18. Place a new gasket over the axle shaft then position the axle shaft in the housing
so that the shaft splines enter the differential side gear
19. Position the gasket so that the holes are in alignment then install the flange-tohub attaching bolts
On models with a 10-1/2 in. ring gear, Torque to: 115 lb-ft. (156 Nm);
On models with an 11 in. ring gear torque the axle cap bolts, Torque to:
15 lb-ft. (20 Nm)
NOTE: To prevent lubricant from leaking through the flange holes apply a nonhardening sealer to the bolt threads. Use the sealer sparingly.
20. Install the wheel and tire assembly
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

21. Lower the vehicle to the ground


22. Torque lug nuts as follows:
Single Wheel: Torque to: 140 lb-ft. (190 Nm)
Dual Wheel: Torque to: 175 lb-ft. (240 Nm)
23. Road test the vehicle to check performance

Pinion Seal
Removal & Installation
Semi-Floating Axles
To Remove:
NOTE: It would help to have the front end slightly higher than the rear to avoid fluid loss.
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheel and tire assemblies but do not remove the
lug nuts
3. Raise and support the vehicle
4. Remove the rear wheel and tire assemblies
5. Match-mark and remove the driveshaft
6. Rotate the rear axles by hand to ensure that there is absolutely no brake drag
and if there is brake drag remove the drums
7. Using a torque wrench on the pinion nut record the force needed to rotate the
pinion
8. Match-mark the pinion shaft, nut and flange and count the number of exposed
threads on the pinion shaft
9. Install a holding tool on the pinion such as a very large adjustable wrench or
install the drums back on then set the parking brake as tightly as possible
10. Remove the pinion nut
11. Slide the flange off of the pinion using a puller as needed
12. Center punch the oil seal to distort it then pry it out of the bore being careful to
avoid scratching the bore
To Install:
1. Pack the cavity between the lips of the seal with lithium-based chassis lube
2. Position the seal in the bore then carefully drive it into place using a seal installer
3. Pack the cavity between the end of the pinion splines and the pinion flange with
silicone sealer or an equivalent non-hardening sealer
4. Place the flange on the pinion then push it on as far as it will go
5. Install the pinion washer and nut on the shaft then force the pinion into place by
turning the nut
WARNING
Never hammer the flange into place.
6. Tighten the nut until the exact number of threads previously noted appear and
the match-marks align
7. Measure the rotating torque of the pinion under the same circumstances as
before
8. Compare the two readings and as needed tighten the pinion nut in very small
increments until the torque necessary to rotate the pinion is 3 lb-in. (0.35 Nm)
higher than the originally recorded torque

9. Install the driveshaft


10. Install the rear wheel and tire assemblies
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

11. Lower the vehicle to the ground


12. Torque lug nuts as follows:
Single Wheel: Torque to: 140 lb-ft. (190 Nm)
Dual Wheel: Torque to: 175 lb-ft. (240 Nm)
13. Road test the vehicle to check performance
Full-Floating Axles
To Remove:
NOTE: It would help to have the front end slightly higher than the rear to avoid fluid loss.
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Raise and support the vehicle
3. Match-mark and remove the driveshaft (See: Rear Driveshaft)
4. Match-mark the pinion shaft, nut and flange
5. Count the number of exposed threads on the pinion shaft
6. Install a holding tool on the pinion such as a very large adjustable wrench or set
the parking brake as tightly as possible
7. Remove the pinion nut
8. Slide the flange off of the pinion using a puller
9. Center punch the oil seal to distort it then pry it out of the bore being careful to
avoid scratching the bore
To Install:
1. Pack the cavity between the lips of the seal with lithium-based chassis lube
2. Position the seal in the bore then carefully drive it into place using a seal installer
3. Place the flange on the pinion and push it on as far as it will go
WARNING
Never hammer the flange into place.

4. Install the pinion washer and nut on the shaft then force the pinion into place by
turning the nut
On models with the 11 inch ring gear, Torque the nut to: 440 500 lb-ft.
(596 678 Nm)
On models with the 10 1/2 inch ring gear tighten the nut until the exact
number of threads previously noted appear and the match-marks align
5. Install the driveshaft
6. Lower the vehicle to the ground
7. Road test the vehicle to check performance

Transfer Case
Output Shaft Seal (Front)
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise and suitably support the vehicle.
2. Remove the transfer case shield, if equipped.
3. Remove the front drive shaft.
NOTE: The front output shaft seal is a two piece internal seal. The inner seal
race is a force fit on the front output shaft.
4. Remove the front output shaft seal by inserting a flat-tipped screwdriver behind
the inner race of the seal. Pry the inner seal race forward.
5. Using a small pry bar, move the inner seal race forward on the output shaft.
6. Remove the inner seal race from the front output shaft.
7. Insert a flat-tipped screwdriver or small pry bar into the space between the lip of
the outer race of the seal and the transfer case.
8. Remove the remaining part of the output shaft seal from the transfer case.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Using a commercially available seal installer, install the seal.


Install the front drive shaft.
Check the fluid level and add if needed.
Install the transfer case shield, if equipped.
Lower the vehicle.

Output Shaft Seal (Rear)


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Raise and suitably support the vehicle.


Remove the transfer case shield, if equipped.
Remove the rear drive shaft.
Remove the rear output shaft seal by prying it out with a flat tipped screwdriver.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Using a seal installer, install the output shaft seal.


Install the rear drive shaft.
Check the fluid level and add if necessary.
Install the transfer case shield, if equipped.
Lower the vehicle.

Transfer Case Assembly


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable
3. Raise and support the vehicle
4. Drain transfer case fluid into a suitable container
5. Remove or disconnect the following:
Skid plate if equipped
Vent hose clamp at the transfer case
Front driveshaft at the transfer case then support it aside (See: Front
Driveshaft)
Rear driveshaft then support it aside (See: Rear Driveshaft)
Electrical connections at the transfer case
Transfer case shift linkage
6. Support the transfer case with a transmission jack
Transmission to transfer case bolts and spring washers
Transfer case assembly and gasket
7. Carefully lower the transfer case from the vehicle
To Install:
1. Carefully raise the transfer case into position
2. Install or connect the following:
New gasket to the transmission using gasket sealer to hold it in place
Transfer case onto the transmission or transmission adapter; Torque the
bolts to: 33 lb-ft. (45 Nm)
Electrical harness connectors to the transfer case connections
Transfer case shift linkage and make the proper adjustments
Front and rear driveshafts (See: Front Driveshaft and Rear Driveshaft)
3. Refill the transfer case with Dexron III automatic transmission fluid
Skid plate if equipped
4. Lower the vehicle to the ground
5. Connect the negative battery cable
6. Road test the vehicle to check performance

Half Shafts & CV-Joints


Half Shafts
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Cautions and Warnings in the beginning
of this section
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Front wheel and tire assembly
Skid plate, as required if equipped
Drive axle hub nut and washer
Brake line and wheel speed sensor support bracket from the upper
control arm to allow extra travel of the control arm
Left outer tie rod attaching nut and cotter pin and separate the tie rod from
the steering knuckle (See: Outer Tie Rod End)
3. Position the tie rod aside and push steering linkage to the opposite side of the
vehicle
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Lower shock attaching nut and bolt; position the shock aside
Left stabilizer bar bracket and bushing at the frame
Stabilizer bar bolt, spacer and bushings at the lower control arm
5. Take pressure off the upper control arm by placing a support below the lower
control arm between the spring seat and the ball joint
6. Remove or disconnect the following:
Upper ball joint cotter pin and loosen (do not remove) the upper ball joint
attaching nut and then separate the ball joint stud from the steering
knuckle (See: Ball Joint)
Ball joint nut
NOTE: Cover the shock mounting bracket and lower ball joint stud with a
towel to prevent the axle boot from tearing during removal and
installation.

Axle shaft from the hub and rotor using tool J-28733 or other suitable
equivalent
Axle shaft inner flange bolts and shaft

To install:
1. Lubricate the axle and hub splines with an approved high temperature wheel
bearing grease.
2. Install or connect the following:
Axle shaft in the hub
Inboard CV-joint-to-flange bolts and tighten the bolts. Torque to: 60 ft.
lbs. (80 Nm)
Upper ball joint to steering knuckle and tighten the stud nut (See: Upper
Ball Joint). Torque to: 61 ft. lbs. (83 Nm)
New cotter pin through the upper ball joint stud and nut, lubricate the ball
joint as required
Left stabilizer bar bracket and bushing at the frame
Stabilizer bar bolt, spacer and bushings at the lower control arm
Lower shock in the mount bracket and the attaching nut and bolt
Left tie rod end at the steering knuckle and tighten the nut (See: Outer Tie
Rod End). Torque to: 35 ft. lbs. (47 Nm)
New cotter pin through the tie rod stud and nut
Brake line bracket to the control arm, ensuring the line and/or hose is not
twisted or kinked
Skid plate, as required if equipped
Axle hub washer and nut
Tighten the axle hub nut by inserting a drift through the rotor vanes to
keep the axle from turning and tighten the hub nut. Torque to: 180 ft. lbs.
(245 Nm)
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

Wheel and tire assembly and tighten the lug nuts in sequence. Torque to:
140 ft. lbs. (190 Nm)
3. Lower the vehicle
4. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

The halfshaft is mounted to the flange on the differential and through the hub assembly4-wheel drive models

CV-Joints
Overhaul
These vehicles use several different types of joints. Engine size, transaxle type, whether
the joint is an inboard or outboard joint, even which side of the vehicle is being serviced
could make a difference in joint type. Be sure to properly identify the joint before
attempting joint or boot replacement. Look for identification numbers at the large end of
the boots and/or on the end of the metal retainer bands.
The 3 types of joints used are the Birfield Joint, (B.J.), the Tripod Joint (T.J.) and the
Double Offset Joint (D.O.J.).
NOTE: Do not disassemble a Birfield joint. Service with a new joint or clean and repack
using a new boot kit.
The distance between the large and small boot bands is important and should be
checked prior to and after boot service. This is so the boot will not be installed either too
loose or too tight, which could cause early wear and cracking, allowing the grease to get
out and water and dirt in, leading to early joint failure.
NOTE: The driveshaft joints use special grease; do not add any grease other than that
supplied with the kit.
Double Offset Joint
To Remove:
NOTE: The Double Offset Joint (D.O.J.) is bigger than other joints and, in these
applications, is normally used as an inboard joint.
1. Remove the halfshaft from the vehicle.
2. Side cutter pliers can be used to cut the metal retaining bands. Remove the boot
from the joint outer race.
3. Locate and remove the large circlip at the base of the joint. Remove the outer
race (the body of the joint).
4. Remove the small snap ring and take off the inner race, cage and balls as an
assembly. Clean the inner race, cage and balls without disassembling.
5. If the boot is to be reused, wipe the grease from the splines and wrap the splines
in vinyl tape before sliding the boot from the shaft.
6. Remove the inner (D.O.J.) boot from the shaft. If the outer (B.J.) boot is to be
replaced, remove the boot retainer rings and slide the boot down and off of the
shaft at this time.
To Install:
NOTE: Be sure to tape the shaft splines before installing the boots. Fill the inside of the
boot with the specified grease. Often the grease supplied in the replacement parts kit is

meant to be divided in half, with half being used to lubricate the joint and half being used
inside the boot.
1. Install the cage onto the halfshaft so the small diameter side of the cage is
installed first. With a brass drift pin, tap lightly and evenly around the inner race to
install the race until it comes into contact with the rib of the shaft. Apply the
specified grease to the inner race and cage and fit them together. Insert the balls
into the cage.
2. Install the outer race (the body of the joint) after filling with the specified grease.
The outer race should be filled with this grease.
3. Tighten the boot bands securely. Make sure the distance between the boot
bands is correct.
4. Install the halfshaft to the vehicle.
Except Double Offset Joint
To Remove:
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable. Remove the halfshaft.
2. Use side cutter pliers to remove the metal retaining bands from the boot(s) that
will be removed. Slide the boot from the T.J. case.
3. Remove the snap ring and the tripod joint spider assembly from the halfshaft. Do
not disassemble the spider and use care in handling.
4. If the boot is be reused, wrap vinyl tape around the spline part of the shaft so the
boot(s) will not be damaged when removed. Remove the dynamic damper, if
used, and the boots from the shaft.
To Install:
1. Double check that the correct replacement parts are being installed. Wrap vinyl
tape around the splines to protect the boot and install the boots and damper, if
used, in the correct order.
2. Install the joint spider assembly to the shaft and install the snap ring.
3. Fill the inside of the boot with the specified grease. Often the grease supplied in
the replacement parts kit is meant to be divided in half, with half being used to
lubricate the joint and half being used inside the boot. Keep grease off the rubber
part of the dynamic damper (if used).
4. Secure the boot bands with the halfshaft in a horizontal position. Make sure
distance between boot bands is correct.
5. Install the halfshaft to the vehicle and reconnect the negative battery cable.

Check the CV-boot for wear

Removing the outer band from the CV-boot

Removing the inner band from the CV-boot

Removing the CV-boot from the joint housing

Clean the CV-joint housing prior to removing boot

Removing the CV-joint housing assembly

Removing the CV-joint

Inspecting the CV-joint housing

Removing the CV-joint outer snap ring

Checking the CV-joint snap ring for wear

CV-joint snap ring (typical)

Removing the CV-joint assembly

Removing the CV-joint inner snap ring

Installing the CV-joint assembly (typical)

STEERING AND SUSPENSION


Precautions
WARNING
Wear safety glasses when using compressed air, as flying dirt particles may cause eye
injury.
NOTE: Use the correct fastener in the correct location. Replacement fasteners must be
the correct part number for that application. Fasteners requiring replacement or
fasteners requiring the use of thread locking compound or sealant are identified in the
service procedure. Do not use paints, lubricants, or corrosion inhibitors on fasteners or
fastener joint surfaces unless specified. These coatings affect fastener torque and joint
clamping force and may damage the fastener. Use the correct tightening sequence and
specifications when installing fasteners in order to avoid damage to parts and systems.
WARNING
Road test a vehicle under safe conditions and while obeying all traffic laws. Do not
attempt any maneuvers that could jeopardize vehicle control. Failure to adhere to these
precautions could lead to serious personal injury and vehicle damage.
Lifting & Jacking Precautions
WARNING
Make sure the vehicle is properly supported and squarely positioned prior to lifting.
WARNING
Ensure that the hoist does not contact fuel or brake lines.
WARNING
Ensure that vehicle is securely supported and squarely positioned before lifting on a
hoist. To help avoid personal injury when a vehicle is not on a hoist, provide additional
support for the vehicle on the opposite end from which components are being removed.
Ensure that the hoist does not contact fuel or brake lines.
WARNING
To help avoid personal injury when a vehicle is on a hoist, provide additional support for
the vehicle at the opposite end from which components are being removed. This will
reduce the possibility of the vehicle falling off of the hoist.
WARNING
The centerline of gravity on front-wheel drive vehicles is further forward than on rearwheel drive vehicles. Therefore, whenever removing major components from the rear of
a front-wheel drive vehicle, while supported on a hoist, it is mandatory to support the
vehicle in a manner to prevent the possibility of a vehicle tipping forward.

WARNING
To help avoid personal injury, always use jack stands when working on or under any
vehicle that is supported only by a jack.
CAUTION
When jacking or lifting a vehicle at the frame side rails or other prescribed lift points, be
certain that lift pads do not contact the catalytic converter, brake pipes or cables, or fuel
lines. Such contact may result in damage or unsatisfactory vehicle performance.

Suspension
Shock Absorbers
Gas Shock Absorber Precautions
WARNING
Gas charged shock absorbers contain high pressure gas.

Do not remove the snap ring from inside the top of the tube.
If the snap ring is removed, the contents of the shock absorber will come out with
extreme force which may result in personal injury.

WARNING
To prevent personal injury, wear safety glasses when center punching and drilling the
shock absorber. Use care not to puncture the shock absorber tube with the center
punch.
NOTE: Disposal of shock absorbers:

Fully extend the shock absorber rod


Using a drill, make a hole in the cylinder as shown in the illustration to discharge
the gas inside the cylinder

Inspection
Shock absorbers dampen the compression and rebound cycles of the springs. If a
vehicle is not equipped with shock absorbers, the up and down motion would continue
making the vehicle hard to control.
Shock absorbers do not support the ride height of the vehicle. Ride height is controlled
by the springs, and by the diameter of the rim and tire. Worn shock absorbers will affect
handling. If the front of the vehicle is rising or falling excessively, the "footprint" of the
tires change on the pavement and steering is severely affected.
To test the compression and rebound of a shock absorber push down on the vehicle
(over each tire) and release. Observe the motion of the body as it is released. In most
cases, it will come up beyond it original rest position, dip back below and settle quickly to
rest. This shows that the shock absorber is dampening the spring action. Excessive
extension or failure to return to rest within two to three cycles is a sign of poor function.
Oil-filled shock absorbers may have a light film of oil around the seal resulting from
normal breathing and air exchange. This should not be taken as a sign of failure
however any sign of thick or running oil indicates failure. Gas filled shocks may also
show some film at the shaft; if the gas has leaked out, the shock will have almost no
resistance to motion.
When fluid is seeping out of the shock absorber, its time to
replace it

Never replace only one shock absorber. Always replace shocks in pairs -- front or rear-or replace all of the shock absorbers to equal the dampening effect throughout the entire
vehicle.

Removal & Installation


2WD Front Shock Absorber
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
RTD connector

2. If equipped with selectable ride, disconnect the Real Time Damping (RTD) link
rod from the sensor as follows
Grasp the connector lock tabs
Rotate the connector tabs counter clockwise until the connector is
unlocked
Disengage the connector from the tennon by firmly pulling the connector
up
3. Hold the tennon end with a wrench while removing the nut and remove the nut
4. Support the lower control arm with a jack stand.

Upper shock insulator-

5. Remove or disconnect the following:


Upper insulator but do not discard the plastic pilot ring
Shock absorber removal-2WD

Shock absorber mounting bolts at the lower control arm


Shock absorber from below through the lower control arm

To Install:
1. Support the lower control arm with a suitable jack in order to align the tennon with
the mounting hole if equipped with selectable ride
2. Install the shock absorber from below through the lower control arm
3. Insert the tennon through the mounting hole in the upper spring pocket
4. Align the shock absorber with the mounting holes in the lower control arm
5. Install the shock absorber mounting bolts to the lower control arm and tighten the
bolts;
Torque to: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
NOTE: The upper insulators are substantially larger that the lower insulators. The
upper insulator must be installed above the shock mounting bracket on the
frame. The plastic pilot ring will assist the alignment of the isolators.
6. Install or connect the following:
Upper insulator to the shock absorber
Nut to the tennon end but do not tighten the nut at this time
RTD link rod to the sensor (if equipped)
7. Remove the safety stands
8. Lower the vehicle
9. Hold the tennon end with a wrench while tightening the nut;
Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
10. Connect the electrical connector using the following procedure:
Verify that the connector is unlocked
Align the connector so that the tabs are perpendicular to the wrench flats
on the tennon end
Engage the connector to the tennon by firmly pushing the connector down
Grasp the connector lock tabs
Rotate the connector counter clockwise
11. The connector is locked into place when you hear an audible snap and the tabs
are aligned
12. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs
4WD Front Shock Absorber
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Disconnect the (RTD) link rod from the sensor (if equipped)
3. Disconnect the electrical connector if equipped with selectable ride as follows
Grasp the connector lock tabs
Rotate the connector tabs counter clockwise until the connector is
unlocked
Disengage the connector from the tennon by firmly pulling the connector
up
4. Hold the tennon end with a wrench while removing the nut and remove the nut

5. Support the lower control arm with a jack stand.


6. Remove or disconnect the following:
Upper insulator but do not discard the plastic pilot ring
Shock absorber mounting bolt at the lower control arm
NOTE: The lower shock mounting bushing is serviceable by driving the
bushing out with the appropriate tool.

Shock absorber

Shock absorber removal-4WD

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Install the shock absorber


Insert the stem through the hole in the shock bracket on the frame
Align the shock absorber with the mounting holes in the lower control arm
Install or connect the following:
Shock absorber through bolt to the lower control arm
Shock absorber through bolt nut and tighten the nut;
A. Torque to: 59 ft. lbs. (80 Nm)
NOTE: The upper insulators are substantially larger that the lower
insulators. The upper insulator must be installed above the shock
mounting bracket on the frame. The plastic pilot ring will assist the
alignment of the isolators.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

Upper insulator to the shock absorber


Nut to the tennon end but do not tighten the nut at this time
RTD link rod to the sensor (if equipped)
Remove the safety stands
Lower the vehicle
Hold the tennon end with a wrench while tightening the nut;
Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Connect the electrical connector using the following procedure if equipped with
selectable ride
Verify that the connector is unlocked
Align the connector so that the tabs (A) are perpendicular to the wrench
flats on the tennon end
Engage the connector to the tennon by firmly pushing the connector down
Grasp the connector lock tabs (A, B)
Rotate the connector counter clockwise
The connector is locked into place when you hear an audible snap and
the tabs are aligned
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Rear Shock Absorber


To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Electrical connector if equipped with real time damping (RTD)
Upper shock absorber nut and the bolt
Lower shock absorber nut and the bolt
Shock absorber
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Shock absorber
Upper and lower shock absorber nuts and bolts and tighten the nuts;
A. Torque to: 70 ft. lbs. (95 Nm)
Electrical connector if equipped with Selectable Ride
2. Remove the safety stands
3. Lower the vehicle
4. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Coil Springs
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Engine protection shield
Tire and wheel assembly
Shock absorber (See: Shock Absorber)
Front stabilizer shaft link
3. Install tool J23028-15 or other suitable tool using the outboard locating tab
Installing J23028-15 on the 25 Series

4. Attach the retaining hook to the control arm


5. Tighten the wing nut until you eliminate any free play.
Retaining hook installation

Tool attached to a jack

7. Securely attach tool J23028-01 or other suitable tool to a suitable transmission


jack
8. Raise the jack until the yokes of tool J23028-01 or other suitable tool line up with
the notches in J23028-15 or other suitable tool
9. Using the tools and the transmission jack, relieve the spring tension from the
lower control arm pivot bolts
10. Remove or disconnect the following:
Lower control arm pivot bolt nuts
Lower control arm removal

Rear pivot bolt


Front pivot bolt
11. Slowly lower the transmission jack in order to unload the front coil spring
12. It may be necessary to use a pry bar in order to guide the lower control arm out
of position
13. Remove the coil spring and the insulator

To Install:
1. Install the coil spring and the insulator to the lower control arm
2. Raise the transmission jack in order to compress the front coil spring
3. It may be necessary to use a pry bar in order to guide the lower control arm into
position
4. Install or connect the following:
Front pivot bolt
Rear pivot bolt
Lower control arm pivot nuts and tighten the pivot bolt nuts;
A. Torque to: 107 ft. lbs. (145 Nm)
Rear pivot bolt
Lower control arm pivot nuts. Tighten the pivot bolt nuts;
A. Torque to: 107 ft. lbs. (145 Nm)
5. Lower the jack and remove the tool from the control arm
6. Install or connect the following:
Front stabilizer shaft link
Shock absorber
Tire and wheel assembly
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

7. Torque the lug nuts to 140 ft. lbs. (190 Nm)


8. Install the engine protection shield
9. Remove the safety stands and lower the vehicle
10. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Leaf Springs
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Support the rear axle independently in order to relieve the tension on the leaf
springs
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Real Time Damping (RTD) sensors (if equipped)
Trailer hitch if equipped
Fuel tank for left side applications
U-bolt nuts and U-bolts
Spring spacer and anchor plate
Rear leaf spring front shackle-

Shackle to the frame bracket nut and the bolt

Rear leaf spring rear shackle-

Front spring bracket bolt


Leaf spring assembly from the vehicle
Shackle from the spring

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Loosely assemble the spring shackle bracket to the frame


Install the shackle bolt and the shackle nut
Install the leaf spring assembly to the vehicle
Loosely assemble the spring to the front hanger bracket
Install or connect the following:
Front spring hanger bracket bolt
Front spring hanger bracket nut
Shackle to the spring bolt
Shackle to the spring nut
NOTE: Do not reuse the U-bolts.

