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5G

About the Tutorial


5G is the Fifth Generation technology. It has many advanced features potential
enough to solve many of the problems of our mundane life. It is beneficial for the
government, as it can make the governance easier; for the students, as it can
make available the advanced courses, classes, and materials online; it is easier
for the common people as well, as it can facilitate them the internet everywhere.
So, this tutorial is divided into various chapters and describes the 5G technology,
its applications, challenges, etc., in detail.

Audience
This tutorial is designed primarily for those professionals who are working with 3G
and 4G technologies and the students pursuing relevant course for their further
knowledge update. Additionally, any interested reader can take advantage of this
tutorial to update his/her knowledge about the upgrading technology.

Prerequisites
There is as such no prerequisite of this tutorial, but the prior knowledge of 3G and
4G will be an added advantage for the readers.

Disclaimer & Copyright


Copyright 2015 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd.
All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials
Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy,
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manner without written consent of the publisher. We strive to update the contents
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contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. provides
no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness, or completeness of our website
or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on our website or
in this tutorial, please notify us at contact@tutorialspoint.com

5G

Table of Contents

About the Tutorial............................................................................................................................... i


Audience ............................................................................................................................................. i
Prerequisites ....................................................................................................................................... i
Disclaimer & Copyright ....................................................................................................................... i

1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... 1
Salient Features of 5G ........................................................................................................................ 1

2. TECHNOLOGY........................................................................................................................ 3
What is 5G Technology? ..................................................................................................................... 3

3. ARCHITECTURE ..................................................................................................................... 5
Architecture of 5G .............................................................................................................................. 5
The Master Core Technology .............................................................................................................. 6

4. TIME PERIOD REQUIRED ....................................................................................................... 8


Expected Time Length ........................................................................................................................ 8

5. APPLICATIONS....................................................................................................................... 9
Applications of 5G .............................................................................................................................. 9

6. ADVANCEMENT .................................................................................................................. 10
Advanced Features........................................................................................................................... 10

7. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES ...................................................................................... 12


Important Advantages ..................................................................................................................... 12
Disadvantages of 5G Technology ...................................................................................................... 13

8. CHALLENGES ....................................................................................................................... 15
Technological Challenges ................................................................................................................. 16

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5G

Common Challenges......................................................................................................................... 16

9. FUTURE SCOPE.................................................................................................................... 18

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1. INTRODUCTION

Radio technologies have evidenced a rapid and multidirectional evolution with the
launch of the analogue cellular systems in 1980s. Thereafter, digital wireless
communication systems are consistently on a mission to fulfil the growing need of
human beings (1G, 4G, or now 5G).

So, this article describes the 5G technology emphasizing on its salient features,
technological design (architecture), advantages, shortcomings, challenges, and
future scope.

Salient Features of 5G
5th Generation Mobile Network or simply 5G is the forthcoming revolution of mobile
technology. The features and its usability are much beyond the expectation of a
normal human being. With its ultra-high speed, it is potential enough to change
the meaning of a cell phone usability.

5G

100 Times more


devices

Virtually 0
latency

Faster response
Time

Speed up to 10
Gbit/s

Features of
5G
Technology
Very high
capacity

Wide range of
applications

More Software
option to upgrade

Ubiquitous
connectivity

With a huge array of innovative features, now your smart phone would be more
parallel to the laptop. You can use broadband internet connection; other significant
features that fascinate people are more gaming options, wider multimedia options,
connectivity everywhere, zero latency, faster response time, and high quality
sound and HD video can be transferred on other cell phone without compromising
with the quality of audio and video.

2. TECHNOLOGY

5G

If we look back, we will find that every next decade, one generation is advancing
in the field of mobile technology. Starting from the First Generation (1G) in 1980s,
Second Generation (2G) in 1990s, Third Generation (3G) in 2000s, Fourth
Generation (4G) in 2010s, and now Fifth Generation (5G), we are advancing
towards more and more sophisticated and smarter technology.

What is 5G Technology?
The 5G technology is expected to provide a new (much wider than the previous
one) frequency bands along with the wider spectral bandwidth per frequency
channel. As of now, the predecessors (generations) mobile technologies have
evidenced substantial increase in peak bitrate. Then how is 5G different from
the previous one (especially 4G)? The answer is it is not only the increase in
bitrate made 5G distinct from the 4G, but rather 5G is also advanced in terms of:
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5G

High increased peak bit rate

Larger data volume per unit area (i.e. high system spectral efficiency)

High capacity to allow more devices connectivity concurrently and


instantaneously

Lower battery consumption

Better connectivity irrespective of the geographic region, in which you are

Larger number of supporting devices

Lower cost of infrastructural development

Higher reliability of the communications.

