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Orthodox Church Russian Orthodox Church 1 41
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The Orthodox Church, also officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, asserts that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ and his Apostles almost 2,000 years ago. The Church is composed of several self-governing ecclesial bodies, each geographically and nationally distinct but theologically unified. Each self-governing (or autocephalous) body, often but not always encompassing a nation, is shepherded by a synod of bishops whose duty, among other things, is to preserve and teach the Apostolic and patristic traditions and related church practices. As in the Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Church, Oriental Orthodoxy and some other churches, Orthodox bishops trace their lineage back to the Apostles through the process of Apostolic Succession. The Orthodox Church claims to trace its development back through the begins. Byzantine or Roman empire, to the earliest church established by St. Paul and the Apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original ancient traditions, believing in growth without change. In non-doctrinal matters the church had occasionally shared from local Greek, Slavic and Middle Eastern traditions, among others, in turn shaping the cultural development of these nations. The goal of Orthodox Christians from baptism, when it is believed that they are sealed with the Holy Spirit, is to continually draw near to God throughout life. This process is called theosis or deification and is a spiritual pilgrimage in which each person strives to become more holy and more "Christ Like" within Jesus Christ. The Biblical text used by the Orthodox includes the Greek Septuagint and the New Testament. It includes the seven Deuterocanonical Books which are generally rejected by Protestants and a small number of other books that are in neither Western canon. Orthodox Christians use the term "Anagignoskomena" (a Greek word that means "readable", "worthy of reading") for the ten books that they accept but that are not in the Protestant 39-book Old Testament canon. They treat them on the same level as the others and use them in the Divine Liturgy. Orthodox Christians believe scripture was revealed by the Holy Spirit to its inspired human authors. They also use icons as a part of their personal and liturgical worship and prayer life. An Orthodox Christian will often have icons in their home and icons are a prominent feature in Orthodox churches. They are used in prayer and veneration of the saint or Biblical event they represent, but are not objects of worship themselves. The Orthodox Church maintains that this is not idolatry, nonetheless preferring them to three-dimensional statues. Icons depict Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, the saints and important Biblical events. They have been part of Orthodox Christianity since the beginning of the church.
Pentecost: The spread of Christianity
Meaning of "Orthodox"
Almost from the very beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy, Catholic [from the Greek καθολική, or universal] and Apostolic Church". Today, in addition to the Orthodox Church, a number of other Christian churches lay claim to this title (including the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox Church); however, the Orthodox Church considers these other churches to be schismatic and, in some cases, heretical. In the Orthodox view, the Assyrians and Orientals left the Orthodox Church in the first few centuries after Christ, and the Roman Catholics became the largest group to do so, as the result of the East-West Schism, traditionally dated in 1054. In Georgian OrthodoxISM is "Martlmedidebloba", which means "Glorying truth"
Orthodox Church The term “Orthodox” translates from the Greek to mean “correctly believing” or "correctly glorifying" (from the adjective orthos = correct, right and the verb dokein = seem (to be the case) and thus by extension "believe" or the noun doxa = belief) and was adopted by the Church in order to distinguish itself from what was becoming a larger and larger body of non-orthodox Christian denominations. Several other ancient churches in Eastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa also use the term Orthodox, but are distinct from the Orthodox Church as described in this article.
What unites the Orthodox is theology, although there are variations in style depending on country of origin and/or local custom. These local customs are referred to as differences in typica and are accepted by church leaders since they are not perceived to conflict theologically with basic Orthodox teachings. Thus it is that many Orthodox Churches adopt a national title (e.g. Albanian Orthodox, Bulgarian Orthodox, Georgian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Romanian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox (not officially recognized) etc.) and this title serves to distinguish which language, which bishops, and Neamţ church in Romania which of the typica is followed by that particular congregation. Members of the Church are fully united in faith and the Sacred Mysteries with all Orthodox congregations, regardless of nationality. Differences in praxis (practice) tend to be slight; they involve such things as the order in which a particular set of hymns are sung or what time a particular service is performed. In general, an Orthodox Christian could travel the globe and feel familiar with the services even if he did not know the language in which they were celebrated.
Organization and leadership
The permanent criteria of church structure for the Orthodox Church today, outside of the New Testament writings, are found in the canons (regulation and decrees) of the first seven ecumenical councils; the canons of several local or provincial councils, whose authority was recognized by the whole church; the so-called Apostolic Canons (actually some regulations of the church in Syria, dating from the 4th century); and the "canons of the Fathers" or selected extracts from prominent church leaders having canonical importance. The Orthodox Church considers Jesus Christ to be the head of the Church and the Church to be His body. Thus, despite widely held popular belief outside the Orthodox cultures, there is not one bishop at the head of the Orthodox Church; references to the Patriarch of Constantinople as a leader equivalent or comparable to a pope in the Roman Catholic Church are mistaken. It is believed that authority and the grace of God is directly passed down to Orthodox bishops and clergy through the laying on of hands—a practice started by the apostles, and that this unbroken historical and physical link is an essential element of the true church (Acts 8:17, 1 Tim 4:14, Heb 6:2). However, the church asserts that Apostolic Succession also requires Apostolic Faith, and bishops without Apostolic Faith, who are in heresy, forfeit their claim to Apostolic Succession. Each bishop has a territory (see) over which he governs. His main duty is to make sure the traditions and practices of the Church are preserved. Bishops are equal in authority and cannot interfere in the jurisdiction of another bishop. Administratively, these bishops and their territories are organized into various autocephalous groups or synods of bishops who gather together at least twice a year to discuss the state of affairs within their respective sees. While bishops and their autocephalous synods have the ability to administer guidance in individual cases, their actions do not usually set precedents that affect the entire Church. Bishops are almost always chosen from the monastic ranks and must remain unmarried.
Orthodox Church There have been a number of times when alternative theological ideas arose to challenge the Orthodox faith. At such times the Church deemed it necessary to convene a general or "Great" council of all available bishops throughout the world. The Church considers the first seven Ecumenical Councils (held between the 4th and the 8th century) to be the most important; however, there have been more, specifically the Synods of Constantinople, 879–880, 1341, 1347, 1351, 1583, 1819, and 1872, the Synod of Iaşi (Jassy), 1642, and the Pan-Orthodox Synod of Jerusalem, 1672, all of which helped to define the Orthodox position. The ecumenical councils followed a democratic form; with each bishop having one vote. Though present and allowed to speak before the council, members of the Imperial Roman/Byzantine court, abbots, priests, monks and laymen were not allowed to vote. The primary goal of these Great Synods was to verify and confirm the fundamental beliefs of the Church as truth, and to remove as heresy any false teachings that would threaten the Church. The Pope of Rome, at that time, held the position of “first among equals”. And while he was not present at any of the councils he continued to hold this title until the East-West Schism of 1054 AD. One of the decisions made by the First Council of Constantinople (the second ecumenical council, meeting in 381) and supported by later such councils was that the Patriarch of Constantinople should be given similar honor to the Pope of Rome since Constantinople was considered to be the "New Rome." However, according to the third Canon of the second ecumenical council: "Because it is new Rome, the bishop of Constantinople is to enjoy the privileges of honour after the bishop of Rome." Thus, the Pope of Rome would still have honorary primacy before and over Constantinople. The Pope's name would be first in the Diptychs because Rome was the elder capital (see Canon 28 of the Fourth Ecumenical Council). The Patriarch, like the Pope before him enjoys the title of “first among equals”. This is not, however, meant to imply that he is the leader of the Orthodox Church.
Number of adherents
Based on the numbers of adherents, Orthodoxy is the second largest Christian communion in the world after the Roman Catholic Church. The most common estimates of the number of Orthodox Christians worldwide is approximately 300 million  . Orthodoxy is the largest single religious faith in Belarus (85%), Bulgaria (83%), Cyprus (80%), Georgia (89%), Greece (95%), Moldova (98%), Montenegro (74%), Romania (87%), Serbia (84%), Russia (80%), Republic of Macedonia (55%) and Ukraine (80%). The number of Orthodox adherents represents about 36% of the population in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian Serbs). In Albania the adherents number around 25% out of a 40% Christian population, the others being Roman Catholic. As the dominant religion in northern Kazakhstan, it represents 40% of Kazakhstan, and 4% of Lithuania, 9% of Latvia, and 13% of the Estonian population. Large Orthodox Christian communities exist in the Mediterranean countries of Syria (80% of Christian population), Lebanon (40% of Christian population) and 10% of the whole Lebanese population, Jordan (80% of Christian population), Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestinian Christians) with some families able to trace their ancestry to the earliest Christians of the Holy Land. Small numbers of Eastern Orthodox minorities live in Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Turkey and Azerbaijan. In addition, there are also significant Orthodox communities in Western Europe (solely the transplanted Armenian, Greek, Romanian, Serbian, Albanian, Bulgarian and Russian communities), Africa, Asia (see the Orthodox Church of China and Orthodox Church of Japan), Australia, North America (most notably introduced by Russian missionaries to Alaska under Russian rule and the USA), and South America through the pattern of immigration from Eastern Europe and the Middle East in the last 400 or some years. The numerous Protestant groups in the world, if taken all together, outnumber the Orthodox, but they differ theologically and do not form a single communion.
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Orthodox Christians believe in the Trinity. The Father is the cause or origin of the Godhead, from whom the Son is begotten eternally and also from whom the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally. The Holy Trinity is three, distinct, divine persons (hypostases), without overlap or modality among them, who share one divine essence (ousia)—uncreated, immaterial and eternal. Orthodox doctrine regarding the Holy Trinity is summarized in the Nicene Creed (Symbol of Faith). In discussing God's relationship to His creation, Orthodoxy used the concept of a distinction between God's eternal essence which is totally transcendent and His uncreated energies which is how He reaches us. The God who is transcendent and the God who touches us are one and the same (i.e. These energies are not something that proceed from God or that God produces, but rather they are God himself: distinct, yet inseparable from, God's inner being).
Sin, salvation and the incarnation
At some point in the beginnings of human existence man was faced with a choice, to learn the difference between good and evil through observation or through participation. The biblical story of Adam and Eve represents this choice by mankind to participate in evil. This event is commonly referred to as “the fall of man” and it represents a fundamental change in human nature. When Orthodox Christians refer to Original Sin what they mean is this adoption of evil into human nature. They reject the Augustinian position that the descendants of Adam and Eve are actually guilty of their sin. As a result of this sin, mankind was doomed to be separated from God. This was mankind’s ultimate dilemma. The solution to this problem was for God to effect another change in human nature. Orthodox Christians believe that Christ Jesus was both God and Man absolutely. He was born, lived, died, and rose again by the power of the Holy Spirit. Through God’s participation in humanity, human nature is changed thus saving us from the fate of hell (Orthodox reject the idea that Christ died to give God "satisfaction," as taught by Anselm, or as a punitive substitute as taught by the Reformers). The effective change included all those who had died from the beginning of time – saving everyone including Adam and Eve. This process, to Orthodox Christians is what is meant by “Salvation”. The ultimate goal is theosis – an even closer union with God and closer likeness to God than existed in the Garden of Eden.
The Resurrection of Christ is the central event in the liturgical year of the Orthodox Church and is understood in literal terms as a real historical event. Jesus Christ, the Son of God, was crucified and died, descended into Hades, rescued all the souls held there through sin; and then, because Hades could not restrain the infinite God, rose from the dead, thus saving the human race. Through these events, Christ released us from the bonds of Hades and then came back to the living as both man and God. According to Orthodox tradition, each human being may partake of this immortality, which would have been impossible without the Resurrection; it is the main promise held out by God in the New Testament. Every holy day of the Orthodox liturgical year relates to the Resurrection directly or indirectly. Every Sunday is dedicated to celebrating the Resurrection and the triune God. In the liturgical commemorations of the Passion of Christ during Holy Week there are frequent allusions to the ultimate victory at its completion.
16th century Russian Orthodox icon of the Resurrection
Bible, holy tradition and the patristic consensus
The Orthodox Church considers itself to be the historical and organic continuation of the original Church founded by Christ and His apostles. The faith taught by Jesus to the apostles, given life by the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, and passed down to future generations uncorrupted, is known as Holy Tradition. The primary and authoritative witness to Holy Tradition is the Bible, texts written by the apostles or those in the Early Church, and approved by Church leaders under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. The Bible reveals God's will, the relationship between the Israelites and God, the wonders of Christ and the early history of the Church. As the Bible has an inspired origin it is central to the life of the Church. Scriptures are understood to contain historical fact, poetry, idiom, metaphor, simile, moral fable, parable, prophecy, and wisdom literature. Thus, the Scriptures are never used for personal interpretation, but always seen within the context of Holy Tradition, which gave birth to the Scripture. Orthodoxy maintains that belief in a doctrine of sola scriptura would lead most to error since the truth of Scripture cannot be separated from the traditions from which it arose. Orthodox Christians therefore believe that the only way to correctly understand the Bible is within the Church. Other witnesses to Holy Tradition include the Liturgy of the Church, its iconography, the rulings of the Ecumenical councils, and the writings of the Church Fathers. From the consensus of the Fathers (consensus patrum) one may enter more deeply and understand more fully the Church's life. Individual Fathers are not looked upon as infallible, but rather their whole consensus will give one a proper understanding of the Bible and Christian doctrine.
Territorial expansion and doctrinal integrity
From the moment Christ commissioned the generations of apostles, the Church (εκκλησία – ekklesia) began to grow. The organic model for the growth of this community stems from the title of 'the chosen' as being those Hebrews who were chosen by God to leave Egypt with Moses the patriarch and enter into the land of promise. During the course of the early church, there were numerous followers who attached themselves to the Christ and His mission here on Earth, as well as followers who retained the distinct duty of being commissioned with preserving the quality of life and lessons revealed through the experience of Jesus living, dying, resurrecting and ascending among them. As a matter of practical distinction and logistics, people of varying gifts were accorded stations within the community structure – ranging from the host of agape meals (shared with brotherly and fatherly love), to prophecy and the reading of Scripture, to preaching and interpretations and giving aid to the sick and the poor. Sometime after Pentecost the Church grew to a point where it was no longer possible for the Apostles to minister alone. Overseers (bishops) and assistants (deacons and deaconesses) were appointed to further the mission of the Church. The ecclesia recognized the gathering of these early church communities as being greatest in areas of the known world that were famous for their significance on the world stage – either as hotbeds of intellectual discourse, high volumes of trade, or proximity to the original sacred sites. These locations were targeted by the early apostles, who recognized the need for humanitarian efforts in these large urban centers and sought to bring as many people as possible into the ecclesia – such a life was seen as a form of deliverance from the decadent lifestyles promoted throughout the eastern and western Roman empire. As the Church increased in size through the centuries, the logistic dynamics of operating such large entities shifted: patriarchs, metropolitans, archimandrites, abbots and abbesses, all rose up to cover certain points of administration. As a result of heightened exposure and popularity of the philosophical schools (haereseis) of Greco-Roman society and education, Synods and Councils were forced to engage such schools that sought to co-opt the language and pretext of the Christian faith in order gain power and popularity for their own political and cultural expansion. As a result, ecumenical councils were held to attempt to rebuild solidarity by using the strength of distant orthodox witnesses to dampen the intense local effects of particular philosophical schools within a given area. While originally
Orthodox Church intended to serve as an internal check and balance for the defense of faulty local doctrine against the doctrine developed and spread by the apostles to the various sees, at times the church found its own bishops and emperors falling prey to local conventions – at these crucial moments in the history of the church, it found itself able to rebuild on the basis of the faith as it was kept and maintained by monastic communities who subsisted without reliance on the community of the state or popular culture and were generally unaffected by the materialism and rhetoric that often dominated and threatened the integrity and stability of the urban churches. In this sense, the aim of the councils was never to expand or fuel a popular need for a clearer or relevant picture of the original apostolic teaching. Rather, the theologians spoke to address the issues of external schools of thought who wished to distort the simplicity and neutrality of the apostolic teaching for personal or political gain. That being said, the consistency of the Orthodox faith is entirely dependent on the Holy Tradition of the accepted corpus of belief – the decisions ratified by the fathers of the seven ecumenical councils, and this is only done at the beginning of a consecutive council so that the effects of the decisions of the prior council can be audited and verified as being both conceptual sound and pragmatically feasible and beneficial for the church as a whole. This process is not one of universal doctrinal evolution but of localized contextual protection. Thus the Orthodox claim that the gospel as they have received it is the same gospel that the apostles shared, that which the fathers had taught, and the which the councils confirmed – not what any particular individual has said.
The Theotokos and the saints
The Orthodox Church believes death and the separation of body and soul to be unnatural; a result of the Fall of Man. They also hold that the congregation of the Church comprises both the living and the dead. All persons currently in heaven are considered to be saints, whether their names are known or not. There are, however, those saints of distinction whom God has revealed as particularly good examples. When a saint is revealed and ultimately recognized by a large portion of the Church a service of official recognition (glorification) is celebrated. This does not 'make' the person a saint, it merely recognizes the fact and announces it to the rest of the Church. A day is prescribed for the saint’s celebration, hymns composed and icons are created. Numerous saints are celebrated on each day of the year. They are venerated (shown great respect and love) but not worshiped, for worship is due to God alone. In showing the saints this love and requesting their prayers, it is believed by the Orthodox that they thus assist in the process of salvation for others.
Pre-eminent among the saints is the Virgin Mary, the Theotokos ("God-bearer"). In Orthodox theology, the Theotokos is the fulfillment of the Old Testament archetype revealed in the Ark of the Covenant, because she carried the New Covenant in the person of Christ; thus, the Orthodox consider her the Ark of the New Covenant, and give her the respect and reverence as such. The Theotokos was chosen by God and freely co-operated in that choice to be the Mother of Jesus Christ, the God-man. The Orthodox believe that the Christ Child from the moment of conception was both fully God and fully Man. She is thus called 'Theotokos' as an affirmation of the divinity of the One to whom she gave birth. It is also believed that her virginity was not compromised in conceiving God-incarnate, that she was not harmed and that she remained forever a virgin; scriptural references to "brothers" of Christ are interpreted as kin, given that the word 'brother' was used in multiple ways, just as the term "father". Due to her unique place in salvation history, Mary is honored above all other saints and especially venerated for the great work that God accomplished through her.
The Theotokos of Vladimir, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary.
Orthodox Church Because of the holiness of the lives of the saints, their bodies and physical items connected with them are regarded by the Church as also holy. Many miracles have been reported throughout history connected with the saint's relics, often including healing from disease and injury. The veneration and miraculous nature of relics continues from Biblical times.