Spring spacer
U-bolts
Anchor plate
U-bolt nuts
6. Observe the following torques:
U-bolt nuts; Torque to: 81 ft. lbs. (110 Nm)
Front hanger bracket nut; Torque to: 70 ft. lbs. (95 Nm)
Shackle to the frame nut; Torque to: 70 ft. lbs. (95 Nm)
Shackle to the spring nut; Torque to: 70 ft. lbs. (95 Nm)
7. Install the fuel tank for left side applications
8. Install the trailer hitch if equipped
9. Remove the rear axle support
10. Remove the safety stands and lower the vehicle
11. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Stabilizer/Sway Bar
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Wheel and tire assembly
Stabilizer links
Oil pan skid plate removal

Oil pan skid plate, if equipped


Stabilizer bar removal

Stabilizer bar insulator bracket bolts (C)


Stabilizer bar bracket (B)
Stabilizer bar (D)
Stabilizer bar insulators (A)

4. Inspect all of the parts for wear and damage


To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Insulators to the stabilizer bar

NOTE: Place the insulators on the stabilizer bar with the slits facing
toward the front of the vehicle.

Stabilizer bar
Brackets over the insulators and the stabilizer bar
Insulator bracket bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 39 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Stabilizer links
Oil pan skid plate, if equipped and tighten the oil pan skid plate retaining
bolts
A. Torque to: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
Wheel and tire assembly
2. Remove the safety stands
3. Lower the vehicle
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

4. Torque lug nuts in sequence as follows:


Single Wheel Axle:
A. Torque to: 140 lb-ft. (190 Nm)
Dual Wheel Axle:
A. Torque to: 175 lb-ft. (240 Nm)
5. Remove the wheel chocks and store the jack in its storage area
6. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Torsion Bar
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
NOTE: This procedure requires the removal of both torsion bars.
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Mark the adjustment bolt setting
3. Install tool J36202 or other suitable tool to the adjustment arm and the
crossmember
4. Decrease the tension on the adjustment arm until the load is removed from the
adjustment bolt and the adjuster nut
5. Remove or disconnect the following:
Adjustment bolt and the adjuster nut
Tool, allowing the torsion bar to unload
Adjustment arm by sliding the torsion bar forward until the torsion bar
clears the adjustment arm
NOTE: Use your hand to support the adjustment arm as the adjustment
arm releases from the torsion bar.
Retainer installation- torsion bar

Torsion bar crossmember bolts from the weld nuts


Remove the upper link mounting nut and the bolt.

Adjuster nut removal

Torsion bar crossmember

NOTE: Note the position of the torsion bars as the left and right bars are
different.
Adjuster bolt removal

6. Torsion bars
7. Mark the torsion bars to prevent mixing them up on installation
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Torsion bars as marked on removal
Torsion bar crossmember
Torsion bar crossmember bolts to the weld nuts and tighten the bolt;
Torque to: 70 ft. lbs. (95 Nm)
Upper link mounting nut and the bolt. Torque to: 70 ft. lbs. (95 Nm)
While supporting the adjustment arm, slide the torsion bar rearward until
the torsion bar fully engages the adjustment arm.
Install tool J36202or other suitable tool to the adjustment arm and the
crossmember

Increase the tension on the adjustment arm in order to load the torsion
bar
Adjustment bolt and the adjuster nut
2. Remove the tool, releasing the tension on the torsion bar until the load is taken
up by the adjustment bolt
3. Remove the safety stands
4. Lower the vehicle
Ride height measurement

5. Jounce the vehicle 3 times to settle all front end parts


6. Measure from the pivot bolt center line (C) down to the lower corner (E) of the
lower ball joint (A) in order to obtain the ride height measurement (D).
7. Adjust the ride height to 4.3 4.8 in. (110 122 mm)
8. Turn the adjustment bolt clockwise to increase the ride height and
counterclockwise to decrease it
9. Gently jounce the vehicle again and check the ride height again to make sure it is
the same
10. Adjust the ride height again if necessary
11. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Upper Ball Joint


Removal & Installation
NOTE: The upper ball joint is not replaceable by itself. It is serviced with the upper
control arm assembly. Refer to upper control arm removal and installation.

Lower Ball Joint


Removal & Installation
2 Wheel Drive
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Tire and wheel assembly
Front coil spring (See: Coil Spring)
Lower control arm (See: Lower Control Arm)
3. Secure the lower control arm in a bench vice or equivalent
4. Center punch the rivet heads (Coil Spring Suspension Only)
5. Drill out the rivets (Coil Spring Suspension Only)
6. Using a chisel, remove the 4 securing crimps from the ball joint body (Torsion Bar
Suspension Only)
7. Using a press, remove the ball joint from the lower control arm (Torsion Bar
Suspension Only)
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following to a Coil Spring Suspension Only:
Ball joint to the lower control arm
Replacement bolts to the lower control arm
Nuts to the bolts and tighten the nuts; Torque to: 52 ft. lbs. (70 Nm)
2. Install or connect the following to a Torsion Bar Suspension Only:
Install the new ball joint using a press
Using a punch, install 4 crimps to the ball joint using the replaced ball joint
as a reference
3. Remove the lower control arm from the bench vise and install the following
Lower control arm (See: Lower Control Arm
Coil spring (See: Coil Spring
Tire and wheel tire assembly

Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Torque the lug nuts to specifications


Remove the safety stands
Lower the vehicle
Verify the wheel alignment
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

4 Wheel Drive
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Tire and wheel assembly
Lower control arm (See: Lower Control Arm)
3. Place the lower control arm in a bench vise
4. Using a chisel, remove the 4 securing crimps from the ball joint body
5. Using a press, remove the ball joint from the lower control arm
To Install:
NOTE: Use the outer flange of the ball joint in order to press the ball joint into place.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Install the new ball joint using a press


Place the lower control arm in a bench vise
Using a punch, install 4 crimps to the ball joint
Use the replaced ball joint as a reference
Install or connect the following:
Lower control arm (See: Lower Control Arm)
Tire and wheel assembly

Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

6. Torque the lug nuts to specifications


7. Remove the safety stands
8. Lower the vehicle
9. Verify the wheel alignment
10. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Upper Control Arm


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Tire and wheel assembly
Real Time Damping (RTD) link rod from the sensor (if equipped)
Retaining bolt for the brake hose and the wheel speed sensor brackets
Halfshaft (See: Halfshaft)
Upper control arm

1.

Nut at the upper ball joint and discard the nut


Upper control arm from the steering knuckle
Upper control arm nuts and the adjustment cams
Upper control arm bolts
Upper control arm

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Upper control arm
Upper control arm bolts
Upper control arm nuts and the adjustment cams and tighten the nuts;
Torque to: 140 ft. lbs. (190 Nm)
Upper control arm to the steering knuckle
Halfshaft (See: Halfshaft)
New nut to the upper ball joint stud and tighten the nut; Torque to: 37 ft.
lbs. (50 Nm)
Retaining bolts for the brake hose and wheel speed sensor brackets and
tighten the bolts; Torque to: 80 in. lbs. (9 Nm)
RTD link rod to the sensor (if equipped)
Tire and wheel assembly
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Torque the lug nuts to specification


Remove the safety stands
Lower the vehicle
Verify the wheel alignment
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Lower Control Arm & Bushing


Removal & Installation
2 Wheel Drive
To Remove:
NOTE: The control arm bushings are removed and installed using a press.
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Tire and wheel assembly
Real Time Damping (RTD) link rod from the sensor (if equipped)
Shock absorber (See: Shock Absorber)
Front stabilizer shaft link
Front coil spring (See: Coil Spring)

2WD lower control arm

1.

Lower control arm nuts and washers


Lower control arm bolts
Lower ball joint stud nut
Lower ball joint stud from the steering knuckle
Lower control arm

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Lower control arm
Ball joint stud to the steering knuckle
Lower ball joint stud nut and tighten the lower ball joint stud nut; Torque
to: 74 ft. lbs. (100 Nm)
Front coil spring (See: Coil Spring)
Lower control arm bolts
Lower control arm nuts and the washers and tighten the lower control arm
nuts; Torque to: 107 ft. lbs. (145 Nm)
Front stabilizer shaft link
Shock absorber (See: Shock Absorber)
Tire and wheel assembly
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

2.
3.
4.
5.

Torque the lug nuts to specification


Remove the safety stands and lower the vehicle
Verify the wheel alignment
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

4 Wheel Drive
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Tire and wheel assembly
Real Time Damping (RTD) link rod from the sensor (if equipped)
Stabilizer shaft links from the lower control arm
Shock absorber nut and the bolt
Torsion bars (See: Torsion Bars)

Halfshaft (See: Halfshaft)


Lower ball joint stud nut
Lower ball joint stud from the steering knuckle
Lower control arm nuts and the washers
Lower control arm bolts
Lower control arm bolts
Lower control arm

To Install:

4WD lower control arm

1. Install or connect the following:


Lower control arm
Lower control arm bolts
Washers with the shoulder facing the arm
Nuts and tighten the nuts; Torque to: 107 ft. lbs. (145 Nm) on the 19992003 models or 129 ft. lbs. (175 Nm) on the 2004-07 models
Halfshaft (See: Halfshaft)
Lower ball joint stud to the steering knuckle
Install the nut to the ball joint stud and tighten the nut; Torque to: 74 ft.
lbs. (100 Nm)
Torsion bars (See: Torsion Bars)
Shock absorber through nut and bolt

Stabilizer shaft links to the lower control arm


RTD link rod to the sensor (if equipped)
Tire and wheel assembly
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

2.
3.
4.
5.

Torque the lug nuts to specification


Remove the safety stands and lower the vehicle
Verify the wheel alignment
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Wheel Bearings
Removal & Installation
2WD Front
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Tire and wheel assembly
Rotor (See: Disc Brake Rotor)
2WD front hub

Wheel speed sensor and brake hose mounting bracket bolt from the
steering knuckle
Electrical connection for the wheel speed sensor
Hub and bearing assembly mounting bolts
Hub and bearing assembly

To Install:
1. Clean all corrosion or contaminates from the steering knuckle bore and the hub
and bearing assembly

2. Lubricate the steering knuckle bore with wheel bearing grease or the equivalent
3. Install or connect the following:
Hub and bearing assembly
Hub and bearing assembly mounting bolts
Tighten the hub to knuckle bolts; Torque to: 133 ft. lbs. (180 Nm)
Electrical connection for the wheel speed sensor
Wheel speed sensor and brake hose mounting bracket bolt to the steering
knuckle and tighten the bolt; Torque to: 106 inch lbs. (12 Nm)
Rotor (See: Disc Brake Rotor)
Tire and wheel assembly
4. Remove the safety stands and lower the vehicle
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

5. Torque the lug nuts to specification


6. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs
Rear
To Remove:
Cutaway view of the rear axle shaft and bearing assembly

A new pinion shaft lockbolt should be installed whenever either of the axle shafts is
removed.
NOTE: Axle shaft seal removal and installation uses the following special tools: the GM
Axle Shaft Seal Installer tool No. J-33782 (seal driver) or equivalent and the Axle Shaft
Bearing Installer tool No. J-34974 (bearing driver) or equivalent.
1. Place a catch pan under the differential, then remove the drain plug (if equipped)
or rear axle cover and drain the fluid (discard the old fluid)
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Rear wheel assemblies
Brake drums (See: Brake Drums)
3. Using a wire brush, clean the dirt/rust from around the rear axle cover
4. Remove the following
Rear axle cover
Rear pinion shaft lock bolt and the pinion shaft, at the differential
C-lock from the button end of the axle shaft, push the axle shafts inward
Remove the lock bolt and pinion shaft, then push in the axle
shaft and remove the C-lock

Axle shaft from the axle housing. Be careful not to damage the oil seal

WARNING
On vehicles equipped with an Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) be careful not to
damage the reluctor ring on the axle shaft or the speed sensor bolted to the
backing plate, immediately adjacent to the shaft.
5. Clean the gasket mounting surfaces
NOTE: It is recommended, when the axle shaft is removed, to replace the oil seal
and bearing.
6. To replace the oil seal use a medium pry bar or, better yet, an inexpensive seal
removal tool, to pry the oil seal from the end of the rear axle housing

7. Do not damage the housing oil seal surface and again, on late-model ABS
equipped vehicles, stay clear of the speed sensor
8. Using the slide hammer and adapter, pull the bearing out of the axle tube
Using a slide hammer and adapters, remove the axle
bearing and seal

To Install:
1. If the wheel bearing was removed:
Step 1:
A. Using solvent, thoroughly clean the wheel bearing, then blow dry
with compressed air
B. Inspect the wheel bearing for excessive wear or damage, then
replace it (if necessary)
Step 2:
A. With a new or the reused bearing, thoroughly coat the bearing with
gear lubricant.
Step 3:
A. Using the Axle Shaft Bearing Installer tool No. J-34974, or
equivalent, drive the bearing into the axle housing until it bottoms
against the seat
B. Be sure the bearing installer does not contact and damage the
speed sensor on ABS equipped vehicles

Axle and seal installation using a bearing driver

2. If the axle shaft seal was removed:


Step 1:
A. Clean and inspect the axle tube housing
Step 2:
A. Using the GM Axle Shaft Seal Installer tool No. J-33782, or an
equivalent driver, seat the new seal into the housing until it is flush
with the axle tube
B. Be sure the seal installer does not contact and damage the speed
sensor on ABS equipped vehicles
Step 3:
A. Using gear oil, lubricate the new seal lips.
3. Slide the axle shaft into the rear axle housing and engage the splines of the axle
shaft with the splines of the rear axle side gear, then install the C-lock retainer on
the axle shaft button end
WARNING
BE CAREFUL not to damage the wheel bearing seal with the splines on the axle
shaft.
4. After the C-lock is installed, pull the axle shaft outward to seat the C-lock retainer
in the counterbore of the side gears
5. Install or connect the following:
Pinion shaft through the case and the pinions
New pinion shaft lockbolt and torque the new lockbolt; Torque to: 25 ft.
lbs. (34 Nm)
Housing cover using a new rear axle cover gasket and tighten the
housing cover bolts; Torque to: 30 ft. lbs. (40 Nm)
Brake drums (See: Brake Drums)
Tire and wheel assemblies

Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

6. Torque the lug nuts to specification


7. Refill the housing and remember that the vehicle must be completely level,
meaning that if the rear is still raised and supported, the front should also be
raised
8. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs
Front (4 Wheel Drive)
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Tire and wheel assembly
Rotor (See: Disc Brake Rotor)
Wheel speed sensor and brake hose mounting bracket bolt from the
steering knuckle
Electrical connection for the wheel speed sensor
Front drive halfshaft assembly (See: Halfshaft)
Hub and bearing assembly mounting bolts
4WD front hub

Hub and bearing assembly

To Install:
1. Clean all corrosion or contaminates from the steering knuckle bore and the hub
and bearing assembly
2. Lubricate the steering knuckle bore with wheel bearing grease or the equivalent
3. Install or connect the following:
Hub and bearing assembly
Hub and bearing assembly mounting bolts and tighten the hub to knuckle
bolts; Torque to: 133 ft. lbs. (180 Nm)
Front drive halfshaft assembly (See: Halfshaft)
Electrical connection for the wheel speed sensor
Wheel speed sensor and brake hose mounting bracket bolt to the steering
knuckle and tighten the bolt; Torque to: 106 inch. lbs. (12 Nm)
Rotor (See: Disc Brake Rotor
Tire and wheel assembly
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

4. Torque the lug nuts to specification


5. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Steering Knuckle
Removal & Installation
Rear Wheel Drive
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Cautions and Warnings in the beginning
of this section
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Tire and wheel assembly
Wheel hub and bearing (See: Front Hub and Bearing)
4. Support the lower control arm with a suitable jack
5. Remove or disconnect the following:
Outer tie rod from the knuckle (See: Outer Tie Rod End)
Brake hose bracket retaining bolt from the knuckle
Retaining nut and separate the upper ball joint from the steering knuckle
using the J43631 and J 45851 or other suitable tool (See: Upper Ball
Joint)
2WD Lower ball joint to steering knuckle removal

Retaining nut and separate the lower ball joint from the steering knuckle
using the J43631 and J 45851 or other suitable tool

2WD steering knuckle removal

Steering knuckle

To Install:
NOTE: Clean all grease and contaminants from the tapered section and the threads of
the upper ball joint, the lower ball joint, and the tie rod end. Clean and inspect the taper
holes and the mounting surfaces of the steering knuckle. If any of the tapered holes are
elongated, out of round, or damaged, the replace the steering knuckle.
1. Install or connect the following:
Steering knuckle
Lower ball joint to the steering knuckle
Ball joint retaining nut and tighten the retaining nut
A. Torque to: 74 ft. lbs. (100 Nm)
Upper ball joint to the steering knuckle
Upper ball joint retaining nut and tighten the retaining nut
A. Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Brake hose bracket retaining bolt to the knuckle and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm)
Outer tie rod to the steering knuckle (See: Outer Tie Rod End)
Wheel hub and bearing (See: Front Hub and Bearing)
Tire and wheel assembly

Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

2. Using a torque wrench torque the lug nuts in sequence


Torque to: 140 ft. lbs. (190 Nm)
3. Remove the safety stands
4. Lower the vehicle
5. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs
4 Wheel Drive
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Front Wheel
NOTE: Wrap shop towels around the CV-Joint boots to protect them from
damage during this procedure.

Brake caliper and support it aside (See: Disc Brake Caliper)


Brake rotor (See: Disc Brake Rotor)
Cotter pin, retainer, castle nut, and thrust washer from the axle shaft
Tie rod end from the knuckle (See: Tie Rod End)
Hub/bearing assembly retaining bolts
2. Using a J-28733-B hub/bearing puller tool or equivalent, press the hub/bearing
assembly from the splined shaft

Exploded view of the front hub and knuckle assembly-4-wheel drive

WARNING
After removal, lay the hub and bearing assembly on the outboard side. This will
prevent damage and/or contamination of the bearing seal.

Splash shield

Support the lower control arm with a jack stand

Upper and lower ball joints from the steering knuckle


Steering knuckle
Seal from the steering knuckle

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
New seal in the steering knuckle, using a J 36605 or other suitable seal
installer
Steering knuckle on the ball joints and the retaining nuts and torque the
upper ball joint nut; Torque to: 74 ft. lbs. (100 Nm) and the lower ball joint
nut; Torque to: 94 ft. lbs. (128 Nm)
Tighten the nuts to align the holes for cotter pin insertion, but do NOT
tighten more than an additional 1/6 turn
Splash shield
Hub/bearing assembly over the splined shaft, making sure the splines line
up correctly and torque the bolts; Torque to: 133 ft. lbs. (180 Nm)

Tie rod end at the steering knuckle (See: Tie Rod End)
Thrust washer and axle nut and torque the nut; Torque to: 165 ft. lbs.
(225 Nm)
Retainer and cotter pin
Rotor and caliper (See: Disc Brake Rotor and Disc Brake Caliper)
2. Remove the shop towels from the CV-Joint boot
Tire and wheel assemblies
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

3. Torque the lug nuts to specification


4. Check and adjust the front end alignment and road test the vehicle

Steering
Air Bag
Precautions
WARNING
Some vehicles are equipped with an air bag system, also known as the Supplemental
Inflatable Restraint (SIR) system or Supplemental Restraint System (SRS). The system
must be disabled before performing service on or around system components, steering
column, instrument panel components, wiring and sensors. Failure to follow safety and
disabling procedures could result in accidental air bag deployment, possible personal
injury and unnecessary system repairs. Disable these systems by disconnecting the
battery before performing service on or around system components; steering column,
instrument panel components, wiring and sensors. Failure to follow safety and disabling
procedures could result in accidental air bag deployment, personal injury and costly
system repairs.
WARNING
When carrying a live inflator module (air bag), make sure the bag and trim cover are
pointed away from you.

Never carry inflator module (air bag) by the wires or connector on the underside
of the module. In case of an accidental deployment, the bag will deploy with
minimal chance of injury. When placing a live inflator module (air bag) on a bench
or other surface, always face bag and trim cover up, away from the surface.
Never rest a steering column assembly on the steering wheel with the inflator
module (air bag) face down and column vertical. This is necessary so that a free
space is provided to allow the inflator module (air bag) to expand in the unlikely
event of accidental deployment. Otherwise, personal injury could result.

WARNING
In the event deployment has occurred inspect coil assembly wire and driver inflator
module for any signs of scorching melting or other damage due to excessive heat If the
coil or inflator module has been damaged, replace it.
WARNING
Do not connect the battery negative cable remote terminal at the end of a procedure.
Unless you refer to manufactures airbag system test for the procedure, to assure you are
using the current, correct procedures.

Ignition Switch
Removal & Installation
2003-2007 Models
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Disconnect the negative battery cable.


Disable the air bag system.
Remove the hush panel and knee bolster.
Remove the steering column trim covers.
Disconnect the passlock and key buzzer from the lock cylinder housing.
or equivalent into the slots in the lock cylinder housing to release the tabs on the
ignition switch.
7. Pull the ignition switch down and out of the lock cylinder housing.
8. Disconnect the connector from the ignition switch.

Use the special tool to release the tabs on the ignition


switch

Ignition switch removal/installation

Turn the gear to the position shown

To Install:
CAUTION
The gears between the ignition switch and the lock cylinder housing must be in the
correct position. Failure to do so may result in a NO START or BATTERY DRAIN
condition.
1. Verify the alignment of the gear in the ignition switch. If gear is not in position
shown, turn gear in ignition switch until you reach the correct position.
2. Connect the electrical connector to the switch.
3. Insert the ignition switch into the lock cylinder housing. The tabs on the ignition
switch MUST be seated inside the lock cylinder housing.
4. Connect the passlock and key buzzer.
5. Install the steering column trim covers.
6. Install the hush panel and knee bolster.
7. Enable the air bag system.
8. Connect the negative battery cable.

Ignition Lock Cylinder


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Disconnect the negative cable from the battery
2. Disable the supplemental inflatable restraint (SIR) system.
3. Remove the steering column trim covers
Ignition lock cylinder release

4. Turn the ignition lock cylinder to the run position


5. Using an awl, insert the tip into the access hole (A) of the ignition lock cylinder
6. Push down and hold the lock cylinder retaining pin
Ignition lock cylinder removal

7. Pull the lock cylinder away from the steering column

To Install:
1. Install the ignition lock cylinder into the steering column using the following
procedure:
Install the key in the lock cylinder
Use a screwdriver to rotate the lock cylinder housing gear clockwise to
the start position and allow it to return into the RUN position.
Push the lock cylinder in until the locking tab locks in the ignition lock
cylinder case assembly
2. Install the steering column trim covers
3. Connect the negative cable to the battery
4. Check for correct operation

Steering Linkage
CAUTION
If steering linkage is disconnected, immobilize the steering wheel to prevent damage to
the clock spring assembly.

Relay Rod
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Engine protection shield, if equipped
Steering damper from the relay rod, if equipped
NOTE: Use the proper tool in order to separate all the tie rods and the
ball joints.
Steering components

Tie rod ends (F) (See: Tie Rod Ends)


Idler arm ball stud nut (J) and discard the nut (See: Idler Arm)
Pitman arm nut (H) and discard the nut (See: Pitman Arm)

Remove the idler arm from the relay rod

Relay rod from the idler arm ball stud using the J24319-B or other suitable
puller

Remove relay rod from pitman arm ball stud

3.
4.
5.
6.

Relay rod from the pitman arm ball stud using the J24319-B or other
suitable puller
Relay rod from the vehicle
Inspect the threads on the tie rod ends for damage
Inspect the ball stud threads for damage
Inspect the ball stud seals for excessive damage
Clean the threads on the ball studs

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Relay rod to the vehicle
Relay rod to the pitman arm ball stud
Relay rod to the idler arm ball stud and make sure the seal is on the stud
New pitman arm prevailing torque nut
New idler arm prevailing torque nut and tighten the idler arm and pitman
arm nuts; Torque to: 46 ft. lbs. (62 Nm)
Tie rod ends
Steering dampener to the relay rod, if equipped
Engine protection shield, if equipped
2. Lower the vehicle
3. Check the wheel alignment
4. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Pitman Arm
Removal & Installation
2003-2007 Models
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove the steering gear.


Place the steering gear into a vise.
Remove the pitman arm nut and washer.
Remove the pitman arm from the pitman arm shaft using a suitable puller.