As researchers say, with the wide range of bandwidth radio channels, it is able to
support the speed up to 10 Gbps, the 5G WiFi technology will offer contiguous and
consistent coverage wider area mobility in true sense.

3. ARCHITECTURE

5G

Architecture of 5G is highly advanced, its network elements and various terminals


are characteristically upgraded to afford a new situation. Likewise, service
providers can implement the advance technology to adopt the value-added
services easily.
However, upgradeability is based upon cognitive radio technology that includes
various significant features such as ability of devices to identify their geographical
location as well as weather, temperature, etc. Cognitive radio technology acts as
a transceiver (beam) that perceptively can catch and respond radio signals in its
operating environment. Further, it promptly distinguishes the changes in its
environment and hence respond accordingly to provide uninterrupted quality
service.

Architecture of 5G
As shown in the following image, the system model of 5G is entirely IP based
model designed for the wireless and mobile networks.

Source: IJCSMC, Available on http://isindexing.com/isi/papers/1396420201.pdf

5G

The system comprising of a main user terminal and then a number of independent
and autonomous radio access technologies. Each of the radio technologies is
considered as the IP link for the outside internet world. The IP technology is
designed exclusively to ensure sufficient control data for appropriate routing of IP
packets related to a certain application connections i.e. sessions between client
applications and servers somewhere on the Internet. Moreover, to make
accessible routing of packets should be fixed in accordance with the given policies
of the user (as shown in the image given below).

Source: IJCSMC, Available on http://isindexing.com/isi/papers/1396420201.pdf

The Master Core Technology


As shown in the Figure 5, the 5G MasterCore is convergence point for the other
technologies, which have their own impact on existing wireless network.
Interestingly, its design facilitates MasterCore to get operated into parallel
multimode including all IP network mode and 5G network mode. In this mode (as
shown in the image given below), it controls all network technologies of RAN and
Different Access Networks (DAT). Since, the technology is compatible and

5G

manages all the new deployments (based on 5G), it is more efficient, less
complicated, and more powerful.

Source: AJER, Available on http://www.ajer.org/papers/v2%2810%29/ZP210344353.pdf

Surprisingly, any service mode can be opened under 5G New Deployment Mode
as World Combination Service Mode (WCSM). WCSM is a wonderful feature of this
technology; for example, if a professor writes on the white board in a country it
can be displayed on another white board in any other part of the world besides
conversation and video. Further, a new services can be easily added through
parallel multimode service.

4. TIME PERIOD REQUIRED

5G

Normally, it is expected that the time period required for the 5G technology
development and its implementation is about five years more from now (by 2020).
But to becoming usable for the common people in developing countries, it could
be even more.

Graph 1: Showing the Timeline of all previous generation technologies.

Expected Time Length


By considering the multiple utility and various fashionable salient features,
researchers are anticipating that this technology will be in use until 2040s.

5. APPLICATIONS

5G

5G technology is adorned with many as well as distinct features, which applicability


is useful for a wide range people irrespective of their purposes (as shown in the
mweb image).

Applications of 5G
Some of the significant applications are:

It will make unified global standard for all.

Network availability will be everywhere and will facilitate people to use their
computer and such kind of mobile devices anywhere anytime.

Because of the IPv6 technology, visiting care of mobile IP address will be


assigned as per the connected network and geographical position.

Its application will make world real Wi Fi zone.

Its cognitive radio technology will facilitate different version of radio


technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently.

Its application will facilitate people to avail radio signal at higher altitude as
well.
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6. ADVANCEMENT

5G

Application of 5G is very much equivalent to accomplishment of dream. It is


integrated with beyond the limit advance features in comparison to the previous
technologies.

Advanced Features
In comparison to previous radio technologies, 5G has following advancement:

Practically possible to avail the super speed i.e. 1 to 10 Gbps

Latency will be 1 millisecond (end-to-end round trip).

1,000x bandwidth per unit area.


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5G

Feasibility to connect 10 to 100 number of devices.

Worldwide coverage.

About 90% reduction in network energy usage

Battery life will be much longer.

Whole world will be in wi fi zone.

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7. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

5G

5th generation technology offers a wide range of features, which are beneficial for
all group of people including, students, professionals (doctors, engineers,
teachers, governing bodies, administrative bodies, etc.) and even for a common
man.

Important Advantages
There are several advantages of 5G technology, some of the advantages have
been shown in the above Ericsson image, and many others are described below:

High resolution and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping.

Technology to gather all networks on one platform.


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5G

More effective and efficient.

Technology to facilitate subscriber supervision tools for the quick action.

Most likely, will provide a huge broadcasting data (in Gigabit), which will
support more than 60,000 connections.

Easily manageable with the previous generations.

Technological sound to support heterogeneous services (including private


network).

Possible to provide uniform, uninterrupted, and consistent connectivity


across the world.

