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21

DESCRIPTION:
Magna 21 is a composite welding alloy which is formed by melting the famous
Magna 33F alloy into a mold filled with tungsten carbide pieces. This results in
a welding bar containing crushed tungsten carbide in a matrix of Magna 33F.

Magna 33F is considered by many to be the world's strongest brazing alloy,


2

having up to 59.5 Kg./mm tensile strength. It is tough, resilient and is able to


penetrate grain boundaries on tungsten carbides to provide a tenacious hold. It
bonds the carbide particles in such a manner that they will take extreme
working without becoming loosened or lost. In application the matrix has shock
absorbing qualities preventing the carbides from breaking while working. The
Magna 33F alloy bonds at such a low temperature that the carbides do not
craze. In deposition the Magna 33F matrix material melts and forms the bond,
the tungsten carbide pieces do not melt and they provide the cutting qualities.

Magna 21 can be applied to steel to make a grinding type of tool. For example,
if it is applied to the end of a pipe, the pipe can be used as a core drill. On the
head of a bolt, it transforms the bolt into a masonry drill. Many special tools can
be made including very long tools to reach into difficult areas, etc. A wheel
dressing tool can be made in minutes for a few cents.

Magna 21 is made from carefully selected carbides having a hardness of over


Rockwell 70C. The special carbides used are crushed to yield a jagged shape.
When one sharp corner wears down, another takes its place. When a carbide is
completely worn out, another takes over. This gives Magna 21 a continuously
sharp working face.

In most applications, Magna 21 will give more drilling per pound of alloy with
the possible exception of diamonds. However, since larger sized carbides are
used than conventional industrial diamonds, Magna 21 often outwears costly
diamonds on many applications.
FEATURES

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 21.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Thoroughly clean base metal by filing, brushing or grinding. Brush Magna 21


Flux on the work area and the alloy. Then preheat base metal area with a
neutral or slightly excess acetylene flame until the flux becomes liquid. Then
overlay a thin layer of Magna 33F on the base metal using a brazing technique.
Apply Magna 21 by melting off small amounts and allowing to bond to base
metal.

To obtain optimum results you can move the carbides with a screwdriver or any
metal object into any desired position while the alloy is in a fluid state.

1. Hold rod close to deposit to prevent carbides being dropped and lost.
However, ensure torch is kept at a distance so it will not burn the alloy,
when in a molten state.

2. Not recommended for use on areas that receive continuous heavy impact.

3. There are different sizes of carbides in Magna 21 Alloy and as a general


rule of thumb you should select the smaller size carbides from the rod for
use on solid materials such as marble and for coarse jobs such as concrete
are better accomplished by using the larger carbide.

4. When using Magna 21 on drilling applications such as old concrete it is


necessary to use more pressure to get maximum results.

5. The carbides in Magna 21 will dull slightly after continued use. In this case
you merely heat the assembly until the alloy on the tool becomes liquid
then turn the carbides to reveal new sharp cutting edges.

6. When drilling a hole in a hard refractory such as a wall or floor, it is


suggested to start the drilling through a board with a hole in it. This will
eliminate the 'bounce' generally experienced in a job of this nature.
HINTS FOR MAKING TOOLS WITH MAGNA 21

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 21.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

When designing a drilling tool, you


will get better results by stacking the
carbides to form a pyramid with a
sharp point at the peak. This
ensures a quick start when drilling a
hole.

By usiBy using a piece of pipe with the edge of one end overlaid with Magna
21, you have a custom made tool for drilling deep holes or for cutting core
samples from any materials such as rock or concrete.

Magna 21 can be used to


overlay the outer edge of a
circular piece of 6 or 10mm.
(1/4" or 3/8") steel which will
give you a very effective tool
which can be used on a
machine that revolves at high
speeds and will cut grooves or
slots in concrete.

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 21.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

24
FEATURES
A silver bearing alloy for copper which is a true ternary alloy and has the
following special features:
1. Super Fluidity. Magna 24 flows through the tightest laps and along long
distances due to its ultra low viscosity and excellent capillary action. This
alloy is deoxidized when manufactured. There is no outgassing. It has a
narrow plastic range which aids its flow, but at low heat Magna 24 will fill
gaps.
2. High Physical Properties.

Magna 24 has high strength and ductility

having substantially higher physical properties than the phosphorous


copper alloys. This enables it to take extreme vibration and sudden
temperature changes. It provides 12% electrical conductivity of pure copper
in a joint. It has a high diffusability and most of the alloying elements except
pure copper and pure silver diffuse out during welding. This leaves a joint
of exceptionally high quality. The deposit has excellent corrosion resistance
and withstands freon indefinitely.
3. Self Fluxing on Copper.

Magna 24 is self-fluxing on copper. This is

excellent for applications such as electrical leads and splices where a flux
would set up a resistivity. It can be applied to copper piping such as
refrigeration tubing without flux. This prevents flux from plugging valves as
often happens with ordinary copper rods requiring flux. Magna 24 flux will
assist the flow on brass and copper alloys.
4. Long Shelf Life. Magna 24 has an oxide arresting plating of noble metals
on its surface to prevent oxidation during storage. Thus it has an indefinite
shelf life.
5. Can be applied with. Argon Arc without flux.
APPLICATION:

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 24.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Magna 24 has been designed for use on copper bearing alloys and is not
intended for application on steel.

The alloy has such a high affinity for copper that it is self fluxing on this metal.
On brass or bronze however, the use of Magna 24 flux will assist the flow of the
alloy.

The design of the joint relates to the strength of the weld and where lap or
square butt joints are used these should be extremely close fitting - say 0.038
to 0.076 mm. (0.0015" to 0.003") clearance.

Prepare base metal by grinding and degreasing so a clean surface is ready for
welding to commence.

Use an oxyacetylene torch fitted with a large tip and adjusted to an excess
acetylene flame. Preheat base metal holding flame 50 to 75 mm (2" to 3") away
from work surface. When copper reaches a dull red colour, or flux liquifies (if
being used) apply Magna 24 to the weld area and hold the heat constant until
the alloy flows freely through the joint. Use heat from the workpiece to actually
flow the alloy rather than heat from the torch. The entire workpiece must be hot
enough to flow the alloy - not just the area to be bonded.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 24.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

33F
FEATURES:
1. High Tensile Strength. Magna 33F provides up to 59.5 Kg/mm2 tensile
strength and even more with some joint designs. This high strength is
related to three factors:

a. Its high alloy content and carefully controlled metallurgical balance


provides an almost unbreakable bond. While the alloy contains nickel,
iron, silver and copper, it is the way in which these elements are
combined that gives the great strength.

b. This alloy has an ability to permeate grain boundaries and penetrates


deeply into the sub-surface of metals and forms a tenacious bond. It
will even bond to refractory type metals such as carbides, alloyed steel,
and chrome bearing steels.

c.

Has an extremely narrow plastic range of only two degrees. This


enables the alloy to be flowed through extremely long laps and narrow
crevices without segregation. Ordinary copper base alloys have a wider
plastic range and freeze from the melt slowly. During slow freezing the
various elements tend to solidify separately and thus the bond is weak.
Magna 33F freezes from the melt almost instantly and this does not
allow the elements to solidify separately. The micro-structure is
homogeneous thus giving outstanding strength.

2. Versatile Alloy. Magna 33F will flow as freely as a silver solder at 900
deg. C (1650 deg. F) However, it is more versatile than silver solder since it
will also bridge gaps and fill holes at several hundred degrees lower heat. It
can replace silver solder for many applications giving higher strength. It
'sets' faster than silver solder.

This alloy is at its best on steel because of its high strength, but it also bonds
well to practically all metals including:

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Bronze

Monel

Tool Steel

Brass

Nickel

Cast Iron

PIM 33F.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Copper

Galvanized Iron

Its high strength enables it to make square butt welds with little or no lap.
Ordinary brazing rods require a large lap for strength. A high speed steel drill
can have an extension butt welded to it without 'fish-mouthing' as ordinary
brazing rods require.

Magna 33F is ideal for emergency maintenance repairs because broken parts
can be butted together and welded in their own break without bevelling.
Galvanized iron can be joined with Magna 33F with virtually no damage to the
zinc coating.
3. Highest Deoxidation. The alloy is deoxidized to provide ultra dense welds
and eliminate 'out gassing'.
4. Flux Coating. An active and highly efficient type of flux coating is
employed on Magna 33F. It is based on chemicals that are more active
than the common borax fluxes used with many conventional brazing rods.
The flux is complex having properties that protect metals through an
unusually wide range of temperatures from room temperature up to
1200C. (2200F).
5. Higher Temperature Resistance. Because of the narrow plastic range,
Magna 33F can be used for higher temperature service than ordinary
brazing roods.
APPLICATION:
Actually the procedure used in applying Magna 33F to laps or close fitting joints
is a silver soldering technique.

Prepare work area by grinding or filing so that a clean surface is ready for
welding to commence.
Close fitting joints:
Magna 33F lends itself ideally for application on close fitting joints, with
approximately 0.076 mm. (0.003") clearance, and gives extremely strong
results. Brush flux on to base metal and preheat area extensively. The heat
generated by the preheated area melts the alloy and flows it into the weld area.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 33F.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Therefore, it is important when preheating that the heat is evenly distributed


and applied until the metal reaches a dull red colour. Use a neutral or slightly
carburizing flame and apply to filler rod. When the alloy starts to flow remove
flame and hold at a distance to prevent scorching the alloy in its fluid state. The
preheated area then conducts the molten alloy through the weld. In long laps
"suck" the alloy through with the torch using the principle that heat attracts
molten metal.
Poor fitting joints:
To achieve a better result on poor fitting joints, prepare the weld area by filing
or grinding so that a 'V' results.

Apply Magna 33F with torch flame adjusted to a neutral or slightly oxidizing
flame. Melt one globule at a time and working into weld area holding torch
about 10 mm. (3/8") from base metal. Repeat this process until welding alloy
completely plugs sections welding them together. No extra flux is necessary
when applying, using the "bead forming" or normal brazing technique as the
flux on the alloy is sufficient. It is not necessary to remove flux residue,
however, this can be done by using warm water and a brush.
Special Note:
It is to be considered that the properties of Magna 33F make it impervious to
rust, however, this does not prevent rust affecting the base metal.
Different Applications using other Magna products:
1.

For arc welding steel use Magna 303.

2.

For torch build-up use Magna 77F.

3.

For thin stainless steel use Magna 65 or Magna 66.

4.

Where a lower melting thin flowing alloy is desired use Magna 66.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 33F.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

45
FEATURES
Magna 45 is an alloy which has most remarkable properties as follows:
1. High Heat Resistance. This alloy has a unique two stage melting range.
Its melting point when in the rod form is 1038 deg. C. However, using a
brazing technique consisting of focussing the torch heat mainly on the
welding alloy rather than the base metal, the base metal bonding
temperature required is only about 871 deg. C. However, during the
welding operation certain elements in the composition diffuse out and the
remelt temperature is 1426 deg. C and the alloy has outstanding hardness
and strength up to 1260 deg. C. It can be employed for continuous service
up to 1093 deg. C. and for short periods of time up to 1260 deg.C. It cannot
be filed even when cherry red hot.
2. Extreme Wear Resistance.

Magna 45 has a hardness of 58 to 62

Rockwell C hardness. However, its micro-structure contains borides and


carbides that give it much greater wear resistance than would normally be
expected of an alloy of this hardness.
3. Excellent Corrosion Resistance.

Magna 45 is composed of nickel,

chromium and other noble metals. Its corrosion resistance is remarkable to


a wide range of extreme acids. It is fully equal to Inconel in corrosion
resistance. It will not amalgamate with mercury as some alloys do.
4. Ease of Application. Can be applied with oxyacetylene torch but also is
applicable with Argon Arc, and can be used as an electrode using DC,
polarity positive. With oxyacetylene torch application, it flows on very thinly
so that little grinding is necessary on precision applications. The deposit
has no porosity or unbonded islands. It can be used as a brazing rod for
joining thin parts such as Monel or Inconel tubing, high alloy pickling
baskets and similar applications. It is much easier to apply than the cobalt
type rods or other oxyacetylene hard facing alloys.
5. Applications. Magna 45 has thousands of applications. A few illustrations
are:

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 45.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

Overlaying of:

Cams

Die Sections

Guides

Billet Tongs

Cutting Tools

Valves

Plow Shares

Crane Hooks

Chains

Valve Push Rods

Feeder Flights
APPLICATION
As well as the following procedures, Magna 45 can also be applied using Argon
Arc equipment.
As an Electrode:
Only DC welding machines can be used when applying Magna 45 using this
method. Set the machine to reverse polarity and insert alloy into electrode
holder and apply using a metallic arc and following standard procedure.
Using Oxyacetylene Torch:
Apply a thin coating of Magna 45 flux over area to be welded if high alloy
materials, such as stainless steels, are being overlaid. On ordinary carbon
steels no flux is required. Adjust torch to neutral flame and preheat until base
metal reaches a dull red colour.
Focus flame directly on welding alloy and transfer a drop at a time until
reaching required thickness. By re-applying torch, weld can be smoothed as
desired. This method will result in a neat smooth weld however, where
precision is called for, after cooling, the weld can be ground to measurements
required.
A variety of overlaying applications with other Magna Welding Alloys:
1. Arc welding for abrasion resistance Magna 403.
2. Arc welding for impact resistance Magna 402.
3. Machinable overlay with torch Magna 77F.
4. Machinable overlay with arc Magna 405.

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 45.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

51
DESCRIPTION:
Magna 51 is a universal alloy for the joining of white metals such as zinc,
pewter and aluminium. It is also most suitable for steel, brass, copper and
stainless steel and is used at only 179C. Use in heating panels, high voltage
components, sound equipment and also perfect for spray moulds, patterns,
trophies, capacitors and even ultrasonic soldering. It has the following features:
1. Simplifies Joining of Zinc Die Cast. Zinc die castings have long been
considered virtually un-weldable with most ordinary welding rods because
the zinc sags and collapses before the bond can be effected. Magna 51
bonds to zinc die castings at such low temperature that no sagging or
collapsing can occur.
2. Joins Dissimilar Combinations of Metals.

Magna 51 is the most

remarkable common denominator for bonding a wide range of different


metals. It joins virtually all metals even aluminium and titanium. It will bond
steel to aluminium or copper to magnesium, or almost any combination.
Because of its ultra low temperature, it can be used on heavy aluminium
castings with very little preheat that would require high preheat with other
welding rods.
3. Magna 51 is the only alloy that works well on aluminium with a soldering
iron, for such applications as aluminium roof guttering. Most solders cannot
be successfully applied to aluminium with a soldering iron.

4. Good corrosion resistance and tensile strength, with rupture pressure rating
at 38C (100F) of up to 650 psig.
MAGNA 51 FLUX
This flux is of an organic composition and is non-corrosive for aluminium. In
application, it sublimates and becomes non-corrosive. This is of great value
where parts cannot be cleaned after welding, as in refrigeration tubing. Magna
51 has such affinity for aluminium that it can be applied without a flux, when
desired.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 51.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

APPLICATION
Application on Zinc Base Die Casting using Oxyacetylene Torch
Prepare base metal by chamfering sides of weld area to form a valley. Ensure
valley is of sufficient depth to achieve an effective joint.
Apply Magna 51 Flux with a brush over area and preheat using a small nozzle
and carburizing flame. Constantly move the torch until flux commences to
darken. Then apply Magna 51 with a brazing technique, hold the torch at a low
o

angle, not exceeding 10 . Do not overheat base metal, work as fast as possible
to prevent build up of heat. Before applying additional layers of Magna 51, allow
base metal to cool and work, maintaining low torch angle, directing heat solely
onto welding alloy. When sufficient deposits have been made leave job to cool
and solidify at room temperature before attempting to move. Brush flux particles
away with hot or cold water.
Application on Aluminium using Oxyacetylene Torch
Select a wide nozzle and adjust flame to an excess of acetylene. Distribute
preheating over a wide area so Magna 51 will melt on contact to base metal.
Vigorously stroke welding alloy over pre-heated surface until required thickness
is achieved. The alloy must be rubbed on the base metal to remove the
aluminium oxide on the surface. However, if Magna 51 flux is used, this will
break down the aluminium oxide automatically and no rubbing need be used.
When joining aluminium to other metals such as copper or brass, Magna 51
Flux must be used.
Magna 51 can be applied to thin aluminium with a soldering iron using normal
soldering techniques and Magna 51 flux.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 51.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

51NC
DESCRIPTION:
Magna 51N.C. is essentially the same as Magna 51, but in a No Cadmium
configuration. It is suitable for joining the white metals such as zinc, pewter and
aluminium and will also provide good bonds to steel, brass, copper and
stainless steel. Its liquidus is slightly higher than that of Magna 51 at 199oC. It is
perfect for joining heating panels, high voltage components, sound equipment
and also repairs spray moulds, patterns, trophies, capacitors. Ultrasonic
soldering is also possible with this highly versatile alloy. It is perfect for joining
in semi-enclosed or limited ventilation areas as the welding fumes contain no
cadmium.
FEATURES:
1. SIMPLIFIES THE JOINING OF ZINC DIE CAST. Zinc die castings have
long been considered virtually unweldable with most ordinary welding rods
because the zinc sags and collapses before the bond can be effected.
Magna 51 N.C. bonds to zinc die castings at such relatively low
temperatures that sagging or collapsing of the zinc substrate can be
avoided.
2. JOINS DISSIMILAR COMBINATIONS OF METALS. Magna 51 N.C. is the
most remarkable "common denominator" for bonding a wide range of
different metals. It joins aluminium to titanium and will even bond steel to
aluminium, or copper to magnesium, or almost any combination of metals.
Due to the ultra low temperature melt of Magna 51 N.C. even heavy
aluminium castings can be repaired with very little preheat.
3. WORKS EVEN WITH ONLY A SOLDERING IRON. Magna 51 N.C. and
Magna 51 are the only known alloys that work well with aluminium - even
using just a soldering iron - for such applications as aluminium roof
guttering.
4. GOOD STRENGTH & RESISTANCE.

Magna 51 N.C. provides good

corrosion resistance and tensile strength, with a rupture rating at 38oC


(100oF) of up to 650 psig.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 51NC.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

MAGNA 51 FLUX
This flux is of an organic composition and is non-corrosive for aluminium. In
application, it sublimates and becomes non-corrosive. This is of great value
where parts cannot be cleaned after welding, such as with refrigeration tubing.
Magna 51 N.C. has such affinity for aluminium that it can be applied without
flux, if so desired.
APPLICATION
APPLICATION ON ZINC BASE DIE CASTING USING OXYACETYLENE TORCH
Prepare base metal by chamfering the sides of the weld area to form a valley.
Apply Magna 51 Flux with brush over area to be welded and preheat using a
small torch nozzle size and with flame adjusted to carburizing. Move the torch
constantly until the Magna 51 Flux turns a thoroughly dark colour. Apply Magna
51 N.C. using a brazing technique, holding the torch at a low angle not
exceeding 10.
Do not overheat the base zinc metal by keeping torch flame in continuous
motion and working rapidly. Avoid excessive heat build up in the base metal.
Stop between each pass and allow metal to cool before applying subsequent
layers of Magna 51 N.C. Only hold the torch at steep 10 angles and angle
flame into Magna 51 N.C, and not the base metal.
When satisfied, let job piece cool at room temperature. Do not move piece until
the temperature of the work piece has dropped considerably. Use hot water
and stiff brush to remove any flux particles still on work piece.
APPLICATION ON ALUMINIUM USING OXYACETYLENE TORCH
Select a wide nozzle tip and adjust to excess acetylene. Preheat constantly
over a wide area of the work piece to until Magna 51 N.C. melts immediately on
contact with the base metal. Rub Magna 51 N.C. into the base metal until
desired thickness of layers is attained. (No rubbing is required if Magna 51 Flux
is used). When joining aluminium to other metals, such as copper or brass, it is
mandatory to use Magna 51 Flux.

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PIM 51NC.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

55
FEATURES:
A Universal aluminium alloy specially formulated for maintenance applications
having the following characteristics.
1. Ease of Application.

Mechanics who usually experience difficulty

repairing damaged aluminium equipment find it is easy to make the same


repairs using Magna 55. This highly alloyed material can easily be applied
without the base metal sagging, collapsing or even wrinkling. Magna 55,
while being a perfect colour match, actually flows on aluminium much as a
brazing rod does without damage to the base metal. Any mechanic who
can braze, can easily use Magna 55.
2. Unique Two Stage Melting Range.

Magna 55, at a low base metal

temperature, can be applied to aluminium using a brazing technique. In this


way the alloy is 'mushy' and viscous and will build up easily. It can then be
used to fill gaps, weld bevelled parts and build up missing sections. At a
higher temperature this unique alloy will flow thinly, much as silver solder
does, by capillary action. It is used this way on thin parts, such as around
tubing, spouts and other small parts of profile construction. The finished
weld is smooth and requires little or no finishing.
3. Versatility. Most shops stock two to five different aluminium welding rods
in order to cover a variety of types of aluminium welding. Magna 55 welds
most types of aluminium, including sheet, cast, extruded and other wrought
forms. The fact that one alloy covers most types of aluminium welding is an
advantage in maintenance since it not only prevents guesswork but
reduces inventory.
4. High Physical Properties. Magna 55 has a higher tensile strength than
pure aluminium. Further, it does not have porosity or voids and feathers
into the base metal at a low contact angle so that there are no inherent
weaknesses or stress concentration points in the deposit as often happens
with some ordinary aluminium welding rods.

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 55.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

5. Magna 55 Flux. One of the reasons aluminium is considered difficult to


weld is because of its high rate of oxidation when heated. Magna 55 flux is
calibrated to work with Magna 55 alloy. It makes difficult to weld aluminiums
easy to weld. Magna 55 flux wets easily and contributes to the perfect
results.
APPLICATION:
When welding aluminium previously the danger was always present of the base
metal collapsing due to excessive preheating. However, Magna 55's unique two
stage melting range reduces this danger and now provides perfect results when
welding sections together or building up missing parts.

By fitting a large sized tip, at least one size bigger than you would normally use
when welding steel, set the torch to burn pure acetylene and blacken surface of
aluminium. Then adjust torch to a more neutral flame but still slightly excess
acetylene and preheat over a wide area until blackness is burnt off. When this
stage is reached remove torch from surface and scatter a small amount of
Magna 55 Flux over heated metal. If the flux melts from the heat generated by
the metal this is a good indication that there is sufficient preheating to
commence the welding operation. This is a general rule of thumb that can be
employed to judge the correct temperature for preheating. Once the desired
preheat is reached, ensure the torch is focussed onto alloy during welding
operation to prevent further heat build up.

By using a larger sized rod this will protect base metal from additional heating.

When welding thin sheets use a smaller tip and reduced heat intensity. Shield
work from extra heat when welding by holding torch at a low angle and
protecting with welding alloy and apply heat only to alloy. Hold torch at a low
angle in direction of work so heat is not being concentrated on one spot and is
preparing metal ahead to receive welding alloy.
Welding Sections Together Using Oxyacetylene Torch:
Preheat base metal as described above and dip heated tip of welding alloy into
Magna 55 Flux and then place into flame. When flux becomes fluid apply filler
alloy by melting off a 12 mm. (1/2") section at a time and distribute over base
metal using the torch. As each 12 mm. (1/2") section is applied, lift torch from
work and re-dip heated end of alloy into flux. By removing torch from base

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 55.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

metal between each application you reduce the risk of the base metal
overheating and subsiding. After re-dipping alloy, melt another 12 mm. (1/2")
section and flow through weld with torch. Repeat process until sufficient Magna
55 has been transferred.
When using Magna 55 to rebuild a missing part:
Preheat and apply first coating as described previously. Then, holding torch at
a low angle to base metal and directing heat to filler metal, lay welding alloy
over area to be built up and melt off a section at a time. Repeat process and
apply a light pressure to bond each layer together. Continue in this way until
reaching desired height or shape.

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 55.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

66
DESCRIPTION:
The universal silver alloy which has been specially formulated for maintenance
applications . It has the following special features:
1. Genuine All Purpose. Most silver solders are designed for a small range
of work only. Some will bond well to copper alloys but peel on steel. Some
are good on steel but too high melting for brass. Some are good on steel
but will not bond to stainless steel.

Some will flow through a tight fillet but will not build up to fill a poor fit. Some
have good build up quality but will not flow through a long lap.

Magna 66 is universal. It bonds well to stainless steel, steel, copper, brass and
practically all other metals (except white metals such as aluminium). It has a
medium plastic range so that it will both fill gaps and flow through long laps.
One of the most important features of Magna 66 is the fact that this one silver
alloy covers virtually every application, whereas when ordinary silver solders
are used, several different ones are required to perform a variety of
applications. Since in maintenance it is generally not practical to stock several
different silver solders and yet a variety of different applications may occur,
Magna 66 is the only practical solution.
2. High Physical Properties. Magna 66 is a high strength silver alloy with
high elongation. On soundly engineered joints, it provides a tensile strength
which greatly exceeds the strength of ordinary silver solders.
3. Excellent Wetting Properties. Magna 66 has the ability to permeate the
grain boundaries on refractory metals, It will readily wet metals that are
difficult to wet with ordinary silver solders such as tungsten carbide,
stainless steel, beryllium copper, aluminium bronze and other highly
oxidizing metals.
4. Greater Economy.

Because of Magna 66s high strength, excellent

wetting qualities and ultra high capillarity, less welding alloy is required to

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 66.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

form a strong and perfect joint. Since the price of all silver solders is high,
this feature makes Magna 66 much more economical.
5. Magna 66 Flux. Has been designed to be used with Magna 66 alloy. The
two are calibrated together. This flux has great fluxing powers yet does not
cause rash on welder's hand and does not have objectionable fumes. It
contains ingredients which improve wetting and also widen the heat
application range. The tendency for the flux to "burn up" when held for a
long period of time at high heat on large jobs is greatly reduced with Magna
66 flux, and performs well on a wide range of metals.
APPLICATION
Joint design is important in silver alloy brazing. The closer the fit, the greater
the tensile strength is a good guideline. Joint clearance should be 0.05-0.15
mm. (0.002" to 0.006").

Where possible, use a lap design, but if this is precluded a scarf joint would be
the next choice. The length of the scarf must be in proportion to the sections
being joined. The lap should be three times as great as the thickness of the
thinnest part being brazed. If structure eliminates all these methods, then the
butt design can be used.
Applied using Oxyacetylene Torch:
Clean and degrease area then apply a Magna 66 Flux and preheat broadly until
flux becomes fluid using a gentle (excess acetylene) flame. Then apply Magna
66 and allow heat in base metal to flow molten alloy through joint. Magna 66
Flux should be stirred prior to using to ensure correct consistency.
Remove flux residue with a brush and water:
Adaptable to a variety of applications. Mild steels, high carbon steels, alloy
steels, stainless steels, nickel alloys, copper alloys, dissimilar metals.

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 66.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

67F
FEATURES
(1)

Unique Contraction-Absorption System:

Magna 67F is one of the

most remarkable metals in existence since it can absorb contraction


during cooling. Thus, parts can be welded and heat treated directly from
the brazing temperature without cracking. This "two- in-one" operation is
virtually unique to Magna 67F. Very few metals in existence have this
unique built-in contraction-absorption quality. Magna 67F is so remarkable
in metallurgical structures that it can be quenched from an elevated
temperature and actually absorb the heat-shock of rapid cooling. Only
Magna 67F gives you shock absorbency and all-purpose qualities in the
same alloy.

(2)

Exceptional affinity to stainless steel, tungsten carbide, tool steel,


and refractory type metals: Ordinary silver brazing rods do not bond
well to the "difficult to wet" refractory type metals. Magna 67F is made up
of a quintenary alloy system with inbuilt synergistic elements that give it
the ability to actually permeate grain boundaries of the "hard to wet"
metals.

(3)

Wide Melting Range: Magna 67F has a wide melting which means that it
remains liquid for a considerable time. This feature makes it especially
excellent for large and heavy applications where the usual "fast setting"
silver solders could not be used.

(4)

Wide Versatility: Magna 67F comes close to being the one universal
silver brazing alloy that covers most maintenance applications. It bonds to
practically all metals including inconel, monel, copper, brass, steel,
stainless steel, and almost all others except the white metals, such as
aluminium and magnesium.

(5)

Ideal Temperature: Some silver solders are very low melting and are not
practical in today's higher speed - higher service heat conditions. Some
silver solders have very high heat and do not flow without warpage and
distortion.

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 67F.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

MAGNA 67F:
Flows freely at 1205F (652C)
Is completely solid at 1145F (618C)

This is the ideal "medium all purpose range" between too low and too high
temperatures.
(6)

Good Corrosion Resistance: Magna 67F contains no toxic fillers such


as lead, antimony or cadmium. It has the ability to withstand oxidation,
particularly in seawater/brine environments as compared to cheap silver
solders, which have a lower silver content. This alloy can withstand strong
cleaning solutions that many other silver alloys cannot withstand.

(7)

High Physical Properties


Hardness:

Brinell 130 and cold works to higher Brinell.

Tensile Strength:

Good.

Elongation:

Excellent; well above nearly all other silver


solders.

Heat Resistance in Service:

Superior.

Shear Strength:

Superior. Far in excess of ordinary silver


solders.

(8)

Cadmium-Free:

Cadmium is present in nearly all silver solders to

improve flow and capillarity. Magna 67F contains absolutely no cadmium,


yet it flows as freely as a high cadmium silver solder. This is because
Magna 67F obtains it's high capillarity and freedom of flow, from a new
and different alloying system.

Since it is cadmium-free, Magna 67F is excellent for all food and beverage
applications. There is no danger of cadmium poisoning as occurs with
ordinary silver solders. Excellent for hospital and institutional usage.
(9)

Superior flux-coated: Magna 67F has the flux-on-the-alloy. The fluxcoating is flexible and has superior adherence to the core wire. It does not
fall off easily as so many flux coatings on silver solders do.
The flux coating on Magna 67F is highly active, and promotes good
bonding to a wide range of base metals. This feature makes it excellent
for field work since it is not necessary to take a jar of flux to the job. Also 2

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 67F.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

or more repair men can use the alloy at the same time, in different areas,
which would not be possible if they had to have a jar of flux and only had
1 jar. A service department, having for example, 20 travelling mechanics,
would have to have 20 jars of flux. With Magna 67F each mechanic need
only have a packet of Magna 67F on his truck to handle any brazing
application that may arise.
(10) Flexibility of Joint Design: Magna 67F has an unusually wide plastic
range. Thus it performs well on poor fitting joints so often found in
maintenance, as well as tight fitting joints.
APPLICATION
Magna 67F is applied much as any silver solder except that the flux is right on
the alloy and no special fluxing or separate fluxing is necessary.

As with all silver alloys, good joint design is necessary. An ideal joint is a lap of
0.076 mm. (0.003) clearance. Butt joints are not advisable. Laps should be
three times as great as the thickness of the thinnest of two metals being joined.
In silver soldering the joint design has more to do with the strength of the
finished job than the strength of the joining alloy.

Wherever possible base metals should be cleaned with emery cloth or some
type of abrasive before joining, since surface soil and oxides will interfere with
fluidity and good bonding. Magna 990 degreaser should be used to eliminate
interference.

Do not overheat. Use a soft flame with a larger tip than when welding and keep
torch in motion and heat evenly. Magna 67F will flow just as the metal starts to
turn red. A temperature indication can be obtained by touching the base metal
with the flux from the rod. If the flux melts, the base metal is adequately heated
to apply the alloy.

Naturally when a flux coated alloy is used, the maximum of fluxing power is not
available for some applications such as long laps, especially dirty metals, etc.
Some fluxing quality is sacrificed for the convenience of having the flux on the
alloy. For some especially delicate jobs Magna 66 or Magna 65 with separate
flux should be used.

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 67F.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

75F
FEATURES
A special flux coated brazing alloy of general purpose applications with the
following features:
1. Superior Brazing Formula. There are scores of brands of brazing rods
available. In general these are formulas which have as their main feature
low cost of manufacture, such as the tobin bronzes and other low cost
brazing rods. These are adequate for the production applications they were
intended for, such as joining bicycles and metal furniture and similar
applications. Magna 75F is a complex formula containing manganese and
special deoxidizers. It makes a much stronger bond, and a denser weld. It
is unexcelled for maintenance where poor fits exist, metal is dirty, and a
variety of metals are encountered.
2. Versatility.
a. Special Affinity for Cast Iron. Magna 75F wets, and flows on cast
iron with ease. Provides very high strength joints on cast iron.
b. Galvanized Iron. Magna 75F will readily bond to galvanized iron and
makes strong permanent bonds.
c. Brass. Wets so readily that it will bond well to brass providing high
strength joints.
d. Out of Position Work. Magna 75F will flow uphill and perform with
ease in vertical and overhead positions without 'dripping'.
e. Thin Metal. Magna 75F is so sensitive that it will bond so readily to
thin metal that a torch can be held at a very low angle focusing the
flame almost entirely on the welding alloy with very little heat on the
sheet metal. This greatly reduces distortion.
3. Magna 75F Flux Coating. The flux coating is high pressure extruded and
is composed of special fluxing ingredients. It contains wetting agents and

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PIM 75F.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

active fume depressants. The fluxing ingredients make the alloy wet to cast
iron better, it promotes penetration into grain boundaries, it prevents
porosity and fuming and serves as a scavenger to clean up dirty metals
which often must be brazed in the maintenance department.
APPLICATION
There are no special characteristics to observe when welding with Magna 75F.
Prepare base metal by grinding or filing. Chamfer large sections using Magna
100 to a 75- 90 angle for improved contact surface.

Large sections are recommended to be preheated till reaching a dull cherry red
colour.
Application using Oxyacetylene Torch
Select a tip relative to size of weld and adjust torch to a neutral flame. Hold
torch close to work and apply Magna 75F by melting a little of the flux coating
onto the base metal and directing heat onto flux until it runs. Then dissolve a
small amount of the welding alloy and use torch to distribute evenly over base
metal. Continue in this manner, drop by drop, until sufficient alloy has been
transferred.
Applying to Cast Iron
Cast Iron contains a Iarge amount of graphite. If cast iron is ground, the
grinding wheel usually rubs the graphite into the surface. The graphitic surface
does not accept brazing rods well. An oxyacetylene torch adjusted to an
oxidizing flame can be used to 'sear' the cast iron. Holding it onto the iron will
cause the graphite to be removed.

Also in applying Magna 75F to cast iron, use a 'scratching motion' with the
alloy. Scratching the iron while applying the alloy tends to cause the alloy to
bond to the refractory graphitic surface.

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PIM 75F.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

77F
FEATURES:
Magna 77F comes close to being the perfect universal oxyacetylene application
maintenance alloy. It has an ideal combination of all properties. (This one alloy
does everything usually requiring up to 8 rods to do). Some of its special
features follow:
1. Versatility. Magna 77F can be used on nearly all metals including:
Cast Iron All Steels Galvanized Iron Bronze Nickel Stainless Steel Brass
Monel Aluminium Bronze
It can be used for both joining and building up.
2. High Physical Properties.

Has tensile strength double that of most

ordinary brazing rods. The high strength gives great assurance that the
braze will not fail.
2

Tensile Strength: Up to 56 Kg/mm (80,000 p.s.i.)


150 - 220 Brinell Hardness
3. Low Co-efficient of Friction. The deposit has a 'self-lubricating' action.
The deposit is very easy to machine, yet work hardens in service so that it
actually outwears steel on frictional wear applications. When subjected to
wear, the deposit becomes slick and the wearing part then tends to slip
over the Magna 77F deposit so that neither part wears. It is this unique low
co-efficient of friction that makes Magna 77F so outstanding for overlay and
build-up work.

Magna 77F is especially appreciated in the maintenance department as a


machinable over- lay alloy for building up such parts as:

Shafts

Bosses

Key Ways

Valves

Threaded Sections

Bearings

Gear Teeth

Sprockets

Elongated Holes

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PIM 77F.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date : 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

4. Low Application Temperature. Magna 77F has the flux extruded on the
alloy. The flux is very special in that it will readily bond the deposit to dirty
metal, rusty metal, and gives it special affinity for cast iron.

The flux coating and the core wire are so formulated and calibrated that the
alloy will bond at much lower temperatures than brazing rods. It can
actually be applied at a black heat, whereas brazing rods usually require a
cherry red heat in the base metal. This low application heat makes the job
faster and prevents warpage, distortion and grain growth.
5. Non-Peeling. The amazing feature of Magna 77F is its ability to permeate
grain boundaries and to hold tenaciously. It will not peel as some ordinary
brazing rods do.
APPLICATION
Magna 77F will bond and give good results over dirty and rusty metal, however,
prepare surface by cleaning where possible.

Larger and heavier sections will join and hold better if they are ground to form a
'V' joint, approximately 60- 90 angle.

Set the oxyacetylene torch to a balanced neutral flame, a slight excess of


oxygen is permissible, but do not use an excess of acetylene.

Extensive preheating is not necessary, just apply locally where weld is to


commence. When a dull red colour is achieved begin to apply Magna 77F using
a brazing technique. Direct inner tip of flame on to welding alloy and as each
drop is transferred spread over base metal using the torch. Continue applying
in this manner. For superior results ensure an even coating of welding alloy is
applied over the entire surface, patchy or 'balling' deposits weaken the bond of
Magna 77F.

Special Note:
When applying Magna 77F to bronze, copper, cast iron or crack sensitive high
alloy steel, preheating over a wide area is required for optimum results. Where
application will cause strain under restricted conditions, extensive preheating
420C (800F, to all areas is essential to prevent cracking.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 77F.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date : 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Different applications using Magna Welding Alloys


For brazing stainless steel, use Magna 66.
For colour match on cast iron, use Magna 70.
For thin flowing applications where wettability is paramount, use Magna 66.
Where bronze deposit is required to be used with arc welding equipment,
use Magna 210.
For copper without flux, use Magna 24.

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PIM 77F.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date : 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

79
FEATURES:
Magna 79 has been specially formulated for tinning, sealing and building up on
cast iron. It has the following special features:
1. Excellent Affinity for Cast Iron. As is well known, it is difficult to obtain
good tinning or soldering on cast iron with most ordinary solders. Magna 79
has an avid affinity for cast iron and it will tin cast iron perfectly and easily
even when the cast iron has not been degraphitized. With ordinary solders
it is necessary to degraphitize the cast iron surface because the solder will
not bond to the graphitic surface. With Magna 79 no preparation is required
except filing or chipping the surface off.
2. High Heat Resistance. Magna 79 has a melting point of 282C. This is
high enough so that it can be used on areas where some heat is present
such as automobile cylinder blocks, steam equipment. etc.
3. Easy to Apply. It is quite difficult to bond ordinary solders in a vertical
position. Magna 79 has no plastic range whatever. It solidifies and melts
both at 282C. Thus it 'sets' or solidifies instantly. Thus it is easy to apply it
in vertical or overhead positions. The alloy freezes so that there is no
dripping or running off the job. Thus with Magna 79 equipment can be
repaired right in position without dismantling.
Use to Seal, Tin or Caulk. The purpose of Magna 79 is not to provide high
strength for joining 2 parts together. It is used instead to seal or caulk. Many
castings which have porosities such as leaks, weepers or small cracks which
can be easily sealed or caulked with Magna 79 without the problems of going to
the high heat of welding. Magna 79 can be applied with only focal heat from a
small torch so that the equipment does not have to be dismantled. Sometimes
welders arc weld cast iron at too high an amperage or for other reasons the
weld or cast iron near the bead cracks. The surface can be ground off and the
weld caulked with Magna 79 for leak proofness. In some cases, it is advisable
to tack a crack with arc welding for strength and then use Magna 79 for the
sealing.
5.

Handles a Variety of Metals. While Magna 79 is designed primarily for


cast iron, it can be used on practically all metals. It bonds perfectly to

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 79.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date : 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

copper, steel, brass and galvanized steel. It is often used in electrical work
on motors where a heat resisting solder is required.
6.

High Quality Alloy. Magna 79 is not a simple lead tin solder. It contains
proprietary formula additives and other special metals to give it toughness,
strength, special wetting qualities and the unique non-plastic feature. It is
exceedingly fine grained and dross free and there are no oxide inclusions
present as occurs in ordinary solders. It has an indefinite shelf life.

APPLICATION
With Magna 79, prepare surface by filing or grinding.

Magna 79 flux should be applied with an oxyacetylene torch adjusted to a


gentle carburizing flame. Play over area keeping in constant motion until flux
begins to melt. Magna 79 is applied at a low application temperature, far less
than required for silver solder.

Apply Magna 79 by rubbing over heated surface. The preheat will melt and tin
the alloy to base metal. Keep moving firmly until entire area is completely
coated.

Seal joint by applying Magna 79 over tinned base metal. Dip alloy into Magna
79 Flux to assist flow and focus heat onto welding alloy rather than base metal.

Magna 79 will solidify rapidly. However, leave weld to harden under normal
conditions before moving.

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 79.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date : 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

88C
DESCRIPTION:
Magna 88C is a special solder type alloy that has been designed for
applications requiring higher strength than that obtained from ordinary soft
solders.
Magna 88C has a much higher remelt temperature than ordinary soft solders,
and thus can be used for electric motor armatures where melting of solders at
high temperatures is a problem. Magna 88C prevents "throw out" of solder
alloy.
Magna 88C has superior wetting qualities when compared with ordinary
solders. Magna 88C has a flux core which is far more active than rosin cored
solders. Thus flux has the ability to penetrate deep into the pores of the metal
and cleaning the metal enables Magna 88C to penetrate deep into the grain
boundaries.
Magna 88C has a special affinity for stainless steel and has wide uses in the
food industry where foodstuffs are likely to come into contact with soldered
joints, because of its lead free formulation. Magna 88C has a variety of uses in
the refrigeration industry and has a far better resistance to tarnishing than the
more common soft solders in the food industry. Magna 88C is perfectly safe for
use where foodstuffs are likely to come into direct contact with the soldered
join, because of its lead free formulation.
Magna 88C has a variety of uses in the refrigeration industry and has a far
better resistance to tarnishing than the more common soft solders. Rupture
pressure rating at 38C (100F) is 725 psig.
Magna 88C may be applied by means of a flame or by using a soldering iron,
making it an extremely versatile alloy.

Magna 88 flux may be used in conjunction with Magna 88C improve flow in
long laps or difficult to bond metals.

Stainless steel is readily soldered with Magna 88C. Due to the very low thermal
conductivity of stainless steel, it is advisable to use a large, hot soldering bit. It

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PIM 88C.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

is necessary to apply Magna 88 Flux liberally to the joint area. Any good solder
joint design can be used; as in all solder joint design, make certain that the
solder does not have to contribute to the structural strength of the assembly.
Magna 88C readily wets to the stainless steel. The alloy should be applied to
the junction between the flat face of the soldering iron and the stainless steel,
rather than applying the alloy to the soldering iron. This is because the flux in
the core of the solder will gas off when applied to the hot iron, rather than
flowing down the side of the iron to the base metal as the alloy does.

Soldering stainless with a torch is more difficult and should not be done unless
it is not practical to use an iron. With a torch it is difficult not to overheat.
Overheating causes distortion and also causes the stainless steel to oxidize
readily. Once a thick film of surface oxidization occurs, it is impossible to solder
until the oxidized surface is abraded and mechanically removed. When using a
torch, use the smallest possible flame and adjust to a highly carburizing flame
and keep the torch in constant motion to avoid overheating. Since Magna 88C
only requires 212C for bonding, only the smallest amount of heat is required
and this is why indirect heating, or heating with an iron is preferred.

When soldering very dirty stainless steel in maintenance, the food and chemical
residues may be so heavy as to interfere with soldering unless they are
removed. They should be removed with mechanical methods such as filing or
scraping, or if only of light nature, with water and a soft brush. If extremely dirty,
or if dirt exists embedded in seams, wash with a strong chemical solvent such
as muriatic acid. Do not use any wire brush for cleaning as this usually rubs
more dirt into the surface than it removes.

After soldering the only treatment necessary is removal of the flux which can be
done with warm water. The flux can be removed perfectly by rinsing first in hot
water containing 2% of concentrated hydrochloric acid per gallon of water, then
a hot rinse followed by clear water rinse.
APPLICATION
Clean and degrease area to be joined. Brush Magna 88 flux over prepared area
then apply a gentle heat, using a soldering iron or an oxyacetylene torch with a
small tip, adjusted to a soft carburizing flame. Using an iron as the heat source
is preferable, particularly on intricate work.

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PIM 88C.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Transfer welding alloy using a soldering technique and allow preheating to


conduct Magna 88C through the joint. If flow becomes sluggish, lightly play the
flame or the iron over the area ensuring you do not burn the molten alloy.

Wash remains of any surplus flux away, using hot water.


When applied on Stainless Steel
Use Corium 93 to shift heavy build ups of dirt and grease.

Prevent formation of oxides which will weaken the strength of the weld, avoid
over- heating the Stainless Steel. If applying Magna 88C with an oxyacetylene
torch, select a very small tip and an excess acetylene flame. Be sure not to
overheat since over- heated stainless steel becomes oxidized and is difficult to
bond. Magna 88C only requires 220C (429F) so oxidation should be avoided.

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PIM 88C.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

89
Description
Magna 89 is a self-fluxing metal alloy that provides cathodic protection to steel.
Just melt it on the surface and it acts a similar way to "hot dip" galvanizing
without the inconvenience of hot dipping.