To Install:
1. Install the pitman arm onto the steering gear.
2. Install a new pitman arm washer and nut.
Tighten the nut to 184 lb ft (250 Nm).
3. Install the steering gear. Refer to Steering Gear Replacement.
4. Check the alignment and set the toe adjustment to specification

Idler Arm
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not attempt to free the ball stud by using a pickle fork or wedge type tool, because
seal or bushing damage could result. Use the proper tool to separate all ball joints.
1. Raise and support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Engine protection shield, if equipped
Steering components

Idler arm ball stud nut (J) and discard the nut

Remove the idler arm from the relay rod

Idler arm from the relay rod using the J24319-B or other suitable puller

Remove the idler arm from the frame

Idler arm frame bolts (C) and the nuts (A)


Idler arm (B) from the vehicle

To Install:
1. Position the idler arm on the frame
2. Install or connect the following:
Frame bolts and the nuts to the idler arm and tighten the frame bolts;
Torque to: 73 ft. lbs. (99 Nm)
Relay rod to the idler arm ball stud and make sure the seal is on the stud
New idler arm ball stud prevailing torque nut to the idler arm ball stud and
tighten the nut; Torque to: 46 ft. lbs. (62 Nm)
Engine protection shield, if equipped
3. Lower the vehicle
4. Check the wheel alignment
5. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Tie Rod Ends


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Raise and safely support the vehicle


Remove the nut from the tie rod end stud
Disconnect the tie rod stud from the knuckle with a suitable separator tool
Mark the outer tie rod just above the jam nut with a reference line for installation
Hold the outer tie rod end with a wrench and loosen the tie rod end jam nut
Back the tie rod end jam nut off one full turn only
Remove the outer tie rod end from the tie rod adjusting sleeve
Remove the tie rod end jam nut from the tie rod end

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Clean the threads on the tie rod sleeve


Transfer the installation reference mark from the old tie rod end to the new
Install the jam nut onto the tie rod end until it bottoms out on the tie rod end
Install the new tie rod end into the sleeve until the reference line is close to the
installed position of the old tie rod end
5. Continue installing the tie rod end until the reference line is in contact with the
jam nut
6. Place the outer tie rod end stud into the steering knuckle
7. Install the new nut onto the outer tie rod end stud and tighten the nut;
Torque to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm) on 15 series vehicles or 48 ft. lbs. (65 Nm)
on 25/35 series vehicles.
8. Tighten the jam nut
9. Check the alignment and set the toe to specification
10. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs
CAUTION
If steering linkage is disconnected, or before removing the steering column coupler from
the intermediate steering shaft be sure the steering wheel is locked from rotating. If the
steering wheel is allowed to rotate freely the clock spring will be damaged and will need
to be replaced. Immobilize the steering wheel to prevent damage to the clock
spring/(SQUIB) assembly.

Power Steering Gear (Recirculating Ball Type)


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
CAUTION
If steering linkage is disconnected, or before removing the steering column coupler from
the intermediated steering shaft be sure the steering wheel is locked from rotating. If the
steering wheel is allowed to rotate freely the clock spring will be damaged and will need
to be replaced. Immobilize the steering wheel to prevent damage to the clock
spring/(SQUIB) assembly.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Raise the vehicle


Remove the shield
Place a drain pan below the steering gear
Remove or disconnect the following:
Hoses from the steering gear and plug the hoses to limit the amount of
power steering fluid loss
Intermediate shaft from the steering gear
Pitman arm from the steering link (See: Pitman Arm)
Steering gear frame bolts
Steering gear

To Install:
Recirculating ball gear

1. Place the steering gear in position


2. Install or connect the following:
Steering gear to the frame bolts and tighten the bolts
A. Torque to: 100 ft. lbs. (135 Nm)
Pitman arm (See: Pitman Arm)
Intermediate shaft
3. Remove the plugs and the caps from the steering gear and the hoses
4. Install or connect the following:

Hoses to the steering gear and tighten the hose connection


A. Torque to: 20 ft. lbs. (28 Nm)
Engine shield if equipped
5. Fill and bleed the power steering system (See: Bleeding the Power Steering
System)
6. Lower the vehicle
7. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Power Steering Gear (Rack & Pinion Type)


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Raise and safely support the vehicle
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Both of the front tire and wheel assemblies
Engine shield if equipped
Outer tie rod end from the steering knuckle (See: Outer Tie Rod End)
Stabilizer bar (See: Stabilizer Bar)
3. Place a drain pan under the lines in order to catch the fluid
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Rack and pinion gear hose connections

Power steering high pressure line (B) from the rack and pinion assembly
(C)
Power steering low pressure line (A) from the rack and pinion assembly
(C)
Coupler clamp bolt from the intermediate shaft
Intermediate shaft from the rack and pinion assembly

Rack and pinion gear removal

Rack and pinion assembly mounting nuts (A), the washers (B) and the
bolts (D)
Rack and pinion assembly (C) from the vehicle

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Rack and pinion assembly into the vehicle
Rack and pinion assembly mounting bolts the washers and the nuts and
tighten the nuts
A. Torque to: 136 ft. lbs. (185 Nm)
Intermediate shaft to the rack and pinion assembly
Coupler clamp bolt to the intermediate shaft and tighten the bolt
A. Torque to: 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm)
Power steering low pressure hose to the rack and pinion assembly

Power steering high pressure hose to the rack and pinion assembly and
tighten the hoses
A. Torque to: 28 ft. lbs. (37 Nm)
Engine protection shield, if equipped
Outer tie rod end to the steering knuckle
Stabilizer bar (See: Stabilizer Bar)
Ground strap to the crossmember bracket if the steering gear is equipped
with a ground strap as follows:
A. Place the ground strap on the left side of the bracket and mark the
location
B. Center punch the bolt hole location
C. Drill a hole using a 7 mm (9/32 inch) drill bit
D. Install the bolt and washer retaining the ground strap to the
crossmember and tighten the bolt, Torque to: 89 inch lbs. (10
Nm)
Both of the front tire and wheel assemblies
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

2. Using a torque wrench torque the lug nuts in sequence


Torque to: 140 ft. lbs. (190 Nm)
3. Remove the safety stands
4. Lower the vehicle
5. Bleed the power steering system (See: Bleeding the Power Steering System
6. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Power Steering Pump


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Remove or disconnect the following:
Upper radiator fan shroud, if necessary
Battery junction block from pump bracket, if necessary
Drive belt
Pulley
Nut and clamp retaining the filler neck to the power steering pump, if
equipped
2. Place a drain pan under the pump
3. Remove or disconnect the following
Hoses from the pump
Bolts from the rear of the pump
Bolts from the front of the pump
Pump from the vehicle
Power steering pump - 4.8L, 5.3L and 6.0L engines shown

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Power steering pump
Bolts to the front and the rear of the pump and tighten the bolts; Torque
to: 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm)
Hoses to the pump and tighten the nut; Torque to: 20 ft. lbs. (28 Nm)
Nut and clamp retaining the filler neck to the power steering pump, if
equipped
Install the pulley with 0.5 mm (0.020 in) play
Drive belt
Battery junction block from pump bracket
Upper radiator shroud
2. Fill and bleed the power steering system
3. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Power Steering Gear Inlet Pipe/Hose (With Gas Hydroboost)


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
NOTE: Do not start vehicle while any hoses are disconnected. Plug or cap all
disconnected openings of components to prevent fluid contamination and damage.
1. Place drain pan under vehicle.

2. Remove the power steering gear inlet hose from the brake booster.
3. Remove the power steering gear inlet hose from the power steering gear.
4. Remove the power steering gear inlet hose.
To Install:
NOTE: Do not twist the inlet and outlet hoses during installation. Do not bend the inlet or
outlet hoses to ease installation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Position hose on vehicle.


Install the power steering gear inlet hose to the brake booster and hand tighten.
Install the power steering gear inlet hose to the power steering gear.
Tighten both power steering gear inlet hose fittings to 20 lb ft (28 Nm).
Remove the drain pan from under the vehicle.
Bleed the power steering system.

Power Steering Gear Inlet Pipe/Hose (W/O Gas Hydroboost)


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
NOTE: Do not start vehicle while any hoses are disconnected. Plug or cap all
disconnected openings of components to prevent fluid contamination and damage.
1. Raise and safely support vehicle.
2. Remove the engine protection shield.
3. Place drain pan under vehicle.

4. Remove the power steering gear inlet hose from the power steering pump.
5. Remove the power steering gear inlet hose from the power steering gear.
6. Remove the power steering gear inlet hose.
To Install:
NOTE: Do not twist the inlet and outlet hoses during installation. Do not bend the inlet or
outlet hoses to ease installation.
1. Position hose on vehicle.
2. Install the power steering gear inlet hose to the power steering pump and hand
tighten.
3. Install the power steering gear inlet hose to the power steering gear.
4. Tighten both power steering gear inlet hose fittings to 20 lb ft (28 Nm).
5. Remove the drain pan from under the vehicle.
6. Install the engine protection shield.
7. Lower the vehicle.
8. Bleed the power steering system.

Power Steering Gear Inlet Pipe/Hose (Rack and Pinion)


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
NOTE: Do not start vehicle while any hoses are disconnected. Plug or cap all
disconnected openings of components to prevent fluid contamination and damage.
1. Place drain pan under vehicle.

2. Remove the power steering gear inlet hose from the power steering pump.
3. Remove the power steering gear inlet hose from the power steering gear.
4. Remove the power steering gear inlet hose.
To Install:
NOTE: Do not twist the inlet and outlet hoses during installation. Do not bend the inlet or
outlet hoses to ease installation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Position hose on vehicle.


Install the power steering gear inlet hose to the power steering gear.
Install the power steering gear inlet hose to the power steering pump.
Tighten both power steering gear inlet hose fittings to 20 lb ft (28 Nm).
Remove the drain pan from under the vehicle.
Bleed the power steering system.

Power Steering Gear Outlet Pipe/Hose (Recirculating Ball)


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
NOTE: Do not start vehicle while any hoses are disconnected. Plug or cap all
disconnected openings of components to prevent fluid contamination and damage.
1. Place drain pan under vehicle.

2. Remove the power steering gear outlet hose from the power steering gear.
3. Remove the power steering gear outlet hose retaining clamp at the power
steering pump.
4. Remove the power steering gear outlet hose.
To Install:
NOTE: Do not twist the inlet and outlet hoses during installation. Do not bend the inlet or
outlet hoses to ease installation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Position hose on vehicle.


Install the power steering gear outlet hose to the power steering pump.
Place clamp into proper position and tighten.
Install the power steering gear outlet hose to the power steering gear.
Tighten the hose fitting to 20 lb ft (28 Nm).
Remove the drain pan from under the vehicle.
Bleed the power steering system.

Power Steering Gear Outlet Pipe/Hose (Rack and Pinion)


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
NOTE: Do not start vehicle while any hoses are disconnected. Plug or cap all
disconnected openings of components to prevent fluid contamination and damage.
1. Place drain pan under vehicle.

2. Remove the power steering gear outlet hose from the power steering gear.
3. Remove the power steering gear outlet hose from the power steering cooler.
To Install:
NOTE: Do not twist the inlet and outlet hoses during installation. Do not bend the inlet or
outlet hoses to ease installation.
1. Install the power steering gear outlet hose to the power steering cooler.
2. Install the power steering gear outlet hose to the power steering gear and hand
tighten.
3. Install the power steering gear outlet hose to the power steering pump.
4. Tighten the hose fittings to 20 lb ft (28 Nm).
5. Remove the drain pan from under the vehicle.
6. Bleed the power steering system.

Steering Column
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
CAUTION
Vehicle is equipped with a Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR) System. This system
must be disabled to avoid possible personal injury.
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
2. Disable the supplemental inflatable restraint (SIR) system.
3. Remove the knee bolster.
NOTE: The vehicles front wheels must be placed in the straight ahead position
with the steering column in the LOCK position before disconnecting the steering
column or intermediate shaft.

4. Place tool J 42640 through the access hole in the lower steering column trim
cover to lock the steering column.
5. Remove the body control module bracket.
NOTE: Do not disconnect the harness from the body control module.
6. Disconnect the transmission shift cable from the column.
7. Disconnect the steering column electrical connectors.
8. Remove the wire harness retaining pin from the instrument panel.

9. Remove the upper intermediate shaft pinch bolt from the steering column and
remove the shaft from the steering column.
10. Remove the nuts from the knee bolster deflector and remove deflector.

11. Remove the nuts from the upper support brackets.


12. Remove the steering column.
CAUTION
The column is extremely susceptible to damage. Dropping the column assembly on the
end could collapse the steering shaft or loosen the plastic injections. Leaning on the
column assembly could cause the jacket to bend or deform. Do NOT hammer on the end
of the shaft because this could loosen the plastic injections that maintain column rigidity.

To Install:
CAUTION
The steering columns lower fasteners must be tightened prior to the upper fasteners or
the steering column may be damaged. Do not overtighten the upper steering column
fasteners as this could affect the steering column collapse.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Install the steering column on the vehicle.


Install the lower column nuts, Torque to: 22 ft lbs. (30 Nm)
Install the nuts to the upper support brackets, Torque to: 22 ft lbs. (30 Nm)
Install the bolt and nut at the connection of the upper intermediate shaft to the
steering column, Torque to: 46 ft lbs. (62 Nm)
5. Install the knee bolster deflector to the instrument panel, Torque nuts to: 80 in
lbs. (9 Nm)
6. Install the wiring harness retaining pin to the instrument panel.
7. Connect the steering column electrical connectors to the wiring harness.
8. Connect the transmission shift cable to the steering column.
9. Install the body control module bracket.
10. Install the knee bolster.
11. Enable the SIR system.
12. Remove tool J 42640 from the access hole in the lower steering column trim
cover.
13. Connect the negative battery cable.

Bleeding the Power Steering System


1. Fill the pump reservoir with fluid to the minimum FULL COLD level, or middle of
hash mark on cap stick.
NOTE: With hydro-boost only, the oil level will appear falsely high if the hydroboost accumulator is not fully charged. Do not apply the brake pedal with the
engine OFF. This will discharge the hydro-boost accumulator.
2. On vehicles equipped with hydro-boost, charge the hydro-boost accumulator by
performing the following procedure:
Start the engine.
Apply the brake pedal firmly about 10-15 times.
Turn the engine OFF.
3. Raise the front wheels off the ground.
4. With the key ON and the engine OFF, turn the steering wheel from stop to stop
12 times.
NOTE: Vehicles with hydro-boost or longer length power steering hoses may
require up to 15 to 20 stop to stops.
5. Check the power steering fluid level and add if necessary.
6. Start the engine and rotate the steering wheel from left to right. Listen for
abnormal noise which may mean air in the system.
7. Recheck the fluid level. Repeat the procedure, if necessary.

Rear Steering
Steering Gear Motor
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not allow the jack to touch the rear steering gear when lifting the vehicle. Damage to
the rubber boots may occur.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Raise and safely support the vehicle.


Remove the spare tire from under the rear of the vehicle.
Clean any dirt or debris from around the steering gear motor.
Remove the motor mounting bolts.
Remove the motor from the steering gear assembly, and then cover the opening
to prevent dirt from entering the oil in the planetary gear assembly.
6. Remove the wiring from the retaining clips.
Rear steering gear motor removal/installation

7. Disconnect the motor wiring harness from the control module.


8. Disconnect the position sensor electrical connector.
9. Remove the steering gear motor.

To Install:
1. Make sure the O-ring is properly seated on the steering gear.
2. Install the steering gear motor on the steering gear assembly.
Tighten the 6 mm (0.24 in) bolts to 89 lb in (10 Nm) and the 4 mm (0.16
in) bolts to 35 lb in (4 Nm).
3. Connect the connectors to the control module and the position sensor. Make sure
to route the wiring in the original position.
4. Install the wire harness retaining clips.
5. Install the spare tire.
6. Lower the vehicle.

Steering Gear Actuator


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not allow the jack to touch the rear steering gear when lifting the vehicle. Damage to
the rubber boots may occur.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Raise and safely support the vehicle.


Remove the rear wheels.
Drain the fluid from the differential housing by removing the plug.
Remove the steering gear protection shield.
Disconnect the connectors from the control module and position sensor.
Disconnect the outer tie rod ends from the knuckle.
Remove the differential vent hose from the nipple.
Remove the steering gear actuator mounting bolts, and then remove the actuator
from the differential.
Rear steering gear actuator removal/installation

To Install:
1. Clean the differential and steering actuator sealing surfaces.
2. Install the steering gear actuator and a new gasket on the differential.
Tighten the bolts to 45 lb ft (61 Nm).

3. Connect the electrical connectors to the control module and position sensor.
4. Connect the vent hose to the vent nipple.
5. Connect the outer tie rod ends to the knuckle.
6. Fill the differential with fluid.
7. Install the steering gear protection shield.
8. Install the rear wheels.
9. Lower the vehicle.
10. Check and adjust the wheel alignment as needed.

Rear Steering Control Module


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not allow the jack to touch the rear steering gear when lifting the vehicle. Damage to
the rubber boots may occur.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Raise and safely support the vehicle.


Remove the spare tire from under the vehicle.
Disconnect the electrical connectors from the rear steering control module.
Remove the control module mounting bolts.
Remove the control module from the vehicle.

To Install:
1. Install the control module to the vehicle.
Tighten the bolts to 18 lb ft (24 Nm).
2. Connect the electrical connectors to the module.
3. Install the spare tire to the vehicle.
4. Lower the vehicle.
5. Perform a learn alignment.

Rear Steering Position Sensor


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not allow the jack to touch the rear steering gear when lifting the vehicle. Damage to
the rubber boots may occur.
1. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
2. Remove the rear steering gear protection shield.
3. Disconnect the electrical connector from the position sensor.
NOTE: Make sure not to damage the sensor when removing the sensor cover.
4. Remove the rear wheel position sensor cover from the steering gear by prying on
the cover using the slot.
5. Remove the rear wheel position sensor mounting bolts.
NOTE: Check the inner tie rod boot for wear or damage. Replace the steering
gear actuator if the boots are damaged.
6. Remove the rear wheel position sensor from the steering gear. Without turning
the sensor.
Rear steering position sensor removal/installation

To Install:
1. Make sure the O-ring seal is installed correctly.
2. Install the rear wheel position sensor. Remove the pin retaining the position of
the new sensor.
Tighten the bolts to 35 lb in (4 Nm).
3. Install the position sensor cover.
4. Connect the electrical connector to the sensor.
5. Install the steering gear protection shield.
6. Lower the vehicle.
7. Perform a learn wheel alignment.

Learn Wheel Alignment Procedure


1.
2.
3.
4.

Make sure the engine is running.


Connect the scan tool to the vehicle.
Center the steering wheel.
Lift the rear of the vehicle off the ground. Make sure the rear wheels are
centered.
5. Go to the Learn Alignment menu in the scan tool. Follow the prompts on the scan
tool.
NOTE: You must turn the steering wheel a full 90 to the left and a full 90 to the
right and then to center and hold when prompted by the scan tool. If this step is
not done properly then it is possible to cause a false DTC for the steering wheel
position sensor.
6. Press the continue button.
7. Use the scan tool to clear all rear wheel steering DTC's.

Outer Tie Rod End


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
CAUTION
If steering linkage is disconnected, immobilize the steering wheel to prevent damage to
the clock spring/ (SQUIB) assembly.
1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Cautions and Warnings in the beginning
of this section
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Tire and wheel assembly
Rear outer tie rod bracket and bolts

Tie rod bracket (B) retaining bolts (A) from the steering knuckle

Rear outer tie rod jam nut

4. Loosen the tie rod jam nut (A)


Rear outer tie rod removal

5. Remove or disconnect the following:


Nut retaining the outer tie rod end to the steering knuckle
Outer tie rod end from the steering knuckle using the J 24319-B (A) or
other suitable puller
Outer tie rod end from the inner tie rod
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Outer tie rod end to the inner tie rod
Outer tie rod end to the steering knuckle
Outer tie rod end retaining nut to the steering knuckle and tighten the nut
A. Torque to: 40 ft. lbs. (55 Nm)
Outer tie rod end retaining bracket and tighten the retaining bolts
A. Torque to: 48 ft. lbs. (65 Nm)
Tire and wheel assembly
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

2. Lower the vehicle to the ground Torque lug nuts in sequence as follows:
Single Wheel Axle:
A. Torque to: 140 lb-ft. (190 Nm)
Dual Wheel Axle:
A. Torque to: 175 lb-ft. (240 Nm)
Remove the wheel chocks and store the jack in its storage area
Perform a four wheel alignment
Tighten the tie rod jam nut
Torque to: 48 ft. lbs. (65 Nm)
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Inner Tie Rod End


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
CAUTION
If steering linkage is disconnected, immobilize the steering wheel to prevent damage to
the clock spring/(SQUIB) assembly.
1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Cautions and Warnings in the beginning
of this section
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Tire and wheel assembly
Outer tie rod end from the
Rack and pinion boot from the steering gear
NOTE: The inner tie rod support clamp has right hand threads. The inner
tie rod support nut has left hand threads. To remove the support clamp
turn the clamp counterclockwise
Rear inner tie rod support clamp removal

inner tie rod support clamp using the J 44665-1 (A) and J 44665-2 (B) or
other suitable tools

Rear inner tie rod end removal

Inner tie rod (A) from the steering gear using the J 44665-2 (B) or other
suitable tool

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Inner tie rod to the steering gear and using the J 44665-2 or other suitable
tool tighten the inner tie rod and tighten the inner tie rod
A. Torque to: 74 ft. lbs. (100 Nm)
Inner tie rod support clamp to the steering gear using the J 44665-1 and
the J 44665-2 or other suitable tools in order to tighten the inner tie rod
support clamp and tighten the inner tie rod support clamp
A. Torque to: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
Rack and pinion boot to the steering gear
Tire and wheel assembly

Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

2. Torque lug nuts in sequence as follows:


Single Wheel Axle:
A. Torque to: 140 lb-ft. (190 Nm)
Dual Wheel Axle:
A. Torque to: 175 lb-ft. (240 Nm)
Remove the wheel chocks and store the jack in its storage area
Lower the vehicle
Perform a four wheel alignment
Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Wheel Alignment
Independent Front Suspension
Check the alignment of your vehicle periodically to ensure even tire wear and stable
handling. The easiest way to check the alignment (without the use of an alignment rack)
is to check the condition of the tires. Uneven wear patterns across the tread area are a
dead giveaway. Other symptoms include pulling or drifting to the right or left and
instability when turning or changing lanes. If an alignment problem is suspected, first
check for improper tire inflation and other possible causes such as worn suspension or
steering components, accident damage or unmatched tires. If any worn or damaged
components are found, they must be replaced before the wheels can be properly
aligned. Wheel alignment requires very expensive equipment and involves finite
adjustments that must be accurate. Alignments should only be performed by a trained
technician. Have your vehicle aligned by a qualified repair facility.
The following is a description of the alignment angles that are adjustable on most
vehicles and how they affect vehicle handling. These angles can apply to both the front
and rear wheels. On rear wheel drive vehicles typically, only the front suspension is
adjustable.
Caster
Looking at a vehicle from the side, caster angle describes the steering axis from front to
rear. The steering knuckle is attached to a control arm or strut at the top and a control
arm at the bottom. The wheel pivots around the line between these points to steer the
vehicle. When the upper point is tilted back, this is described as positive caster. Having
positive caster tends to make the wheels self-centering increasing directional stability.
Excessive positive caster makes the wheels hard to steer, while an uneven caster will
cause a pull to one side. Overloading the vehicle or sagging rear springs will affect
caster, as it will raise the rear of the vehicle. If the rear of the vehicle is lower than
normal, the caster becomes more positive.

Caster affects straight-line stability. Caster wheels used on


shopping carts, for example, employ negative caster

Camber
Looking from the front of the vehicle, camber is the inward or outward tilt of the top of
wheels. When the tops of the wheels are tilted in, this is negative camber; if they are
tilted out, positive. In a turn a slight amount of negative camber helps maximize contact
of the tire with the road. Too much negative camber compromises straight-line stability,
increases bump steer and torque steer.
Camber influences tire contact with the road

Toe
Looking down at the wheels from above the vehicle, toe angle is the difference in
distance between the front of the wheels, to the back of the wheels. If the wheels are
closer at the front, they are said to be toed-in or to have negative toe. A small amount of
negative toe enhances directional stability and provides a smoother ride on the highway.
With toe-in, the distance between the wheels is closer at the
front than at the rear

Frame Misalignment
Frame misalignment

There are two types of frames commonly used, the ladder frame or full length frame and
the subframe. Both frames are isolated from the body using rubber isolators. The
subframe does not run the full length of the vehicle. The subframe supports the engine
and transaxle. The frame provides the mounting point for the front suspension lower
control arms. Any misalignment of the frame (accident damage, improperly performed
heavy engine work where the subframe is loosened, lowered and/or removed, etc.)
causes a misalignment of the front wheels. Movement of the frame usually causes an
increase in caster on one side of the vehicle and decrease in caster on the other side.
This can cause the exhaust system to bind up, problems with control cables and
unacceptable noise. Check the frame/subframe for any obvious damage, especially on a
used vehicle with an unknown history.