Orthodox Christians believe that when a person dies the soul is temporarily separated from the body. Though it may linger for a short period on Earth, it is ultimately escorted either to paradise (Abraham's bosom) or the darkness of Hades, following the Temporary Judgment. Orthodox do not accept the doctrine of Purgatory which is held by Roman Catholicism. The soul’s experience of either of these states is only a “foretaste”—being experienced only by the soul—until the Final Judgment, when the soul and body will be reunited. The Orthodox believe that the state of the soul in Hades can be affected by the love and prayers of the righteous up until the Last Judgment. For this reason the Church offers a special prayer for the dead on the third Last Judgment. 12th-century Byzantine mosaic from Torcello Cathedral. day, ninth day, fortieth day, and the one-year anniversary after the death of an Orthodox Christian. There are also several days throughout the year that are set aside for general commemoration of the departed, sometimes including nonbelievers. These days usually fall on a Saturday, since it was on a Saturday that Christ lay in the Tomb. While the Orthodox consider the text of the Apocalypse (Book of Revelation) to be a part of Scripture, it is also regarded to be a mystery. Speculation on the contents of Revelation are minimal and it is never read as part of the regular order of services. Those theologians who have delved into its pages tend to be amillennialist in their eschatology, believing that the "thousand years" spoken of in biblical prophecy refers to the present time: from the Crucifixion of Christ until the Second Coming. Whilst it is not usually taught in church it is often used as a reminder of God’s promise to those who love Him, and of the benefits of avoiding sinful passions. Iconographic depictions of the Final Judgment are often portrayed on the back (western) wall of the church building to remind the departing faithful to be vigilant in their struggle against sin. Likewise it is often painted on the walls of the Trapeza (refectory) in a monastery where monks may be inspired to sobriety and detachment from worldly things while they eat. The Orthodox believe that after the Final Judgment: • all souls will be reunited with their resurrected bodies • all souls will fully experience their spiritual state • having been perfected, the human race will forever progress towards a deeper and fuller love of God, which equates with eternal happiness • hell, though often described in metaphor as punishment inflicted by God, is in reality the soul's rejection of God's infinite love which is offered freely and abundantly to everyone.
Art and architecture
Church buildings The church building has many symbolic meanings; perhaps the oldest and most prominent is the concept that the Church is the Ark (as in Noah's) in which the world is saved from the flood of temptations; therefore, most Orthodox Churches are rectangular in design. Another popular configuration, especially for churches with large choirs is cruciform or cross-shaped. Architectural patterns vary in shape and complexity, with chapels sometimes added around the main church, or triple altars; but in general, the symbolic layout of the church remains the same. Each church is created with specified qualifications based on what the apostles said in the Holy Bible. These
An illustration of the traditional interior of an Orthodox church
qualifications include how big the holy temple should be. The Church building is divided into three main parts: the narthex (vestibule), the nave and the sanctuary (also called the altar or holy place). The narthex is where catechumens and non-Orthodox visitors were traditionally asked to stand during services. It is separated from the nave by “The Royal Gate”. On each side of this gate are candle stands (menalia) representing the pillars of fire that went before the Hebrew people escaping from Egypt. The nave is where most of the congregation stand during services. Traditionally, men stand on the right and women on the left. This is for a number of reasons: (1) Considering the family unit of past centuries the husband was dominant; thus, standing the same distance from the altar, equality is emphasised. (2) The idea of separating the sexes was inherited from the Jewish tradition of doing so within synagogues (3) Separation of sexes also followed the practice of choirs in which different levels of voice are placed in groups to facilitate harmony.
10 In general, men and women dress respectfully, typically wearing their "Sunday best" to enter the church. Often, women cover their heads as prescribed by Paul (1 Cor. 11:13). Children are considered full members of the Church and stand attentive and quiet during services. There is often a choir area at the side or in a loft in back. In addition to the Choir, a Chanter is always present at the front of the church to chant responses and hymns that are part of the Divine Liturgy offered by the Priest. There is usually a dome in the ceiling with an icon of Christ depicted as Ruler of the Universe (Pantocrator). Everything in the Orthodox Church has a purpose and a meaning revealing God's revelation to man. At the front, or Eastern end of the church, is a raised dais with an icon-covered screen or wall (iconostasis or templon) separating the nave from the sanctuary. In the center of this wall is the entrance to the altar known as the “Royal Doors” through which only the clergy may pass. There are also a right and left side door on the front of the iconostasis, one depicting the archangel, Michael and the other Gabriel. The priest and altar boys enter and exit through these doors during appropriate parts of the Divine Liturgy. Immediately to the right of the main gate you will always find icon of Jesus Christ. Other icons depicted on the iconostatis are the Mother of God, John the Baptist and the Saint after which the church is named. In front of the iconostasis is the Bishop's Chair, where a visiting Bishop or Metropolitan will often sit as a place of honor during the Divine Liturgy. Orthodox priests, when standing at the altar face toward the altar (facing East) so that both the Priest and congregation are praying to God in Heaven together.
Cathedral of Saint Sava in Belgrade, Serbia, is the largest Orthodox church in the world.
The sanctuary contains the Holy Altar, representing the place where Christ was laid in the tomb and on the third day, rose. A cross stands behind the altar. On the altar are the items used to sanctify the bread and wine for communion, including a gold chalice, a communion spoon, and a star, which is a star shaped piece of metal the priest uses when sanctifing holy gifts. Also found on the altar table is the Antimins. The antimins is a silk cloth used during the sanctification of the Divine Gifts. The antimins may contain the relics of a Saint. When a church is consecrated by a Bishop, there is a formal service or prayers and sanctification in the name of the Saint that the church is named after. The Bishop will also often present a small relic of a Saint to place in or on the altar as part of the consecration of a new church. The Divine Liturgy may only be performed once a day on any particular Antimins. Thus a second Liturgy on the same Altar Table that same day would require the use of a second Antimins, typically from another Orthodox church. This means that any parish or congregation is able to celebrate only one Eucharist per day, in order to express the Catholicity of the Church by avoiding "private masses". There is also a book of the four Gospels on the altar table. The Orthodox read specific verses of this Gospel on each different day.
Depiction of the Hagia Sophia's appearance during Byzantine times
Orthodox Church Icons The term 'icon' comes from the Greek word eikona, which simply means image. The Orthodox believe that the first icons of Christ and the Virgin Mary were painted by Luke the Evangelist. Icons are filled with symbolism designed to convey information about the person or event depicted. For this reason, icons tend to be formulaic, following a prescribed methodology for how a particular person should be depicted, including hair style, body position, clothing, and background details. Icon painting, in general, is not an opportunity for artistic expression, though each iconographer brings a vision to the piece. It is far more common for an icon to be copied from an older model, though with the recognition of a new saint in the church, a new icon must be created and approved. The personal and creative traditions of Western European religious art are largely lacking in Orthodox iconography before the 17th century, when Russian iconography began to be strongly influenced by religious paintings and engravings from both Protestant and Roman Catholic Europe. Greek iconography also began to take on a Our Lady of St. Theodore, the protector of Kostroma, following the same Byzantine "Tender Mercy" type. strong western influence for a period and the difference between some Orthodox icons and western religious art began to vanish. More recently there has been a trend of returning to the more traditional and symbolic representations. Free-standing statues (three dimensional depictions) are almost non-existent within the Orthodox Church. This is partly due to the rejection of the previous pagan Greek age of idol worship and partly because icons are meant to show the spiritual nature of man, not the sensual earthly body. Bas reliefs, however, became common during the Byzantine period and led to a tradition of covering a painted icon in a silver or gold 'riza' in order to preserve the icon. Such bas relief coverings usually leave the faces and hands of the saints exposed for veneration.
12 Icons are not considered by the Orthodox to be idols or objects of worship. The parameters of their usage were clearly spelled out by the 7th ecumenical council. Justification for their usage utilises the following logic: before God took human form in Christ, no material depiction was possible and therefore blasphemous even to contemplate. Once God became incarnate, depiction was possible. As Christ is God, it is justified to hold in one's mind the image of God-incarnate. Likewise, when one venerates an icon, it is not the wood or paint that are venerated but rather the individual shown, just as it is not the paper one loves when one might kiss the photograph of a loved one. As Saint Basil famously proclaimed, honour or veneration of the icon always passes to its archetype. Following this reasoning, the veneration of the glorified human saint made in God's image, is always a veneration of the divine image, and hence God as foundational archetype. Icons can be found adorning the walls of churches and often cover the inside structure completely. Most Orthodox homes have an area set aside for family prayer, usually an eastern facing wall, where are hung many icons.
The inside of an Orthodox church.
Icons are often illuminated by a candle or oil lamp. (Beeswax for candles and olive oil for lamps are preferred because they are natural and burn cleanly.) Besides the practical purpose of making icons visible in an otherwise dark church, both candles and oil lamps symbolise the Light of the World, who is Christ. Tales of miraculous icons are not uncommon, though it has always been considered that the message of such an event was for the immediate faithful involved and therefore does not usually attract crowds. Some miraculous icons whose reputations span long periods of time nevertheless become objects of pilgrimage along with the places where they are kept. As several Orthodox theologians and saints have explored in the past, the icon's miraculous nature is found not in the material, but in the glory of the saint who is depicted. The icon is a window, in the words of St Paul Florensky, that actually participates in the glory of what it represents. See also icons.
Orthodox Church Iconostasis An iconostasis, also called the templon, is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church. Iconostasis also refers to a portable icon stand that can be placed anywhere within a church. The modern iconostasis evolved from the Byzantine templon in the eleventh century. The evolution of the iconostasis probably owes a great deal to 14th-century Hesychast mysticism and the wood-carving genius of the Russian Orthodox Church. The first ceiling-high, five-leveled Russian iconostasis was designed by Andrey Rublyov in the cathedral of the Dormition in Vladimir in 1408. The separation between sanctuary and nave accomplished by the iconostasis is not mandatory, albeit it is common practice. Depending on circumstance, the role of the iconostasis can be played by masonry, carved panels, screens, curtains, railings, a cord or rope, plain icons on stands, steps, or nothing at all.
Iconostasis in the Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Moscow Kremlin.
The Cross Depictions of the Cross within the Orthodox Church are numerous and often highly ornamented. Some carry special significance. The Tri-Bar Cross, as seen to the right, has three bars instead of the single bar normally attached. The small top crossbar represents the sign that Pontius Pilate nailed above Christ's head. It often is inscribed with an acronym meaning “Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews”; however, it is often replaced or amplified by the phrase "The King of Glory" in order to answer Pilate's statement with Christ's affirmation, "My Kingdom is not of this world". There is also a bottom slanting bar. This appears for a number of reasons. Claims of evidence indicate that there was a small wooden platform for the crucified to stand on in order to support his weight; in Jesus' case his feet were nailed side by side to this platform with one nail each in order to prolong the torture of the cross. Implied evidence for this comes mainly from two sources within Holy Tradition, the Bible (in order to cause the victim to die faster their legs were The Three-Bar Orthodox Cross. broken so they could not support their weight and would suffocate) and iconography (all early depictions of the crucifixion show this arrangement, not the later with feet on top with single nail). It has also been pointed out by some experts that the nailed hands of a body crucified in the manner often shown in modern secular art would not support the weight of the body and would tear through. A platform for the feet would relieve this problem. The bottom bar is slanted for two reasons, to represent the very real agony which Christ experienced on the cross (a refutation of Docetism) and to signify that the thief on Christ's right chose the right path while the thief on the left did not. Other crosses associated with the Orthodox Church are the more traditional single-bar crosses, budded designs, the Jerusalem cross (cross pattée), Celtic crosses, and others.
The services of the church are properly conducted each day following a rigid, but constantly changing annual schedule (i.e., parts of the service remain the same while others change depending on the day of the year). Services are conducted in the church and involve both the clergy and faithful. Services cannot properly be conducted by a single person, but must have at least one other person present (i.e. a Priest cannot celebrate alone, but must have at least a Chanter present and participating). Usually, all of the services are conducted on a daily basis only in monasteries and cathedrals, while parish churches might only do the services on the A prayer corner in an Orthodox temple, utilized by parishioners weekend and major feast days. On certain Great Feasts during services for veneration and specific petitions. (and, according to some traditions, every Sunday) a special All-Night Vigil (Agrypnia) will be celebrated from late at night on the eve of the feast until early the next morning. Because of its festal nature it is usually followed by a breakfast feast shared together by the congregation.
The journey is to the Kingdom. This is where we are going-not symbolically, but really.
—Fr. Alexander Schmemann, For the Life of the World
We knew not whether we were in heaven or on earth.
—Ambassadors of Kievan Rus (10th Century), Apocryphal quote from conversion of Kievan Rus.
Services, especially the Divine Liturgy, can only be performed once a day on a single altar (some churches have multiple altars in order to accommodate large congregations). Each priest may only celebrate the Divine Liturgy once a day. From its Jewish roots, the liturgical day begins at sundown. The traditional daily cycle of services is as follows: • • • • • • Vespers – (Greek Hesperinos) Sundown, the beginning of the liturgical day. Compline (Greek Apodeipnon, lit. "After-supper") – After the evening meal prior to bedtime. Midnight Office – Usually served only in monasteries. Matins (Greek Orthros) – First service of the morning. Usually starts before sunrise. Divine Liturgy – The Eucharist service (see below) Hours – First, Third, Sixth, and Ninth – Sung either at their appropriate times, or in aggregate at other customary times of convenience. If the latter, The First Hour is sung immediately following Orthros, the Third and Sixth prior to the Divine Liturgy, and the Ninth prior to Vespers.
The Divine Liturgy is the celebration of the Eucharist. Although it is usually celebrated between the Sixth and Ninth Hours, it is not considered to be part of the daily cycle of services, as it occurs outside the normal time of the world. The Divine Liturgy is not celebrated on weekdays during the preparatory season of Great Lent and in some places during the lesser fasting seasons either. Reserve communion is prepared on Sundays and is distributed during the week at the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts.
Orthodox Church This daily cycle services are conceived of as both the sanctification of time (chronos, the specific times during which they are celebrated), and entry into eternity (kairos). They consist to a large degree of litanies asking for God's mercy on the living and the dead, readings from the Psalter with introductory prayers, troparia, and other prayers and hymns surrounding them. The Psalms are so arranged that when all the services are celebrated the entire Psalter is read through in their course once a week, and twice a week during Great Lent when the services are celebrated in an extended form. Chanting Orthodox services are sung nearly in their entirety. Services consist in part of a dialogue between the clergy and the people (often represented by the choir or the Psaltis Cantor). In each case the prayers are sung or chanted following a prescribed musical form. Almost nothing is read in a normal speaking voice, with the exception of the homily if one is given. Because the human voice is seen as the most perfect instrument of praise, musical instruments (organs, guitars, etc.) are not generally used to accompany the choir. The church has developed eight Modes or Tones, (see Octoechos) within which a chant may be set, depending on the time of year, feast days, or other considerations of the Typikon. There are numerous versions and styles that are traditional and acceptable and these vary a great deal between cultures. It is common, especially in the United States, for a choir to learn many different styles and to mix them, singing one response in Greek, then English, then Russian, etc. It should also be noted that in the Russian tradition there have been some very famous composers of Church music such as Tchaikovsky and Rachmaninoff; and many Church tones can likewise be seen influencing their music. Incense As part of the legacy handed down from its Judaic roots, incense is used during all services in the Orthodox Church as an offering of worship to God as it was done in the Jewish First and Second Temples in Jerusalem (Exodus chapter 30). Traditionally, the base of the incense used is the resin of Boswellia thurifera, also known as frankincense, but the resin of fir trees has been used as well. It is usually mixed with various floral essential oils giving it a sweet smell. Incense represents the sweetness of the prayers of the saints rising up to God (Psalm 141:2, Revelation 5:8, 8:4). The incense is burned in an ornate golden censer that hangs at the end of three chains representing the Trinity. Two chains represent the human and Godly nature of the Son, one chain for the Father and one chain for the Holy Spirit. The lower cup represents the earth and the upper cup the heaven. In the Greek and Syrian traditions there are 12 bells hung along these chains representing the 12 apostles (usually no bells in Slavic tradition). There are also 72 links Orthodox Deacons preparing incense for representing 72 evangelists. The charcoal represents the sinners. Fire signifies a Cross Procession in Novosibirsk, Russia. the Holy Spirit and frankincense the good deeds. The incense also represents the grace of the Holy Trinity. The censer is used (swung back and forth) by the priest/deacon to venerate all four sides of the altar, the holy gifts, the clergy, the icons, the congregation, and the church structure itself.
According to Orthodox theology, the purpose of the Christian life is to attain theosis, the mystical union of man with God. This union is understood as both collective and individual. St. Athanasius of Alexandria, wrote concerning the Incarnation that, "He (Jesus) was made man that we might be made god (θεοποιηθῶμεν)". See Peter 2 1:4, John 10:34–36, Psalm 82:6. The entire life of the church is oriented towards making this possible and facilitating it. In the Orthodox Church the terms “Mystery” or “The Mysteries” refer to the process of theosis. While it is understood that God theoretically can do anything instantly and invisibly, it is also understood that he generally chooses to use material substance as a medium in order to reach people. The limitations are those of mankind, not God. Matter is not considered to be evil by the Orthodox. Water, oil, bread, wine, etc., all are means by which God reaches out to allow people to draw closer to him. How this process works is a “Mystery”, and cannot be defined in human terms. These Mysteries are surrounded by prayer and symbolism so that their true meaning will not be forgotten. Those things which in the West are often termed Sacraments or sacramentals are known among the Orthodox as the Sacred Mysteries. While the Roman Catholic Church numbers seven Sacraments, and many Protestant groups list two (Baptism and the Eucharist) or even none, the Orthodox do not limit the number. However, for the sake of convenience, catechisms will often speak of the seven Great Mysteries. Among these are Holy Communion (the most direct connection), Baptism, Chrismation, Confession, Unction, Matrimony, and Ordination. But the term also properly applies to other sacred actions such as monastic Tonsure or the blessing of holy water, and involves fasting, almsgiving, or an act as simple as lighting a candle, burning incense, praying or asking God's blessing on food.
Baptism is the mystery which transforms the old, sinful man into the new, pure man; the old life, the sins, any mistakes made are gone and a clean slate is given. Through baptism one is united to the Body of Christ by becoming a member of the Orthodox Church. During the service water is blessed. The catechumen is fully immersed in the water three times in the name of the Holy Trinity. This is considered to be a death of the "old man" by participation in the crucifixion and burial of Christ, and a rebirth into new life in Christ by participation in his resurrection. Properly a new name is given, which becomes the person's name. Children of Orthodox families are normally baptized shortly after birth. Converts to Orthodoxy (even converts from other Christian denominations) are usually formally baptized into the Orthodox Church though exceptions are sometimes made. Those who have left Orthodoxy and adopted a new religion, if they return to their Orthodox roots, are usually received back into the church through the mystery of Chrismation. Properly, the mystery of baptism is administered by bishops and priests; however, in emergencies any Orthodox Christian can baptize. In such cases, should the person survive the emergency, it is likely that the person will be properly baptized by a priest at some later date. This is not considered to be a second baptism, nor is it imagined that the person is not already Orthodox, but rather it is a fulfillment of the proper form. The service of baptism used in Orthodox churches has remained largely unchanged for over 1500 years. This fact is witnessed to by St. Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 386), who, in his Discourse on the Sacrament of Baptism, describes the service in much the same way as is currently in use.
Chrismation(sometimes called confirmation ) is the mystery by which a baptized person is granted the gift of the Holy Spirit through anointing with Holy Chrism. It is normally given immediately after baptism as part of the same service, but is also used to receive lapsed members of the Orthodox Church. As baptism is a person's participation in the death and resurrection of Christ, so Chrismation is a person's participation in the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost.