Magna 89 is lower on the galvanic scale than steel. Thus it diverts corrosion
from steel and slowly sacrifices itself over many years, It works not as a plating,
but more as a "battery", causing corrosion not to attack the steel. Even when
small sections are scratched off, the adjacent Magna 89 will protect the
damaged area:
Physical properties
Magna 89 is cathodic to steel. That means when it is applied to steel, it will
prevent the steel from being corroded. It will become a sacrificial metal. The
corrosion will be diverted from the steel to the Magna 89 surface that has been
applied to the steel.

Simply apply about 500F (260C) of heat to the steel, rub Magna 89 on the
surface. The alloy will form a strong bond, even without flux. The application is
rapid and simple. It bonds to most metals.

Magna 89 replaces hot dip galvanizing since it can be applied in situ with only
an oxyacetylene torch. Thus a galvanizing part can be welded, and the welded
part repaired with a quick application of Magna 89. Magna 89 is fully equal to
galvanizing in protection against corrosion. Excellent for a filler metal on rusty
automobile or truck bodies rather than plastics.
APPLICATION
NO FLUX IS REQUIRED
Apply Magna 89 while metal is still hot if it has just been brazed or arc welded.
If the base metal is cold, heat broadly with a torch adjusted to a soft excess
acetylene flame. Then rub Magna 89 on the surface. A clean wire brush will

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PIM 89.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

also help in tinning a dirty surface with Magna 89. It can also be tinned with a
paddle or cloth. Do not direct the torch flame directly on the alloy. Heat the
base metal and rub the alloy on the metal. When Magna 89 melts, the
temperature is right.

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PIM 89.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Q FLUX
The Magna Q Flux is a high strength paste flux engineered for multi-purpose
applications. It provides exceptional scavenging/cleansing power that promotes
higher strength bonds for most surfaces.

Magna Q Flux can be used on all ferrous and non-ferrous base metals, with the
exception of aluminium and titanium.

Magna Q Flux is suitable for use with all silver or other brazing and soldering
alloys, with liquidus temperatures up to 1600oF (871oC).
TYPICAL TEST DATA

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

State of Matter

Paste Form

Colour

Blue

Smell

No characteristic odor

Melting Point

0oC (32oF)

Boiling Point

100oC (212oF)

Solubility in Water

Miscible

Density, Kg per cu. m.,

1540

pH Value in Concentrate

PIM Q FLUX .0 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

8N12
The "Missing Link" Electrode that eliminates the Sigma Phase Problem in
Welding and Maintaining Structures used at Elevated Temperatures.

When Magna 8N12 was first introduced to the Maintenance Industry, it's fame
and use spread like wildfire literally all over the world. It was hailed as a miracle
electrode and its properties were considered incredible. It rapidly became one
of the best known welding electrodes of all time. Today it is used in over 100
countries.

Magna 8N12 appeals to just about everyone in industry. Metallurgists call its
physical properties "astounding". Welders call it "The Missing Link". Engineers
think of it as "The Problem Solver". Maintenance Planners call it "The Key" .
Plant Managers call it the "Money Saver". Plant Engineers think of it as "The
Downtime Preventer". The reason for all of this enthusiasm from such a variety
of Industrial Persons, all with different points of view, may be understood by
looking at the features of this most interesting product.
Physical Properties - Prevention of Sigma Phase
No doubt the most outstanding feature of Magna 8N12 that has captured the
loyalty to Magna 8N12 by metallurgists is the incredible ability of Magna 8N12
to resist the formation of Sigma Phase. The problem of Sigma Phase, which is
an embrittling chromium-iron compound that causes complete weld failure, had
been a source of extreme anxiety to two generations of metallurgists. They
simply could not make weldments that would not fail in the critical temperature
range of 1200F (650C) to 1600F (870C). Welds that would be X-Ray perfect
in the test laboratory would become brittle and fail when brought to the Sigma
Phase danger range of 1200F (650C) to 1600F (870C). Many metallurgists
felt no solution would ever be found to this problem that limited the use of
metals in industries where heat was a factor, such as steel mills, the glass
industry, smelters, foundries, etc.

Magna 8N12 solves this historic problem. Because of special in-built stabilizers
of its austenitic structure, the deposits of Magna 8N12 represent one of the few
metals in the world that does not form the embrittling Sigma Phase even after

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 8N12. 1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

long periods of use in the critical temperature range of 1200F (650C) to


1600F (870C).

Had Magna 8N12 made no other contribution to maintenance welding than this,
it would have gone down in metallurgical history as a great contribution to
successful maintenance welding.

The remarkable feature of Magna 8N12 in eliminating all of the long history of
Sigma Phase Problems prompted metallurgists to make further and exhaustive
tests on weld deposits made with Magna 8N12 and the following additional
remarkable features have been found: (1) Machinability
The deposit is readily machinable. Even though it contains titanium, it does
not form hard unmachinable titanium carbides as most titanium bearing
electrodes do. The carbon content of Magna 8N12 is nominally only 0.03%
and the high columbium content completely stabilizes the carbon,
preventing the formation of titanium carbides and also eliminating carbide
precipitation.
(2) Mechanical Properties
Magna 8N12 provides these outstanding mechanical properties at roomtemperature: Yield Strength
Tensile Strength
2

(0.2% Offset)
2

Elongation

Hardness

P.S.I.(Kg/cm )

P.S.I. (Kg/cm )

in 2 in %

Brinell

Annealed

Up to 100,000 (7,000)

Up to 60,000 (4,000)

Up to 60

120 to 180

As Welded

Up to 120,000 (8,500)

Up to 90,000 (6,5000)

Up to 50

140 to 215

Up to 125,000 (9,000)

Up to 30

Up to 300

Cold Worked Up to 150,000 (10,600)

(3) Physical Constants


The physical constants and thermal properties of Magna 8N12 are:Melting Range: 2470F to 2520F (1355C to 1380C)
Curie Temperature: 175(80C)
Specific Heat, BTU/lb/F at 70F

0.12

Poisson's Ratio
Modulus of Elasticity
Tension

28,500,000 P.S.I .(2,003,500 kg/sq.cm.)

Torsion

10,600,000 P.S.I (150,000 kg/sq.cm.)

Density, Ib/cu in.

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 8N12. 2

0.287

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

(4) Corrosion Resistance


One of the most outstanding characteristics that makes Magna 8N12 so
remarkable is it's exemplary corrosion resistance, even at elevated
temperatures. Some examples:(a)

Requires no post-weld heat-treatment to maintain its extraordinary


corrosion resistance.

(b)

Resists reducing acids, sea water, sulfuric acid solutions.

(c)

Provides incredible resistance to sulfur.

(d)

Resists cavitation and erosion.

(e)

The high or inconsistent sulfur content of many high nickel electrodes


greatly increases their cracking tendency, lower their physical
properties, and limit their corrosion resistance. The sulfur content of
Magna 8N12 is rigidly controlled at 0.012% or less.

(f)

At elevated temperatures, special inbuilt passivating compounds in


the special chemistry of Magna 8N 12 causes this nickel-rich,
chromium-rich, niobium stabilized electrode deposit to form a surface
covering of uniformly thick oxide, which acts as an "armour plate" on
the deposit. This "shell" of oxide layer enables Magna 8N12 to resist
the most extreme corrosion even at ultra-high temperatures.

(5) Super Crack Resistant


A feature of Magna 8N12 that has caused engineers to place such great
confidence in this electrode is it's extraordinary crack resistance. Some
examples:(a)

It is virtually immune to chloride-ion stress corrosion cracking.

(b)

Magna 8N12 has extraordinary fatigue strength. This remarkable


electrode has exceptional resistance to post-weld strainage cracking,
which is a problem with many nickel alloys.

(c)

Provides outstanding and almost unprecedented stress rupture


properties at elevated temperatures.

(d)

Magna 8N12 has exceptionally high creep and rupture strengths.

(6) Superior Cryogenic Properties


The Charpy V notch values of Magna 8N12 deposits are: (-160C)

-320F

(4.7 to 4.9 Kilogram Metres)

67

to

70

Foot

Pounds

This electrode performs nobly at ultra low temperatures as well as super


high temperature. As an example consider: -

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 8N12. 3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

At-320F (-160C)

At 1500F (815C)

Electrical Resisitivty
(OHM/CIRC MIL/FT)

531

763

(7) High Heat Resistance


Magna 8N12 is resistant to oxidation at temperatures up to 2100F
(1,150C) and for short periods of time up to 2200F (1205C).

Magna 8N12 resists both oxidation and carburization at elevated


temperatures.
(8) Versatility
Purchasing agents and accounting departments have found Magna 8N12
to be an economical proposition because this one electrode is capable of
welding a wide variety of different super alloys, nickel alloys, stainless steel
alloys and steel alloys.

Whereas before Magna 8N12, many maintenance departments had to


stock many different electrodes in order to be in a position to repair the
variety of nickel alloys now in wide usage, they now have reduced their
electrode stock to this one electrode.

Formerly it was necessary to stock nickel electrodes, inconel electrodes,


monel electrodes, incoloy electrodes, Hastelloy electrodes, and a wide
range of "super alloy" electrodes. Magna 8N12 welds all these and many
others, greatly reducing inventory and the tieing up of money in stocking all
the many different electrodes. Magna 8N12 is considered the "Common
Denominator" since this one electrode welds virtually all of the noble, high
alloy, and super alloy base metals.

In view of the great usage of a wide range of the higher alloys that is
occurring toward the end of the 20th century, this money-saving feature of
Magna 8N12 has taken on a great significance.
(9) The Missing Link
Before Magna Research brought Magna 8N12 to industry, welders often
were faced with the necessity to make "welds that couldn't be made". Many
welders often were called upon to join dissimilar alloys that simply could not

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 8N12. 4

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

be welded with any product the welder could find. Some welds just could
not be safely or reliably made. Some combinations just would not join.

Magna 8N12 has solved this problem because it is the "Common


Denominator, or the "Missing Link" that joins virtually any noble alloy, any
stainless steel, any high alloy, any super metal, any austenitic steel, any
ferretic steel to any other! In this respect, Magna 8N12 "solves the
unsolvable". Some examples of applications which are formerly difficult or
impossible but can now be performed with Magna 8N12 follow:-

(a)

Austenitic Stainless Steel to Carbon Steel.


With stainless steel electrodes this application was less than
satisfactory because of carbon pick-up and dilution from the steel. The
carbon caused inter-granular corrosion and the iron dilution caused
the deposit Austenitic to martensitic and thus became crack sensitive.

This application is easily solved with Magna 8N12. The dilution is


almost non-existent and the ultra high alloy content of Magna 8N12
which is well over 60% nickel can withstand considerable dilution
without going out of the austenitic structure. This electrode contains
approximately 2% columbium which stabilizes the carbon and
prevents inter-granular corrosion.

(b)

Monel to Steel.
This has long been considered a problem welding application. With
stainless steel electrodes the weld was ultra-brittle and provided
practically no strength. With monel electrodes a series of problems
occurred, accelerated by the high copper content of monel. Some of
these problems were hot and cold cracking, stress corrosion cracking,
and the welded tensile strength as using a monel electrode seldom
exceeds one-half the tensile strength of the steel, and usually is much
less.

Magna 8N12 makes dependable reliable welds on monel to steel


joints. The tensile strength of the joint in practically all cases is greater
than the monel or the steel and the weld is not brittle.

(c)

Monel to Stainless Steel.


This is virtually impossible using monel or stainless steel electrodes,
but easily accomplished with Magna 8N12. The weld exceeds the

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 8N12. 5

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

properties of either base metal. including corrosion resistance, heat


resistance,

and

mechanical

properties

in

practically

every

combination.

(d)

Magna 8N12 makes possible an almost endless variety of


combinations of metals such as: Wrought to cast high nickel alloys
Hastelloy to inconel
Monel to inconel
Nickel to steel
Duranickel to stainless steel
Stellite to steel
Inconel to inconel
Stellite to stainless steel
Hastelloy C to steel
and many others.

Magna 8N12 is truly the Common Denominator that makes it possible to join
vastly different metals that have little compatibility for each other.

Examples of specific applications for Magna 8N12: -

Extrusion Press Parts

Carburizing Baskets

Furnace Nozzles

Fixtures

Heat Exchanger Tubing

After Burners

Corrosion Resisting Tanks

Spray Bars

Combustion Systems

After Burner Liners

Thrust Reverse Assemblies

Furnace Components

Internal Combustion Engine Valves

Chemical Process Equipment

Phosphoric Acid Evaporaters

Turbine Frames

Pickling Tank Heaters

Heat Resisting Fixtures

Steam Service Parts

Extrusion Dies

Heat Element Housings

Forming Tools

Joining parts for Ethylene and

Deacrating Heaters

Steam Methane Reforming


Furnaces
Hot Sizing Dies
Pickling Hooks
Propeller Shafts
Special High Nickel Moulds used
in the Glass Industry

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 8N12. 6

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

High Nickel Pump Shafts and


Impellers

APPLICATION
Application Procedure For Magna 8N12

Magna 8N12 is easily applied in all positions including vertical and overhead.
Thin parts do not require bevelling. Bevel all thicknesses over 1/8" (3.17mm).

AC or DC Reverse Polarity (Electrode Positive) may be used. Recommended


amperage is:Size 1/8" (3.17 mm ) 60-100 AMPS

After arc is established, close the arc gap and maintain the shortest arc
possible. At the end of the weld bead, backwhip the crater and extinguish the
arc over previously deposited weld metal to avoid leaving a crater. The slag is
easily removed with slight impact and should be removed before welding over
the previously deposited weld metal.

Preheat is not necessary except when welding on heavy sections of carbon


steels.

Magna 8N12 can be used for overlay as well as joining and is often used to
overlay lower quality metals such as carbon steels to improve their heat and/or
corrosion resistance. When this is done. either stringer beads or a weave may
be used because of the high crack resistance of Magna 8N12.

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 8N12. 7

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

100 AC-DC
FEATURES::
Magna 100 is an exothermic coated electrode which has been designed for
chamferring, grooving and gouging of all metals. It has the following properties:
1. Exothermic Reaction. Magna 100 is composed of a core wire coated with
a special heat producing coating. The coating has insulating materials so
that it does not get over-heated even though the electrode is used at high
amperages. The coating melts more slowly than the core wire and this
forms a crucible at the tip of the electrode. The coating contains chemicals
that create a gas of intense velocity when melted. The coating contains
ceramic and heat resisting materials. When the electrode is used, an actual
blowing action like a jet is created. The heat of the electrode melts the base
metal and the high velocity gas over stream blows the molten metal away,
leaving a clean kerf.
2. Special Core Wire. Several companies have attempted to imitate Magna
100 using an ordinary cheap steel core wire. This wire contains amounts of
carbon, sulphur and phosphorous which causes deep contamination of the
base metal. On sensitive metals such as stainless steel this can be
disastrous. The Magna 100 core wire is manufactured under strict control
and hence all impurities are kept to an absolute minimum.
3. Use of Magna 100.

There are daily uses for this product in every

maintenance department. It can be used for removing cracks and fractures


in place of grinding before welding. It is excellent for removing unwanted
welds, such as when removing lifting cleats and lugs, or for taking welded
sections apart. It can be used for cutting grooves anywhere required.
4. Magna 100 makes a U-shaped gouge which is ideal for welding. It does not
seal a crack as oxyacetylene chamferring does.
5. Economy. Magna 100 is much faster than oxyacetylene gouging and up to
10 times faster than a chipping gun for removing unwanted metal.

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 100.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

6. Versatility. Magna 100 can be used on nearly all metals including cast
iron, aluminium, bronze and stainless steel.
7. Universal. Magna 100 can be used with excellent results on any ordinary
welding machine - AC or DC.
APPLICATION
AC or DC straight polarity welding machines may be used for Magna 100.
Either machine is suitable so long as it has a minimum output of 250 amps.

Insert the electrode firmly into the holder and set the machine to the highest
setting available. Strike an arc on a piece of scrap metal then, proceed to
chamfer away the unwanted metal. Hold the Magna 100 at a very close angle
to the base metal and actually push the electrode into the work surface and in
the direction of travel.
Recommended Amperage:
Electrode Diameter
Metric

Gauge

Inch.

Setting

2.4 mm.

12

3/32"

150 - 250 amps.

3.2 mm.

10

1/8"

250 - 350 amps.

4.0 mm.

5/32"

275 - 400 amps.

4.8 mm

3/16"

300 - 500 amps.

Lower amperages may be used successfully, however, a higher amperage


reading will remove more metal at a greater rate.

Magna 100 may be used for cutting and piercing applications. However, Magna
150 performs more effectively as it is designed especially for work of this type.

See over for a table showing how the angle of electrode can effect the amount
of metal removed, the time taken and the durability of the electrode.

Affect of Angle of Inclination on the Efficiency of Magna 100 on 25 mm (1")


Plate of Mild Steel.

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 100.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Electrode

Angle of

Dla.

Inclination

Current

Time

Metal

Length of

Electrode

Quantity of

taken

removed

Groove

Consumption

metal
removed

per sec.

per kg
electrode
mm. inch.

kg (lb.)

572(22.5)

114(4.50)

0.58(1.27)

572(22.5)

114(4.50)

0.74(1.64)

26(0.90)

617(24.3)

127(5.00)

0.74(1.64)

28(1.00)

600(23.6)

140(5.50)

0.68(1.49)

15

20(0.70)

584(23.0)

146(5.75)

0.45(1.00)

15

14(0.50)

610(24.0)

152(6.00)

0.31(0.68)

220

14

42(1.50)

381(15.0)

89(3.50)

1.10(2.43)

220

15

57(2.00)

381(15.0)

95(3.75)

1.38(3.03)

12

220

18

50(1.75)

381(15.0)

114(4.50)

1.00(2.20)

4.0 (5/32")

15

220

18

35(1.25)

401(15.8)

114(4.50)

0.68(1.50)

4.0 (5/32")

18

220

18

28(1.00)

424(16.7)

127(5.00)

0.52(1.14)

4.0 (5/32")

21

220

19

24(0.85)

442(17.4)

140(5.50)

0.50(0.88)

4.8 (3/16")

320

21

64(2.25)

363(14.3)

114(4.50)

0.96(2.11)

4.8 (3/16")

320

22

113(4.00)

381(15.0

127(5.00)

1.54(3.40)

4.8 (3/16")

12

320

26

106(3.75)

410(16.1)

178(7.00)

1.03(2.27)

4.8 (3/16")

18

320

31

71(2.50)

395(15.5)

203(8.00)

0.59(1.31)

4.8 (3/16")

21

320

32

57(2.00)

381(15.0)

203(8.00)

0.48(1.06)

Secs. Grams (lb.) mm. inch.

mm. inch.

Degs.

Amp.

3.2 (1/8")

170

12

20(0.70)

3.2 (1/8")

170

12

26(0.90)

3.2 (1/8")

12

170

13

3.2 (1/8")

15

170

14

3.2 (1/8")

18

170

3.2 (1/8")

21

170

4.0 (5/32")

4.0 (5/32")

4.0 (5/32")

MAGNA APPLICTION PROCEDURE - MAGNA 100


See how jet blast action of Magna 100 has efficiently gouged out the cracked
and fatigued metal on this cast iron assembly, leaving a clean kerf ready for
welding.

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 100.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

150 AC-DC
FEATURES:
Magna 150 is a special cutting electrode designed with a non-conductive, heatresistant coating which has an exothermic action. It has the following features:
1. High Efficiency. Magna 150 cuts rapidly and cleanly. It provides a clean
cutting action that results from its special exothermic coating. The coating
has a blasting effect due to its release of gases which removes molten
metal in the same way oxygen or compressed air do, but no special
equipment is necessary. The exothermic reaction is produced by the
melting of oxides of titanium, aluminium and iron along with special
chemicals which produce super heated gases.
2. Versatility.

Magna 150 can be used for cutting or piercing cast iron,

stainless steel, aluminium and practically all metals. It can be used for
cutting, piercing, bevelling, or gouging. Precision cuts can be made by
using a template made of asbestos or heat resisting board.
3. Applications. Magna 150 will remove the head of a rivet and can also be
used to cut out the body of the rivet. It is excellent for foundry cutting of
gates and risers and side fins.
Due to its lack of deep contamination it is excellent for cutting stainless steel. It
is ideal for cutting metals which do not respond to the phenomena of oxidation
and upon which the oxyacetylene torch can only be used with difficulty, such as
cast iron, aluminium, stainless steel and armour plate.
One of the most important features of Magna 150 is its convenience. No special
holder needs to be used nor does it require oxygen or compressed air. Merely
insert Magna 150 in any electrode holder and start cutting. Magna 150
performs perfectly on both AC or DC welding machines. It is particularly useful
for on site or field repair jobs where oxy bottles are inconvenient or prohibitive
due to their bulkiness and weight.
APPLICATION
Magna 150 can be used with any electrode holder on either AC or DC straight
polarity welding machines. Set machine amperage in accordance with size
electrode being used.

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 150.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

To Punch a Hole Using Magna 150


Position electrode on spot where hole is required and strike surface to establish
an arc then apply pressure until penetrating right through metal. On thick metal
a "jabbing" technique is desirable.
When Using Magna 150 for Cutting
When dissecting thin sections it is advisable to use a pattern or template as a
guide. Move electrode around edge of pattern keeping an even pressure on
electrode when applied to metal. The pattern can be made from wood, fibre
board or any non conductor.
Heavier sections are best managed by working electrode up and down, the
same action as in sawing.
Recommended Sizes and Amperages:
Metal Thickness

Electrode Diameter
Metric

Gauge

Setting

Inches

Up to 3 mm (1/8")

3.2 mm.

(1/8)

10

175-350 amps

3-12 mm (1/8" to 1/2")

4.0 mm.

(5/32)

180-400 amps

Over 12 mm (1/2")

4.8 mm.

(3/16)

200-425 amps

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 150.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

210 DC
Magna 210 is an acid resisting bronze electrode with outstanding physical
properties. It has the following qualities:
1. All Mineral Coating.

Some ordinary bronze electrodes have cheap

cellulose coatings, similar to the coatings on mild steel electrodes. Magna


210 has an all mineral coating which contains silicones and other moisture
and heat resistant constituents. In manufacture the coating is baked at
elevated temperatures for a long time to remove all moisture. This prevents
underbead cracking in the weld deposit.
2. High Deoxidation. Most ordinary bronze electrodes make welds which are
porous because copper oxidizes readily in the molten condition during
welding. Often when ordinary bronze electrodes are used, the deposit is
porous because sulphides and oxides are present in the deposit. These
impurities cause a great reduction in the physical properties of the weld
metal. Elongation is reduced and fatigue resistance is greatly lowered. The
Magna 210 core wire is deoxidised during manufacture. Additionally the
coating contains compounds which purge the weld metal while it is molten
removing virtually all danger of oxidation and oxide inclusions.
3. Versatility. Magna 210 can be used on practically all metals including the
following:

Stainless Steel

Bronze

Aluminium Bronze

Cast Iron

Brass

Architectural Bronze

Steel

Copper

Naval Bronze

Monel

Galvanized Iron

Malleable Iron

It can be used for building up worn parts, for anti-friction overlays, for bronze
foundry salvage. It can be used for joining non-ferrous and dissimilar metals.
Ideal as a non-spark material for explosives and combustible industries.
4. High Physical Properties.

Elongation:

50%

Tensile strength:

58,000-65,000p.s.i.
(40.8 to 45.7Kg/mm2)

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 210.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Sept, 1998

Reference: REC

Machinability:

Very good

Corrosion resistance: Very high. Resists a


wide variety of chemical
compounds including
Aluminium Hydroxide,
Dry Hydrogen Sulphide,
Zinc Sulphate,
Potassium Chloride,
Acetic Acid, Sulphurous
Acid, Ammonia
(moisture free.)
APPLICATION
Prepare work area by chamfering sections being welded to form a well fitting
joint. Magna 100 can be used here to completely remove flaws and cracks and
form a perfect weld joint.

For optimum results on heavy sections, preheat to 204C (400F). Large


copper sections will require preheating up to 425C (800F).

Strike an arc and work quickly to deposit filler metal. Hold electrode
approximately 10 off centre and keep a close to medium close arc. Remove
slag between passes.

Use only DC reverse polarity welding machines (electrode positive). Fluctuation


of the arc is most likely caused by your machine being set on the wrong
polarity. In this instance turn machine off and adjust to opposite polarity, then
resume welding.

Welding vertically up is best handled by making a large deposit and then


working up using the first deposit as a ledge.

Porosity may be evident after the first deposit, however this can be eliminated
by applying further passes.

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 210.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Sept, 1998

Reference: REC

RECOMMENDED AMPERAGES:
Metric

Inch.

Gauge

Setting

3.2 mm.

1/8

10

110 - 150 amps

4.0 mm

5/32

140 - 190 amps

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 210.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Sept, 1998

Reference: REC

303 AC-DC

IMPROVED

SPECIAL MAINTENANCE QUALITIES


In maintaining heavy equipment, vehicles, and machinery it is continually necessary
to weld a wide variety of different analysis of steel and frequently to weld steels of
unknown analysis. A single piece of heavy equipment may have ten or more
different steels making up its different components. Today's high speed, high
powered equipment is built from higher alloy, higher yield strength steels.

In the past mild steel electrodes and low hydrogen electrodes have been standard
for maintenance welding in many industries. This has resulted in much costly
downtime since mild steel electrodes are not adequate for welding todays high
yield strength steels or steels of unknown composition.
Mild steel and low hydrogen electrodes have proven their excellence for production
welding where most of the variables of welding such as joint design, base metal
analysis, and accessibility can be controlled. In general, superior electrodes have
not been required for these repetitive controllable production applications. In
maintenance, however, the problems are completely different. The maintenance
man has to weld many different types of steel, the metal is usually dirty, rusty and
oily and often he has only limited accessibility to the area to be welded. Ordinary
electrodes are not adequate for the more difficult maintenance conditions.

Mild steel electrodes provide welds with only about 42 kg/mm2 tensile strength.
If the steel being welded is 63 kg/mm2 the weld will probably fail in service. Just
as a chain is no stronger than its weakest link, a machine is often no stronger
than its weakest weld. If a high alloy steel is welded with mild steel or low alloy
steel electrodes numerous problems can result. When Magna 303 AC-DC was
introduced into the maintenance industry as a solution to the many problems of
maintenance welding, its use spread rapidly throughout the world. Numerous
users throughout the world have reported that Magna 303 not only provides
superior welds on a variety of steels as compared to all electrodes they had
previously tried, but additionally a diligent use of this electrode has prevented
much costly equipment down time which previously had resulted from weld
failures. Many users report that they have successfully welded many
applications which had been difficult or impossible with the electrodes they had
previously used.

Copyright, All rights reserved. 303 TIG (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)
Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 303.0

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

MAGNA 303 HAS THE FOLLOWING INTERESTING QUALITIES:


1. High Physical Properties.
*

Approximately 238 Brinell hardness

High fatigue resistance

Extra high shock and impact resistance

Machinable

Yield strength is approximately one third higher than the tensile


strength of mild steel.

Tensile strength is approximately one third greater than that of 25/30


stainless steel electrodes. The weld deposit in the as-welded condition
shows exceptionally high tensile and yield strength.

Corrosion resistance equal to many stainless steels

High elongation

Super high notch toughness

Semi magnetic deposit

Not heat treatable but work hardens to Rockwell C44 hardness

Allows minimum of carbon migration because of low penetration and


high alloy content

2. Two Phase Microstructure. Magna 303 provides a deposit consisting of


soft Delta Ferrite in an austenitic matrix. This ferrite rich structure is highly
resistant to fissures, cracking, hot cracking and underbead cracking. Welds
of X-Ray quality can be obtained on a wide range of applications. Welds of
outstanding quality are obtained even on dissimilar steel and composite
steel structures. The high physical properties of Magna 303 are obtained
without heat treatment.

This microstructure is so stable that a high percentage of ferrite occurs and the
two phase structure exists even if a high amount of dilution occurs from
austenitic forming elements such as may be encountered when welding some
steels of unknown analysis, thus the weld deposit displays a remarkably high
resistance to all types of cracking under practically all conceivable conditions.
3. Universal Application Feature. Magna 303 is capable of providing welds
of excellent quality on virtually all steels including:

Spring Steel

Manganese Steel

High Carbon Steel

Vanadium Spring Steel

Stainless Steel

Tool and Die Steel

Sulphur Bearing Steel

Cast Steel

Galvanised Steel

Copyright, All rights reserved. 303 TIG (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)
Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 303.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

Shock Resisting Steel

Bright Steel

Dissimilar Steels

A major benefit in using Magna 303 is that it eliminates guesswork. In


maintenance often a steel of unknown analysis must be welded. If the welder
"guesses" what the steel might be and uses the electrode which might be
adequate for that steel, a weld failure will probably occur if he guessed wrongly.
If Magna 303 is used, the guesswork is eliminated or at least minimized since
this one electrode gives good results on the widest range of different steels.

Another benefit of Magna 303 is that it eliminates stocking of many different


types of electrodes because of its versatility. In the past many maintenance
departments found it necessary to stock many different kinds of electrodes in
order to be prepared for any emergency. Many users have reported that Magna
303 has substantially reduced their inventory.
4. Cost Factor.

Magna 303 AC-DC costs much more than mild steel

electrodes but it does so much more. What difference does it make if a


weld costs six cents or sixty cents? The important factor is whether the
welding electrode will keep your machinery producing.
APPLICATION
No special preparation is necessary when using Magna 303. However, heavy
sections are best chamfered to form a 90 angle.

Preheating to approximately 204C (400F) is advisable on high carbon content


and crack sensitive tool steels.

Either AC or DC welding machines can be used. Do not use DC equipment on


straight polarity. Set machine electrode positive.

Proceed with stringer bead welding until the section is completed.


RECOMMENDED AMPERAGES:
(Reverse Polarity - Electrode + )
Metric

Inches

Gauge

DC Machines or AC Machines

2.4 mm.

3/32

12

40-80 amps

3.2 mm.

1/8

10

65-120 amps

4.0 mm.

5/32

90-150 amps

Copyright, All rights reserved. 303 TIG (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)
Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 303.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

4.8 mm.

3/16

140-220 amps

Methods which can be used to apply Magna 303:


Vertical up:

Reduce amperage 10 amps to that specified in table. Keep


electrode in deposit and weave in an arc about twice the width
of the electrode as you work the length of the seam.

Vertical down: Increase amperage 10 amps above that shown on scale.


Maintain a close arc and work quickly. Increased temperature
will liquefy and transfer alloy much faster.

Flat work:

Use recommended temperature and apply using either long or


short arc.

Overhead

Use recommended amperage and apply by direct contact or

application:

maintaining a short arc. Magna 303 will not stick, therefore can
be placed directly onto base metal.

Special Note:
1. Because of Magna 303's high work hardening qualities, for optimum results
always use a reduced speed and feed when machining.

2. Magna 303 can be used for overlaying applications on Cast Iron.

3. When cutting welds of Magna 303 with an oxyacetylene torch, due to its
extremely high alloy nature you will find it easier if you first place a small
piece of scrap steel over weld and direct torch on this piece of metal to
begin oxidation. It is then possible to easily cut through weld. When
necessary to cut welds, Magna 150 or 100 work perfectly.

Copyright, All rights reserved. 303 TIG (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)
Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 303.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

305
FEATURES
Magna 305 is an electrode formulated to provide non-cracking high physical
properties for welding dirty steels, low alloy steels, T1 and other of the newer
construction steels. It has the following superior properties:
1. Non-cracking Properties.

Magna 305 has alloying elements including

chromium, molybdenum, nickel and manganese which are added so that


there is virtually no loss in ductility while the strength is increased
substantially. The elements have a fine dispersion throughout the weld as
particles which tend to break up notches and crack propagations so that
cracks cannot occur.
2. Super High Qualities. Features high (81 kg/mm2) tensile strength, up to
2

24% elongation (in 50 mm) and good (73 kg/mm ) yield strength. Fully
machinable (actually machines like free machining steel). Superior
toughness and resistance to fracturing.
3. Pass-Over-Pass without intermediate Slag Chipping. With Magna 305
it is possible to weld pass-over-pass with no slag chipping and yet there will
be no porosity in the finished weld. Thus, if a hole is filled where slagchipping is difficult, it can be filled with non-stop welding and the final weld
will be completely solid. The fact that slag need not be chipped is a great
time saving feature.
4. Welds Difficult to Weld Steels. Magna 305 is superior when welding the
new low alloy high tensile construction steels. It also imparts superior
welding properties when welding steels, such as:

T-1 Steel

USS Con-Pac M

VAN-80

N-A-XTRA 100

T-1 Type A

Jalloy S-90

HY-80

N-A-XTRA 110

Armco SSS-100

Jalloy S-100

Jalloy S-110

Jalloy AR-360

Armco SSS-100A

HY-90

SKF327

Carbon Manganese

It also provides perfect welds in many problem steels, such as:

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 305.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

Painted Steel

Rusty Steel

Oily Steel

Sulphur Bearing Steel

'Tramp' Steel

Free Machining Steel

Cold Rolled Steel


5. Great Economy. Because Magna 305 is approximately 2 times as strong
as most ordinary electrodes, it is possible to substantially reduce the size of
fillets. Many maintenance men find they can use one weld bead instead of
three and still have greater strength with Magna 305.
6. Exclusive Non-Hygroscopic Coating.

Many workshops use 'low-

hydrogen' electrodes since these produce welds superior to mild steel


electrodes. The problem with this is that once the low-hydrogen electrode
package is opened, the electrodes start absorbing moisture rapidly. Within
as little as 20 minutes their hygroscopic qualities are such that they have
absorbed so much hydrogen from the atmosphere that they are no longer
different from a standard mild steel electrode.

The Magna 305 coating however, has much better resistance to moisture
absorption so that it produces superior welds even when exposed to the air.
This feature makes it ideal for usage in outdoor workshops or in other
maintenance areas where the electrodes cannot be kept in dry conditions or
where electrode ovens are not available.
7. Low temperature strength.

Magna 305 is highly suitable where high-

strength welds with excellent low-temperature impact properties are


required.
APPLICATION
Can be applied using either AC or DC welding machines. DC machines should
be set on reverse polarity (electrode positive). Use amperage normally selected
for ordinary steel electrodes of same diameter; the protective coating prevents
damage to Magna 305 caused by excess amperage. Preheating is not
generally required, however, heavy sections (over 100 mm. (4'')thick) will give
better results by preheating.

Magna 305 can be used in all positions following standard procedure. When
welding vertical up - keep electrode in deposit and working in a narrow semi-

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 305.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

circular motion and weave steadily up the metal. Magna 305 will restrike
immediately with perfect deposits free from porosity.
Recommended Amperage:
AC or DC Reverse
Metric

Inches

Gauge

Setting

4.8 mm.

3/16

230 - 290 amps

4.0 mm.

5/32

140 - 220 amps

3.2 mm.

1/8

10

120 - 150 amps

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 305.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

307
DESCRIPTION:
Magna 307 is an all position alloy steel electrode developed for construction
and repair work on mild steels, particularly 'on site' and in restrictive positions.

Magna 307 has evolved after extensive laboratory research and field testing
and offers optimum quality and performance on a wide range of various job
conditions.
High Quality Characteristics:
The outstanding properties of Magna 307 will offer a tensile strength of up to 59
2

Kg. mm (84,000 p.s.i.) thus ensuring joints of maximum strength.

Ignition and re-ignition qualities are exceptionally good and the ease at which
Magna 307 can be applied is remarkable.

Such characteristics will ensure high quality welds, even under adverse
conditions, or where the welder has had limited experience.
Coating Chemistry:
Special materials which are easily ionized have been incorporated in the
Magna 307 flux coatings.

The ease of ionization permits the establishing and maintenance of the arc at
lower welding currents and low open-circuit voltages. Such a characteristic is of
great assistance when welding thin sections as the use of low welding currents
will prevent burn-through.
The Magna 307 coating forms a 'crucible action' at the tip of the electrode
which controls the molecular velocity and stabilizes the arc. The crucible action
also generates gases by pyrolysis of the coating together with ions and metal
vapours of the core wire, thus producing a fine metallic spray transfer.

The protective gases which exclude atmospheric contaminants from the molten
weld metal are highly effective thus ensuring sound, high strength welds.

Copyright, All rights reserved. (BSI 5750 or equivalent)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 307.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

The slag coating is extremely easy to remove and in most cases is self lifting.
This will greatly save valuable time and effort.
APPLICATION
Magna 307 is applied with either a short arc or with the touch weld technique.
AC or DC equipment can be used. When DC is used, reverse or straight
polarity can be incorporated.

The electrode should be held at an angle of 30-40 degrees to the direction of


travel when welding in the downhand position.

For vertical welds, the electrode should be held at approximately 10 degrees


from the horizontal for vertical up, and for vertical down it should be held at an
approximate angle of 45 degrees from the horizontal.
Recommended Amperages:
Metric

Inches

Gauge

Setting

4.8 mm.

3/16

85 - 240 amps

4.0 mm.

5/32

65 - 190 amps

3.2 mm.

1/8

10

50 - 160 amps

2.4 mm.

3/32

12

30 - 115 amps

Copyright, All rights reserved. (BSI 5750 or equivalent)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 307.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

393 AC-DC
Magna 393 is an advanced, all-position alloy for stainless steel that offers high
corrosion resistance and ease of welding.
VERSATILITY:
Magna 393 can be used for the repair of virtually any type or grade of stainless
steel. This superior degree of versatility makes Magna 393 the repair alloy to
carry and stock in plants that use stainless equipment, such as food and
beverage plants and chemicals processing factories.

Magna 393 is also a must in hotels and any eating establishment because this
advanced alloy repairs all grades of stainless, from utensils to counter tops,
sinks, cookware and freezer doors and cabinets.
IMPROVED CORROSION RESISTANCE:
Magna 393 features superior resistance to corrosion over ordinary stainless
welding alloys due to special alloying elements that improve the weldment's
corrosion resistance to reducing media, such as urea. This particular feature
makes Magna 393 the repair alloy of choice in fertilizer plants and factories.
EASIER TO USE, EVEN AT LOW AMPERAGE:
In repair welding requiring vertical downhand applications, Magna 393 has no
equal. Other welding rods fail this ease-of-use test when welding vertical
downhand as the slag runs ahead of the weld.

Magna 393's special 'controlled slag' action enables even inexperienced


weldors to make perfect vertical downhand welds on virtually any stainless
steel repair. In addition, after welding, the slag blanket is easily removed.

Its superior AC weldability allows Magna 393 to be applied "on site" or in


difficult access situations as even small, portable AC open circuit welding
machines will give good results, using low amperage.

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 393.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

This good weldability at low amperage also helps minimize burn-through,


collapse or stainless discolouration, when welding on thinner stainless pieces.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (based on pure weld deposit):
Tensile strength

86,000 p.s.i. (59 kg/mm2)

Yield strength

51,000 p.s.i. (35 kg/mm2)

Elongation

35%

Impact (ISO-V)

52 ft./lbs. (70 joules)

APPLICATION
Magna 393 can be applied using either AC current or DC reverse polarity. Steel
surfaces to be welded should be degreased using Magna 990 degreaser. No
other special preparation is required and pre-heating also is not required.

After setting welding machine within the range given below, tack weld the work
piece every 25mm or so (about 1"). It is not necessary to weave the weld but try
to maintain a close arc. Peen each pass.

You will find the slag is easily removed and thus should be done at the end of
each pass. On vertical downhand applications, the arc transfer will remain even
and no problems with the slag running ahead of the weld will be experienced.

Magna 393 will also weld perfectly "in situ",using even low amperage opencircuit AC welding machines, such as when repairs have to be made away from
the workshop.
Recommended amperages are:
Metric

Imperial

Gauge

Welding Machine Setting

2.4 mm

3/32

12

60- 80 amps

3.2 mm

1/8

10

80- 100 amps

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 393.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

395 AC-DC
Magna 395 is a special alloy engineered for the welding and repair of Duplex
Stainless Steels. The deposits provided by Magna 395 are stress corrosion
crack-resistant, resistant to general crevice and pitting corrosion and virtually
immune to intergranular corrosion. Magna 395 also features good saltwater
corrosion resistance in addition to high tensile strength and good weldability.
BACKGROUND
Duplex stainless steels microstructures are part austenite and part ferrite. In
wrought or cast duplex stainless steels, the miscrostructure is usually the result
of heat treatment in the range 1900o to 2100oF (1037o to 1148oC))

As cast, they contain approximately 80%-plus ferrite, a small amount of


austenite and intermetallic compounds of the sigma and/or chi phases.
Under rapid cooling (e.g. water quench) from its heat treatment temperature,
new intermetallic compound formation is prevented and a room temperature
microstructure of between 40-60% ferrite and the balance being austenite is
obtained.

Duplex stainless steels, during slow cooling or holding in the temperature range
1000o to

1700 F (537o to 926oC) undergo metallurgical damage known as

885oF (475oC) embrittlement. This is caused by precipitation of chromium-rich


ferrite (alpha prime) within the iron-rich ferrite. Even properly heat-treated
duplex stainless lose toughness below -50oC (-45oF) due to the ferrite phase
undergoing a ductile-to-brittle fracture transition with declining temperature.

Therefore, duplex stainless steels generally have a useful service temperature


of -50oF to 500oF (-45oC to 260oC). They are also often alloyed with nitrogen
and molybdenum to improve pitting and crevice corrosion resistance.
ADVANTAGES OF DUPLEX S.S.
Duplex stainless steels combine some of the better features of austenitic and
ferritic stainless steels, such as higher strength (usually more than twice the

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 395.1

Version 1.1

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 26 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

yield strength) and dramatically better resistance to stress corrosion cracking in


chloride solutions.

Due to these advantages, Duplex S.S. is extensively used in heat exchanger


tubings, oil equipment tubing and piping, on off-shore platforms, gas wells, line
pipe, cast pump and valve bodies and fittings used for handling seawater and
sour gas or oil.

They are also used in the chemical processing industry since Duplex S.S.
offers chloride pitting and crevice resistance as good as grade 317L stainless,
coupled with better stress corrosion cracking than 304L or 316L stainless.

Magna 395 has been engineered to effectively weld and repair Duplex
Stainless Steels rapidly and with weld integrity superior to virtually any other
alloy for such specialised base metals.

Magna 395 will successfully weld and repair the following Duplex S.S. types:
Standard No.

DIN Abbreviation

1.4417

X2 CrNiMoSi

19 5

1.4460

X3 CrNiMo

26 5

1.4462

X2 CrNiMoN

22 5

1.4463

GX6 CrNiMo

24 8 2

1.4582

X4 CrNiMoNb

25 7

plus the following UNS Specification Duplex S.S.:


S31200
S31500
S31803
S32900
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:
Tensile Strength

110,000 p.s.i. (75kg/mm2)

Yield Strength

80,000 p.s.i. (55kg/mm2)

Elongation

25%

Impact

45 ft.-lbs. (60 joules)

APPLICATION

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 395.2

Version 1.1

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 26 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

Magna 395 can be applied using either AC current or DC reverse polarity.


Surfaces should be cleaned and properly degreased, using Magna 990
Degreaser.

Weldability with Magna 395 is good and it is suggested adopting procedures


that ensure an acceptable phase balance in both the weld metal and the Heat
Affected Zone (HAZ). In general, higher heat input is recommended.

Pre-Heating, although not generally considered necessary, can assist in


achieving the desired HAZ microstructure.
RECOMMENDED AMPERAGES:
Metric

Imperial

Gauge

Welding Machine Setting

2.4mm

3/32"

12

75-85 amps

3.2mm

1/8"

10

105-115 amps

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 395.3

Version 1.1

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 26 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

400
Magna Crusher Rod 400 was specifically designed for maximum service and
ease of application on all types of crushing equipment.
So far as is known, no other electrode, whether cast, fabricated or an alloy
coated wire - even at several times the price of Magna Crusher Rod 400 - can
match the weldability and crusher service provided by this rugged duty Magna
electrode.
This electrode is a culmination of years of experience observation and tests,
and was three years in final formulation. It has the following special features:
1. Properties. Rockwell C Hardness:

55

Resistance to Abrasion: Remarkable


Resistance to Impact:

Good

Formulation:

A high chrome super metal with the


addition of rare earth compounds
for refinement and the addition of
special

metals

unprecedented

to

provide

shock

an

absorbing

quality. Few other electrodes in


existence

can

provide

the

outstanding service on crushing


equipment.
2. Weldability. Excellent for both AC and DC. Has a highly efficient arc with
no spatter and is slag free. The coating actually goes into the deposit and
therefore substantially increases the amount of weld metal deposited. Has
extremely high deposition rate.
3. Economy. Magna Crusher Rod 400 is the most economical electrode ever
designed for crushers. Most hard surface electrodes give about 18 kg. of
deposit from 45 kg of electrodes because of stub loss, slag loss, spatter
loss and smoking and fuming. Magna Crusher rod 400 is a most efficient
hard surface electrode. It has no slag loss, no spatter loss and 45 kg of
electrodes give nearly 44 kg of deposit. Most operators melt even the stubs
into the deposit. When you buy a box of Magna Crusher Rod 400 you buy a
deposit - not a box of slag like most electrodes.

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 400.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

4. End Uses. While Magna Crusher Rod 400 was designed for Crushers it
will give excellent service wherever the job is similarly demanding. Some of
the most important uses are:

Disintegration bars from

Agitator blades in

Sheepsfoot tamps

combination roll crushers.

machines.

Impact breaker rotors and


bars

Scarifier teeth

End bits

Grader blades

Skip hoists

Screens

Conveyor fans

Power shovel teeth

Conveyor buckets

APPLICATION
Magna 400 can be applied to Carbon or Alloy Steels and Manganese Steel
using either AC or DC welding machines (set to reverse polarity). As Magna
400 transfers smoothly, either a long or short arc may be used.