Setback
Subframe setback

Setback applies to both the front and the rear wheels. Setback is the amount that one
wheel spindle may be aligned behind the other wheel spindle. Setback may be the result
of a road hazard (heavily hit pothole, for example) or a collision. The first clue is a caster
difference from side-to-side of more than one degree.

Thrust Angles
Thrust angle

The front wheels aim or steer the vehicle. The rear wheels control tracking. This tracking
action relates to the thrust angle. The thrust angle is the path that the rear wheels take.
Ideally the thrust angle is geometrically aligned with the body centerline. If, for example,
the toe-in on the left rear wheel is out of specification, it moves the thrust line off center.
The resulting deviation from the centerline is the thrust angle.

Lead/Pull
Torque steer

Lead is the deviation of the vehicle from a straight path on a level road, without hand
pressure on the steering wheel. Lead is usually the result of tire construction, uneven
parking brake adjustment or the wheel alignment. The way in which a tire is built may
produce lead. Rear tires do not cause lead.

Torque Steer
A vehicle pulls or leads in one direction during hard acceleration. A vehicle pulls or leads
in the other direction during deceleration. The following factors may cause torque steer
to be more apparent on a particular vehicle:

A slightly smaller diameter tire on the right front increases a right torque lead.
Inspect the front tires for differences in the brand, the construction or the size. If
the tires appear to be similar, change the front tires from side-to-side and retest
the vehicle. Tire and wheel assemblies have the most significant effect on torque
steer correction.
A large difference in the right and left front tire pressure.
Left-to-right differences in the front view axle angle may cause significant
steering pull in the vehicle. The pull will be to the side with the most downward
sloping axle from the differential to the wheels. Axles (halfshafts) typically slope
downward from the differential. The slope of the transaxle pan to level ground
may be used as an indication of bias axle angles. The side with the higher
transaxle pan has the most downward sloping axle angle.

Memory Steer

Memory steer is when the vehicle wants to lead or pull in the direction the driver
previously turned the vehicle. Additionally, after turning in the opposite direction,
the vehicle will want to lead or pull in that direction.

Wander

Wander is the undesirable drifting or deviation of a vehicle toward either side


from a straight path with hand pressure on the steering wheel. Wander is a
symptom of a vehicle's sensitivity to external disturbances, such as road crown
and crosswind. A poor, on-center steering feel accentuates a wander condition.

Preliminary Alignment Inspection


A knowledgeable and competent professional alignment shop will make a number of
checks before attempting a vehicle alignment. Loose or worn suspension parts prevent
an accurate setting of alignment angles. Checks should include:

The tires should be checked for proper inflation pressures. Refer to the Tire
Placard, referenced in this section.
Check the tires for normal tread wear.
Check the front hub and bearing assembly for excessive wear.
Check the ball joints and tie rods for looseness.
Inspect the wheels and tires for runout, resulting from bent wheels or faulty tires.
The vehicle trim height should be checked. If the trim heights are not within
specification, it will be necessary to make corrections before adjusting the
alignment.
The steering gear should be checked for looseness.
The struts should be inspected for wear or damage.
The control arms should be checked for loose or worn bushings.
The stabilizer shaft (sometimes called a sway bar) attachments should be
checked for loose or missing components.
The frame fasteners should be checked for proper torque.
The frame insulators should be checked for wear or damage.

Wheels & Tires


Wheels
Inspection
Tires should be inspected periodically to ensure that there are no lacerations, puncture
marks, nails and other sharp objects compromising the integrity of the tread area and
sidewall. When inspecting your tires, check for proper air pressure and adequate tread
depth. Repair or replace as necessary. Always check tire inflation with cold tires. This
means before you've driven the vehicle, or after driving the vehicle less than one mile.
Check air pressure at least once a month to obtain maximum tire longevity, better fuel
mileage, and longer wearing tires.
NOTE: The easiest way to check tread depth is with a penny. Place the penny in the
tread area with Lincoln's head pointed toward the tire. If you cannot see Lincoln's head
completely, you have adequate tread depth. Other methods include a tread depth gauge
that can be purchased at your local parts store.
Check the wheel assemblies for dents, cracks, and rust. Repair or replace as necessary.

Tire & Wheel


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface. Place the vehicle in PARK (automatic) or
REVERSE (manual) with the engine OFF, and apply the parking brake. If you are
removing a rear tire, chock the front wheels to prevent movement. If you are
removing a front tire, chock the rear wheels.
Before jacking the vehicle, block the diagonally opposite
wheel with one or, preferably, two chocks

2. NOTE: Wheel chocks may be purchased at your local auto parts store, or a block
of wood cut into wedges may be used. If possible, keep one or two of the chocks
in your tire storage compartment, in case any of the tires has to be removed
roadside.
3. Remove the jack, tire iron and, if necessary, the spare tire from the storage
compartment
4. Check the owners manual or refer to the jacking placard in the trunk area, then
place the jack in the proper position
Place the jack at the proper lifting point on your vehicle

5. If equipped with lug nut trim caps, remove them by either unscrewing or pulling
them off the lug nuts, as appropriate (Consult the owners manual, if necessary)
6. If equipped with a wheel cover or hub cap, insert the tapered end of the tire iron
in the groove and pry off the cover
7. With the tires still on the ground use the tire iron/wrench to break the lug nuts
loose, but do not remove the lug nuts until the vehicle has been safely raised off
the ground
With the vehicle still on the ground, break the lug nuts loose
using the wrench end of the tire iron

8. NOTE: If a nut is stuck, never use heat to loosen. Damage to the wheel and
bearings may occur. If the nuts are seized use penetrating oil on the lug nuts and
soak for a period of time to loosen the rust. If the lug nuts are still difficult to break
loose, place a long pipe over the lug wrench to apply increased leverage.
9. Using the jack, raise the vehicle until the tire is clear of the ground and support
the vehicle safely using jack stands
10. Remove the lug nuts, then remove the tire and wheel assembly
After the lug nuts have been loosened, raise the vehicle
using the jack until the tire is clear of the ground

Remove the lug nuts from the studs

Remove the wheel and tire assembly from the vehicle

To Install:
Make sure that the wheel and hub mating surfaces, as well as the wheel lug studs, are
clean and free of all foreign material. Always remove rust from the wheel mounting
surface and the brake rotor or drum. Failure to do so may cause the lug nuts to loosen.
1. Place a small amount of anti-seize compound on the lug studs
2. Install the tire and wheel assembly and hand-tighten the lug nuts
3. Using the tire wrench, tighten all the lug nuts, in a star pattern, until they are snug
which will allow you to distribute the proper torque to the lug nuts without
distorting the rim, or brake rotor
4. Raise the vehicle and withdraw the jackstand, then lower the vehicle
5. Using a torque wrench torque the lug nuts in a star pattern to the recommended
torque (Check your owners manual or refer to Wheels for the proper tightening
sequence and torque specification)
Typical wheel lug tightening sequence

6. WARNING
Do not over tighten the lug nuts, as this may cause the wheel studs to overstretch
or the brake disc (rotor) to warp.
7. If so equipped, align the valve stem and install the wheel cover or hubcap
8. Use a rubber mallet to properly install the cover without damage
9. If equipped, install the lug nut trim caps by pushing or screwing them on, as
applicable
10. Remove the jack from under the vehicle, and place the jack and tire iron/wrench
in their storage compartment
11. Remove the wheel chock(s)
12. If you have removed a flat or damaged tire, place it in the storage compartment
of the vehicle and take it to your local repair station to have it repaired or
replaced as soon as possible
13. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs

Wheel Lug Studs


Removal & Installation
Front W/Front Disc Brakes - Rear Wheel Drive (RWD)
To Remove:
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface
2. Place the vehicle in PARK (automatic) or REVERSE (manual) with the engine
OFF, and apply the parking brake
3. Chock the rear wheels to prevent movement
4. Loosen the lugnuts before raising the vehicle but do not remove the lugnuts
5. Safely raise and support the appropriate end of the vehicle using jack stands,
then remove the lug nuts and wheel
6. Remove or disconnect the following:
Brake pads and caliper (See: Disc Brake Pads and Disc Brake Caliper)
and support the caliper aside using wire or a coat hanger
WARNING
Failure to support the brake caliper could result in brake hose failure.

Dust cap, then remove the cotter pin from the spindle
Nut cover and remove the mounting nut holding the wheel bearing to the
hub
7. Slide the rotor forward to release the front wheel bearing and place the bearing in
the dust cap to protect it from dirt and debris
8. Remove the rotor from the spindle (See: Disc Brake Rotor)
9. Properly support the rotor using press bars, and then drive the stud out using an
arbor press
NOTE: If a press is not available, carefully drive the old stud out using a blunt drift.
Ensure that the rotor is properly and evenly supported or damage may result.

View of the rotor and stud assembly

Pressing the stud from the rotor

To Install:
1. Clean the stud hole with a wire brush and start the new stud with a hammer and
drift pin
NOTE: Do not use any lubricant or thread sealer.
2. Finish installing the stud with the press

Use a press to install the stud into the rotor

3. NOTE: If a press is not available, use the following procedure.


4. Start the lug stud through the bore in the hub, then position about four flat
washers over the stud and thread the lug nut to the stud
5. Hold the hub/rotor while tightening the lugnut, and the stud should be drawn into
position
CAUTION
Make sure that the stud is fully seated, and then remove the lug nut and washers.
6. Install the rotor (See: Disc Brake Rotor)
7. Insert the wheel bearing, washer (if equipped) and install the nut
8. Tighten the nut until snug, then back-off approximately 1/4 turn, or until the nut
cover will accept a new cotter pin
9. Install or connect the following:
Cotter pin and bend to secure in place
Dust cover
Brake caliper and pads (See: Disc Brake Pads and Disc Brake Caliper)
Wheel and hand-tighten the lug nuts
10. Remove the jack stands and carefully lower the vehicle

Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

11. Torque the lug nuts to specification.


12. Remove the wheel chocks and store the jack in its storage area
13. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs
Front W/Front Disc Brakes - 4 Wheel Drive (4WD)
To Remove:
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface
2. Place the vehicle in PARK (automatic) or REVERSE (manual) with the engine
OFF, and apply the parking brake
3. Chock the rear wheels to prevent movement
4. Loosen the lug nuts but do not remove the lug nuts until the vehicle is raised
5. Safely raise and support the appropriate end of the vehicle using jack stands,
then remove the wheel
6. Remove the brake pads and caliper (See: Disc Brake Pads and Disc Brake
Caliper) and support the caliper aside using wire or a coat hanger
WARNING
Failure to support the brake caliper could result in brake hose failure.
7. Remove the rotor from the hub (See: Disc Brake Rotor)
8. Using a large C-clamp and socket, then press the stud from the axle flange
To Install:
1. Clean the stud hole with a wire brush
2. Coat the serrated part of the stud with liquid soap and place it into the hole
NOTE: If a press is not available, use the following procedure.
3. Start the lug stud through the bore in the hub, then position about four flat
washers over the stud and thread the lug nut to the stud
4. Hold the hub/rotor while tightening the lugnut, and the stud should be drawn into
position
5. Install or connect the following:
Rotor on the hub (See: Disc Brake Rotor)

CAUTION
Make sure that the stud is fully seated, and then remove the lug nut and
washers.

Brake caliper and pads (See: Disc Brake Pads and Disc Brake Caliper)
Wheel and hand-tighten the lug nuts
6. Remove the jack stands and carefully lower the vehicle
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

7. Torque the lug nuts to specification.


8. Remove the wheel chocks and store the jack in its storage area
9. Test drive the vehicle to confirm the repairs
Rear with Drum Brakes
To Remove:
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface
2. Place the vehicle in PARK (automatic) or REVERSE (manual) with the engine
OFF, and apply the parking brake
3. Chock the front wheels to prevent movement
4. Loosen the lug nuts, but do not remove the lug nuts until the vehicle is raised
5. Safely raise and support the appropriate end of the vehicle using jack stands,
then remove the wheel
6. Remove the brake drum (See: Brake Drum)
7. If necessary to provide clearance, remove the brake shoes (See: Drum Brake
Shoes)

Exploded view of the drum, axle flange and stud

Use a C-clamp and socket to press out the stud

Force the stud onto the axle flange using washers and a lug nut

10. Using a large C-clamp and socket, press the stud from the axle flange.
To Install:
1. Coat the serrated part of the stud with liquid soap and place it into the hole
2. Position about four flat washers over the stud and thread the lug nut
3. Hold the flange while tightening the lug nut, and the stud should be drawn into
position
4. If applicable, install the brake shoes (See: Drum Brake Shoes)
5. Install the brake drum (See: Brake Drum)
6. Install the wheel and hand-tighten the lug nuts
7. Remove the jack stands and carefully lower the vehicle
Wheel lug nut tightening sequence

8. Torque the lug nuts to specification.


9. Remove the wheel chocks and store the jack in its storage area

BRAKES
Brake Operating System
Basic Operating Principles
When the first automobiles left the assembly line, the brake systems were mechanically
operated. Today, a hydraulic system actuates the brakes. The hydraulic system
transports a hydroscopic fluid from the master cylinder to the brake calipers or wheel
cylinders at each wheel. A proportioning valve is used to equally distribute the fluid's
pressure to each wheel providing safe and dependable stopping power.
Automobiles use hydraulics for two reasons:

Carrying fluid under pressure to all parts of the automobile can be accomplished
with small piping and flexible hoses. This takes up minimal space and does not
contribute greatly to the weight of the vehicle.
There are mechanical advantages to the brake pedal end of the system, and the
foot pressure required to actuate the brakes is greatly reduced, especially with a
vacuum or hydraulic (hydro boost) assist power booster.

Master cylinders consist of a dual chamber fluid reservoir along with a cylinder and dual
piston assembly. Dual type master cylinders are designed to separate the front and rear
braking systems hydraulically in case the system becomes compromised. This
redundant system has the ability to isolate the front or rear brakes in case of a system
leak providing braking. Master cylinders covert mechanical motion from the pedal into
hydraulic pressure within the lines. This pressure is translated back into mechanical
motion at the wheels by the wheel cylinders (drum brakes) or calipers (disc brakes).
Brake fluid is carried by steel lines to a point on the vehicle's frame near each of the
vehicle's wheels. A flexible hose completes the fluid transfer to the wheel cylinders and
calipers. Using a flexible hose allows for suspension travel and steering the vehicle
without compromising safety.
Wheel cylinders contain two pistons at either end of the cylinder. The pistons push
outward in opposite directions and force the brake shoes to contact the drums and stop
the vehicle.
Disc brake calipers work the same way as wheel cylinders. However, instead of pushing
the shoes outward, the calipers push the brake pads inward toward the rotor. There are
fixed and floating calipers. A fixed caliper is solidly mounted to a bracket. These calipers
typically have pistons on both sides and exert equal force to each brake pad. A floating
caliper is mounted to slider pins and have pistons (normally one) on one side only. As
the brake pedal is depressed, the piston in the floating caliper expands outward to the
brake pad. The opposite side of the caliper is drawn toward the rotor with equal
pressure, however the single piston does all of the work.

Pistons in a caliper or wheel cylinder have a seal, made of a rubber compound


impervious to brake fluid. The seal prevents fluid leakage. A rubber dust boot is added
the outer end of the cylinder to prevent dust and dirt from affecting the piston's operation.
Dust boots fit around the outer edge of the piston on disc brake calipers, and around the
brake actuating rod on wheel cylinders.
When the brake system is released, the entire system from the master cylinder to the
calipers and wheel cylinders is full of fluid. Depressing the brake pedal causes fluid
trapped in front of the master cylinder piston(s) through the lines to the wheel cylinders
or calipers. The pistons are forced outward, in the case of drum brakes, and inward
toward the disc, in the case of disc brakes. The motion of the pistons is opposed by
return springs mounted outside the cylinders in drum brakes, and by hydraulic
displacement in disc brakes.
Releasing the brake pedal immediately returns the master cylinder pistons to the normal
position by way of springs in the cylinder. The pistons contain check valves and there
are compensating ports drilled in to the master cylinder. The ports are uncovered as the
pistons reach their resting position. Piston check valves allow fluid to flow toward the
master cylinder as the pistons withdraw. The return springs force the brake pads or
shoes into the released position and the excess fluid flows back to the reservoir through
the compensating ports.
Dual circuit master cylinders have two pistons (front and rear), in the same cylinder. The
primary (rear) piston is actuated by mechanical linkage from the brake pedal through the
power booster. The secondary piston (front) is actuated by fluid trapped between the two
pistons. If a leak develops in front of the secondary piston, it moves forward until it
bottoms against the front of the master cylinder, and the fluid trapped between the
pistons will operate the rear brakes. If the rear brakes develop a leak, the primary piston
will move forward until direct contact with the secondary piston takes place, and it will
force the secondary piston to actuate the front brakes. In either case, the brake pedal
moves farther when the brakes are applied, and less braking power is available. This is
commonly known as a redundant or backup system.
Dual circuit systems have a low-pressure warning switch to warn the driver of a
compromised system. The switch is located in a valve body that is mounted below the
master cylinder. A hydraulic piston receives pressure from both circuits. Each circuit's
pressure being applied to either end of the piston. When the pressures are in balance,
the piston remains stationary. When one circuit is compromised, the greater pressure
from the other circuit (during application of the brakes) pushes the piston to one side,
closing the switch and activating the brake warning light.
Disc brake systems incorporate a metering valve in this valve body and, in some cases,
a proportioning valve. Metering valves keep pressure from traveling to the disc brakes on
the front wheels until the brake shoes on rear wheels have contacted the drums. This
ensures that the front brakes will never be used alone. The proportioning valve controls
pressure to the rear brakes to lessen the chance of rear wheel lock-up during very hard
braking.

You can check the warning light by depressing the brake pedal while someone else
opens a bleeder screw on the caliper or wheel cylinder. If the light does not go on,
substitute a new lamp, make continuity checks, and, finally, replace the switch as
necessary.
NOTE: When opening the bleeder screw, ensure that the reservoir is full, and do not
release the brake pedal until the bleeder screw has been tightened. If the pedal is
released, you will need to perform a complete brake bleeding procedure to ensure there
is no air in the system.
Check the hydraulic system for leaks by applying and holding pressure to the pedal. If
the pedal sinks to the floor, either slowly or quickly, the system has a leak. A spongy feel
to the brake pedal, without sinking to the floor, indicates air in the system.
Check for leaks from the master cylinder to the wheel cylinders. To check the master
cylinder, remove the mounting nuts at the power booster and pull the master cylinder
forward. If the rear of the cylinder is wet with brake fluid, replace the component. Check
the metal lines along the length and at connections, and check the brake hoses. Finally,
pull the dust boots back from the wheel cylinders. If brake fluid is found inside the dust
boots, replace the wheel cylinders. It is also possible to have a compromised master
cylinder with no apparent leaks. With this condition, the pressure is bypassed to the
reservoir and not to the wheel cylinders.
Disc Brakes
Disc brakes use a rotor with brake pads, instead of a drum with expanding shoes. Much
like the hand-brake configuration on a bicycle, brake pads squeeze inward against either
side of the rotor.
Disc brake rotors are typically made from a cast-iron alloy. There are two types of disc
rotors; solid and vented. A solid rotor is just that; there are no cooling vanes to dissipate
heat. Vented rotors utilize an air space between each rotor half. As the wheel turns, the
rotor draws in air from the rear of the rotor and expels the air through the center between
the rotor halves. This enables air to circulate between the braking surfaces making them
less sensitive to heat buildup and more resistant to fade. Dirt and water do not drastically
affect braking action since contaminants are thrown off by the centrifugal action of the
rotor or scraped off the by the pads. Also, equal clamping action of the two brake pads
tends to ensure uniform, straight line stops. Disc brakes are inherently self-adjusting.
There are three general types of disc brake calipers:

Fixed
Floating
Sliding

Fixed caliper designs use four pistons; two mounted on either side of the rotor. The
caliper is mounted rigidly and does not move.
Floating and sliding designs are quite similar. In fact, these two types are often lumped
together in the same category. In floating and sliding configurations, the pad on the

inside of the rotor is moved into contact with the rotor with hydraulic force. The caliper,
which is not held in a fixed position, moves bringing the outside pad into contact with the
rotor. There are various methods of attaching floating calipers. Some pivot at the bottom
or top, and some slide on mounting bolts. They both, however, accomplish the same
task.
Drum Brakes
A drum brake system consists of two brake shoes mounted on a stationary backing
plate. These shoes are mounted inside a circular drum that rotates with the wheels. The
brake shoes are held in place by springs and pivot points. This mounting allows the
shoes to ratchet (servo action) within the drum creating a smooth transition of the friction
material to stop the vehicle safely. The brake shoes are actuated by wheel-cylinders that
are mounted at the top of the backing plate. When applied, hydraulic pressure forces the
wheel cylinder's push-rods outward. Since these links bear directly against the top of the
brake shoes, the tops of the shoes are then forced against the inner side of the drum.
When the brake pedal is released the wheel cylinder is relaxed, and return springs pull
the shoes back away from the drum.
Modern drum brakes are designed to self-adjust during brake application when the
vehicle is moving in reverse. This causes a reverse ratcheting effect of the brake shoes,
rocking an adjusting lever, thereby causing rotation of the adjusting screw. There are
also drum brake systems designed to self-adjust during brake application at any time.
Self-adjusting brake shoes maintain an acceptable distance between the drum and
shoes. It also reduces the need for maintenance adjustments and keeps both the brake
function and pedal feel satisfactory.
Vacuum Assist Power Boosters
Most modern automobiles are equipped with a vacuum assist power booster. The
purpose of the booster is to multiply the braking force, and reduce pedal effort. The
booster draws vacuum from the base of the intake manifold, and since vacuum is
generally available when the engine is operating, the system is simple and efficient.
Some vehicles do not have a sufficient source of vacuum; these vehicles use a hydro
boost system that is typically run by the power steering pump, or other auxiliary pump.
The booster contains a vacuum diaphragm and assists the driver in applying the brakes,
reducing both the effort and travel that's required to move the brake pedal.
The power booster is connected to the intake manifold by a metal line and vacuum hose.
A check valve is installed where the hose enters the diaphragm housing. At periods of
low manifold vacuum, there will be no loss of brake assist.
The vacuum source is closed off when the brake pedal is depressed. Atmospheric
pressure enters on one side of the diaphragm, causing the pistons in the master cylinder
to move, applying the brakes. Releasing the brake pedal causes vacuum to be applied to
both sides of the diaphragm, and return springs move the diaphragm and master
cylinder pistons to the released position.
If manifold vacuum is lost, the system will still work without any power assist. However, a
greater effort must be exerted to stop the vehicle and the brake pedal will feel rock hard.

Testing
Vacuum Leak Test
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface. Place the vehicle in PARK (automatic) or
REVERSE (manual) with the engine OFF, and apply the parking brake. Chock
the rear wheels to prevent vehicle movement.
NOTE: Wheel chocks may be purchased at your local auto parts store, or a block
of wood cut into wedges may be used.
2. Start the vehicle and operate the engine at idle without touching the brake pedal
for at least one minute.
NOTE: For manual transmission vehicles, place the vehicle in NEUTRAL with the
parking brake applied.
3. Turn off the engine and wait one minute.
4. Test for the presence of assist vacuum by depressing the brake pedal and
releasing it several times. If vacuum is present in the system, light application will
produce less and less pedal travel. If there is no vacuum, there is a leak allowing
air into the system.
System Operation Test
1. With the engine OFF, pump the brake pedal until the vacuum supply is entirely
gone.
2. Place your foot on the brake pedal and apply steady pressure. Maintain steady
pressure on the brake pedal.
3. Start the engine and let it idle. If the system is operating correctly, the brake
pedal should fall to the floor.
NOTE: Power brake systems may be tested for hydraulic leaks just as ordinary systems
are tested.
WARNING
Never use brake fluid from an open container. Brake fluid is hydroscopic, and will absorb
moisture that will compromise the efficiency of the fluid. Clean, high quality brake fluid is
essential to the safe and proper operation of the brake system. You should always buy
brake fluid recommended for your vehicle and brake system. Never mix DOT grade
brake fluid with Silicon Brake Fluid; the combination is tantamount to adding air to the
brake lines, causing weak and ineffective braking and an expensive procedure to clean,
flush and replenish the brake system. If the brake fluid becomes contaminated, drain and
flush the system, then refill the master cylinder with new fluid. Never reuse any brake
fluid. Discard any brake fluid that is removed from the system. Also, vehicles equipped
with ABS (Antilock Brake Systems) must be professionally bled using a pressure bleeder
or a gravity bleed procedure. Refer to a qualified repair center for service.