Orthodox Church A baptized and chrismated Orthodox Christian is a full member of the Church, and may receive the Eucharist regardless of age. The creation of Chrism may be accomplished by any bishop at any time, but usually is done only once a year, often when a synod of bishops convenes for its annual meeting. (Some autocephalous churches get their chrism from others.) Anointing with it substitutes for the laying-on of hands described in the New Testament, even when an instrument such as a brush is used.
See also: Fasting: Orthodoxy & Eastern Catholicism. The number of fast days varies from year to year, but in general the Orthodox Christian can expect to spend a little over half the year fasting at some level of strictness. There are spiritual, symbolic, and even practical reasons for fasting. In the Fall from Paradise mankind became possessed by a carnal nature; that is to say, he became inclined towards the passions. Through fasting, Orthodox Christians attempt to return to the relationship of love and obedience to God enjoyed by Adam and Eve in Paradise in their own lives, by refraining from carnal practices, by bridling the tongue (James 3:5–6), confession of sins, prayer and almsgiving. Fasting is seen as purification and the regaining of innocence. Through obedience to the Church and its ascetic practices the Orthodox Christian seeks to rid himself or herself of the passions (The desires of our fallen carnal nature). All Orthodox Christians are expected to fast following a prescribed set of guidelines. They do not view fasting as a hardship, but rather as a privilege and joy. The teaching of the Church fixes both the times and the amount of fasting that is expected as a minimum for every member. For greater ascesis, some may choose to go without food entirely for a short period of time. A complete three-day fast at the beginning and end of a fasting period is not unusual, and some fast for even longer periods, though this is usually practiced only in monasteries. In general, fasting means abstaining from meat and meat products, dairy (eggs and cheese) and dairy products, fish, olive oil, and wine. Wine and oil—and, less frequently, fish—are allowed on certain feast days when they happen to fall on a day of fasting; but animal products and dairy are forbidden on fast days, with the exception of "Cheese Fare" week which precedes Great Lent, during which dairy products are allowed. Wine and oil are usually also allowed on Saturdays and Sundays during periods of fast. In some Orthodox traditions, caviar is permitted on Lazarus Saturday, the Saturday before Palm Sunday, although the day is otherwise a fast day. Married couples also abstain from sexual relations on fast days, that they may devote themselves to prayer (Corinthians I 7:5). While it may seem that fasting in the manner set forth by the Church is a strict rule, there are circumstances where a person's spiritual guide may allow a dispensation because of some physical necessity (e.g. those who are pregnant or infirm, the very young and the elderly, or those who have no control over their diet, such as prisoners or soldiers). The time and type of fast is generally uniform for all Orthodox Christians; the times of fasting are part of the ecclesiastical calendar, and the method of fasting is set by the Holy Canons and Sacred Tradition. There are four major fasting periods during the year: • The Nativity Fast (Advent or "Winter Lent") which is the 40 days preceding the Nativity of Christ (Christmas), beginning on November 15 and running through December 24. This fast becomes more severe after December 20, and Christmas Eve is observed a strict fast day. • Great Lent which consists of the 6 weeks (40 Days) preceding Palm Sunday, and Great Week (Holy Week) which precedes Pascha (Easter). • The Apostles' Fast which varies in length from 8 days to 6 weeks. It begins on the Monday following All Saints Sunday (the first Sunday after Pentecost) and extends to the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul on June 29. Since the date of Pentecost depends on that of Pascha, and Pascha is determined on the lunar calendar, this fast can disappear completely under New Calendar observance (This is one of the objections raised by opponents to the New Calendar).
Orthodox Church • The Dormition Fast, a two-week long Fast preceding the Dormition of the Theotokos (repose of The Virgin Mary), lasting from August 1 through August 15. In addition to these fasting seasons, Orthodox Christians fast on every Wednesday (in commemoration of Christ's betrayal by Judas Iscariot), and Friday (in commemoration of Christ's Crucifixion) throughout the year. Monastics often fast on Mondays (in imitation of the Angels, who are commemorated on that day in the weekly cycle, since monastics are striving to lead an angelic life on earth, and angels neither eat nor drink). Orthodox Christians who are preparing to receive the Eucharist do not eat or drink at all from midnight until after taking Holy Communion. A similar total fast is expected to be kept on the Eve of Nativity, the Eve of Theophany (Epiphany), Great Friday and Holy Saturday for those who can do so. There are other individual days observed as fasts (though not as days of total fasting) no matter what day of the week they fall on, such as the Beheading of St. John the Baptist on August 29 and the Exaltation of the Holy Cross on September 14. Strict fasting is canonically forbidden on Saturdays and Sundays due to the festal character of the Sabbath and the Resurrection, respectively. On those days wine and oil are permitted even if abstention from them would be otherwise called for. Holy Saturday is the only Saturday of the year where a strict fast is kept. There are also four periods in the liturgical year during which no fasting is permitted, even on Wednesday and Friday. These fast-free periods are: • The week following Pascha (Easter), also known as Bright Week • The week following Pentecost • The period from the Nativity of Christ up to (but not including) the Eve of Theophany (Epiphany). The day of Theophany itself is always fast-free, even if it falls on a Wednesday or Friday. • The week following the Sunday of the Publican and the Pharisee (one of the preparatory Sundays before Great Lent). This is fast-free to remind the faithful not to boast like the Pharisee that he fasts for two days out of the week Luke 18:12). When certain feast days fall on fast days, the fasting laws are lessened to a certain extent, to allow some consolation in the trapeza (refectory) for the longer services, and to provide an element of sober celebration to accompany the spiritual joy of the feast. It is considered a greater sin to advertise one's fasting than not to participate in the fast. Fasting is a purely personal communication between the Orthodox Christian and God. If one has health concerns, or responsibilities that cannot be fulfilled because of fasting, then it is The congregation lighting their candles from the new flame in Adelaide, at St. George Greek Orthodox Church, just as the priest has retrieved it from the altar – perfectly permissible not to fast. An note that the picture is flash-illuminated; all electric lighting is off, and only the oil individual's observance of the fasting laws is lamps in front of the Iconostasis remain lit. not to be judged by the community (Romans 14:1–4), but is a private matter between him and his Spiritual Father or Confessor.
"Almsgiving" refers to any charitable giving of material resources to those in need. Along with prayer and fasting, it is considered a pillar of the personal spiritual practices of the Orthodox Christian tradition. Almsgiving is
Orthodox Church particularly important during periods of fasting, when the Orthodox believer is expected to share the monetary savings from his or her decreased consumption with those in need. As with fasting, bragging about the amounts given for charity is considered anywhere from extremely rude to sinful.
The Eucharist is at the center of Orthodox Christianity. In practice, it is the partaking of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ in the midst of the Divine Liturgy with the rest of the church. The bread and wine are believed to become the genuine Body and Blood of the Christ Jesus through the operation of the Holy Spirit. The Orthodox Church has never described exactly how this occurs, or gone into the detail that the Roman Catholic Church has in the West. The doctrine of transubstantiation was formulated after the Great Schism took place, and the Orthodox Churches have never formally affirmed or denied it, preferring to state simply that it is a "Mystery". Communion is given only to baptized and chrismated Orthodox Christians who have prepared by fasting, prayer and confession. The priest will administer the Gifts with a spoon, called a "cochlear", directly into the recipient's mouth from the chalice. From baptism young infants and children are carried to the chalice to receive Holy Communion. Because of the Orthodox understanding of man’s fallen nature in general those who wish to commune prepare themselves in a way that reflects man in paradise. First, the individual prepares by having his confession heard and the prayer of repentance read over him by a priest. The person will increase their prayer rule adding the prescribed prayers in preparation for communing. Finally, the person will fast completely from food and drink from the evening of the previous day (usually sunset on Saturday if communing on Sunday).
Orthodox Christians who have committed sins but repent of them, and who wish to reconcile themselves to God and renew the purity of their original baptisms, confess their sins to God before a spiritual guide who offers advice and direction to assist the individual in overcoming their sin. Parish priests commonly function as spiritual guides, but such guides can be any person, male or female, who has been given a blessing to hear confessions. Spiritual guides are chosen very carefully as it is a mandate that once chosen, they must be obeyed. Having confessed, the penitent then has his or her parish priest read the prayer of repentance over them. Sin is not viewed by the Orthodox as a stain on the soul that needs to be wiped out, or a legal transgression that must be set right by a punitive sentence, but rather as a mistake made by the individual with the opportunity for spiritual growth and development. An act of Penance (epitemia), if the spiritual guide requires it, is never formulaic, but rather is directed toward the individual and their particular problem, as a means of establishing a deeper understanding of the mistake made, and how to effect its cure. Though it sounds harsh, temporary excommunication is fairly common. Because full participatory membership is granted to infants, it is not unusual for even small children to confess; though the scope of their culpability is far less than an older child, still their opportunity for spiritual growth remains the same.
Marriage in the Orthodox Church is the joining of one man and one woman into one flesh. In order to fully understand the Orthodox concept of marriage one has to understand the Orthodox view on man’s true and fallen state and his ultimate state at world’s end. Man was originally created to commune with God but because of his fall from grace man was cut off. Man’s curse was that life itself would be hard on him. As a consolation, God allowed man to have temporary companionship here on earth. When Christ was asked the hypothetical question about a woman who married a series of seven brothers – each after her preceding husband had died – whose wife she would be in the resurrection, Christ responded that in the resurrection people are no longer married but their relationship is with God (Matthew 22:24–30, Mark 12:19–25, Luke 20:28–36). And so, first and foremost this joining is seen as a dispensation allowed by God for the mutual comfort and support of the individuals involved. While procreation and
Orthodox Church the perpetuation of the species is seen as important, what is more important is the bond of love between the husband and wife as this is a reflection of our ultimate union with God. Virginity, however, is seen as a higher state since one participates in the immediate relationship with God and is not distracted by having to serve a wife or husband (1 Corith:7 esp.32–33) The Church does recognize that there are rare occasions when it is better that couples do separate, but there is no official recognition of civil divorces. For the Orthodox, the marriage is indissoluble as in it should not be broken, the violation of such a union, perceived as holy, being an offense resulted from either adultery or the prolonged absence of one of the partners. Thus, permitting remarriage is an act of compassion of the Church towards sinful man. In the U.S., according to 2001 statistics, 14% of Orthodox marriages ended in an ecclesiastical divorce; a figure that, since it took no account of how many of the couples who entered such marriages took out a civil divorce, is not comparable with the figure of 43% given at that time for the proportion of all marriages that ended in a civil divorce, but which has been argued as indicating a probable total of only 15% of marriages celebrated in an Orthodox church led to any form of divorce. Divorced individuals are usually allowed to remarry though there is usually imposed on them a fairly severe penance by their bishop and the services for a second marriage in this case are more penitential than joyful. Widows are permitted to remarry without repercussion and their second marriage is considered just as valid as the first. One exception to this rule is the clergy and their wives. Should a married priest die, it is expected that his wife will retire to a monastery as soon as their children are out of the house. Widowed priests are not allowed to remarry and also frequently end up in monasteries. The service of Marriage in the Orthodox Church has two distinct parts: The Betrothal and The Crowning. The Betrothal includes: 1. The exchange of the rings, (it has always been the tradition of the Church to place the wedding ring on the right hand of the couple based on biblical references. This is seen very clearly in one of the prayers in the Betrothal Service. A portion of the prayer refers to the biblical references: “For You, O Lord, have declared that a pledge is to be given and held inviolate in all things. By a ring Joseph was given might in Egypt; by a ring Daniel was exalted in Babylon; by a ring our heavenly Father showed compassion upon His prodigal son, for He said, ‘Put a ring upon his right hand, kill the fatted calf, and let us eat and rejoice.’ Your own right hand, O Lord, armed Moses in the Red Sea. By word of Your truth were the Heavens established and the earth set upon her sure foundations; and the right hands of Your servants shall be blessed by Your mighty word, and by Your uplifted arm.” As we see, it was scripturally the practice to wear rings on the right hand, the hand of authority and power completing the pledge of commitment. The power and authority comes from the right hand of God. 2. The procession, the declaration of intent, and 3. The lighting of candles. The Crowning includes: The readings from the epistle and gospel, the Blessing of the Common Cup, and the Dance of Isaiah (the bride and groom are led around the table 3 times), and then the Removal of the Crowns. There is no exchange of vows. There is a set expectation of the obligations incumbent on a married couple, and whatever promises they may have privately to each other are their responsibility to keep. The ceremony ends with the reading of Benedictions to and the Greeting of the Couple. At the Sacrament of Marriage the crowns are placed on the bride and groom’s heads as the following prayer is recited three times, “The servant of God, (groom’s name), is crowned to the handmaid of God, (bride’s name), in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit” three times. It is then repeated three times as the bride is crowned to the groom. We witness the groom and bride being crowned (visibly proclaimed) as the king and queen, respectively, of a new family, entrusted by God with the authority to rule their family in faith and love and harmony with Christ. They both share in this responsibility and privilege as a newly married couple. This is not simply being declared by the priest or even the Church, but by God Himself, as the following hymn is chanted three times: “O Lord, our God, crown them with glory and honor.” The crowns are then switched back and forth between the groom and bride’s head, signifying that they completely share their lives together. The crowns also serve as a reminder of the crowns that await them in heaven, if they live their lives in faithfulness to God and each other.. Fr. John Meyendorff in his book, Marriage: An Orthodox Perspective, writes: “According to St.
Orthodox Church John Chrysostom, the crowns symbolized victory over the ‘passions’.” In the service of a second marriage the crowns are not to be used, but if it is a second marriage for only one of the two who are marrying and a first marriage for the other, the usual rite is followed. Many couples keep the wedding crowns in a case and display them near their icon corner or in the couple’s bedroom. They serve as a reminder that God has united them to each other and to himself and that he has bestowed his grace upon them to live in unity, faith and love. The church understands marriage only as the union of one man and one woman, and certain Orthodox leaders have spoken out strongly in opposition to the civil institution of Same-Sex Marriage 
All Orthodox Christians are expected to participate in at least some ascetic works, in response to the commandment of Christ to "come, take up the cross, and follow me." (Mark 10:21 and elsewhere) They are therefore all called to imitate, in one way or another, Christ himself who denied himself to the extent of literally taking up the cross on the way to his voluntary self-sacrifice. However, laypeople are not expected to live in extreme asceticism since this is close to impossible while undertaking the normal responsibilities of worldly life. Those who Saint Catherine's Monastery wish to do this therefore separate themselves from the world and live as monastics: monks and nuns. As ascetics par excellence, using the allegorical weapons of prayer and fasting in spiritual warfare against their passions, monastics hold a very special and important place in the Church. This kind of life is often seen as incompatible with any kind of worldly activity including that which is normally regarded as virtuous. Social work, school teaching, and other such work is therefore usually left to laypeople. Ascetics of Orthodox Church are recognized by their long hair, and in case of male monks long beards.
22 There are three main types of monastics. Those who live in monasteries under a common rule are coenobitic. Each monastery may formulate its own rule, and although there are no religious orders in Orthodoxy some respected monastic centers such as Mount Athos are highly influential. Eremitic monks, or hermits, are those who live solitary lives. It is the yearning of many who enter the monastic life to eventually become solitary hermits. This most austere life is only granted to the most advanced monastics and only when their superiors feel they are ready for it. Hermits are usually associated with a larger monastery but live in seclusion some distance from the main compound. Their local monastery will see to their physical needs, supplying them with simple foods while disturbing them as little as possible. In between are those in semi-eremitic communities, or sketes, where one or two monks share each of a group of nearby dwellings under their own rules and only gather together in the central chapel, or katholikon, for liturgical observances. The spiritual insight gained from their ascetic struggles make monastics preferred for missionary activity. Bishops are almost always chosen from among monks, and those who are not generally receive the monastic tonsure before their consecrations.
Many (but not all) Orthodox seminaries are attached to monasteries, combining academic preparation for ordination with participation in the community's life of prayer. Monks who have been ordained to the priesthood are called hieromonk (priest-monk); monks who have been ordained to the diaconate are called hierodeacon (deacon-monk). Not all monks live in monasteries, some hieromonks serve as priests in parish churches thus practicing "monasticism in the world". Cultural practices differ slightly but in general, Father is the correct form of address for monks who have been tonsured, while Novices are addressed as Brother. Similarly, Mother is the correct form of address for nuns who have been tonsured, while Novices are addressed as Sister. Nuns live identical ascetic lives to their male counterparts and are therefore also called monachoi (monastics) or the feminine plural form in Greek, monachai, and their common living space is called a monastery.
The Schema worn by Orthodox Monks.
Since its founding, the Church spread to different places and its leaders in each region came to be known as episkopoi (overseers, plural of episkopos, overseer—Gr. ἐπίσκοπος), which became "bishop" in English. The other ordained roles are presbyter (Gr. πρεσβύτερος, elder), which became "prester" and then "priest" in English, and diakonos (Gr. διάκονος, servant), which became "deacon" in English (see also subdeacon). There are numerous administrative positions among the clergy that carry additional titles. In the Greek tradition, bishops who occupy an ancient see are called metropolitans, while the lead bishop in Greece is the archbishop. (In the Russian tradition, however, the usage of the terms "metropolitan" and "archbishop" is reversed.) Priests can be archpriests, archimandrites or protopresbyters. Deacons can also be archdeacons or protodeacons. The position of deacon is often occupied for life. The deacon also acts as an assistant to a bishop. With the exception of bishops, who remain celibate, the Orthodox Clergy at All Saints' Antiochian Orthodox Church, Church has always allowed priests and deacons to be married, Raleigh, United States (L to R): priest, two deacons, provided the marriage takes place before ordination. In general it bishop is considered preferable for parish priests to be married as they often act as counsel to married couples and thus can draw on their own experience. Unmarried priests usually are monks and live in monasteries, though there are occasions when, because of a lack of married priests, a monk-priest is temporarily assigned to a parish. Widowed priests and deacons may not remarry and it is common for such members of the clergy to retire to a monastery (see clerical celibacy). This is also true of widowed wives of clergy, who do not remarry and become nuns when their children are grown. There is serious discussion about reviving the order of deaconess, which fell into disuse in the first millennium; the deaconesses had both liturgical and pastoral functions within the church. Although it has fallen out of practice (the last deaconess was ordained in the 19th century) there is no reason why deaconesses could not be ordained today.