Apply by making non-connecting deposits over entire area to be coated. Then


weld additional passes to fill in between these original deposits. Up to two
layers of the electrode may be made.

Where more than two layers are required, an initial coating of Magna 402 will
give a superior result.

Welds of Magna 400 Crusher Rod cannot be machined or heat treated.

Recommended Amperages:
Metric

Inches

Gauge

Setting

4.0 mm.

5/32

130 amps

4.8 mm.

3/16

175 amps

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 400.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

401 AC-DC
An electrode for wear resistance which has the following unique properties:
1. Complex Research Formulation. Magna 401 consists of a tough shock
resistant ferritic matrix which has super hard crystals of quartz-like
compounds, silicides and carbides. The carbides and silicides are very fine
and evenly dispersed throughout the deposit. This structure makes it
possible for Magna 401 to withstand both impact and abrasion. The tough
matrix absorbs the shock while the fine carbides resist abrasion. The
carbides and silicides precipitate spontaneously as the electrode is
deposited. For a wide range of general purpose applications, this electrode
outwears ordinary hard facing rods up to 4 to 1.
2. Super Weldability. Magna 401 can be deposited pass-over-pass without
slag removal. The slag has a light viscosity and it is not necessary for the
welder to remove slag between passes. The electrode is completely stable
at low current settings and performs well on AC.

Magna 401 can be applied in vertical and overhead positions. This is unique for
a hard surface electrode since most are adaptable only to flat position welding.
This feature makes it possible to overlay equipment in position without
dismantling. There is no spatter, no porosity and slag is easily removed. Magna
401 can be cut with oxyacetylene torch when desired.
3. Positively Non-Cracking. Many cheap hard surface electrodes check and
crack. Naturally their ability to provide service is handicapped by the cracks
and generally the cracks propogate and cause a complete breakdown of
the equipment. Magna 401 does not crack even if applied in large volume
and even if applied rapidly, it requires no cushion of buffer layer. The
deposit is so tough that it will not crack even without cushioning.
4. Remarkable Wear Resistance. Numerous wear tests have proven that
Magna 401 will outwear any hard facing rod in its class. The fact that it
withstands both abrasion and impact makes it especially outstanding. It can
be used where the exact nature of the exact type of wear is not known. It

Copyright, All rights reserved. (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 401.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

does not lose wear resistance in multi layer applications as ordinary hard
facing rods do.
APPLICATION
Magna 401 provides excellent arc characteristics using DC Straight Polarity
(electrode negative), DC Reverse Polarity (electrode positive) or AC
(alternating current). It has a high deposition rate.

Because of it's unique coating, with Magna 401 unusually high amperages can
be employed without excessive penetration and without overheating the
electrode. An exceedingly smooth overlay results. In manufacture, Magna 401
is baked at high temperature for a long period of time and the coating is all
mineral, thus no underbead cracking occurs. There is virtually no spatter and
slag is easily removed.

Magna 401 can be used on Carbon Steels and Low Alloy Steel as well as most
abrasion-resistant steels.

A slight weaving is preferred in application. Alloy steels and high carbon steels
should be pre-heated. Magna 401 can be used in all positions, flat, vertical and
overhead.
AMPS Required

Flat

Overhead

Vertical

1/8"

120-160

120-160

100-130

5/32"

150-200

140-190

120-150

3/16"

200-260

190-250

170-200

Area covered per pound 1/8" depth - 26 sq. inches.

The weld cannot be machined but can be forged or heat-treated.


Typical Applications
Ditcher Rollers
Tractor Rollers
Tractor Idlers
Elevator bucket lips
Shovel Rollers
Dragline bucket pins and links

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 401.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Dredge Speed Points


Dredge Driving Tumblers
Cane Brake Drums
Mill Brake Drums
Shovel Idlers
Cable Sheaves
Cable Sheaves Shafts
Shovel latch pins and keepers
Shovel bottom heels

Copyright, All rights reserved. (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 401.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

402 AC-DC
An electrode which is austenitic in structure and non-cracking, which rapidly
work hardens to great depth and resists extreme shock and impact. It has the
following features:
1. High Restitution Co-efficient. Will take extreme impact. Has a controlled
combination of high yield strength, high resilience, high compressive
strength and high work hardening ability. The work hardening of ordinary
manganese steel is, for comparison, approximately 3 mm thick. Magna 402
can work harden to a much greater depth when used in severe conditions.
Magna 402 retains a tough ductile core with a super hard outer shell. This
enables great impact resistance without cracking.
2. High Crack Resistance.

The ordinary manganese steel, nickel

manganese steel and molymanganese steel electrodes tend to crack under


a variety of conditions, such as those following:-

1. When welded in cold weather.


2. On re-welding when more weld metal is deposited over previously
deposited metal.
3. When making large build ups.
4. When joining cracks or bevels.

The reason ordinary manganese steel electrodes crack is because of 6 specific


causes:

1. Some ordinary manganese steel electrodes contain a high percentage


of phosphorous. Magna 402 has a careful control that keeps the
phosphorous level to the very minimum.

2. Some are either not stabilized or inadequately stabilized. These type of


manganese steel electrodes will become embrittled when a second
pass is applied over the first pass because the welding heat causes
transformation of the metastable austenite to bainite and the grain
boundaries thicken and cracking follows. Magna 402 has additives and
stabilizers which prevent transformation.

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 402.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

3. Some manganese steel electrodes have low yield strength. Magna 402
has a high yield strength.

4. Often manganese steel electrodes flow rapidly and slipping occurs on


one or more planes with each crystal. Interdendritic areas of
segregation occur and cracking follows. The stabilizers in Magna 402
prevent this condition.

5. Magna 402 contains 50% more manganese than ordinary manganese


steel along with other high alloys. Magna 402 can be used to join
manganese steel to mild steel.

6. Magna 402 can be cut readily with an oxyacetylene torch.


3. Physical Properties of Magna 402.

Work hardens to approximately 473 Brinell hardness.


Density: 493 lb/cu.ft. 7,900 kg/m3 cub. metre
Wet quartz resistance when work hardened: 1100 times better than SAE
1020 steel.
Tensile strength: Before cold working approximately 120,000 p.s.i. 84
kg/mm2
Elongation: 47% Hardness before cold working: 187 Brinell.
Completely immune to hydrogen contamination.
MAGNA APPLICATION PROCEDURE - MAGNA 402
Prepare weld area by grinding or chipping away fatigued metal. May be applied
over previous weld deposits.

AC or DC reverse polarity welding machines may be used. Manganese steel


applications require lowest possible amperage.

Preheating

is

only

required

in

instances

of

extremely

cold

outdoor

temperatures.

Magna 402 can be applied using either stringer bead or weave techniques.
Where large build up of deposits are required, peening between passes is
advisable.

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 402.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

On Cast Iron applications apply an initial coating of Magna 770 over entire
area.
Special Note:
Welds of Magna 402 are machinable, however, due to its extremely high work
hardening characteristics, machining is best effected by decreasing the cutting
speed and rate of feed.
Recommended Amperages:
Metric

Inches

Gauge

Setting

4.0 mm

5/32

130 - 190 amps

4.8 mm.

3/16

170 - 250 amps

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 402.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

403 AC-DC
Magna 403 is designed to resist both extreme high stress and low stress
abrasion. It has the following features:

Combination of good toughness and crack resistance resulting from a dense


matrix of a super work hardening austenite with spine-like crystals of chromium
and titanium carbides. These extremely hard carbides provide resistance to
gouging and high stress abrasion and the highly alloyed matrix provides
resistance to low stress abrasion and scouring. The matrix is so tough that loss
of carbides only occurs over a prolonged period of wear.

With some ordinary hard facing electrodes there is little or no protection against
carbide precipitation in the transition zone. Often there is little or no control of
penetration and there is a great deal of dilution of the weld metal into the base
metal. This creates a heat affected zone at the interface of the deposit as a
result of carbon migration and grain coarsening. There is a tempering effect,
which although brief, can often produce carbide precipitation and embrittlement
in the areas heated to 400 - 700 deg. C. particularly in maintenance of steel
parts which have been severely cold-worked. Worn parts have certainly
received cold work and partial metallurgical transformation will have occurred in
the surface layers. The heat input and uncontrolled deposit structure of ordinary
hard facing rods will carry this decomposition further.

Heat affected zone cracks are extremely dangerous, since they can result in
the entire deposit spalling off. Longitudinal cracks are of relatively frequent
occurance with some hardfacing electrodes. These cracks (true hot cracks) are
also very dangerous since they cannot be closed up so readily by cold working
as can transverse cracks (cooling cracks) which are also common.

Magna 403 provides a metallurgical advantage over most hard surfacing


electrodes because the carbides that are formed are balanced and completely
stable and occur uniformly throughout the deposit. The alloy has an even
dispersement of carbides which gives uniform resistance to wear. Some hard
facing electrodes that are based on carbide formation have non-uniform
dispersement of carbides usually due to precipitation of elements and this
allows premature wear in some areas and soon deterioration of the entire

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 403.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

surfaced part breaks down. Magna 403 employs special additives and
stabilizers that control the carbides and eliminates carbide precipitation.
SPECIAL FEATURES: 1. High deposition rate

2. Deposits are smooth

3. Hardness is 55 to 60 Rockwell C as applied

4. Has shallow penetration which prevents dilution

5. Easy application with no spatter, no pin holes and easy slag removal.
MAGNA APPLICATION PROCEDURE - MAGNA 403
Prepare base metal by cleaning and degreasing as far as possible. Sand or file
weld area to achieve a smooth working surface.

Either AC or DC reverse polarity welding machines may be used to apply


Magna 403. The electrode has a balanced arc transfer, a fast deposition rate
and achieves neat smooth deposits free from spatter and porosity. It is very
simple to apply and requires no special techniques or procedures.

When using Magna 403 to overlay large areas, it is beneficial to make initial
passes, and build up with Magna 303 and then make final three passes with
Magna 403.

For cast iron applications, optimum results will be achieved by making an all
over base coverage of Magna 770 before applying Magna 403.
Recommended Amperages:
Metric

Inches

Gauge

Setting

3.2 mm.

1/8

10

125 - 175 amps

4.0 mm.

5/32

175 - 250 amps

4.8 mm.

3/16

225 - 300 amps

A variety of Overlaying Applications with other Magna Welding Alloys

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 403.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

Impact resistance overlays

Magna 402

High strength joining with oxyacetylene

Magna 33F

Gas welding overlay applications

Magna 44

Machinable overlays

Magna 405

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 403.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 June 1997

Reference: REC

404
An alloy formulated to resist extreme abrasion extreme grinding and wear of
many types. It has the following features:
1. Extreme Wear Resistance. Magna 404 provides a deposit of a duplex
nature. It consists of an alloy steel tube which is filled with particles of a
special cobalt tungsten carbide material in crushed particle form. This
electrode is coated with a chemical flux coating that contains special arc
stabilizers and also materials that alloy with the steel tube to improve
toughness of the matrix. When the electrode is melted, the tube melts and
forms a matrix and the special tungsten carbide particles are embedded,
sealed in, and firmly held by the matrix. The wear resistance is incredible
because hard carbides will outwear anything on earth except diamonds.
Some carbide will carry the service load of resisting wear for a long period
but when the sharp edges are worn down other sharp edges are exposed
that will continue to withstand wear. When a complete carbide is worn out,
another takes its place. Thus the deposit is self sharpening and will keep a
cutting action in progress for a long time when used for drilling or cutting
rock, etc.
2. Quality Product. The principle of a steel tube filled with tungsten carbide
particles is not new. Some companies manufacture these as cheaply as
possible using only a small amount of carbides in each tube. Magna 404
consists of a special alloy tube instead of a mild steel tube, fully filled with
special quality virgin tungsten carbide. The carbides used are very nearly
as hard as a diamond.
3. Use with Torch or Arc. The coating on Magna 404 is designed so that the
alloy can be applied either with torch or arc. The torch gives the very best
wear resistance because none of the particles melt, while with the arc there
is naturally some melting of the carbides. Arc application gives remarkable
wear resistance and has the advantage of greater speed especially on
large structures. With ordinary tungsten carbide type rods it is necessary to
use a different one with arc and with gas, but Magna 404 has the unique
feature of having a coating that lends itself to both arc and gas application.

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 404.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

4. Great Economy.

The great economy with Magna 404 is the fact that

equipment overlayed with this product will last up to 30 times longer than
when lesser quality products are used. This saves costly downtime on
machinery. 4.5 kg of Magna 404 will overlay up to 930 cm2 totalling as little
as 3 or 4 cents per mm2 protected, and often less. Often it is not necessary
to overlay the entire part. A pattern of 'stripes' on a part, or dots will often
wear as well as a complete overlay.
APPLICATION
Magna 404 may be applied using either torch or arc welding equipment. The
use of an oxyacetylene torch enables greater precision of application and
higher wear resisting results. Arc application yields an excellent wear
resistance with the added benefit of greater speed of application.
With Oxyacetylene Torch
Fit a large sized tip at least two sizes larger than you would normally use when
welding steel of the same diameter. Adjust the flame to an excess acetylene.
The flame feather should be three times the length of the inner cone.

Bring the base metal to a dull cherry red heat. Direct the inner cone of the flame
onto the base metal. This will cause the base metal to become liquid at the
surface and fuse with the weld deposit without dilution. The surface will begin to
"sweat" at a lower temperature than melting point. When this is achieved use a
brazing technique to apply Magna 404. Only a single layer of alloy is required
and the deposit should have a rough granular texture and appearance.
With Arc
Magna 404 can be applied by either AC or DC Reverse polarity equipment set
to the following amperages:
Recommended Amperages:
Metric

Inches

Gauge

Setting

4.0 mm.

5/32

95 - 140 amps

4.8 mm.

3/16

145 - 190 amps

Preheating is not necessary. Deep penetration is not required therefore use the
lowest setting and closest gap practicable and control the dilution rate as far as

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 404.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

possible. No special techniques need be observed; just apply as any mild steel
electrode.

For normal requirements one overlay is adequate. However, the alloy is highly
crack resistant and to combat extreme abrasive wear multiple overlays are
possible. This is best achieved by holding the Magna 404 alloy at a close angle
(say 30) and making a thicker deposit and greater concentration of tungsten
carbide particles.
Other Magna Overlay Products for Different Applications:
For extreme impact resistance

Magna 402

For abrasion resistance

Magna 403

For gas application

Magna 44

For tough, machinable overlays

Magna 405

Copyright, All rights reserved.


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 404.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

405 AC-DC
A tough but machinable overlay for building up of worn parts which will be
subjected to wear. Has these exclusive features:
1. Exceedingly High Toughness. Magna 405 is just within the machinable
range. It has high compressive strength. It is ideal for building up of worn
parts where the weld must be machined yet prolonged service is necessary
after machining.
2. Non-Cracking. Heavy overlays or thick build-ups can be made without
cracking. Magna 405 has a built-in resiliency and will absorb shock without
cracking. Excellent for overlaying high carbon or low alloy steel, where
cracking could be a problem with ordinary electrodes. This is an excellent
electrode for use as a base on large fills before hard surfacing electrodes
are applied because of its cushioning effect, along with excellent
compressive strength and toughness.
3. Flame-Hardenable. Excellent for flame hardening or pack hardening on a
part where a high hardness deposit is required Magna 405 can be applied
then machined, and then flame hardened for extreme wear resistance.
4. Extraordinary Weldability.

Magna 405 gives a super fast deposition

because it can be applied 'pass-over-pass' without slag removal. The


coating produces a slag which has a light viscosity and floats to the surface
leaving no slag entrapment. The electrode has no spatter. It is readily
usable in all positions including overhead and vertical and results in
unusually smooth deposit often requiring little or no machining where
precision is not required. There is never any porosity and slag is easily
removed.
5. Typical Applications:

Tractor shoes

Mine car wheels

Jack bits

Sprockets

Concrete mixer blades

Roll ends

Rollers

Water well drill bits

Clutch faces

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 405.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Gear teeth

Shafts

Bosses

APPLICATION
Apply using either AC or DC welding machines. Where machinability is required
apply using straight polarity DC equipment.

Clean and degrease base metal as much as possible then simply apply Magna
405 following standard procedure and weld pass on pass till reaching desired
thickness. The special coating produces a slag which has a light viscosity and
allows it to float through the weld to the surface, without causing porosity, and
thus be easily removed.

Magna 405 is spatter free and versatile to use and can be applied from any
angle.
For Extreme Wear Resistance
After applying Magna 405, machine deposit to shape measurements required.
Then play a neutral flame of an oxyacetylene torch over surface. When it
reaches a dull cherry red colour, spray a fine jet of water over heated metal.
This will increase the surface hardness to the depth of the applied heat, yet still
retain its built in resiliency. Even when flame hardened Magna 405 will
positively not crack.
Recommended Amperages:
Metric

Inches

Gauge

Setting

3.2 mm.

1/8

10

90-135 amps

4.0 mm.

5/32

135-220 amps

Different Applications Using Magna Welding Electrodes:


1. Where greater machinability is required use Magna 305.
2. For extreme impact resistance use Magna 402.
3. For higher abrasion use Magna 403.
4. For gas machinable build ups use Magna 77F.

Copyright, All rights reserved. (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 405.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

480 AC-DC
A special, All-Purpose Tool, Die & Mould Steel Electrode, Magna 480 features
a specially-alloyed, all-mineral Magna coating to provide wear-resistant
surfaces for hot-and cold-working tool steels in hardened and tempered
condition.

Magna 480 features a coefficient of expansion and contraction virtually identical


to SKD-11 type steels, without cracking or the need for special pre-weld and
postweld heat treatment.
VERSATILE:
Magna 480 successfully welds all the commonly-used steels used for tools,
dies and moulds- hot-or cold-working, oil-, air- or water-hardening. This
electrode welds and rebuilds even "difficult" AISI: D2, A2, S1, H13 and L6 tool
steels. This gives Magna 480 one-product, universal tool steel application
capabilities unmatched by any other electrode for high-grade steels.
EASE OF USE:
With Magna 480, even the tough-to-weld SKD-11 or similar type tool-steels can
be welded without the cracking problems that affect the heat-affected zone near
the weld area. Only a low degree of preheating (250 - 300C) is required,
depending on the tempering treatment of the type of steel welded.

Due to low current welding requirements, Magna 480 can be used even with
low-powered AC welding machines.
. SUPERIOR AS-WELDED HARDNESS:
As welded, Magna 480 provides a hardness of 57-59 Rockwell 'C', without heat
treatment. The weld provides extraordinary wear resistance to impact and
abrasion under both hot- and ambient working conditions.

Even at temperatures up to 500C, the deposit provides a minimum of 53RC


hardness. This gives Magna 480 the practical ability to resist cracking even

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 480.0

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 5 October, 1999

Reference: LUN

under adverse and rapidly-changing "in use" applications. Magna is therefore


eminently suited for hot work applications.
APPLICATIONS:
Magna 480 is recommended for repairing and/or hardfacing hot- and coldtrimming dies, forming and blanking dies, hot and cold shear blades, including
hot billet shears, blanking, punching and coining tools, rotary shear knives and
both hot - and cold-forming and deep-drawing dies.

Magna 480 is also suitable for welding lower grades of tool steels, such as mild
steel and other high carbon steels.
APPLICATION
Preheat all tool, die & mould steels to 250-300C. This aids in preventing
cracking of the base metal during welding.
With most overlay electrodes for tool steels, peening is absolutely necessary
during welding to stress-relieve the weld. However, due to Magna 480's
advanced matrix system, peening is not normally required under general
welding conditions, if the above suggested preheating of the base steel is
performed.
When welding on applications where preheating is not advisable, such as on
minor repairs on cutting edges, shearing knives and cold trimmers, peening is
advised.
NO TEMPERING FEATURE:
As welded, Magna 480 achieves a 57-59 Rockwell 'C' (HRC) hardness. In its
second layer, it will provide a 58 HRC on SKD-11 steels. Should more uniform
hardness be required, Magna 480 can be tempered at 550C for one hour.
However, under normal conditions, no time-consuming tempering is required.
FINISHING:
Magna 480 is easily finished to desired dimensions either by grinding or by
using the spark-erosion process, where final finishing is required.
Low welding current is preferred to minimize dilution and heat input.
Recommended Welding Current:

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 480.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 5 October, 1999

Reference: LUN

SIZE

Copyright, All rights reserved. (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

SETTING

1/8"

-(3.2mm) -10g

80-100 amps

3/32"

-(2.4mm) -12g

60-80 amps

PIM 480.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 5 October, 1999

Reference: LUN

505
Electrode for welding all types of aluminium using electric arc, with no special
equipment and without argon. Has the following special qualities:
1. Extraordinary Ease of Application.

Magna 505 is an aluminium

electrode that has an ultra high pressure extruded coating rather than the
conventional dipped or low pressure extruded coating. The coating has
intense activity and actually enables the electrode to be applied with an
exceedingly short arc. The electrode coating makes possible a spray
transfer as distinct from the usual globular transfer. The short arc and spray
transfer make possible unprecedented ease of welding. With this electrode,
it is as easy to weld aluminium as it is to weld mild steel with a mild steel
electrode. Magna 505 can readily be applied in overhead or vertical
position. It welds all but the thickest sections, without preheat. The
electrode does not have the wild erratic arc characteristics of ordinary
aluminium electrodes, but instead provides a smooth, quiet, stable arc
characteristic. Even thin gauges can be welded.
2. High Physical Properties.
2

Up to 15 Kg/mm (21,500 p.s.i.)

Porosity-Free

No Spatter

Perfect Colour Match to Aluminium

3. Easy Slag Removal. Slag is of a light viscosity and floats out of the weld
and will not become entrapped.
4. Easily Adapatable. To the following applications of the following types:
Structural members

Aluminium Pumps

Caravan & Truck Bodies

Foundry Patterns, Metal Plates & Core


Boxes

Aluminium Housings

Casting Repairs

Aluminium Frames

Irrigation Piping

APPLICATION:
When Applied using Electric Arc

Copyright, All right reserved. (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 505.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Heavy sections will yield a better result if bevelled to form a larger more
efficient contact area. Sections up to 12 mm (1/2'') thick do not require bevelling
if electrode can be applied on both sides of the metal.

Preheating is generally not necessary except on particularly large and heavy


members.

Apply using DC machine on reverse polarity and set to recommended current


and strike an arc in the regular way. On flat work, keep electrode at a 90 angle
to base metal maintaining a close arc not exceeding 3 mm (1/8'') and proceed
slowly and steadily.
Recommended Amperages:
Metric

Inches

Gauge

Setting

2.4 mm.

3/32

12

50-100 amps

3.2 mm.

1/8

10

65-120 amps

4.0 mm.

5/32

95-150 amps

When welding heavier sections, use a lower current than recommended and
with a short arc, holding electrode perpendicular. Work quickly to deposit
stringer beads using a weaving technique.

If Magna 505 balls and does not flow out over weld surface, slightly increase
current.

If this does not solve the problem, preheat to 150C (300F).


When Applied Using Oxyacetylene Torch
Adjust torch to a slightly excessive acetylene flame and lightly warm base
metal. Melt a small portion of flux off electrode where weld is to begin. Play
heat over flux until it wets the surface, then melt one drop of alloy and apply
heat until it distributes over and bonds to the surface. Continue applying Magna
505 in this way. To assist flow of alloy, Magna 55 flux is recommended.

On completion flux can be wire brushed from weld. For more thorough removal,
use a brush and warm water or a solution of equal parts water and technical
nitric acid followed by a fresh water rinse.

Copyright, All right reserved. (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 505.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Special Notes:
1. When welding thin or small sections, ensure heat is not allowed to build up
which will result in sagging or warping of the aluminium. On long seams
weld a small portion, lift electrode from work and allow heat to dissipate
before resuming.

2. Fluctuation of the arc is most likely caused by your machine being set on
the wrong polarity. In this instance turn machine off and adjust to opposite
polarity then resume welding.

3. When welding with Magna 505 be sure to hold electrode at a 90 angle to


the base metal and travel rapidly as aluminium tends to "burn up" quickly.

4. For filling holes in heavy sections it is recommended to bore the hole and
grind away irregularities to allow easy access to the hole.

Copyright, All right reserved. (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 505.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

711
Description:
A super-corrosion resisting alloy for welding and overlaying stainless steel.
Magna 711 has the following special features: Corrosion Resistance
This alloy has additives that reduce the danger of carbide precipitation. The
chemistry of Magna 711 resists pitting. Magna 711 will withstand strong acids
at elevated and various temperatures that stainless steel electrodes cannot
withstand. Magna 711 also has a unique built-in passivating action wherein a
surface "shell" of super corrosion resistance forms on the surface of the Magna
711 deposit. This provides added corrosion resistance.
High Physical Properties
Tensile strength:

up to 100,000 p.s.i.

(7,000 kg/sq.cm)

Yield strength:

up to 87,000 p.s.i.

(6,100 kg/sq.cm)

Elongation:

35 to 45% (in 2 inches or 50 mm)

Magna 711 provides extraordinary creep strength. It has great resistance to


cracking during cooling.

Because of the exceptional crack resistance of Magna 711, it is often used for
repair welding of highly crack sensitive air hardening tool steels.
Applications
Magna 711 is used to resist strong acids such as sulphuric acid, hydrochloric
acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, hypochorites and organic acids.

This electrode is extensively used in paper mills, chemical and fertilizer


industries, and the food industry because of its exceptional resistance to
corrosion.
APPLICATION:

Copyright, All right reserved. (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 711.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Typical application Procedure


Tack-weld at short intervals. Thickesses below 10 gauge (3.2mm.) can be
square butt welded. Bevel thicknesses over 1/8" (3.175 mm). Use a short arc
gap. Stringer beads are preferred over weave beads. Use skip welding or backstep welding procedure to avoid warpage and distortion. After arc is established
close the arc gap and maintain a very short length. At the end of the bead,
backwhip the crater and extinguish the arc over deposited metal. The slag is
easily removed with slight impact and should be removed after each pass
before additional weld is applied. Tack weld at short intervals before welding.
Sections over 10 gauge (3.2mm.) should be bevelled 60. Remove slag
between passes.

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

Size Electrode

Amperage

1/8" (3.175mm)

60-110 AMPS

3/32" (2.381mm)

50-80 AMPS

PIM 711.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

720 AC-DC
A special electrode for welding dirty, greasy and heat affected cast iron. Has
the following special features.
1. Rapid Solidification. Magna 720 has such a rapid solidification that the
weld freezes before porosity or flaws can form on dirty cast iron. This rapid
solidification also makes vertical and overhead welding easy since no
dripping occurs.
2. Ability to Bond to Dirty Cast iron. Magna 720 can bond readily to greasy
or dirty cast iron. It seals off the contamination so that sound welding can
proceed. It can readily form strong bonds even on heat affected cast iron. It
penetrates through the affected outer surface and bonds to the sound metal
underneath.
3. Built-in Carbon Diffusion. When most ordinary electrodes are applied to
cast iron, a heavy area of carbon is formed at the interface. Magna 720 has
the ability to diffuse the surface carbon evenly throughout the weld metal.
This prevents the brittle interface area so common with ordinary cast iron
electrodes.
4. Co-efficient of Expansion.

Magna 720 has a similar co-efficient of

expansion to cast iron. It is a perfect colour match to cast iron and will rust
like cast iron. Unlike nickel cast iron electrodes, if a repaired area becomes
wet the weld will rust the same as base metal. It has tensile strength up to
2

35 kg/mm Magna 720 welds successfully without pre-heat. However on


large components pre-heat is desirable.
5. Typical Applications.

Furnace gates.
Ornamental lron fabrication.
Oil saturated cast iron.
Foundry casting repairs.
Steel to cast iron.

APPLICATION:
Use Magna 100 to completely gouge out cracks or any signs of metal fatigue.
So cracks will not scatter, ensure every trace is drilled out before

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 720.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

commencement of weld. Drill a hole 1/2'' from each end of the crack to prevent
crack from propagating.

Lightly preheat to approximately 400F to prevent stress cracking and apply


Magna 720 using lowest possible current setting and a short arc. Tack weld
long seams at 2'' intervals. Each pass should be lightly hammered before metal
cools to reduce stress.

Allow weld to cool slowly under normal conditions.


Recommended Amperages:
Metric

Inches

Gauge

Setting

3.2mm.

1/8

10

70-110 amps

4.0mm.

5/32

95-140 amps

Different Applications Using Magna Welding Alloys


1. For maximum tensile strength and machinability use Magna 70.
2. For gas welding cast iron use Magna 70.
3. For gas welding malleable iron use Magna 77F

1997 Magna Industrial Co. Limited (BSI 5750 or equivalent source)


Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 720.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.1

Rev. Date: 1 Aug, 1997

Reference: REC

770 AC-DC
High Elongation
An important feature of Magna 770 is its high elongation. This high elongation
gives the weld deposit a greater amount of resiliency enabling it to stretch or
shrink with less danger of rupture.

The greatest problem of cast iron welding is cracking. When ordinary cast iron
electrodes are applied to thin cast iron, the cast iron is subject to cracking.
When applied to thick cast iron, the weld often cracks. This is because the weld
has to take up less space when cooled to ambient temperature than when
originally applied in molten condition. When the weld cools it contracts and
draws from the base metal. Since cast iron has practically no elongation and
cannot bend, a severe stress is placed on both the weld and base metal. If the
base metal is thick the greatest stress is on the weld, being of smaller
dimensions. If the iron is thin, the weld will contract and a great stress will be
applied to the base metal often causing cracking.

When Magna 770 is used, the cracking tendency is minimized. The higher
elongation allows the weld metal to stretch and this tends to compensate for the
cooling stresses.
Contains Supplements which Assist the Weld
It is a well known fact that sulphur and phosphorous which are present in all
cast irons often cause cracking. Those elements dilute into the weld metal and
create cracking tendencies. Magna 770 has a metallic formulation that tends to
avoid the dangers of phosphorous and a supplement which has been added
controls sulphur. This additive actually converts the sulphur into a harmless
form of manganese sulphide. The coating also tends to flux-out phosphorous
into the slag.

One of the greatest problems in cast iron welding is the presence of cementite,
a super hard structure of iron and carbon mixed and rapidly cooled, which
causes brittleness and lack of machinability. Magna 770 contains an additive
that enhances the formation of free graphite, which is soft and easily

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 770.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

machinable, and which suppresses cementite, which causes hard spots and
reduces machinablility. The additive to Magna 770 combines with the graphite
at the surface and holds it in suspension tending to supress the formation of
cementite. This assists the weld deposit and the adjacent base metal in
remaining machinable. Additives also prevent the burning off of carbon and
other alloying components and extends the solidification range. Magna 770 has
an amount of carbon calculated to lower the melting point and increase weld
fluidity. This carbon has a decisive effect on the size and distribution of
graphite.
High Tensile Strength
Magna 770 has approx. twenty five per cent more strength than ordinary cast
iron electrodes such as the so-called pure Nickel Electrodes.
High Elongation
An important feature of Magna 770 is its high elongation. This high elongation
gives the weld deposit a greater amount of resiliency enabling it to stretch or
shrink with less danger of rupture.

The greatest problem of cast iron welding is cracking. When ordinary cast iron
electrodes are applied to thin cast iron, the cast iron is subject to cracking.
When applied to thick cast iron, the weld often cracks. This is because the weld
has to take up less space when cooled to ambient temperature than when
originally applied in molten condition. When the weld cools it contracts and
draws from the base metal. Since cast iron has practically no elongation and
cannot bend, a severe stress is placed on both the weld and base metal. If the
base metal is thick the greatest stress is on the weld, being of smaller
dimensions. If the iron is thin, the weld will contract and a great stress will be
applied to the base metal often causing cracking.
When Magna 770 is used, the cracking tendency is minimized. The higher
elongation allows the weld metal to stretch and this tends to compensate for the
cooling stresses.
Contains Supplements which Assist the Weld
It is a well known fact that sulphur and phosphorous which are present in all
cast irons often cause cracking. Those elements dilute into the weld metal and
create cracking tendencies. Magna 770 has a metallic formulation that tends to

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 770.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

avoid the dangers of phosphorous and a supplement which has been added
controls sulphur. This additive actually converts the sulphur into a harmless
form of manganese sulphide. The coating also tends to flux-out phosphorous
into the slag.

One of the greatest problems in cast iron welding is the presence of cementite,
a super hard structure of iron and carbon mixed and rapidly cooled, which
causes brittleness and lack of machinability. Magna 770 contains an additive
that enhances the formation of free graphite, which is soft and easily
machinable, and which suppresses cementite, which causes hard spots and
reduces machinablility. The additive to Magna 770 combines with the graphite
at the surface and holds it in suspension tending to supress the formation of
cementite. This assists the weld deposit and the adjacent base metal in
remaining machinable. Additives also prevent the burning off of carbon and
other alloying components and extends the solidification range. Magna 770 has
an amount of carbon calculated to lower the melting point and increase weld
fluidity. This carbon has a decisive effect on the size and distribution of
graphite.
APPLICATION:
Degraphitize Surface Before Welding
It is most important to remove as much surface carbon as possible from the
areas to be welded. Use an oxyacetylene torch adjusted to a highly oxidising
flame and play the flame over the weld area. Continue this action for several
minutes, then brush the area with a wire brush. Repeat this procedure two or
three times.
Avoid Graphite Smear
Do not use a grinder to prepare Cast Iron prior to welding. When a grinder is
used, the graphite from the Cast Iron plugs the wheel and remains on the
wheel, while the iron is thrown off in sparks. Before long the wheel is rubbing
the graphite back into the Cast Iron with each revolution. Cast Iron should only
be prepared by chipping, drilling, filing or by a most quick and efficient method,
Magna 100.
Avoid Rough Edges

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 770.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

All sharp corners should be slightly rounded. Rough edges and small fragments
of metal must be removed prior to welding otherwise these will melt and form
hard spots due to the iron-carbon combination in the weld area.
Welding Over Previous Welds
After one bead has been deposited the following weld bead should be made by
directing the Magna 770 electrode into the previous bead and allowing the weld
metal to wash outward. Use this procedure for all subsequent beads.
This procedure provides three benefits
Firstly, it prevents an intense heat concentration on the cast iron. Secondly, it
retains heat in the weld area and retards rapid heat dissipation (thus preventing
hardness in the weld and weld area). Thirdly, it anneals each pass and tends to
remove any hard layers which may have formed.
Retard Cooling Rate
Covering the completed weldment with asbestos sheeting, especially in
draughty areas will retard the rate of cooling ensuring successful results.
Application Procedure
Magna 990 will remove grease, oil and dirt quickly and thoroughly from the
weld area. Use Magna 100 to remove all cracked and fatigued metal. Holes
should be drilled approximately 12 mm. (1/2'') from each end of cracks to
prevent them propagating during the welding process. Tack weld to retain
alignment. A gentle preheat, particularly on large sections will ensure high
machinability.

Select the largest diameter electrode and lowest amperage possible and use
either AC or DC reverse polarity welding machines. Use conventional stringer
bead or weaving techniques to apply Magna 770. Remove slag between
passes. Allow to cool naturally or by covering with lime or asbestos.

In most instances Magna 770 can be "poured on" rapidly. It is unnecessary to


use the old fashioned method of welding short beads at a slow rate as required
with or- dinary electrodes. With Magna 770 the interpass temperature is not
critical; the welding can be almost continuous causing the interpass
temperature to build up.

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 770.4

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Where the size and location of the equipment to be welded makes preheating
im- possible, but the design is such that expansion and contraction cause
during welding will warp or distort the metal, the following points should be
observed:

a) Before each deposit solidifies and while it is still hot, lightly peen with
hammer.
b) Pause between passes to allow heat to dissipate.
c) By making separate weld deposits and then going back over and filling
in you will avoid localizing excess heat.
Recommended Amperages:
Metric

Inches

Gauge

Setting

2.4 mm.

3/32

12

40 - 85 amps

3.2 mm.

1/8

10

60 - 100 amps

4.0 mm.

5/32

90 - 140 amps

4.8 mm.

3/16

120 -180 amps

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 770.5

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

777 AC-DC
TWIN CORE THUNDERSTIK

Magna 777 is a totally new type of cast iron electrode that utilizes a highly
advanced "Twin Core " fabrication process that totally eliminates the chances of
the electrode overheating when used under AC - even under difficult amperage
loading conditions.

This advanced feature enables superior economy for the user as the electrode
can be totally used and does not have to be discarded through overheating. In
addition, the unique temperature control characteristic of the Magna 777 Twin
Core design provides a more even heat output and molten metal flow to
improve the integrity of the weldment and virtually eliminate weld spatter.
TOTAL FLUSHING/CLEANING ACTION
Magna 777's superior flux chemistry also provides for total and highly effective
flushing away of surface contaminants, such as oil, rust, paint encrustation,
etc., from the cast iron surface to improve the bonding of the molten weld to
provide strong, secure and mechanically sound welds on virtually all types,
grades and gauges of cast iron.

Special supplements successfully assist in the suppression of cementite


formation during welding and helps Magna 777 achieve and retain full
machinability, even on difficult grades of cast iron. In addition, powerful in-built
amalgams help clean the surface out of all potentially weld-damaging
chemicals and their derivatives and hold these to the exterior of the weldment
for easy subsequent removal as part of the weld slag.
UNIQUE MAGNA 777 "THUNDERSTIK" CONTROLLED BLAST ACTION
Magna 777 "Thunder Stik" applies with a novel "controlled blast" pulse that
actually provides a cohesive twin phase process:
I

INITIAL (CONTINUOUS ACTION) PHASE

Magna 777 "Thunder Stik" strikes with a powerful cleansing arc that flushes
and burns off all contaminants in and around the weld area and burns off any
scaling or oxides from the immediate vicinity of the arc. The powerful arc carves

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 777.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

out a sound surface and lays on a molten pool of weld metal in preparation for
the second continuous phase of Magna 777 "ThunderStik's" arc action.
II. SECONDARY (CONTINUOUS ACTION) PHASE
The Initial Phase of molten metal transfer is reduced yet maintained and keeps
the weld area in a molten state while a continuous burn-off of impurities takes
place. The formation of blow holes and pin holes is eliminated by this process
and the reduced rate of molten metal transfer across the secondary phase's arc
helps pre-heat the base metal to prevent martensitic formation within the Heat
Affected Zone (HAZ) for dramatically improved machineability.
The arc then reverts back to the initial phase, followed by the secondary
phase, etc., on a continuously alternate basis. This "controlled blast"
pulse of Magna 777 "ThunderStik" provides an exceptionally sound,
strong and yet fully machinable weldment.
BUILT-IN EASE OF USE
Magna 777 "ThunderStik" can be applied using even the small, portable AC
welding machines or on DC straight polarity. Where the piece to be welded is
not restrained (i.e. free to expand and contract), no peening between passes is
required. The weld laid by Magna 777 "ThunderStik" is easily machinable and
highly crack-resistant, and can be applied on most types of cast iron-including
grey, nodular and malleable. Magna 777 "Thunder Stik" can also be used to
weld cast iron onto steel parts with superior weld strength and weld integrity !!!
Magna 777 "Thunder Stik" also welds ductile iron, "Ni-Resist" and "Meehanite",
even onto steel, and provides good weldability of nickel alloys even onto cast
steel.
APPLICATION:
Magna 777 "Thunder Stik" is extremely versatile and can be used to weld
virtually all gauges, grades and types of cast iron. It will weld using even small,
low amperage portable AC welding machines without overheating or sticking, or
on DC machines, straight polarity.
PREPARATION

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 777.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

For dirty or oily surfaces, Magna 777 "ThunderStik" can be applied directly
without preparation, due to the product's novel "controlled blast" pulse action
which automatically burns off these surface contaminants.

However, where the oil, thick grease, paint or other encrustations have seeped
deep into the cast iron grain, it may be necessary to eradicate the contaminants
by using a strong, highly oxidizing oxy-acetylene torch prior to welding.
PRE-HEATING
For small pieces which are easily handled, no pre-heating is required. For
larger parts, pre-heating up to 300C is suggested. This temperature should be
maintained while using Magna 777 "ThunderStik" to improve machinability. No
peening is required but slag should be removed between passes.

Where the part to be welded is restrained (i.e. cannot expand or contract


freely), peening between passes is recommended while the weld is still hot.
Use low amperage and maintain short arc while using stringer beads or narrow
weave beads.

Restrike arc on previously deposited Magna 777 "ThunderStik" weld metal.


Slow cooling is recommended.
WELDING
The amperage should be set as follows:
METRIC

IMPERIAL

GAUGE

SETTING

2.4 mm

3/32"

12g

35-80 amps

3.2 mm

1/8"

10g

65-120 amps

4.0 mm

5/32"

8g

75-140 amps

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 777.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

ALLOY C
IMPROVED MAGNA ALLOY C

NEW, IMPROVED Alloy C is a super high alloy electrode specially designed to


cope with problems of corrosion, heat and impact. It has the following
characteristics:
High Physical Properties
2

Tensile Strength:

Up to 69 Kg/mm (98,000 psi)

Elongation:

<40%

Hardness:

Brinell 220 as welded


Brinell 400 after work hardening

High Alloy Content


Magna Alloy C deposits an entirely complex alloy system. Its content of high
cobalt, tungsten, nickel, chromium and molybdenum provides extra high
physical properties at elevated temperatures. It provides an ideal choice in
resisting deformation from either cyclic or static loads. Alloy C displays only a
minute degree of shrinkage on cooling and expansion on heating. Alloy C is
virtually impervious to high temperatures.
High Corrosion Resistance
Alloy C provides outstanding resistance to oxidizing acid mixtures and is
especially good in applications requiring contact with nitric acid, phosphoric
acid, hypochlorites and organic acids as well as chlorine acids and mixed acids.
Excellent Hot Hardness Properties
Magna Alloy C drops only a very small amount in hardness even at exceedingly
high temperatures. The Brinell Hardness of deposits after soaking heat for 24
hours is:1400oF (760oC) = 190 Brinell
1200oF (648oC) = 190 Brinell
1000oF (537oC) = 200 Brinell

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

ALLOY C.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Magna Alloy C stays at Brinell 220 at room temperature. Its unique quality
makes it outstanding for withstanding impact and pressure at high
temperatures.
Impact Resistance
It has excellent spall resistance with impact as well as shock absorbency
loading, even at high temperatures.
Forging Properties
Alloy C is forgeable. The correct procedure is to start forging at 2300oF and
stop forging at 1900oF (1055oC).
Machinability
Magna Alloy C is machinable at room temperature (i.e. 220 Brinell). This work
hardening alloy which hardens up to 400 Brinell (42 Rockwell C), should be
machined using the same procedures as with stainless steel.
Weldability
It is easy to apply and has a smooth spray transfer. It is also versatile, being allposition, and has virtually no spatter. Alloy C provides good weldability with
both alternating and direct current.
Application
Magna Alloy C is perfect for joining as well as overlaying high nickel alloys such
as :-

Inconel
lllium
Hastelloys
Monel
and dissimilar Nickel Alloys

Magna Alloy C is also widely-used for overlaying tools and equipment that must
have good service properties at high temperatures, such as:
l Blister Bar Tongs

l Crane Tong Bits

l Hot Trimmer Dies

l Sizing Punches & Rings

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

ALLOY C.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

l Forging Die Blocks

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

l Hot Shear Blades

l Mill Guides

l Shafts

l Rams

l Piercing Tools

l Ladles

l Equipment for handling hot metal


HOW TO APPLY IMPROVED MAGNA ALLOY C
Typical Welding Conditions
Use on AC or DC (Electrode Positive)
Electrode Diamater

Recommended Amperage

1/8" (3.175mm)

120-140 Amps

When overlaying dies, tools or other parts, remove fatigued metal by chipping,
grinding or using Magna 100 Chamfering Electrode. Degrease surface with
Magna 990 Degreasing Aerosol. Since Magna Alloy C is highly crack-resistant,
it can be applied in stringer beads or weave beads. Use shortest possible arc
and back-whip to avoid craters.

Preheat is not necessary with Magna Alloy C except when welding thick
sections or crack-sensitive metals. Peening is not necessary except on heavy
sections or crack-sensitive metals. A range of 600oF (315oC) should be
employed when applied to heat-treatable forging die steels. On heat-treatable
forging die steels, temper at 1000oF (538oC) for four to six hours and cool in still
air.

Slag is easily removed and this should be done before applying later passes.
The uniform coating produces a smooth, even burn-off, with excellent arc
stability. Optimum results are obtained when a two pass build-up is used, or the
finished weld limited to a weld thickness of 5/32" (15.8 mm).

Magna Alloy C can be used on all steels and virtually all high nickel alloys. It
can be used on cast iron as an overlay material. Its widest use is for overlaying
equipment to work at elevated temperatures in steel mills and in the forging
industry.
Machining
Use high speed steel or tungsten carbide tools with very low speed, high feed
rate and adequate cooling.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

ALLOY C.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Heat Treatment
Deposits of Alloy C are non heat-treatable but work harden to Brinell 400 (42
Rockwell C)

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

ALLOY C.4

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

904
'HEAT BAN'

'Heat Ban is a jelly-like compound that actually absorbs heat to insulate, isolate
and dissipate it during welding and many other heat-related purposes. 'Heat
Ban' can safely be used on all surfaces.
High Rate of Heat Diffusion:
When welding certain metals there is danger of excessive heat build-up
resulting in the metal sagging and collapsing. Magna 904 `Heat Ban' prevents
this from happening. As heat of the metal reaches Magna 904 `Heat Ban', it is
absorbed into the compound similar to a sponge soaking up water. Magna 904
`Heat Ban' then channels the heat through itself and releases it to the
atmosphere. `Heat Ban' absorbs and dissipates heat to such an extent, it offers
heat protection up to 3,000F (1,650C) and beyond.
Application is Safe and Limitless:
Magna 904 `Heat Ban' will not mar, stain or impair in any way the applied
surface. Usage of Magna 904 `Heat Ban' excludes the need for disassembly of
item to be repaired since its rapid heat-dissipating property confines heat, either
radiated or transmitted, to the precise worked area.