Brake Light Switch


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
Brake light switch location

1. Remove or disconnect the following:


The electrical connector from the stop lamp switch (B)
The pushrod retaining clip (D)
The stop lamp switch (B)
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
The stop lamp switch (B)
The pushrod retaining clip (D)
The electrical connector to the stop lamp switch (B)

Master Cylinder
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Apply the park brake and block the wheels.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Electrical connector from the brake fluid level sensor. If equipped.
Brake lines from the master cylinder
CAUTION
Install a rubber cap or plug to the exposed brake line ends to prevent brake fluid
loss and contamination
3. Plug the open brake line ends
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Master cylinder mounting nuts
Master cylinder from the vehicle
Master cylinder reservoir
To Install:
1. Install master cylinder reservoir
2. Bench bleed the master cylinder
3. Install or connect the following:
Master cylinder to the vehicle
Master cylinder mounting nuts. Tighten to: 27 ft lbs (36 Nm)
Rubber cap or plug from the exposed brake pipe fitting ends
Brake lines. Tighten to: 18 ft. lbs (25 Nm)
Electrical connector to the brake fluid level sensor, if equipped
4. Bleed the brake system.
5. Release the park brake and unblock the wheels.

Master Cylinder Reservoir


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Apply the park brake and block the wheels.


Remove the master cylinder.
Drain the master cylinder reservoir.
Secure the master cylinder in a vise.

5. Remove the brake fluid level sensor by depressing the retaining tabs and
pushing the sensor through the reservoir (if equipped).
6. Using a hammer and drift punch, remove roll pins that secure the reservoir to the
master cylinder.
7. Separate the reservoir from the master cylinder.
To Install:
1. Push the master cylinder reservoir into the master cylinder until it snaps into
place.
2. Using a hammer and drift punch, install NEW roll pins into the master cylinder.
3. Press the brake fluid level sensor into reservoir until retaining tabs are secured.
4. Bench bleed the master cylinder.
5. Remove master cylinder from vise and install on vehicle.
6. Release the park brake.
7. Bleed the brakes.

Bench Bleeding
WARNING
Replacement master cylinders are delivered dry. To prevent damage to the pistons in
the master cylinder, all new master cylinders should be bench bled prior to installation.
Bleeding a new master cylinder on the vehicle is not a good idea. With air trapped inside,
the master cylinder piston may bottom in the bore and possibly cause internal damage.
1. Secure the master cylinder in a bench vise using soft jaws.
2. Remove the master cylinder reservoir cap.
3. Manufacture or purchase bleeding tubes and install them on the master cylinder
as illustrated.

4. NOTE: The bleeding tubes are installed on the master cylinder then curved to
drain into the reservoir.
5. Fill the master cylinder reservoir with clean, fresh brake fluid until the level is
within 0.25 in. of the reservoir top.
NOTE: Ensure the bleeding tubes are below the level of the brake fluid,
otherwise air may get into the system making your bleeding efforts ineffective.
6. Use a blunt tipped rod (a long socket extension or Phillips head screwdriver
works well) to slowly depress the master cylinder piston. Make sure the piston
travels its full stroke.
7. As the piston is depressed, air bubbles will exit the bleeding tubes. Continue
depressing and releasing the piston until all bubbles cease.
8. Refill the master cylinder with fluid.
9. Remove the bleeding tubes.
10. Install the master cylinder reservoir cap.
11. Install the master cylinder on the vehicle.

Brake Hoses and Lines


Check metal brake lines and rubber brake hoses frequently for leaks and external
damage. Metal lines are prone to crushing and kinking under the vehicle. Any such
deformation will restrict the proper flow of fluid and therefore impair braking at the
wheels. Rubber hoses should be checked for cracking or scuffs; such damage can
compromise the hose and fail under pressure.
Before disconnecting any lines, ensure that the connection is completely clean. Use a
stiff bristle brush and non-chlorinated brake cleaner), and be sure to plug the lines and
ports as soon as they are opened. Flush all new lines and hoses with brake fluid before
installation to remove any contamination.

Removal & Installation


To Remove:
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface. Place the vehicle in PARK (automatic) or
REVERSE (manual) with the engine OFF, and apply the parking brake. Chock
the rear wheels to prevent vehicle movement.
NOTE: Wheel chocks may be purchased at your local auto parts store, or a block
of wood cut into wedges may be used.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle on jack stands.
3. Remove any wheel and tire assemblies necessary for access to the particular
line you are removing.
4. Thoroughly clean the surrounding area at the joints to be disconnected.
Use a brush to clean the fittings of any debris

5. Place a suitable catch pan under the connection to be disconnected.


6. Using two line wrenches (one to hold the connection and one to turn the fitting),
disconnect the hose or line to be replaced.

Use two wrenches to loosen the fitting. If available, use flare


nut type wrenches

7. Disconnect the other end of the line or hose, moving the drain pan if necessary.
Always use a line wrench to avoid damaging the fitting.
8. Disconnect any retaining clips or brackets holding the line and remove the line
from the vehicle.
NOTE: If the brake system is to remain open for more time than it takes to swap lines,
tape or plug each remaining clip and port to keep contaminants out, and fluid in.
Any gaskets/crush washers should be replaced with new
ones during installation

Tape or plug the line to prevent contamination

To Install:
NOTE: Install the new line or hose, starting with the end farthest from the master
cylinder. Connect the other end, and then confirm that both fittings are correctly threaded
and turn smoothly using finger pressure. Make sure the new line will not rub against any
other part. Brake lines must be at least 1/2 in. (13mm) from the steering column and
other moving parts. Any protective shielding or insulators must be reinstalled in the
original location.
WARNING
Make sure the hose is NOT kinked or touching any part of the frame or suspension after
installation. These conditions may cause the hose to fail prematurely.
1. Using two line wrenches as before, tighten each fitting.
2. Install any retaining clips or brackets on the lines.
3. If removed, install the wheel and tire assemblies, then carefully lower the vehicle
to the ground.
4. Torque the wheels to manufacturers' recommended specification.
5. Refill the brake master cylinder reservoir with clean, fresh brake fluid, meeting
the DOT specification recommended by the manufacturer. Properly bleed the
brake system.

Bleeding The Brake System


Bleeding
When any part of the hydraulic system has been disconnected for repair or replacement,
air enters the lines causing spongy pedal action (because air can be compressed and
brake fluid cannot). To correct this condition, it is necessary to bleed the hydraulic
system to ensure all air is purged.
Always begin bleeding the brake system from the furthest wheel cylinder or caliper from
the master cylinder; the right rear.
NOTE: The right side of the vehicle is the passenger side. The sides of the vehicle are
determined from the driver's perspective. This reference is taken from sitting in the
driver's seat, facing forward.
Maintain a full reservoir during the bleeding operation. Never use brake fluid that has
been drained from the hydraulic system, or from an open container, no matter how clean
it is. Always use brake fluid from a new, sealed container. The front and rear reservoir
will drain as the front or rear brakes are bled.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface. Place the vehicle in PARK (automatic) or
REVERSE (manual) with the engine OFF, and apply the parking brake. Chock
the rear wheels to prevent vehicle movement.
NOTE: Wheel chocks may be purchased at your local auto parts store, or a block
of wood cut into wedges may be used.
2. Loosen the lugnuts from all four wheels, but do not remove the lugnuts until the
vehicle is raised and supported properly.
3. Use an approved jack and raise the vehicle high enough to place jack stands
under all four corners of the vehicle. Place the jack stands under the frame or
axles of the vehicle. Ensure that the front of the vehicle is raised higher than the
rear.
4. Remove the wheels from the vehicle.
5. Clean all dirt from around the master cylinder fill cap. Remove the cap and fill the
master cylinder with brake fluid until the level is within 1/4 in. (6mm) of the top
edge of the reservoir.
6. Clean the bleeder screws at all four wheels. The bleeder screws are located on
the back of the brake backing plate (drum brakes) and at the top of the brake
calipers (disc brakes).
7. Attach a length of rubber hose over the bleeder screw and place the other end of
the hose in a plastic jar.
8. Have an assistant place and hold pressure on the brake pedal.
9. Open the bleeder screw 1/2 - 3/4 turn. As the bleeder is opened, the brake pedal
will travel to the floor. Have the assistant inform you when the pedal has
bottomed out.

NOTE: Do not remove pressure from the brake pedal once it is bottomed out. No
movement to the pedal should occur until the bleeder is closed and the assistant
is made aware of the situation. Failure to do this will draw more air into the
system.
10. Close the bleeder screw and tell your assistant remove their foot from the brake
pedal. Continue this process to purge all air from the system.
11. When bubbles cease to appear at the end of the bleeder hose, tighten the
bleeder screw and remove the hose.
12. After bleeding each wheel, check the master cylinder fluid level and add fluid
accordingly.
13. Repeat the bleeding operation at the remaining three wheels, ending with the one
closet to the master cylinder. The pattern is, RR, LR, RF, LF.
14. Fill the master cylinder reservoir to the proper level and install the reservoir cap.

Power Vacuum Brake Booster


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
3. Remove the master cylinder.
Master cylinder removal

4. Remove the brake master cylinder Vacuum hose from the brake booster check
valve

Brake booster mounting bolts

5. Remove the pushrod retaining clip (D) from the brake pedal stud (A)
6. Remove the brake light switch (B) and the pushrod (C) from the brake pedal stud
(A)
Brake pedal to booster connection

7. Remove the four vacuum booster mounting nuts and the vacuum booster.
8. Remove and discard the booster gasket.

To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
New gasket to the booster
Vacuum booster
Four vacuum booster mounting nuts; Tighten to: 27 ft lbs- (36 Nm)
Pushrod and the brake light switch to the brake pedal stud
Pushrod retaining clip to the brake pedal stud
Vacuum hose to the brake booster check valve
Master cylinder
Battery ground cable
2. Road test the vehicle to check performance.

Hydraulic Brake Booster


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Apply the park brake and block the wheels.
2. Disconnect the steering gear, inlet and return hoses from the booster assembly.
3. Remove the master cylinder mounting nuts and set the master cylinder aside.
NOTE: Do not disconnect the brake lines from the master cylinder.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Disconnect the brake light switch electrical connector.


Remove retaining clip from the pushrod.
Remove the brake light switch.
Remove the 4 booster mounting nuts from the bulkhead.
Remove the booster assembly.
Remove the gasket.
Hydraulic booster

To Install:
1. Install the gasket.
2. Install the booster assembly.
3. Install the booster to bulkhead nuts.
Tighten to: 24 ft lbs (33 Nm).
4. Install the brake light switch and pushrod.
5. Install the master cylinder.
Tighten the mounting nuts to: 24 ft lbs (33 Nm).
6. Connect the steering gear, return hose, and inlet hoses.
7. Bleed the hydraulic booster system.

Combination Valve
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Disconnect the combination valve electrical connector.
2. Disconnect the front and the rear brake lines.
3. Remove the combination valve from the vehicle.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Position the combination valve to the vehicle.


Connect the front and the rear brake lines to the combination valve.
Tighten the brake line nuts to 18 ft lbs (25 Nm).
Connect the combination valve electrical connector.
NOTE: Depress the combination valve metering rod while bleeding the brake
system.

5. Bleed the brake system.

Disc Brakes
Brake Caliper
Removal & Installation
Front
To Remove:
1. Remove the cover on the master cylinder and siphon enough fluid out of the
reservoirs to bring the level to 1/3 full. This step prevents spilling fluid when the
piston is pushed back.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
3. Remove the front wheels and tires.
4. Position a C-clamp around the outside pad and caliper; tighten the C-clamp until
the caliper piston bottoms in its bore.
Compressing the caliper piston

5. Remove the brake hose from the caliper by removing the inlet block bolt.
6. Remove and discard the copper washers.

Front caliper removal

7. Remove the caliper mounting bolts.


8. Lift the caliper off the rotor.
To Install:
1. Position the caliper onto the knuckle/rotor assembly and secure the assembly
with the mounting bolts.
Tighten to: 80 ft lb (110 Nm).
2. Install a NEW copper washer on each side of the brake hose.
3. Reconnect the brake line to the caliper.
Tighten the brake block bolt to: 33 ft lb (45 Nm).
4. Bleed the brakes
5. Pump the brake pedal and verify there is minimal brake pedal travel.
6. Check the brake fluid level. Install the wheel and tire assembly.

Rear
To Remove:
1. Remove 2/3 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder.
2. Remove the wheel assembly.
Compressing the rear caliper piston

3. Using a C-clamp or the equivalent, compress the caliper piston until the caliper
piston bottoms in the bore.
4. Disconnect the brake hose at the caliper by removing the inlet fitting bolt.
5. Remove and discard copper washers.
Rear caliper removal

6. Remove the caliper mounting bolts.


7. Remove the caliper.
8. Inspect the caliper assembly.
To Install:
1. Position the brake caliper to the support bracket.
2. Install the caliper mounting bolts. Perform the following procedure before
installing the caliper guide pin bolts.
Remove all traces of the original adhesive patch.
Clean the threads of the bolt with brake parts cleaner or the equivalent
and allow to dry.
Apply Red Loctite #272 to the threads of the bolt.
3. Install the caliper mounting bolts.
Tighten to 32 ft. lbs (43 Nm).
4. Install a NEW copper washer on each side of the brake hose.
5. Connect the brake hose to the caliper. Install the inlet fitting bolt.
Tighten to 33 ft. lbs (45 Nm).
6. Bleed the brakes.
7. Install the tire and wheel assembly.
8. Refill the brake master cylinder to the proper level with fresh brake fluid.

Overhaul
Disassembly:
1. Remove the caliper from the vehicle and place on a clean workbench.
CAUTION
NEVER place your fingers in front of the pistons in an attempt to catch or protect
the pistons when applying compressed air. This could result in personal injury!
NOTE: Depending upon the vehicle, there are two different ways to remove the
piston from the caliper. Refer to the brake pad replacement procedure to make
sure you have the correct procedure for your vehicle.
2. The first method is as follows:
Stuff a shop towel or a block of wood into the caliper to catch the piston.
Remove the caliper piston using compressed air applied into the caliper
inlet hole. Inspect the piston for scoring, nicks, corrosion and/or worn or
damaged chrome plating. The piston must be replaced if any of these
conditions are found.

For some types of calipers, use compressed air to drive the


piston out of the caliper, but make sure to keep your fingers
clear

Withdraw the piston from the caliper bore

4. For the second method, you must rotate the piston to retract it from the caliper.
5. If equipped, remove the anti-rattle clip.
On some vehicles, you must remove the anti-rattle clip

6. Use a pry tool to remove the caliper boot, being careful not to scratch the housing
bore.

Use a pry tool to carefully pry around the edge of the boot . .
.

. . . then remove the boot from the caliper housing, taking


care not to score or damage the bore

8. Remove the piston seals from the groove in the caliper bore.

Use extreme caution when removing the piston seal; DO


NOT scratch the caliper bore

9. Carefully loosen the brake bleeder valve cap and valve from the caliper housing.
10. Inspect the caliper bores, pistons and mounting threads for scoring or excessive
wear.
11. Use crocus cloth to polish out light corrosion from the piston and bore.
12. Clean all parts with denatured alcohol and dry with compressed air.
Assembly:
1. Lubricate and install the bleeder valve and cap.
2. Install the new seals into the caliper bore grooves, making sure they are not
twisted.
3. Lubricate the piston bore.
4. Install the pistons and boots into the bores of the calipers and push to the bottom
of the bores.
5. Use a suitable driving tool to seat the boots in the housing.

Use the proper size driving tool and a mallet to properly seal
the boots in the caliper housing

6. Install the caliper in the vehicle.


7. Install the wheel and tire assembly, then carefully lower the vehicle.
8. Properly bleed the brake system.
There are tools, such as this Mighty-Vac, available to assist
in proper brake system bleeding

Brake Disc (Rotor)


Removal & Installation
Front
To Remove:
1. Remove the cover on the master cylinder and siphon enough fluid out of the
reservoirs to bring the level to 1/3 full. This step prevents spilling fluid when the
piston is pushed back.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
3. Remove the front wheels and tires.
4. Position a C-clamp around the outside pad and caliper; tighten the C-clamp until
the caliper piston bottoms in its bore.
Compressing the caliper piston

5. Place an index mark on the rotor and hub for reassembly.


6. Remove the 2 brake caliper bracket mounting bolts.
7. Remove the brake caliper and brake caliper mounting bracket as a complete
assembly. Support the caliper and bracket assembly with a heavy wire.
8. Remove the brake rotor screw on 1500 series vehicles.
9. On 25/3500 series vehicles the rotor may be difficult to remove because of
corrosion or rust around the hub area. Use the following procedure to remove the
rotor.
Clean surface areas and the threaded holes.
Apply penetrating oil to the hub/rotor area.
Install two M10 x 1.5 bolts into the threaded holes of the rotor.
Tighten the bolts evenly to force the rotor off the hub.
10. Remove the rotor.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.
8.
9.

Clean the mating surfaces of the hub flange and rotor.


If applicable align the index marks on the rotor and hub. Install the rotor.
Install the caliper and mounting bracket assembly.
Perform the following procedure before installing the caliper bracket mounting
bolts.
Remove all traces of the original adhesive patch.
Clean the threads of the bolt with brake parts cleaner or the equivalent
and allow to dry.
Apply threadlocker GM P/N 12345493 or equivalent to the threads of the
bolt.
Install the caliper bracket mounting bolts.
Tighten to 121 ft lbs (175 Nm) (15 series) and 221 ft lbs (300 Nm) (25
series).
Install the tire and wheel assembly.
Lower the vehicle.
Seat the brake caliper pistons and brake pads by slowly pumping the brake
pedal.
Fill the master cylinder reservoir to the proper level.

Rear
To Remove:
1. Remove the cover on the master cylinder and siphon enough fluid out of the
reservoirs to bring the level to 1/3 full. This step prevents spilling fluid when the
piston is pushed back.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
3. Remove the front wheels and tires.
4. Position a C-clamp around the outside pad and caliper; tighten the C-clamp until
the caliper piston bottoms in its bore.
Compressing the caliper piston

5. Place an index mark on the rotor and hub for reassembly.


6. Remove the 2 brake caliper bracket mounting bolts.
7. Remove the brake caliper and brake caliper mounting bracket as a complete
assembly. Support the caliper and bracket assembly with a heavy wire.
NOTE: Use penetrating oil to loosen the mating surfaces before removing the
rotor. It may be necessary to use a slide hammer with a hooked end inside the
vent section of the rotor to release it from the hub.
8. Remove the rotor by rotating and pulling outward.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.
8.
9.

Clean the mating surfaces of the hub flange and rotor.


If applicable align the index marks on the rotor and hub. Install the rotor.
Install the caliper and mounting bracket assembly.
Perform the following procedure before installing the caliper bracket mounting
bolts.
Remove all traces of the original adhesive patch.
Clean the threads of the bolt with brake parts cleaner or the equivalent
and allow to dry.
Apply threadlocker GM P/N 12345493 or equivalent to the threads of the
bolt.
Install the caliper bracket mounting bolts.
Tighten to 129 ft lbs (175 Nm) (15 series) and 221 ft. lbs (300 Nm) (25
series).
Install the tire and wheel assembly.
Lower the vehicle.
Seat the brake caliper pistons and brake pads by slowly pumping the brake
pedal.
Fill the master cylinder reservoir to the proper level.

Disc Brake Pads


Removal & Installation
Front
To Remove:
Front caliper mounting bracket

1. Remove the cover on the master cylinder and siphon out 2/3 of the fluid. This
step prevents spilling fluid when the piston is pushed back into the caliper bore.
2. Raise and support the vehicle safely.
3. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
4. Compress the brake piston back into its bore using a C-clamp.
5. Remove the 2 caliper mounting bolts. Lift the caliper off the rotor.
6. Remove the inboard and outboard brake pads.
7. Remove and discard the anti-rattle clips.

To Install:
Caliper bracket sleeves

1. Thoroughly inspect, clean and lubricate all caliper slide points, bolts and
hardware.
2. Install new anti-rattle clips.
3. Position the inboard and outboard pads into the support bracket
4. With the 2 pads in position, place the caliper over the brake rotor and align the
holes in the caliper with those of the mounting bracket.
5. Install the caliper mounting bolts through the sleeves in the inboard caliper ears
and into the mounting bracket.
Tighten the mounting bolts to: 74 ft lb. (110 Nm) 1500 series
80 ft lb. (110 Nm) 25/3500 series.
6. Install the tire and wheel assembly. Lower the vehicle.
7. Add fluid to the master cylinder reservoirs so they are 1/4 in. (6.35mm) from the
top.
8. Test the brake pedal by pumping it to obtain a hard pedal. Check the fluid level
and add fluid as necessary.

Rear
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove 2/3 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder.


Raise and safely support the vehicle.
Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
Remove the brake caliper mounting bolts. Suspend the caliper from the frame
with mechanic's wire. Do not allow the caliper to hang from the brake hose.
5. Remove the brake pads from the caliper mounting bracket.
6. Remove and discard the anti-rattle clips.
Rear brake caliper

To Install:
1. Install new anti-rattle clips.
2. Position the brake pads to the caliper mounting bracket.
3. With the 2 pads in position, place the caliper over the brake rotor and align the
holes in the caliper with those of the mounting bracket.
4. Install NEW caliper mounting bolts.
Tighten to: 31 ft lb (42 Nm) 1500 series and 80 ft lb (108 Nm) 25/3500
series.
5. Install the wheel and tire assembly.
6. Lower the vehicle.
7. Refill the master cylinder to the proper level with fresh brake fluid. Pump the
brake pedal slowly and firmly to seat the brake pads. Burnish the brakes as
needed.

Drum Brakes
Brake Drums
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
3. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
4. Index mark and remove the rear brake drum.
5. Use the following procedure to loosen the adjuster if the brake drum has a deep
ridge on the outer edge.
Remove the rubber cover on the backing plate.
Insert an ice pick and push the adjuster lever away from the adjuster
wheel.
Rotate the adjuster wheel upward with a brake adjuster tool while holding
the lever away from the adjuster wheel.
6. Remove the rear brake drum.
To Install:
1. Adjust the rear brake shoes using a brake adjustment gauge to measure the
inside diameter of the drum and the diameter of the shoes. Lengthen the adjuster
until the clearance between the rear brake shoes and the rear brake drum is
0.030 in (0.76 mm).
2. Align the index marks and install the rear brake drum.
3. Install the wheel and tire assembly.

Brake Shoes
Inspection
Inspect the brake lining through the openings in the backing plate or any time the wheels
are removed for service. Replace riveted linings when worn to within 0.030 in (0.76 mm)
of any rivet head. Replace bonded linings when the thickness of any lining is worn within
0.030 in (0.72 mm) of the shoe. Always replace shoe and lining assemblies as a
complete axle set.
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Before servicing the vehicle refer to the precautions at the beginning of this
section.
2. Raise and support the vehicle.
3. Remove or disconnect the following:
Wheel and tire assembly
Brake drums
4. Turn the brake adjuster to the lowest setting.
5. Remove the adjuster spring.
6. Remove the brake adjuster lever.
7. Remove the adjuster assembly.
8. Remove the secondary brake shoe retractor spring.
9. Remove the secondary brake shoe.
Drum brake retractor spring

10. Remove the primary brake shoe retractor spring.


11. Remove the primary brake shoe.
12. Remove the return spring.
13. Press and hold the parking brake cable lock tab with a small screwdriver.
14. Push the parking brake cable forward to release the cable from the parking brake
lever retainer.