Some Other Advantages for the Common People


Parallel multiple services, such as you can know weather and location while
talking with other person.
You can control your PCs by handsets.
Education will become easier: A student sitting in any part of world can attend
the class.
Medical Treatment will become easier & frugal: A doctor can treat the patient
located in remote part of the world.
Monitoring will be easier: A governmental organization and investigating offers
can monitor any part of the world. Possible to reduce the crime rate.
Visualizing universe, galaxies, and planets will be possible.
Possible to locate and search the missing person.
Possible, natural disaster including tsunami, earthquake etc. can be detected
faster.

Disadvantages of 5G Technology
Though, 5G technology is researched and conceptualized to solve all radio signal
problems and hardship of mobile world, but because of some security reason and
lack of technological advancement in most of the geographic regions, it has
following shortcomings:

Technology is still under process and research on its viability is going on.

The speed, this technology is claiming seems difficult to achieve (in future,
it might be) because of the incompetent technological support in most parts
of the world.
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5G

Many of the old devices would not be competent to 5G, hence, all of them
need to be replaced with new one expensive deal.

Developing infrastructure needs high cost.

Security and privacy issue yet to be solved.

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8. CHALLENGES

5G

Challenges are the inherent part of the new development; so, like all technologies,
5G has also big challenges to deal with. As we see past i.e. development of radio
technology, we find very fast growth. Starting from 1G to 5G, the journey is
merely of about 40 years old (Considering 1G in 1980s and 5G in 2020s). However,
in this journey, the common challenges that we observed are lack of
infrastructure, research methodology, and cost.

Still, there are dozens of countries using 2G and 3G technologies and dont know
even about 4G, in such a condition, the most significant questions in everyones
mind are

How far will 5G be viable?

Will it be the technology of some of the developed countries or


developing countries will also get benefit of this?

To understand these questions, the challenges of 5G are categorized into the


following two headings:

Technological Challenges

Common Challenges
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5G

Technological Challenges
Inter-cell Interference: This is one of the major technological issues that
need to be solved. There is variations in size of traditional macro cells and
concurrent small cells that will lead to interference.

Technological Challenges of 5G

Inter-cell Interference

Efficient Medium Access


Control

Traffic Management

Efficient Medium Access Control: In a situation, where dense


deployment of access points and user terminals are required, the user
throughput will be low, latency will be high, and hotspots will not be
competent to cellular technology to provide high throughput. It needs to be
researched properly to optimize the technology.

Traffic Management: In comparison to the traditional human to human


traffic in cellular networks, a great number of Machine to Machine (M2M)
devices in a cell may cause serious system challenges i.e. radio access
network (RAN) challenges, which will cause overload and congestion.

Common Challenges

Multiple Services: Unlike other radio signal services, 5G would have a


huge task to offer services to heterogeneous networks, technologies, and
devices operating in different geographic regions. So, the challenge is of
standardization to provide dynamic, universal, user-centric, and data-rich
wireless services to fulfil the high expectation of people.

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5G

Multiple
Services

Legislation

Infrastructure

Challenges of
5G

Security

Communications

Infrastructure: Researchers are facing technological challenges of


standardization and application of 5G services.

Communication, Navigation, & Sensing: These services largely depend


upon the availability of radio spectrum, through which signals are
transmitted. Though 5G technology has strong computational power to
process the huge volume of data coming from different and distinct sources,
but it needs larger infrastructure support.

Security and Privacy: This is one of the most important challenges that
5G needs to ensure the protection of personal data. 5G will have to define
the uncertainties related to security threats including trust, privacy,
cybersecurity, which are growing across the globe.

Legislation of Cyberlaw: Cybercrime and other fraud may also increase


with the high speed and ubiquitous 5G technology. Therefore, legislation of
the Cyberlaw is also an imperative issue, which largely is governmental and
political (national as well as international issue) in nature.

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9. FUTURE SCOPE

5G

Several researches and discussions are going on across the world among
technologists, researchers, academicians, vendors, operators, and governments
about the innovations, implementation, viability, and security concerns of 5G.
As proposed, loaded with multiple advance features starting from the super high
speed internet service to smooth ubiquitous service, 5G will unlock many of the
problems. However, the question is in a situation, where the previous
technologies (4G and 3G) are still under process and in many parts yet to be
started; what will be the future of 5G?

5th generation technology is designed to provide incredible and remarkable data


capabilities, unhindered call volumes, and immeasurable data broadcast within the
latest mobile operating system. Hence, it is more intelligent technology, which will
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5G

interconnect the entire world without limits. Likewise, our world would have
universal and uninterrupted access to information, communication, and
entertainment that will open a new dimension to our lives and will change our life
style meaningfully.
Moreover, governments and regulators can use this technology as an opportunity
for the good governance and can create healthier environments, which will
definitely encourage continuing investment in 5G, the next generation technology.

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