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Engineering Thermodynamics

Arnold R. Elepao

Associate Professor

Agricultural and Bio-Process Division

Institute of Agricultural Engineering

College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology

University of the Philippines Los Baos

I.

Introduction

Thermodynamics is the science of energy and entropy; it deals with heat and

work and these properties of substances that bear a relation to heat and work; it

deals with transformation of energy of all kinds from one form to another.

II.

Thermodynamic Properties

1. Extensive property its value for an overall system is the sum of its values for

the parts into which the system is divided; varies directly with the mass i.e.

total volume.

2. Intensive property its value is independent of the size or extent of a system

and may vary from place to place within the system at any moment i.e.

pressure, temperature and density.

with a substance in contact with it. It is a measure of the internal energy

of a body.

C = 5/9 (F 32)

K = C + 273.15

R = F + 459.69

R = 9/5 K

Absolute temperature, T - is the number of degrees above absolute zero

expressed in Kelvins or Rankine.

area against which the force is exerted. Unit: Newtons per square meter

(N/m2) or Pascal (Pa)

is the excess of the absolute pressure over the atmospheric pressure.

1 Pa = 1 N/m2

Specific volume volume per unit mass, reciprocal of density

Engineering Thermodynamics

II- 2

unit mass by 1 K.

cp dry air 1.0 kJ/ kg.K

cp water 4.19 kJ/ kg. K

III.

Laws of Thermodynamics

Zeroth law - when two bodies have equality of temperature with a third body,

they in turn have equality of temperature with each other.

First Law also known as the Conservation of Energy principle, states that

energy can neither be created not destroyed, it can only change forms.

States that during any cycle a system undergoes, the cyclic

integral of the heat is proportional to the cyclic integral of the work.

For a steady-state closed system, the energy can increase

only

through the influx of heat and/ or the performance of work on it, according to

the equation: Q + W =E.

Second Law - deals with the quality of energy (energy degradation). There are

two classical statements of this law:

Kelvin-Planck statement: It is impossible to construct a device that will

operate in a cycle and produce no effect other than the raising of a weight

and the exchange of heat with a single reservoir.

Clausius statement: It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a

cycle and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a coolerbody to a hotter body.

Third law states that the entropy of a perfect crystal is zero at the absolute

zero of temperature.

IV.

Glossary

substance when unit weight of the material changes 1 in temperature.

Quality (x) of a two-phase mixture fraction by mass of the vapor in the liquidvapor mixture.

Enthalpy (or latent heat) of vaporization the amount of heat required to

change unit mass of a pure substance from the saturated liquid state to the

saturated vapor state, the pressure (or temperature) remaining constant.

Enthalpy (or latent heat) of sublimation the amount of heat required to change

unit mass of a pure substance from the solid state to the vapor state, the

pressure (or temperature) remaining constant.

Enthalpy (or latent heat) of fusion the amount of heat required to change unit

mass of a pure substance from the solid state to the liquid state, the pressure

(or temperature) remaining constant.

The 3 two-variable equations of state for an ideal gas:

1. Boyles law (T = constant)

2. Charles law (P = constant)

3. Gay-Lussacs Law (V = constant)

Engineering Thermodynamics

V.

II- 3

References

Liley, P.F. 1988. Two thousand solved problems in Mechanical Engineering

Thermodynamics. McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Moran,

2000.

Fundamentals of

Thermodynamics. Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Thermodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Engineering Thermodynamics

1998.

Engineering

Fundamentals of

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