Drum brake parking brake cable

15. NOTE: The lever is part of the brake shoe assembly. If the return spring
becomes separated from the lever, replace the rear brake shoe.
16. Remove the parking brake cable from the lever.
To Install:
1. Clean the adjuster wheels and the backing plates with a suitable cleaner.
2. Lubricate the backing plate contact points, levers and adjuster with a suitable
lubricant
3. Apply a small amount of high temperature silicone grease or equivalent to the
contact areas between the rear brake shoes and the backing plate.
4. Install the parking brake cable on the lever. A snapping noise will indicate that the
cable is seated properly.
5. Install the retractor spring on the backing plate.
6. Install the retractor spring on the primary brake shoe.
7. Install the secondary brake shoe on the backing plate.
8. Install the retractor spring on the secondary shoe.
9. Install the brake adjuster.
10. Adjust the rear brake shoes using a brake adjustment gauge to measure the
inside diameter of the drum and the diameter of the shoes. Lengthen the adjuster
until the clearance between the rear brake shoes and the rear brake drum is
0.030 in (0.76 mm).
11. Install the rear brake drum.

Wheel Cylinders
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Remove the rear brake shoes.


Disconnect the wheel cylinder brake line.
Insert a Plug into the brake line fitting
Remove the wheel cylinder mounting bolts.
Remove the wheel cylinder.

To Install:
1. Position the wheel cylinder on the backing plate. Install the mounting bolts.
Tighten to 13 ft lb (18 Nm).
2. Remove the brake line fitting plug.
3. Connect the brake line to the wheel cylinder.
Tighten to 14 ft lb (19 Nm).
4. Install the rear brake shoes.
5. Bleed the brake system.
6. Adjust and bleed the brakes.
7. Refill the master cylinder.

Parking Brake
Parking Brake Shoes
Removal & Installation
Single Shoe
To Remove:
1. Safely raise and support the vehicle.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
The tire and the wheel assembly
Caliper and mounting bracket assembly
A. Relieve the tension on the parking brake cable by loosening the
nut at the equalizer.
The park brake cable from the park brake actuator lever
The rear rotor
Rear axle shaft
Parking brake shoes removal

3. Turn the adjustment screw (A) to the fully home position in the notched
adjustment nut
4. The park brake shoe assembly from the backing plate
Remove the tips from the slots and sliding the shoe (B) towards the
retaining spring (C) until The shoe disengages from the spring
5. The park brake shoe assembly from the vehicle
Place one of the open ends of the shoe over the axle flange and rotate
the shoe until it has cleared the flange

To Install:
1. Clean the debris and the dust from the park brake components using a clean
shop cloth
2. Align the slots in both the adjusting screw and tappet to be parallel with the
backing plate face
3. Install the park brake shoe assembly to the vehicle by placing one of the open
ends of the shoe over the axle flange and rotating the shoe until it is behind the
flange
4. Position the park brake shoe on the inboard side of the actuator
5. Slide the park brake shoe into position and seat into the retaining spring
6. Inspect the shoe assembly position
NOTE: The shoe must be central on the backing plate with both tips located in
the slots.
7. Adjust the park brake shoe
8. Install or connect the following:
The rotor
The park brake cable to the park brake actuator lever and tighten the nut
to 31 inch. lbs (3.5 Nm)
The wheel and tire assembly
9. Lower the vehicle
Dual shoes
To Remove:
Parking brake shoes

1. Raise and safely support the vehicle.


2. Pull down in front of the equalizer and remove the cable from the equalizer bar.
3. To loosen the parking brake cable tension on vehicles with rear disc brakes
perform the following procedure:
Pull the release handle and pull the pedal to full release position
Hold the pedal in the released position. Pull the cable until the adjuster
removes all the cable slack, and the adjuster is fully wound.
Insert a pin punch or small screwdriver on an upward angle through the
hole in the front of the pedal assembly, past the retracted pedal drum, and
into the hole in the back of the pedal assembly.
Release the cable slowly.
4. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
5. Use the following procedure to remove the brake cable from the backing plate:
Push the spring towards the lever to compress it.
Depress the locking tabs.
Pull the cable housing out of the backing plate.
Pull the cable through the slot in the backing plate.
6. Remove the parking brake cable from the lever.
7. Remove the rotor.
8. Remove the rear axle shaft.
9. Remove the parking brake shoe return spring.
10. Remove the parking brake shoe anchor springs and lock pins.
11. Remove the ends of the brake shoes from the parking brake actuator.
12. Remove the parking brake shoes and adjuster assembly from the vehicle.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Install the adjuster assembly to the parking brake shoes.


Pull the top of the shoes apart and install the parking brake shoes to the actuator.
Install the parking brake shoe pins and spring clips.
Install the parking brake shoe return spring.
Adjust the parking brake shoe.
Install the rear axle shaft.
Install the rotor.
Install the parking brake cable to the lever.
Use the following procedure to install the brake cable to the backing plate:
Compress the spring by pushing it towards the lever.
Insert the cable through the slot in the backing plate.
Push the cable housing into the backing plate until the tabs lock into
place.
10. Install the wheel and tire assembly.
11. Lower the vehicle.

Adjustment
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Ensure that the parking brake pedal assembly is fully released.


Raise and safely support the vehicle.
Remove the rear wheel and tire assemblies.
Remove both rear caliper and bracket assemblies.
Loosen the parking brake cable.
Remove both rear brake rotors.
Brake drum gauge

7. Set the brake drum measuring gauge inside of the parking brake drum at the
widest point.
8. Tighten the set screw on the measuring tool to lock it at the widest point.
9. Position the measuring gauge over the park brake shoe at the widest point.
10. Turn the adjuster on the actuator until the clearance between the parking brake
shoe and the rotor is .026 inches (0.660 mm).
11. Install the brake rotors.
12. Install both rear caliper and bracket assemblies.
13. Install the rear wheel and tire assemblies.
14. Adjust the parking brake cable.

Parking Brake Cable


Removal & Installation
Front
To Remove:
Parking brake cable grommet

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Release the parking brake.


Remove the parking brake pedal.
Roll the carpet back to access cable grommet.
Raise and support the vehicle.
Disengage the grommet and the cable from the floor pan.
Front to intermediate parking brake cable removal

6. Remove or disconnect the following:


Front cable from the intermediate cable
Cable from the body mount by depressing the retaining tabs
Cable
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Cable
A. Snap the retainer tabs into the body mount
Front cable to the intermediate cable
A. Route the cable in through the floor pan and engage the grommet
Safety stands
Lower the vehicle
A. Roll the carpet into place
Parking brake pedal
2. Adjust the parking brake.
Intermediate w/Rear Disc Brakes
To Remove:
1. Release the parking brake.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
Intermediate parking brake cable removal

3. On 1500 series vehicles pull down in front of the equalizer and remove the left
cable from the equalizer bar.
4. On 25/3500 series vehicles loosen the parking brake cable tension using the
following procedure:
Pull the release handle and pull the pedal to full release position.
Hold the pedal in the released position. Pull the cable until the adjuster
removes all the cable slack, and the adjuster is fully wound.
Insert a pin punch or small screwdriver on an upward angle through the
hole in the front of the pedal assembly, past the retracted pedal drum, and
into the hole in the back of the pedal assembly.
Release the cable slowly.

Front to intermediate parking brake cable removal

5. Disconnect the Intermediate cable from rear parking brake cable.


6. Disconnect the cable from front parking brake cable.
7. Remove the Intermediate cable.
To Install:
1. Install or connect the following:
Intermediate cable
Intermediate cable to the front cable
Equalizer to the rear parking brake cables (1500 series)
Connect the intermediate cable to the rear parking brake cable (25/3500
series vehicles)
Equalizer and nut to the end of the intermediate cable (15 series
vehicles). Tighten to 31 inch. lbs (3.5 Nm)
2. On 25/3500 series vehicles, enable the parking brake cable automatic adjuster
using the following procedure:
Hold the parking brake pedal in the fully released position.
Pull the front parking brake cable rearward to release the pin punch or
screwdriver that was installed through the holes in the pedal assembly.
Remove the pin punch or screwdriver.
Slowly release the parking brake cable until it returns to its original
position.
Release the park brake pedal.
3. Lower the vehicle.
4. Adjust the parking brakes.

Intermediate w/Drum Brakes


To Remove:
1. Release the parking brake.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle. .
3. Loosen the parking brake cables by pulling down on the front park brake cable in
front of the equalizer.
4. Remove the parking brake cables from the equalizer bar.
5. Disconnect the intermediate cable from the front cable.
6. Remove the intermediate cable from the vehicle.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Position the intermediate cable to the vehicle.


Connect the intermediate cable to the front cable.
Install the parking brake cables to the equalizer.
Lower the vehicle.
Adjust the parking brakes.

Left Rear w/Disc brakes (w/o 4 wheel steering)


To Remove:
1. Release the parking brake
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle
Intermediate parking brake cable removal

3. On 1500 series vehicles pull down in front of the equalizer and remove the cable
from the equalizer bar.
4. On 25/3500 series vehicles loosen the parking brake cable tension using the
following procedure:
Pull the release handle and pull the pedal to the fully released position.
Hold the pedal in the released position. Pull the cable until the adjuster
removes all the cable slack, and the adjuster is fully wound.
Insert a pin punch or small screwdriver on an upward angle through the
hole in the front of the pedal assembly, past the retracted pedal drum, and
into the hole in the back of the pedal assembly.

Release the cable slowly.


5. Remove or disconnect the following:

Cable from the mounting bracket by depressing the locking tabs


Remove the rear cable from the shock bracket

Cable at the shock absorber bracket by removing the bolt

Remove the rear cable from the backing plate

6. Use the following procedure to remove the brake cable from the backing plate:
Push the spring towards the lever to compress it.
Depress the locking tabs.
Pull the cable housing out of the backing plate.
Pull the cable through the slot in the backing plate.
Remove the cable from the lever
To Install:
1. Use the following procedure to install the parking brake cable to the backing
plate:
Install the cable to the lever
Compress the spring by pushing it towards the lever.
Insert the cable through the slot in the backing plate.
Push the cable housing into the backing plate until the tabs lock into
place.
2. Install or connect the following:
Cable at the shock absorber bracket and install the bolt. Tighten to: 16 ft.
lbs (22 Nm)
Cable to the mounting bracket by pushing in until the locking tabs snap
into place
On 25/3500 series vehicles, connect the cable to the equalizer
3. On 25/3500 series vehicles, enable the parking brake cable automatic adjuster
using the following procedure:

Hold the park brake pedal in fully released position.


Pull the front parking brake cable rearward to release the pin punch or
screwdriver that was installed through the holes in the pedal assembly.
Remove the pin punch or screwdriver.
Slowly release the park brake cable until it returns to its original position.
Release the park brake pedal.
Lower the vehicle.
Apply and release the park brake pedal to ensure that there is no binding
or sticking.
4. On 15 series vehicles, Pull down on the cable in front of the equalizer and install
the cable to the equalizer bar.
5. Lower the vehicle.
6. Adjust the parking brake cable.
Left Rear w/Disc Brakes (w 4 wheel steering)
To Remove:
1. Release the parking brake.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle
3. Loosen the parking brake cable by pulling down on the parking brake cable in
front of the equalizer.
4. Remove the left rear parking brake cable from the equalizer bar.
5. Remove the rear parking brake cable from the mounting bracket by squeezing
the locking tabs.
6. Remove the rear parking brake cable from lower shock absorber mount by
removing the bracket mounting bolt.
7. Remove the rear parking brake cable mounting bracket bolt.
8. Remove the parking brake cable from the lever.
9. Remove the cable from the rear brake cable mounting bracket by squeezing the
brake cable locking tabs.
10. Remove the cable from the guides and body mounts.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

Position the brake cable into the rear brake cable mounting bracket.
Push the cable into the bracket until the tabs are locked.
Install the parking brake cable to the lever.
Install the rear parking brake cable bracket bolt.
Tighten to: 45 ft. lbs (61 Nm).
Position the parking brake cable to the lower shock absorber mount. Install the
mounting bolt.
Tighten to: 16 ft. lbs (22 Nm).
Install the cable though the body mounts and guides.
Pull down on the parking brake cable in front of the equalizer and install the left
parking brake cable to the equalizer bar.
Lower the vehicle.

Left Rear w/Drum Brakes


To Remove:
1. Release the parking brake.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle
3. Loosen the parking brake cable by pulling down on the parking brake cable in
front of the equalizer.
4. Remove the rear left parking brake cable from the equalizer bar.
5. Remove the rear parking brake cable from the mounting brackets and guides.
6. Remove the rear brake shoes.
Drum brake park cable removal

7. Using special tool J 37043 or equivalent, remove the parking brake cable from
the backing plate.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Position the parking brake cable to the backing plate.


Install the rear brake shoes.
Install the parking brake cable through the guides and frame brackets.
Install the left rear parking brake cable to the equalizer bar.
Lower the vehicle.
Adjust the parking brake.

Right Rear w/Disc Brakes (w/o 4 wheel steering)


To Remove:
1. Release the parking brake
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle
Intermediate parking brake cable removal

3. On 1500 series vehicles pull down in front of the equalizer and remove the cable
from the equalizer bar.
4. On 25/3500 series vehicles loosen the parking brake cable tension using the
following procedure:
Pull the release handle and pull the pedal to the full release position.
Hold the pedal in the released position. Pull the cable until the adjuster
removes all the cable slack, and the adjuster is fully wound.
Insert a pin punch or small screwdriver on an upward angle through the
hole in the front of the pedal assembly, past the retracted pedal drum, and
into the hole in the back of the pedal assembly.
Release the cable slowly.
On 25/3500 series vehicles, disconnect the parking brake equalizer
5. Remove or disconnect the following:
Remove the rear cable from the rear axle clip

Bolt from the rear axle clip


Cable from the differential clip
Remove the rear cable from the mounting bracket

Cable from the mounting bracket by depressing the locking tabs


6. Use the following procedure to remove the brake cable from the backing plate:
Push the spring towards the lever to compress it.
Depress the locking tabs.
Pull the cable housing out of the backing plate.
Pull the cable through the slot in the backing plate.
Remove the cable from the lever
7. Remove the parking brake cable.

To Install:
1. Use the following procedure to install the parking brake cable to the backing
plate:
Install the cable to the lever
Compress the spring by pushing it towards the lever.
Insert the cable through the slot in the backing plate.
Push the cable housing into the backing plate until the tabs lock into
place.
2. Install or connect the following:
Install the cable to the mounting bracket. Push the cable in until the
locking tabs snap into place
Bolt the cable to differential clips.
A. Tighten to: 16 ft. lbs (22 Nm).
3. On 25/3500 series vehicles, connect the cable to the equalizer
4. On 25/3500 series vehicles, enable the parking brake cable automatic adjuster
using the following procedure:
Hold the park brake pedal in fully released position.
Pull the front parking brake cable rearward to release the pin punch or
screwdriver that was installed through the holes in the pedal assembly.
Remove the pin punch or screwdriver.
Slowly release the park brake cable until it returns to its original position.
Release the park brake pedal.
Lower the vehicle.
Apply and release the park brake pedal to ensure that there is no binding
or sticking.

5. On 15 series vehicles, Pull down on the cable in front of the equalizer and install
the cable to the equalizer bar.
6. Lower the vehicle.
7. Adjust the parking brake cable.
Right Rear w/Disc Brakes (w/4 wheel steering)
To Remove:
1. Release the parking brake
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle
Intermediate parking brake cable removal

3. Remove the parking brake cable tension by pulling down on the front of the
equalizer and removing the right cable from the equalizer bar.
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Remove the rear cable from the mounting bracket

Cable from the mounting bracket by depressing the locking tabs

Remove the rear cable from the rear axle clip

Cable from the differential clip


Bolt from the rear axle clip
Rear brake cable mounting bracket bolt
Rear cable from the lever
Cable from the rear brake cable mounting bracket by depressing the
locking tabs
Brake cable from the body mounts and guides
5. Remove the parking brake cable.
To Install:
1. Position the parking brake cable into the rear brake cable mounting bracket.
Push the cable into the bracket until the tabs lock.
2. Install the brake cable to the lever.
3. Install the rear parking brake cable bracket mounting bolt.
Tighten to: 45 ft. lbs (61 Nm).
4. Install the parking brake cable to the differential clip.
5. Install the parking brake cable bolt to the rear axle clip.
Tighten to 16 ft. lbs (22 Nm).
6. Install the parking brake cable through the guides and frame brackets.
7. Install the parking brake cable into the frame rail mounting bracket. Push the
cable in until the tabs lock.
8. Pull down on the parking brake cable in front of the equalizer and install the left
brake cable to the equalizer bar.
9. Lower the vehicle.
10. Adjust the parking brake cable.

Right Rear w/Drum Brakes


To Remove:
1. Release the parking brake.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle
3. Loosen the parking brake cable by pulling down on the parking brake cable in
front of the equalizer.
4. Remove the right rear parking brake cable from the equalizer bar.
5. Remove the rear parking brake cable from the mounting brackets and guides.
6. Remove the cable clip bolt on the rear axle housing.
7. Remove the right cable from the clip on top of the rear axle housing.
8. Remove the rear brake shoes.
Drum brake park cable removal

9. Using special tool J 37043 or equivalent, remove the parking brake cable from
the backing plate.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Position the parking brake cable to the backing plate.


Install the rear brake shoes.
Position the right cable clip to the top of rear axle housing.
Install the cable clip bolt.
Tighten to 16 ft. lbs (22 Nm).
Install the right cable over the clip on top of the axle housing.
Install the right rear parking brake cable through the mounting brackets and
guides.
Install the right rear parking brake cable to the equalizer bar.
Lower the vehicle.
Adjust the parking brake.

Adjustment
First Design
1. Tighten the equalizer nut to 31 in lb (3.5 Nm).
2. Apply and release the parking brake pedal 3 times.
Second Design
1. Release the parking brake.
2. Pull the release handle and pull the pedal to full release position, at the same
time pull the cable through the cable housing.
3. Hold the pedal in the released position. Pull the cable until the adjuster removes
all the cable slack, and the adjuster is fully wound.
4. Keep tension on the front cable and install a pin through the hole in the cover,
pedal, past the adjuster, and into the hole mounting bracket.
5. Release the cable.

Anti-Lock Brake System


Brake Pressure Modulator Valve
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
CAUTION
The area around the Electronic Hydraulic Control Unit (EHCU) MUST be free
from loose dirt to prevent contamination of disassembled ABS components.
3. Thoroughly wash all contaminants from around the EHCU.
4. Remove or disconnect the following:
Electrical harness connectors from the Electronic Brake Control Module
(EBCM).
CAUTION
Make sure that brake lines are tagged and kept in order for proper
reassembly.

Brake lines from the Brake Pressure Modulator Valve (BPMV).


Bolts securing the EHCU mounting bracket to the frame rail.
EHCU from the vehicle.
Bolts securing the BPMV to the EHCU mounting bracket.

4 T-25 torx bolts from the EBCM.

EBCM from the BPMV, a light amount of force may be required.

CAUTION
Do not reuse the EBCM mounting bolts. Always install new bolts.
5. Clean the EBCM to BPMV mounting surfaces.
To Install:
CAUTION
Do not use RTV or any other type of sealant on the EBCM gasket or mating surfaces.
1. Install or connect the following:
EBCM onto BPMV.
CAUTION
Do not reuse the old mounting bolts. Always install new EBCM bolts with
the new BPMV.

EBCM 4 T-25 Torx bolts to the. Tighten to 39 in lbs (5 Nm) in an Xpattern.


BPMV to EHCU bracket.
BPMV to bracket retaining bolts. Tighten to 7 ft lbs (9 Nm).
EHCU to the vehicle frame.
EHCU bracket bolts. Tighten the EHCU bracket bolts to 7 ft lbs (9 Nm).
Electrical harness connectors to the EBCM.
CAUTION
The brake lines are held in place by a plastic bracket mounted to the
frame. Make sure that the brake lines stay in the correct place for proper
reassembly.

Brake lines to the BPMV. Tighten to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).


Bleed the brake system.

Electronic Brake Control Module


Removal & Installation
EBCM
To Remove:
CAUTION
The area around the Electric Hydraulic Control Unit (EHCU) MUST be free from loose
dirt to prevent contamination of disassembled ABS components.
1. Thoroughly wash all contaminants from around the.
2. Remove or disconnect the following:
Electrical harness connectors from the electronic brake control module
(EBCM)
Bolts securing the EHCU mounting bracket to the frame rail

Lower the EHCU down to access the to BPMV mounting screws.


4 T-25 Torx bolts from the EBCM.

EBCM from the BPMV, a light amount of force may be required.


3. Clean the EBCM to BPMV mounting surfaces.

To Install:
CAUTION
Do not use RTV or any other type of sealant on the EBCM gasket or mating surfaces.
1. Install or connect the following:
EBCM onto BPMV.
CAUTION
Do not reuse the old mounting bolts. Always install new EBCM bolts with
the new BPMV.

New EBCM 4 T-25 Torx bolts. Tighten to 39 in lbs (5 Nm) in an Xpattern.


BPMV to EHCU bracket.
BPMV to bracket retaining bolts. Tighten to 7 ft lbs (9 Nm).
EHCU to the vehicle frame.
EHCU bracket bolts. Tighten the EHCU bracket bolts to 7 ft lbs (9 Nm).
Electrical harness connectors to the EBCM.
Lower the vehicle
2. If a new EBCM was installed it needs to be programmed.
3. Perform a system diagnostic check.

Bleeding the ABS System


W/O JL4
CAUTION
When adding fluid to the brake master cylinder reservoir, use only Delco Supreme 11,
GM P/N 12377967 (Canadian P/N 992667), or equivalent DOT-3 brake fluid from a
clean, sealed brake fluid container. The use of any type of fluid other than the
recommended type of brake fluid, may cause contamination which could result in
damage to the internal rubber seals and/or rubber linings of hydraulic brake system
components.
CAUTION
This procedure may be performed on all vehicles EXCEPT those equipped with option
code JL4, Vehicle Stability Enhancement System (VSES).
CAUTION
The base hydraulic brake system must be bled before performing this automated
bleeding procedure. If you have not yet performed the base hydraulic brake system
bleeding procedure, refer to Hydraulic Brake System Bleeding (Manual) or Hydraulic
Brake System Bleeding (Pressure) in Hydraulic Brakes before proceeding.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Install a scan tool to the vehicle.


Start the engine and allow to idle.
Depress the brake pedal firmly and maintain pressure on the pedal.
Using the scan tool, begin the automated bleed procedure.
Follow the instructions on the scan tool to complete the automated bleed
procedure. Release the brake pedal between each test sequence.
6. Turn the ignition OFF.
7. Remove the scan tool from the vehicle.
8. Fill the brake master cylinder reservoir to the maximum-fill level with Delco
Supreme 11, GM P/N 12377967 (Canadian P/N 992667), or equivalent DOT-3
brake fluid from a clean, sealed brake fluid container.
9. Bleed the hydraulic brake system.
10. With the ignition OFF apply the brakes 3-5 times, or until the brake pedal
becomes firm, to deplete the brake booster power reserve.
11. Slowly depress and release the brake pedal.
12. If the brake pedal feels spongy, repeat the automated bleeding procedure. If the
brake pedal still feels spongy after repeating the automated bleeding procedure,
inspect the brake system for leaks.
13. Turn the ignition key ON, with the engine OFF; check to see if the brake system
warning lamp remains on.
14. If the brake system warning lamp remains on, DO NOT allow the vehicle to be
driven until it is diagnosed and repaired.
15. Drive the vehicle to exceed 13 kph (8 mph) to allow ABS initialization to occur.
16. Observe brake pedal feel.
17. If the brake pedal feels spongy, repeat the automated bleeding procedure until a
firm brake pedal is obtained.