Just a thin layer of Magna 904 `Heat Ban' enables welding of thin guage metals
and prevents heat damage to electrical wiring, soldered joints and even human
flesh.

Magna 904 `Heat Ban' is non-toxic - free of lead, sulfur, zinc, cadmium,
mercury and halogens. It is absolutely safe to use on every possible material or
finish: all coated or uncoated metals (including white metals), plastics, rubber,
glass and even combination of materials. Magna 904 `Heat Ban' has no
unpleasant odor nor does it give off irritating or obnoxious fumes when in use. It
is completely harmless to the touch even if accidentally swallowed.
Simple Application and Reuseable:

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 904.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Use straight from the jar as supplied, no messy mixing, measuring or blending.
Use hand or spatula to spread over surface. Simple and clean to remove when
desired. Magna 904 `Heat Ban' is reuseable if not severely scorched.
MAGNA 904 HEAT BAN PROTECTS ALL MATERIALS FROM HEAT
DAMAGE DURING WELDING, BRAZING AND SOLDERING UNDER DIRECT
1900C FLAME.
Protects
previously
soldered
areas.

Of great benefit to dental mechanics when repairing stainless steel dentures


and bridgework. Eliminates the need for oil immersion working and heat
damage to bridgework and acrylic parts. Heat Ban also assists in the assembly
of porcelain jacket crowns and ceramic restorations.
Complete

all

soldering

Procedures.

Apply
generously

Heat
to

Ban
area

of

desired protection.
Protects precious gems
from damage while cutting
costs and saving time.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 904.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

A great advantage in
automobile repair, protects
glass, vinyl, duco, chrome
and any other part which
could be affected by heat.

APPLICATION:
Magna 904 is a heat absorbing and dissipating compound that can be applied
on to any surface. There is no necessity to clean, degrease or prepare the
surface in any way. Heat Ban can even be applied directly to painted or treated
surfaces.

Use product as supplied and apply liberally to area requiring protection. Use
your hand or a spatula to apply Heat Ban and spread the same as you spread
butter. Provide a coverage 3-6 mm (1/8 to 1/4'') thick, depending on severity of
situation. Apply as near as possible to the weld area.

After use, Heat Ban can be wiped off surface with a clean dry cloth and
thoroughly removed by water flushing. The non-hardened portion may be reused.

Ensure the lid is fastened tightly after use and keep in a cool area. When stored
in this way the product lasts indefinitely and will retain the same texture until all
the contents have been used.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

PIM 904.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

940
Magna 940 is a totally new type of Instant Repair Compound that provides
every workshop with the means to make speedy and sound repairs on surfaces
and parts made of steel, copper, aluminium, cast iron, stainless, galvanized,
brass and chrome.

Magna 940 features many advantages over conventional weld repair methods,
especially where heat input using gas rod or electrode would require extensive
dismantling, heat screening, re-assembly or even difficult access - such as in
on-site work, or at height or using scaffolds.

No special tools or training are required to successfully apply Magna 940 and,
where required, Magna 940 can be machined, drilled, filed or tapped after fully
curing. Repairs can be completed in as little as 15 minutes and full cure is
obtained in about 1 hour.

Magna 940 is an advanced rosin compound with special fillers engineered into
it, including bronze powder, to give the product these special features:
l

Will not rust or oxidize

Product is non-magnetic and can be used in and around gauges and other
sensitive metering devices or apparatus.

Magna 940 is chemical resistant and extremely corrosion resistant.

The product works fast - -and yet can be re-shaped for a full 5 minutes after
applying as initial curing takes place in 15 minutes and full cure is attained
in 1 hour.

Magna 940 will adhere even to damp or wet surfaces and will even cure
while immersed completely in water or other non-reactive liquid media.

There is no waste as the operator can use only the exact the amount
required without contamination problems with the left over portions of the
product.

Magna 940 has an indefinite shelf life when stored properly and its handly,
carry-anywhere size makes it perfect for virtually any type of on-job repairseven in remote sites.

This product can be used as a sealant, adhesive, putty or cement and can
be used on non-ferrous applications such as, PVC, glass, wood, concrete,

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PIM 940.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

ceramic, brick, tile, porcelain and plastic surfaces and parts equally as
effectively as when used on metals.
PRECAUTIONS
Magna 940 can be used for a multitude of maintenance and repair applications.
It may cause irritation to sensitive skin and surgical gloves are recommended
for most situations. Wash hands with soap and water after using product.

In case of eye contact, flush with copious amounts of water and contact
physician. May be harmful if swallowed. Magna 940 was engineered for
professional or industrial applications and should be kept out of reach of
children.
SPECIFICATIONS
l

TENSILE STRENGTH:

8,200 p.s.i. (5.77kg/mm2)

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH:

19,000 p.s.i. (13.36kg/mm2)

SHEAR STRENGTH:

950p.s.i. (0.67 kg/mm2)

SHORE D HARDNESS:

90

MAX. OPERATING TEMPERATURE:

550oF(288oC)-INTERMITTENT
500oF(260Oc)-CONTINUOUS

WORKING TIME:

5 minutes (before initial cure)

CURING TIME:

60 minutes (@20Oc, RH50%)

MODULES OF ELASTICITY

6 X 10 p.s.i.

VOLUME RESISTIVITY

5 X 10

DIELECTRIC STRENGTH

400 volts/mil@0.12 power m

15

Ohm-cm
5

APPLICATION:
Applying Magna 940 is simple and foolproof and no tools or special equipment
is necessary.

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PIM 940.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

1. Uncap the tube holder.


2. Unwrap Magna 940 from plastic protector and
peel off the foil paper at one end.
3. Use a knife or a pair of scissors and cut off a
portion of Magna 940 sufficient for the repair
you wish to apply it to. Replace foil paper, rewrap in plastic and return to tube holder.
4. Mix the Magna 940 by kneading the portion
thoroughly using your fingers or by rubbing the
Magna 940 with your palms on a flat clean
surface.
5. The Magna 940 will give off a slight amount of
heat when kneading. This a natural and nothing
to be alarmed about.
6. Work the Magna 940 into the part(s) to be
repaired or sealed. Press the product firmly into
the piece to be repaired to ensure it fully covers
the area and to enable Magna 940 to work into
any recesses present.
7. Re-shape the Magna 940 rapidly to the desired
shape (within 2 to 5 minutes of initial mixing).
8. Should a smooth surface finish be desired,
hand rub the Magna 940 with some water or
use a damp spatula to smooth out any rough
edges or ribs. (You must do this within 5
minutes of initial mixing.)
9. Magna 940 attains full cure in 60 minutes and
can them be machined, filed, tapped, drilled,
etc.

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PIM 940.3

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

990
A spray solvent designed specifically for use in pre-cleaning metals and all
other surfaces. It is supplied in a handy aerosol container.
Advantages:
Magna 990 is a highly active, but non-toxic and absolutely safe material to use.
It is made of a chemical formula which readily dissolves all oils, grease and
waxes and dries quickly leaving a perfectly clean surface.

In those cases where heavy dirt or heavy grease is present, it loosens the dirt
and dissolves the grease thus greatly reducing cleaning time.
Magna 990 is

Non-toxic
Non-explosive
Non-inflammable
Non-staining
Non-conductive
and will not corrode.

Application:
It is designed for ease of application - having been packaged in a handy
aerosol container permitting a generous soaking of the areas to be cleaned
without the need or using brushes or other applications.

The special formulation of Magna 990 will dissolve oil, grease, wax and release
heavy buildups of dirt that other products will not shift. It is safe to use on
virtually all surfaces and the aerosol package is convenient to use in all
conditions.
APPLICATION:
Spray Magna 990 over surface to be cleaned. An initial coating of water will
help distribution and assist the release of dirt and grease.

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PIM 990.1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Leave surface to dry then brush away loosened particles. Stubborn build-ups
and extremely dirty surfaces can be cleaned by additional applications or by
rubbing with an abrasive.
Special Note
As contents are packed under pressure do not expose to an open flame or
puncture can. The contents of the can are non-toxic and inflammable.

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PIM 990.2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

GLOSSARY WELDING TERMS


Abrasional Wear

Can be thought of as being caused chiefly by the


presence of a foreign material such as sand,
metallic particles and grit between surfaces moving
across one another as in the case of a cement mill
shaft and bearing. It also is the type wear resulting
when a plowshare or cultivator is worn from the
constant abrading or cutting of soil particles.

A.C.

Alternating current produced by all transformer


type welding machines.

Alloy

A substance that has metallic properties and is


composed of two or more chemical elements of
which at least one is a metal.

Alloy Steel

The term "Alloy Steel" is accepted as describing


those steels to which material quantities of such
elements

as

nickle,

chromium,

molybdenum,

vanadium, tungsten and manganese have been


added for the definite purposes of changing the
hardenability or response to heat treatment of the
steel. In their natural state, that is, before heat
treatment, alloy steels are, generally speaking,
somewhat stronger and tougher than carbon steel
and low alloy steel. Alloy steels as they come from
the rolling mill are still in what might be termed a
semi-processed condition in that they do not attain
their full stature or reach the peak of their
capabilities until they are subjected to some form
of heat treatment. When properly heat treated, they
provide combinations and degrees of hardness,
strength,

ductility,

machinability,

and

impact

resistance that cannot be secured in carbon steel


or steels in the low alloy group

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GLOSSARY 1

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Aluminium

Aluminium is a white, soft metal, very light in


weight and the fracture is white and moderately
fine grained. The unfinished surface is smooth and
dark gray. When machined the surface is very
smooth and a light gray in colour. Aluminium and
its alloys always form an oxide layer when exposed
to air This layer has a very high melting point
o

above 3200 F., while aluminium itself melts at


much

lower

temperatures

according

to

its

composition.
o

Pure aluminium melts at 1215 F. The melting point


of its alloys is even lower. If heat is applied, no
change is observed from the outside but below the
oxide "skin" the aluminium approaches the molten
stage, its strength diminishes rapidly and if heating
is continued the part collapses.
Amalgamate

Combine with another metal at room temperature


through chemical reaction (such as mercury
combines with silver in dentistry).

Amperage

A measure of the electrical units which indicate the


flow of electrical energy through a circuit.

Annealing

A heat treatment designed to effect a softening of


a structure by recrystallization or grain growth or
both.

Anodize

A reverse plating process. This process is used on


aluminium to remove a thin film of material to allow
the aluminium to oxidize evenly giving a dull satin
finish.

Arc Out

Arcing through the coating which occurs with an


electrode with a conductive coating when coating
touches grounded metals.

Arc Welding

A non-pressure (fusion) welding process wherein


the weld-heat is obtained from an electric arc
formed between the base metal and an electrode.

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GLOSSARY 2

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

A.S.T.M.

American Society for Testing Materials.

Atomic Hydrogen

A welding process where the arc is maintained


between

two

Tungsten

electrodes

and

is

surrounded by hydrogen which burns during the


application forming an intense highly localized
heat.
Austenite (Austenitic)

A structure of steel. Austenitic Steels cannot be


hardened

by

heat

treatment,

but

are

work

hardenable, and they are non-magnetic. (A solid


solution in which gamma iron is the solvent.)
Back Step Welding

A method of controlling welding heat by making a


long weld in weld causes a minimum of warpage
since the heat travels ahead of the weld into a
segment which is already welded.

Base Metal

(Parent Metal): The metal to be welded, or cut.

Bead - Forming

Weld deposits which are highly viscous and form a


bead when applied. :

Beveled Butt Joints

When a butt joint is to be made with sections too


heavy to permit a square butt joint, the sections are
beveled,

or

chamfered,

to

an

angle

of

approximately 90 . The choice of a single or


double bevel will depend upon the thickness of the
metal and whether the sections can be welded
from

both

sides.

double

bevel

uses

approximately 1/2 the amount of weld metal


required for a single bevel.
Bond Line

The transition zone or frontier zone between weld


deposit and base metal. Often called "Interface".

Brass

Brass is usually yellow in colour and formed into


sheets, tubes extrusions and bar stock. It's the
common

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GLOSSARY 3

Version 1.0

name

Revision 1.0

given

to

alloys

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

consisting

Reference: REC

essentially of copper and zinc, usually two parts


copper to one part zinc. This proportion, however,
is varied according to the purpose for which the
brass is to be used and sometimes small amounts
of other elements are added.
Brazing

A group of welding processes wherein the filler


metal is a non-ferrous metal or alloy whose melting
point is higher than 1000 degrees F, but lower than
that of the metals or alloys to be joined.

Brinell Hardness

The hardness of a metal as measured with Brinell


Testing Equipment.

Brinell Hardness Tester

The Brinell Hardness Tester consists of a rigid


framework with an adjustable anvil on which the
specimen is placed. By hydraulic pressure a small
steel ball is forced into the surface of the specimen
with a definitely controlled load. The size of the
impression varies with the hardness of the steel.
The diameter of the impression is read with a small
microscope which is calibrated by fine parallel
measuring lines so that the diameter of the
impression can be determined in millimeters. This
figure is converted to a Brinell hardness number by
reference to a standard table. Generally speaking,
hardness bears a close relationship to tensile
strength. The Brinell hardness number of steel
when multiplied by 500 will approxi-mate the
tensile strength in pounds per square inch.

Bronze

Bronze is reddish in colour and usually cast. It's


the name given to a large group of copper tin
alloys. Certain bronzes also contain zinc. Bronzes
are used for making of castings. coins, ornaments,
and have been known since ancient times.

Butt Weld

A butt weld is formed by placing the edge of two


plates together and passing a weld down the joint.

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GLOSSARY 4

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Buzz Box

Slang term for alternating current arc welding


machine.

Capillarity

If a tube with a very small diameter is dipped into a


liquified, the liquid is automatically sucked into the
tube. This is called capillary flow. The smaller the
diameter of the tube, the greater the action of the
capillarity. If the tube becomes microscopically
small, the suction effect becomes very fast. An
example is a blotter where the microscopic pores
of the proper fibres absorb ink. The same results
are achieved when Magna alloys are applied to
metal.

Carbide

A compound of carbon with one or more metallic


elements.

Carbide Precipitation

The gathering together of carbon in the structure of


a metal. For example, if unstabilized stainless steel
is heated to elevated temperature, it suffers
through a precipitation of the hardening which
takes place between 1,900 degrees F. and 900
degrees F. as it cools.

Carbon Arc Cutting

The process of severing metals by melting with the


heat of the carbon arc.

Carbon Arc Welding

Carbon Arc Welding is defined as an electric arc


welding process in which the arc is maintained
between a carbon or graphite electrode and the
base metal; the filler metal is supplied by a welding
rod melted in the arc.

Carbon Steel

Sometimes known as "Straight Carbon Steel" is an


alloy in which iron, carbon, and manganese are the
principle elements, Carbon steel also contains
sulphur, phosphorus and silicon, as well as small,
incidental quantities of such metallic elements as

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GLOSSARY 5

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

chromium, nickel, molybdenum, etc. The carbon


content of carbon steel may vary from as low as
0.03% to perhaps as high as 1.75%.
Carburizing Flame

Excess acetylene adjusted flame.

Cast Iron

This term generally includes pig iron, white cast


iron, malleable iron and grey iron. Cast iron is the
material used most frequently in the manufacture
of machinery. It is a ferrous alloy containing 2.1 to
4.0% carbon and is cast into moulds in liquid state.
Cast iron is not elastic and breaks if the stress
becomes too high without previous deformation.
Cast iron is not malleable, it can- not be forced
even when hot. If it is cooled quickly it becomes
glass hard and brittle.

Cast Steel

This is used for machine parts requiring higher


strength than can be obtained with cast iron. The
application may thus identify the material. The
fracture is bright grey and the unfinished surface
dark grey with probable evidence of the mould.
When newly machined it is very smooth and a
bright grey colour. The metal is easily chipped and
the chips will have smooth edges and can be
continuous if desired. When the flame test is
applied, the chips will melt rapidly. They become a
bright red before melting, and the slag appears
similar to the molten metal. The molten metal is
straw coloured and emits sparks under the torch
flame. A spark test will show white sparks. The
average length of the stream will be about 70
inches, depending upon the pressure, with a
moderately large volume. The shafts will be short
with forks and appendages. The forks become
more numerous as the carbon content increases.

Chamfering

Removing a corner from material so the edge


becomes an angle flat surface like one side of a
Vee.

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GLOSSARY 6

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Chipping

A method for removing seams and other surface


defects with chisel or gouge so that such defects
will not be worked into the finished product.

Co-Efficient of Expansion Is the rate a given material will expand when


subjected to a certain amount of heat.
Contact Welding

The use of a welding electrode with complete


contact of electrode end to base metal, rather than
using an arc-gap.

Convex

A surface that is rounded outwardly.

Cooling Strains

Internal stresses established by uneven cooling of


a member after welding.

Copper

Copper is easily formed, has high corrosion


resistance and is, therefore, used for many
applications. Its thermal conductivity is 5 to 6 times
greater than iron so copper requires a great
amount of heat for welding. Copper oxidizes when
hot. The oxides may remain in the metal and cause
brittleness in the weld with ordinary welding rods
which are not deoxidized as Magna Alloys are.

Copper and Copper

In its pure state copper is a reddish brown metal


and Alloys is used in it almost pure state for
electrical purposes. It is possible, therefore, to
recognize this metal by its end use, because next
to silver, it is one of the most electrically conductive
metals known.

Corrosion

Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a


metal by atmosphere, moisture, or other agents.

Corrosion Resistance

Ability

to

resist

oxidation

such

as

rust

or

deterioration and loss of weight by chemical action.


Cover Glass

A clear glass used to protect the lens in goggles,


face shields and helmets from spattering material.

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GLOSSARY 7

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Cracking

Fracturing and fissuring of a material.

Crater

A depression at the termination of an arc weld.

Cracking

Fracturing and fissuring of a material.

Crater

A depression at the termination of an arc weld.

Cross Check

Small transverse cracks or fissures in a weld.


Often called "check cracks".

Cushioning Layer

A soft deposit over a metal to be succeeded by a


harder layer. The softer layer allows the harder
layer to contract without cracking as it can expand
and contract due to its ductility.

D.C.

Direct current produced by most motor driven arc


welding machines and the newer "rectifier" sets.

Dense Deposit

A weld deposit which is free from holes, slag


inclusions, cracks or other imperfections.

Dentrite

A crystal formed by solidification of metal which


has a pine tree or fir tree like pattern with many
branches.

Deoxidized

Special processing to remove harmful oxide.

Deposited Metal

Metal that has been added by a welding process.

Die Castings

These metals are injected under pressure into heat


resistance steel moulds. The method is used for
making inexpensive small parts where small
dimensional tolerances are required.

Die Castings, Aluminium Aluminium die castings differ from zinc die castings
by their light weight, and from aluminium sand
castings by their clean, sharp edges. They do not
age and can be welded, using the same methods
as for aluminium sand castings.

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GLOSSARY 8

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Direction of Travel

Is the direction in which the deposits are going.


The angle at which the electrode is held, in relation
to the direction of travel, is the angle between the
electrode and the surface of the part not yet
welded.

Discolouration

Darkening, staining, or discolouring by oxidation


caused by air contamination while hot.

Distortion

Loss of dimensional stability.

Drag Technique

Using an electrode by maintaining complete


contact of weld metal with base metal i.e. Dragging
electrode in contact with base metal. This is
performed with electrode having coating which
cups over end of electrode to insulate electrode
from base metal.

Ductility

Ductility is the property of metals and alloys which


allows them to be drawn or stretched.

Electrical Conductivity

Ability to conduct electrical current.

Electrode Coatings

A sheath of doughy material on an electrode, not


to be confused with Magnas thermostat action
coatings which are delicately compounded to aid in
taking the skill out of welding and improving
physical properties.

Electrode Holder

A device used for mechanically holding the


electrode.

Elongation

Elongation is the amount that a specimen stretches


when broken; usually expressed as a percentage
of the original gauge length.

Embrittlement

The characteristic of not having ductility.

Exothermic

Marked by the liberation of heat - -opposite of


endothermic.

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GLOSSARY 9

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Extrusion

Shaping metal into a chosen continuous form by


forcing it through a dye of approximate shape.

Fatigue

The tendency for a metal to break under conditions


of repeat stressing considerably below the ultimate
tensile strength.

Faying Surfaces

The contacting surface of lapped metals in a lap


joint.

Ferrite

A structure of iron. (Metallurgically, a solid solution


in which Alpha iron on the solvent and which has a
body centred cubic crystal structure).

Ferrous Metal

A metal which is iron bearing (such as steel or cast


iron).

Filler Metal

Deposit of weld metal.

Fillet Weld

A fillet weld is a weld applied to the joint where one


plate is placed perpendicular to another.

Finger Nailing

The action of the electrode coating when it breaks


off in chunks during the welding operation.

Flame Hardening

The process consists of moving an oxy-acetylene


flame along the surface to be hardened at such a
rate that the surface is very rapidly heated to the
proper quenching temperature for the steel being
treated. Immediately following the Oxy-acetylene
flame is a spray of water which quenches the steel.
This rapid cooling hardens the steel to the depth to
which

the

hardening

temperatures

have

penetrated.
Flame Shaping

Partial machining accomplished by shaping a weld


deposit to reasonably close tolerances with the
torch flame. Also called "torch machining".

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GLOSSARY 10 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Forging

Forming of metal when heated with impact blows


or pressure.

Frictional Wear

Is the type of wear which takes place between a


rotating shaft and its bearings. Despite oil and
grease lubricants, the surfaces of the shaft and its
bearing touch one another. and the small everpresent

mountain-like

surfaces

knock

their

respective tops off, causing wear.


Fuming

The gasification of certain elements.

Fusion Welding

A group of welding processes in which metals


brought to the molten state at the surfaces to be
joined are welded with or without the addition of
filler

metal

and

without

the

application

of

mechanical pressure or blows.


Galvanised

The coating of steel with zinc to prevent rust.

Gamma Iron

The form of iron between 910 and 1400 degrees


C. An electron compound which has 21 valence
electrons to 13 atoms. In simple language a large
complex cubic structure.

Gas Cutting

The process of severing ferrous metals by means


of the chemical action of oxygen on elements in
the base metal.

Gas Pocket

A cavity in a weld caused by gas inclusion.

Gas Welding

Manual or automatic torch welding of metals, in


which

the

heating

is

accomplished

by

an

oxyacetylene or oxy-hydrogen flame.


Globular

Metal particles which are in irregular droplets and


are erratically transferred across the arc.

Gouge

An absence of metal which has been made by


removal through mechanical or heating methods.

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GLOSSARY 11 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Grains

Individual crystals in metals.

Gradient

Rate of change in a variable quantity.

Grey Cast Iron

This is the most common form of cast iron


encountered. It is used extensively in machinery
castings. The fracture will be of dark grey colour
and if a finger is rubbed across the surface of a
newly made fracture, it will be smudged by the
graphite.

Chips

melt

at

moderate

speed

becoming dull red before melting. The slag forms a


thick skin and the molten puddle is fluid watery and
reddish white. The puddle is quiet under the flame
and no sparks are emitted. The sparks from the
grinding wheel are red, turning to straw colour with
an average stream length of 25 inches. The
volume is small with many small repeating springs.
The metal is magnetic.
Earth Connection

An essential requirement for maximum welding


efficiency is a good earth connection between the
welding machine and the work. This is often
overlooked and pieces of scrap steel or iron are
used as a connection to the work table. Such
haphazard connect- ions are a constant source of
voltage drop and loss of current. This makes the
arc perform erratically. The first beads may be
perfect and yet beads at the end of the same pass
may show sign of overheated and burned metal.
The earth cable of insulated copper wire should be
as thick or thicker than the cable to the electrode. If
two pieces of cable have to be joined, to obtain the
necessary length. this should be done by a
competent electrician and well insulated. High
resistance and sparking will occur when a mild
steel plate is bolted to the cable and laid loosely
upon the work table.

Hard Spots

Areas where hardening elements combine in


solution

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GLOSSARY 12 Version 1.0

with

weld

Revision 1.0

or

base

metal

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

to

form

Reference: REC

unmachinable spots. For example the melting


together of carbon and iron to form a carbide.
Magna alloys are stabilized to prevent this
problem.
Hard Surfacing

Application of wear resisting welding deposits to


the surface of a metal to improve its wear
resistance and service life.

Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) The portion of the base metal whose structure or
properties have been altered by the heat of
welding.

Heat Treatable

A material which is hardenable by heat treatment.

Heat-Treatment of Metals Metals are usually heat-treated to impart to them


certain desirable physical characteristics, such as
hardness, toughness, softness, or intermediate
stages of these properties. This treatment consists
of subjecting metals to different types of thermal
cycles. This usually consists of heating a metal to a
certain temperature, followed by a controlled rate
of cooling, and then tempering by reheating.
Heliarc or Argon arc

A method of welding wherein the arc is made


between the base Welding metal and a tungsten
electrode and wherein an inert gas such as argon
engulfs the arc to prevent oxygen contamination.
The filler rod is directed into the arc by the operator
as in gas welding.

Helmet Shield

A protective device used in arc welding for


shielding the face and neck, equipped with suitable
filter glass lens and designed to be worn on the
head.

High Alloy Steel

Steel which has a high percentage of alloying


elements such as nickel, molybdenum, etc. to
impart special properties and refine the grain.

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GLOSSARY 13 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

High-Carbon Steel

The fracture is a very light grey in colour but the


unfinished surface is dark grey and rolling or
forging lines may be noticeable. When newly
machined it is very smooth and a bright grey.
The chip has a fine grain structure with the
edges lighter in colour than low-carbon steel. The
chip can be continuous if desired and, although the
metal is usually very hard, it can be chipped
without difficulty. Under the flame test the metal
melts very rapidly becoming bright red before
melting. The appearance of the molten slag is
similar to the molten metal. When held against the
grinder, the sparks are white with an average
stream length of 55 inches. There is a large
volume of springs with numerous small and
repeating springs.

High-Speed Steel

This name is usually applied to alloy tool steel


because of its composition. It has a high carbon
content which will be disclosed by its hardness
when file tested. The stream pattern is totally
different from high-carbon steels. The volume is
small but the colour is red close to the grinding
wheel turning to a straw colour toward the end of
the stream. The spurts of sparks are few in number
and of the forked variety.

High Thermal Energy

Energy produced by heat.

Hot Shortness

Brittleness in hot metal.

Impact Wear

In its simplest form is the result of sudden and


forceful contact of two surfaces one or both of
which is displaced from its original position.

Inconel

Inconel contains a higher nickel content than


Monel. An analysis shows approximately 78%
nickel, 13-1/2% chromium, 7% iron, and small
percentages of manganese, copper, silicon and

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GLOSSARY 14 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

carbon. The easiest way to identify Monel is to use


the acid test. Apply 1 drop of concentrated nitric
acid to the metal and permit it to remain for 1
minute. If there is no reaction, the metal is Inconel.
If the solution turns a cloudy blue-green colour the
metal is Monel.
Induction Heating

Induction Heating is a process in which heat is


generated in a metal part by placing it in an
alternating magnetic field. The reversal of this
magnetic field rapidly generates a high degree of
heat which can be used very effectively for metal
joining.This process is readily adaptable to mass
production. The Thin-Flowing Magna Alloys (such
as Magna 66) are very suitable for use with this
method.

Infra-Red & Ultra

Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Rays are given off by the


Violet Rays electric arc. They can be harmful
unless properly shielded.

Inert Arc

Arc welding with the use of inert arc equipment


which forms an arc between a Tungsten electrode
and the base metal. An inert gas (such as argon or
helium) envelope surrounds the weld to prevent
oxidation. Base metal must be very clean since no
flux is used. This process is used on production but
not very applic- able to maintenance welding due
to its lack of versatility and portability.

Internal Stresses

Are forces set up by high, uneven concentrations


of heat, as in fusion welding, which tends to distort
or deform the welded structure. The lower the heat
used, the lower the internal stresses.

Ion

An electrically charged atom which results from


gaining or losing an outer electron.

Islands

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Slang term for missing areas.

GLOSSARY 15 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Kinetic Viscosity

Viscosity divided by density.

Lap Welds

A lap weld is used where two plates are allowed to


overlap and the edge of the one plate is welded to
the side of the other by fillet welding.

Low Alloy Steel

In an endeavour to reduce dead weight in many


types of fabrication, particularly in the case of
transportation equipment, a number of steels have
been developed which are known as "low alloy"
steel. Steels in this group differ from carbon steel
in that they contain small amounts of such alloying
elements

as:

nickel,

copper,

molybdenium,

phosphorus, chromium, silicon, etc., in various


combinations and proportions. These steels are
tougher and have greater strength than straight
carbon steels of equal carbon content. Relatively
high mechanical properties are available in these
steels and their use is increasing as they become
better known.
Low-Carbon Steel

The degree of hardness is a good indication of the


carbon content in steel. The harder the steel, the
greater the carbon content. When a file test
indicates hardness up to Brinell 300 the metal is
low to medium-carbon steel. Above this rating the
steel is in the high-carbon classification. Other
characteristics are similar to those given for cast
steel.

Low Hydrogen Electrode The removal of most moisture from the coating of
an electrode by long baking time in manufacture.
Machinability

The term " Machinability" in a general way refers to


the speed with which metal can be removed by
machining. There are no definite means of
measuring

machinability

applicable

to

all

operations, so in judging the machinability of any


steel the following factors should be considered:1. The speed with which the metal may be

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GLOSSARY 16 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

removed. 2. The length of life of the cutting tool. 3.


The power consumed in removing the metal. 4.
The kind of surface produced on the machined
parts. 5. The heat developed by the cutting
operation. There are so many variables controlling
machinability that even under the most exacting
laboratory conditioins, it is almost impossible to
duplicate the many elements involved on two
different tests. It is, therefore, difficult to make
accurate comparisons of machinability between
different types of metals.
Magna Alloys

Welding alloys which have been produced of


certified and notarized analysis, under the most
exacting and strict quality control. They are
balanced alloys which have been highly deoxidized
and are highly alloyed and result in welds of the
highest strength and physical properties. They are
considered the finest welding materials available
because of their precise formulation.

Magnesium

This is a light, hard white metal which has


insufficient strength in its pure form to be of much
industrial use, but which alloys readily with
aluminium, manganese, zinc, etc. This produces
alloys comparable in strength to aluminium, yet
having only 65% of the weight.

Manganese Steel

When manganese is added to high-carbon steel


there is an increase in tensile strength and the
metal work hardens in use. This metal can be
recognised easily by the magnet test. Manganese
steel is non-magnetic.

Manual Weld

weld

made

by

an

operator

unaided

by

mechanically or electrically controlled equipment.


Martensite

An unstable constituent in quenched steel formed


without

diffusion.

It

is

the

hardest

of

all

transformation products of austenite.

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GLOSSARY 17 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Meehanite

A type of Alloyed Cast Iron.

Melting Rate

The weight of electrode consumed in a unit of time.

Metal Arc Welding

An arc welding process where in the electrode


supplies the

Metallic Arc Welding

filler metal in the weld.

Metallic Arc Welding is defined as an electric arc


welding process in which the arc is maintained
between a metal electrode and the base metal; the
filler metal is supplied by the melting electrode.

Microstructure

The structure of polished and etched metal as


revealed by the microscope.

Mild Steel

Steel which has low carbon content and little or no


other alloying elements.

Monel

Monel is an alloy of 65% to 70% nickel with


copper, manganese, iron, silicon, and carbon. The
fracture is slightly darker than that of nickel but the
other characteristics remain the same. Monel is
much less magnetic than nickel but is usually
harder.

Nickel

Nickel is a hard, white, malleable, ductile metal


which is valuable for the alloys it forms with other
metals. The fracture is coarse grained and almost
white. The unfinished surface is smooth, dark grey
in colour and when machined leaves a very
smooth, white surface. It can be chipped easily and
the chips will have smooth edges and can be
continuous if desired. It melts slower than steel and
becomes red before melting. The slag forms a grey
scum and the molten metal is very fluid under the
slag film.

Non-Ferrous Metal

A metal which is not iron bearing (such as copper


or aluminium).

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GLOSSARY 18 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Outgassing

Volatilization and /or gassification of elements


during welding. When certain elements are heated
during welding they go from solid to gas. When
they become gas, they escape through the weld
deposit - usually leaving their escape hole.

Overlay

Surfacing by addition of weld metal on the surface


of a part.

Oxides

When the oxygen in the atmosphere combines with


a metal a metallic oxide is formed. The commonest
of these is seen in the form of rust. This oxide
coating must be removed if a strong bond is to be
obtained, and, the speed with which the oxide will
reform depends upon the character of the metal.
Aluminium has an exceedingly high affinity for
oxygen and oxides will form almost as rapidly as
they are removed. This presents a bonding
problem that is overcome by the use of a Magna
Welding Brazing or Soldering Flux.

Padding Layer

A surface build up with welding alloy to increase


size, fill, or provide a build up or additional
segment of metal.

Pass-On-Pass

Without slag chipping, having a light weight low


viscosity slag which allows welding over previously
deposited slag.

Peel

In welding, a weld bead laminating from base


metal not unlike the fashion in which a peel is
removed from an orange.

Peening

The

mechanical

working

of

metal

by

light

hammering with a round nose hammer. Peening


has the effect of stretching the surface of the metal
and this relieves contractual stresses.
Penetration

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Depth of fusion of a weld into the base metal

GLOSSARY 19 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Pin Holing

Small holes in a weld, usually caused by


outgassing.

Pearlite

The lamellar (thin plates) of ferrite and carbide.


Under the microscope the structure has a pearly
appearance.

Plastic Range

Alloys do not usually melt at an exact melting point.


The degrees between the time when melting starts
and alloy becomes mushy to the time when the
alloy is completely liquid is called the plastic range.

Porosity

Unsoundness caused by blow-holes and the


releasing of gasses.

Position Welding

Welding in vertical or overhead as opposed to flat


welding where gravity assists welder.

Pot Metal

Slang term for white metal or zinc base die cast.

Preheat Broadly

Moving the preheat torch over the entire structure


being heated, rather than heating just one spot.

Preheating

Heat applied to base metal prior to welding or


cutting. Heating of a metal before welding to cause
controlled uniform expansion.

P.S.I.

Pounds per Square Inch. A standard used in


testing materials.

Puddle

In welding language the molten metal consisting of


melted filler rod and or melted base metal; this
forms a puddle.

Pyrolysis

Chemical decomposition of substances by the


action of heat.

Reducing Flame

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Same as carburizing, or excess acetylene flame.

GLOSSARY 20 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Refractory Metal

A metal which oxidizes so readily and extensively


that the oxides tend to insulate the base metal
from the heat and make it very difficult to melt or
weld.

Examples

are

Tungsten.

Titanium.

Molybdenum, etc., which are very difficult to bond


to.

Reverse Polarity

The machine operates on reverse polarity when


the electrode holder cable is connected to the
terminal marked positive, earth, ground or plus
sign. The cable to the earth connection marked
negative, electrode or minus sign. If the machine
possesses a polarity changing switch,. switch
should be in the position marked positive or
reverse.

Rockwell Hardness

The Rockwell Hardness Tester has an adjustable


table

Tester

on which the specimen is placed and a sharp


penetrator point through which the load is applied
to the specimen by a system of weights and levers.
A light or minor load is used to seat the penetrator
in the specimen. The major load is then applied.
The additional depth to which the penetrator is
driven by the heavy load is indicated on a dial in
terms of Rockwell Hardness. For testing softer
materials, a rounded ball penetrator is used and
hardness number is read on the "B" scale. For
materials having greater hardness. a diamond
point penetrator is used with a heavier load and
the hardness is read on the "C" scale.

Seal Weld (Seal Bead)

A weld used to obtain tightness.

Searing

A surface treatment by flame of a metal. Usually an


oxidizing torch flame is used to decompose and
remove surface impurities.

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GLOSSARY 21 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Shear Strength

Ability

of

material

to

withstand

parrallel

deformation.(i.e. Ability to be twisted).


Shim

A thin sheet of metal.

Short Arc

When tip of electrode is held very close to work. A


short arc results.

Skip Welding

Skip welding is, as the name implies, welding


intermittently.

Each pass is applied as far

from the last pass as

possible.

The

unconnected beads are finally joined with another


series of passes. This method is used on heat
sensitive material to prevent a local build-up of
heat. It is possible to keep a casting to a
comfortable hand heat throughout the entire
operation if this technique is used.
Slag

A product resulting from the action of a flux on the


non- metallic constituents of a metal in fusion or
melting.

Slag Inclusion

Non-metallic material entrapped in a weld.

Slag Removal

This is a term given to loosening and removing the


slag adhering to the weld deposits. The deposit is
struck with a chisel shaped or pointed hammer and
then brushed with a wire brush. This removes the
slag and exposes the weld deposit.

Soldering

Is

defined

as

joining

process

wherein

coalescence of the metal parts is produced by


heating to suitable temperatures generally below
800 deg. F. and by using non-ferrous filler metals
(solders) having melting temperatures below those
of the base metals. The solder is usually
distributed between the properly fitted surfaces of
the joint by capillary attraction.

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GLOSSARY 22 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Spatter Loss

The difference in weight between the amount of


electrode

deposited

and

the

weight

of

the

electrode consumed (melted).


Spot Welding

A resistance welding process wherein the fusion is


confined to a relatively small portion of the area of
the lapped parts to be joined.

Stabilized

Volatile elements or difficult to control elements


being controlled or kept at proper value through
introduction of another element or compound
having the ability to control the subject element.

Stainless Steel

Steel which has a high resistance to oxidation


usually caused by alloying with chromium and
nickel.

Sticking

When an electrode welds itself to base metal


during welding.

Stinger

Slang term for electrode holder.

Straight Beads

When

the

width

of

the

weld

deposit

is

approximately the same as the diameter of the


electrode the beads are known as straight beads.
This applies also to oxyacetylene called straight or
stringer beads.
Straight Polarity

The machine will operate on straight polarity when


the electrode holder is connected to the terminal
marked negative, electrode or minus sign. The
ground clamp is connected to the terminal marked
positive, ground, work, or plus sign. If the machine
is equipped with a polarity change the switch
should be in the position marked negative or
straight.

Stress Relieving

Is a heat-treatment used to eliminate stress set up


by welding.

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GLOSSARY 23 Version 1.0

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Reference: REC

Striker Plate

A piece of metal which is placed near the weld


area for the purpose of striking the electrode on it,
to avoid scarring or damaging the work piece by
striking the arc on it.

Strip Form

A welding alloy, such as Magna 66, made in a strip


rather than a wire form, Also known as ribbon or
shim.

Surface Checking

General cracking of the surface.

Surface Tension

An influence to be considered is surface tension. A


needle may be floated on the surface of a glass of
water; the film that supports it is what is known as
a surface tension film. This film is common to all
metals and must be eliminated if optimum results
are to be achieved. In the case of water, it is
eliminated by the use of detergents which increase
the "wettability" of water. The surface tension of
metals is destroyed by the application of Magna
Thermostat Action Flux.

Tack Weld

A weld used for assembly purposes only.

Tee Joint

A welded joint at the junction of two parts located


at approximate right angles to each other to form a
tee.

Tempering

A process of reheating quench hardened steel to a


temperature below the transformation range and
then cooling at any rate de- sired.

Tensile Strength

Tensile Strength or "ultimate strength" is the


maximum stress per unit of area, which can be
sustained without fracture. Any load in excess of
the tensile strength will cause the specimen to
break.

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GLOSSARY 24 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

Tensile Testing

A tensile test consists of applying a steadily


increasing pull or load to a standard sample and
recording the results as the sample is pulled and
ultimately broken. The tensile testing machines
may be either of a hydraulic or mechanical type.

Thermal Stress

The stresses produced in a structure or member


caused by differences in temperature of coefficients of expansion.

Thin-Flowing

A fluid alloy which flows by capillary action when


heated.

Thrown Out Of Balance

Elements in any position which are not in proper


proposition for favourable results.

Transformer

Device placed in an electrical circuit to reduce


voltage and increase amperage.

Undercut

Groove made in base metal along bead edges by


heat of the arc and left unfilled by deposited weld
metal.

Vee

Forming V shaped trough in surface metal or


between adjoining pieces by bevelling adjacent
edges.

Volt

Measures of presssure causing flow of electric


current.

VPM

Vickers Hardness Scale.

Warpage

Synonym for distortion - loss of dimensional


stability as a result usually of welding contraction
and expansion.

Weaving

When wider beads are required the electrode is


moved from side to side in a weaving motion. The
greatest efficiency results from a weave of not

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GLOSSARY 25 Version 1.0

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Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

more than 2 1/2 times the diameter of the


electrode.
Welding

Welding involves the heating of metal in a localized


area to melting temperatures. After a weld has
been completed, the heated steel cools both by
contact with the air and by conduction of the heat
from the welded area to the surrounding cooler
portion.

Welding Earth

The side of the circuit opposite the welding


electrode.

Welding Leads

Conductors furnishing an electrical path between


source of welding power and electrodes.

Welding Rod

Filler metal, in wire or rod form, used in the gas


welding process and those arc welding processes
wherein the electrode does not furnish the metal.

Wetting Action

The action of a weld deposit in flowing out a low


contact angle with the base metal and penetrating
the surface irregularities.

White Cast Iron

This metal is hard, brittle and magnetic. It is readily


broken by a sharp blow with a hammer and the
fracture will appear silvery and white. When white
cast iron is chipped the chips will be smooth, very
brittle and about 1/8 inch in size. The metal is so
brittle that the chips appear as small broken
fragments leaving a rough edge scored with
indentation.

White Metal

A general term covering alloys that are based on


tin, zinc, lead, or antimony, such as bearing, type
and babbitt metals.

Work Hardness

Hardness developed in metal as a result of cold


working.

Yield Point

As a sample is subjected to increasing stresses


beyond its elastic limit, there comes a point where
the sample will momentarily continue to elongate.

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GLOSSARY 26 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

even though the load is not increased; this point is


known as the yield point. The yield point is one of
the most important properties determined during a
tensile test, because it marks the point in loading
where a damaging deformation occurs.
X-Ray Inspection

Inspection of a weld by photographing it internally


by means of X-Ray wave length.

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GLOSSARY 27 Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October,1996

Reference: REC

WP

WELDING PROCEDURES - MELTING POINT OF COMMON


METALS

Metal

Melting Point
Degrees C

Degrees F

Aluminium

660

1220

Beryllium

1282

2340

Boron

2315

4200

Cadmium

321

610

Cast Iron

1260

2300

Magnesium

650

1202

Nickel

1455

2651

Silver

960

1761

Copper

1082

1981

Tungsten

3410

6170

Yellow Brass

899

1650

Alloy Steel

1482

2700

Manganese Bronze

887

1630

Stainless Steel

1399

2550

Monel

1426

2600

60-40 Lead Tin Solder

182

361

Manganese Steel

1343

2450

Mild Steel

1537

2800

* (Such as boiler plate, sheet steel, angle bars, etc.)

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MAL.63

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Reference: REC

WELDING

PROCEDURES

HOW

TO

TELL

THE

APPROXIMATE

TEMPERATURE OF STEEL BY THE COLOUR.


Colour of Metal

Degrees C Degrees F Colour of Metal

Degrees C Degrees F

Very Faint Yellow

215

420

Full Blue

293

560

Very Pale Yellow

221

430

Dark Blue

299

570

Light Yellow

226

440

Very Dark Blue

315

600

Pale Straw Yellow

232

450

Blue Green

332

630

Straw Yellow

237

460

Black Red

537

1000

Deep Straw Yellow

243

470

Blood Red

649

1200

Dark Yellow

249

480

Low Cherry Red

746

1375

Yellow Brown

254

490

Medium Cherry Red

774

1425

Brown yellow

260

500

Full Cherry Red

815

1500

Spotted Red Brown

265

510

Bright Red

843

1550

Brown Purple

271

520

Salmon

899

1650

Light Purple

276

530

Orange

940

1725

Full Purple

282

540

Lemon

996

1825

Dark Purple

288

550

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MAL.63

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WELDING PROCEDURES - REPAIR OF BROKEN MILLING CUTTERS.

Milling Cutters, made of high speed steel are expensive, sometimes difficult to
replace. With ordinary welding rods it has been impossible to repair these.
However the Magna Process makes it possible and practical to salvage these
costly tools when they crack or break.
The procedure:
1.

Bevel the crack on both sides to a depth of 1/3 the thickness of the cutter
with a grinder.

2.

Grind the surface 3/8" on either side of the bevel to remove oxides.

3.

Position the cutter on a fire brick or other non-metal surface.

4.

Flux the joint with Magna 33 Flux.

5.

Pack the teeth with Magna 904 to protect them.

6.

Heat the entire cutter to a dull red heat with a neutral flame and medium
sized tip.

7.

Use a brazing technique, start at centre of cutter and work to outside. Use
Magna 33F, size 3/32". When the bevel is filled on one side, turn the cutter
over and fill the groove on the other side.

8.

When the repair is finished, reheat entire cutter to an even dull red colour.

9.

Place cutter is a box away from drafts and allow to cool to room
temperature.

10.

Grind excess metal, wire brush and the repair is finished.

