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PSAE Region IV Agricultural Engineering Board Review Materials

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Engineering Thermodynamics
Arnold R. Elepao
Associate Professor
Agricultural and Bio-Process Division
Institute of Agricultural Engineering
College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology
University of the Philippines Los Baos

I.

Introduction

Thermodynamics is the science of energy and entropy; it deals with heat and
work and these properties of substances that bear a relation to heat and work; it
deals with transformation of energy of all kinds from one form to another.

II.

Thermodynamic Properties

Two general classes:


1. Extensive property its value for an overall system is the sum of its values for
the parts into which the system is divided; varies directly with the mass i.e.
total volume.
2. Intensive property its value is independent of the size or extent of a system
and may vary from place to place within the system at any moment i.e.
pressure, temperature and density.

Temperature indicates thermal state and the ability to exchange energy


with a substance in contact with it. It is a measure of the internal energy
of a body.
C = 5/9 (F 32)
K = C + 273.15
R = F + 459.69
R = 9/5 K
Absolute temperature, T - is the number of degrees above absolute zero
expressed in Kelvins or Rankine.

Pressure is the normal (perpendicular) force exerted by a fluid per unit


area against which the force is exerted. Unit: Newtons per square meter
(N/m2) or Pascal (Pa)

Absolute pressure is the measure of pressure above zero.

Gage pressure is measured above existing atmospheric pressure. It


is the excess of the absolute pressure over the atmospheric pressure.

Standard atmospheric pressure 101.3 kPa


1 Pa = 1 N/m2

Density mass per unit volume.


Specific volume volume per unit mass, reciprocal of density

Engineering Thermodynamics

PSAE Region IV Agricultural Engineering Board Review Materials

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Specific Heat, cp the quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of a


unit mass by 1 K.
cp dry air 1.0 kJ/ kg.K
cp water 4.19 kJ/ kg. K

III.

Laws of Thermodynamics

Zeroth law - when two bodies have equality of temperature with a third body,
they in turn have equality of temperature with each other.

First Law also known as the Conservation of Energy principle, states that
energy can neither be created not destroyed, it can only change forms.
States that during any cycle a system undergoes, the cyclic
integral of the heat is proportional to the cyclic integral of the work.
For a steady-state closed system, the energy can increase
only
through the influx of heat and/ or the performance of work on it, according to
the equation: Q + W =E.

Second Law - deals with the quality of energy (energy degradation). There are
two classical statements of this law:
Kelvin-Planck statement: It is impossible to construct a device that will
operate in a cycle and produce no effect other than the raising of a weight
and the exchange of heat with a single reservoir.
Clausius statement: It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a
cycle and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a coolerbody to a hotter body.

Third law states that the entropy of a perfect crystal is zero at the absolute
zero of temperature.

IV.

Glossary

Coefficient of Thermal Capacity - amount of heat added to or subtracted from a


substance when unit weight of the material changes 1 in temperature.
Quality (x) of a two-phase mixture fraction by mass of the vapor in the liquidvapor mixture.
Enthalpy (or latent heat) of vaporization the amount of heat required to
change unit mass of a pure substance from the saturated liquid state to the
saturated vapor state, the pressure (or temperature) remaining constant.
Enthalpy (or latent heat) of sublimation the amount of heat required to change
unit mass of a pure substance from the solid state to the vapor state, the
pressure (or temperature) remaining constant.
Enthalpy (or latent heat) of fusion the amount of heat required to change unit
mass of a pure substance from the solid state to the liquid state, the pressure
(or temperature) remaining constant.
The 3 two-variable equations of state for an ideal gas:
1. Boyles law (T = constant)
2. Charles law (P = constant)
3. Gay-Lussacs Law (V = constant)

Engineering Thermodynamics

PSAE Region IV Agricultural Engineering Board Review Materials

V.

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References
Liley, P.F. 1988. Two thousand solved problems in Mechanical Engineering
Thermodynamics. McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Moran,

M.J. & H. N. Shapiro.


2000.
Fundamentals of
Thermodynamics. Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sonntag, R.E.; C.Borgnakke & G.J. Van Wylen.


Thermodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Engineering Thermodynamics

1998.

Engineering

Fundamentals of