W/JL4
CAUTION
When adding fluid to the brake master cylinder reservoir, use only Delco Supreme 11
GM P/N 12377967 (Canadian P/N 992667), or equivalent DOT-3 brake fluid from a
clean, sealed brake fluid container. The use of any type of fluid other than the
recommended type of brake fluid, may cause contamination which could result in
damage to the internal rubber seals and/or rubber linings of hydraulic brake system
components.
CAUTION
The following procedures may be performed on vehicles equipped with option code JL4,
Vehicle Stability Enhancement System (VSES).
Pre-charge Bleed
The Pre-charge bleed procedure is to be performed when air may have been introduced
into the precharge pump inlet hose, the precharge pump or the combination valve.
Perform the procedure as follows.
CAUTION
If the brake system warning lamp is illuminated. DO NOT allow the vehicle to be driven
until the concern is diagnosed and repaired. Refer to Symptoms - Hydraulic Brakes in
Hydraulic Brakes.
1. Ensure that the master cylinder reservoir is filled to at least the minimum-fill level
with Delco Supreme 11, GM P/N 12377967 (Canadian P/N 992667), or
equivalent DOT 3 brake fluid from a clean, sealed container.
2. Ensure the master cylinder reservoir cap is ON.
3. Install a scan tool.
4. Turn the ignition ON.
5. Select the VSES Special Functions menu on the scan tool.
6. Select Pre-charge Bleed.
7. Press the On key. The precharge pump runs for approximately 3 seconds.
8. Evaluate the feel of the brake pedal. If the pedal feels spongy, bleed the
hydraulic brake system.
9. Ensure that the master cylinder reservoir is filled to at least the minimum-fill level
with Delco Supreme 11, GM P/N 12377967 (Canadian P/N 992667), or
equivalent DOT 3 brake fluid from a clean, sealed container.

Automated Bleed
The Automated Bleed procedure is to be performed when the Brake Pressure Modulator
Valve (BPMV) is replaced. Perform the procedure as follows.
CAUTION
The base brake system must be bled before proceeding. Refer to Hydraulic Brake
System Bleeding (Manual) or Hydraulic Brake System Bleeding (Pressure) in Hydraulic
Brakes.
CAUTION
If the brake system warning lamp is illuminated, DO NOT allow the vehicle to be driven
until the concern is diagnosed and repaired. Refer to Symptoms - Hydraulic Brakes in
Hydraulic Brakes.
1. Ensure that the master cylinder reservoir is filled to at least the minimum-fill level
with Delco Supreme 11, GM P/N 12377967 (Canadian P/N 992667), or
equivalent DOT 3 brake fluid from a clean, sealed container.
2. Ensure the master cylinder reservoir cap is ON securely.
3. Install a scan tool.
4. Turn ON the ignition.
5. Select the VSES Special Functions menu on the scan tool.
6. Select Pre-charge Bleed.
7. Press the On key. The precharge pump runs for approximately 3 seconds,
circulating fluid from the master cylinder fluid reservoir, through the precharge
pump and combination valve, then back to the master cylinder.
8. Select Automated Bleed.
9. Press the On key. The precharge pump and ABS pump run for approximately 6
seconds while air is purged from the BPMV.
10. Ensure that the master cylinder reservoir is filled to at least the minimum-fill level
with Delco Supreme 11, GM P/N 12377967 (Canadian P/N 992667), or
equivalent DOT 3 brake fluid from a clean, sealed container.
11. Perform a base brake system bleed. Refer to Hydraulic Brake System Bleeding
(Manual) or Hydraulic Brake System Bleeding (Pressure) in Hydraulic Brakes.
12. Evaluate the feel of the brake pedal. If the pedal feels spongy, repeat steps 1-11.
If the pedal feel is acceptable, proceed to the next step.
13. Ensure that the master cylinder reservoir is filled to at least the minimum-fill level
with Delco Supreme 11, GM P/N 12377967 (Canadian P/N 992667), or
equivalent DOT 3 brake fluid from a clean, sealed container.

Speed Sensors
Removal & Installation
Front
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Raise and safely support the vehicle.


Remove the wheel assembly.
Remove the brake rotor.
Remove the Wheel Speed Sensor (WSS) cable clip from the knuckle.

5.
6.
7.
8.

Remove the WSS cable clip from the upper control arm.
Remove the WSS cable clip from the frame.
Remove the WSS cable electrical connector.
Remove the WSS mounting bolt.
CAUTION
Carefully remove the sensor by pulling it straight out of the bore. DO NOT use a
screwdriver, or other device to pry the sensor out of the bore. Prying will cause
the sensor body to break off in the bore.

9. Remove the WSS from the hub/bearing assembly.

To Install:
1. Seal the WSS bore to prevent dirt or debris from falling into the hub.
2. Clean the mounting surface on the hub to remove any rust or corrosion.
3. Apply wheel bearing lubricant, GM P/N 01051344 or equivalent to the hub
surface and the sensor O-ring to ease sensor installation.
4. Install the WSS into the hub/bearing assembly.
5. WSS sensor must be seated flat against the hub.
6. Install the WSS mounting bolt.
Tighten to 13 ft lbs (18 Nm).
7. Install the WSS cable mounting clips.
8. Connect the WSS cable electrical connector.
9. Install the brake rotor.
10. Install the wheel and tire assembly.
11. Perform a low speed test for proper operation:
Start the engine and allow it to idle.
Verify the ABS indicator or the traction assist indicator remains
illuminated.
If the ABS indicator or the traction assist indicator remains illuminated,
DO NOT proceed to drive the vehicle until it is diagnosed and repaired.
Check the wheel speed sensor electrical connector to ensure it is not
damaged and is installed properly. If the lamp remains illuminated,
diagnostics are required.
Select a smooth, dry, clean, and level road or large lot that is as free of
traffic and obstacles as possible.
Drive the vehicle and maintain a speed of at least 16 km/h (10 mph) for at
least 5 seconds.
Stop the vehicle and check to see if the ABS indicator or the traction
assist indicator is illuminated.
If an indicator is illuminated, diagnostics are required.
Rear
The powertrain control module (PCM) uses the transmission mounted vehicle speed
sensor (VSS) for rear wheel speed input signals. The PCM then sends this information to
the EBCM to use for ABS control.

HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING


Air Conditioning System
Service Precautions
Safety is the most important factor when performing not only fuel system maintenance
but also any type of maintenance. Failure to conduct maintenance and repairs in a safe
manner may result in serious personal injury or death. Maintenance and testing of the
vehicle's fuel system components can be accomplished safely and effectively by
adhering to the following rules and guidelines:

To avoid the possibility of fire and personal injury, always disconnect the negative
battery cable unless the repair or test procedure requires that battery voltage be
applied.
Handle the electronic throttle control components carefully. Use cleanliness in
order to prevent damage. Do not drop the electronic throttle control components.
Do not roughly handle the electronic throttle control components. Do not immerse
the electronic throttle control components in cleaning solvents of any type.
Always relieve the fuel system pressure prior to disconnecting any fuel system
component (injector, fuel rail, pressure regulator, etc.), fitting or fuel line
connection. Exercise extreme caution whenever relieving fuel system pressure,
to avoid exposing skin, face and eyes to fuel spray. Please be advised that fuel
under pressure may penetrate the skin or any part of the body that it contacts.
Always place a shop towel or cloth around the fitting or connection prior to
loosening to absorb any excess fuel due to spillage. Ensure that all fuel spillage
(should it occur) is quickly removed from engine surfaces. Ensure that all fuel
soaked cloths or towels are deposited into a suitable waste container.
Always keep a dry chemical (Class B) fire extinguisher near the work area.
Do not allow fuel spray or fuel vapors to come into contact with a spark or open
flame.
Wear eye protection when servicing the air conditioning refrigerant system.
Serious eye injury can result from eye contact with refrigerant. If eye contact is
made, seek medical attention immediately.
Do not expose refrigerant to open flame. Poisonous gas is created when
refrigerant is burned. An electronic type leak detector is recommended.
Large amounts of refrigerant released in a closed work area will displace the
oxygen and cause suffocation.
The evaporation rate of refrigerant at average temperature and altitude is
extremely high. As a result, anything that comes in contact with the refrigerant
will freeze. Always protect skin or delicate objects from direct contact with
refrigerant. R-134a service equipment or vehicle A/C system should not be
pressure tested or leak tested with compressed air.
Some mixtures of air and R-134a have been shown to be combustible at
elevated pressures. These mixtures are potentially dangerous and may result in
fire or explosion causing injury or property damage.
Antifreeze is an ethylene glycol base coolant and is harmful if swallowed or
inhaled. Seek medical attention immediately if swallowed or inhaled. Do not store

in open or unmarked containers. Wash skin and clothing thoroughly after coming
in contact with ethylene glycol. Keep out of reach of children and pets.
Do not open a cooling system when the engine is at running temperature.
Personal injury can result.
Kinks in the refrigerant tubing or sharp bends in the refrigerant hose lines will
greatly reduce the capacity of the entire system.
High pressures are produced in the system when it is operating. Extreme care
must be exercised to make sure that all connections are pressure tight. Dirt and
moisture can enter the system when it is opened for repair or replacement of
lines or components. The refrigerant oil will absorb moisture readily out of the air.
This moisture will convert into acids within a closed system.
The system must be completely empty before opening any fitting or connection in
the refrigeration system. Open fittings with caution even after the system has
been emptied. If any pressure is noticed as a fitting is loosened, retighten fitting
and evacuate the system again.
A good rule for the flexible hose lines is to keep the radius of all bends at least 10
times the diameter of the hose. Sharper bends will reduce the flow of refrigerant.
The flexible hose lines should be routed so they are at least 3 in. (80 mm) from
the exhaust manifold. Inspect all flexible hose lines to make sure they are in good
condition and properly routed.
The use of correct wrenches when making connections is very important.
Improper wrenches or improper use of wrenches can damage the fittings.
The internal parts of the A/C system will remain stable as long as moisture-free
refrigerant and refrigerant oil is used. Abnormal amounts of dirt, moisture or air
can upset the chemical stability. This may cause operational troubles or even
serious damage if present in more than very small quantities.
When opening a refrigeration system, have everything you will need to repair the
system ready. This will minimize the amount of time the system must be opened.
Cap or plug all lines and fittings as soon as they are opened. This will help
prevent the entrance of dirt and moisture. All new lines and components should
be capped or sealed until they are ready to be used.
All tools, including the refrigerant dispensing manifold, the manifold gauge set,
and test hoses should be kept clean and dry

A/C System Information


CAUTION
Eye and skin protection must always be worn while working with refrigerants.
CAUTION
DO NOT breathe any refrigerant vapor or mist. Make sure to work in an adequately
ventilated space.

General Troubleshooting
Leak Testing
WARNING
Never leak test the A/C system with compressed air. A mixture of air and R-134A can
become combustible at high pressure. This mixture may result in fire or explosion
causing injury and/or property damage.
NOTE: Fluorescent refrigerant system dye is added to the refrigerant system at the
factory to assist in refrigerant system leak diagnosis using a Rotunda approved
ultraviolet black-light. It is not necessary to add additional dye to the refrigerant system
before diagnosing leaks, even if a significant amount of refrigerant has been removed
from the system.
A/C system service requires the use of a manifold gauge set with vacuum pump or a
refrigerant recovery/recycling station. The best way to determine if the system has a leak
is to evacuate the refrigerant from the vehicle into a refrigerant recovery/recycling
station. Once the refrigerant has been recovered the refrigerant recovery/recycling
station will pull a vacuum on the system. Isolate the A/C system by closing the valves
when the vacuum reaches -26 in. Hg (-88 kPa). A leak free system should be able to
hold vacuum for at least 15 minutes or more. If you can not reach the vacuum specified,
air is leaking into the system, and the source must be located and repaired.
Leaks will most likely occur at hose fittings and connections. A leak can also occur at the
compressor shaft seal at the front of the compressor. The A/C system contains
refrigerant oil mixed with refrigerant. Look for oily deposits at hose and pipe connections
that indicate a leak. Commercial electronic refrigerant leak detectors are available from
tool suppliers. Follow the manufactures instructions when using these tools.

Manifold gauge set components

Refrigerant recovery/recycling station

Refrigerant Recovery & Recharging


NOTE: It is not possible to determine the amount of refrigerant in an A/C system without
completely evacuating the system and recharging it. Always refer to the underhood
heating and air conditioning specification tag for the proper amount of refrigerant.
CAUTION
Do not add more refrigerant to the system than specified by the manufacturer. Excessive
system pressure may cause compressor failure.
CAUTION
A small amount of refrigerant oil is removed from the system each time the refrigerant is
recovered into a refrigerant recovery/recycling station. This amount of oil must be
returned to the system when the system is recharged. Follow the manufacturers
instructions that came with the equipment being used.
A refrigerant recovery/recycling station is needed to recover refrigerant from an A/C
system. Connect the equipment to the vehicles A/C system according to the
manufacturers instructions.
System Flushing
After a catastrophic compressor failure, it is extremely important to eliminate and/or
contain the debris from the compressor that may have circulated through the A/C
system. The debris generated from a catastrophic compressor failure will be discharged
into the compressor suction line, discharge line, condenser and liquid line and may
cause the new compressor to fail prematurely. In addition to flushing, a liquid line filter
should be installed in the system to stop any remaining debris from circulating through
the system.
Most refrigerant recovery/recycling stations have the ability to flush the system with
cleaned and dry refrigerant. Keep in mind that the refrigerant oil in the system will also
be removed and must be replaced when refrigerant is added to the system. Follow the
instructions that came with the equipment to properly flush the A/C system.
Odor Correction
The air conditioning system may emit odors under certain conditions. This is usually due
to the growth of mold on the evaporator and in the evaporator case. Water vapor from
the air condenses on the fins of the evaporator as the A/C system is operating and
collects in the evaporator housing. A drain hole at the bottom of the evaporator case is
used to allow the water to drip out of the case and onto the ground. If the hole becomes
clogged, it can be cleared with compressed air.
In order to correct the odor problem, the mold must be neutralized by using chemicals.
Chemicals and cleaning systems have been specifically designed for disinfecting
evaporator cores and housings. Check with your auto parts store or car dealership parts
department on the availability of an evaporator core cleaning system.

The use of the cleaning system will vary slightly depending on how the A/C system is
designed. Cleaning the evaporator core and housing generally involves spraying a
cleaning solution into the housing and allowing the solution to soak for a period of time.
The solution is then rinsed out with water. On some vehicles, the blower resistor can be
removed from the housing under the hood and the solution can be sprayed in the
resistor hole. On other vehicles, a hole must be drilled on the housing and patched with
silicone or putty when the cleaning operation is completed. Evaporator cleaning systems
vary. Always follow the instructions that come with the kit.

Troubleshooting by Symptom
Poor Heater System Performance
1. Start the engine. Allow the engine to idle. Does the engine reach normal
operating temperature? If yes, go to the next step. If no, go to step 8.
2. Allow the engine to idle. Select the FLOOR mode. Select the minimum blower
speed and the warmest temperature setting. Feel the temperature of the inlet and
outlet heater hoses at the heater core. Does the inlet heater hose feel warmer
than the outlet heater hose? If yes, go to step 6. If no, go to the next step.
3. Install a thermometer into the center instrument panel air outlet. Secure a
thermometer to the heater core outlet heater hose. Select the PANEL mode.
Select the maximum blower speed. Select the warmest temperature setting.
Record the temperature at the center instrument panel air outlet and at the heater
core outlet heater hose. Are the two temperature readings about equal? If yes, go
to the next step. If no, go to step 5.
4. Inspect and repair the cowl, recirculation door, and the HVAC module case for
cold air leaks. If problems are found and repaired, go to step 9.
5. Inspect the temperature door operation. Perform any necessary repairs. When
repairs are made, go to step 9.
6. Turn OFF the engine. Back flush the heater core. Start the engine. Select the
FLOOR mode and the lowest blower speed. Select the warmest temperature
setting. Feel the temperature of the inlet and outlet heater hoses at the heater
core. Does the inlet heater hose feel warmer than the outlet heater hose? If yes,
go to the next step. If no, go to step 9.
7. Replace the heater core. When the repair is complete, go to step 9.
8. Repair the low engine temperature concern. When the repair is complete, go to
step 9.
9. Operate the system in order to verify the repair. If the system operates properly,
the repair is complete. If the heater still does not work properly, repeat the entire
procedure.
Insufficient Defrosting
1. Start the engine, select the DEFROST mode, and select the maximum blower
speed. Does sufficient air flow from the defroster outlets? If yes, go to the next
step. If there is insufficient airflow, go to step 9.
2. Measure the engine operating temperature. Does the engine reach normal
operating temperature? If yes, go to the next step. If the engine does not reach
normal operating temperature, go to step 7.
3. Select the minimum blower speed. Select the warmest temperature setting. Feel
the temperature of the inlet and outlet heater hoses at the heater core. Does the
inlet heater hose feel warmer than the outlet heater hose? If yes, go to step 10. If
the hose temperature is not right, go to the next step.
4. Test the operation of the A/C compressor clutch. Does the A/C compressor
clutch engage? If yes, go to the next step. If the compressor clutch does not
engage, go to step 6.
5. Repair or replace the A/C compressor clutch. When the repair is complete, go to
step 13.

6. Perform the "A/C System Performance Test" found in this section. Is the A/C
system operating within the specifications? If yes, go to step 8. If no, go to step
11.
7. Repair the low engine temperature concern. When the repair is complete, go to
step 13.
8. Inspect for correct operation of the recirculation door. If the door is operating
correctly, go to step 13. If the door is not operating properly, go to step 12.
9. Repair the air delivery concern. When the repair is complete, go to step 13.
10. Repair the heating concern. When the repair is complete, go to step 13.
11. Repair the A/C performance concern. When the repair is complete, go to step 13.
12. Repair the recirculation door concern. When the repair is complete, go to step 13.
13. Operate the system in order to verify the repair. If the system is operating
properly, the procedure is complete. If the system is still not providing proper
defrosting, repeat the entire test.
Noise from Blower Motor
1. Inspect the air inlet grille for debris. If the grille has debris, go to step 7. If the
grille is clear, go to the next step.
2. Sit inside the vehicle, close the vehicle doors and windows, turn ON the ignition,
with the engine OFF, and cycle the blower motor through all of the speeds in
order to determine where and when the noise occurs. If there was noise during
the blower operation, go to the next step. If there is no noise, go to step 10.
3. Inspect for excessive vibration at each blower motor speed by feeling the blower
case. If there is vibration, go to step 6. If no vibration is present, go to the next
step.
4. Listen to the blower motor at each blower speed. Is the blower motor making a
squeaking or chirping noise? If yes, go to step 8. If no noise exists, go to step 10.
5. Remove the blower motor, and inspect the blower motor and impeller for deposits
of foreign material. If there is debris, go to step 7. If there is no debris, go to the
next step.
6. Inspect the blower motor for cracked blades, loose impeller retainer, or improper
impeller alignment. If any of these conditions exist, go to step 8. If none of these
exist, go to step 9.
7. Remove the foreign material. When complete, go to the next step.
8. Replace the blower motor. When the repair is complete, go to step 10.
9. Install the blower motor. When the repair is complete, go to step 10.
10. Operate the system in order to verify the repair. If the condition has been
corrected, the repair is complete. If noise still exists, repeat the entire procedure.
Noise from A/C System
NOTE: Noise from the A/C system may be heard as squealing, chirping or moaning
noises, or as a vibration noise.
1. Start the engine and ensure the A/C system is ON. If any noise is heard when the
system engages, go to the next step. If no noises are heard at this point, go to
step 8.
2. With the engine OFF, inspect the drive belt for excessive wear. If the belt is
excessively worn, go to step 17. If the belt is not worn, go to the next step.

3. Inspect the drive belt tension. If the tension is correct, go to the next step. If the
tension is not correct, go to step 18.
4. Inspect the drive belt for excessive oil coverage. If the belt is covered with oil, go
to step 16. If there is no oil present, go to the next step.
5. Start the engine, ensure the A/C system is ON, and visually inspect the
compressor and the clutch. If the compressor appears locked up, go to step 23. If
the compressor and clutch appear okay, go to the next step.
6. If the compressor clutch is slipping, go to step 22. If the clutch is not slipping, go
to the next step.
7. Using a stethoscope, listen to the A/C compressor for any abnormal noise. If
noise appears to be caused by the compressor, go the step 14. If the compressor
is not the cause of the noise, go to step 9.
8. Does a moaning noise exist when the A/C clutch is engaged? If yes, go to the
next step. If no, go the step 11.
9. Listen to the A/C compressor components and mounting for noise concerns
using a stethoscope. Are any of these components loose, damaged or
excessively worn? If yes, go to step 19. If no, go to the next step.
10. Idle the engine and engage the A/C compressor clutch. Using a stethoscope,
move around the entire refrigerant plumbing system. Listening for any abnormal
noises caused by a component of the A/C system touching another component.
Are any of the A/C components grounding out and causing a vibration noise? If
yes, go to step 21. If no, go to step 12.
11. Does a vibration or rattle noise exist when the A/C clutch is engaged? If yes, go
to the next step. If no, go to step 13.
12. Does the noise stop when the A/C clutch is disengaged? If yes, go to step 14. If
no, go to step 24.
13. Idle the engine in PARK with the A/C compressor clutch engaged. Using a
stethoscope, move around the entire A/C system testing for any abnormal noises
caused by a component. Do any of the A/C components cause an abnormal
noise? If yes, go to step 20. If no, go to step 24.
14. Verify that the A/C system is properly charged. If it is properly charged, go to step
25. If not properly charged, go to the next step.
15. Recharge the A/C system to specification. Is the abnormal compressor noise still
present? If yes, go to step 23. If no, go to step 25.
16. Repair the oil leak. When the repair is complete, go to step 25.
17. Replace the drive belt. When the repair is complete, go to step 25.
18. Replace the drive belt tensioner. When the repair is complete, go to step 25.
19. Repair or replace the A/C compressor mounting component. When the repair is
complete, go to step 25.
20. Repair or replace the component that is causing the moaning concern as
needed. When the repair is complete, go to step 25.
21. Correctly route or insulate the A/C component. When the repair is complete, go
to step 25.
22. Replace the A/C compressor clutch. When the repair is complete, go to step 25.
23. Replace the A/C compressor. When the repair is complete, go to step 25.
24. The concern may be caused by an engine related component. If the concern is
found and repaired, go to step 25.
25. Operate the system in order to verify the repair. If the system is okay, the repair
is complete. If not, repeat the entire procedure.

Noise from the HVAC Module


1. Start the engine. Cycle through all blower speeds, A/C mode settings and
temperature control settings. Determine the type of noise, whether it is a
scraping, popping, ticking, clicking, chirping or groaning, or an air rush or whistle.
Is a scrape or pop noise evident when selecting modes or temperature settings?
If yes, go to step 5. If no, go to the next step.
2. Is a tick/click, chirping, groaning or scraping noise present, but decreases as
blower motor speed is decreased? If yes, go to step 5. If no, go to the next step.
3. Is an air rush/whistle noise evident in all modes but not all temperature settings?
If yes, go to step 5. If no, go to the next step.
4. Is an air rush/whistle noise evident only in defrost or floor mode? If yes, go to
step 5. If no, examine for other sounds, repeat step 1.
5. Remove the instrument panel trim pad. When complete, go to the next step.
6. Inspect the airflow doors for proper operation and the ducts for obstructions or
foreign materials. Were any of these conditions found? If yes, go to step 9. If no,
go to the next step.
7. Inspect the mode and temperature doors and seals for warping or cracking. Are
the doors in normal condition? If yes, go to step 9. If no, go to the next step.
8. Replace the appropriate door and/or seals. When the repair is complete, go to
step 10.
9. Remove any obstructions or foreign material found. When the repair is complete,
go to step 10.
10. Install the instrument panel trim pad. When complete, go to the next step.
11. Operate the system to verify the repair. If system operates without noise, the
repair is complete. If noise still exists, repeat the entire procedure.

Air Door Actuators


Removal & Installation
Air Temperature Actuator
Air Temperature Actuator Replacement

To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not apply power to the actuator when it is removed from the HVAC module.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove the instrument panel hush panel.


Disconnect the connector from the air temperature actuator.
Remove the air temperature actuator mounting screws.
Remove the actuator from the HVAC assembly.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Position the air temperature actuator on the HVAC assembly.


Install the actuator mounting screws.
Install the electrical connect to the air temperature actuator.
Install the instrument panel hush panel.

Right Side Air Temperature Actuator (2003-2007)


Right Air Temperature Actuator Replacement

To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not apply power to the actuator when it is removed from the HVAC module.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove the instrument panel carrier.


Disconnect the connector from the right air temperature actuator.
Remove the actuator mounting screws.
Remove the right air temperature actuator.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Position the right air temperature actuator on the HVAC assembly.


Install the actuator mounting screws.
Connect the electrical connector to the actuator.
Install the I/P carrier.
Calibrate the actuator.

Left Side Air Temperature Actuator (2003-2007)


Left Air Temperature Actuator Replacement

To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not apply power to the actuator when it is removed from the HVAC module.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove the I/P insulator panel.