In some cases, a tooth breaks out of a cutter or teeth wear. These can be built
up with Magna 440. The procedure is to preheat the cutter to 482C (900F), a
dull red in dark room, and build up the missing or worn teeth with Magna 440,
then reheating to 482C (900F), allow to cool upright on bench covered with a
box. Then, grind to proper dimensions. Adjacent teeth should be covered with
Magna 901 plastic cement to prevent damage during welding.

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MAL.63

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New teeth build up with Magna 440

New section added from old cutter


Repaired Crack

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Reference: REC

WELDING TECHNIQUES - THE MAGNA TOOL AND DIE REPAIR WELDING


PROCESS

Considerable economies can be made by salvaging damaged, broken, or even


worn tools and dies through the Magna Process.

The outstanding feature of the Magna Process as compared to other methods


is that with Magna, in most cases the repaired die can be used without the
necessity of going through the heat treating cycle after welding. When die
repairs are attempted using ordinary welding rods, the dies invariably fail unless
the complete heat treating cycle is used after welding.

There are five broad classifications of tool steels:


These are Oil hardening tool steel, Water hardening tool steel, Hot working tool
steel, Air hardening tool steel, and High speed tool steel. Magna produces a tool
welding electrode for each of these basic types of tool steel, as follows:
Magna 460 provides an oil hardening tool steel deposit
Magna 430 provides a water hardening tool steel deposit
Magna 450 provides an air hardening tool steel deposit
Magna 470 provides a hot working tool steel deposit
Magna 440 provides a high speed tool steel deposit
Magna 480 provides all-prepare tool steel repair deposit

While there are several thousands of different tool steels around the world, all of
these fall into one of the six basic tool steel categories. It is neither necessary
nor desirable to have a welding electrode that is identical to each of the
thousands of tool steels. One of the five Magna tool steel electrodes will match
any tool steel in existence.

Magna tool welding electrodes provide two very important requirements in


maintaining tools and dies:
1. They match, as deposited, the hardness and physical properties of the
hardened base metal.
2. They can be annealed for machining, and rehardened, using the same heat
treating procedure as the base metal.

The as applied hardness of the Magna electrode is:

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Version 1.0

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Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Magna 460

56 to 61 Rockwell C

Magna 440

62 Rockwell C

Magna 430

60 Rockwell C

Magna 450

60 to 63 Rockwell C

Magna 470

46 to 51 Rockwell C

Magna 480

57 to 59 Rockwell C

The procedure is to use the Magna alloy that matches the base metal - that is
Magna 440 on high speed steel. Magna 450 on air hardening tool steel. etc.
When the analysis of the base steel is unknown, the following guide will assist in
deter mining the type of steel:

1. Single shear blades and tools without the need for precision dimensions are
usually water hardening.
2. Complex tools such as blanking dies, or tools with sharp changes in contour
are usually oil hardening.
3. Exceedingly intricate dies such as thread rolling dies where distortion would
be unacceptable are usually air hardening tool steel.
4. Dies which have to withstand abrasion, such as in forming spring steel
parts, would most likely be air hardening.

When in doubt, consider the die as oil hardening since an oil hardening deposit
would be nearest to a common denominator. There are more oil hardening steel
dies used in industry than any other type. Magna 480 can also be safely used
where the tool steels composition or type is unknown.

Preparation
The first step is to determine what must be repaired. An examination of the die
is necessary to determine if and where fractures exist. A Magnaflux machine or

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

MAL.63

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Reference: REC

the chemical penetrant method is helpful. Otherwise a magnifying glass can be


used. The fractures should be bevelled so that complete weld penetration may
be obtained. The next step is to preheat the die. In order that the maximum
preheat can be used without annealing the base metal, pre- heat 65 deg.C (150
deg.F) below the temperature of the tool steel base metal. The following can be
used as a rule of the thumb is exact heat treating cycles for the specific steel
being welded are not available.
Degrees C

Degress F

Air hardening tool steel

Preheat

343 to 482

650 to 900

Water hardening tool steel

Preheat

121 to 204

250 to 400

Oil hardening tool steel

Preheat

149 to 204

300 to 400

Hot working tool steel

Preheat

399 to 482

750 to 900

High speed steel

preheat

676

1250

If a furnace is not available or if the die is too large for a furnace, an


oxyacetylene torch can be used. When using a torch it should be moved
steadily to all areas of the die in order to achieve a uniform increase in
temperature. Dies should be slowly preheated. If the die is quite large, several
torches can be used simultaneously and fire bricks can be placed around the
die to hold heat. If a pyrometer is not available. Markal Thermomelt temperature
indicating paint sticks can be used to tell the exact temperature.

The first step in die welding is to cushion the weld. This is done by first applying
Magna 303, which is a tough, soft, machinable electrode which has
extraordinary elongation. It can withstand sudden temperature changes and
shock without cracking. This electrode is used to deposit a buffer layer of a
shock absorbing nature before the hard tool steel is deposited for the final
overlay. Use Magna 303 up to the final passes. Then deposit the appropriate
tool steel electrode such as Magna 460 on oil hardening tool steel. Magna 303
must not be used on the outer working surface since it is not hardenable. The
Magna tool steel electrodes are used for the final passes and these in the asapplied condition, are the hardness of the heat treated base metal. Since
hardened dies are metals of great restraint with almost no elongation, care must
be taken to avoid stresses. The use of Magna 303 as a cushion is very
important. Each deposit can be peened as additional precaution against
stresses. During welding too much heat should not be allowed to build up in the
die. A Markal Thermomelt temperature indicating crayon should be used to
make sure that the die does not exceed the draw temperature. If the die starts
to get too hot allow it to cool. On small dies an occasional air blast will assist in

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

MAL.63

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Reference: REC

preventing overheating.

After the welding operation the die should be tempered. It is not necessary to
re-heat treat using the Magna Process as tempering is all that is required.

In addition to using the Magna Process for repairing cracks, it can also be used
for building up worn areas, building up chipped sections, correcting design or
machining errors. The procedure again is to deposit Magna 303 first and cap
this with the appropriate tool steel electrode.

Meehanite and Cast Iron Dies


Meehanite and cast iron dies can be repaired with a similar procedure. Magna
770 is used for a cushion and on most dies for final passes since it is tough.
Where a harder deposit is required Magna 303 can be deposited over the
cushion and this will work harden to withstand heavy duty service.

Composite Die Construction


A great economy in tooling is the use of the Magna process for construction of
composite dies. It is often possible to construct tools and dies of low cost
carbon steel, or alloy steel, machine the part and then overlay the working
edges with Magna tool steel electrodes. For example, a punch can be made
from low cost steel and a few passes of Magna 460 completes the operation.
The deposit is hard as applied and needs only grinding to enable it to do
excellent work. The body of the tool can be prepared with the working areas
chamferred in preparation of the overlay. Where necessary the weld deposit
can be annealed for precision machining.

Boring bars, lathe tools, broaches and cutters can be made with low cost steels
for the body and Magna 440 for a working edge.
WELDING PROCEDURES - PUNCH AND DIE TYPES IN COMMON USAGE.

Type 1
a) Perforating Dies also punch holes through sheet metal and other materials,
but the punch diameters are usually several times larger than the work

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MAL.63

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Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

thickness or of different shapes than round.


b) Piercing Dies punch holes through sheet metal and other material, the
punched out material is considered scrap. The name `piercing' is given
because the punched holes are very small.
c) Shearing Dies are used for severing flat, round, and other stock but with a
considerable 'shear' or `slope' for cutting across a piece of metal.
d) Edging Dies are used to create a decided impression on the edges of
blanks. This is done in stages rather than one operation.
e) Cut off Dies are usually employed for severing flat, round, and other stock.
f)

Blanking Dies are the most commonly used in press operations.

g) Notching Dies are used to cut a series of straight or tapered openings. They
may be used with an indexing device for piercing out one or more notches
at time or for a complete set of openings around a circle or segment.
h) Shaving Dies finish pieces that must be held absolutely to size, requiring
smooth contours, with clear, sharp edges and corners.
i)

Hollow Cutting or `Drinking' Dies although generally used in manual


operations can also be used in press operations to punch non-metallic
material such as fabric, leather, paper. etc. The cutting edges are usually
bevelled to at least a 20 degree angle. Usually a hardwood block is used to
back up the blanking process when used in presses.

j)

Slotting Dies are used to punch out slots.

k) Trimming Dies are used to cut off flanges or extra metal on the edges of
articles that result from some kind of forming drawing, blanking, forging, etc.
operations.

Type 2
Dies that produce desired shape of work by causing the material being worked
to `flow' under tension, whether hot or cold.

a) Reducing Dies are used to taper or reshape the ends of a particular portion
of a piece.
b) Drawing Dies displace metal by forcing the material to the contours of the
punch and die by stretching, pulling etc. Blanks are forced into a high state
of metal flow which causes them to follow the contour of the punch

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MAL.63

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Reference: REC

producing a shell, cut or pan. The blank usually has a continuous wall with a
constant thickness.
c) Forming Dies will change blanks into any variety of shape by stretching,
curling, twisting, indenting, etc. any part of parts of the piece being worked.
d) Upsetting Dies are used to work metal by upsetting, flowing or forcing the
mass into each special form, usually in a hot operation.
e) Redrawing Dies eliminate wrinkles by redrawing a blank into an inverted die
or by re- drawing inside out.
f)

Forging Dies cause metal to flow into succeeding impressions by gathering,


shaping, reducing and bending the blanks for the final finished impression.

g) Plastic Moulds are a set of two moulds, heated by electricity, steam or oil to
plastify the plastic powder. These are also known as transfer or
compression moulds and consist of (1) Cavity Moulds or Performs which
hold the plastic powder and (2) plungers or force plugs. When heated,
these are brought together under extreme pressure to form the plastic
article.
h) Bulging or Expanding Dies by a mechanical compression action expand the
body of an article.
i)

Cupping Dies produce a shallow cup from a round blank.

j)

Die Cast Dies, somewhat like plastic moulds is a set of females with an
opening between them to allow the molten white metal to enter under
pressure.

Type 3
Dies that act upon stock by partially or entirely reforming without changing the
actual dimension.

a) Curling and Wiring Dies bend and form the end or side of a blank into a
circular shape around either a wire or opening depending on what is
required.
b) Bonding Dies change the original plane of a blank to planes in other
directions, producing one or more angles by bending projections on a blank

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

MAL.63

Version 1.0

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Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

or bending across its entire length or width.


c) Twisting Dies provide the blank with a different contour by a twisted
appearance.
d) Folding Dies fold over part, or all areas on a blank.
e) Offsetting Dies produce a change in the plane of a blank.

Type 4
Units that work under heavy pressure to compress a flow of metal or other
materials into the desired form.

a) Staking Dies spread metal to hold pins and rivets in holes, usually retaining
the pins or rivets flush with the face of the member being worked on.
b) Coining Dies operating under very heavy pressure work or strike up a clear
cut design in metals. Jewellery, etc. and are usually worked cold.
c) Extrusion Dies are used to force out from a flat surface. blank, or projection.
such as a pin.
d) Heading Dies are used to strike up the heads of blanks forming a definite
contour.
e) Embossing Dies are commonly used for making jewellery and are
comprised of several distinct types. Dies proper are struck up from a master
which is an exact duplicate of the work to be produced. When used on
sheet metal parts. they are often combined with blanking and drawing dies
to form an impression on the parts being welded.
f)

Riveting Dies are made in a great variety and are used to fasten parts
together by up setting the ends of pins or rivets to hold the parts together.

Other Types of Dies


Following are various types of dies that cannot be classified because of their
varying applications.

a) Marking or Numbering Dies mark the face of the work with numbers or
symbols without moving an appreciable amount of metal nor forming deep
impressions.
b) Assembling Dies are used in presswork. such as the manufacture of chain
which is assembled in dies as the pieces are blanked out and formed up.

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Reference: REC

c) Strengthening or Flattening Dies flatten a blank by striking in between two


plain surfaces of the dies without spreading or thinning the work.
d) Burnishing or Sizing Dies have no clearance for cutting and provide a very
smooth finish for the edge of the pieces, sizing them exactly.
e) Crimping Dies are used for pinching to grip some other piece in the end or
side of a blank.
f)

Pinch-Off Dies trim off rough ends of cup shaped pieces being worked or
drawn through a die.

WELDING PROCEDURES - AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR BLOCKS

In the past many workshops have attempted to weld a cracked motor block with
either oxy-acetylene or arc welding techniques. Most of the attempts have been
a waste of time since the welding resulted in a failure or a repair that leaked and
soon had to be replaced. Ordinary welding causes stresses which are so
intense that cracks occur later near the weld area. When electric arc repair is
used, with ordinary electrodes. the weld stresses cause the crack to propagate.
New cracks appear, and the weld generally seeps.

Using the proper procedure, motor blocks can now be repaired due to the
development of Magna 770 which has a super elongation which acts as a built
in stress reliever. Thousands of motor blocks have been repaired using the
following procedure.

1. Locate the crack and bevel it half way through the wall thickness. Clean the
scale from the cast iron 13 mm (1/12 in.) on either side of the crack with a
file or grinder. Drill a small hole just beyond the ends of the crack to stop the
crack progressing as heat is applied.
2. Drill a hole and tap it to accept a 6 mm (1/4 in.) cap screw in the centre of
the fracture. Screw the cap screw up to the thread ends and saw off the
excess screw leaving a flush surface. The bolt will keep the fracture from
`breathing' while it is being welded and will prevent movement under heat of
the cast iron on either side adjacent to the crack. By preventing the
movement, cracking is eliminated and weld seepage is eliminated.
3. Dry out crack with an oxyacetylene torch. Do not heat more than 149 deg. C
(300 deg. F). Drying the iron is important to avoid hydrogen and oxygen and

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

MAL.63

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Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

moisture interfering with the weld. If the motor block is in the truck frame.
the water should naturally be drained first.
4. Next weld the cast iron using a back step procedure. Start 50 mm (2 ins.)
from one end of the crack and 50 mm (2 ins.) Then step back 50 mm (2
ins.) and weld into the preceding weld. Continue this procedure until the
weld is completed. This method will eliminate stress cracking since the
welding heat will not travel far in advance of the welding to create stresses.

The result will be a perfect repair without cracks or bleeders.

This procedure can only be accomplished using Magna 770 because only
Magna 770 has the elongation and toughness necessary for critical repairs such
as motor blocks. cylinder heads. pumps, housings, compressors and similar
repair projects.

WELDING PROCEDURES - CHAIN SAW BAR OVERLAY

The critical wear areas of chain saw bars must be overlaid with Magna 44 or
else rapid failure is almost certain. Bars overlaid with a thin layer of Magna 44
will outwear bars not overlaid, 20 to 1. This alloy has been thoroughly proven for
both gear drive saws and direct drive saws. Magna 44 makes a smooth thin
overlay that requires very little grinding, yet it can be ground. There is no
porosity. Magna 44 will withstand high heat and friction, does not check, crack
or chip off and is easily applied. Magna 44 in 3 mm (1/8 in.) diameter is
preferred since very little alloy is required. Generally on small bars just the
noses are overlaid but larger bars designed for more rugged use require
protection along the entire surface edge. Magna 44 is applied with a medium
sized tip adjusted to an excess acetylene flame (a feather two times as long as
the inner cone). The steel is heated to a dull red and the inner core is held
against the steel and the alloy melted and flowed out as in brazing. The excess
acetylene flame will cause the carbon in the flame to combine with the steel
surface and liquefy the surface below the melting point of the steel. This results
in a brazing type of application using Magna 44. Usually less than 25 cents of
alloy is required per bar, varying with size of bar.

WELDING PROCEDURES - SPRINGS

Proper preparation is of the greatest importance in welding springs. The fracture

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

MAL.63

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

must be fully bevelled on each side 60 deg. The spring parts can best be
clamped to an unbroken spring to obtain perfect alignment. Be sure and leave a
gap the thickness of a 5 cent piece between two members to allow penetration
of the weld to be 100%. If the weld is not solid and a void is left in the centre of
the weld, flexing will cause a fatigue failure due to the notch.

Next weld the bevel on one side using Magna 303 and then grind the weld flush,
making sure there are no notches. Next, turn the spring over and weld the other
side. At the outer edges apply a weld which extends for one inch on either side
of the bevel on each edge. This will make certain there is no notch at the weld
ends.

This repair must be made with Magna 303 only, as ordinary electrodes cannot
weld spring steel successfully. Magna 303 is the only electrode where carbon
migration does not occur, and this makes possible, for the first time,
dependable spring repairs.

WELDING PROCEDURES - GALVANIZED IRON USING MAGNA 27

A DC Arc Welding Machine adjusted to straight polarity (electrode negative), at


about 50 amps is required. Insert a 4mm (5/32 in.) or 4.8 mm (3/16 in.) carbon
with a long taper into the electrode holder, with about 50 mm (2 ins.) of carbon
between the holder and the base metal. Use Magna 27 in size 2.4 mm (3/32 in.)
Hold the welding alloy at a very low angle (about 15 degs.) to the base metal
butt joint. Hold the carbon very close to the welding alloy so that the heat is
concentrated on the welding alloy and there is practically no heat on the base
metal. The carbon should be held almost perpendicular to the work piece. With
the filler rod held in the left hand and the electrode holder in the right hand,
motions are used similar to gas welding. Welding gloves are necessary.

Magna 27 will flow out in a clean bead without porosity or warpage with
practically no damage to the galyanized sheet. If at all possible, use an offset
lap joint as this is a preferred design. Tack all seams over 150 mm (6 ins.) long.

Magna 27 has a special alloy plated on it which prevents the alloy from
oxidizing, but repairs and fills in any damaged galvanized area. The corrosion
resisting qualities of the sheet are not impaired and because of the high speed,
virtually no distortion occurs. An AC welding machine cannot be used for carbon
arc welding and AC carbons must not be used.

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purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

MAL.63

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

WELDING PROCEDURES - CORROSION RESISTANCE CHART


This chart is to be used only as a Guide since the
factors which induce corrosion are so variable.
Code:

A Excellent
B Good

C Fair
D Poor

Acetate Solvents, Crude


Acetate Solvents, Pure
Aceton
Alcohol
Aluminium Sulphate
Alums
Amonia Gas
Ammonium Chloride
Ammonium Hydroxide
Ammonium Nitrate
Ammonium Phosphate
Ammonium Sulphate
Asphalt
Beer
Beet Sugar Liquors
Benzene or Benzol
Benzine
Borax
Boric Acid
Butane, Butylene
Butadiene
Calcium Bisulfite
Cane Sugar Liquors
Carbon Dioxide (Dry)
Carbon Dioxide (Wet)
Carbon Tetrachioride
Chlorine Dry
Chiorine Wet
Chromic Acid
Citric Acid

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Magna Industrial reserves the right to modify or change this product for
purposes of improving its performance characteristics.

MAL.63

M
A
G
N
A
4
5

M
A
G
N
A
8
N
1
2

M
A
G
N
A
7
1
1

M
A
G
N
A
5
5
&
5
6
C

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
A

A
A
A
B
C
A
D
D
B
A
D
B
A
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
A
D
A
A
A
B
D
D
D
B

Version 1.0

M
A
G
N
A
2
4

M
A
G
N
A
6
5

M
A
G
N
A
7
7
F

M
A
G
N
A
3
3
F

M
A
G
N
A
3
0
3

M
A
G
N
A
3
9
0

M
A
G
N
A
5
0
5

M
A
G
N
A
2
1
0

M
A
G
N
A
3
9
3
/
3
9
5

B
A
A
A
B
C
C
B
D
C
D
C
A
B
B
A
A
B
C
A
A
D
B
A
B
A
B
D
D
C

C
A
A
A
B
C
C
C
D
C
D
C
A
B
B
A
A
B
B
A
A
D
A
A
B
A
B
C
D
B

C
A
A
A
C
C
C
C
D
C
D
C
B
B
B
A
A
B
B
A
A
D
B
A
B
A
B
C
C
B

C
A
A
A
C
C
C
C
D
C
D
C
B
B
B
A
A
B
B
A
A
D
B
A
B
A
B
C
C
B

A
A
A
A
B
B
A
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
C
B
B

A
A
A
A
B
B
A
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
C
B
B

A
A
A
B
C
A
D
D
B
A
D
B
A
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
A
D
A
A
A
B
D
D
D
B

B
A
A
A
B
B
C
B
D
C
D
C
A
B
A
A
A
B
B
A
A
D
A
A
B
A
D
C
D
B

A
A
A
A
B
B
A
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

WELDING PROCEDURES (CONTINUED)

CORROSION

RESISTANCE

CHART

This chart is to be used only as a Guide since the


factors which induce corrosion are so variable.
Code:

A Excellent
B Good

C Fair
D Poor

M
A
G
N
A
2
4

M
A
G
N
A
6
5

M
A
G
N
A
7
7
F

M
A
G
N
A
3
3
F

M
A
G
N
A
3
0
3

M
A
G
N
A
3
9
0

M
A
G
N
A
5
0
5

M
A
G
N
A
2
1
0

M
A
G
N
A
3
9
3
/
3
9
5

M
A
G
N
A
4
5

M
A
G
N
A
8
N
1
2

M
A
G
N
A
7
1
1

M
A
G
N
A
5
5
&
5
6
C

Cokeoven Gas

Copper Sulphate

Cottonseed Oil

Creosote

Ethers

Ethylene Glocol

Ferric Sulphate

Formaldehyde

Formic Acid

Freon

Gasoline Sour

Gasoline Refined

Gelatine

Glucose

Glue

Glycerine

Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrofloric Acid

Hydrogen

Hydrogen Peroxide

Lacquers

Lime Sulphur

Magnesium Chloride

Mercury

Milk

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MAL.63

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

Molasses

Nitric Acid

Oleic Acid

Oxygen
Palmitic Acid
Picric Acid
Propane
Rosin (dark)
Rosin (light)
Shellac
Soda Ash
Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium Cyanide
Sodium Hydroxide
Sodium Nitrate
Sodium Perborate
Sodium Sulphate
Stearic Acid
Sulphate Liquors
Sulphur
Sulphuric Acid 75% to 95%
Sulphurous Acid
Tar
Tartaric Acid
Trichlorethylene
Vegetable Oils
Varnish
Vinegar
Acid Mine Water
Fresh Water
Salt Water
Whiskey
Wines
Zinc Chloride
Zinc Sulphate

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
B
B

A
A
C
A
A
B
A
D
B
D
D
A
C
A
A
D
A
D
D
A
B
A
A
A
A
C
A
B
C
C
D
B

A
B
D
A
B
D
A
B
A
D
C
B
B
A
B
D
C
C
B
A
B
A
B
B
B
C
B
B
B
B
B
B

A
B
D
A
B
D
A
B
A
D
C
B
B
A
B
D
C
C
B
A
B
A
B
B
B
C
A
B
B
B
B
B

A
B
D
A
B
D
A
A
A
D
C
B
B
A
B
D
C
C
B
A
B
A
B
B
B
C
A
B
B
B
B
B

A
B
D
A
B
D
A
A
A
D
C
B
B
A
B
D
C
C
B
A
B
A
B
B
B
C
A
B
B
B
B
B

A
B
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
C
C
A
B
A
A
A
B
C
A
B
A
A
D
B

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
B
C
A
B
A
A
B
B

A
B
C
A
A
B
A
D
B
D
D
A
C
A
A
D
A
D
D
A
B
A
A
A
A
C
A
B
C
C
D
B

A
B
D
A
B
D
A
B
A
D
C
B
B
A
B
D
C
C
B
A
B
A
B
B
B
C
B
B
B
B
B
B

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
A
B
A
A
B
B

WELDING PROCEDURES - BASE METAL BONDING TEMPERATURES OF


MAGNA ALLOYS

Degree C

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Magna 21

843

1550

Magna 24

704 to 732

1300 to 1350

Magna 27

962

1800

Magna 31

Fusion

Magna 33F

704 to 871

1300 to 1600

Magna 37

Fusion

Magna 44

871 to 962

1600 to 1800

Magna 45

962 to 1093

1800 to 2000

Magna 51

179

354

Magna 55

Below Fusion

Magna 65

618 to 643

1145 to 1190

Magna 66

604 to 626

1120 to 1160

Magna 67F

618 to 652

1145 to 1205

Magna 70

Below Fusion

Magna 75F

760 to 871

1400 to 1600

Magna 77F

649 to 815

1200 to 1500

Magna 79

310

590

Magna 80

182 to 209

360 to 408

Magna 86C

182 to 211

360 to 412

Magna 87EC

129

264

Magna 88C

215

419

WELDING PROCEDURES - SAE Steel Numbering Procedure


The SAE Standard System provides a simple method of indicating the
composition of the various steel grades in use. Knowing the analysis of a steel
will often be of help in determining the proper welding procedure and the
appropriate Magna Alloy for welding the steel.

The SAE system is based on the use of numbers composed of four or five
digits. The first digit indicates the type to which that particular steel belongs, as
follows:

1. Carbon Steel
2. Nickel Alloyed Steel
3. Nickel-Chromium Alloyed Steel

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4. Molybdenum Alloyed Steel

5. Chromium Alloyed Steel


6. Chromium Vanadium Alloyed Steel
7. Tungsten Alloyed Steel
8. Nickel Chromium Manganese Alloyed Steel
9. Silicon Manganese Alloyed Steel

The second digit (in the case of alloy steels) indicates the approximate
percentage of the principal alloy. The final two digits indicate the carbon content
in one-hundredths of one percent.

For example: In the case of SAE 4130, the number 4 indicates the principal
alloying element is Molybdenum, the number 1 indicates it has approximately
1% molybdenum and the number 30 indicates approximately 0.30% carbon.

The analysis, as readily indicated by the SAE number gives clues as to the
appropriate Magna Alloy to be used for welding, when the SAE number is
known.

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WELDING PROCEDURES - BUILDING UP SWITCH POINTS AND FROGS


ON RAILWAY TRACK EQUIPMENT.

The impact of railroad car wheels cause track switch points and frogs to wear
and crack. Railroads have long attempted to repair them with welding.
Sometimes the results have been good but in many cases the overlay has worn
down soon and the repaired cracks have cracked again.

The Magna Process makes it possible to repair the frogs and switch points and
obtain optimum results. Over lengthy tests on Magna alloys and procedures, it
has repeatedly been proven to offer numerous advantages over all other repair
methods. The Magna process is adaptable to all types of rails including Rigid
rail bound manganese high speed main line service frogs, self-guarded solid
flange manganese frogs, and the older open hearth frogs. The following
procedure is used:

a) Remove cracks and fractured metal with Magna 100. This electrode will
chamfer the fatigued metal and cracks without damage to the base metal. A
cutting torch should not be used for two reasons. There is too much heat
which damages the rail and a torch will seal the cracks and make them
invisible. With Magna 100, if the crack is not completely removed it will still
be visible.

b) Overlay the worn surfaces with Magna 402. The procedure is to weld beads
about 200 mm (8 ins.) long and skip about over the entire work area to
balance heat and keep excess heat from building up at one spot. After each
deposit peen with a peening hammer until the hammer bounces back.

c) Magna 402, unlike ordinary manganese steel type electrodes can be used
for both overlay and joining, the one electrode does the complete job.
Magna 402 will weld the cracks which have been bevelled and provide very
high strength welds that will not crack.

d) The finished weld can be ground with a grinder to book of standard


specifications. The finished weld is so smooth that only a minimum of
grinding is necessary. Magna 402 positively will not crack as ordinary
manganese steel electrodes do.
WELDING PROCEDURES - WELDING CRANE RAILS.

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In plants, steel mills, warehouses, powerplants, etc., overhead cranes represent


a constant upkeep and maintenance problem in steel mills, factories, and
industrial workshops. Damage is often caused by the bolted rail ends on the
main side rails. As is well known, overhead cranes carry heavy loads across
buildings and vibration caused by the constant travel over the rails loosens the
bolts at the ends. Eventually the overhead crane starts to vibrate on its travel,
setting up fatigue in the axles of the crane and soon a breakdown occurs,
resulting in costly downtime. The solution is to weld the crane rails instead of
bolting them. This type welding could not be done until the development of
Magna 303 because rails are high carbon steel which cannot be welded with
ordinary electrodes. The welding procedure follows:

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Bevel the rails from both sides with Magna 100.

It is not necessary to preheat the rails when using Magna 303 due to the
high elongation of this remarkable electrode which does not crack, even on
high carbon rail steel.

Tack the ends of the bottom flange and the top of the rail.

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Next weld a bead across the top of the rail and peen after welding until the
hammer bounces back in the hand.

Next weld the bottom flange from the outside to the centre web. Peen after
welding. Continue welding, alternating between the top of the rail and the
bottom of the flange until both areas are completed. Next finish the joining
operation by welding the centre web from the bottom to the top.

Grind excess metal off so the two rails are completely smooth.

High carbon steel crane rails as well as railroad rails can be welded together
with Magna 303 with no danger of weld failure.

WELDING PROCEDURES - REBUILDING COPPER CONTACTS

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Copper contact wear from friction of the switch and from arcing. In some
industries such as power houses, electro chemical industries, railroads, and
foundries the cost is great. Many engineers have tried to rebuild these with
welding but the results have not always been good. With arc welding the weld is
rough and porous and poorly bonded. With brazing the contact does not have
good electrical conductivity and the build-up area soon arcs and pits.

Contacts are usually made of tough pitch high oxygen bearing copper. They are
difficult to weld with ordinary welding rods. However, Magna 29 will flow on
these nicely, giving a deposit that is free from porosity and has 100% the
conductivity of pure copper. It will stand up well to arcing and performs better
than a new contact. An oxyacetylene torch is used and the copper work piece is
heated to a cherry red colour. Next the alloy is fused with the base metal.

Magna 24 can also be used on copper contacts. This alloy flows at a lower
temperature and makes a smooth overlay. It has high conductivity but has a
lower remelt temperature than the copper. On some heavy duty contacts where
much arcing is present it does not perform as well as Magna 29. Magna 24 is
applied by heating the copper to a dull red and the alloy flows freely over the
surface with great fluidity.

WELDING PROCEDURES - JOINING COPPER TUBING TO ALUMINIUM


TUBING

In the refrigeration industry it is often necessary to join an aluminium tubing


from an evaporator to a copper tubing. This is impossible with ordinary welding
rods but can be accomplished readily with Magna 51.

First insert the aluminium tube into the flared end of the copper tube. Paint
Magna 51 Flux on the joint area. Heat broadly with a soft flame until the flux
turns an amber colour. Then apply Magna 51 alloy which will flow through the
joint giving a smooth neat joint. The joint will be strong and leak proof and will
stand up indefinitely. Magna 51 flux is non-corrosive even on the aluminium and
need not be removed.
WELDING PROCEDURES - REPAIRING MACHINE SHOP BAND SAW
BLADES

When band saws break they can be repaired using Magna 66. The procedure
is:

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1. Taper the mating ends of the broken saw with a file for 13 mm (1/2 in.) so
that they will lap and be flush.
2. Next place the bottom piece on a piece of asbestos or a fire brick.
3. Apply Magna 66 flux to both pieces with a brush.
4. Use a screwdriver to hold the upper section in place over a base section.
5. Flow a few drops of Magna 66 alloy through the joint. Squeeze out any
excess with the screwdriver. Use a very soft excess acetylene flame.
6. Allow to cool. Dress off any excess metal with an emery cloth.
7. Next anneal the saw blades so that it will not break next to the weld when
flexing. This is done by heating the saw adjacent to the weld to a blue heat.
This can be done with a torch, although a candle is preferable. The
important thing is not to allow the temperature to reach a red colour in the
steel. A blue colour will remove brittleness but a red heat will cause
brittleness. Now the saw is ready for use.
WELDING PROCEDURES - REBUILDING TRACTOR ROLLERS FOR
GREATER ECONOMY.

Tractor rollers are used in all types of crawler type tractors. This equipment is
used

by

Government

Agencies.

Construction

Contractors,

Highway

Departments, Timber Logging, Farming, and many other industries.

The rollers are a vital part of a crawler type equipment, and are a guide for the
fails that are driven by sprockets to make a crawler tractor. Rollers of this type
are subjected to extreme wear when working in abrasive soil, and to impact, for
the rails strike them. This type of roller is usually made of low alloy steel to
withstand abrasion and impact. These tractors work in many types of earth
formations. The rollers are about 18 mm (11/16 in.) in diameter and about 57
mm (2 1/4 ins. ) wide. The build-up alloy recommended is Magna 405, 4.8 mm
(3/16 in. ) size, on reverse polarity (electrode positive) or AC and about 240
amps. One pass is usually adequate. The overlay thickness depends on how
much build-up is necessary due to wear, but is usually about 6 mm (1/4 in.).
This is accomplished by varying the travel speed of the electrode.

Magna 401 is used for final surfacing. The size of the electrode to be used is
4.8 mm (3/16 in.) with machine adjusted to DC Reverse Polarity (electrode
positive) or AC. The amps used are 250 with only one pass, and the overlay
thickness is about 5 mm (approx. 3/16 in.) Total time per roller is about one
hour.

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New rollers without hard-surfacing applied last about 4 months in usual service.
Rollers hard-surfaced with this procedure lasts two times as long as new ones
in almost every case.

Magna 405 is applied with a slight weave travelling the circumference of the
roller. By using this method, the operator can speed or slow up the electrode
travel. This enables him to true up or square up a roller that is worn on one side
more than the other, which happens in many cases. This procedure makes it
very easy to apply a uniform overlay of Magna 405 hard-surfacing rod, which is
applied using a wide wash bead covering the entire width of the roller. This
gives a very smooth surface so that grinding is not necessary. Welding is
accomplished with about a ten degree down hand pass. Any welder should try
this method for it produces the smoothest and most economical hard-surfacing
job.

There are no precautions taken by the shop other than to keep the roller cool by
putting the build-up rod on and letting it cool, then doing the hard-surfacing.
Most people build up a roller about two-thirds submerged in water with constant
turning. With this procedure, submerging is not necessary.

This procedure saves considerable down time. It is illustrative of the thousands


of case histories where Magna wear resisting overlays saves money for Industry
every day.

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WELDING PROCEDURES - HOW TO OVERLAY SHAFTS

Magna 305 is the solution to shaft overlay because this electrode is absolutely
spatter free and does not have porosity even on sulphur bearing steels and
selenium bearing steels. Magna 305 machines easily and is so tough that it will
allow a full thread to be machined whereas ordinary electrodes only permit 2/3
of a thread to be cut.

Warpage is a fact to be considered in shaft overlay. All overlaying requires heat


and localized heat accompanied by non-uniform cooling always causes
distortion unless steps are taken to counteract or control the expansion and
contraction.

When a long area must be built up on a shaft, the solution is to deposit Magna
305 in a long spiral parallel with the shaft. The shaft can be rotated by hand or in
a lathe during the welding. The bead is deposited lengthwise with the shaft on a
spiral, from one end completely to the other of the area to be built up. When one
bead is completed, another is deposited adjacent to and overlapping by 1/3 the
previous bead and this is continued until the complete overlay is finished. The
long spiral causes the heat to be focused on the shaft in such a way as to
ensable the shaft curvature to balance opposing forces so that distortion is
virtually eliminated. The expansion and contraction is balanced around a neutral
axis. Additionally the weld overlay is diagonal to bearings, packing glands and
the danger of snapping a notch sensitive steel is minimized, since with the long
spiral, there is no one sharp vulnerable notch since Magna 305 does not
undercut.

When short areas, such as 100 mm (approx. 4 ins.) and under are to be
overlaid, this can be best accomplished with a Z shaped overlay first being
made completely around the shaft. Then each segment or V in the pattern is
filled in. This method also prevents warpage since contraction and expansion
are balanced and opposing forces keep the weld reinforcement from causing
warp-age.

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WELDING PROCEDURES - JOINING ABRASIVE SAWS USED IN MARBLE


AND GRANITE QUARRIES AND BY MONUMENT MANUFACTURES

In monument manufacturing, or in quarrying the stone for this purpose, saws


are extensively used. The most popular abrasive saw consists of three strands
of twisted tempered wire. Large stones are rapidly and accurately cut by the
saw which is impregnated with finely ground wet abrasives and travels a circular
path through the stone.

When these wires break, costly downtime results. In the past, attempts have
been made to silver solder or braze the saws but the joints did not withstand
service conditions. Additionally the braze resulted in too much build up and
valuable time is lost in filing to proper dimensions. Also the inherent embrittling
of the steel by the welding heat caused failure next to the weld. These saws can
be successfully joined by the use of Magna 33F. The fractured parts are butted
together and with a small torch, Magna 33F is flowed through the fracture by
capillary action. The result is a smooth strong joint. After joining, Magna 33F is
so strong the saw will lift 3700 Kg. (8000 pounds) of dead weight. With this test,
braze and silver solders fail, but Magna 33F supports this weight without
fracture. Magna 33F in 2.4 mm (3/32 in.) diameter is preferred. The repair is
most economical, requiring only a few minutes and a few cents worth of alloy.

WELDING PROCEDURES - HAMMER HARD FACING

In quarries and mines, equipment and machinery are subjected to tremendous


wear from both impact and abrasion. Hammers are subjected to very severe
impact abrasion. These hammers are usually made from manganese steel or
other alloy steels.

The recommended procedure is to overlay with Magna 402, size 4.8 mm (3/16
in.) at about 185 amps. The amount of overlay required will depend on the
length of time used before overlay. Usually about three passes gives about 10
mm (3/8 in.) approx. thickness of build-up. Next overlay with Magna 407, size
4.8 mm (3/16 in.) on reverse polarity at about 185 amps, with only one pass,
about 3 mm (1/8 in.) approx. thick.

The best method is to put four of five hammers side by side. Then weld on each
only a short time, in order to keep the interpass temperature low. This involves

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skipwelding from one hammer to the next. Usually these hammers should have
a square leading edge for maximum production. It is important to keep the
weight of these hammers very close.

The normal service lift of a new hammer not hard-surfaced varies from about
one week to six weeks depending on type of material being crushed. The
expected service life of a hammer hard-surfaced with Magna 402 and 407 is
approximately three times as long, resulting in a substantial economy.
WELDING PROCEDURE - HARD SURFACING TWO PARTS IN CONTACT
WITH EACH OTHER.

If two parts that have been built up with the same hard surfacing electrode are
in contact with each other in use, the overlay will show excessive wear.

Magna 403 and Magna 401, however, are so formulated that they can work
against each other without difficulty, also Magna 405 and Magna 407 can work
against each other. When working against each other, these alloy combinations
mate with balance. All have high compressive strength and are non-cracking.
The combination of these alloys working together prevents premature wear,
which usually occurs when two equally hard surface materials are subjected to
working against each other.
WELDING PROCEDURES - REBUILDING AUTOMOTIVE AND DIESEL
CRANKSHAFTS

Automotive crankshafts become scored, and must be rebuilt or scrapped. The


use of ordinary welding rods results in porous weld deposits and fine fissure
cracks at the edge of the weld. In many cases complete fracture of the
crankshaft adjacent to the edge of the weld follows.

This repair is made with Magna 405 successfully. Porosity or cracking do not
occur either in the weld deposit or in the adjacent zone and practically no
warpage exists. The procedure is to position the shaft in roller knee blocks that
make it possible for the welder to rotate the shaft as the weld progresses. It is
also possible to place the crankshaft in a lathe and slowly turn it when
necessary. Magna 405 size 3.2 mm is used and is held in a position 10 degrees
off the high point of the shaft. This permits welding in a slightly downhillhorizontal position. As the build-up progresses, the welder rotates the shaft
away from himself, thus directing the main force of the arc on previously

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deposited metal. This protects the shaft. All low areas and scored areas are
built to above normal size on the throws and the thrust bearing. When finished
the shaft is ground in crankshaft grinding equipment to final dimensions.

The deposit does not peel and will wear as well or better than a new shaft.
Tests have repeatedly proven that the results using Magna 405 are superior to
those obtained when metallizing is used.

WELDING PROCEDURES - CUTTING STAINLESS STEEL WITH MAGNA


150

Because of the ever increasing use of stainless steel, in most maintenance


departments it is often necessary to cut sheet or plate stainless steel. This
usually represents a substantial problem. Since stainless steel does not
respond to the phenomena of oxidation as steel does. It is impossible to employ
an oxyacetylene cutting torch. Many man hours are lost trying to use
mechanical cutting methods since stainless steel work hardens rapidly and this
makes shearing, sawing or drilling difficult.

This problem has been solved with Magna 150, a unique cutting electrode
which requires no oxygen or compressed air nor any special equipment nor
special holder. This electrode is inserted into a standard electrode holder of any
DC or AC arc welding plant. The remarkable ability of the electrode to cut
stainless steel is based on a unique exothermic action. The special coating
contains rare chemicals that create a gas of intense velocity, which generates a
vapour jet action. The intense heat of the arc melts the metal and the self
contained jet of gasses blows the metal away. Due to the rapid high speed
action. the stainless steel is not heated except at the actual kerf and this
minimizes or eliminates carbide precipitation. Because of the exothermic action
of the gas, the cut is clean with no drippings. The contamination and carbon or
iron pick-up, which is usually a problem with any heat cutting method on
stainless steel is so reduced that it does not exceed two to five thousanths and
can be readily removed on technical work with a grinder. The coating of the
electrode has insulating properties and thus can be used for deep hole cutting
without side-arcing. After cutting, the stainless steel remains machinable
adjacent to the kerf. Because of the high speed, distortion is virtually nonexistent.

Rough shapes can be easily cut. However because the human element enters

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into any manual application and because of the high speed of cutting with this
product, precision cutting of complex shapes is difficult on a "free hand" basis.
This problem is solved by using a template or guide which can be easily made
from transite, asbestos board, masonite or any other thin rigid non-conductive
and insulative type of material. If a straight line is to be cut, a piece of masonite
is clamped or held at the line and the electrode is rapidly dragged along using
the straight edge as a rest and guide. This results in a perfectly straight line cut
similar to that which can be obtained on mild steel with an oxyacetylene torch. A
hole can be cut to precision dimensions if a transite piece with a hole of the
precise size is used as a form. The electrode is held against the transite hole
sides as a guide.

In machine shop operations it is sometimes necessary to remove a large


amount of metal from a heavy section of stainless steel. such as when making a
key-way in a shaft or making a threaded hole in a casting. Magna 150 can be
used to rough cut up to 95% of the metal at high speed and low cost and the
final dimensions can be machined with precision mechanical tools. thus holding
up costly machine tools for final passes only.
WELDING PROCEDURES - WELDING ZINC DIE CAST

Zinc base die castings are in wide usage today, especially in the automotive and
appliance fields. Zinc die castings or white metal as they are commonly called is
a machine part formed by pressure casting in a mould.

In the past, only a few real experts could weld zinc die cast. Using Magna 51
this is no longer an impossible job and can easily be performed by any auto
body man or repairman. Magna 51 is an easy-to-use welding alloy designed
especially for welding zinc die cast.

Its use results in considerable savings in both time and money in automobile
reconditioning and other fields. An expensive grille or part can be salvaged,
practically as good as new, for a few cents. If the fractured part or the zinc die
cast is relatively thin, it is not necessary to bevel it. If it is over 3 mm (1/8 in.)
thick, it should be bevelled, which can be accomplished mechanically. The next
step is to align the parts and to support them. Due to the low heat of Magna 51,
elaborate support is not necessary, even though zinc has very little strength
when hot. Chrome plated parts should be bevelled from the side which is not
visible on the completed operation. When this bevel is filled in, a good weld is
formed and the chrome plating acts as a back-up or support during the welding.

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Magna 51 is applied at such a low heat that the plating is not damaged.

The important point to remember is to use a small tip, two sizes smaller than if
the part were steel. The flame should be only slightly excess acetylene. Very
little preheat is required but it is important to hold the flame very close to the
work.
The joining is performed with Magna 51 and Magna 51 flux. Apply flux liberally
with a brush. Magna 51 greatly simplifies the joining of white metal because it is
applied far below the melting point of the white metal, and yet produces sound
welds which exceed the strength of the base metal.

It is not necessary to flick the torch away momentarily just at the precise
moment the base metal starts to melt with Magna 51, because it is applied at
such a very low temperature. Use glasses or goggles with a No. 4 lens, or a
good pair of sun glasses. The standard No. 6 shade lens is too dark. Practice
this technique on a few pieces of scrap zinc die cast and you will find in to time
that you will be proficient at white metal welding. Magna 51 is the only practical,
easy to use alloy for joining zinc die cast.
With this procedure, practically all zinc die cast parts can be readily salvaged by
panel beaters and maintenance men who are not expert welders.

WELDING PROCEDURES - MAKING LOW COST HIGH EFFICIENCY


DRILLING TOOLS

It is often necessary to drill, bore, or cut masonry, concrete, tile and other
refractory materials in maintenance departments. When holes in a floor are
required to install machine anchor bolts, or when a hole in a wall is needed to
enable the installation of a pipe or conduit, it is naturally necessary to use a tool
for making this hole.

Various types of drilling tools have been used for making holes in masonry,
including standard drills, masonry drills and core drills. It is usually difficult for a
plant to stock a wide variety of sizes of these tools. When a tool of a given size
is needed, it may not-be in stock, causing loss of time. Additionally there are
long delays when special sizes are ordered and for some purposes these tools
have limitations. For example, some tools have a high noise level, make dust
require frequent sharpening, are slow, and make irregular shaped holes. A
solution to many of these problems has been found in a new type of welding
alloy. Magna 21 can be used much as a brazing rod, but which results in a weld

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deposit that can cut or drill these hard-to-penetrate materials.