Anointing with oil, often called "unction", is one of the mysteries administered by the Orthodox Church and it is not reserved only for the dying or terminally ill, but for all in need of spiritual or bodily healing. In Greece, during the Ottoman occupation, it became the custom to administer this mystery annually on Great Wednesday to all believers; in recent decades, this custom has spread to many other locations. It is often distributed on major feast days, or any time the clergy feel it necessary for the spiritual welfare of its congregation. According to Orthodox teaching unction is based on the Epistle of James: Is anyone among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith will save the sick, and the Lord will raise him up. And if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven.—James 5:14–15
Christianity spread rapidly throughout the Roman Empire. Some have attributed this in part because Greek was the lingua franca. Paul and the Apostles traveled extensively throughout the Empire, including Asia Minor, establishing Churches in major communities, with the first Churches appearing in Jerusalem and the Holy Land, then in Antioch, Ethiopia, Egypt, Rome, Alexandria, Athens, Thessalonica, Illyricum, and Byzantium, which, centuries later would become prominent as the New Rome. Christianity in the Roman Empire was met with some Svetitskhoveli Cathedral is one of the oldest resistance as its adherents would refuse to comply with the Roman  Orthodox churches in Georgia. state (even at the threat of death) in offering sacrifice to the pagan gods. Despite being under persecution, the Church spread. The persecution dissipated upon the conversion of Emperor Constantine I in 324 AD. By the 4th century Christianity had spread in numerous countries. A number of influential schools of thought had arisen, particularly the Alexandrian and Antiochian philosophical approaches. Other groups, such as the Arians, had also managed to gain influence however their positions caused theological conflicts within the Church, thus prompting The Emperor Constantine to call for a great ecumenical synod in order to define the Church's position against the growing, often widely diverging, philosophical and theological interpretations of Christianity. He made it possible for this council to meet not only by providing a location, but by offering to pay for the transportation of all the existing bishops of the Church. This synod is commonly referred to as the First Council of Nicaea or more generally as First Ecumenical Council  and is considered of major importance by most modern Christian Churches.
Several doctrinal disputes from the 4th century onwards led to the calling of Ecumenical councils. There are seven councils authoritatively recognized as Ecumenical: 1. The First Ecumenical Council was convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine at Nicaea in 325 and presided over by the Patriarch Alexander of Alexandria, with over 300 bishops condemning the view of Arius that the Son is a created being inferior to the Father. 2. The Second Ecumenical Council was held at Constantinople in 381, presided over by the Patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch, with 150 bishops, defining the nature of the Holy Spirit against those asserting His inequality with the other persons of the Trinity. 3. The Third Ecumenical Council is that of Ephesus in 431, presided over by the Patriarch of Alexandria, with 250 bishops, which affirmed that Mary is truly "Birthgiver" or "Mother" of God (Theotokos), contrary to the teachings of Nestorius. 4. The Fourth Ecumenical Council is that of Chalcedon in 451, Patriarch of Constantinople presiding, 500 bishops, affirmed that Jesus is truly God and truly man, without mixture of the two natures, contrary to Monophysite teaching. 5. The Fifth Ecumenical Council is the second of Constantinople in 553, interpreting the decrees of Chalcedon and further explaining the relationship of the two natures of Jesus; it also condemned the teachings of Origen on the pre-existence of the soul, etc. 6. The Sixth Ecumenical Council is the third of Constantinople in 681; it declared that Christ has two wills of his two natures, human and divine, contrary to the teachings of the Monothelites.
Orthodox Church 7. The Seventh Ecumenical Council was called under the Empress Regent Irene of Athens in 787, known as the second of Nicaea. It supports the veneration of icons while forbidding their worship. It is often referred to as "The Triumph of Orthodoxy" Some Orthodox consider the following council to be ecumenical, although this is not agreed upon: 8. The Fourth Council of Constantinople was called in 879. It restored St. Photius to his See in Constantinople and condemned any alteration of the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed of 381. 9. The Fifth Council of Constantinople was actually a series of councils held between 1341 and 1351. It affirmed the hesychastic theology of St. Gregory Palamas and condemned the philosopher Barlaam of Calabria. In addition to these councils there have been a number of significant councils meant to further define the Orthodox position. They are the Synods of Constantinople, 1484, 1583, 1755, 1819, and 1872, the Synod of Iaşi (Jassy), 1642, and the Pan-Orthodox Synod of Jerusalem, 1672.
Eastern Christian culture reached its golden age during the high point of the Byzantine Empire and continued to flourish in Russia, after the fall of Constantinople. Numerous autocephalous churches were established in Eastern Europe and Slavic areas. In the 530s the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) was built in Constantinople under emperor Justinian I.
The Byzantine Empire during its greatest territorial extent under Justinian. c. 550.
Depiction of the Hagia Sophia's appearance during Byzantine times
Exterior view of the Hagia Sophia, 2004
Interior view of the Hagia Sophia, 1993
The Church in Egypt (Patriarchate of Alexandria) split into two groups following the Council of Chalcedon (451), over a dispute about the relation between the divine and human natures of Jesus. Eventually this led to each group anathematizing the other. Those that remained in communion with the other patriarchs (those who accepted the Council of Chalcedon) were called "Melkites" (the king's men, because Constantinople was the city of the emperors) [not to be confused with the Melkite Catholics of Antioch]. Those who disagreed with the findings of the Council of Chalcedon are today known as the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, currently led by Pope Shenouda III. There was a similar split in Syria (Patriarchate of Antioch) resulting in the Syriac Orthodox Church. Those who disagreed with the Council of Chalcedon are sometimes called "Oriental Orthodox" to distinguish them from the Orthodox, who accepted the Council of Chalcedon. Oriental Orthodox are also sometimes referred to as "non-Chalcedonians", or "anti-Chalcedonians". The Oriental Orthodox Church denies that it is monophysite and prefers the term "miaphysite", to denote the "joined" nature of Jesus (two natures joined into one). Both the Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches formally believe themselves to be the continuation of the true church, although over the last several decades there has been some reconciliation. Both Churches agree there to have been a misunderstanding between the two in 451, that is to say that each side's terminology basically meant the same thing. As well, there are the "Nestorian" churches, which are Eastern Christian churches that keep the faith of only the first two ecumenical councils, i.e., the First Council of Nicaea and the First Council of Constantinople. "Nestorian" is an
Orthodox Church outsider's term for a tradition that predated the influence of Nestorius. Thus, "Persian Church" is a more neutral term.
Conversion of East and South Slavs
In the ninth and tenth centuries, Christianity made great inroads into Eastern Europe, including Kievan Rus'. This work was made possible by the work of the Byzantine saints Cyril and Methodius. When Rastislav, the king of Moravia, asked Byzantium for teachers who could minister to the Moravians in their own language, Byzantine emperor Michael III chose these two brothers. Cyril and Methodius translated the Bible and many of the prayer books. As the translations prepared by them were copied by speakers of other dialects, the hybrid literary language Old Church Slavonic was created. Originally sent to convert the Slavs of Great Moravia, Cyril and Methodius were forced to compete with Frankish missionaries from the Roman diocese. Their disciples were driven out of Great Moravia in AD 886.
Orthodox churches in Vologda, Russia
Some of the disciples, namely Saint Clement of Ohrid, Saint Naum who were of noble Bulgarian descent and St. Angelarius, returned to Bulgaria where they were welcomed by the Bulgarian Tsar Boris I who viewed the Slavonic liturgy as a way to counteract Byzantine influence in the country. In a short time the disciples of Cyril and Methodius managed to prepare and instruct the future Slav Bulgarian clergy into the Glagolitic alphabet and the biblical texts and in AD 893, Bulgaria expelled its Greek clergy and proclaimed the Slavonic language as the official language of the church and the state. The success of the conversion of the Bulgarians facilitated the conversion of East Slavic peoples, most notably the Rus', predecessors of Belarusians, Russians, and Ukrainians. The work of the Thessaloniki brothers Cyril and Methodius and their disciples had a major impact to Serbs as well. However, they accepted Christianity collectively by families and by tribes (in the process between the 7th and the 9th century). In commemoration of their baptisms, each Serbian family or tribe began to celebrate an exclusively Serbian custom called Slava in a special way to honor the Saint on whose day they received the sacrament of Holy Baptism. It is the most solemn day of the year for all Serbs of the Orthodox faith and has played a role of vital importance in the history of the Serbian people. Slava is actually the celebration of the spiritual birthday of the Serbian people which the Church blessed and proclaimed it a Church institution. The missionaries to the East and South Slavs had great success in part because they used the people's native language rather than Greek, the predominant language of the Byzantine Empire or Latin as the Roman priests did. Today the Russian Orthodox Church is the largest of the Orthodox Churches followed by the Romanian Orthodox Church.
In the 11th century what was recognised as the Great Schism took place between Rome and Constantinople, which led to separation from the Church of the West, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Eastern Byzantine Churches, now the Orthodox. There were doctrinal issues like the filioque clause and the authority of the Roman Pope involved in the split, but these were greatly exacerbated by political factors of both Church and state, and by cultural and linguistic differences between Latins and Greeks. Prior to 1054, the Eastern and Western halves of the Church had frequently been in conflict, particularly during the periods of Eastern iconoclasm and the Photian schism. The final breach is often considered to have arisen after the capture and sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204; the final break with Rome occurred circa 1450. The sacking of Church of Holy Wisdom and establishment of the Latin Empire as a seeming attempt to supplant the Orthodox Byzantine Empire in 1204 is viewed with some rancour to the present day. In 2004, Pope John Paul II extended a formal apology for the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, which was importantly also strongly condemned by the Pope at the time (Innocent III, see reference at end of paragraph); the apology was formally accepted by Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople.
Orthodox Church Many things that were stolen during this time —holy relics, riches, and many other items—were not returned and are still held in various Western European cities, particularly Venice.  Reunion was attempted twice, at the 1274 Second Council of Lyon and the 1439 Council of Florence. The Council of Florence did briefly reestablish communion between East and West, which lasted until after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. In each case, however, the councils were rejected by the Orthodox people as a whole, and the union of Florence also became very politically difficult after Constantinople came under Ottoman rule, so in both cases came to fail. Some local Eastern Churches have however renewed union with Rome in time since (see Eastern Catholic Churches). Recent decades have seen a renewal of ecumenical spirit and dialogue between the Churches 
Age of captivity
In 1453, the Byzantine Empire fell to the Ottoman Empire. By this time Egypt had been under Muslim control for some seven centuries, but Orthodoxy was very strong in Russia which had recently acquired an autocephalous status; and thus Moscow called itself the Third Rome, as the cultural heir of Constantinople. Under Ottoman rule, the Greek Orthodox Church acquired substantial power as an autonomous millet. The ecumenical patriarch was the religious and administrative ruler of the entire "Greek Orthodox nation" (Ottoman administrative unit), which encompassed all the Orthodox subjects of the Empire. As a result of the Ottoman conquest of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, and the Fall of Constantinople, the entire Orthodox communion of the Balkans and the Near East became suddenly isolated from the West. For the next four hundred years, it would be confined within Islamic world, with which it had little in common religiously or culturally. The Russian Orthodox Church and the Orthodox Churches from Wallachia and Moldavia were the only part of the Orthodox communion which remained outside the control of the Ottoman Empire. It is, in part, due to this geographical and Stavronikita monastery, Mount Athos, intellectual confinement that the voice of Orthodoxy was not heard during Greece (South-East view) the Reformation in sixteenth century Europe. It should not be surprising that this important theological debate often seems strange and distorted to the Orthodox; after all, they never took part in it and thus neither Reformation nor Counter-Reformation is part of their theological framework.
Russian Orthodox Church under Tsarist rule
Up until 1666, when Patriarch Nikon was deposed by the tsar, the Russian Orthodox Church had been independent of the State. In 1721 the first Emperor Peter I abolished completely the patriarchate and so the Church effectively became a department of the government, ruled by a Most Holy Synod composed of senior bishops and lay bureaucrats appointed by the Emperor himself. Since 1721 until the October Revolution of 1917, the The Moscow Kremlin, as seen from South-West Russian Orthodox Church was essentially transformed into a governmental agency, a tool used to various degrees by the tsars in the imperial campaigns of Russification. The Church was allowed by the State to levy taxes on the peasants. Therefore, the Church, along with the imperial regime, to which it belonged, came to be presented as an enemy of the people by the Bolsheviks and the other Russian revolutionaries, mostly Jews and atheists. The revolution brought, however, a brief period of liberation for the Church: an independent patriarchate was reestablished briefly in 1917, until Lenin quashed the Church a few years later, imprisoning or killing many of the clergy and of the faithful. Part of the clergy
Orthodox Church escaped the Soviet persecutions by fleeing abroad, where they founded an independent church in exile, reunified with the Russian one in 2007.
Russian Orthodox Church under Communist rule
The Orthodox Church clergy in Russia were seen as sympathetic with the cause of the White Army in the Civil War (see White movement) after the October Revolution, and occasionally collaborated with it; Patriarch Tikhon's declared position was vehemently anti-Bolshevik in 1918. This may have further strengthened the Bolshevik animus against the church. Before and after the October Revolution of November 7, 1917 (October 25 Old Calendar) there was a movement within the Soviet Union to unite all of the people of the world under Communist rule Photograph taken of the 1931 demolition of the (see Communist International). This included the Eastern European Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow. bloc countries as well as the Balkan States. Since some of these Slavic states tied their ethnic heritage to their ethnic churches, both the peoples and their church were targeted by the Soviets.  The Soviets' official interpretation of freedom of conscience was one of "guaranteeing the right to profess any religion, or profess none, to practice religious cults, or conduct atheist propaganda", though in effect atheism was sponsored by state and was taught in all educational establishments. Public criticism of atheism was unofficially forbidden and sometimes led to imprisonment. The Soviet Union was the first state to have as an ideological objective the elimination of religion. Toward that end, the Communist regime confiscated church property, ridiculed religion, harassed believers, and propagated atheism in the schools. Actions toward particular religions, however, were determined by State interests, and most organized religions were never outlawed. Some actions against Orthodox priests and believers along with execution included torture being sent to prison camps, labour camps or mental hospitals.  The result of this militant atheism was to transform the Church into a persecuted and martyred Church. In the first five years after the Bolshevik revolution, 28 bishops and 1,200 priests were executed. The main target of the anti-religious campaign in the 1920s and 1930s was the Russian Orthodox Church, which had the largest number of faithful. Nearly all of its clergy, and many of its believers, were shot or sent to labor camps. Theological schools were closed, and church publications were prohibited. In the period between 1917 and 1940, the number of Orthodox Churches in the Russian Republic fell from 59,584 to less than 500. Between 1917 and 1935, 130,000 Orthodox priests were arrested. Of these, 95,000 were put to death, executed by firing squad.
After Nazi Germany's attack on the Soviet Union in 1941, Joseph Stalin revived the Russian Orthodox Church to intensify patriotic support for the war effort. By 1957 about 22,000 Russian Orthodox churches had become active. But in 1959 Nikita Khrushchev initiated his own campaign against the Russian Orthodox Church and forced the closure of about 12,000 churches. It is estimated that 50,000 clergy had been executed between the revolution and the end of the Khrushchev era. Members of the church hierarchy were jailed or forced out, their places taken by docile clergy, many of whom had ties with the KGB. By 1985 fewer than 7,000 churches remained active. In the Soviet Union, in addition to the methodical closing and destruction of churches, the charitable and social work formerly done by ecclesiastical authorities was taken over by the state. As with all private property, Church owned property was confiscated into public use. The few places of worship left to the Church were The rebuilt Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. legally viewed as state property which the government permitted the church to use. After the advent of state funded universal education, the Church was not permitted to carry on educational, instructional activity of any kind. Outside of sermons during the celebration of the divine liturgy it could not instruct or evangelise to the faithful or its youth. Catechism classes, religious schools, study groups, Sunday schools and religious publications were all illegal and or banned. This persecution continued, even after the death of Stalin until the Fall of Communism in 1991. This caused many religious tracts to be circulated as illegal literature or samizdat. Among the most damaging aspects of Soviet rule, along with these physical abuses, the Soviet Union frequently manipulated the recruitment and appointment of priests, sometimes planting agents of the KGB within the church to monitor religious persons who were viewed – simply for not being atheists – as suspicious and potential threats to Soviet communism. The recovery of religious beliefs in Russia after the fall of communism, part of a significant religious revival, has been made more challenging as a result of those leaders forced involuntarily upon the church by the KGB during Soviet times.
Other Orthodox Churches under communist rule
Albania was the first and only state to have declared itself officially fully atheist. In some other communist states such as Romania, the Orthodox Church as an organisation enjoyed relative freedom and even prospered, albeit under strict secret police control. That, however, did not rule out demolishing churches and monasteries as part of broader systematization (urban planning), and state persecution of individual believers. As an example of the latter, Romania stands out as a country which ran a specialised institution where many Orthodox (along with people of other faiths) were subjected to psychological punishment or torture and mind control experimentation in order to force them give up their religious convictions. However, this was only supported by one faction within the regime, and lasted only three years. The Communist authorities closed down the prison in 1952, and punished many of those responsible for abuses (twenty of them were sentenced to death). 
Diaspora emigration to the West
One of the most striking developments in modern historical Orthodoxy is the dispersion of Orthodox Christians to the West. Emigration from Greece and the Near East in the last hundred years has created a sizable Orthodox diaspora in Western Europe, North and South America, and Australia. In addition, the Bolshevik Revolution forced thousands of Russian exiles westward. As a result, Orthodoxy's traditional frontiers have been profoundly modified. Millions of Orthodox are no longer geographically "eastern" since they live permanently in their newly adopted countries in the West. Nonetheless, they remain Orthodox in their faith and practice. Virtually all the Orthodox nationalities – Greek, Georgian, Arab, Russian, Serbian, Macedonian, Albanian, Ukrainian, Armenian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Assyrian – are represented in the United States. There are also many converts to Orthodoxy of all conceivable ethnic backgrounds. In fact nearly half of the clergy of the Orthodox Church in America and Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America are of a convert background. Orthodox missions are alive and well in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Enei Church, central Bucharest, Romania, being purposely demolished by Communist authorities on 10 March 1977, 6 days after the 1977 Bucharest earthquake, despite having suffered no structural damage.
Relations with other Christians
Orthodoxy represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. The Orthodox trace their bishops back to the apostles through apostolic succession, venerate saints, especially Mary the Mother of God as the Theotokos, pray for the dead, and continue the ancient Christian practice of monasticism. Some, if not all, of these practices are rejected by the majority of Protestant groups, although they are partly retained in some of the earliest liturgical Protestant movements, such as the original German form of Lutheranism. They are also retained by some within the Anglican tradition as Anglicanism is generally considered to be a via media (middle way) between the Roman Catholic and Protestant traditions. Orthodoxy does not openly promote statuary, although it is not expressly condemned, instead limiting itself primarily to two-dimensional iconography. The Western theological concepts of original sin, predestination, purgatory, and particular judgment have had far less influence in Orthodoxy and are generally rejected by traditional Orthodox theologians. The Orthodox understand themselves to be the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church; the true Church established by Jesus Christ and placed into the care of the apostles. As almost all other Christian groups are in indirect schism with the Orthodox Church, mostly as a result of the Great Schism with the Roman Catholic Church at the turn of the second Christian millennium (prior to the additional schisms of the Protestant Reformation), these other groups are
Orthodox Church viewed as being Christian, but who in varying degrees lack full theological orthodoxy and orthopraxy. As such, all groups outside of the Orthodox Church are not seen as being members of the Church proper, but rather separated brethren who have failed to retain the fullness of the Christian faith and theology, as was given to the apostles by Jesus Christ. These deviations from orthodoxy have traditionally been called heresy, but due to the term's immediately pejorative connotations, some prefer the more technical designation of the term heterodoxy.