Disconnect the connector from the left air temperature actuator.
Remove the actuator mounting screws.
Remove the left air temperature actuator.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Position the left air temperature actuator on the HVAC assembly.


Install the actuator mounting screws.
Connect the electrical connector to the actuator.
Install the I/P insulator panel.
Calibrate the actuator.

Mode Actuator
Mode Actuator Replacement

To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not apply power to the actuator when it is removed from the HVAC module.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Remove the floor air outlet from the floor duct.


Remove the center console and center console duct (if equipped).
Disconnect the electrical connection at the mode actuator.
Remove the mode actuator mounting screws from the HVAC module.
Remove the mode actuator with the actuator cam attached.

To Install:
1. Position the mode actuator with the actuator cam to the HVAC module.
Align the heater/defroster valve lever with the cam slot
Align the A/C valve lever with the cam
2. Install the mode actuator mounting screws.
3. Connect the mode actuator electrical connection.
4. Install the center console duct and the center console (if equipped).
5. Install the floor air outlet duct extension to the floor air duct.
6. Calibrate the actuator.

Air Inlet Actuator/Recirculation Actuator


Delphi
Recirculation Actuator Replacement (Delphi)

To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not apply power to the actuator when it is removed from the HVAC module.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Remove the instrument panel upper trim panel.


Remove the instrument panel lower trim panel and glove box assembly.
Remove the passenger side air bag.
Disconnect the connector from the recirculation actuator.
Remove the recirculation actuator mounting screws.
Remove the recirculation actuator from the HVAC assembly.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Position the recirculation actuator on the HVAC assembly.


Install the recirculation actuator mounting screws.
Connect the electrical connector to the recirculation actuator.
Install the passenger side air bag.
Install the instrument panel lower trim panel and the glove box assembly.
Install the instrument panel upper trim panel.
Calibrate the actuator.

Visteon
Recirculation Actuator Replacement (Visteon)

To Remove:
CAUTION
Do not apply power to the actuator when it is removed from the HVAC module.
1. Remove the HVAC module assembly.
2. Remove the evaporator core cover from the HVAC module.
3. Remove the recirculation actuator from the HVAC module assembly.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Position the recirculation actuator on the HVAC assembly.


Install the recirculation actuator mounting screws.
Install the evaporator core cover to the HVAC module.
Install the HVAC module assembly.
Calibrate the actuator.

Calibration
To Calibrate:
1. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.
2. Remove the fuse from the HVAC control module positive circuit.
NOTE: The fuse must be removed for more than 60 seconds to clear the control
module memory.
3. Wait at least 60 seconds.
4. Install the fuse.

Blower Motor
Removal & Installation
Delphi
Blower Motor Replacement (Delphi)

To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Remove the instrument panel sound insulator panel (if equipped).


Disconnect the electrical connector from the blower motor.
Remove the blower motor insulating cover screws.
Remove the blower motor insulating cover.
Pull the retaining tab down and rotate blower motor counterclockwise to remove.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Position the blower motor and turn assembly clockwise until tab locks in place.
Install the blower motor insulating cover.
Connect the electrical connector to the blower motor.
Install the instrument panel sound insulator panel (if equipped).

Visteon
Blower Motor Replacement (Visteon)

To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove the instrument panel sound insulator panel (if equipped).


Disconnect the electrical connector from the blower motor.
Remove the blower motor screws.
Remove the blower motor from the HVAC module.

To Install:
1. Position the blower motor and install mounting screws.
2. Connect the electrical connector to the blower motor.
3. Install the instrument panel sound insulator panel (if equipped).

Compressor
Removal & Installation
6.6L Engine
Denso
To Remove:
1. Recover the refrigerant.
2. Release the drive belt tensioner.
3. Remove the drive belt from the A/C compressor.
4. Remove the discharge hose assembly bolt from the compressor.
5. Remove the compressor discharge hose from the compressor.
6. Remove the suction hose assembly bolt from the compressor.
7. Remove the compressor suction hose from the compressor.
8. Disconnect the electrical connector from the compressor.
9. Discard the sealing washers and cap hoses.
10. Disconnect the electrical connector.
11. Remove the compressor mounting bolts.
12. Remove the compressor from bracket.
13. Drain and measure the amount of oil contained in the old compressor.
To Install:
NOTE: New compressor assemblies may be pre-filled with 8 oz. of refrigerant oil. If
replacing the compressor, refer to Compressor Oil Balancing .
1. Install the compressor.
Tighten the mounting bolts to 37 lb ft (50 Nm).
2. Install new sealing washers on the compressor ports.
3. Install the A/C compressor hoses on the compressor.
Tighten the bolts to 12 lb ft (16 Nm).
4. Connect the compressor clutch electrical connector.
5. Install the drive belt on the A/C compressor.
6. Evacuate and charge the refrigerant system.
7. Leak test the fittings of the reinstalled component using a commercially available
leak tester.

Delphi/Harrison
To Remove:
1. Recover the refrigerant.
2. Release the drive belt tensioner.
3. Remove the drive belt from the A/C compressor.
4. Remove the compressor hose assembly bolt from the compressor.
5. Remove the compressor hose assembly from the compressor.
6. Disconnect the electrical connector from the compressor.
7. Discard the sealing washers and cap hoses.
8. Disconnect the electrical connector.
9. Remove the compressor mounting bolts.
10. Remove the compressor from bracket.
11. Drain and measure the amount of oil contained in the old compressor.
To Install:
NOTE: New compressor assemblies may be pre-filled with 8 oz. of refrigerant oil. If
replacing the compressor, refer to Compressor Oil Balancing.
1. Install the compressor.
Tighten the mounting bolts to 37 lb ft (50 Nm).
2. Install new sealing washers on the compressor ports.
3. Install the A/C compressor hose assembly on the compressor.
Tighten the bolt to 25 lb ft (34 Nm).
4. Connect the compressor clutch electrical connector.
5. Install the drive belt on the A/C compressor.
6. Evacuate and charge the refrigerant system.
7. Leak test the fittings of the reinstalled component using a commercially available
leak tester.

Refrigerant Oil Level Check


Compressor Oil Balancing
Draining Procedure
1. Drain the compressor crankcase into a clean graduated container. Rotate the
compressor shaft to assist in draining the compressor.
2. Measure and record the amount of oil drained from the removed compressor.
This measurement will be used during installation of the replacement
compressor.
3. Properly discard the used refrigerant oil.
Balancing Procedure
NOTE: The refrigerant oil in the A/C system must be balanced during compressor
replacement. Follow the balancing instructions provided with the compressor. The
replacement compressor may be shipped with 8.0 oz of refrigerant oil.
1. Refer to the amount of oil drained from the removed compressor.
2. Drain and measure the oil in the replacement compressor.
3. Fill the replacement compressor with the same amount of oil as was drained from
the removed compressor.

Compressor Clutch
Removal & Installation
Delphi/Harrison
To Remove:
1. Clamp a J 34992 or appropriate holding fixture in a vise.
2. Use thumb screws in order to attach the compressor to the holding fixture.
NOTE: Do not drive or pound on the clutch hub or shaft. Internal damage to the
compressor may result.
Compressor clutch plate and hub assembly

3. Ensure that the center screw forces the tip to thrust against the end of the shaft.
4. Thread a J 33013-B remover/installer tool or equivalent onto the hub.
5. While holding the body of the remover with a wrench, turn the center screw into
the remover body in order to remove the clutch plate and hub assembly (1).
6. Remove the shaft key.
7. Retain the shaft key for reassembly.
8. Remove the rotor and bearing assembly retaining ring.
9. Install the J 33023-A to the front head.

Use the pulley puller J33020 to remove the rotor and


bearing assembly

10. Install the J 33020 into the inner circle of slots in the rotor.
11. Turn the J 33020 clockwise in the slots in order to engage the tangs of the puller
with the segments between the slots in the rotor.
12. Hold the J 33020 in place. Tighten the puller screw against the guide to remove
the puller rotor and bearing assembly.
13. Mark the location of the clutch coil terminal on the compressor front head.
14. Install the J 33023-A on the front head of the compressor.
15. Install the J 8433-1 and J 8433-3 with J 33025 on the compressor.
16. Tighten the J 8433-3 against the J 33023-A in order to remove the clutch coil.

A/C compressor clutch coil removal

To Install:
1. Place the clutch coil assembly on the compressor with the terminals positioned at
the marked location.
2. Place the J 33024 over the internal opening of the clutch coil housing.
3. Align the J 33024 with the compressor front head.
4. Center the J 8433-1 on the countersunk center hole of the J 33024.
5. Install the through bolts and washers of the J 34992 through the slots in the J
8433-1.
6. Thread the through bolts into the J 33025 in order to achieve full fixture
thickness.
NOTE: Make sure that the clutch coil and the J 33024 stay in-line during the
installation.
7. Turn the J 8433-3 of the J 8433-1 in order to force the clutch coil onto the head.
8. With the compressor still mounted to the J 34992 and the coil seated on the front
head, stake the front head using a drift punch with a diameter of 0.125 in (3.175
mm).
9. Stake the front head at 3 places 120 degrees apart in order to ensure that the
clutch coil remains in position. Ensure that the stake size is only one half of the
area of the punch tip and only 0.010-0.015 in (0.28-0.35 mm) in depth.
10. With the compressor mounted to the holding fixture, position the rotor and
bearing assembly on the front head.
11. Position the J 33017 and the J 33023-A directly over the inner race of the
bearing.
12. Position the J 8433-1 on the J 33023-A.

13. Assemble the 2 through bolts and the washers of the holding fixture through the
slots of the J 8433-1.
14. Thread the bolts into the holding fixture. Make sure that the thread of the through
bolts engages the full thickness of the J 34992.
15. Tighten the J 8433-3 in the J 8433-1 in order to force the pulley rotor and bearing
assembly onto the front of the compressor.
16. If the J 33017 slips off direct, in-line contact with inner face of the bearing,
perform the following:
17. Loosen the J 8433-3
18. Realign the J 33017 and the J 33023-A to ensure that the installer clears the front
head.
19. Install the rotor and bearing assembly retainer ring.
20. Install the shaft key into the hub key groove.
21. Allow the key to project approximately 3.2 mm (0.125 in) out of the keyway. The
shaft key curves slightly in order to provide interference fit in the hub key groove.
22. Clean the clutch plate and clutch rotor.
23. Align the shaft key with the shaft keyway.
24. Place the clutch plate and the hub assembly (1) onto the compressor shaft.
25. Remove the forcing tip on the J 33013 remover or equivalent.
26. Reverse the body direction on the center screw.
27. Install the J 33013 remover/installer tool or equivalent with the bearing.
28. Back off the body of the J 33013 remover/installer tool or equivalent as
necessary in order to permit the center screw to be threaded onto the end of the
compressor shaft.
29. Hold the center screw with a wrench.
30. Tighten the hex portion of the J 33013 remover/installer tool or equivalent in
order to press the hub onto the shaft.
31. Tighten the body several turns.
32. Remove the installer. Ensure that the shaft key remains in place in the keyway.
33. Install the clutch plate and hub assembly to the final position. Ensure that the air
gap between frictional surfaces of the clutch plate and clutch rotor measures
within 0.50-0.76 mm (0.020-0.030 in).
34. Remove the J 33013 remover/installer tool or equivalent.
35. Verify proper positioning of the shaft key. Ensure that the shaft key is even with
or slightly above the clutch hub.
36. Spin the pulley rotor by hand in order to verify that the rotor does not rub against
the clutch drive plate.

Denso
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Remove the clutch plate retaining bolt.


Remove the clutch plate assembly.
Remove the clutch hub/bearing snap ring.
Remove the clutch hub/bearing assembly.
Remove the clutch coil connector bracket screw.
Remove the clutch coli snap ring.
Remove the clutch coil assembly.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Install the clutch coil to the compressor.


Install the clutch coil snap ring.
Install the clutch hub/bearing assembly.
Install the clutch hub/bearing snap ring.
Oil the thinnest air gap shim and install inside the clutch plate.
Install the clutch plate assembly.
CAUTION
Make sure that the drive plate does not drag against the pulley when the pulley is
rotated.

7. Ensure that the air gap between the pulley and the drive plate measures within
0.35-0.65 mm (0.014-0.026 in).
8. Install the clutch plate retaining bolt
Torque bolt to 13 ft lb (18 Nm).

Condenser
Removal & Installation
2000-2007
To Remove:
1. Recover the refrigerant from the A/C system.
2. Remove the grille.
3. Remove the tie bar to radiator brace bolts that are accessible from the rear of the
upper radiator support.
4. Remove the hood latch support bracket lower bolts.
5. Disconnect the compressor discharge hose from the condenser.
6. Disconnect the evaporator tube from the condenser.
7. Remove the insulator retainer bolts and upper insulator retainers.
8. Remove the condenser from the vehicle.
9. Cap the open refrigerant lines to prevent moisture and dirt from entering.
To Install:
1. If replacing the condenser, add new refrigerant oil to the condenser. Add 1 oz. or
the amount drained from the old condenser.
2. Install the condenser to the vehicle.
3. Install the upper insulator retainers and bolts.
Tighten the bolts to 21 in lb (24 Nm).
4. Connect the evaporator tube to the condenser using new sealing washers.
5. Install the evaporator tube nut to the condenser.
Tighten the nut to 12 ft lb (24 Nm).
6. Connect the A/C compressor discharge hose to the condenser using new sealing
washers.
Tighten the nut to 12 lb ft (16 Nm).
7. Install hood latch lower support bracket bolts.
8. Install grille.
9. Evacuate and recharge the A/C system.
10. Leak test the fittings.

Evaporator
Removal & Installation
Delphi
Evaporator core removal (Delphi)

To Remove:
1. Remove the HVAC housing assembly.
2. Remove heat stakes (if equipped) from the HVAC housing with a screwdriver and
hammer.
3. Remove the screws (if equipped) from the HVAC module assembly.
4. Remove the evaporator cowl gasket from the evaporator.
5. Separate the upper and lower HVAC module assemblies.
6. Remove the evaporator core.
To Install:
1. If replacing the evaporator, add refrigerant oil to the evaporator.
NOTE: Add 3 oz. of refrigerant oil or the amount drained from the evaporator if it
is greater then 3 oz.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Install the evaporator core into the HVAC module assembly.


Attach the upper and lower HVAC assembly cases.
Install the evaporator cowl gasket to the evaporator.
Install the screws to the HVAC module assembly.
Install the HVAC assembly.

Visteon
Evaporator core removal (Visteon)

To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Remove the HVAC housing assembly.


Disconnect the recirculation actuator electrical connector.
Remove the screws from the evaporator cover and remove cover.
Remove the evaporator cowl gasket from the evaporator.
Remove the evaporator core.

To Install:
1. If replacing the evaporator, add refrigerant oil to the evaporator.
NOTE: Add 3 oz. of refrigerant oil or the amount drained from the evaporator if it
is greater then 3 oz.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Install the evaporator core into the HVAC module assembly.


Install the evaporator cowl gasket to the evaporator.
Install the evaporator cover to the HVAC module assembly.
Connect the recirculation actuator electrical connector.
Install the HVAC assembly.

HVAC Module
Removal & Installation

HVAC module removal

To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Remove the auxiliary battery (if equipped).


Recover the refrigerant from the refrigerant system (if equipped with A/C).
Drain the cooling system.
Disconnect the hoses from the heater core.
Remove the accumulator (if equipped with A/C).
Remove the instrument panel carrier.
Remove the evaporator drain hose (if equipped with A/C).
Disconnect the HVAC electrical connections and ground connections.
Remove the fasteners which secure the HVAC assembly to the firewall from the
engine compartment.
10. Remove the HVAC assembly.

To Install:
1. Install the HVAC assembly into the vehicle.
Tighten the nuts to 80 lb in (9 Nm) and the screws to 35 lb in (4 Nm).
2. Connect the electrical connections and ground connections.
3. Install the evaporator drain hose (If equipped with A/C).
4. Install the instrument panel carrier.
5. Install the accumulator (if equipped with A/C).
6. Connect the hoses to the heater core.
7. Refill the cooling system.
8. Evacuate and recharge the A/C system (if equipped with A/C).
9. Install the auxiliary battery (if equipped).
10. Inspect the system for leaks.

Instrument Panel Carrier


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Disable the air bag system.
2. Set the parking brake.
3. Move the shift lever all the way down.
4. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
5. Tilt the steering wheel to the full down position.
6. Remove the I/P cluster trim plate bezel by gently pulling rearward at the corners.
7. Remove the end panels.
8. Remove the right side air outlets.
9. Remove the assist handle by releasing the tabs through the air outlet duct holes.
10. Remove the windshield pillar garnish moldings.
11. Remove the bolts securing the pad to the I/P assembly.
12. Lift the trim pad up to disconnect the ambient light sensor connector.
13. Remove the trim pad.
14. Remove the center console (if equipped).
15. Remove the I/P extension (if equipped).
16. Remove the driver side knee bolster.
17. Open the glove compartment door and remove bolts securing the lower trim
panel to the I/P assembly.
18. Disconnect electrical connectors and remove the lower trim panel.
19. Remove the passenger side air bag module.
20. Remove the radio.
21. Remove the HVAC control.
22. Remove the accessory switch housing.
23. Remove the left air louver housing.
24. Remove the steering column.
25. Remove the Vehicle Interface Unit (if equipped).
26. Remove the Vehicle Communication Unit (if equipped).
27. Remove the Remote Control Door Lock Receiver Unit (if equipped).
28. Disconnect the data link connector.
29. Remove the park brake release lever.
30. Remove the instrument cluster.
31. Remove both window air ducts from I/P assembly.
32. Remove the electrical harness from the I/P.

I/P assembly removal

33. Remove the I/P assembly retaining bolts and nuts.


34. Remove harness hold-down retainers from the I/P assembly.
35. Remove the instrument panel assembly from the vehicle.
I/P upper bracket removal

36. Remove the I/P upper brackets.


37. Disconnect all electrical connectors from the wiring harness junction block.
38. Remove the transfer case control module from the bracket (if equipped).
39. Remove the antenna cable from the cross car duct.
40. Remove the cross car duct.
41. Remove the amplifier (if equipped).
42. Separate the I/P harness from the I/P carrier.
NOTE: Do not remove the I/P harness from the vehicle.
43. Remove the right side of the carrier to gain access to the HVAC module.
44. Remove the I/P center support bracket bezel.
NOTE: Remove the I/P carrier assembly as one complete assembly.
45. Remove the I/P center support bracket bolt, side bolts and top bolts.
46. Remove the I/P carrier from the vehicle.
To Install:
1. Position the I/P carrier in the vehicle.
2. Install the I/P carrier top and side bolts.
Tighten the bolts to 37 ft lb (50 Nm).
3. Install the I/P center support bracket bolt.
Tighten the bolt to 18 ft lb (25 Nm).
4. Install the I/P center support bracket bezel.
5. Install the right side of the carrier to the vehicle (if the HVAC module was
removed).
6. Tighten the bolts to 37 ft lb (50 Nm).
7. Attach the I/P harness to the carrier.
8. Install the amplifier (if equipped).
9. Install the cross car duct.
10. Install the antenna cable to the cross car duct.
11. Install the transfer case module (if equipped) to the bracket.
12. Connect the electrical connections to the wiring harness junction block.
13. Install the I/P upper brackets.
Tighten the bolts to 18 in lb (2 Nm).
14. Position the I/P assembly to the vehicle.
15. Install the I/P assembly fasteners.
Tighten the nuts and bolts to 80 in lb (9 Nm).
16. Install the I/P upper brackets.
17. Install the harness hold-down retainers to the I/P assembly.
18. Install the harness to the I/P.
19. Install both front window air ducts to the I/P assembly.
20. Install the I/P cluster assembly.
21. Install the park brake release lever.
22. Install the data link connector.
23. Install the Remote Control Door Lock Receiver Module (if equipped).
24. Install the Vehicle Communication Unit (if equipped).
25. Install the Vehicle Interface Unit (if equipped).

26. Install the steering column.


27. Install the left air louver housing.
28. Install the accessory switch housing.
29. Install the HVAC control.
30. Install the radio.
31. Install the passenger side airbag module.
32. Connect all electrical connectors to the lower trim panel.
33. Install the lower trim panel to the I/P assembly.
Tighten the bolts to 18 in lb (2 Nm).
34. Install the center console (if equipped).
35. Install the I/P cluster trim bezel.
36. Install the driver side knee bolster.
37. Install the I/P extension (if equipped).
38. Connect the ambient light sensor electrical connector to the underside of the
instrument panel upper trim pad.
39. Install the trim pad to the I/P assembly.
40. Install the trim pad retaining screws.
Tighten the screws to 18 in lb (2 Nm).
41. Install the windshield pillar garnish moldings.
42. Install the assist handle.
43. Install the right side air outlets.
44. Install the end panels.
45. Enable the air bag system.
46. Connect the negative battery cable.

Expansion (Orifice) Tube


Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1. Recover the refrigerant from the A/C system.
2. Loosen the evaporator tube fitting nut.
3. Remove the orifice tube from the evaporator tube.
NOTE: The open refrigerant lines should be capped to prevent contamination of
the refrigerant system.
4. Cap off the open refrigerant lines.
Expansion (Orifice) Tube Removal

To Install:
1. Uncap the evaporator tube.
2. Lubricate the new O-ring using new 525 viscosity refrigerant oil and install the
seal.
3. Insert the long screen end of the new orifice into the evaporator tube.
4. Connect the evaporator tube at the fitting.
Tighten the fitting to 18 ft lb (25 Nm).
5. Evacuate and recharge the A/C system.
6. Leak test the fittings with an electronic leak detector.

Accumulator
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Recover the refrigerant from the A/C system.


Disconnect A/C low pressure switch electrical connector.
Remove the compressor hose nut from the accumulator.
Remove the compressor hose from the accumulator.
Remove the nut from the evaporator fitting.
Remove the accumulator bracket nut from the retaining stud.
Remove the accumulator.
Accumulator removal

8. Remove the accumulator retaining bracket.


9. Discard the O-rings.
To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Install the new O-rings.


Install the accumulator retaining bracket.
Install the retaining bracket bolt.
Install the accumulator and accumulator bracket bolt.
Install the evaporator fitting nut.
Tighten the nut to 12 ft lb (16 Nm). Install the compressor hose to the
accumulator.
Tighten the nut to 12 ft lb (16 Nm).
6. Connect the A/C low pressure switch electrical connector.
7. Evacuate and recharge the A/C system.
8. Leak test the fittings with an electronic leak detector.

Blower Motor Control Processor


Removal & Installation
Blower motor control processor removal

To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove the sound insulator from the instrument panel.


Disconnect the connector from the blower motor.
Disconnect the connector from the blower motor control processor.
Remove the blower motor control processor.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Install the blower motor control processor and screws.


Connect the electrical connector to the blower motor control processor.
Connect the electrical connector to the blower motor.
Install the sound insulator under the instrument panel.

Heater System
Heater Core
Removal & Installation
Heater core removal

To Remove:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Remove the HVAC assembly.


Remove the heater core cover screws.
Remove the heater core cover from the HVAC assembly.
Remove the heater core gasket from the core.
Remove the heater core from the HVAC module assembly.

To Install:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Install the heater core to the HVAC module assembly.


Install the heater core cowl gasket to the HVAC module assembly.
Install the heater core cover and screws to the HVAC module assembly.
Install the HVAC module assembly to the vehicle.

Sensors, Switches & Valves


A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor/Pressure Cycling Switch/High Pressure
Recirculation Switch
Removal & Installation
To Remove:
NOTE: It is not necessary to recover the refrigerant from the system before removing the
sensor. The sensor is mounted in a service fitting.
1. Raise and support vehicle.
2. Disconnect the refrigerant pressure sensor electrical connector.
3. Remove the refrigerant pressure sensor from the evaporator tube.
To Install:
1. Install the pressure sensor to the evaporator tube fitting.
Tighten the sensor to 53 in lb (6 Nm).
2. Connect the electrical connector to the refrigerant pressure sensor.
3. Check for leaks.

Ambient Air Temperature Sensor


Removal & Installation
Ambient air temperature sensor removal

To Remove:
1. Remove the right front park/turn signal housing.
2. Disconnect the ambient air temperature sensor electrical connector.
3. Remove the ambient air temperature sensor.
To Install:
1. Install the ambient air temperature sensor.
2. Connect the electrical connector to the ambient air temperature sensor.
3. Install the right front park/turn signal housing.

A/C SPECIFICATIONS