In application Magna 21 can be welded on the head of a bolt or shaft to make a


drill, or to a pipe to make a core drill, or round plate to make a concrete saw.
The welding alloy consists of special carbide particles held together by a matrix
of a resilient ultra high strength alloyed brazing-type material. The carbides do
not melt when the welding alloy is melted but the matrix does. The matrix
material holds the carbides with remarkable tenacity. It also serves as a shock
absorber due to its resiliency. Carbides are not lost even in rough drilling
applications because the matrix material tins the carbides perfectly and
2

provides over 70.3 x 10 6 Kg/m (100,000 p.s.i.) tensile strength. The carbides
are a special type which provide cutting edges that work effectively against a
wide range of materials. Since they are rough and irregular in shape, when one
edge is worn this allows another to start cutting. When one carbide is worn
completely out this exposes another carbide which starts cutting. In this way the
tool stays sharp almost indefinitely whereas ordinary masonry tools soon
become worn out to the degree that they do not cut effectively. No special skill
is required when applying Magna 21. Any maintenance man can apply it with a
welding torch using a brazing procedure. It requires only a few pennies worth to
make a drill from materials readily at hand, and a few minutes time. The one
product drills all materials. "Flip-offs" or loss of carbides is non-existent due to
the high strength matrix. An easily made bolt tool made with Magna 21 can be
chucked into 1/2 in. portable drill and a hole made in any position using only
hand pressure.

This product can also be used to make wheeldressing tools, mining tools,
excavation tools, and masonry tools. This product can be applied to rebuild
worn out tools as well as making new tools. A tool can be made in most cases
faster than a new tool can be requisitioned. The exact size needed can be
quickly made.

WELDING PROCEDURES - REPAIR WELDING OF CYLINDER HEADS


USING MAGNA 70

It is expensive to replace cylinder heads which have fractured or which have

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worn valve seats. Some heads are obsolete and cannot be replaced. The
difficulty of repair welding head with ordinary welding rods has been a problem
for many years. Many mechanical departments have so frequently met with
failure in this application - they have come to regard cylinder head repairs as
impractical.

Heads are now being welded successfully with Magna 70 by many repair shops.
Magna 70 is a highly alloyed cast iron filler metal which has similar colour, heat
resistance, co-efficient of expansion and elongation as cast iron. It can be
applied without porosity, provides high strength, and is fully machinable, which
makes it ideal for cylinder head repair. It is applied at a temperature well below
the melting point of cast iron. Its remelt temperature is 1232 deg. C

The following procedure is used when welding and repairing cylinder heads:

1. At least 0.5 mm (1/64 in.) approx. should be removed from the worn seats
by machining in order to remove impurities, spoiled metal, carbon deposits,
and surface hardness.
2. The heads should be thoroughly checked for cracks which occur
sometimes under the valve seats, through stud holes and in the chambers
and between the valve seats. A magnifying glass or water pressure test will
generally reveal all flaws.
3. Cracks should be ground with a small grinding wheel, or gouged out with a
chipping gun. If they occur under the valve seats, they can be removed
successfully with an oxy-acetylene torch after the head has been preheated.
It is necessary to remove the complete crack.
4. The heads must be preheated. A furnace is the ideal method, but if a
furnace is not available a firebrick structure can be easily built to serve as a
furnace for preheating. The heads should be preheated to approx. 787 deg.
C. This allows for the loss of heat during the time the head is being packed
in an asbestos lined steel box, or a firebrick box prior to welding. The ideal
temperature of the base metal when using Magna 70 is approximately 482
deg. C. The head is packed in asbestos or similar material and the top
covered with asbestos paper, leaving only the weld area exposed.
5. The actual welding may be done with either argon arc or an oxyacetylene
torch. It is essential that Magna 70 and Magna 70 flux be used . The torch
should be adjusted to a neutral flame.
6. When welding has been finished the head should be returned to the furnace
and brought back to about 760 deg. C. It should remain at this temperature
for one hour.

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7. The head is then removed from the furnace and allowed to cool slowly. One
method of doing this is to place it in an asbestos lined steel box, with a tight
fitting lid, and packed in powdered asbestos. It should be undisturbed for at
least 48 hours. Equally effective is burying it under a load of lime or mica.
8. The welds made with this procedure are completely machinable. The use of
carbide tipped tools for most efficient machining is recommended.
9. The machined head may then be tested with hydrostatic pressure of
between 53-70 x 10 3 Kg/sq. m (75-100 lbs. per sq. inch).
WELDING PROCEDURES - HOW TO WELD T-1 TYPE STEEL USING
MAGNA 305

T-1 is a special construction steel which has a growing acceptance because of


the need for higher strength construction steels. This is a quenched and
tempered alloy steel. Often this steel has proved difficult to weld because of
underbead cracking, brittleness and other causes of weld failures.

Perfect welds can be made on T - 1 steel using Magna 305 with the following
procedure:
1. Use Magna 100 for bevelling and grooving. Do not use an oxyacetylene
torch.
2. T-1 Steels should be welded with just enough amperage to obtain a smooth
flow. Avoid excess amperage. Magna 305 makes excellent welds at low
amperage and this eliminates weld failure.
3. T-1 is improved if the welds cool rapidly - Magna 305 will not crack when
rapidly cooled.
4. Do not preheat with Magna 305, except on highly restrained joints. (If the
weather is below zero, naturally preheat to 160 deg. C (60 deg. F) but
otherwise, avoid preheat.
5. Do not allow the interpass temperature to exceed 204 deg. C (400 deg. F)
except when the T-1 is over 1-1/2 ins. thick it is alright to go to 232 deg. C
(450 deg. F). When heat builds up, wait and allow the base metal to cool
somewhat. Also reduce amperage and increase welding speeds.
6. Weld with stringer beads - do not weave.
7. After one side is welded, back gouge the other side with Magna 100 before
welding.
8. Do not overweld when making fillet welds. Whenever possible, insert a soft
steel wire between members before fillet welds are made. This gap enables
the weld to contract later without putting a stress on the T-1.

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The use of Magna 305 ensures that there will be no porosity in the weld and that
the weld will not crack. Magna 305 is the finest electrode in existence for
welding T-1 steel and the use of this product guarantees no weld failures.
Typical Mechanical Properties of Magna 305 welds on T-1 steel.
Yield Strength

Tensile Strength Elongation


in 50 mm
(approx. 2 ins.)

As welded

k Pa/mm

k Pa/mm

Percentage

85

87

34

(121,000 p.s.i.)

(124,200 p.s.i.)

83

Stress Relieved 2 hours at 593C

T-1 Plate Material Unwelded

86

(118,500 p.s.i.)

(122,600 p.s.i.)

63-78 (90,000-

74-84 (105,000-

111,000 p.s.i.)

119,000 p.s.i.)

35.5

18-20

WELDING PROCEDURES - SAW TOOTH OVERLAY FOR INCREASED


WEAR IN THE TIMBER INDUSTRY.

Ordinary hard facing rods have been tried on saw tooth overlays but have not
been successful for several reasons:

1. Ordinary rods, such as cobalt rods are exceedingly difficult to apply.


2. Ordinary rods invariably have porosity which ruins the keenness of the
cutting edge.
3. The high heat required damages the metallurgical properties of the saw
adjacent to the teeth tips.
4. Saws tipped with ordinary rods do not give adequate cutting properties in
dense species like Penda nor do they withstand the bad effects of bark. On
Queensland Walnut, for example, they seldom cut over 3,000 super feet
which is much less than a day's run in a No.1 bench.
Magna 44 is a new type of overlay alloy which is easily applied, does not have
porosity, is applied at 150 deg. C lower temperature than the cobalt alloys.
Magna 44 will cut over 12,000 super feet of Queensland Walnut and will
withstand species better than any other welding rod. Tests have proved that
when cutting the abrasive species the amount cut can be increased better than
threefold by using Magna 44 for overlay as compared to other hard facing rods.
Magna 44 has proven to be the only material which will give good performance
in Johnson River hardwood, hickory ash, and the entire ironbark group.

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On high silica species such as brush box, turpentine, and green Queensland
Walnut, Magna 44 is the only welding material which provides enough wear
resistance improvement to justify its application.

Magna 44 can be shaped and sharpened using standard grinding wheels. A


portable hand grinder is used for dressing the sides of the deposit and the
automatic or hand operated gulleter is used to trim the tops and fronts. Bevel
and hog may be shaped on an automatic grinder or a portable grinder held by
hand.

In addition to tipping circular saws Magna 44 can be used for tipping swage set
circular saws and band saws. Here the shape of a swage-set tooth must be
reproduced. The portable grinder may be mounted on a jig so that the bulbous
sides of the deposit can be accurately ground to proper side angles. The tops
and fronts may be formed in the automatic grinder, and subsequent sharpening
is limited to automatically grinding the fronts and tops of the teeth.

One of the most important advantages of Magna 44 is the fact that it can be
applied so smoothly that only a minimum of grinding is required. This saves
grinding time and cost and also contributes to economy since it is not necessary
to apply excess welding rod and then waste it by grinding it off as with ordinary
rods.

TUNGSTEN CARBIDE TIPS


A moulded tungsten carbide insert can be used instead of Magna 44. This is
brazed into a recess prepared at the tip of the tooth with Magna 33F. Magna
33F is not only the most economical material for bonding tungsten carbide, it is
the strongest material in existence. No 'Flip-offs' occur with Magna 33F as with
silver solders. Tungsten carbide inserts generally give reasonably good service
when sawing walnut, but usually break up rapidly when the saw is required to
cut through bark, or upon cutting denser species such as penda.

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WELDING PROCEDURES - SUCCESSFULLY WELDING BANDSAWS USED


IN THE TIMBER INDUSTRY.
In the past the sawmilling industry has often attempted to weld bandsaws but
practically no success has resulted. In attempting to make these welds, saw
doctors have used two welding methods - these are brazing with copper base
brazing rods and silver solders, and fusion welding with materials ranging from
SAE 4130 steel to a strip of the saw itself. Brazing does not hold and cracks the
saw and fusion welding results in the weld breaking or embrittling the saw to the
point that it breaks alongside the weld.

As a result most saw doctors have concluded that it is impossible to weld


bandsaws.

A new technique has been developed by Queensland timber mills which makes
it now possible for the first time to make successful saw repairs. The repairs are
made with Magna 303 electrode (size 12 gauge) on large saws such as those
2.4 mm thick. The procedure is to prepare a small bevel and weld a bead with
Magna 303. Then grind some of the bead away leaving only a slight excess of
bead. Then forge. Then it is only necessary to temper. This is done by heating
to a temperature of 350 deg. C (grey to deep blue) and holding the temperature
for five minutes, then quench with a water soaked rag. This procedure will result
in a repair of sound structure.

On thin saws where arc welding is not practical Magna 303 bare alloy with a
torch is used in conjunction with Magna 33 Flux. An excess acetylene flame
must be used, or there will be a slight loss of carbon from the base metal
adjacent to the weld. After welding with the torch, the saw must first be stress
relieved and then tempered. Stress relieving is done by heating the weld area to
a bright cherry red and then quenching with a water soaked rag. Tempering is
done by heating to a blue-grey and holding for five minutes, then quenching with
a wet rag. Heating and quenching is done only on one side of the saw.

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Welds made on saws with Magna 303 arc, or Magna 303 bare with
oxyacetylene do not crack in the weld. This procedure also produces a harder
and stiffer weld which retains tension and flatness much longer than when
ordinary welding rods are used. There are no oxide inclusions in the weld and a
satisfactory uniformity results. The microstructure of the saw adjacent to the
weld consists of a fine well tempered martensite of high carbon content and a
hardness of Rockwell C 43. This is a desirable condition for saw steel. With
ordinary welding rods the condition of the steel adjacent to the weld is pearlite
containing spheroids of carbide in a matrix of ferrite. This structure is
undesirable and has lower strength than is necessary. Cracking often results in
welds made with ordinary rods.

WELDING PROCEDURES - WELDING BANDSAWS IN THE TIMBER


INDUSTRY
To weld Bandsaw blades 14 - 16 gauge.
Equipment and materials required.
Magna 303 x 2.4 mm (3/32 ins.) electrodes. Crack detecting kit.
Electric welding machine 50 amp. approx.
Electric sander with Fibreloc and flexible discs.
Electric or Pneumatic die grinder 15000 - 16000 rpm. 50 mm x 2.4 mm (2 x
3/32ins.) wheels.
Suitable welding clamp.
Brass strip 25 mm x 40 mm (1 x 1 1/2 ins.) wide, 25 mm (1 in.) longer than
width of saw, with
groove on one side 6 mm (1/4 in.) wide x 3mm (1/8 in.) deep.
Oxyacetylene or oxypropane heating torch.

Step 1 Prepare joint with 90 deg. V 2/3 depth of thickness of saw, using sander
and fibreloc wheel. Gap in joint not to be more than 0.4 mm - 0.6 mm
(.015 - .020 ins.)
Step 2 Place saw in welding clamp with brass strip under joint, groove side
down.
Step 3 Preheat welding clamp in vicinity of weld to about 120 deg. C (250 deg.
F)
Step 4 Place scrap saw steel at both ends of joint. This is so welds may be
finished off the saw itself.
Step 5 Preheat bandsaw blade slowly, 25 mm (1 in.) each side of joint to turn

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blue.
Step 6 Immediately after preheating weld joint from centre to one edge and
onto scrap.
Step 7 Immediately heat along sides of weld to prevent chill line from forming.
Step 8 Grind groove in start of weld to undercut overhang. Use die grinder and
50 mm x 2.4 mm (2 x 3/32 ins.) wheels.
Step 9 Repeat steps 5,6 and 7.
Step 10 Turn to other side of saw and grind groove to base of first weld, place
brass strip groove side up, under saw.
Step 11 Repeat steps 5,6,7,8 and 9.
Step 12 Grind off excess weld metal, using fibreloc disc, then finish off with
flexible disc.
Step 13 Check for cracks, using Magna No. 909 Crack Detector Kit.
DO NOT GRIND FIRST WELD, BEFORE WELDING OTHER SIDE
To weld cracks in Bandsaw blades.
Locate ends of cracks with Magna No., 909 Crack Detector Kit.
Grind grooved 2/3 depth of saw, using die grinder and 50 mm x 2.4 mm (2 x
3/32 ins.) wheels.
Heat till blue then weld with Magna 303 electrodes.
Heat again to prevent chill line.
Grind other side of saw to base of weld.
Heat and weld as before.
Heat to prevent chill line.
Grind and finish with sander.
Check for cracks.

DO NOT GRIND FIRST WELD BEFORE WELDING OTHER SIDE.

WELDING PROCEDURES - OVERLAY OF CRUSHERS


With proper maintenance crushers can produce almost unbelievable daily
yardages of the hardest kind of aggregate. A badly worn shell cannot possibly
produce big tonnages.

The largest amount of crushing is accomplished on roll crushers, but the same
principles apply to the overlay of law crushers, gyratory and cone crushers,
edge runners, dry pans and chaser mills, and heavy duty hammer mills. Most

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crushers are made of manganese steel and these manganese steel castings
are often scrapped when only about 15% of the metal has worn away.

When crushers are properly rebuilt with Magna welding alloys, increased
production results, along with more uniformly-sized aggregate, less wear and
tear on other components and a lower cost per ton of aggregate produced. A
manganese steel casting salvaged with Magna alloys will generally outwear a
new casting about 100%.

The steps to take in rebuilding a crusher roll follow:

1. Measure depth of wear by laying a straight edge across the roll face. If the
roll has worn more than 5 mm (3/16 in.) it must be rebuilt to size and
contour before hard surfacing. Many operators have practiced false
economy in using cheap 'hard-rods' or mild steel electrodes to build up with.
Remember a hard surface deposit is no better than the metal under it. The
build up should be done with Magna 402. This is a super tough build-up
material.

2. If the roll is not worn more than 5 mm (3/16 in.) or if it is, after it has been
built up, the next step is to hard surface. Hard surfacing should always be
done when about 80% of the previous hard surfacing has worn off, but
before the base metal is exposed.

The selection of surfacing alloy is of major importance in overlay of


crushers. The only electrode that has been developed specifically for this
application is Magna Crusher Rod 400, thus it is the only alloy that can
provide the ultimate in service life. This electrode will crush more, and
perform more satisfactorily than any other material.

3. When rebuilding follow these rules:


a) Do not attach earth to crusher frame as this will result in current arcing
through the roll support bearings and this may cause bearing damage.
b) Repair cracks in the roll shell before rebuilding. Use Magna 100 to
gouge out cracks and weld these up with Magna 303.
c) If extensive welding is necessary, wedge bolts should be loosened
before welding begins and tightened after the roll shell has cooled in
order to allow for contraction and expansion without cracking.
d) When rebuilding, keep shell round and both shells must be built to the
same diameter. Out-of-round shells will impose unnecessary wear and

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strain on the bearings and shafts.


e) Avoid dragging weld beads over the roll edge. Base metal cracking
begins here. Always start or stop beads 6 mm (1/4 in.) short of the roll
edge. The best solution is to first deposit one bead of Magna 303
completely around the roll edge and this will prevent cracks from
starting in the edge.

4. Welding Procedure: First build up to size with Magna 402, using the skip
weld process. apply transverse beads in the centre section of the roll in the
area of deepest wear. Deposit three or four beads about 150 mm (6 ins.)
apart and turn the roll to a new position. Follow this pattern until weld beads
are applied to the entire circumference of the roll. Continue the skip welding
process until the successive spaces between the original beads are
gradually closed in and the entire centre of the roll has been built up. Then
repeat this procedure using longer transverse beads until the entire roll has
been brought to size and then hard surfacing can be commenced.
Magna Stripe Method of Overlay
With Magna Crusher Rod ( CR ) 400, apply weave beads 12 mm (1/2 in.) apart.
Use the skip weld process to stripe the centre two thirds of the roll face, first on
a wide spacing of 150 mm (6 ins.) apart, then gradually filling in areas between
the beads until they are no more than 12 mm (1/2 in.) apart. Repeat the same
procedure and skip weld weave beads directly over the first beads. This method
deposits a double layer of Crusher Rod 400 on the centre two thirds of the rollshell, the area subjected to most wear. It also provides the most uniform wear
pattern across the full roll shall face. This procedure is particularly suitable to
crushing 20 mm (3/4 in.) or larger material.

For crushing extremely fine aggregate the stripe method is not ideal and thus
the entire surface should be covered with a single layer of C.R. 400, utilizing the
skip mild procedure. Then transverse stringer beads are welded across the
crusher face one to two inches apart to provide gripping action which will enable
more tonnage per day to be crushed.

In applying hard surface electrodes, a weaving motion, or figure eight motion


will result in a level deposit and prevent pinholes or flaws.
Economics of Crusher Roll Build-Up with Magna Crusher Rod 400

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Some operators think they save money using a cheap hard-surface rod.
Following is a typical example taken from many.

A crushing plant was using a $2.00 per Kg. rod and applying an average of
25 Kg. every night and 55 Kg. on weekends to bring them up straight. This
makes a total of 205 Kg. a week. or $ 410.00. In addition there was an
average of 98 welding hours per week, some at overtime, costing an
average of $150.00 or a combined weekly total of $560.00. Now get the
comparison. One completely rebuilt coverage of rolls with Magna Crusher
Rod 400 costs $400.00 including labour. They then crushed more tonnage
of the same rock in the same plant, with the same crew, for eight crushing
days during which not are additional pound of material was applied. Then
on the 8th and 9th nights the welders applied 17Kg. more of Magna C.R.
400 between the beads of the previous overlay for a cost of $185.00. It was
twelve days later before attention was needed again. So for 20 days the
cost with Magna C.R. 400 was $585.00. With the so-called cheap $2.00
per Kg. rod their cost for 20 days would have been about $1,750.00. This is
a typical example which proves once again that a crushing plant cannot
afford to use anything except Magna Crusher Rod 400 which cuts cost
65%.

The same basic procedure explained here for roll crushers can be used for all
types of crushers such as Jaw Crushers, Gyratory Crushers, etc.

Magna Crusher Rod 400 will generally exceed all other hard surfacing
electrodes about 300% in wear resistance on any type of Crushers, and crush
400% more tonnage.
Suggestions for Crusher Build-Up
1. Crusher Jaws. There are several ways to reduce warpage in crusher jaws.
One good way is to lay out several worn jaws on timbers and skip from one
to the next. Jaws can be partially submerged in a shallow pan of circulating
water to keep heat down during welding. Skip weld to keep heat below 260
deg. C (500 deg. F). Completed jaws will generally show some warpage.
These can be straightened in a press. However if a press is not available,
the 'shrink welding' technique can be used. This is done by using mild steel
electrodes (large diameter with high amperage) and applying beads to the
rib fillets on the back side. Allow each bead to cool and check progress
before applying additional beads.

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2. Gyratory Crushers. These are most easily worked in a positioner or roll jig,
permitting down hand welding. Many work shops make their own positioner.
Skip weld in circumferential bands to avoid overheating and warpage.
3. Hammer Mills. The rectangular end of pulverizer mill hammers can be
restored by 'Weld Casting'. Carbon blocks, fire brick or copper plate can be
used to form a mould around the worn hammer end. Then the build up can
be made with Magna 402 and the final passes with Magna Crusher Rod
400 to fill the mould. Stub ends are simply melted down in the puddle.
4. Sheeps Foot Tamps. A mould can be made from a steel pipe cut to proper
dimensions. This is then rapidly filled with Magna 402 and capped with
Magna Crusher Rod 400. The pipe mould can be left in position as it will
soon wear off leaving the Magna super-metals to provide wear resistance.

WELDING PROCEDURES - THE MAGNA GEMINI PROCESS


The Gemini Process is a process that reduces overlay and build up time by 50
to 70%. It is a high speed overlay process which requires no special equipment
to enable a manual arc welding machine and an operator to lay down as much
metal as a semi-automatic welding machine and an operator. Thus it is no
longer necessary to invest in automatic equipment and an important advantage
is that the Gemini process is very portable whereas semiautomatic is nonportable and often breaks down.

The Gemini Process is especially advantageous where large amounts of metal


must be applied such as in rebuilding:

Rock Crushers

Tractors

Baffle plates

Hammers

Buckets

Ball mill scoops

Pumps

Mullers

Sheepsfoot tampers

shovels

Dump truck bodies

Drag line equipment

The Gemini Process enables the higher, concentrated heat of the electric arc to
melt down and deposit greater amounts of metal in a given time.

How the Gemini Process works

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Two electrodes are used. A live electrode is inserted in the electrode holder and
the welding current is increased 35 amps over the amount normally used for
that size electrode. A second 'dead' electrode (or filler electrode) is held by the
welding operator in proximity to the arc.

The position of the live electrode should be tilted 30 to 45 degrees from vertical
in order that the dead electrode can be presented to the edge of the arc. The
arc is maintained between the live electrode and the parent metal, not between
the live electrode and the dead electrode. Do not thrust the dead electrode
between the parent metal and the live electrode. The filler rod is held in close
proximity to the tilted live electrode at all times and kept in unison with it as the
live electrode is moved from side to side to weave a wide flat bead. A little
practice will enable the operator to deposit 50/50 live and dead electrode. After
some practice the current can be increased 50 to 60% to greatly increase
deposition rate.

Contrary to first thought, the Gemini Process does not heat the parent metal to
as great an extent as the single electrode method of application. Though higher
temperatures are involved, a much greater amount of metal is melted from the
electrodes and the duration of the heating of any given spot is very short
compared to the heat required by the conventional one electrode method, or
semi-automatic method. The operator has greater control of temperature of the
molten puddle since this can be readily controlled by the length of the arc and
also the amount of filler rod added to the molten puddle.

There are several other advantages of the Gemini Process. It is possible to


work closer to an edge and still have enough heat available for satisfactory
bonding. A thicker deposit can be produced because the deposited metal
freezes quicker. The quicker freezing enables an operator to control his
deposited metal when working near an edge.

Because of the quantities of live electrodes and dead electrodes melted down,
the Gemini process is often 3 to 4 times faster than the single electrode method
and yet less heat is absorbed by the work piece, so welding actually takes place
at lower temperatures. This prevents heat-zone fracture occurring during, or
after, cooling of the deposited metal. From an economic point of view, the cost
of hard-surfacing is divided between the labour, cost of application and the cost
of the hard-surfacing metal being deposited. The Gemini Process enables a
substantial reduction in the labour cost of application. Higher quality Magna hard
surfacing electrodes can thus be used with no increase of overall cost, yet the

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resulting service life is enormously increased.

Size of Electrode
The live electrode can be any size and should be the largest size the machine
can carry satisfactorily. The dead electrode (filler electrode) can be the same
size as the live electrode, or one size larger.

If a 4 gauge live electrode is used and a 4 gauge filler electrode also, the
deposition volume will theoretically be equal to the deposition rate of 13 mm
(1/2 in.) electrode (which, of course. could not be applied because a machine
large enough is not available and if it were, would be too intense in penetration
and heat input for most work). The actual improvement in deposit speed is even
greater than this indicates, however, because the overall time involved in
changing electrodes in cut in half.

With the Gemini Process it is no longer necessary for a welder to work hard and
fast in order to average a puny 3 Kg. of weld metal per hour when he can now
work at a relaxed steady pace and lay down 5 Kgs. of deposited metal per hour.

Type of Electrodes
Not all electrodes lend themselves to the Gemini Proces. Many ordinary
electrodes result in segregation. However, the following products give excellent
results when applied with the Gemini Process:

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Magna 405

Magna 402

Magna Crusher Rod 400 Magna

403

Magna 450

Magna 401

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Reference: REC

WELDING

PROCEDURES

MACHINING

DEPOSITS

OF

WORK

HARDENING ALLOYS SUCH AS MAGNA 402, 303, 390 AND 711

All high alloy steels tend to gall or seize under pressure and this can cause
chips to 'weld' to the tool. When this condition occurs the 'welded' area
interferes with the finish. Additionally, Magna 303, 402, 711 and 390 harden
rapidly from the tool action, especially in drilling and milling. Magna 303,
because of its balanced austenite ferrite structure is easier to machine than
austenite stainless steels, but more difficult than straight chromium steels, mild
steel or free machining steel. As an example, Magna 303 deposits can be
machined at 15 to 20 m (50 to 65 ft.) per minute whereas stainless steels can
only be machined at 9 to 14 m (30 to 45 ft.) per minute. However, if machinists
who are familiar with machining stainless steels use the same procedure for
Magna 303, they will have excellent results. When tungsten carbide tools are
used, Magna 303 can be machined at 25 m (80 ft.) per minute surface speed.
Reduction of speed and feed will always assist in machining.

The following suggestions should be adhered to when machining work


hardenable materials such as Magna 402, 303, 390 and 711.

1. If a good coolant is used machining speeds can be greatly increased. High


sulphur base coolant ( 3/4 Kg. sulphur per 4 1/2 Litres i.e. 1 lb. sulphur per
gallon ) is usually considered a good coolant. When drilling, turpentine
should be added to the coolant.

2. In general, high speed steel of 18.4 .1 type can be used. For light cuts and
higher speed the cobalt-molybdenum type high speed steels are superior.

3. Tungsten carbide tools naturally give the best results. The best carbides are
Carboloy 44A and the next best would be Carboloy 883.

4. A steel top rake of 20 to 22 deg. helps prevent galling.

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WELDING PROCEDURES - REPAIR OF BROKEN - OFF FORKS ON FORK


LIFT TRUCKS.

The forks on Fork Lift Trucks are made of hardened and tempered alloy steel.
These forks sometimes snap off due to the heavy loads.

The welding sequence for repair follows:

1. Prepare a double bevel on the mating edges of the broken parts to an 80 to


90 deg. bevel. This bevel can best be made with Magna 100, an electrode
designed for grooving. (Caution: Do not use ordinary chamfering electrodes
as these sometimes contaminate the alloy steel base metal - if Magna 100
is not available, grind the bevel. It is important that a 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) gap
be left between the two parts when fitting up before welding in order to
guarantee a complete weld between the parts.

2. It is preferred not to dismantle the broken fork section from the truck hoist.
Lower the hoist and mate up the tines with the hoist hook section. Use
blocks to give support to the members and thus maintain alignment.

3. Tack weld the parts together with Magna 303.

4. No preheat is necessary when using Magna 303. If temperatures are very


cold, base metal should be warmed.

5. Weld with Magna 303. Use 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) size for the first pass to secure
good penetration through the 1.5 mm 1/16 in. gap. Then proceed using size
4 mm (5/32 in.) or 5 mm (3 16 in.) Use stringer beads. Peen each pass and
clean slag and wire brush between passes. Do not leave a crater at the end
of the welds - back whip to fill the crater. Do not let the base metal interpass
temperature get high. If a red colour shows, pause and let the work piece
cool before proceeding further. Skip from one fork to the other to reduce
heat.

6. After the grooves are completely filled take the fork from the truck hoist and
on the opposite side weld flush the other half of the double bevel.

7. Next turn the forks over and position for flat welding. Now build up a

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reinforcement of weld metal in the corners about 1/3 the thickness of the
fork. This reinforcement will give added assurance.

8. Next lay the fork on one side and then the other and apply stringer beads to
cap the ends of the filled in bevel and thus eliminate notches or crack
starters at the weld ends

9. After cooling by itself touch up any rough area if necessary with a grinder.

Magna 303 has successfully repaired hundreds of broken fork lifts without
failure. This is due to the absence of carbon migration and the high physical
properties of this electrode.

WELDING PROCEDURES - WELDING BROKEN MINE AUGERS

Mining augers, being subject to extreme service conditions and being


composed of hardened alloyed steel often break. The repair is not difficult using
Magna 303.

1. Bevel the broken edges from both sides and then align these for welding.
Leave a 2-3 mm (3/32 in.) gap between the two parts to ensure complete
penetration.

2. The parts are then welded together using Magna 303. First tack weld - then
fill in with 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) diameter Magna 303. The bevel is filled and the
job is finished.

WELDING PROCEDURES - OVERLAYING STEEL MULLER TYRES

Muller Tyres used for mixing of sand and other materials, eventually wear down

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and must be either rebuilt with welding, or scrapped. The procedure for weld
salvage follows: -

1. Prepare the base metal by removing any galled or fractured metal by


grinding or chipping.

2. Remove the tyre from the muller machine and insert a pipe or steel bar
through the centre bores. Position the tyre on the shaft on two V blocks
(one end of the pipe or shaft on each block). In this way the tyre can be
rotated and all welding done in the flat position.

3. First overlay the entire tyre with Magna 405, size 4.8 mm (3/16 ins.) Deposit
a weave two and a half times the width of the electrode and overlay a
section 100 mm (4 ins.) long. Then skip to another 4 ins. section and so on
around the entire tyre until the entire area has been overlaid. - This method
balances the heat on the entire tyre and prevents any one section from
being overheated. If the build up is not thick enough, do the same thing
again until the entire area is built up to the proper dimensions.

4. Next, overlay the entire tyre with Magna 470 to provide an outer hard wear
resisting area. Do this in the skip weld method depositing 100 mm (4 ins.)
sections.

5. Allow the tyre to cool in postion in the V blocks, grinding any rough areas if
necessary.

The combination of Magna 470 and 405 will provide a tough, yet abrasion
resisting overlay which will give a long service life to the tyre.

WELDING PROCEDURES - BUILDING UP WORN SAND CLASSIFIER


BUCKET LIPS

In foundries bucket elevators are used to classify and convey sand in sand
conditioning for moulding. These bucket lips wear down. The repair procedure
follows:

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1. It is not necessary to dismantle the bucket from the machine. The drive
chain can be rotated so that each bucket lip can be welded in the flat
position.

2. Preheat is not necessary using Magna Alloys. First Magna 405 4 mm (5/32
in.) is used to build the worn area. Normally one pass is adequate but some
may require two passes.

3. Next apply one pass of Magna 407.

4. Allow to cool by itself. If any rough areas appear these can be ground off.

With Magna Alloys and this method the repair is rapidly made on the machine
without dismantling.

WELDING PROCEDURE - HOW TO ATTACH CARBIDE TIPS TO STEEL


SHANKS

Magna 66 has repeatedly been proven to be the most effective of all welding
alloys for carbide tool tipping. This alloy eliminates the problems usually
encountered in tool tipping including 'flip-offs', poor wetting and stress cracking.

The proven procedure for tool tipping follows:


1. Use a good solvent to remove grease from the shank and the tip, such as
Clorothen Nu, or Trichlorethylene.

2. Insert the shank in a vise with the brazing end out of the vise where it is
easy to reach.
3. Flux the shank tipping area completely using Magna 66 flux, which is
formulated to thoroughly protect carbides of all types from oxidation. Also
flux the carbide and install it in the proper location. A piece of Magna 66.005
size is cut off and placed between the two members. This alloy in shim form
is most adaptable for tool tipping. However, on intricate shapes, Magna 66
in 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) size can be fed into the joint when the work pieces are
at brazing heat.

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4. Heat the assembly with an oxyacetylene torch adjusted to an excess


acetylene flame. The outer cone should be 2-1/2 times the length of the
inner cone. Use a reasonably large tip that will spread the heat evenly. Heat
from the underside and do not focus the torch on the carbide at any time.
The carbide should get all its heat indirectly from the shank. Carbides are
sensitive and if the torch is focused directly on the carbide it will set up
stresses that can cause failure in service.

5. When Magna 66 flows completely through the joint at 620 - 660 deg. C
(1120-1200 deg. F) the heating should be stopped. At this point the carbide
may have 'skidded' or slipped out of place. Seat it by pressing it into place
with the end of a screwdriver or welding rod and pressing it firmly to
squeeze out the excess molten welding alloy. (Be sure to warm the
screwdriver or tool used first, as the shock of touching the tip with cold
metal can stress it).

6. After welding, the carbide tool should be allowed to cool slowly to prevent
stresses caused by uneven cooling. This can be done by immersion in a
box of lime or mica, or powdered asbestos.

7. When brazing large tips, a cushion is recommended. This is accomplished


with a 0.08-0.13 mm (003-005 in.) copper or constantin shim inserted
between the carbide and the shank. For best results, sandwich it between
two ribbons of Magna 66 cut to the right shape. The soft copper shim
inserted between the tip and shank will allow the carbide to take some
shock and will absorb stresses.

8. For tools which operate at high heat such as on long uninterrupted cutting
without coolant, use Magna 35. 1.5mm (1.16 in.) with Magna 35 Flux. This
alloy flows as freely as a silver solder, yet will withstand a cherry red heat in
service without melting out. Tools can be used at high heat with Magna 35
yet the tips can be removed with an oxyacetylene torch when desired. This
prevents the necessity of furnace brazing.

WELDING

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PROCEDURES

MAL.63

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BASE

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METAL

APPLICATION

Rev. Date: 1 October, 1996

Reference: REC

RECOMMENDATION FOR MAGNA ALLOYS


Excellent
Magna 21

Good

Fair

4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F 4G
4H 4I 4J 4K 4L 4M 4N
10A 10B 10C 10D 10E
10F

Magna 24

9A 9B 9C 9D 9E 9F

2,2B

9G 9H 9I 9J
Magna 27

1A 1B 1E 1F 1G 1H 9B

5A 5C 5E 5F

1C 1D 2A 2B 2C

9D 9E 9F 9I 9J

9A 9G 9H 10A

2D 3A 3B 3C 3D

10B 10C 10D

5B 9C

10E 10F
Magna 29

9A 9B 9C 9D 9E 9F 9G
9H 9I 9J

Magna 31

1A 1G 1H

Magna 33F

1A 1B 1E 1F 1G 1H 3A

1D 3C 3D 9A

3B 5A 5C 5E 5F 9B 9D

9C

1B 1C 1D 1F

1C 2A 2B 2D 5B

9E 9F 9G 9H 9I 9J 10A
10B 10C 10D 10E 10F

Magna 37

1A 1G 1H 2A

2B 2D

Magna 38

1A 1B 1D 1E 1F 1G 1H

2C 2D 10A 10B

2A 2B 4F 4G

10C 10D 10E

2C

10F
Magna 44

4A 4B 4D 4G 4F

Magna 45

4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F 4I

4E 4C 4F 4H 4I

4G 4H 4K

4N

4J 3A 3B 3D 3G

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Magna 51

6A 6B 6C 78

3A 3B 9A 9B

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E

9C 9D 9E 9F

1F 1G 1H 2A 2B

9G 9H 9I 9J 12

2C 2D 3C 3D 5A
5B 5C 5E 5F 10A
10B 10C 10D 10E
10F

Magna 55

6A 6B 6C

Magna 64F

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

5A 5B 5C 5D 5E

1H 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B

5F

3C 3D 9A 9B 9I 9J 10A
10B 10C 10D 10E 10F
Magna 65

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

5A 5B 5C 5E 5F

1H 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B
3C 3D 9A 9B 9I 9J 10A
10B 10C 10D 10E 10F
Magna 66

5A 5B 5C 5E 5F

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G
1H 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B
3C 3D 9A 9B 9I 9J 10A
10B 10C 10D 10E 10F

Magna 67F

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

5A 5B 5C 5D 5E

1H 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B

5F

3C 3D 9A 9B 9I 9J 10A
10B 10C 10D 10E 10F
Magna 70

5A 5E 5F

Magna 75F

1A 1B 1E 1F 1G 1H 3A

5B 5C 5D

1D 5B 9A

3B 5A 5C 5E 5F 9B 9C

1C 2A 2B 2C 2D
3C 3D

9D 9E 9F 9G 9H 9I 9J
Magna 77F

1A 1B 1E 1F 1G 1H 3A

1D 5B 9A

3B 5A 5C 5E 5F 9B 9C

1C 2A 2B 2C 2D
3C 3D

9D 9E 9F 9G 9H 9I 9J

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Magna 79

All metals except aluminium, magnesium, zinc and

titanium.

Magna 80

Excellent

Good

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

1I 5A 5B 5C 5E

1H 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B

5F

Fair

3C 3D 9A 9B 9C 9D 9E
9F 9G 9H 9I 9J 10A
10B 10C 10D 10E 10F
Magna 81

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

5A 5B 5C 5D

1H 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F

5E 5F

4G 4H
Magna 86C

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

5A 5B 5C 5E

1H 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B

5F

3C 3D 9A 9B 9C 9D 9E
9F 9G 9H 9I 9J 10A
10B 10C 10D 10E 10F
Magna 87EC

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

5A 5B 5C 5E

1H 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B

5F

3C 3D 9A 9B 9C 9D 9E
9F 9G 9H 9I 9J 10A
10B 10C 10D 10E 10F
Magna 88C

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

5A 5B 5C 5E

1H 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B

5F 6A 6B 6C

3C 3D 9A 9B 9C 9D 9E
9F 9G 9H 9I 9J 10A
10B 10C 10D 10E 10F
Magna 89

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

5A 5B 5C 5D

1H 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F

5E 5F

4G 4H

Magna 100

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All metals except Magnesium

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Reference: REC

Magna 150

All metals except Magnesium


Excellent

Magna 202

Magna 210

Magna 303

Good

1A 1B 1E 1F 1G 1H 5A

9A 9B 9C 9H

Fair

1C 1D 2A 2B 2C

5C 5E 9A 9C 9D 9E 9F

2D 3A 3B 3C 3D

9G 9I 9J

5B

1A 1B 1E 1F 1G 1H 5A

9A 9B 9C 9H

1C 1D 2A 2B 2C

5C 5E 9A 9C 9D 9E 9F

2D 3A 3B 3C 3D

9G 9I 9J

5B

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

2B 2C 4F 4G

2A 2D 5C

4H

Magna 305

1A 1B 1E 1F 4A 4B 4D

1G 1H

Magna 307

1A 1G 1H

Magna 390

1A 1B 1D 1E 1F 1G 1H

1C 2B 2C 4C

2A 2D 4F 4G

10A 10B 10C


10D 10E 10F

Magna 393

1A 1B 1D 1E 1F 1G 1H

1C 2B 2C 4C

2A 2D 4F 4G

10A 10B 10C


10D 10E 10F

Magna 395

2A 2B 2C 2D 2E

1A 1B 1C 1E
1F 1G 1H 2B
2C 4A 4C 4D
4F 4G 10A 10B
10C 10D 10E
10F

Magna 400

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4G

4E

Magna 401

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4G

4E

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Magna 402

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4G

4E

Magna 403

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4G

4E

Magna 404

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4G

4E

Magna 405

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4G

4E

Magna 407

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4G

4E

Magna 430

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4E 4I

Magna 440

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4E 4I

Magna 450

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4E 4I

Magna 460

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4G 4I

Magna 470

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4G 4I

Magna 471

4A 4B 4C 4D 4F 4H

4G

4E

LEGEND
1 Steel
A Mild steel

B High carbon steel

C Spring steel

D Manganese steel

E Chrome-molybdenum steel

F Carbon-molybdenum steel

G Galvanized iron

H Cadmium coated steel

2 Stainless Steel
A Types AISI 304 308 347 309 310 (Austenitic types).
B Types AISI 316 317 (Austenitic with molybdenum).
C Carpenter 20
D AISI 400 series (straight chromium types)
E Duplex Stainless Steel
3 Nickel Alloys
A Monel

B Monel K

C Inconel

D Hastelloy

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4 Overlay only
A Steel

B High carbon steel

C Manganese steel

D Mild steel

E Stainless steel

F Grey cast iron

G Chilled cast iron

H Malleable iron

I Inconel

J Monel

K Copper

L Brass

M Aluminium

N Bronze

O Tool steel

A Grey iron

B Chilled iron

C Malleable iron

D Duriron

E Nodular, Spheroidic Graphitic

F Meehanite

5 Cast Iron

(S.G.) Ductile
6 Aluminium
A Sand Cast

B Die Cast

Wrought-sheet-

A Electrolytic copper

B Deoxidized copper

C Yellow brass

D Red brass

E Silicon Bronze

F Everdue (Cusilman)

G Manganese bronze

H Nickel silver

I Aluminium bronze

A Oil Hardening

B Air Hardening

C Water Hardening

D Hot Working

F High Speed

F Heat-treatable (such as

extruded

7 Zinc
8 Magnesium
9 Copper Alloys

J Bronze
10 Tool Steel

SAE 4130,4140,8630 etc.)


11 Pure Tin (Block Tin)
12 Titanium

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RAILROAD WELDING APPLICATIONS


A number of specific applications of Magna Alloys upon Diesel Railroad
equipment is covered hereunder. Since this subject is so complex, we have
limited the examples to those of widest interest to the reader.

First of all, let us commence with the outer shell of the diesel locomotive and
start at the rear and move forward to the front of the locomotive.

The back or rear frame casting of the locomotive which is of thick cast
composition can crack or break; particularly in case of a wreck. This can be
repaired by chamfering with Magna 100 and welding with Magna 305. Here the
importance of a superior electrode is obvious, since these castings are too
massive to disassemble and stress-relieve after welding. Welds should be
peened as welded to assist in relieving stresses. The same materials and
procedure are applicable to welding front end castings on a locomotive when a
mishap occurs to it. Magna 305 is an electrode having up to 113,000 p.s.i. with
high elongation. It provides crack resistance and great holding power.
Hand-hold frame on rear of locomotive is usually damaged in a wreck or
through mishap. This consists (usually) of steel tubing welded to, and supported
by, steel stanchions. It is not considered good practice to weld broken tubing or
structural members on safety equipment. However, if the weld between the
tubing and the stanchions fail, this is usually welded with Magna 305.
The diamond plate, (non-skidtread plate) which makes up the locomotive
deck or platform. has been tack-welded to its support. Constant vibration of the
equipment often breaks these tack welds loose and they must be rewelded and
reinforced with added weldments. This is performed with Magna 305.
The diamond plate (tread plate) steps to the platform are factory welded, but
do not usually have sufficient weld to withstand the vibration, and must have
more weld beads deposited. Also most railroads add weld beads to the face of
the steps to roughen the step to provide added non-skid safety values to the
step. Magna 305 performs well for these applications.

The diaphram bellows arrangement over the top of couplers which makes up
the housing at rear of locomotive is composed (usually) of thin mild steel

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skirting. When tears or cracks develop this is repaired with Magna 305. The two
diaphram bars which centralize the bellows arrangement over top of coupiers
wear out from constant sliding through a steel bushing. The best repair
technique is to saw off the worn part and replace with a new end, using Magna
33F. Because of the high strength and thin flowing properties of this alloy, the
two parts can be butted together. (heated with a torch to a dull red heat) and the
alloy will flow neatly through the joint. effecting a permanent bond stronger than
the steel. An infinitesimal amount of weld filler metal is required. Using Magna
33F a welder can repair four of these units per hour as compared to one in 3 1/2
hours with conventional arc welding or gas welding techniques. This is obviously
a substantial savings in time not to mention the fact that only about one-tenth of
the amount of welding rod is required with thin-flowing Magna 33F.

Often the bearing box lugs and handles break off and these are rewelded with
Magna 305.
In some cases, fractures occur in A-frames, Center castings, Truck frames,
Side frames. These are usually cast steel, although there are some fabricated
frames in existence. These are repaired by chamfering with Magna 100 and
welding with Magna 303. Here a high strength, high quality weld is necessary
and Magna 303 is recommended. Since these parts are too rangy for
economical stress-relieving, the characteristics of Magna 303 are invaluable
since this electrode has virtually no carbon pick-up.

Recently a case history came to our attention from the master mechanic of a
local Detroit connecting railroad which had a broken truck side frame. This
master mechanic reported that this was repaired by gouging out the back-side,
with Magna 100 and then filling flush with Magna 303. Two 6" x 8" steel plates
were then welded to the back-side for reinforcement. Then the front-side was
chamfered out and filled using Magna 303. Satisfactory service has already
resulted with no sign of failure. A new casting would have cost over $3.000.00
and yet the repair was effected with 5 hours welder's time, plus 3 hours welder's
helper's time.