The Church today
The various autocephalous and autonomous synods of the Orthodox Church are distinct in terms of administration and local culture, but for the most part exist in full communion with one another. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR) has recently united with the Moscow Patriarchate (MP); these two branches of the Russian Orthodox Church had separated from each other in the 1920s due to the subjection of the latter to the hostile Soviet regime (see Act of Canonical Communion).
Distribution of Orthodoxy in the world by country Dominant religion Important minority religion (over
Tensions exist in the philosophical differences between those who use the 10%) Revised Julian Calendar ("New Calendarists") for calculating the feasts of the ecclesiastical year and those who continue to use the traditional Julian Calendar ("Old Calendarists"). The calendar question reflects the dispute between those who wish to synchronize with the modern Gregorian calendar, which its opponents consider unnecessary and damaging to continuity, and those who wish to maintain the traditional ecclesiastical calendar (which happens to be based on the Julian calendar), emphasizing that such a major change in the tradition of the Church may only occur through the convening of an Ecumenical council. The dispute has led to much acrimony, and sometimes even to violence. Following canonical precepts, some adherents of the Old Calendar have chosen to abstain from clerical intercommunion with those synods which have embraced the New Calendar until the conflict is resolved. The monastic communities on Mount Athos have provided the strongest opposition to the New Calendar, and to modernism in general, while still maintaining communion with their mother church. Some latent discontent between different national churches exists also in part due to different approach towards ecumenism. While the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, the Orthodox bishops in North America gathered into the Standing Conference of the Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas (SCOBA), Romanian bishops, and others are fairly open to dialog with the Roman Catholic Church, both conservative and moderate Old Calendarists, many of the monks of Mount Athos, several bishops of Russian, Serbian, and some of Greek and Bulgarian churches regard ecumenism as compromising essential doctrinal stands in order to accommodate other Christians, and object to the emphasis on dialogue leading to inter-communion; believing instead that Orthodox must speak the truth with love, in the hope of leading to the eventual conversion to Orthodoxy of heterodox Christians. Proponents of ecumenism are currently engaged in discussing key theological differences such as the Filioque, Papal primacy, and a possible agreement on rapprochement and eventually full communion with the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches.
Eastern Orthodox churches in communion
The Orthodox Church is a communion of 14 autocephalous (that is, administratively completely independent) local churches plus the Orthodox Church in America which is recognized as autocephalous only by the Russian, Bulgarian, Georgian, Polish, and Czech-Slovak Churches. Each has defined geographical boundaries of its jurisdiction and is ruled by its Council of Bishops or Synod presided by a senior bishop – its Primate (or First Hierarch). The Primate may carry the honorary title of Patriarch, Metropolitan (in the Slavic tradition) or Archbishop (in the Greek tradition). Each local church consists of constituent eparchies (or, dioceses) ruled by a bishop. Some
Orthodox Church churches have given an eparchy or group of eparchies varying degrees of autonomy (self-government). Such autonomous churches maintain varying levels of dependence on their mother church, usually defined in a Tomos or other document of autonomy. Below is a list of the 14 (15) autocephalous churches in their order of precedence (seniority) with constituent autonomous churches and exarchates. The Liturgical title of the Primate is listed in italics. 1. Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople  (Archbishop of Constantinople-New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch) • Autonomous Orthodox Church of Finland  (Archbishop of Karelia and All Finland) • Autonomous Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church  (Metropolitan of Tallinn and All Estonia) [Autonomy not recognized by the Church of Russia] • Self-governing Orthodox Church of Crete (Archbishop of Crete) • Self-governing Monastic Community of Mount Athos • Exarchate of Patmos (Patriarchal Exarch of Patmos) • Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain  (Archbishop of Thyateira and Great Britain) • Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta  (Orthodox Archbishop of Italy and Malta and Exarch of Southern Europe) • Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America  (Archbishop of America) • Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia  (Archbishop of Australia) • Exarchate of the Philippines  (Exarch of Philippines) • Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe  (Archbishop of Komana) 2. Orthodox Church of Alexandria  (Pope and Patriarch of the great city of Alexandria, Libya, Pentapolis, Ethiopia, all Egypt, and all Africa) 3. Orthodox Church of Antioch  (Patriarch of Antioch and all the East) • Self-governing Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America  (Archbishop of New York and Metropolitan of All North America) 4. Orthodox Church of Jerusalem  (Patriarch of the Holy City of Jerusalem and all Palestine, and of Syria, Arabia, beyond the Jordan River, Cana of Galilee, and Sacred Zion) • Autonomous Church of Mount Sinai  (Archbishop of Choreb, Sinai, and Raitha) 5. Orthodox Church of Russia  (Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia) Autonomous Orthodox Church of Japan  (Archbishop of Tokyo and Metropolitan of All Japan) Autonomous Orthodox Church of China (defunct) Autonomous Orthodox Church of Ukraine  (Metropolitan of Kiev and all Ukraine) Self-governing Orthodox Church of Moldova  (Metropolitan of Chisinau and all Moldova) Self-governing Orthodox Church of Latvia  (Metropolitan of Riga and all Latvia) Self-governing Estonian Orthodox Church  (Metropolitan of Tallinn and all Estonia) [Autonomy not recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate] • Self-governing Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia  (Metropolitan of Eastern America and New York, First Hierarch of the Russian church abroad) • Exarchate of Belarus (Metropolitan of Minsk and Slutsk, Patriarchal Exarch of All Belarus) 6. Orthodox Church of Serbia  (Archbishop of Peć, Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci, Patriarch of the Serbs) • Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid  (Archbishop of Ohrid and Metropolitan of Skopje) 7. Orthodox Church of Romania  (Archbishop of Bucharest, Metropolitan of Ungro-Valachia, and Patriarch of All Romania) • Self-governing Metropolis of Bessarabia  (autonomy not recognized by the Church of Russia) • • • • • •
Orthodox Church 8. Orthodox Church of Bulgaria  (Metropolitan of Sofia and Patriarch of All Bulgaria) 9. Orthodox Church of Georgia  (Archbishop of Tbilisi and Mshketi, Patriarch and Catholicos of all Georgia) 10. Orthodox Church of Cyprus  (Archbishop of New Justiniana and all Cyprus) 11. Orthodox Church of Greece  (Archbishop of Athens and all Greece) 12. Orthodox Church of Poland  (Metropolitan of Warsaw and all Poland) 13. Orthodox Church of Albania  (Archbishop of Tirana and all Albania) 14. Orthodox Church of the Czech lands and Slovakia   (Archbishop of Prague, the Metropolitan of Czech lands and Slovakia or the Archbishop of Presov, the Metropolitan of Czech lands and Slovakia) Some Orthodox do not acknowledge the following Church as autonomous & autocephalous: 15. Orthodox Church in America  (Archbishop of Washington, Metropolitan of All America and Canada) [Autonomy not recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and most churches of the Eastern communion] Note, that the Russian Church recognized a different order of seniority, in which the Georgian church comes after the Church of Russia and the Albanian Church – after the Church of Greece.
Orthodox Churches and communities not in communion with others
The following is list of some of the organizations that use the term "Orthodox" in their name but do not maintain communion with any of the 14 (15) autocephalous churches and thus are not typically considered part of the Orthodox Christian communion. Old Calendarists are groups that do not maintain communion with the 14 (15) autocephalous churches as a result of the use of the Revised Julian Calendar. • • • • • • Church of the Genuine Orthodox Christians of Greece, so-called "Matthewites" Church of the Genuine Orthodox Christians of Greece, so-called "Florinites" Orthodox Church of Greece (Holy Synod in Resistance) , so-called "Cyprianites" Old Calendar Romanian Orthodox Church  Old Calendar Bulgarian Orthodox Church  Russian Orthodox Church in America 
Old Believers are groups that do not accept liturgical reforms carried out in the Russian Orthodox Church by Patriarch Nikon in the 17th century. • • • • Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church  (Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy) Lipovan Orthodox Old-Rite Church (Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy) Russian Old-Orthodox Church  (Novozybkovskaya Hierarchy) Pomorian Old-Orthodox Church (Pomortsy)
Episcopi vagantes are entities that have carried out episcopal consecrations outside of the norms of canon law or whose bishops have been excommunicated by one of the 14 (15) autocephalous churches. • • • • • • • • • Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church Bulgarian Alternative Synod Holy Orthodox Church in North America Macedonian Orthodox Church  Montenegrin Orthodox Church  Orthodox Church in Italy  Russian True Orthodox Church  Turkish Orthodox Church Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Kiev Patriarchate) 
• Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church  • Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church Canonical 
• Croatian Orthodox Church • Chinese Orthodox Church
Tbilisi Sameba Cathedral A Georgian Orthodox church in Tbilisi
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, Ukraine.
The Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral in Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
The Orthodox Cathedral in Łódź was built through the contributions of the city's mercantilist elite as well as the Tsar of Russia.
A wooden miracle of Kizhi, part of an  ensemble of wooden churches, chapels and houses. It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Russia and an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Tokyo Resurrection Cathedral (Japanese: Nicorai-do, after Nikolai of Japan).
A wing of Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo houses a private Orthodox chapel of the Russian tsars.
The Orthodox Church in Białowieża, Poland, on the edge of the Białowieża Primaeval Forest.
Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (1165), one of the most famous Russian medieval churches. Part of the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal site, on the UN World Heritage List.
Orthodox churches are common in Alaska, particularly in the southern and southwest portions of the state.
Serbian Orthodox monastery Visoki Dečani, UNESCO, Serbia/ Kosovo, XIV century
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral A Georgian Orthodox church in Mtskheta Georgia Between 1010 and 1029.It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Georgia and an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Saint Panteleimon, an Orthodox church in Ohrid, Macedonia, a UNESCO protected city.
Orthodox church in Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alania (Russia)
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• The Orthodox Church. Ware, Timothy. Penguin Books, 1997. (ISBN 0-14-014656-3) • The Orthodox Church; 455 Questions—and Answers. Harakas, Stanley H. Light and Life Publishing Company, 1988. (ISBN 0-937032-56-5)
• The Orthodox Study Bible  • An Online Orthodox Catechism  published by the Russian Orthodox Church • OrthodoxWiki • Comprehensive list of seminaries at OrthodoxWiki
Orthodox Church • Timeline of Church History • Prerogatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate Church Jurisdictions (Orthodox)  at the Open Directory Project Holy Cross Hellenic College  Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology Church today  The Idea of Primacy in Orthodox Ecclesiology  Canon 28 and Eastern Papalism: Cause or Effect?  IV Pre-Conciliar Pan-Orthodox Conference  Ecumenical Patriarchate: American ‘Diaspora’ must submit to Mother Church  March 18, 2009 Byzantine Church today  Prologue from Ohrid – (Saints of the Orthodox Church Calendar) 
• • • • • • • • •
 The Orthodox Church considers itself to be both orthodox and catholic. In earlier and patristic usage, the Church usually referred to herself as the "Catholic Church" The encyclopedia of Christianity (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=7ly4DgtT3LkC& pg=PA867& dq=& lr=#v=onepage& q="Catholic Church was the name preferred by the older councils"& f=false) ISBN 978-90-04-12654-1 The Confession of the Orthodox Patriarch Dositheus of Jerusalem (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=saFgJRjaPwcC& pg=PA486& dq=Confession+ Dositheus+ OR+ Dositheos+ "Catholic+ Church"& lr=#v=onepage& q=Confession Dositheus OR Dositheos "Catholic Church"& f=false) ISBN 978-0-8042-0526-9 whose faith was the "Orthodox faith". Such usage is still reflected today in the Orthodox liturgy, e.g. "unite them to your Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church" (from the litany of the catechumens, Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom). Current convention however, favors the name "Orthodox Church", perhaps partly to avoid confusion with the Roman Catholic Church, especially its Eastern rites. But, especially in official contexts, the Orthodox Church continues to use the title "Catholic Church", and Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have asserted that the full name of the church includes the term "Catholic" as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=oeKOUb6OcG4C& pg=PA101& dq="The+ Church+ of+ the+ East+ has+ never+ from+ the+ first+ been+ known+ by+ any+ other+ name+ than+ Catholic,+ nor+ has+ she+ set+ aside+ this+ title+ in+ any+ official+ document. "& lr=). The Church is referred to as the "Orthodox Catholic Church" in official church documents and some books. (http:/ / doepa. org/ about_orthodoxy. html) (http:/ / www. orthodoxdelmarva. org/ about_orthodoxy. html) (http:/ / www. psromanianchurch. com/ about_orthodoxy. html) (http:/ / www. stvladimirs. net/ ) (http:/ / www. forministry. com/ USPAGOARCHCGOC/ ElderAimilianos/ ) (http:/ / www. theotokos-lifegiving-spring. org/ orthodoxy. htm) (http:/ / www. archangelsbooks. com/ orthofaith. asp) (http:/ / www. forgodiswithus. org/ ) (http:/ / www. orthodoxynewcastle. org/ ) (http:/ / www. orthodoxlife. net/ easternchurch/ theorthochurch. html) (http:/ / www. stgeorgetoledo. org/ vsItemDisplay. dsp& objectID=3720668E-D9C5-4104-912DC29B0DFB6E5D& method=display) (http:/ / saratoga. serbian-church. net/ orthodoxy-0) (http:/ / www. stmaryofegypt. org/ info/ orthodoxy. htm) (http:/ / www. haoca. org/ ) (http:/ / www. kosovo. net/ orthodoxy. html) (http:/ / www. stpaulsirvine. org/ html/ FAQs. html) (http:/ / www. royaweb. org/ content. asp?contentid=826) (http:/ / stmarypawtucket. org/ antioch. php) (http:/ / orthodoxinfo. com/ general/ orthodoxy. aspx) (http:/ / www. spcportal. org/ index. php?pg=454& lang=en) (http:/ / www. orthodox. or. th/ index. php?content=orthodoxy& lang=en) (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 177174/ Eastern-Orthodoxy) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=XRkfKdho-5cC& pg=PT288& dq=eastern+ "Orthodox+ Catholic+ Church"& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1950& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=OdKCVjCschMC& pg=PA76& dq=eastern+ "Orthodox+ Catholic+ Church"& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1950& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ZP_f9icf2roC& pg=PA309& dq=eastern+ "Orthodox+ Catholic+ Church"+ official& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1950& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=_F5yntZocGIC& pg=PA8& dq=eastern+ "official"+ OR+ "officially"+ "Orthodox+ Catholic+ Church"& lr=& as_brr=0) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ARbQ8I7ZOjkC& pg=PA79& dq=eastern+ "Orthodox+ Catholic+ Church"+ official& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1950& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0) (http:/ / books. google. ro/ books?as_q=& num=10& lr=& btnG=CÄutare+ Google& as_epq=Rudder+ of+ the+ Orthodox+ Catholic+ Church& as_oq=& as_eq=& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES& lr=& as_vt=Rudder+ of+ the+ Orthodox+ Catholic+ Church& as_auth=& as_pub=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_isbn=& as_issn=)  Our Church is also spoken of as the "Eastern Church" to distinguish it from the Churches of the West. "Eastern" is used to indicate that in the first millennium the influence of our Church was concentrated in the eastern part of the Christian world and to show that a very large number of our membership is of other than Greek national origin. Thus, Orthodox Christians throughout the world use various ethnic or national titles: "Greek", "Russian", "Serbian", "Romanian", "Ukrainian", "Bulgarian", "Antiochian", "Albanian", "Carpatho-Russian", or more inclusively, as "Eastern Orthodox" ( Rev. Alciviadis C. Calivas, Th.D. "The Greek (Eastern) Orthodox Church. What's in our name?"). (http:/ / www. goarch. org/ ourfaith/ ourfaith7061)  "http:/ / www. goarch. org/ ourfaith/ ourfaith7114"; Deification". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
 S. T. Kimbrough, Orthodox and Wesleyan Scriptural Understanding and Practice, p. 23 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=q-vhwjamOioC& pg=PA23& dq=anagignoskomena#v=onepage& q=anagignoskomena& f=false)  Orthodox Icons – ReligionFacts (http:/ / www. religionfacts. com/ christianity/ things/ icons. htm)  The Catholic Catechism: A Contemporary Catechism of the Teachings of the Catholic Church by John Hardon by 217 # Publisher: Doubleday # ISBN 0-385-08045-X 1. ISBN 978-0-385-08045-3 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=3Ke37zpSv3gC& pg=PA217& lpg=PA217& dq=ignatius+ orthodoxy+ catholic+ church& source=bl& ots=5NSM9Myhgd& sig=VZeyPRU_-7yMl09Fd2nLOcyNkdk& hl=en& ei=gMuASrSSI5qQtgeI6IDFCg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=6#v=onepage& q=& f=false)  Lace, William W. Christianity. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, Inc., 2005  Eastern Orthodoxy (Christianity) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 177174/ Eastern-Orthodoxy)  Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America (http:/ / www. antiochian. org/ node/ 17076)  Major Branches of Religions Ranked by Number of Adherents (http:/ / www. adherents. com/ adh_branches. html#Christianity)  Orthodox Denomination (http:/ / christianity. about. com/ od/ easternorthodoxy/ p/ orthodoxprofile. htm)  content  Zavod za statistiku Crne Gore (in Montenegrin) (http:/ / www. monstat. cg. yu/ Popis. htm)  REPUBLICKI ZAVOD ZA STATISTIKU – Republike Srbije (http:/ / webrzs. stat. gov. rs/ axd/ index. php)  "RUSSIAN PUBLIC OPINION RESEARCH CENTER (IN RUSSIAN)" (http:/ / wciom. ru/ novosti/ press-vypuski/ press-vypusk/ single/ 8954. html). . Retrieved 2007-11-10.  CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Religions (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ fields/ 2122. html)  Jay Diamond, Larry. Plattner, Marc F. and Costopoulos, Philip J. World Religions and Democracy. 2005, page 119.( also in PDF file (http:/ / web. clas. ufl. edu/ users/ bmoraski/ Democratization/ Woodberry04_JOD. pdf), p49), saying "Not only do Protestants presently constitute 13 percent of the world’s population—about 800 million people—but since 1900 Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America."  Major Branches of Religions (http:/ / www. adherents. com/ adh_branches. html#Christianity)  Ware, pp. 208–211  Ware p. 202  Ware pp. 67–69  Fr. Thomas Hopko, http:/ / www. oca. org/ QA. asp?ID=3& SID=3  Ware, p. 8  Ware, pp. 195–196  | (1913). "Canon of the New Testament" (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Wikisource:catholic_encyclopedia_(1913)/ canon_of_the_new_testament). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. .  Ware, pp. 199–200  Ware, pp. 202–207  Acts 14:23 NAB (http:/ / www. usccb. org/ nab/ bible/ acts/ acts14. htm)  Acts 6:1–6 NAB (http:/ / www. usccb. org/ nab/ bible/ acts/ acts6. htm)  Concordia Theological Seminary – Content Not Found (http:/ / www. ctsfw. edu/ etext/ walther/ deacon. asc)  Ware, pp. 255–256  Ware, pp. 257–258  Ware, p. 234  The Longer Catechism of The Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church (http:/ / www. pravoslavieto. com/ docs/ eng/ Orthodox_Catechism_of_Philaret. htm), an Orthodox catechism from 1830, by Metropolitan Philaret. Start with item 366 or 372.  The Longer Catechism (http:/ / www. pravoslavieto. com/ docs/ eng/ Orthodox_Catechism_of_Philaret. htm), Item 377.  Ware p. 271  Ware, p. 238  Athanasius of Alexandria, On the Incarnation of the Word (http:/ / www. ccel. org/ ccel/ schaff/ npnf204. vii. ii. i. html), §54 (http:/ / www. ccel. org/ ccel/ schaff/ npnf204. vii. ii. liv. html).  Ware pp. 274–277  Ware pp. 277–278  Ware p. 278  www.oca.org (http:/ / www. oca. org/ OCchapter. asp?SID=2& ID=52)  Ware pp. 278–9  Harakas pp. 56–7  Ware p. 279  Harakas p. 57  Ware pp. 283–285  Ware p. 287
 Mgr. Athenagoras Peckstadt, Bishop of Sinope (2005-05-18). "Marriage, Divorce and Remarriage in the Orthodox Church: Economia and Pastoral Guidance" (http:/ / www. orthodoxresearchinstitute. org/ articles/ liturgics/ athenagoras_remarriage. htm). The Orthodox research Institute. . Retrieved 2008-11-19.  "A Perspective on Divorce Among Greek Orthodox Couples." (http:/ / www. helleniccomserve. com/ divorceperspective. html). . Retrieved 2008-02-12. quote|One cannot arrive at a divorce rate [for Orthodox faithful] from the Archdiocesan published statistics because they ... do not track the number of civil divorces.  Wedding Ceremony (http:/ / www. orthodoxphotos. com/ readings/ beginning/ wedding. shtml)  Statement of Orthodox Christian Bishops http:/ / saintandrew. net/ documents/ FINALOrthodoxBishopsProp8Statement. pdf  OCA Reaffirms SCOBA Statement in Wake of Massachusetts Same-Sex Marriage Ruling http:/ / www. oca. org/ news/ 590  Karras, Valerie A. (June 2004). "Female Deacons in the Byzantine Church". Church History 73 (2): 272–316. ISSN 0009-6407.  The Early Church, Henry Chadwick, p. 34  The Orthodox Church. Ware, Timothy. Penguin Books, 1997. (ISBN 0-14-014656-3)  The Spirituallity of the Christian East: A systematic handbook by Thomas Spidlik, Cistercian Publications Inc Kalamazoo Michigan 1986 ISBN 0-87907-879-0  The First Ecumenical Council — Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (http:/ / www. goarch. org/ ourfaith/ ourfaith8062)  The Second Ecumenical Council — Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (http:/ / www. goarch. org/ ourfaith/ ourfaith8065)  The Third Ecumenical Council — Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (http:/ / www. goarch. org/ ourfaith/ ourfaith8066)  The Fourth Ecumenical Council — Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (http:/ / www. goarch. org/ ourfaith/ ourfaith8067)  The Fifth Ecumenical Council — Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (http:/ / www. goarch. org/ ourfaith/ ourfaith8068)  The Sixth Ecumenical Council — Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (http:/ / www. goarch. org/ ourfaith/ ourfaith8069)  The Seventh Ecumenical Council — Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (http:/ / www. goarch. org/ ourfaith/ ourfaith8071)  Hagia Sophia (http:/ / archnet. org/ library/ sites/ one-site. jsp?site_id=2966)  A. Avenarius. Christianity in 9th-century Rus. // Beitruge zur byzantinischen Geschichte im 9.-11. Jahrhundert. Prague: V. Vavrinek, 1978. Pp. 301–315.  Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05, s.v. "Cyril and Methodius, Saints"; Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica Incorporated, Warren E. Preece – 1972, p.846, s.v., "Cyril and Methodius, Saints" and "Orthodoxy, Missions ancient and modern"; Encyclopedia of World Cultures, David H. Levinson, 1991, p.239, s.v., "Social Science"; Eric M. Meyers, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, p.151, 1997; Lunt, Slavic Review, June, 1964, p. 216; Roman Jakobson, Crucial problems of Cyrillo-Methodian Studies; Leonid Ivan Strakhovsky, A Handbook of Slavic Studies, p.98; V. Bogdanovich, History of the ancient Serbian literature, Belgrade, 1980, p.119  Michael B. Petrovich; Joel Halpern (1980). "Serbs". in Stephan Thernstrom, Ann Orlov, and Oscar Handlin. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (2nd ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 925. ISBN 978-0-674-37512-3.  Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05, s.v. "Cyril and Methodius, Saints"  Orthodox Church in the Philippines – East-West Schism 01 (http:/ / www. orthodox. org. ph/ content/ view/ 211/ 50/ )  Pope Innocent III, Letters, 126 (http:/ / www. fordham. edu/ halsall/ source/ 1204innocent. html) (given July 12, 1205, and addressed to the papal legate, who had absolved the crusaders from their pilgrimage vows). Text taken from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook by Paul Halsall. Modified. Original translation by J. Brundage.  1979 The Horses of San Marco Thames and Hudson an English translation of a 1977 Venetian city government publication p191  "Continuing the dialogue of Love: Orthodox-Catholic relations in 2004" (http:/ / www. orthodoxytoday. org/ articles4/ CarlsonUnity. php)  "RUSSIAN DESTINIES", by Fr. Andrew Phillips, "Orthodox England", 4/17 July 2005 (http:/ / www. orthodoxengland. btinternet. co. uk/ rusdest. htm)  Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Two Hundred Years Together. 2002  President of Lithuania: Prisoner of the Gulag a Biography of Aleksandras Stulginskis by Afonsas Eidintas Genocide and Research Center of Lithuania ISBN 9986-757-41-X / 9789986757412 / 9986–757–41-X pg 23 "As early as August 1920 Lenin wrote to E. M. Skliansky, President of the Revolutionary War Soviet: "We are surrounded by the greens (we pack it to them), we will move only about 10–20 versty and we will choke by hand the bourgeoisie, the clergy and the landowners. There will be an award of 100,000 rubles for each one hanged." He was speaking about the future actions in the countries neighboring Russia.  Christ Is Calling You: A Course in Catacomb Pastorship by Father George Calciu Published by Saint Hermans Press April 1997 ISBN 978–1887904520  Article 52 of the 1977 Constitution of the USSR  Timothy Ware. The Orthodox Church. Penguin Books, 1993, page 147  Sermons to young people by Father George Calciu-Dumitreasa. Given at the Chapel of the Romanian Orthodox Church Seminary, The Word online. Bucharest http:/ / www. orthodoxresearchinstitute. org/ resources/ sermons/ calciu_christ_calling. htm  Father Arseny 1893–1973 Priest, Prisoner, Spiritual Father. Introduction pg. vi–1. St Vladimir's Seminary Press ISBN 0-88141-180-9  Sullivan, Patricia. Anti-Communist Priest Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 11/ 25/ AR2006112500783. html), The Washington Post, November 26, 2006. Page C09. Accessed May 9, 2008.  Ostling, Richard. "Cross meets Kremlin" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,150718,00. html), TIME Magazine, June 24, 2001. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
 Van Christo. Albania and the Albanians. (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071208220939/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/ murati_kled/ albanians. htm)  Dumitru Bacu, The Anti-Humans. Student Re-Education in Romanian Prisons (http:/ / litek. ws/ k0nsl/ detox/ anti-humans. htm), Soldiers of the Cross, Englewood, Colorado, 1971. Originally written in Romanian as Piteşti, Centru de Reeducare Studenţească, Madrid, 1963  Adrian Cioroianu, Pe umerii lui Marx. O introducere în istoria comunismului românesc ("On the Shoulders of Marx. An Incursion into the History of Romanian Communism"), Editura Curtea Veche, Bucharest, 2005  http:/ / www. ec-patr. org/  http:/ / www. ort. fi/  http:/ / www. eoc. ee/  http:/ / www. thyateira. org. uk/  http:/ / www. ortodossia. it/  http:/ / www. goarch. org/  http:/ / www. greekorthodox. org. au/  http:/ / www. orthodoxchurch-ph. co. nr/  http:/ / exarchat. eu/  http:/ / www. greekorthodox-alexandria. org/  http:/ / www. antiochpat. org/  http:/ / www. antiochian. org/  http:/ / www. jerusalem-patriarchate. info/  http:/ / www. sinaimonastery. com/  http:/ / www. mospat. ru/  http:/ / www. orthodoxjapan. jp/                                   http:/ / orthodox. org. ua/ http:/ / www. mitropolia. md/ http:/ / www. pareizticiba. lv/ http:/ / www. orthodox. ee/ http:/ / www. rocor. org/ http:/ / www. spc. rs/ http:/ / www. poa-info. org/ http:/ / www. patriarhia. ro/ http:/ / www. mitropoliabasarabiei. ro/ http:/ / www. bg-patriarshia. bg/ http:/ / www. patriarchate. ge/ http:/ / www. churchofcyprus. org. cy/ http:/ / www. ecclesia. gr/ http:/ / www. orthodox. pl/ http:/ / www. orthodoxalbania. org/ http:/ / www. pravoslavnacirkev. cz/ http:/ / www. orthodox. sk/ http:/ / www. oca. org/ http:/ / www. synodinresistance. org/ http:/ / www. mitropoliaslatioara. ro/ http:/ / bulgarian-orthodox-church. org/ http:/ / www. russianorthodox. org/ http:/ / www. rpsc. ru/ http:/ / ancient-orthodoxy. narod. ru/ http:/ / www. mpc. org. mk/ http:/ / www. moc-cpc. org/ http:/ / www. chiesaortodossa. it/ http:/ / www. trueorthodox. org/ http:/ / www. cerkva. info/ http:/ / www. uaoc. info/ http:/ / www. soborna. org/ http:/ / img-2005-06. photosight. ru/ 19/ 910825. jpg http:/ / orthodoxstudybible. com/ http:/ / orthodoxeurope. org/ page/ 10/ 1. aspx
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      http:/ / www. aoiusa. org/ main/ page. php?page_id=128 http:/ / www. aoiusa. org/ main/ page. php?page_id=129 http:/ / orthodoxpraxis. org/ ?p=509 http:/ / www. aoiusa. org/ blog/ 2009/ 03/ ecumenical-patriarchate-american-diaspora-must-submit-to-mother-church/ http:/ / www. constantinopleguide. com/ Byzantine_Churches. html http:/ / www. westsrbdio. org/ prolog/ prolog. htm/
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church (Patriarchate of Moscow)
Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra in the early 20th century. Founder Apostle Andrew, Vladimir the Great
Independence 1448 Recognition Primate as a separate patriarchate in 1589 by Constantinople Patriarch Kirill
Headquarters Moscow, Russia Territory Possessions Language Adherents Russian Federation
Church Slavonic 100,000,000>140,000,000 in Russia (Estimates of active members range from 21,000,000 to  28,000,000.)  90,000,000+ world wide Church of Russia
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC); or The Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: Русская Православная Церковь (Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov), or Московский Патриархат (Moskovskiy Patriarkhat) (the latter designation being another official name ) since 1943, Поместная Российская Православная Церковь (Pomestnaya Rossiyskaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov) before the reinstitution in 1943), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who constitute an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Moscow, nominally in communion with the other Eastern Orthodox Churches. The ROC is often said to be the largest of the Eastern Orthodox churches in the world and second only to the Roman Catholic Church among Christian churches, numbering over 135 million members world wide and growing numerically since late 1980s. Up to 65% of ethnic Russians  and a similar percentage of Belarusians and Ukrainians identify themselves as "Orthodox".   According to figures released on February 2, 2010, the Church has 160 dioceses including 30,142 parishes served by 207 bishops, 28,434 priests and 3,625 deacons. There
Russian Orthodox Church are 788 monasteries, including 386 for men and 402 for women. The ROC should not be confused with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (also known as the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, or ROCOR), headquartered in New York. The ROCOR was instituted in the 1920s by Russian communities outside then-Communist Russia who refused to recognize the authority of the Moscow Patriarchate headed by Metropolitan Sergiy Stragorodsky. The two Churches reconciled on May 17, 2007; the ROCOR is now a self-governing part of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Structure and organization
Administratively, the Church is organized in a hierarchical structure. The lowest level of organization, which normally would be a single church building and its attendees, headed by a priest who acts as Father superior (Russian: настоятель, nastoyatel), constitute a parish (Russian: приход, prihod). All parishes in a geographical region belong to an eparchy (Russian: епархия — equivalent to a Western diocese). Eparchies are governed by bishops (Russian: епископ, episcop or архиерей, archiereus). There are around 130 Russian Orthodox eparchies worldwide. Further, some eparchies are organized into exarchates, or autonomous churches. Currently these include the Orthodox Churches of the Belarusian exarchate; the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia; the Latvian, the Moldovan, and the Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate. The Chinese and Japanese Orthodox Churches were granted full autonomy by the Moscow Patriarchate, but this autonomy is not universally recognized. Smaller eparchies are usually governed by a single bishop. Larger eparchies, exarchates, and autonomous Churches are governed by a Metropolitan archbishop and sometimes also have one or more bishops assigned to them. The highest level of authority in the Church is vested in the Local Council (Pomestny Sobor), which comprises all the bishops as well as representatives from the clergy and laypersons. Another organ of power is the Bishops' Council (Архиерейский Собор). In the periods between the Councils the highest administrative powers are exercised by the Holy Synod which includes 7 permanent members and is chaired by the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Primate of the Moscow Patriarchate. Although the Patriarch of Moscow has extensive powers, unlike the Pope he does not have direct authority over matters pertaining to faith. Some of the most fundamental issues (such as the ones responsible for the Catholic-Orthodox split) can not be decided even at the level of the Local Council and have to be dealt with by a council of representatives from all Eastern Orthodox Churches. The last time such a council was held was in 787.
The Christian community that became the Russian Orthodox Church is traditionally said to have been founded by the Apostle Andrew, who is thought to have visited Scythia and Greek colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea. According to one of the legends, Andrew reached the future location of Kiev and foretold the foundation of a great Christian city.  The spot where he reportedly erected a cross is now marked by St. Andrew's Cathedral. By the end of the first millennium AD, eastern Slavic lands started to come under the cultural influence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In 863-869, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius translated parts of the Bible into Old Church Slavonic language for the first time, paving the way for the Christianization of the Slavs. There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatios, circa 866-867 AD. By the mid-10th century, there was already a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Greek and Byzantine priests, although paganism remained the dominant religion. Princess Olga of Kiev was the first ruler of Kievan Rus to convert to Christianity, either in 945 or 957. Her grandson, Vladimir the Great, made Kievan Rus' a Christian state.
Russian Orthodox Church As a result of the Christianization of Kievan Rus' in 988, Prince Vladimir I of Kiev officially adopted Byzantine Rite Christianity — the religion of the Eastern Roman Empire — as the state religion of Kievan Rus'. This date is often considered the official birthday of the Russian Orthodox Church. Thus, in 1988, the Church celebrated its millennial anniversary. It therefore traces its apostolic succession through the Patriarch of Constantinople.
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Russian Orthodox Church Essence-Energies distinction Metousiosis The Kievan church was originally a Metropolitanate of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Byzantine patriarch appointed the metropolitan who governed the Church of Rus'. The Metropolitan's residence was originally located in Kiev. As Kiev was losing its political, cultural, and economical significance due to the Mongol invasion, Metropolitan Maximus moved to Vladimir in 1299; his successor, Metropolitan Peter moved the residence to Moscow in 1325.
Monastic reform of St. Sergius and its aftermath
Following the tribulations of the Mongol invasion, the Russian Church was pivotal in the survival and life of the Russian state. Despite the politically motivated murders of Mikhail of Chernigov and Mikhail of Tver, the Mongols were generally tolerant and even granted tax exemption to the Church. Such holy figures as Sergius of Radonezh and Metropolitan Alexis helped the country to withstand years of Tatar oppression, and to expand both economically and spiritually. The monastic reform of St. Sergius, which culminated in the foundation of the monastery known as Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra near Moscow, was one of the defining events of medieval Russian history. The monastery became the setting for the unprecedented flourishing of transcendent, spiritual art, exemplified by the work of Andrey Rublev, among others. The followers of Sergius founded four hundred monasteries, thus greatly extending the geographical extent of his influence and authority. The spiritual resurgence of the late 14th century, associated with the names of St. Sergius, the missionary Stephen of Perm and the writer Epiphanius the Wise, contributed to the consolidation of the Russian nation. Lev Gumilev has observed that, having received the blessing of St. Sergius to make a stand against the Tatars, "the Suzdalians, Vladimirians, Rostovians, Pskovians went to the Kulikovo Field as representatives of their principalities but returned after the victory as Russians, although living in different towns", a dictum which has been endorsed by modern church functionaries. At the Council of Florence (1439), a group of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church leaders agreed upon terms of reunification of the two branches of Christianity. The Russian Prince Basil II of Moscow, however, rejected the concessions to the Catholic Church and forbade the proclamation of the acts of the Council in Russia in 1452, after a short-lived East-West reunion. Metropolitan Isidore was in the same year expelled from his position as an apostate. In 1448, the Russian Church became independent from the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Metropolitan Jonas, installed by the Council of Russian bishops in 1448, was given the title of Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia. This was just five years before the fall of Constantinople in 1453. From this point onward the Russian Orthodox Church saw Moscow as the Third Rome, legitimate successor to Constantinople, and the Primate of Moscow as head of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Consolidation and codification
The reign of Ivan III and his successor was plagued by numerous heresies and controversies. One party, led by Nil Sorsky and Vassian Kosoy, called for secularisation of monastic properties. They were oppugned by the influential Joseph of Volotsk, who defended ecclesiastical ownership of land and property. The sovereign's position fluctuated, but eventually he threw his support to Joseph. New sects sprang up, some of which showed a tendency to revert to Mosaic law: for instance, the archpriest Aleksei converted to Judaism after meeting a certain Zechariah the Jew. Monastic life flourished in Russia, focusing on prayer and spiritual growth. The disciples of St. Sergius left the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra to found hundreds of monasteries across Russia. Some of the most famous monasteries were located in the Russian North, even as far north as Pechenga, in order to demonstrate how faith could flourish in the most inhospitable lands. The richest landowners of medieval Russia included Joseph Volokolamsk Monastery,
Russian Orthodox Church Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery and the Solovetsky Monastery. In the 18th century, the three greatest monasteries were recognized as lavras, while those subordinated directly to the Synod were labelled stauropegic. In the 1540s, Metropolitan Macarius codified Russian hagiography and convened a number of church synods, which culminated in the Hundred Chapter Synod of 1551. This assembly unified Church ceremonies and duties in the whole territory of Russia. At the demand of the Church hierarchy the government canceled the tsar's jurisdiction over ecclesiastics. Reinforced by these reforms, the Church felt strong enough to challenge the policies of the tsar. Philip of Moscow, in particular, decried many abuses of Ivan the Terrible, who eventually engineered his defrocking and murder.