Often lugs and bosses break off from various frames such as truck frames.
These are repaired by bevelling the boss or lug and rewelding with Magna 303.
Additionally, it is often necessary to weld traction motor suspension spring lugs
which break off and it is often necessary to weld various parts on the spring

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rigging.
The equalizer wearing plates when worn must be removed and new plates
welded in. (Rests on top of saddle on journal box). The traction motor shim
liner, when worn, must be replaced, or when play develops must be welded to
truck frame. Removal of these liners is accomplished expeditiously with Magna
100. Magna 303 is ideal for welding of liners.
Let's now discuss the repair of Journal Boxes. The wear plates can be
economically removed from Journal Boxes with Magna 100. This is an
electrode which removes metal at incredible speed. It is used with any welding
machine and requires no oxygen or compressed air. The special coating burns
slower than the core wire and the crucible is formed at the end of the electrode.
The melting of the coating releases gases of intense velocity and unwanted
metal is literally 'blasted' away. The welds holding the liners are rapidly removed
and the Journal Box is not heated enough to damage bearings as torch cutting
does. The liners are replaced by welding with Magna 303.
It is not considered good practice to weld brake cylinder units. However, if
a bracket or lug breaks off the housing, this can be joined with Magna 770,
which is a special crack-resistant electrode designed for welding cast iron
without preheat.

While we are on the subject of cast iron, the piston heads on brake cylinders
often crack at rivet holes and these are readily repaired (good as new) with
Magna 770. The air compressor housing, cast iron, often has stripped threads
which can be rebuilt with Magna 770 and the threads recut, due to the
machinability of this alloy. When air compressor hangers break these can also
be repaired with Magna 770.

Several railroads have advised us that they have repaired scores of exhaust
manifolds on locomotives with Magna 770.

Aluminium is usually a problem in railroad repair shops. Due to the low melting
point of aluminium and the fact that it does not change colour when heated,
(such as ferrous metals do) most welders have difficulty in welding this versatile

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metal. Most railroad welders who learned their trade in the old days of the
steam engine had little experience with aluminium until the advent of the Diesel
engine. As a result, many aluminium parts in railroad shops which should be
welded for economy reasons are often scrapped. However, Magna 55 is as
easy to use on aluminium as a brazing rod is on steel, and Magna 505 arcwelds aluminium as simply as using a mild steel electrode on boiler plate. Thus
today with these new welding developments for aluminium, there is no reason
for scrapping aluminium parts in the railroad repair shop.
Aluminium valve cases, aluminium intake manifolds, aluminium crank
case cover, aluminium blower housings, aluminium heat exchanger
housing, aluminium air horns, and a wide variety of other aluminium parts are
readily welded, either by metallic arc process with Magna 505, or with
oxyacetylene process with Magna 55.
Fan blades of aluminium, steel, or white metal can be welded economically
provided the shop has a method of balancing the fan after welding. These
sometimes crack form vibration, or when dropped. Aluminium blades are
welded with Magna 55. Steel blades are welded with Magna 33F. White metal
blades are joined with Magna 51 which flows on zinc base die castings below
the melting point of the white metal.
While on the subject of aluminium, it is well to discuss the rebuilding of
aluminium pistons. The Alco 1500 Horsepower engine pistons (Engine Class
244) has an interchangeable banding. However, the EMD, 1000 Hspr., Baldwin
1000 Horsepower, 1500 Horsepower Baldwin, and many other engines have
aluminium pistons which cost from $300.00 to approximately $1,200.00 to
replace. (Some EMD's have cast iron pistons of course).
When the piston lands are worn or burned out, the ring grooves can be built
up by welding. This has been performed by arc welding with Magna 505,
oxyacetylene welding with Magna 55 or by Inert-Arc Process with Magna 55.
Most railroad shops prefer the Inert-Arc Process for this particular application.
This is accomplished by preheating the piston to approximately 600 degrees F,
and then coating the ring grooves with the filler metal, allowing the piston to cool
slowly, and then re-machining. The weld deposit, while being applied at low
heat, will perform as well as a new piston and the job is accomplished for a
fraction of the cost of replacing.

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Diesel Cast Iron Cylinder Blocks have been repaired in many instances with
Magna 770 without preheat. Recently one railroad reported to us that a
$24,000.00 Diesel switch engine developed a 20'' crack in the cylinder block.
The crack was 'veed' to an angle of 75 degrees and cleaned with carbon tet.
The machine was set at 60 amp on reverse polarity with a 3/32'' electrode. In a
couple of hours the job was finished and the completed weld was tested and
found to be satisfactory. Subsequently it was determined that the properties of
the parent metal were unaffected, and after the engine was restored to service,
its efficiency was as good as ever. Needless to say, the savings were many
thousands of dollars.

Another railroad recently reported to us that a cast iron diesel block, costing
$7,200.00 had a crack develop while the block was practically new. The crack
was welded with Magna 770 without pre-heat, requiring only 28-1/8'' electrodes.
Upon machining, the cylinder was tested for accuracy and found to be less than.
001 inch out of round. This is less than the tolerance considered critical for a
cylinder of this bore. Conventional welding would have been impossible on such
operation.
The difficulty of welding diesel engine heads with conventional materials has
been a source of anxiety to mechanical officers for some time. Many railroads
have met with failure in this work and have come to regard such repairs as
impractical. A number of railroads, however, are doing a most satisfactory job in
the repair of these heads by using Magna 70 and a well thought out procedure.
This alloy is a highly deoxidised, highly alloyed, cast iron filler metal which has
similar color, heat resistance, coefficient of expansion and elongation as cast
iron. It can be applied free from porosity, is high strength, and very machinable,
which makes it ideal for this important work. It is applied at a temperature far
below the melting point of cast iron. It is applied between 1,400 to 1,600
degress F., but its remelt temperature is 2,250 degrees F.

The following basic steps are taken in welding and repairing diesel heads:
Preparation: At least 1/64'' should be removed from the worn seats, in order to
remove impurities, carbon deposits, and surface hardness. The heads should
be magnafluxed for chambers and between the valve seats. If magnaflux

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equipment is not available, a magnifying glass or water pressure tests will often
suffice.

If cracks are accessible they should be ground with a small grinding wheel, or
gouged out with a chipping hammer. When they occur under the valve seats,
they may be removed successfully with an oxyacetylene torch after the head
has been preheated. Care must be taken that the complete fracture is removed.
Preheating: The preheating is best performed if the furnace has been designed
for that purpose. The furnace may then be used for the subsequent postheating
or normalizing operation. It should be large enough to hold at least 5 Baldwin
heads, which are of the three types most commonly used today. A permanent
structure with a sliding door is most satisfactory.

The heads should be heated to approximately 1,450 degrees F. This will allow
the loss of heat during the time the head is being packed in an asbestos-lined
steel box prior to welding. The ideal temperature of the base metal when using
Magna 70 is between 800 and 900 degrees F.

The head is packed in asbestos, or similar material and the top covered with
asbestos paper leaving only the weld area exposed.
Welding: The actual welding may be done with either inert arc process or an
oxyacetylene torch. using Magna 70.
Postheating: When welding has been completed, the head should be returned
to the furnace and brought back to 1,400 degrees F. It should remain at this
temperature for one hour.
Cooling: The head is then removed from the furnace and placed in an
asbestos-lined steel box. with a tight fitting lid, and packed in powdered
asbestos. It should remain undisturbed for at least 48 hours.

Machining: One shop recommends the use of tungsten carbide tipped cutters
for most efficient machining.
Testing: The machined head is then tested with hydrostatic pressure of
between 70 and 100 lbs. per square inch.

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The steel exhaust expansion joints in a locomotive often develop cracks.


These are repaired with Magna 305 which is preferred for this application
because it does not burn through the thin steel.
Inside the cabs of locomotives, the corner sections seem to be offering some
difficulty as the sheet metal fails and cracks develop from vibration, and often
the factory-welded joints break in or alongside the weld. Magna 305 is preferred
for welding this thin metal.
It is often necessary to weld clamps on the locomotive engine. This is
accomplished by many railroad companies using Magna 303. It is also
necessary to weld wire clamps for control systems to engine, to roof, and to the
inside of the locomotive shell. Magna 305 is ideal for this work. The diamond
plate (tread plate) engine floor often cracks from vibration and requires
rewelding, which is accomplished with Magna 305.
Water tanks on locomotives sometimes develop leaks, or in the case of wrecks
require welding and this has been accomplished successfully with Magna 305
which bonds readily to rusty steel. and can be applied without slag inclusions or
porosity which makes this material ideal for watertight or gas tight vessels.
Fuel Oil Tanks also may fail when wrecked, or may develop leaks and these
are repaired the same as the water tanks except that adequate safety
precautions must be taken such as steaming the vessel and then filling with
water to eliminate gas hazards.
Cracks are apt to occur in exhaust blower pots and these are repaired with
Magna 305.

The jacket around the diesel motor (water jacket which rests on frame) can
develop leaks. This jacket which rests on a frame can develop leaks. The
jackets are often made of alloy steel design and should be welded with Magna
303.
When engine support brackets fail, it is customary to weld these with Magna
305.

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In Diesel maintenance, it is necessary to repair fuel lines, air lines and


similar tubings frequently. This actually involves a considerable amount of
copper tubing, joints and repairing cracks in tubings, etc. This is best
accomplished with Magna 66 which is the lowest melting of all silver alloys
commercially available and has the necessary high ductility and tensile strength.
This silver alloy is the only alloy of its type which is flux-coated.

The joints on copper air line coolers, where connected together, often have to
be repaired or joined, which is also accomplished with Magna 66.

Some railroads have eliminated difficulties with fuel lines and steel tubings by
arc welding a steel nipple into the frame for connection and using a rubber hose
instead of tubing, which provides a dependable service.
Radiators on diesel locomotives are a source of some difficulty since these
are manufactured (usually of solder construction) and mishap or age will often
make re-soldering or other repairs necessary. Magna 80, a paste paint-on
solder is ideal for this type of repair. First of all, it will bond without the cleaning
required for ordinary soldering. This is important on radiator work because
many joints have poor accessibility and it is difficult to facilitate cleaning.
Because of the poor accessibility of many joints, they are difficult to reach with
stick or bar solder and the operator invariably seems to get the solder
everywhere but not where he wants it. However, since Magna 80 can be
painted on, it is easier to apply in poor access areas. Many radiator repair men
put it in an oil can and `squirt' it into very tight locations.

Sometimes leaky tubes give a substantial amount of trouble on radiators, and


the best method of repairing these is to use Magna 66 which has much higher
strength than a solder joint and a permanent repair is made which will never
cause trouble again.

Valves, such as intake and exhaust valves on heads become unusable with
excess heat. age. wear and corrosion. Valves cost anywhere from $3.00 to
$75.00 to replace. It is naturally impractical to attempt to salvage all of these,
particularly the low cost valves. However, on in-line engines where a valve from
4-1/8 to 4 1/2 are used, those can be economically salvaged with Magna 303.
Thorough tests have proven that valves repaired with this electrode actually
perform much better than new valves. The heat-resistance, wear, corrosion and

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other factors are superior to original parts. Some shops have devised a jig
which rotates the valve while it is being repaired and the welder can accomplish
the operation in a few minutes, using less than 40 cents worth of welding
material.
Slave pistons in governors, which are highly polished steel 1-5/16'' diameter
and 51/2'' long eventually wear and must be rebuilt. (These pistons operate the
rack which controls the governor). When rebuilt with Magna 77F and machined,
they outwear a new piston about 3 to 1 according to reports.
Crankshafts on diesel locomotives eventually wear, particularly at the throws
and thrust bearing. Frankly, we regret to advise that we have no proven data to
give on the rebuilding by welding of these parts. Some railroads have welded a
sleeve on with Magna 303, but we are not yet in a position to advise the
practicability of this type of repair. Some railroads have experimented with
metallizing, but the general concensus of opinion among mechanical officers
seems to be that the possibility of peeling from a mechanical bond such as
metallizing is too great a risk. It is the personal opinion of this author, however,
that this delicate operation could be accomplished with Magna 303.
While we have not seen any railroad diesel crankshafts repaired in this
manner, we have seen many large Buda and Caterpiller Diesel crankshafts
rebuilt successfully in this manner. The technique used on this equipment is to
place the crankshaft in a large lathe, and use 3/32'' size Magna 303. By
applying a bead to one side of the throw, and then reversing the shaft in the
lathe and applying a bead to the opposite side (until the entire throw had been
coated), a repair is made. The unique nature of Magna 303 and the low heat of
the deposit will definitely not peel. While we have not seen this applied to diesel
locomotive shafts, it is our opinion that this could be accomplished satisfactorily
and economically.

It is often necessary and economical to build up worn shafts on diesel


equipment, such as auxiliary drive shafts water pump shafts which wear at
the packing gland, armature shafts, and various other shafts. This is a task for
Magna 77F. The alloy can be applied at a black heat; will outwear a new shaft,
does not have porosity, is rapidly applied without distortion, and is readily
machined.

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Water pumps, can be reclaimed with Magna 24 and a bronze bushing. The
procedure is to bore the impellor out for the size of the bushing plus. 015''
clearance i.e., if the diameter of the hub is 21/2'' bore out impeller 21/2'' plus.
015''. The bushing is then readily bonded with Magna 24. A typical example of
savings is that these impellors usually cost about $22.00 new but can be
reclaimed for less than $3.00.
If an armature shaft is worn from a slipped pinion, bearing damage, or
damaged or worn otherwise, it can be rebuilt with Magna 77F usually with less
than a dollar's worth of welding material and can be rebuilt and machined in
much less than 2 hours. The shaft costs approximately $300.00, but dismantling
and replacing would make a new shaft cost more than $1,800.00. Thus a
substantial savings results and a rebuilt shaft will last almost indefinitely.
It is not considered good practice to weld on diesel engine axles, wheels, and
similar parts. Some railroads have built up flat spots on wheels with Magna
402, but we frown on such practices.
Lubricating oil coolers (heat exchangers) are manufactured of copper, steel,
brass, depending upon manufacturer, but are usually copper-cored. Effective
repairs have been made with Magna 66 and in some cases Magna 80.
The electrical system on Diesel Locomotives offers and opportunity for
savings by means of the special Magna welding alloys. All connections, splices,
solder type eyelets, and wiring joints on resistors, condensers and other
electrical equipment, must be soldered to effect a good permanent connection.
Magna 88C is ideal for this work and can be applied with a soldering iron.
Magna 88C is a solder having extra high conductivity. The simplicity and
convenience of using this solder material is quite apparent when tried.

In case of a short, the commutator bars on an armature become unsoldered


and the squirrel cage rotor bars can also come loose, Magna 24 is ideal for
rejoining those parts because it can be applied without flux. It will, in service,
withstand a higher heat than solder or silver solder. It is easily applied at low
heat, and has high electrical conductivity.
The Alco Eddy Current Clutch which is a steel ring 20-1/8'' in diameter and 51/2'' across face, has a copper liner joined to it (1/16'' copper) which operates in

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between the rotor and the steel ring. These liners are installed at the factory with
silver brazing materials. In service when the liner gets hot, the silver solder
melts out and the liner collapses and shorts the rotor, resulting in damage.

The only method many railroads have known for salvaging this, was to install a
new clutch. However, the ideal solution which has been successfully tried by
several railroads is to build up on the steel ring with Magna 29, which is a pure
copper electrode but has extraordinary welding characteristics for a copper
electrode. It is highly deoxidized and will not make a porous deposit. This
copper electrode bonds well to steel. The area where the liner was installed by
the factory is undercut and the area coated with the copper electrode, and then
machined. The job requires 5 pounds Magna 29 and 3 hours pre-machining
time, welding time and post-machining time combined. The total cost of the
operation is $91.50 compared to the cost of $570.00 for a new clutch. When
engine failure and the cost of replacing liners is considered, the saving is
actually much greater because the repaired operation is certainly much more
dependable than installing a new clutch where the liner might melt off, resulting
in engine failure.
Cast Steel housings for motors in some instances have to be rebuilt and
machined. We have been advised by one railroad that they have found that
ordinary steel electrodes result in an unmachinable weld on these housings,
apparently due to high carbon content of the cast steel. However, it is reported,
that Magna 303 is fully machinable on this application without preheat.

Another opportunity for savings in Diesel Maintenance is in the salvage of


copper contacts, such as reversing contacts. These are successfully built up by
many railroads with Magna 24 which flows well on the copper and has high
electrical conductivity. This one operation is saving substantial sums of money
for quite a large number of railroads.
In the past, railroad machine shops have scrapped hundreds of thousands of
dollars worth of high speed steel tools, such as broaches, milling cutters, drills,
taps, reamers, etc., when broken. Today, however, because of the low
temperature application of Magna 33F coupled with its thin flowing
characteristics and high tensile strength, it is a comparatively simple operation
to restore the great majority of these tools to efficient service. The amount of
welding alloy required is almost negligible, and a tool costing many hundreds of
dollars can usually be repaired (good as new) for only a few cents worth of
materials and a few minutes time. The same alloy is ideal for tungsten carbide
insert joining to steel, and for extensions on tools, such as drills, etc.

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Magna 440 is an electrode which can be utilized to restore chipped tools, since
its deposit is equal or superior to the highest grades of high speed steel. Often a
shop will require a special tool, such as a boring bar with a goose-neck, a
specially-shaped cutter, boring bar, die, shear blade, etc. These can be tailormade for a very few cents by applying a pad of this material to a piece of mild
steel, drill rod, or even boiler plate and then grinding to shape. The resulting tool
will perform well at high speed and feed with a minimum amount of coolant or
grinding.

It is the recommendation and suggestion of this author that you establish in your
own operations, a tool salvage programme. Assign one man to go through your
complete shop, scrap piles, store-rooms, etc., and retrieve all of the broken,
chipped, or damaged tools which can be found, and bring these to the welding
shop.

You will undoubtably find that quite a few thousands of dollars in broken tools
will be located when a thorough search is made. Welders can then be assigned
to repair these tools with low melting, non-fusion filler metals during their spare
or otherwise non-productive time. The savings in this work alone will be a
source of considerable savings.

There is a great deal more to Diesel Equipment Welding Repair than we can
cover in a paper of this kind. The intention, however, is to stimulate thinking in
the direction of more efficient maintenance; and to give you ideas which will
lead to savings in your own shops.

Some other typical applications for weld repairing are:Thrust pads (part of the roller bearing boxes on Diesels which control lateral
motion of wheels) can be rebuilt with Magna 202 and will outwear new pads
possibly 5 to
End frames with elongated bores can be rebuilt with Magna 405 and will
outwear new parts yet cost less than a new part to rebuild.

All new car underframes are of welded construction and lend themselves well to
weld repair. Crossbearers, body bolsters, center sills, side sills, air brake

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brackets, and cross ties can be straightened and welded on the car usually
without removal. Loose rivets on old cars can be welded in place. Magna 303 is
the universal favourite for all such miscellaneous repairs.

The common method of repairing damaged body bolsters is to jack up the car,
cut out the bolster, and about 8' of the center sill, and replace with a shop
fabricated new section which has been welded and made from 7/16 in. Plate
and this is welded to the center and side sills with Magna 305.

Truck parts are

constantly repaired by welding on such parts as air brake

equipment, swing hangers, equalizers, bolsters, pedestal jaws, spring planks,


and truck frames which are arc welded with Magna 303. Some of these forged
or cast steel parts must be heat treated after welding.

Many parts of passenger cars are stainless steel and these are repair welded
when broken, worn or damaged. Magna 390 with electric arc is used for thicker
parts and Magna 88C is used on thin stainless steel to eliminate distortion and
discolouration.

Welding is not a panacea for every railroad maintenance problem. But a


carefully considered maintenance welding program can assist Railroad
Mechanical Operations personnel in lowering operational costs and improving
safety.

WORN MACHINE TOOL WAYS REPAIR


Large metal working plants all over the world have, at one time or another, been
plagued with the problem of planer, boring mill, and milling machine ways
receiving scratches and rips which disable the machine. Actually what happens
is that chips from the machining operation become lodged between the table
and the ways, and scratch deep gouges into the metal.

One method of repair which has been used, is to machine the ways and insert a
plate and then re-machine to size. This makes a very effective repair but,
unfortunately, it is a very costly method of doing the job.

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A less costly method of repair is by using MAGNA 88C. This method requires
very little heating of the ways, which is a requisite, in order that they do not
buckle or warp out of shape. Also, the repair is so simple that the maintenance
crew can effect it without specialized training and without dismantling or moving
the machine. Most important, the downtime on the machine is not longer than
overnight as opposed to the several weeks shut down usually experienced.

The simplicity of making this repair is notable, and the remarkable toughness
displayed by MAGNA 88C is of great importance.

To apply this alloy, first clean the scratches and rips with a grinder and drill a
couple of small holes in the groove to act as anchors for the alloy. Next, flux the
area with MAGNA 77 flux. While MAGNA 88C is normally employed with
MAGNA 88 Flux, for this application, the MAGNA 77 flux is necessary. With an
oxy-acetylene carburizing flame, heat indirectly until the flux becomes liquid.
Then apply MAGNA 88C, size 1/8'', with a rubbing action so as to tin the entire
surface to be repaired. With a clean wire brush, rub vigorously to ensure
complete tinning. Then lay sections of MAGNA 88C cut to the proper length into
the crack. With the torch, the alloy will plasticize (not melt) onto the tinned area
at only 430 degrees F., forming a good solid bond.

At this point it is easy for the scraper to re-scrape the ways and the repair is
completed. The resulting surface is not quite as hard as the cast iron, but is
exceedingly tough and the alloy will stand over 1500 lbs. of hydraulic pressure.
Tests have proven its hardness is adequate for long service. A compact deposit
results which absolutely will not peel, but is easily machinable.

One company recently had a $250,000 planer which was unusable. After
preparation, they focused a bank of infra-red lamps on the ways on Friday night.
When they came in Monday morning, the ways had soaked up the heat during
the weekend, and was ready for torch applications without further pre-heat. The
MAGNA 88C was easily flowed on the damaged area. No distortion or other ill
effects occurred. The scores were filled, scraped, and the machine was ready to
operate the next day. For a few pennies, total cost of materials, a quarter million

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dollar tool was saved - plus 12 months delay, which was the quoted delivery
time for a new machine.

No other procedure accomplishes this job so well.

MAGNA TIG ALLOY WELDING FILLER METALS


Magna 31, 37, 38, 55, 202, 303, 305, 440, 450, 460, 470, 450, 8N12 electrodes,
since their introduction to industry decades ago, have become the largestselling electrodes ever for repairing and maintaining virtually all types of metal
structures, machinery & equipment.

Industry started using the TIG process for production welding years ago. In
recent months, some interesting applications have also been found utillizing the
TIG process for maintenance welding as well.

Definition
TIG welding is a term applied to Tungsten Inert Gas arc welding. It is a gas arc
welding process which uses an inert gas to protect the weld zone from the
atmosphere. The necessary heat for welding is provided between a virtually
permanent tungsten electrode and the metal work piece. TIG welding differs
from metal arc welding in that the electrode is not melted and used as a filler
metal. On joints where Magna TIG Alloy Filler Metals are required, Magna 31,
37, 38, 55, 202, 303, 305, 440, 450, 460, 470, 450 or 8N12 TIG alloy is fed into
the weld zone and melted with the base metal much as with oxyacetylene or
470 TIG alloy is fed into the weld zone and melted with the base metal much as
with oxyacetylene alloys.

These Magna TIG Alloy Filler Metals have similar chemical, metallurgical, and
physical properties as the world-renowned Magna electrodes. With the TIG
process. the molten Magna TIG weld puddle's protected from the atmosphere
during the welding operation.

The only problem with TIG previously has been the inability of any organisation
to develop filler alloys specifically for maintenance (as opposed to production)
welding. All that has been available thus far have been the lower grade products
suitable really for only production-line use.

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Reference: REC

Magna's vast experience in the field of maintenance welding and problems


unique to repair welding has lead to the development of special Magna TIG
Alloy Welding Filler Metals that have been designed exclusively for repair
applications.

Magna TIG Alloy Welding Filler Metals


In the vast majority of applications, Magna electrodes provide superior welded
qualities but where TIG equipment is available or preferred, the Magna TIG
Alloy Welding Filler Metals are recommended. Welds made using Magna TIG,
because of the 100 per cent protection from the atmosphere afforded, are
stronger, more ductile, and more corrosion-resistant than welds made with
ordinary production-oriented TIG wires. The special Magna alloying elements
are not lost since they are not burned out. The non-consumable tungsten
electrode also cannot increase the carbon content of the weld. High quality
welds are assured.

As no flux is required, Magna TIG is readily applicable to wide variety of


stainless steel, tool steel, and mild and low-alloy.steel. Corrosion problems are
eliminated.

The Magna TIG welding action takes place without spatter, sparks, or fumes.
Weld finishing, therefore, is kept to minimum. Magna TIG welds can therefore
usually be left "as-welded". The intense concentrated heat of the arc makes it
possible to obtain high welding speed with thorough penetration and little
distortion. In the welding of stainless steels, the high welding speed built into
Magna TIG Alloys minimize carbide precipitation in the zone immediately
adjacent to the weld.

Welding Equipment
Basic equipment requirements for manual TIG welding consist of the welding
torch plus additional apparatus to supply electric power, argon and water.

The torch feeds both the welding current and the inert gas to the weld zone. The
current is fed to the welding zone through the tungsten electrode, which is held
firmly in place by the torch. The shielding gas (argon or helium) is fed to the

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MAL.63

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Reference: REC

weld zone through a gas cup which screws on the end of the torch. Ceramic
cups are acceptable when the welding current is less than 250 amps. With
higher currents, or where welding conditions are unusually severe, water-cooled
gas cups must be used to prevent possible damage to the torch from
overheating. Magna TIG alloys are engineered versatile to provide essentially
perfect welds using either method.

Electrical equipment required for direct current welding is a welding generator or


rectifier; for alternating current welding, a welding transformer is required.

High-purity argon is supplied in steel cylinders, each containing approximately


240 cu ft of argon at a pressure of 2,000 psi. A regulator is required to reduce
their pressure down to that required for welding generally around 20 psi. In
addition, a flowmeter is required at every welding station, since different
materials need different flows or amounts of argon for adequate protection. A
shut-off valve controls the flow of argon and water. When the torch is not in use
the flow of argon is automatically shut off.

A water supply is needed because of the high amount of the heat generated
during most inert gas-shielded arc welding applications which usually makes it
necessary to water-cool the torch and the welding current cables. In this way,
adequate heat protection can be supplied without materially increasing the
weight of the torch and making the cables too stiff for easy manipulation. It is
important that cooling water be clean, as restricted or blocked passages may
result in damage from the excessive heat.

Magna recommends the use of a suitable water strainer or filter at the source of
supply. When welding is done in a location where a source of cooling water is
not readily accessible, a self-contained unit with pump and water tank should be
used.

Shielding Gas
Either argon or helium may be used as the shielding gas. Use of argon has the
advantage of greater density which cuts down the rate of diffusion with the air.
Also, one volume of argon gives the protection equivalent to two or three
volumes of helium. This materially decreases cylinder handling and reduces the
amount of space required for cylinder storage.

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Reference: REC

Manual Welding Procedure


a. Starting an Arc. To start an arc in alternating current welding, the electrode
does not have to touch the workpiece. The superimposed high-frequency
current jumps the gap between the welding electrode and the work, thus
establishing a path for the welding current to follow. To strike an arc, the
welding current is first turned on, and the torch held in a horizontal position
about 2 in. (50 mm) above the workpiece. The end of the torch is quickly
swung down toward the workpiece, so that the end of the electrode is about
1/8 in. (3 mm) above the plate. The arc will then strike. This downward
motion should be made rapidly to provide the maximum amount of gas
protection to the weld zone.

In direct current welding, the same motion is used for striking an arc. In this
case, however, the electrode must touch the workpiece in order for the arc
to strike. As soon as the arc is struck, the electrode should be withdrawn
approximately 1/8" (3 mm) above the workpiece to avoid contaminating the
electrode in the molten puddle.

b. Making a Butt Weld. After the arc has been struck, the torch is held at about
a 75 deg angle to the surface of the workpiece. The starting point of the
work is first preheated by moving the torch in small circles until a molten
puddle is formed. (see fig. 1). The end of the electrode should

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Fig. 1-Before starting the weld, preheat a small area.

be held approximately 1/8 in. (3 mm) above the workpiece. When the puddle
becomes bright and fluid, the torch should be moved slowly and steadily along
the joint at a speed that will produce a bead of uniform width. No oscillation or
other movement of the torch, except for steady forward motion, is required.

Magna TIG alloy is required to provide reinforcement, and the Magna TIG alloy
is held at an angle of about 15 deg to the work and about 1 in. (25 mm ) away
from the starting point.
First, the starting point is preheated, and the puddle developed as previously
described. When the puddle becomes bright and fluid, the arc is moved to the
rear of the puddle, and Magna TIG alloy is added by quickly touching the rod to
the leading edge of the puddle. The rod is removed, and the arc brought back to
the leading edge of the puddle. As soon as the puddle is again bright, the same
steps are repeated. This sequence continues for the entire length of the seam
and is illustrated in Fig. 2.

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Reference: REC

A. DEVELOP THE PUDDLE

B. MOVE TORCH BACK

C. ADD MAGNA TIG ALLOY

D.REMOVE MAGNA ROD

E. MOVE TORCH TO LEADING


EDGE OF PUDDLE

FIG.2
c.

Making a Lap Weld. A lap weld or joint is started by first developing a


puddle on the bottom sheet. When the puddle becomes bright and fluid, the
arc is shortened to about 1/16 in. (1.5 mm). The torch is oscillated directly
over the joint until the sheets are firmly jointed. Once the weld is started, the
oscillating movement is no longer necessary. The torch is then moved along
the seam with the end of the electrode just above the edge of the top sheet.

In lap welding, the puddle developed will be boomerang - or vee-shaped.

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MAL.63

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Reference: REC

The center of the puddle is called the "notch", and the speed at which this
notch travels will determine how fast the notch can be moved ahead. Care
must be taken that this notch is completely filled in for the entire length of
the seam. (see Fig. 3). Otherwise, it is impossible to get 100 per cent fusion
and good penetration.

Fig. 3
When Magna TIG alloy is used, faster welding speeds are possible as the
Magna alloy helps fill up the notch. It is important to get complete fusion.
Just laying in bits of filler rod on cold, unfused base metal must be avoided.
The Magna TIG alloy should be alternately dipped into the puddle and
withdrawn 1/4 in. (6 mm) or so, as illustrated in Fig. 4.

By carefully controlling the melting rate of the top edge, and by adding just
the right amount of Magna TIG metal where needed, a good uniform bead
of proper proportions can be obtained.
MOVE MAGNA TIG ALLOY IN AND OUT
RAPIDLY ABOUT IN

PROGRESS OF THE WELD


WITH FILLER ROD
d. Making a Corner or Edge Joint. This is the easiest type of weld to make. A
puddle is developed at the starting point, and the torch moved straight along
the joint. Travel speed is regulated to produce a uniform looking bead.Too

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MAL.63

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Reference: REC

slow a welding speed will cause molten metal to roll off the edge. Irregular
or too high speeds will produce a rough, uneven surface.

REPAIR WELDING OF TOOLING IN THE MOTOR CAR AND MOTOR


CYCLE PRODUCTION

The extensive and complicated repair jobs required for the numerous kinds of
tools used in the manufacture of motor vehicles require good comprehension of
the tooling's base metal characteristics. Nevertheless, Magna maintenanceengineered welding alloys can assist on especially difficult repair applications
due to their in-built versatility and performance characteristics.

There are a lot of different base metals in use. However, only the weld repair
techniques of the most important grades will be covered hereafter in more
detail.

DIE CASTING DIES


To resist severe operational stresses, steels for Aluminium die casting tools
must exhibit good thermal fatigue resistance, high temperature strength and hot
hardness as well as good thermal conductivity and low susceptibility to sticking.

The steel grades AISI H11/1.2343/JIS-SKD 6 and AISI H 13/1.2344/JIS-SKD 61


have been proven as the most common types for major components of die
casting tools.

Another very advantageous base metal for dies and die inserts or spreader and
core pins is the Maraging Steel 1.6358/18 Ni 300 which has a much better
resistance against heat checking and less tendency to sticking than the usual
hot work tool steels.

Repair welding of cracks or worn areas and edges can be done with our hot
work tool steel electrode Magna 470 AC-DC. Deposits have very similar
characteristics when compared to those of the base metals.
Magna 470 however, due to its high hardness in the as-welded condition, is not
machinable anymore. The welding procedure should be similar to that explained

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MAL.63

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Reference: REC

for drop-forge dies.

PRESSING AND STAMPING TOOLS


The most common construction materials for car-sheet pressing and stamping
tools are:
- grey cast iron
- spheroidal graphite cast iron and
- flame-hardenable cast iron

Worn areas of such tools or changes to their shape can be repaired by buildingup using the manual arc welding process and the cold welding method.
The suitable electrode for these jobs is Magna 770 AC-DC Super Strength,
Non-Cracking, Universal Cast Iron Electrode. This special electrode is available
in diameters of 4.76, 3.96, 3.17 and 2.38 mm and provides soft, easilymachinable deposits in the repair of grey and nodular iron castings without preheating. Its wettability is good even on oil-fouled surfaces. Magna 770 AC-DC is
also suitable for joining steel and nodular cast iron.

One factor to consider prior to welding is the cleanliness of the surfaces to be


welded. Castings which are fouled to great depths with oil or grease will tend to
produce heavy porosity in the weld deposit. Therefore for best repair welding
results, the oil should be burnt out with a gas flame.

Other surface contaminants can be removed by steam blasting or sand blasting.


A final "insurance" that the surfaces are completely clean can be actioned by
spraying suspect areas with Magna 990 Super Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable
Degreaser.
Preheating, when using Magna 770, is not necessary but can be advantageous
to up to 100C. Commonly-used welding procedures, such as welding of
shortruns, step-back welding and peening should be observed.

COLD CUTTING TOOLS


Cutting and blanking tools as well as flange and restrike dies or large

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Reference: REC

punches are often made of high carbon containing 12% Cr, such as AISI
D3/1.2080/JIS-SKD 1 or AISI D2/1.1601/JIS-SKD ll. These air-hardenable
steel grades belong to the most difficult to weld steels.

Due to their characteristic to harden up during cooling off in still air, the danger
of cracks in the heat-affected zone or similar weld deposit, is quite high. In the
case of extensive repairs, it is necessary to apply a soft annealing treatment at
800 to 850C (1470 to 1550 F) prior to welding.Welding should be carried out
at a preheat and interpass temperature of 400 to 450C (750 to 840F).
Similar and best suitable filler metals are Magna 450 AC-DC Air-Hardening
Tool Steel Electrode and Magna 450 TIG. Furthermore, Magna 470 TIG for
Hot-Working Tool Steel can be used for hardfacing of cutting edges.

After welding in the soft annealed condition, cool slowly to 80-100 C (190210F), followed by another annealing treatment prior to machining. Finally the
workpiece has to be machined, hardened and tempered to the required
hardness. This very extensive procedure is not necessary when only the cutting
edges are worn.

In many cases, hardfacing of cutting edges can be carried out in the hardened
condition with one of above mentioned consumables and under a preheat
temperature of 400C (750F).

For equalization of temperature after welding, it is recommended to put the tool


in a preheated furnace and to keep it at 400C (750F) for about 2 hours.
Cooling should be done in the furnace to 200C (400F) and afterwards in still
air, at room temperature.

The deposit hardness is approximately 60 RC which means machining is not


possible anymore. Only grinding and eroding. In cases where machining is a
must and soft annealing after hardfacing cannot be carried out, we recommend
the application of Magna 471 AC-DC Heat-Resiting Tool Steel Electrode.
The deposit of Magna 471 is easy to machine and has the ability for nitration
treatment to increase the hardness and wear resistance.

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MAL.63

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Reference: REC

DROP-FORGE DIES
The most-used base metals to manufacture drop-forge dies are AISI H13
1.2344/JIS SKD 61 and AISI H12/1.2606/JIS-SKD 62.

The main problem on such tools are fire-cracks and wear caused by the
elevated service temperatures. Best suited filler metals for repairs on those hot
work tool steels are Magna 470 AC-DC or Magna 470 TIG which have been
mentioned already before.

Both alloys reach full hardness in the as-welded condition and offer a wear
resistance which is similar to the base metals.

- Welding should be carried out at a temperature of 300 to 400C (570 to


750F).

- Weld in steps and short runs according to the general welding


instructions.

- After each pass, peening is recommended to reduce the shrinkage


stresses.

- Cool slowly to about 100C (210F) and apply the tempering treatment
accordingly for about two hours.
The hardness in the case of Magna 470 AC-DC will be approximately 57 RC.
CUTTING AND TRIMMING TOOLS
MADE FROM HOT WORK TOOL STEEL
Commonly-used hot work tool steels for cutting and trimming applications are
AISI H10/ 1.2365/JIS SKD 7 and AISI H12/1.2606/JIS-SKD 62.

DIN

AISI

JIS

stand

stand

stand

Si

Mn

Cr

H12

SKD 62

0.36

1.1

0.4

5.0

1.4

0.35

1.3

-H11

SKD 6

0.36

1.1

0.4

5.0

1.3

0.35

--

X37 Cr Mo W

Average analysis in %

51 1.2606
X38 CR Mo V
51 1.2343

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Reference: REC

X40 Cr Mo V

H13

SKD 61

0.40

1.1

0.4

5.0

1.3

1.1

-H10

SKD 7

0.32

0.3

0.3

2.85

2.85

0.5

-H21

SKD 5

0.3

0.4

0.3

2.7

0.35

9.0

-SKD 4

0.3

0.4

0.3

2.4

0.6

4.3

51 1.2344
X32 Cr Mo V
93 1.2365
X30 W CR V 93
1,2581

X30 W CR V
53
1.2567

Best suitable filler metals for repair welding on such tool steels is Magna 470
ACDC Hot Working Tool Steel electrode. Also Magna 470 TIG is suitable. The
proper choice of these different filler metal grades is dependent on the required
hardness and on the question of whether machining is necessary or not.
Welding procedure:
- Preheat temperature 400C (750F)
- Interpass temperature 300-400C (570-750F)
- Slow cooling to 100C (210F)
- Tempering treatment according to required hardness

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Reference: REC

Magna Welding Alloys


Applications Guide
INDEX
Title

Page Number

Aircraft Repair shops

---------------------------------------------------------

MAG.2

Auto Radiator Shops

----------------------------------------------------------

MAG3

Automobile Body Shops ----------------------------------------------------------

MAG.4

Bakeries ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.5

Breweries, Beverage Bottling Plants ------------------------------------------

MAG.6

Bicycle Shops ------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.7

Candy Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.8

Cement Mills ------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.9

Chemical Industry ------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.10

Dairies - Ice Cream Manufacturing --------------------------------------------

MAG.11

Die Casting Shops -----------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.12

Dredging -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.13

Electrical Construction ------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.14

Electric Motor Repair Shops -----------------------------------------------------

MAG.15

Excavation and Construction Equipment -------------------------------------

MAG.16

Excavation and Construction Equipment (cont) -------------------------

MAG.17

Farm Repair Shops ----------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.18

Farm Repair Shops (cont) ----------------------------------------------------

MAG.19

Farm Repair Shops (cont) ----------------------------------------------------

MAG.20

Foundry -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.21

Foundry (cont) -------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.22

Garages - Freight Lines - Trucking Companies - Bus Lines --------------------

MAG.23

Garages - Freight Lines - Trucking Companies - Bus Lines (cont) -----------

MAG.24

Garages - Freight Lines - Trucking Companies - Bus Lines (cont) -----------

MAG.25

Glass Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.26

Greenhouses ------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.27

Gunsmiths ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.28

Instrumentation Shops ------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.29

Laundries ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.30

Lawn Mower Shops ---------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.31

Lumber - Paper Mills - Pulp Mills -----------------------------------------------

MAG.32

Lumber - Paper Mills - Pulp Mills (cont) -----------------------------------

MAG.33

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

Machine Shops ----------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.34

Machine Shops (cont...) -----------------------------------------------------------

MAG.35

Marine Repairs and Ship Yards -------------------------------------------------

MAG.36

Meat Packing Houses ------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.37

Meat Packing Houses (cont...) -------------------------------------------------

MAG.38

Mining ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.39

Mining (cont) ----------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.40

Motorcycle Repair Shops ---------------------------------------------------------

MAG.41

Municipal Water Works - Sewage Disposal - Incinerators ---------------

MAG.42

Neon Sign Shops -------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.43

Office Buildings - Hotels - Department Stores -------------------------------

MAG.44

Oil Fields - Oil Well Drilling - Water Well Drillers ---------------------------

MAG.45

Oil Fields - Oil Well Drilling - Water Well Drillers (cont) ----------------

MAG.46

Oil Refineries -----------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.47

Artificial Limb, Orthopaedic and Prosthetic Shops --------------------------

MAG.48

Corrugated Carton Manuf. - Paper Fabricators - Paper Box Manuf. -----------

MAG.49

Parks - Cemeteries - Grounds - Golf Courses ------------------------------

MAG.49

General Plant Maintenance ------------------------------------------------------

MAG.50

Plumbing Shops --------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.51

Power Plants -------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.52

Production - Welding and Fabrication shops --------------------------------

MAG.53

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Shops ------------------------------------

MAG.54

Rubber Industry ---------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.55

-------------

MAG.56

Steel Mills ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.57

Steel Mills (cont) -----------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.58

Structural Steel Shops ------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.59

Sugar Mills ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.60

Sugar Mills (cont) ---------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.61

Textile Industry ----------------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.62

Tool and Die Shops ----------------------------------------------------------------

MAG.62

Tool and Die Shops (cont) ----------------------------------------------------

MAG.63

Small Spring Manufacturer, Wire Works, Coat Harrgers, Bird Cages etc,

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

APPLICATIONS FOR AIRCRAFT REPAIR SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Copper Instrument Tubing


Aluminum Ramps
Magnesium Ramps
Seat Brackets
Magnesium Throttle Boxes
Stainless Lavatory Components
Stainless Food Equipment
Oil Coolers
Motor Mount Plugs
Hydraulic Jacks
Cast Aluminum Air Chutes
Steel Tail Skids
Tow Bars
Electrical Connections
Cast Aluminum Heads, Housing, and Pistons
Cast Aluminum Carburetors
Motor Arm Supports
Aluminum Fuel Tanks
Aluminum Brake Assemblies
Fuselage and Wing Assemblies
Steel Window Frames
Instrument Connections
Propeller Connections
Stainless Exhaust Stacks and Collector
Rings
Stainless Tail Pipes

Electrode
393
393
505
303
505
393
393

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
24
55
54
33 F
54
37,65,88 C
37,65,88 C
66
66
33 F
55
33 F
33 F
24,87 EC
55
55
55
55
55
33 F
33 F
66
66
-

See also Applications for Garages


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Machine Shops
APPLICATIONS FOR AUTO RADIATOR SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.

Copper Tanks
Radiator Tubing and Soldering
Steel Radiator Framework
Cast Iron Necks to Radiators

Electrode
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
24
80
33 F
79

Electrode
303
303
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
80
66
55
54

See also Applications for Garages


See also Applications for General Maintenance
APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMOBILE BODY SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Tinning Bodies Before Soldering


Joining Broken Bumper Brackets
Joining Broken Bumpers
Joining Clips to Moldings
Aluminum Convertible Brackets
Magnesium Convertible Brackets

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Zinc Die Cast Moldings


Zinc Die Cast Horn Rings
Aluminum Head Light Brackets
Repairing Aluminum Bodies
Stainless Steel Grills
Joining Body Metal. Panels. etc.
Joining Frames
Repairing Antennae
Drip Moldings and Gutters
Filling Holes After Dechroming
Zinc Die Cast Grille Work
Zinc Die Cast Hinges and Door Handles
Filling Body Holes
Bridging when panel sections do not fit
snugly
Headlight Mounts
Lock Assemblies
"Tin" Aluminum Panels To Take Body Lead
Seal Minor Rips in Aluminum Bodies

51
51
55
55
65
75 F
75 F
66
75 F
75 F
51
51
75 F
75 F

51
66
51
51

Electrode
505
305
393
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
55
33 F
55
88 C
88 C
80
24
88 C

Electrode
505
505
305
770

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
24
77 F
55
77 F
55
55
77 F
65
80
79

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Garages
APPLICATIONS FOR BAKERIES

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Cast Aluminum Dough Mixers


Galvanized Bread Racks
Aluminum Trays
Stainless Sanitary Piping
Stainless Vessels
Electrical Connections
Building Up Contact Points
Stainless Yeast Buckets

See also Applications for Plumbing Shops


See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
See also Applications for Garages
See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Machine Shops
APPLICATIONS FOR BREWERIES, BEVERAGE BOTTLING PLANTS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Copper Kettles
Bronze Bottle Lifters
Aluminum Piping Systems
Cams On Bottling Machinery
Holes In Aluminum Barrels
Cast Aluminum Arms On Bottling Equipment
Rusty Mild Steel Bottle Washing Tanks
Overlay Conveyor Links
Stainless Filler Tubes
Metal Identification Plates On Tanks
Cast Iron Pump Repairs

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Copper Pipe "O" Tubing and Feed Lines


Bronze Valve Build-Up
Stainless Plug Or Stainless Beer Barrels
Conveyor Guides
Cast Iron Conveyor Sprocket Build-Up
Overlay Bronze Roller Cams
Aluminum Conveyor Parts

393
505

24
77 F
45
77 F
77 F
55

Electrode
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
33F
80
66
33 F
66
33 F

Electrode
505
393
303
505
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
55
65
55
88 C
55
66
88 C
88 C

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Shops
APPLICATIONS FOR BICYCLE SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Steel Tubular Frame Assemblies


Steel Luggage Holder Fastenings
Brake Stop and Reinforcement
Steel Brake Slider Fasteners
Steel Brake Handle holders
Steel Forks
Steel Brake Pedals
Steel Stands
Steel Fenders
Steel Dynamo Repairs
Steel Rear Fork Cross Bars
Steel Brake Lever Socket Fastening
Steel Fastening Clamps
Steel Padlock Holder
Wiring and Clips
Headlight Supports
Square Saddle Tube
Small Springs
Handle Bar Assemble Stem

See also Applications for Machine Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Motorcycle Repair
APPLICATION FOR CANDY MANUFACTURERS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Mixers-Beaters (Cast Aluminum)


Stainless Steel Sprockets
Aluminum Trays
Stainless Steel Utensils
Aluminum Utensils
Repairing Waukesha Bronze
Stainless Steel Trays
Stainless Steel Sanitary Pipe

See also Application for Bakeries


See also Application for Plumbing Shops
See also Application for Electric Motor Repair
See also Application for General Plant Maintenance.