Autocephaly and schism
During the reign of tsar Theodor I his brother-in-law Boris Godunov contacted the Ecumenical Patriarch, who "was much embarrassed for want of funds," with a view to establishing a patriarch see in Moscow. As a result of Godunov's efforts, Metropolitan Job of Moscow became in 1589 the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus', making the Russian Church autocephalous. The four other patriarchs have recognized the Moscow Patriarchate as one of the five honourable Patriarchates. During the next half a century, when the tsardom was weak, the patriarchs (notably Hermogenes and Philaret) would help run the state along with (and sometimes instead of) the tsars. At the urging of the Zealots of Piety, Patriarch Nikon resolved in 1652 to centralize power that had been distributed locally, while conforming Russian Orthodox rites and rituals to those of the Greek Orthodox Church, as interpreted by pundits from the Kiev Ecclesiastical Academy. For instance he insisted that Russian Christians cross themselves with three fingers, rather than the then-traditional two. This aroused antipathy among a substantial section of the believers who saw the changed rites as heresy, although the extent to which these changes can be regarded as minor or major ritual significance remains open to debate. After the implementation of these innovations at the church council of 1666–1667, the Church anathematized and suppressed those who acted contrary to them with the support of Muscovite state power. These traditionalists became known as "Old Believers" or "Old Ritualists".
The three-barred cross of the Russian Orthodox Church
Although Nikon's far-flung ambitions of steering the country to a theocratic form of government precipitated his defrocking and exile, Tsar Aleksey deemed it prudent to uphold many of his innovations. During the Schism of the Russian Church, the Old Ritualists were separated from the main body of the Orthodox Church. Archpriest Avvakum Petrov and many other opponents of the church reforms were burned at the stake, either forcibly or voluntarily. Another prominent figure within the Old Ritualists' movement, Boyarynya Morozova, was An Old Believer Priest, Nikita Pustosviat, Disputing with Patriarch Joachim the Matters of Faith. Painting by Vasily Perov starved to death in 1675. Others escaped from the government persecutions to Siberia and other inhospitable lands, where they would live in semi-seclusion until the modern times.
Peter the First
Russian Orthodox Church With the ascension of Emperor Peter the Great to the throne of Russia (1682–1725), with his radical modernization of Russian government, army, dress, and manners, Russia became a formidable political power.
In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the Russian Orthodox Church experienced phenomenal geographic expansion. In the following two centuries, missionary efforts stretched out across Siberia into Alaska, then into the United States at California. Eminent people on that missionary effort included St. Innocent of Irkutsk and St. Herman of Alaska. In emulation of Stephen of Perm, they learned local languages and translated the gospels and the hymns. Sometimes those translations required the invention of new systems of transcription. In the aftermath of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, the Ottomans (supposedly acting on behalf of the Russian regent Sophia Alekseyevna) pressured the Patriarch of Constantinople into transferring the Metropoly of Kiev from the jurisdiction of Constantinople to that of Moscow. The controversial transfer brought millions of faithful and half a dozen dioceses under the pastoral and administrative care of the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus', leading to the significant Ukrainian domination of the Russian Orthodox Church, which continued well into the 18th century, with Theophanes Prokopovich, Epiphanius Slavinetsky, Stephen Yavorsky and Demetrius of Rostov being among the most notable representatives of this trend. In 1700, after Patriarch Adrian's death, Peter the Great prevented a successor from being named, and in 1721, following the advice of Feofan Prokopovich, Archbishop of Pskov, the Holy and Supreme Synod was established under Archbishop Stephen Yavorsky to govern the church instead of a single primate. This was the situation until shortly after the Russian Revolution of 1917, at which time the Local Council (more than half of its members being lay persons) adopted the decision to restore the Patriarchy. On November 5 (according to the Julian calendar) a new patriarch, Tikhon, was named through casting lots. The late 18th century saw the rise of starchestvo under Paisiy Velichkovsky and his disciples at the Optina Monastery. This marked a beginning of a significant spiritual revival in the Russian Church after a lengthy period of modernization, personified by such figures as Demetrius of Rostov and Platon of Moscow. Aleksey Khomyakov, Ivan Kireevsky, and other lay theologians with Slavophile leanings elaborated some key concepts of the renovated Orthodox doctrine, including that of sobornost. The resurgence of Eastern Orthodoxy was reflected in Russian literature, e.g., the figure of Starets Zosima in Dostoevsky's Brothers Karamazov.
Russian Orthodox Church
Fin-de-siècle religious renaissance
During the final decades of the imperial order in Russia many educated Russians sought to return to the Church and revitalize their faith. No less evident were non-conformist paths of spiritual searching known as "God-Seeking". Writers, artists, and intellectuals in large numbers were drawn to private prayer, mysticism, spiritualism, theosophy, and Eastern religions. A fascination with elemental feeling, with the unconscious and the mythic, proliferated along with visions of coming catastrophe and redemption. The visible forms of God-Seeking were extensive. A series of 'Religious-Philosophical Meetings' were held in St. Petersburg in 1901–1903, bringing together prominent intellectuals and clergy to explore together ways to reconcile the Church with the growing of undogmatic desire among the educated for spiritual meaning in life. Especially after 1905, various religious societies arose, though much of this religious upheaval was informal: circles and salons, séances, Russian Orthodox Church in Dresden, built in the private prayer. Some clergy also sought to revitalize Orthodox faith, 1870s most famously the charismatic Father John of Kronstadt, who, until his death in 1908 (though his followers remained active long after), emphasized Christian living and sought to restore fervency and the presence of the miraculous in liturgical celebration. In 1909, a sensation-creating volume of essays appeared under the title Vekhi ("Landmarks" or "Signposts"), authored by a group of leading left-wing intellectuals, including Sergei Bulgakov, Peter Struve, and former Marxists, who bluntly repudiated the materialism and atheism that had dominated the thought of the intelligentsia for generations as leading inevitably to failure and moral disaster. One sees a similarly renewed vigor and variety in religious life and spirituality among the lower classes, especially after the upheavals of 1905. Among the peasantry we see widespread interest in spiritual-ethical literature and non-conformist moral-spiritual movements; an upsurge in pilgrimage and other devotions to sacred spaces and objects (especially icons); persistent beliefs in the presence and power of the supernatural (apparitions, possession, walking-dead, demons, spirits, miracles, and magic); the renewed vitality of local "ecclesial communities" actively shaping their own ritual and spiritual lives, sometimes in the absence of clergy, and defining their own sacred places and forms of piety; and the proliferation of what the Orthodox establishment branded as 'sectarianism', including both non-Orthodox Christian denominations, notably Baptists, and various forms of deviant popular Orthodoxy and mysticism.
Russian Orthodox Church
In 1914 in Russia, there were 55,173 Russian Orthodox churches and 29,593 chapels, 112,629 priests and deacons, 550 monasteries and 475 convents with a total of 95,259 monks and nuns. The year 1917 was a major turning point for the history of Russia, and also the Russian Orthodox Church. The Russian empire was dissolved and the Tsarist government - which had granted the Church numerous privileges - was overthrown. After a few months of political turmoil, the Bolsheviks took power in October 1917 and declared a separation of church and state. Thus the Russian Orthodox Church found itself without official state backing for the first time in its history. One of the first decrees of the new Communist government (issued in January 1918) declared freedom of "religious and anti-religious propaganda". This led to a marked decline in the power and influence of the Church. The Church was also caught in the crossfire of the Russian Civil War that began later the same year, and many leaders of the Church supported what would ultimately turn out to be the losing side (the White movement).
Tsar Alexis praying before the relics of Metropolitan Philip The Russian Orthodox Church supported the White Army in the Russian Civil War (see White movement) after the October Revolution. This may have further strengthened the Bolshevik animus against the church.
Even before the end of the civil war and the establishment of the Soviet Union, the Russian Orthodox Church came under pressure from the secular Communist government. The Soviet government stood on a platform of antireligion, viewing the church as a "counter-revolutionary" organization and an independent voice with a great influence in society. While the Soviet Union officially claimed religious tolerance, in practice the government discouraged organized religion and did much to remove religious influence from Soviet society.
Under Communist rule
Before and after the October Revolution of November 7, 1917 (October 25 Old Calendar) there was a movement within what became Soviet Union to unite all of the people of the world under Communist rule (see Communist International). This included the Eastern European bloc countries as well as the Balkan States. Since some of these Slavic states tied their ethnic heritage to their ethnic churches, both the peoples and their church were targeted by the Soviets. The Soviet Union was the first state to have as an ideological objective the elimination of religion. Toward that end, the Communist regime confiscated church property, ridiculed religion, harassed believers, and propagated atheism in the schools. Actions toward particular religions, however, were determined by State interests, and most organized religions were never outlawed. Orthodox priests and believers were variously tortured, sent to prison camps, labour camps or mental hospitals, and executed.  Many Orthodox (along with people of other faiths) were also subjected to psychological punishment or torture and mind control experimentation in order to force them give up their religious convictions.  Thousands of churches and monasteries were taken over by the government and either destroyed or converted to secular use. It was impossible to build new churches. Practising Orthodox Christians were restricted from prominent careers and membership in communist organizations (the party, the Komsomol). Anti-religious propaganda was openly sponsored and encouraged by the government, which the Church was not given an opportunity to publicly respond to. The government youth organization, the Komsomol, encouraged its members to vandalize Orthodox Churches and harass worshippers. Seminaries were closed down, and the church was restricted from using the press.
Russian Orthodox Church The history of Orthodoxy (and other religions) under Communism was not limited to this story of repression and secularization. Bolshevik policies toward religious belief and practice tended to vacillate over time between, on the one hand, a utopian determination to substitute secular rationalism for what they considered to be an unmodern, "superstitious" worldview and, on the other, pragmatic acceptance of the tenaciousness of religious faith and institutions. In any case, religious beliefs and practices did persist, in the domestic and private spheres but also in the scattered public spaces allowed by a state that recognized its failure to eradicate religion and the political dangers of an unrelenting culture war. In November 1917, following the collapse of the tsarist government, a council of the Russian Orthodox church reestablished the patriarchate and elected the metropolitan Tikhon as patriarch. But the new Soviet government soon declared the separation of church and state and nationalized all church-held lands. These administrative measures were followed by brutal state-sanctioned persecutions that included the wholesale destruction of churches and the arrest and execution of many clerics. The Russian Orthodox church was further weakened in 1922, when the Renovated Church, a reform movement supported by the Soviet government, seceded from Patriarch Tikhon's church (also see the Josephites and the Russian True Orthodox Church), restored a Holy Synod to power, and brought division among clergy and faithful. In the first five years after the Bolshevik revolution, 28 bishops and 1,200 priests were executed. Stalin era The main target of the anti-religious campaign in the 1920s and 1930s was the Russian Orthodox Church, which had the largest number of faithful. Nearly all of its clergy, and many of its believers, were shot or sent to labor camps. Theological schools were closed, and church publications were prohibited. The sixth sector of the OGPU, led by Yevgeny Tuchkov, began aggressively arresting and executing bishops, priests, and devout worshippers, such as Metropolitan Veniamin in Petrograd in 1922 for refusing to accede to the demand to hand in church valuables (including sacred relics). In the period between 1927 and 1940, the number of Orthodox Churches in the Russian Republic fell from 29,584 to less than 500. Between 1917 and 1935, 130,000 Orthodox priests were arrested. Of these, 95,000 were put to death. Many thousands of victims of persecution became recognized in a special canon of saints known as the "new martyrs and confessors of Russia". In January 1918 Patriarch Tikhon proclaimed anathema to the Bolsheviks (without explicitly naming them), which further antagonized relations. When Tikhon died in 1925, the Soviet authorities forbade patriarchal elections to be held. Patriarchal locum tenens (acting Patriarch) Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky, 1887–1944), going against the opinion of a major part of the church's parishes, in 1927 issued a declaration accepting the Soviet authority over the church as legitimate, pledging the church's cooperation with the government and condemning political dissent within the church. By this he granted himself with the power that Sergius, being a deputy of imprisoned Metropolitan Peter and acting against his will, had no right to assume according to the XXXIV Apostolic canon, which led to a split with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia abroad and the Russian True Orthodox Church (Russian Catacomb Church) within the Soviet Union, as they allegedly remained faithful to the Canons of the Apostles, declaring the part of the church led by Metropolitan Sergius schism, sometimes coined Sergianism. Due to this canonical disagreement it is disputed which church has been the legitimate successor to the Russian Orthodox Church that had existed before 1925.    After Nazi Germany's attack on the Soviet Union in 1941, Joseph Stalin revived the Russian Orthodox Church to intensify patriotic support for the war effort. On September 4, 1943, Metropolitans Sergius, Alexy and Nikolay had a meeting with Stalin and received a permission to convene a council on September 8, 1943, which elected Sergius Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. This is considered by some violation of the XXX Apostolic canon, as no church hierarch could be consecrated by secular authorities. A new patriarch was elected, theological schools were opened, and thousands of churches began to function. The Moscow Theological Academy Seminary, which had been closed since 1918, was re-opened.
Russian Orthodox Church Between 1945 and 1959 the official organization of the church was greatly expanded, although individual members of the clergy were occasionally arrested and exiled. The number of open churches reached 25,000. By 1957 about 22,000 Russian Orthodox churches had become active. But in 1959 Nikita Khrushchev initiated his own campaign against the Russian Orthodox Church and forced the closure of about 12,000 churches. By 1985 fewer than 7,000 churches remained active. Members of the church hierarchy were jailed or forced out, their places taken by docile clergy, many of whom had ties with the KGB. This decline was evident from the dramatic decay of many of the abandoned churches and monasteries that were previously common in even the smallest villages from the pre-revolutionary period. Persecution under Khrushchev and Brezhnev A new and widespread persecution of the church was subsequently instituted under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev. A second round of repression, harassment and church closures took place between 1959 and 1964 during the rule of Nikita Khrushchev. The Church and the government remained on unfriendly terms until 1988. In practice, the most important aspect of this conflict was that openly religious people could not join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which meant that they could not hold any political office. However, among the general population, large numbers remained religious. Some Orthodox believers and even priests took part in the dissident movement and became prisoners of conscience. The Orthodox priests Gleb Yakunin, Sergiy Zheludkov and others spent years in Soviet prisons and exile for their efforts in defending freedom of worship. Among the prominent figures of that time was Father Aleksandr Men. Although he tried to keep away from practical work of the dissident movement intending to better fulfil his calling as a priest, there was a spiritual link between Fr Aleksander and many of the dissidents. For some of them he was a friend, for others - a godfather, for many (including Yakunin) - spiritual father. By 1987 the number of functioning churches in the Soviet Union had fallen to 6893 and the number of functioning monasteries to just 18. In 1987 in the Russian SFSR, between 40% and 50% of newborn babies (depending on the region) were baptized and over 60% of all deceased received Christian funeral services. Glasnost and evidence of KGB links Beginning in the late 1980s, under Mikhail Gorbachev, the new political and social freedoms resulted in many church buildings being returned to the church, to be restored by local parishioners. A pivotal point in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church came in 1988 - the millennial anniversary of the Baptism of Kievan Rus'. Throughout the summer of that year, major government-supported celebrations took place in Moscow and other cities; many older churches and some monasteries were reopened. An implicit ban on religious propaganda on state TV was finally lifted. For the first time in the history of Soviet Union, people could see live transmissions of church services on television. Gleb Yakunin, a defrocked Priest and critic of the Moscow Patriarchate who was one of those who had access to the KGB archive documents in the early 1990s, argued that the Moscow Patriarchate was "practically a subsidiary, a sister company of the KGB". Critics charge that the archives showed the extent of active participation of the top ROC hierarchs in the KGB efforts overseas.      George Trofimoff, the highest-ranking US military officer ever indicted for, and convicted of, espionage by the United States and sentenced to life imprisonment on September 27, 2001, had been "recruited into the service of the KGB" by Igor Susemihl (a.k.a. Zuzemihl), a bishop in the Russian Orthodox Church (subsequently, a high-ranking hierarch - the ROC Metropolitan Iriney of Vienna, who died in July 1999 ). The Moscow Patriarchate has, however, consistently denied that its bishops were in fact KGB Agents. Konstanin Kharchev, former chairman of Soviet Council on Religious Affairs, explained: "Not a single candidate for the office of bishop or any other high-ranking office, much less a member of Holy Synod, went through without confirmation
Russian Orthodox Church by the Central Committee of the CPSU and the KGB". Professor Nathaniel Davis points out: "If the bishops wished to defend their people and survive in office, they had to collaborate to some degree with the KGB, with the commissioners of the Council for Religious Affairs, and with other party and governmental authorities." Patriarch Alexy II, acknowledged that compromises were made with the Soviet government by bishops of the Moscow Patriarchate, himself included, and publicly repented of these compromises: "Defending one thing, it was necessary to give somewhere else. Were there any other organizations, or any other people among those who had to carry responsibility not only for themselves but for thousands of other fates, who in those years in the Soviet Union were not compelled to act likewise? Before those people, however, to whom the compromises, silence, forced passivity or expressions of loyalty permitted by the leaders of the church in those years caused pain, before these people, and not only before God, I ask forgiveness, understanding and prayers."