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

APPLICATIONS FOR CEMENT MILLS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

Baler Feeder Sprocket


Chain Links and Pins
Drag Chains
Cement Pump Flapper Valves
Six Roll Mill Beater Blades, Bull Rings
Slurry Knives
Cast Iron Cement Valves
Screw Conveyor Flights
Aluminum Unloader Forks
Cam Shafts on Block Machine
Cast Iron Concrete
Cast Iron Rotary Kilns
Overlay Air Rings
Overlay Barrel Liners
Overlay Bull Rings
Overlay Cement Chutes
Overlay Raymond Mill Plows
Overlay Drive Shaft Bearings
Overlay Drive Shaft Bushings
Overlay Mixer Blades
Overlay Hammer Mill Discs
Overlay Liner Plate Countersunk Bolts

Electrode
402
402
403
303
303
303
770
404
505
303
770
770
401
401
401
401
401
401
401
404
404
404

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
45
45
45
45
70
45
55
45
70
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

See also Applications for Excavating and Construction.


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair Shops
See also Applications for Garages
APPLICATIONS FOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Electrode
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Cutting Stainless Steel


Joining Stainless Steel Hoppers
Overlaying Stainless Pump Impellers
Overlaying Stainless Screw Conveyors
Overlaying Stainless Shafts
Repairing Stainless Batch Tanks
Repairing Stainless Kettles-Vessels
Repairing Stainless Screws
Repairing Stainless Mixers
Repairing Aluminum Mixers
Lining Steel With Stainless
Re-Galvanizing
Steel Piping
Joining Copper Tubing
Joining Aluminum Pipe
Bronze Evaporator Vessels

150
393
404
404
393
393
393
393
505
393
305
505
210

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
88 C
88 C
65
55
80
75 F
24
55
-

See also Applications for Machine Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Electric Motor Shops

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

APPLICATIONS FOR DAIRIES - -ICE CREAM MANUFACTURING


Electrode
393
393
505
393
305
gravity
305

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Stainless Steel Sanitary Piping


Steel Water Pipe
Aluminum Vats
Steel Milk Carrier Baskets
Stainless Steel Homogenizers
Steel Ammonia Pipe
Steel Rollers and Spindles On
Conveyors
8. Stainless Pump Shaft on Pasturizers
9. Steel Runaways
10. Stainless Steel Bottle Platforms on Filling
Machines
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Cast Iron On Bottle Capping Machine


Compressors
Stainless Steel Cream Separaters
Packaging Tables
Kettles, Vats, Trays (Aluminum)
Repairing Waukesha Dairy Metal
Monel Valve handles
Steel Water Pipe
Steel Ammonia Pipe
Stainless Steel Homogenizers
Cast Iron Teeth On Cottage Cheese Vat
Gears

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
88 C
77 F
55
33 F
88 C
33 F

393
393

66
33 F

393

66

770
770
393
305
505
770
770
305
305
393
770

77 F
70
88 C
33 F
55
66
77 F
33 F
66
77 F

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair Shops
See also Applications for Machine Shops
APPLICATIONS FOR DIE CASTING SHOPS

1. Cracked Cast Iron Zinc Pots


2. Cracked Cast Iron Goosenecks
3. Air hardening Steel Plungers or Force Plugs
4. Air Hardening Steel Cavity Dies

Electrode
770
770
303
450
303
450

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
70
70
-

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATION FOR DREDGING

1. Overlaying Suction Pipe Manhole Pieces


2. Overlaying Soud Clamps

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Electrode
401
401

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
-

Reference: RM

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Overlaying Retard Rings


Overlaying Pump Shells
Overlaying Pump Liner
Overlaying Pump Plates
Overlaying Pump Impellers
Overlaying Main Shaft Bearing
Overlaying Dredge Pump Casting
Overlaying Dredge Pump Shoulders
Overlaying Dredge Driving Tumblers
Overlaying Dredge Bucket Points
Overlaying Dragline Pins and Links
Overlaying Dragline Bucket Teeth and Lips
Overlaying Cutter Heads, Blades and Teeth
Overlaying Bali Joints
Overlaying Induced Draft Fan Housings
Overlaying Coal Pulverizer Hammers

401
450
450
450
450
402
404
401
404
401
401
401
210
401
401

44
44
44
44

Electrode
353
505
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
21
33 F
55
24
24

Electrode
305
305
305
770
770
770
505
505
To
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
77 F
77 F
77 F
65
70
70
70
55
55
24
24

See also Applications for Excavating and Construction


See also Applications for General Maintenance.
See also Applications for Garages
APPLICATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Holes Through Walls for Conduit. etc.


Brackets for Conduits
Joining Aluminum Bus Bars
Joining Copper Bus Bars
Joining Copper Cables

See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair


See also Applications for Garages
APPLICATIONS FOR ELECTRIC MOTOR REPAIR SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Building Up Armature Shafts


Building Up key Ways in Shafts
Building Up Threaded Sections in Shafts
Joining Stainless Banding On Motors
Cracked Cast Iron End Bells
Cracked Cast Iron Housings
Joining Broken Cast Iron Motor Legs
Cracked Aluminum End Bells
Cracked Aluminum Housing
Joining Vanished Wire Without Stripping
Pig Tails, Wire Splices, Leads
Commutators
Building Up Cast Iron Bearings
Rotor Bars to Rings--Copper
Tinning Cast Iron For Babbit Base
Aluminum Fans In motors
Cast Aluminum Power Tool Housings
Zinc Die Cast motor Parts
Cutting Tools, Boring Bars

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

770
505
505
440

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

77 F
24
79
55
55
51
45

Reference: RM

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

High Temperature Soldering Applications


High Heat Leads to Commutators
Power Tool Housings
Brush Holder Wires
Bronze Plates in Magazines

210

79
79
55
88 C
-

Electrode
770
404
770
770
770
770
770
770
770
770
404
303
210
402
404
404
401
404
401
305
450
450
450
404
404
303
405

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
77 F
45
70
70
70
79
70
70
70
70 F
45
33 F
77 F
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

Electrode
405
402
404
402
505
505
505
505
210
100
100

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
77 F
21
45
55
55
55
55
65
77 F
-

See also Applications for Electrical Construction


APPLICATIONS FOR EXCAVATION AND CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

Cast Iron Axle Housings


Cast Iron Crusher Rollers
Cast Iron Drag Line Housings
Cast Iron Demolition Ball Repairs
Cast Iron Manifolds
Cast Iron Radiators
Cast Iron Tractor Head Assembly
Cast Iron Transmission Cases
Cast Iron Pump Housings
Cast Iron Gear Teeth
Steel Asphalt Mixer Paddles
Steel Air Hammer Tools
Overlaying Boom Carrier Rollers
Overlaying Crawler Treads
Overlaying Cement Mixer Blades
Overlaying Ready Mix Chutes
Overlaying Dipper Teeth
Overlaying Dragline Conveyor Flights
Overlaying Excavator Buckets
Joining Grader Frames
Overlaying Crusher Hammers
Overlaying Crusher Plates
Overlaying Pulverizer Hammer
Overlaying heavy Duty Idlers
Overlaying Grader Blades
Joining Grouser Bars
Overlaying Rock Drill Chuck Jaw

APPLICATIONS FOR EXCAVATION AND CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

Overlay Skip-Hoist Cable Sheaves


Overlay Tampers
Overlay Core Bits
Overlay Sand Pump Impellers
Overlay Shovel Teeth
Joining Aluminum Crankcase Housings
Joining Aluminum Brake Shoes
Joining Aluminum Gear Boxes
Joining Aluminum Water Tanks
Joining Brass Coupling Links
Overlaying Bronze Water Valves
Removing Stainless Steel Welds
Removing Hard Facing

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

41. Repairing Copper Radiator Sections


42. Removing Rivets

150

80
-

Electrode

Oxyacetylene
Alloy

See also Applications for Garages


See also Applications for Dredging
See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for General Maintenance
APPLICATIONS FOR FARM REPAIR SHOPS

A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Tractor
Cast Iron Cylinder Blocks
Cast Iron Cylinder Heads
Cast Iron Water Pumps
Cast Iron Transmission Housings
Cast Iron Starter Housings
Cast Iron Exhaust Manifolds
Cast Iron Gear Cover housings
Steel Bulldozer Blades
Leaks In Gas Tanks
Manganese Tractor Treads
Electrical Connections
Radiators
Copper Tubing
Crawler Tractor Track Links
Cast Iron Pittman Arms

770
770
770
770
770
770
770
303
402
402
770

79
79
70
70
70
70
79
80
88 C
80
88 C
70

B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

General
Farm Tanks
Cast Iron Gear Teeth
Cast Iron Sprockets
Cast Iron Pulleys
Steel Chains
Aluminum Chain Saw Cases
Magnesium Chain Saw Cases
Steel Springs
Malleable Iron Implement Parts
Galvanized Corn Picker Housings
Galvanized Combine Housings

393
770
770
770
303
505
303
770
393
393

33 F
77 F
77 F
77 F
33 F
55
54
77 F
70F
70F

Electrode

Oxyacetylene
Alloy

305
303
303
505
305
393
-

65
33 F
33 F
55
55
77 F
88 C
88 C

APPLICATIONS FOR FARM REPAIR SHOPS

B.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

General (Continued...)
Aluminum Spray Booms
Silage Forks. Manure Forks, Pitch Forks
Coil Springs
Broken Discs
Aluminum Irrigation Piping
Aluminum Tanks, Hoppers, Vats
Galvanized Drainage Pipe
Stainless Dairy Equipment
Stainless Milk Cans

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

21. Stainless Milking Machine-Cups, Milk Cans,


etc.
22. Hardening Chisels-hand Tools
23. Cast Iron Baling Machine Gears
24. Cast Iron Mowing Machine Eccentric Drive
25. Cast Iron Binder Gears
26. Steel Pinion Gears
27. Hoes and Pakes
28. Steel Storage Bins
29. Draw Bars

88 C

770
770
770
303
701
-

902
77 F
77 F
33 F
33 F
33 F

C.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

401
211
401
401
401
401
401
405

44
44
44
45
45
45
77 F

Electrode

Oxyacetylene
Alloy

404
402
402
402
403
404
404
404
404
404
402
401
401
401
404
401
401
401
401

45
21
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

Electrode
505

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
51
55

Hard Facing
Corn Picker Rollers
Bean Knives
Steel Plow Shares
Mower Shoes
Corn Planter Runners
Duck Bill Plows
Cultivator Plows
Water Pump Shafts

APPLICATIONS FOR FARM REPAIR SHOPS


(continued...)

C.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

Hard Facing (Continued....)


Snow Plow Shoes
Tractor Sprockets
Tractor Idlers
Tractor Grousers
Augers
Post Hole Diggers
Bean Knives
Drill Shoes
Liquid Fertilizer Injectors
Scraper Knives
Hammer Mill Hammers
Spike Harrow Teeth
Cultivator Spikes
Planter Runners
Potato Digger Shovels
Combine Cylinder Rasp Bar
Clevis Connections
Grain Drill Discs
Beet Puller Points

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Garages
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair Shops
See also Applications for Plumbing Shops
APPLICATIONS FOR FOUNDRY

1. Building Up Aluminum Patterns


2. Repairing Broken Aluminum Patterns

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

3. Repairing Broken Cast Aluminum Flasks


4. Repairing Broken Cast Aluminum Match
Plates
5. Repairing Broken Cast Aluminum Core
Boxes
6. Repairing Broken Cast Iron Flasks
7. Building Up Bronze Trolley Shoes
8. Building Up Bronze Contact Points On
Cranes
9. Building Up Copper Contact Points
10. Building Up Crane Rails
11. Building Up Bearings on Cast Iron
12. Building Up Muller Plows
13. Building Up Tumbling Barrel Gear Teeth
14. Building Up Screw Conveyors
15. Building Up Wear Plates In Shot Blast
Cabinets
16. Building Up Wheelabrator Wear Plates
17. Building Up Sand Slinger heads
18. Joining Manganese Steel Casting Hooks
19. Joining Foundry Shaker Decks
20. Building Up Sand Hopper Gear Teeth
21. Building Up Cutting Edges On Core Rod
Shears
22. Building Up Cutting Edges On Chisels
23. Removing Sub-surface Defects, Hot and
Cold
Tears, Cracks, etc.
24. Removing Gates, Side Fins, Risers, etc.
25. Repairing Cracked Ladle Bottoms
26. Building Up Bolts For Shot Blast Cabinets

505
505

55
55

505

55

770
-

77 F
77 F
77 F

402
770
404
770
404
404

24
77 F
45
77 F
45
45

404
404
402
305
770
430

45
45
77 F
45

430

100

150
305
404

45

APPLICATIONS FOR FOUNDRY

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

Electrode
Building Up Muller Tyres
404
Building Up Crane Hooks
401
Building Up Crane Shoes
401
Repairing Defects in Cast iron
770
Repairing Defects In Cast yellow Brass
Repairing Defects in Cast Magnesium
Repairing Defects in Cast Red Brass
210
Repairing Defects in Cast Aluminum
505
Repairing Steel Grates In Shake-Out
305
Machines
Joining
Wear
Plates
on
Oscillating
303
Conveyors
Cutting Or Nicking Large Scrap
150
Repairing Steel Flasks
305
Piercing Gas Escape Holes in Steel Flasks
150

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
45
70
75 F
54
24
55

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Plumbing Shops

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

APPLICATIONS FOR GARAGES FREIGHT LINES TRUCKING COMPANIES-BUS LINES

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Overlaying Tyre Chains


Sealing Gas Tanks with Soldering Iron
Repairing Cracked Cylinder Heads
Repairing Cracked Motor Blocks
Repairing Cracked Water Pump Housings
Repairing Cracked Transmission Cases
Repairing Cracked Exhaust Manifold
Repairing Cracked Starter Housing
Building Up Armature Shaft
Electrical Connections
Joining Broken Springs
Extending Truck Bodies
Tie Bar Clamp
Building Up Valves
Building Up Valve Seats
Building Up Clutch Fingers
Building Up Steering Arms
Building Up Pulleys
Building Up Thrust Bearings
Building Up Crank Shaft Throws
Patching Tail pipes
Patching Mufflers
Oil Pan Leaks
Repair Spring Shackles
Antennae Rapairs
Join Battery Cable Clamp

Electrode
303
770
770
770
770
720
770
305
303
305
770
303
303
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
45
80
79
79
70
79
70
70
77 F
80
33 F
45
70
77 F
77 F
77 F
77 F
75 F
75 F
75 F
33 F
66
80

APPLICATIONS FOR GARAGES FREIGHT LINES TRUCKING COMPANIES-BUS LINES

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.

Repair Spring Saddles


Repair Spindles
Steel Gear Repairs
Joining Steering Axle Pins
Repair Steering Worm Gear
Repair Steering Ball Sockets
Build-Up Front End Radius Arms
Broken Drive Shaft
Broken Axle Shafts
Building Up Cluster Gear Teeth
Building Up Clutch Rings
Joining Bus Heater Pipes
Salvaging Cast Iron Steering Knuckles
Building Up Bearings on Splined Steering
Shaft Yokes
Overlaying Tie Rod Sockets
King Pin Bracket Overlay
Building Up Axle and Radius Arm Housing
Repairing Cluster Gear
Aluminum Transmission End plates
Alloy Steel Drive Gears
Building Up Bus Clutch Rings
Cast Iron Bus Pressure Plates

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Electrode
303
303
303
303
303
303
303
303
303
303
770

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
77 F
33 F
77 F
24
77 F

405
303
505
303
770

77 F
77 F
77 F
77 F
55
77 F
70

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

49.
50.
51.
52.
53.

Building Up Flange Faces


Cast Iron Carburetor Repair
Zinc Die Cast Carburetor Repairs
Air Compressor Valves
Building Up Valve Push Rods

770
-

77 F
70
51
45
45

APPLICATIONS FOR GARAGES FREIGHT LINES TRUCKING COMPANIES-BUS LINES

54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.

Building Up Clutch Fingers


Building Up Throw Out Bearing Collars
Lands on Aluminum Truck Pistons
Speedometer Cable
Leaks in Gas Tanks with Soldering Iron
Joining Steering Axle Pins
Joining Steel Bus Seats
Stainless Steel Sheet
Aluminum Structurals
Minor Rips in Aluminum Sheet
Minor Rips in Stainless Steel Sheet
Tubular Steel Bus Seat Assemblies
Aluminum Retractable Wheels
Cast Iron Retractable Wheels
Steel Liquids Tank
Stainless Steel Liquids Tank

Electrode
303
393
353
505
505
770
305
393

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
77 F
77 F
55
66
80
75 F
55
51
88 C
75 F
55
-

Electrode
404

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
55

770
770
770
303
770

70
70
70
77 F
70
70

303
440
440
404
770
505
440
505
393
770

45
45
45
45
70
55
77 F
45
55
902
33 F
70

See also Applications for Auto Body Shops


See also Applications for Auto Radiator Shops
See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Machine Shops
APPLICATIONS FOR GLASS MANUFACTURING

1. Building Up Collet Crushers


2. Molds
Hinges On Outside Of Molds
Defects inside Binnery Iron Molds
Defects inside Cast Iron Molds
Defects in Minox Bronze Molds
Defects in Nitrided Steel Molds
Repairing Cast Iron Pluggers
3. Hand Blown Glass Plants
Joining Punty Leads to Blower Pipes
Glass Cutting Knives
Glass Cutting Shears
4. Hard Facing Glass Feeder Flights
5. Mold Holders
6. Aluminum Bending Molds
7. Levers on Automatic Glass Machine
8. Bottle Machine Cams
9. W.D. Glass Machines
10. Hardening Scribe and Decorating Tools
11. Pipe Welding (Gas and Water)
12. Cast Iron Rolling Tables

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Plumbing Shops
See also Applications for Machine Shops
APPLICATIONS FOR GREENHOUSES

1. Re-galvanize Ends of Galvanized Pipe when


Thread Cutting has destroyed Galvanized
Coating.
2. Leaks in Water Pails, Sprinkling Cans, etc.
3. Joining Steel Pipe to Cast Iron Fittings
4. Copper Radiators
5. Galvanized Pipe
6. Soil Working Tools-See Farm Repair List

Electrode

Oxyacetylene
Alloy

770
303

80
75 F
75 F
80
75 F

Electrode
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
65
65
65
65

Electrode
393
393
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
66
88 C
66
55
75 F
75 F
80

Electrode
393
505

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
88 C
55

See also Applications for Machine Shop


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATIONS FOR GUNSMITHS

1.
2.
3.
4.

Build Up Sears
Attach Sights to Barrels and Ramps
Attach Front Ramp to Barrel
Attach Swivel to Front Bolster

APPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUMENTATION SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Copper Instrument Tubing


Sealing Floats
Joining Thermo Couple Wires
Beryllium Copper
Aluminum Instrument Housings
Instrument Brackets
Panel Boards
Alnico Magnets to other Metals

See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for General Maintenance.
APPLICATIONS FOR LAUNDRIES

1. Stainless Steel Sterilizers


2. Aluminum Agitators

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Aluminum Pressing Heads


Galvanizing Equipment
Cast Iron Boiler Grates
Monel Tubs
Brass Catch on Tumbler Doors
Crack in Stainless Vats
Cast Iron Washing Machine Frames
Gear Teeth on Tumblers, Washers, Dryers
Portable Clothes Hampers
Joining Galvanized Equipment
Building up Washing Machine Doors
Replating Brass Fittings in Washing
Machines

505
720
8N12
393
770
770
393
-

55
80
70
33 F
77 F
37
77 F
77 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
80

Electrode
505
770
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
55
55
75F
70
24
80
66

See also Applications for Machine Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Plumbing Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATIONS FOR LAWN MOWER SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Cast Aluminum Decks on Rotary


Aluminum Tubing
Steel Frames
Cast Iron Mower Wheels
Copper Tubing, Gasoline Lines, etc.
Sealing Gasoline Tanks
Small Springs, Clips

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops
APPLICATIONS FOR LUMBER-PAPER MILLS -- PULP MILLS
Electrode
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Stainless Steel Pump Straining Screens


Acid Pump Shaft Build-Up
Cast Iron Pump Housings
Pulp Hammers
Cutter Hog Knives
Copper Digester Parts
Cast Iron Valve Build-Up
Stainless Valve Build-Up
Bronze Valve Build-Up
Hog Anvils
Valves and Valve Stems
Turn Table Rollers
Sludge Pump Shafts
Shredder Knives
Salt Cake Hammers
Pulp Log Barker Thrust Rolls
Log Haul Chains- Joining
Log Haul Chains-Surfacing
Friction Pins

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

393
393
770
404
404
770
393
210
450
401
405
440
401
401
303
303
401

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
66
37
79
45
45
24
70
37
77 F
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

Reference: RM

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Chipper Discs
Bed Plates
Barking Machine Gears
Veneer Cutter Heads
Chip Chute Liners
Pulp Log Barker Thrust Rolls
Stainless Steel Rotary Digesters

450
450
303
401
401
401
393

45
45
45
-

APPLICATIONS FOR LUMBER-PAPER MILLS -- PULP MILLS

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

Electrode
Stainless Pulp Washer Tanks
393
Stainless Dry Flues and Stacks
393
Stainless Steel Sulphate Digest Accessories
393
Stainless Steel Linings in Sulphate Blow
393
Tanks
Stainless Steel Agitators in Bleachers
393
Stainless Steel Linings in Pulpers
393
Stainless Steel Stock Chests
393
Stainless Steel Suction Box Covers
393

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
-

See also Applications for Machine Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATIONS FOR MACHINE SHOPS

1. Joining Copper Coolant Oil Tubing


2. Holding Parts, such as split bushing together
for machining in unison
3. Extensions on drills, taps, reamers
4. Joining Sheet Metal Models
5. Joining Fixtures
6. Centres on Gauges
7. Partial High Speed Machining
8. Joining High Speed Steel Broaches
9. Joining High Speed Steel Drills
10. Joining High Speed Steel Taps
11. joining High Speed Steel Reamers
12. joining High Speed Steel Milling Cutters
13. Making Lathe Tool Cutting Edges
14. Making Boring Bar Cutting Edges
15. Carbide Tipping
16. Joining Carbide Strips on Centreless Grinder
17. Wheel Dressing Tools
18. Building Up Worn Shafts
19. Rectifying Cast Iron Machine Errors
20. Rectifying Steel Machine Errors
21. Rectifying Aluminum Machine Errors
22. Repairing Steel Chunks
23. Repairing Damaged Machine Tool Ways
24. Building Up Tangs on Drills

Electrode
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
80

303
305
100
303
303
440
440
405
770
305
505
303
770
303

80
33 F
80
33 F
80
65
33 F
33 F
33 F
33 F
45
45
66
66
21
77 F
70
33 F
55
33 F
79
77 F

APPLICATIONS FOR MACHINE SHOPS

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

25. Joining Band Saws


26. Rebuilding Striking End of Chisels and
Impact Tools
27. Snap Gauges
28. Tool Posts and Blocks
29. Sliding Index Arms
30. Release Toggles
31. Locating Pins and Lugs

Electrode
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
66

303
440
440
-

77 F
45
45
45
45
45

Electrode
770
770
770
770
303
393
305
401
210
393
305
393

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
79
70
70
77 F
66
33 F
77 F
33 F
77 F
-

305
393
305
150
393
770
402
701
-

24
33 F
70
33 F
24

Electrode
393
393
393
393

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C

See also Applications for Tool and Die Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATIONS FOR MARINE REPAIRS AND SHIP YARDS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

Cracks in Cast Iron Blocks, Heads


Cast Iron Winches
Cast Iron Deck Machinery
Cast Iron Valves
Joining Armour Plate
Stainless Steel Propellers
Steel Hauser Chains
Steel Bumper Plate on Tug Boat
Naval Bronze Repairs
Handrails
Overlaying Propeller Shafts
Watertight Doors to Bulkheads
Boom Cradle and Boom Rest Pads to Deck
or Bulkhead
Steel Deck Lashing Pads
Steel Machinery Foundation
Copper Tubing for Scuttlebutts
Removing Rivets
Metal Furniture
Diesel Heads, Blocks
Crane Rails
Ladders
Contact Points on Cranes

See also Applications for Outboard Motors


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATIONS FOR MEAT PACKING HOUSES

1.
2.
3.
4.

Stainless Steel Lining for Curing Vats


Stainless Steel Tables
Stainless Steel Dip Tanks
Stainless Steel Depilating Tanks

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

Stainless Steel Viscera Inspection Tables


Stainless Steel Separating Tables
Stainless Steel Lining for Sausage Stuffers
Stainless Steel Smoke Houses
Stainless Steel Smoke House Ducts
Stainless Steel Paunch Trucks
Stainless Steel Sausage Emulsion Trucks
Stainless Steel Pan Trucks
Stainless Steel Chutes
Stainless Steel Monorail Hangers
Stainless Steel Lining for Chill Rooms
Stainless Steel Lard Tanks
Stainless Steel Lard Vats
Stainless Steel Lard Clarifiers
Stainless Steel Back Fat Skimming Machine
Stainless Steel Ham Boilers
Stainless Steel Lard Setting Tank
Stainless Steel Dry Rendering Cooker
Galvanized Trucks and Equipment
Stainless Bacon Belly Curing
Overlaying Chopper Blades
Overlaying Cutter Blades
Joining Stainless Sanitary Piping

393
393
393
393
393
393
393
393
393
393
393
393
393
393
393
393
393
303
393
440
440
393

88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C
65
88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C
88 C
65
75 F
88 C
45
45
88 C

Electrode
505
770
393

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
55
80
70
33 F

APPLICATIONS FOR MEAT PACKING HOUSES

28.
29.
30.
31.

Cast Aluminum Molds for Pressed Meat


Re-Galvanizing Equipment
Cast Iron Pump Housings
Galvanized Pipe

See also Applications for Machine Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATION FOR MINING

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Electrode
Manganese Steel Dump Truck Body Bed
402
Manganese Steel Ore Scraper
402
Manganese Steel Ore Car
402
Manganese Chute Liners
402
Manganese Steel Dragline Buckets
402
Manganese Steel Dipper Buckers
402
Manganese Steel Crusher Liners
402
Cutter Chain Lugs and Straps
404
Clutch Lugs (Loader)
401
Coal Recovery Augers
404
Worm in Bird Dryers
Clutch Pins for Swing Conveyors on Joy
Loaders
Car Wheel Flanges
402
Crusher Jaws
402
Chain Guides for Joy Loaders
440

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
45
45
45
45
45

Reference: RM

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Hand Shovels
Pug Mill Blades
Mine Car Axle Boxes
Coal Pulverizer Liners
Underground Scrapers
Teeth on Electric Coal Loaders
Top Hopper Plates for Centre Conveyors for
Joy Loaders
Steel Sprockets
Aluminum Rail Straightening Jacks
Overlay Cutter Bar Head
Coal Mine Screens

404
401
401
404
402

45
45
45
45
-

401
405
505
303

77 F
55
77 F
-

Electrode
505
770
770

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
55
70
70

77 F

770

33 F
70

Electrode
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
55
55
55
55
55
45
88 C
87 EC
75 F
75 F
75F
70
45
75F

APPLICATION FOR MINING

27.
28.
29.
30.

Aluminum Drill Housings


Cast Iron Pump Housings
Cast Iron Compressor Housings
Build up Brass Shower Heads and Spray
Nozzles
on Coal Washers
31. Monel Screens to Steel Rings
32. Cast Iron Demolition Ball

See also Application for General Maintenance


See also Application for Machine Shops
See also Application for Excavation and Construction
See also Application for Electric Construction
See also Application for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATION FOR MOTORCYCLE REPAIR SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Cast Aluminum Primary Case


Cast Aluminum Gear Case
Cast Aluminum Transmission Case
Cast Aluminum Head
Filling Heads for Increasing Compression
Building up Cams for Greater Lift
Leaks in Steel Gasoline Tanks
Electrical Connections
Steel Tubing
Steel Frames
Steel Fenders
Cast Iron Heads
Racing Skid Shoe Overlay
Steel Brackets

See also Applications for Bicycle Shops


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for General Maintenance
APPLICATIONS FOR MUNICIPAL WATER WORKS-SEWAGE DISPOSAL-INCINERATORS.

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Electrode
770
210
450
720
770
777
Sewage
393

Cast Iron Pump Housings


Bronze Pump Impellers
Building Up Pump Shafts
Grates in Boilers
Impeller Shaft Gears
Cast Iron Manhole Covers
Stainless Diffusion Tubes on
Disposal
Agitator Blades
Stainless Steel Grable in Incinerator Arms
Cutting Cast Iron Pipe
Stainless Liners in Incinerators
Cooling Rack-Galvanized Pipe
Monel Pipe
Stoker Guides
Cast Iron Fire Hydrants

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
70
77 F
77 F
70
77 F
70
37

403
393
150
393
305
770
770

45
37
37
33 F
33 F
77 F
70

Electrode
305
701
440
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
88 C
55
45
80
80
21

Electrode
505
393
505
393
404
393

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
55
33 F
55
33 F
21
88 C
55
88 C
24
25
33 F

See also Applications for Machine Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Electric Motor Shops
APPLICATIONS FOR NEON SIGN SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Joining Stainless Steel Letters


Joining Aluminum Letters
Joining Steel Letters to be Enameled
Welding Brackets, Stanchions, etc.
Cutting Edges on Tools, Shears, etc.
Electrical Connections, etc.
Soldering Sheet Metal
Making Masonry Drills

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATIONS FOR OFFICE BUILDINGS HOTELS -- DEPARTMENT STORES

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Cast Aluminum Vacuum Cleaner Parts


Galvanized Garbage Can Leaks
Aluminum Furniture
Steel Furniture
Masonry Tools
Stainless Utensils
Aluminum Utensils
Silverware Repairs
Streamline Fittings
Coal Blower Fan Blades
Galvanized Dish Bussing Racks

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATION FOR OIL FIELDS-OIL WELL DRILLING-WATER WELL DRILLERS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

High Alloy Steel Winch Drive Shafts


Building Up Worn Cat Heads
High Alloy Steel Shafts Build-Up
Building Up Drilling Rig Clutch Face
Repairing Cast Iron Pumps
Building Up Work Shoes
Building Up Cable Tool Drill Bits
Core Drills
Core Heads
Core Barrels
Cable Tools
Drilling Rig Sheaves
Hot Oil Pump Pistons
Hot Oil Pump Sleeves
Knuckle Joints
Mud Pump Piston Rods
Mud Pump Valves
Reamers
Valve Seats
Diesel Valve Facing
Seismograph Bits
Shaft Sleeves
Under Reamer Lugs
Wall Scraper Blades
Crown Block Cast Iron Sheaves
Traveling Blocks (Build-Up)
Traveling Blocks Shafts

Electrode
303
770
303
405
770
405
405
402
303
401
393
770
305
305

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
77 F
79
21
21
21
21
45
45
77 F
45
21
45
45
21
45
45
21
77 F
77 F
77 F

Electrode
401
770
405
405
401
405
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
77 F
45
70
77 F
77 F
77 F
24
77 F

APPLICATION FOR OIL FIELDS-OIL WELL DRILLING-WATER WELL DRILLERS

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.

Crown Block Steel Sheaves


Hook-Elevators-Swivel Bail
Mud Pump Liner Seats
Build-Up Draw Works Clutches
Build-Up Liner Shafts
Build-Up Chain Sprockets
Copper Screens on Shale Shakers
Build-Up "Kelly"
Build-Up "Kelly" Drive Bushings
Pumping Unit Gear Teeth

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Shops
See also Applications for Electrical Construction
See also Applications for Garages
See also Applications for Excavation and Construction

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

APPLICATIONS FOR OIL REFINERIES

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Electrode
150
770
393
77F
770
393
150

Cutting Tube Sheet


Repairing Cast Iron Pumps
Stainless Lining on Towers
Rebuilding Bronze Valves 210
Rebuilding Cast lron Valves
Rebuilding Stainless Valves
Cutting Stainless Steel Pipe
Aluminum Nozzles on Gasoline Handling
Equipment
Bronze Pump Impellers
Bronze Pump Housings
Building Up Rails
Repairing Pipe Alloy P 335
Repairing Pipe Alloy A 335
Repairing Cracking Ovens (1200C +)

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
79
77 F
-

210
210
402
303
303
303

55
77 F
77 F
-

Electrode
303
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
55
33 F
55
88 C
33 F
33 F

See also Applications for Machine Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
See also Applications for Instrument Shops
See also Applications for Garages
APPLICATIONS FOR ARTIFICIAL LIMB, ORTHOPEDIC AND PROSTETIC SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Aluminum Legs
Surgical Steel Braces
Aluminum Splints
Cables for Hand Operation to Fillings
Wheel Chair Tubing
Troutman Fillings to Braces

APPLICATIONS FOR CORRUGATED CARTON MANUFACTURERS, PAPER FABRICATORS, PAPER BOX


MANUFACTURERS, ETC.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Electrode
440
505
405
440
303

Cut-Off Knives
Aluminum Guides
Paper Roll Shaft Build-Up
Crescent Knives Cutting Edges
Cams

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
45
55
77 F
45
45

See also Applications for Machine Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Electric Motor Shops
APPLICATIONS FOR PARKS, CEMETERIES, GROUNDS, GOLF COURSES

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

See Applications for Farm Repair Shops


See Applications for Lawn Mower Repair Shops
See Applications for Plumbing Shops
See Applications Electrical Motor Shops
See Applications for Excavation and Construction

APPLICATIONS FOR GENERAL PLANT MAINTENANCE

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

Broken Forks on Lift Trucks


Building Up Contact Points
Joining Steel Piping
Building Up Cams
Stainless Steel in Cafeteria
Building Up Pump Shafts
Repair Cast lron Levers
Repair Cast lron Gears
Repair Cast lron Machine Foundations
Repair Cast lron Pulleys
Repair Cast lron Valve Cones
Repair Cast lron Flanges
Damaged Galvanized
Galvanized Sheet Metal
Steel Motor Guards
Steel Pipe Brackets
Making Masonry Drills
Repair Cast Iron Furnace Grates
Joining Chain Links
Building up Coal Dust Blower Fan Blades
Overlaying Conveyor Parts
Overlaying Hand Truck Noses
Rests for Hand Tool Grinding
Stitchon Cams
Belt Shifter and Clutch Throw-Out Fingers
Car Couplers and Keys
Chuck Jaws

Electrode
303
305
404
353
305
770
770
770
770
770
770
393
393
393
720
303
404
305
401
404
440
401
401

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
24
75 F
45
88 C
77 F
70
77 F
70
77 F
77 F
77 F
80
75 F
33 F
75 F
21
70
33 F
45
77 F
45
45
45
45
45
45

See also Applications for Machine Shops. See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair.
APPLICATIONS FOR PLUMBING SHOPS

1. Copper Water Lines


2. Steel Pipe Brackets
3. Radiant Heating and Underground Copper
Tubing
4. Repairing Leaks in Cast Iron Radiators
5. Cutting Cast Iron Soil Pipe
6. Sealing Leaks in Cast Iron Pipe Fittings
7. Joining Galvanized Piping
8. Soldering Chrome Plated Lavatory Parts
9. Joining Black Iron Pipe

Electrode
305
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
80
33 F
24

770
150
770
305
305

79
79
33 F
88 C
77 F

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

APPLICATIONS FOR POWER PLANTS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Steel Hopper Overlays


Steel Coal Duct Overlays
Worn Stoker Drive Shafts
Dust Extractors
Chrome Alloy Soot Blower Elements
Cast Iron Furnace Grates
Bronze Steam Turbine Rotor Blade
Steel Car Shakers
Burner Nozzles
Boiler Feed Pump Castings
Overlaying Coal Conveyors (Steel)
Steel Coal Stoker Pins
Overlaying Tubes to resist fly ash
Fly ash chutes
Coal Feeder Conveyor Screw
Mill Yokes on coal Pulverizers
Mill Plows on coal pulverizers
Lift and Valve Cams
Drip Valves - Poppet Type
Coal Feeder Dogs
Check Valves
Poppet Type Drip Valves
Steam Valve Discs
Nipples
Ash Conveyor Links

Electrode
404
404
305
303
303
720
303
303
305
404
404
404
404
404
404
404
404
404

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
45
45
77 F
70
77 F
45
77 F
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

Electrode
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
903
903
66
66

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair Shops
See also Applications for Electric Construction
APPLICATION FOR PRODUCTION WELDING AND FABRICATION SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Protection of Welding Fixtures


Protection of metal from Spatter
Joining Spot Welding Tips to Steel Backing
Joining Eleconite to Backing in Flash
Welding
Removing Faulty Arc Welds
Preparing Metals for Welding
Back"Chipping" Butt Welds for Sealer
Passes
Repairing Welding and Cutting Torches
Making Jigs and Fixtures
Making Holes for Plug Welding
Removing Faulty Submerged Melt Welds

100
100
100

305
150
100

66
33 F
-

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

APPLICATIONS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Repairing Aluminum Condensers


Repairing Aluminum Evaporators
Rewelding Sealed Units
Repairing Zinc Die Cast Hinges
Tinning Refrigerator Body Dents before
Application of Body Lead
Cracks in Cast Iron Ammonia Compressor
Building Up Ammonia Compressor Shafts
Building Up Electric Motor Shalts
Stainless Steel Milk Coolers
Joining Tin Piping in Soda Fountains
Joining Copper Tubing
Joining Copper to Aluminum Tubing
Joining Aluminum Tubing
Joining Copper to Steel Tubing
Joining Steel Ammonia Pipe
Galvanized Air Ducts
Joining Steel brackets and Pipe Supports
Repairing Damaged Aluminum lce Trays
Repairing Cast Iron Motor Housings

Electrode
393
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
55
51
75 F
51

720
305
305
393
305
393
770

80
70
77 F
88 C
88 C
24
51
55
66
80
75 F
55
77 F

Electrode
770
403
505
-

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
45
55
45

See also Applications for Machine Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance
APPLICATIONS FOR RUBBER INDUSTRY

1.
2.
3.
4.

Cast Iron Calender Repairs


Banbury Mixer Hard Facing
Aluminum Molds
Overlay Pyrometers

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Shops
See also Applications for Plumbing Shops
MAGNA APPLICATIONS FOR SMALL SPRING MANUFACTURERS, WIRE WORKS, COAT HANGERS,
BIRD CAGES, ETC.

1. Carbide Inserts on Arbors


2. Tipping Arbors for Softer Wire, such as
Phosphor Bronze, Aluminum
3. Wire Dies
4. Wire Guides
5. Wire Pinch Cams
6. Wire Cutter Blades
7. Wire Drawing Blocks
8. Wire Twister Heads

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Electrode

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
66

440
440
440
440
440
440
440

45
45
45
45
45
45
45

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

9. Shafts on Wire Machinery


10. Wire Winder Arms
11. Wire Winding Machine Shaft

405
405

77 F
77 F
77 F

Building Up Crane Hooks


Building Up Crane Shoes
Building Up Gears
Building Up Cams
Building Up Chain Sheaves
Building Up Mill Guides
Building Up Coke Pusher Shoes
Building Up Wobblers
Building Up Billet Tongs
Paddles for Mixing Ferro Alloys
Shears
Crane Rails
Railroad Rails and Frogs
Cracks in Ladle Bottoms
Scraper Blades
Bronze Guides
Steel Guides
Tube Piercer Shoes
Skulling Hooks
Tube Drawing Dies
Drill Tongs
Edging Rolls
Hot Punches
Hot Trimming Dies
Mill Centre Discs
Nail Header Dies

Electrode
401
401
405
450
450
401
404
450
ALLOY C
403
440
402
402
303
403
210
401
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
45
77 F
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
77 F
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

Nut Die Blocks


Diagonal Rolls
Coke Pusher Shoes
Carbon Cutters on Coke Ovens
Blooming Mill Shear Clutches
Button Formers
Shear Clutch Faces
Screw Conveyors

Electrode
440
440
404
404
401
401
404
404

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

See Also Applications for Machine Shops


See Also Applications for General Maintenance
See Also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
APPLICATIONS FOR STEEL MILLS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair


See also Applications for General Maintenance
See also Applications for Machine Shops

APPLICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL SHOPS

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Electrode
Cutting Edges on Angle Shears
460
Cutting Edges on Shear Blades
460
Bevelling Steel before Welding
100
Field Cutting Bolt Holes
150
Extensions on Drills
303
Making Punches and Tools
460
Removing Welds on Lifting Pads
100
Removing Defects in Submerged Melt Welds
100
Removing Rivets
150

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
33 F
-

See also Applications for General Maintenance


See also Applications for Machine Shops
See also Applications for Electric Motor Repair
MAGNA APPLICATIONS FOR SUGAR MILLS

1. Irrigation
Rotary
Churn
Galvanized Pipe
Aluminum Pipe
Aluminum Fittings
Tanks
Pump Housings
2. Cane Transportation
Cane Cart: Bodies
Axles
Couplings
Locomotive: Tyres
Bearings
Boiler Tubes
Headers
Axles
Railroad:
Frogs-Crossings
Springs
3. Cane Unloading
Crane Sheaves
Shafts
Aluminum Loader Arms
4. Cane Conveying and Chopping
Knives
Knife Shafts
Bearings
Conveyor: Sprockets
Pins
Slats
Guides
Link Holes
5. Cane Crushing
Copper Cane Juice Troughs
Combs
Bases
Brass Screens

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Electrode

Oxyacetylene
Alloy

401
401
393
505
505
393
770

33 F
55
55
33 F
79

303
405
401
405
202
393
303
303
402
303

33 F
77 F
45
77 F
-

405
303
505

55

440
405
202
401
401
701
401
405

45
77 F
77 F
77 F
45
75 F
45
77 F

770
-

24
70
65

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM

Connector Shafts
Mill Roll:
Crown Gears
Bearings
Roll Build-up
Roll Shafts
6. Boilers
Waste Conveyor Troughs
Boiler Tubes
Conveyor Links
Sprockets
7. Evaporators
Copper Pans
Cast Iron Pans
8. Condensers
Copper Pipe
Condenser Tubes through Headers

303
401
202
720
303

77 F
77 F

303
393
405
401

33 F
75 F
77 F
77 F

770

24
-

24
24

MAGNA APPLICATIONS FOR TEXTILE INDUSTRY

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Shuttle Stops
Aluminum Wrap Arms
Overlay Cams and Cam Levers on
Weaving Machines
Cylindrical Braking Drum on
Weaving Machines
Cracks in Dye kettles
Wire Box Fingers
Daggers on Stock Rods
Crank Shaft Overlay
Broken Loom Frames
Crank Arms
Jumbo Levers
Broken Picking Shoes
Broken Picking Tongs

Electrode
505
440

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
33 F
55
45

770, 777

79

393
393, 307

37
77 F

303
770, 777
770, 777
303
303
303

77 F
77 F
77 F
33 F
33 F
33 F

APPLICATIONS FOR TOOL AND DIE SHOPS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Repairing Kirksite Dies


Fabricating Steel Jigs and Fixtures
Attaching Centres on Gauges
Fabricating Aluminum Fixtures
Repairing Oil Hardening Steel Dies
Repairing Water Hardening Steel Dies
Repairing Air Hardening Steel Dies
Repairing High Speed Steel Tools
Joining Tool Steels
Repairing Cast Iron Dies
Repairing Meehanite Dies
Joining Carbide to Dies and Gauges
Joining Punches to Base Plates
Repairing Forging Dies
Composite Tool Construction

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Electrode
305
505
460,480
430,480
450,480
440
303
770,777
770,777
303
303
440

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Oxyacetylene
Alloy
51
33 F
80
55
45
45
45
45
33 F
77 F
77 F
66
33 F
45

Reference: RM

16.
17.
18.
19.

Preventing Weld Spatter in Tools Dies Jigs


Repairing Broken Clicker Dies
Ampco Die Joining
Berylium Copper Joining

460
480
450
430
303
-

903
33 F
65
65

See also Applications for Machine Shops


See also Applications for General Maintenance

Copyright, All rights reserved.


IMPORTANT NOTICE: This guide is provided for your reference only and is not MAG.63
intended as a substitute for formal instruction or professional advice. Magna
Industrial Co. Limited and its representatives and affiliates assume no
responsibility for actions taken based on information provided in this document.

Version 1.0

Revision 1.0

Rev. Date: 1 June 1999

Reference: RM