Post-Soviet recovery and problems
Under Patriarch Alexy II (1990-2008) Metropolitan Alexy of Leningrad, ascended the Patriarchal throne in 1990 and presided over the partial return of Orthodox Christianity to Russian society after 70 years of repression, transforming the ROC to something resembling a state religion; some 15,000 churches had been re-opened or built by the end of his reign. The Church also sought to fill the ideological vacuum left by the end of communism, and even, in the opinion of some analysts, became "a separate branch of power". Under Patriarch Alexy, there were difficulties in the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Vatican, especially since 2002, when Pope John Paul II created a Catholic diocesan structure for Russian territory. The leadership of the Russian Church saw this action as a throwback to prior attempts by the Vatican to proselytize the Russian Orthodox faithful to become Roman Catholic. This point of view was based upon the stance of the Russian Orthodox Church (and the Eastern Orthodox Church) that the Church of Rome is in schism, after breaking off from the Orthodox Church. The Catholic Church, on the other hand, while acknowledging the primacy of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia, believed that the small Catholic minority in Russia, in continuous existence since at least the 18th century, should be served by a fully developed church hierarchy with a presence and status in Russia, just as the Russian Orthodox Church is present in other countries (including constructing a cathedral in Rome, near the Vatican). There had been increasing friction between the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Russian Orthodox Church, one example of such friction could be observed at the meeting in Ravenna in early October 2007 of participants in the Orthodox-Catholic Dialogue: the representative of the Moscow Patriarchate, Bishop Hilarion Alfeyev, walked out of the meeting due to the presence of representatives from the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church which is in the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. At the meeting, prior to the departure of the Russian Russian Orthodox Episcopal Consecration by Patriarch Alexius II of delegation, there were also substantive disagreements Moscow and All Russia about the wording of a proposed joint statement among the Orthodox representatives. After the departure of the Russian delegation, the remaining Orthodox delegates approved the form which had been advocated by the representatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. The disagreement occurred because Moscow insists that Estonia is its canonical territory for historical reasons, and has
Russian Orthodox Church incorporated Orthodox parishes in Estonia into the Orthodox Church of Estonia, a self-governing part of the Church of Russia. The Ecumenical Patriarchate, however, has setup its own jurisdiction in Estonia, called the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, an action that prompted the Holy Synod of the Church of Russia to announce, in 2000, that it will not take part in any pan-Orthodox meeting where members of the EAOC are present. The Ecumenical See's representative in Ravenna said that Hilarion's position "should be seen as an expression of authoritarianism whose goal is to exhibit the influence of the Moscow Church. But like last year in Belgrade, all Moscow achieved was to isolate itself once more since no other Orthodox Church followed its lead, remaining instead faithful to Constantinople."  In 2008, a Russian Orthodox church in Ukraine was accused of fomenting anti-Semitic and anti-Ukrainian propaganda in Kamenets-Podolsky through leaflets accusing Jews of being behind the masterminds of the 1917 Russian Revolution and of the 2004 Orange Revolution and also questioning the right of Ukraine to exist as a separate nation-state from Russia. Canon Michael Bourdeaux, former president of Keston Institute, believed in January 2008 that "the Moscow Patriarchate acts as though it heads a state church, while the few Orthodox clergy who oppose the church-state symbiosis face severe criticism, even loss of livelihood." Such view is backed up by other Russia's political life observers. Clifford J. Levy of New York Times wrote in April 2008: «Just as the government has tightened control over political life, so, too, has it intruded in matters of faith. The Kremlin’s surrogates in many areas have turned the Russian Orthodox Church into a de facto official religion, warding off other Christian denominations that seem to offer the most significant competition for worshipers. <...> This close alliance between the government and the Russian Orthodox Church has become a defining characteristic of Mr. Putin’s tenure, a mutually reinforcing choreography that is usually described here as working “in symphony”.» Throughout Patriarch Alexy's reign, the massive-scale program of costly restoration of re-opened churches and monasteries (as well as the construction of new ones) was criticized for having eclipsed the Church's principal mission of evangelizing.  On 5 December 2008, the day of Patriarch Alexy's death, the Financial Times said: "While the church had been a force for liberal reform under the Soviet Union, it soon became a center of strength for conservatives and nationalists in the post-communist era. Alexei's death could well result in an even more conservative church." Under Patriarch Kirill On January 27, 2009, the ROC Local Council (the 2009 Pomestny Sobor comprised 72 women, both nuns and lay members; the majority of its delegates were not Russia's citizens ) elected Metropolitan Kirill of Smolensk Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus;  he was enthroned on February 1, 2009. Since 2009 the Russian Orthodox Church has become more and more expressive of an inward-looking nationalist culture. For example, in May 2010 it was decreed that all dioceses of the Church would have to celebrate the "Day of Slavic Letters and Culture" every year. 
Russian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church in America (OCA)
Russian traders settled in Alaska during the 1700s. In 1740, a Divine Liturgy was celebrated on board a Russian ship off the Alaskan coast. In 1794, the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries—among them Saint Herman of Alaska -- to establish a formal mission in Alaska. Their missionary endeavors contributed to the conversion of many Alaskan natives to the Orthodox faith. A diocese was established, whose first bishop was Saint Innocent of Alaska. The headquarters of this North American Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church was moved from Alaska to California around the mid-19th century.
It was moved again in the last part of the same century, this time to New York. This transfer coincided with a great movement of Greek-Catholics to the Orthodox Church in the eastern United States. This movement, which increased the numbers of Orthodox Christians in America, resulted from a conflict between John Ireland, the politically powerful Roman Catholic Archbishop of Saint Paul, Minnesota; and Alexis Toth, an influential Ruthenian Catholic priest. Archbishop Ireland's refusal to accept Fr. Toth's credentials as a priest induced Fr. Toth to convert to the Orthodox Church, and further resulted in the conversion of tens of thousands of other Greek-Catholics in North America to the Orthodox Church, under his guidance and inspiration. For this reason, Ireland is sometimes ironically remembered as the "Father of the Orthodox Church in America." These Greek-Catholics were received into Orthodoxy into the existing North American diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. At the same time large numbers of Greeks and other Orthodox Christians were also immigrating to America. At this time all Orthodox Christians in North America were united under the omophorion (Church authority and protection) of the Patriarch of Moscow, through the Russian Church's North American diocese. The unity was not merely theoretical, but was a reality, since there was then no other diocese on the continent. Under the aegis of this diocese, which at the turn of the century was ruled by Bishop (and future Patriarch) Tikhon, Orthodox Christians of various ethnic backgrounds were ministered to, both non-Russian and Russian; a Syro-Arab mission was established under the episcopal leadership of Saint Raphael of Brooklyn, who was the first Orthodox bishop to be consecrated in America. In 1920 Patriarch Tikhon issued an ukase (decree) that dioceses of the Church of Russia that were cut off from the governance of the highest Church authority (i.e. the Holy Synod and the Patriarch) should be managed independently until such time as normal relations with the highest Church authority could be resumed; and on this basis, the North American diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church (known as the "Metropolia") continued to exist in a de facto autonomous mode of self-governance. The financial hardship that beset the North American diocese as the result of the Russian Revolution resulted in a degree of administrative chaos, with the result that other national Orthodox communities in North America turned to the Churches in their respective homelands for pastoral care and governance. A group of bishops who had left Russia in the wake of the Russian Civil War gathered in Sremski-Karlovci, Yugoslavia, and adopted a pro-monarchist stand. The group further claimed to speak as a synod for the entire "free" Russian church. This group, which to this day includes a sizable portion of the Russian emigration, was formally dissolved in 1922 by Patriarch Tikhon, who then appointed metropolitans Platon and Evlogy as ruling bishops in America and Europe, respectively. Both of these metropolitans continued to entertain relations intermittently with the synod in Karlovci. Between the World Wars the Metropolia coexisted and at times cooperated with an independent synod later known as Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR), sometimes also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. The two groups eventually went their separate ways. ROCOR, which moved its headquarters to North America after the Second World War, claimed but failed to establish jurisdiction over all parishes of Russian origin
Orthodox churches are common in Alaska, particularly in the southern and southwest portions of the state.
Russian Orthodox Church in North America. The Metropolia, as a former diocese of the Russian Church, looked to the latter as its highest church authority, albeit one from which it was temporarily cut off under the conditions of the communist regime in Russia. After World War II the Patriarchate of Moscow made unsuccessful attempts to regain control over these groups. After resuming communication with Moscow in early 1960s, and being granted autocephaly in 1970, the Metropolia became known as the Orthodox Church in America.  However, recognition of this autocephalous status is not universal, as the Ecumenical Patriarch (under whom is the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America) and some other jurisdictions have not officially accepted it. The reasons for this are complex; nevertheless the Ecumenical Patriarch and the other jurisdictions remain in communion with the OCA. The Patriarchate of Moscow thereby renounced its former canonical claims in the United States and Canada; it also acknowledged an autonomous church established in Japan that same year.
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR)
Russia's Church was devastated by the repercussions of the Bolshevik Revolution. One of its effects was a flood of refugees from Russia to the United States, Canada, and Europe. The Revolution of 1918 severed large sections of the Russian church—dioceses in America, Japan, and Manchuria, as well as refugees in Europe—from regular contacts with the mother church. Based on an ukase (decree) issued by Patriarch Tikhon, which stated that dioceses of the Church of Russia that were cut off from the governance of the highest Church authority (i.e. the Holy Russian church of Holy Trinity in Belgrade, Serbia. Synod and the Patriarch) should be managed independently until such time as normal relations with the highest Church authority could be resumed, the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia was established; by bishops who had left Russia in the wake of the Russian Civil War. They first met in Constantinople, and then moved to Sremski-Karlovci, Yugoslavia. After World War II, they moved their headquarters to New York City, New York, where it remains to this day. On December 28, 2006, it was officially announced that the Act of Canonical Communion would finally be signed between the ROC and ROCOR. The signing took place on the May 17, 2007, followed immediately by a full restoration of communion with the Moscow Patriarchate, celebrated by a Divine Liturgy at the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow, at which the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexius II and the First Hierarch of ROCOR concelebrated for the first time. Under the Act, the ROCOR remains a self-governing entity within the Church of Russia. It is independent in its administrative, pastoral, and property matters. It continues to be governed by its Council of Bishops and its Synod, the Council's permanent executive body. The First-Hierarch and bishops of the ROCOR are elected by its Council and confirmed by the Patriarch of Moscow. ROCOR bishops participate in the Council of Bishops of the entire Russian Church. In response to the signing of the act of canonical communion, Bishop Agafangel and parishes and clergy in opposition to the Act broke communion with ROCOR, and established ROCA, or the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. The ROCA should not be confused with the ROCIA, or the Russian Orthodox Church in America, a separate jurisdiction whose exact canonical status remains "unclear." Some others opposed to the Act have joined themselves to other Greek Old Calendarist groups. Currently both the OCA and ROCOR, since 2007, are in communion with the ROC.
Russian Orthodox Church
Belarusian Orthodox Church
The Belarusian Orthodox Church is part of Russian Orthodox Church.
Russian church architecture
Russian Orthodox Church buildings differ in design from many modern-type churches. Firstly, their interiors are enriched with many sacramental objects including holy icons, which are hung on the walls. In addition, murals often cover most of the interior. Some of these images represent the Theotokos (who is particularly revered in the Russian Orthodox Church), saints, and scenes from their lives. Gold is the color which resembles the Heavenly Kingdom. It is also used to add a sense of indefinite depth to icons, which would otherwise be perceived as flat. Painted icons are intentionally composed in a two-dimensional, non-perspective fashion to allow equal viewing regardless of the placement, position, and/or angle of the observing person, as well as to emphasize that the depiction is primarily of a spiritual truth rather than of visible reality (which emphasis is also achieved through other iconographic techniques and traditions). Most Russian Orthodox churches have an iconostasis, which separates the nave from the holy altar, and signifies the Heavenly Kingdom. Covered with icons, the iconostasis is intended to stop physical sight, and allow the worshipers to achieve spiritual sight.
Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (1165), showing the onion dome typical of many Orthodox churches.
Another remarkable feature of many Russian Orthodox Church is the icon screen, which may reach all the way up into the dome (or domes). On the ceiling of many churches (inside the main dome) is the iconography of Christ as Pantokrator ("Ruler of All"). Such images emphasize Christ's humanity and divinity, signifying that Christ is a man and yet is also God without beginning or end. There are no pews. Most churches are lit with candles rather than electric light. Virtually all churches have multiple votive candle stands in front of the icons. It is customary for worshippers to purchase candles in church stores, light them up, and place them on the stands. This ritual signifies a person's prayer to God, the Holy Mother, or to the saints or angels asking for help on the difficult path to salvation and to freedom from sin. Sometimes the bottoms of crosses found in Russian Orthodox churches will be adorned with a crescent. The common misconception attributes these to the fact that in 1552, Tsar Ivan the Terrible conquered the city of Kazan which had been under the rule of Muslim Tatars, and in remembrance of this, he decreed that from henceforth the Islamic crescent be placed at the bottom of the crosses to signify the victory of the cross (Christianity) over the crescent (Islam). In fact, crescents on crosses were widespread during the pre-Mongolian period of Russian history and have no relation to the Islamic symbol. The crescent symbol actually is meant to resemble an anchor, which symbolizes the hope for salvation.
Russian Orthodox Church
• • • • • • • • List of Orthodox Churches List of tallest Orthodox churches Eastern Orthodox Church Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia Russian Orthodox Church in America Eastern Christianity Russian Catholic Church Russian Orthodox bell ringing
• • • • Russian Orthodox Church official website  Department for External Church Relations of the Russian Orthodox Church official website , in English Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia official website  Orthodox Church in America official website 
Russian Orthodox resources and literature
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Orthodox World Russian Portal , in English Russian Orthodox Church links on Orthodox Christianity Directory  OrthodoxWiki  Aleksandr Men Foundation  Orthodox Christian's Library  Radio Radonezh  The Holy Trinity St. Sergius Lavra  Orthodox Calendar  Orthodox Calendar on Pravoslavie.ru  Valaam Monastery Page in English  St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University  A Brief Summary of the Russian Patriarchal Period  The Tragedy of the Russian Church. 1917-53 
 "Russia" (http:/ / www. state. gov/ g/ drl/ rls/ irf/ 2007/ 90196. htm). State.gov. . Retrieved 2009-05-06.  "CIA - The World Factbook - Russia" (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ rs. html#People). Cia.gov. . Retrieved 2009-05-06.  "Adherents.com" (http:/ / www. adherents. com/ Na/ Na_573. html#3444). Adherents.com. . Retrieved 2009-05-06.  http:/ / www. mospat. ru  http:/ / www. rocor. org  ROC Statute, Chapter I, § 2 (http:/ / www. mospat. ru/ index. php?mid=162)  The ROC does not keep any formal membership records, wherefore the claim is based on the public polls and the number of parishes. The actual number of regular church-goers in Russia varies between 1% and 10%, depending on the source.  Опубликована подробная сравнительная статистика религиозности в России и Польше (http:/ / www. religare. ru/ article42432. htm) Religare.ru June 6, 2007  Большинство, напоминающее меньшинство (http:/ / www. gazeta. ru/ comments/ 2007/ 08/ 20_a_2060804. shtml) Gazeta.ru 21 August 2007  "Russian Orthodox Church denies plans to create private army" (http:/ / en. rian. ru/ russia/ 20081121/ 118458478. html). RIA Novosti (BBC News). 2008-11-21. . Retrieved December 13, 2008.  (Russian) Доклад Святейшего Патриарха Кирилла на Архиерейском cовещании 2 февраля 2010 года (http:/ / www. patriarchia. ru/ db/ text/ 1061651. html) patriarchia.ru February 2, 2010
Russian Orthodox Church
 Damick, Andrew S.. "Life of the Apostle Andrew" (http:/ / www. chrysostom. org/ firstcalled/ life. html). chrysostom.org. . Retrieved 2007-06-25.  Voronov, Theodore (2001-10-13). "The Baptism of Russia and Its Significance for Today" (http:/ / www. orthodox. clara. net/ baptism_rus. htm). orthodox.clara.net. . Retrieved 2007-06-25.  "Российские Вести - Федеральный Еженедельник" (http:/ / www. rosvesty. ru/ print. php?f=/ numbers/ 1789/ culture/ a_03. phtml& i=1). rosvesty.ru. . Retrieved 2007-06-26.  "АРХИЕПИСКОП ИСТРИНСКИЙ АРСЕНИЙ ВОЗГЛАВИЛ В МОСКВЕ ТОРЖЕСТВА ПО СЛУЧАЮ 625-ЛЕТИЯ КУЛИКОВСКОЙ БИТВЫ" (http:/ / www. pravoslavie. ru/ news/ 050922125558). pravoslavie.ru. . Retrieved 2007-06-26.  Karl August von Hase. A history of the Christian Church. Oxford, 1855. Page 481.  Yuri Kagramanov, " The war of languages in Ukraine (http:/ / magazines. russ. ru/ novyi_mi/ 2006/ 8/ ka10. html)", Novy Mir, 2006, № 8  A. S. Pankratov, Ishchushchie boga (Moscow, 1911); Vera Shevzov, Russian Orthodoxy on the Eve of Revolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004); Gregory Freeze, 'Subversive Piety: Religion and the Political Crisis in Late Imperial Russia', Journal of Modern History, vol. 68 (June 1996): 308-50; Mark Steinberg and Heather Coleman, eds. Sacred Stories: Religion and Spirituality in Modern Russia (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007)  President of Lithuania: Prisoner of the Gulag a Biography of Aleksandras Stulginskis by Afonsas Eidintas Genocide and Research Center of Lithuania ISBN 998675741X / 9789986757412 / 9986-757-41-X pg 23 "The Soviets' official religious stance was one of "religious freedom or tolerance", though the state established atheismrt hmn sgjnerqtjh gn as the only scientific truth. Criticism of atheism was strictly forbidden and sometimes lead to imprisonment. Sermons to young people by Father George Calciu-Dumitreasa. Given at the Chapel of the Romanian Orthodox Church Seminary, The Word online. Bucharest (http:/ / www. orthodoxresearchinstitute. org/ resources/ sermons/ calciu_christ_calling. htm)  Father Arseny 1893–1973 Priest, Prisoner, Spiritual Father. Introduction pg. vi - 1. St Vladimir's Seminary Press ISBN 0-88141-180-9  The Washingotn Post Anti-Communist Priest Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa By Patricia Sullivan Washington Post Staff Writer Sunday, November 26, 2006; Page C09 (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 11/ 25/ AR2006112500783. html)  http:/ / litek. ws/ k0nsl/ detox/ anti-humans. htm Dumitru Bacu, The Anti-Humans. Student Re-Education in Romanian Prisons], Soldiers of the Cross, Englewood, Colorado, 1971. Originally written in Romanian as Piteşti, Centru de Reeducare Studenţească, Madrid, 1963  Adrian Cioroianu, Pe umerii lui Marx. O introducere în istoria comunismului românesc ("On the Shoulders of Marx. An Incursion into the History of Romanian Communism"), Editura Curtea Veche, Bucharest, 2005  John Shelton Curtis, The Russian Church and the Soviet State (Boston: Little Brown, 1953); Jane Ellis, The Russian Orthodox Church: A Contemporary History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986); Dimitry V. Pospielovsky, The Russian Church Under the Soviet Regime 1917-1982 (St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1984); idem., A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religious Policies (New York; St. Martin’s Press, 1987); Glennys Young, Power and the Sacred in Revolutionary Russia: Religious Activists in the Village (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997); Daniel Peris, Storming the Heavens: The Soviet League of the Militant Godless (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998); William B. Husband, “Godless Communists”: Atheism and Society in Soviet Russia (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2000; Edward Roslof, Red Priests: Renovationism, Russian Orthodoxy, and Revolution, 1905-1946 (Bloomington, Indiana, 2002)  Ostling, Richard. "Cross meets Kremlin" TIME Magazine. June 24, 2001. http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,150718,00. html  Tikhon's Proclamation as of January 19, 1918 (Julian calendar) (http:/ / st-elizabet. narod. ru/ raznoe/ anafema_sovetchikam. htm)  (Russian) Alekseev, Valery. Historical and canonical reference for reasons making believers leave the Moscow patriarchate (http:/ / www. ipc. od. ua/ 14spravka. html). Created for the government of Moldova  Talantov, Boris. 1968. The Moscow Patriarchate and Sergianism (http:/ / www. orthodoxinfo. com/ ecumenism/ cat_tal. aspx) (English translation).  Protopriest Yaroslav Belikow. December 11, 2004. The Visit of His Eminence Metropolitan Laurus to the Parishes of Argentina and Venezuela (http:/ / www. russianorthodoxchurch. ws/ 01newstucture/ pagesen/ news04/ meylavrinsa. html)."  Tserkovnye Vedomosti Russkoy Istinno-Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi (Russian True Orthodox Church News). Patriarch Tikhon's Catacomb Church. History of the Russian True Orthodox Church (http:/ / catacomb. org. ua/ modules. php?name=Pages& go=page& pid=1099).  Seventeen Moments in Soviet History (http:/ / www. soviethistory. org/ index. php?action=L2& SubjectID=1943patriarch& Year=1943)  Dissent in the Russian Orthodox Church (http:/ / links. jstor. org/ sici?sici=0036-0341(196910)28:4<416:DITROC>2. 0. CO;2-W)  Keston Institute and the Defence of Persecuted Christians in the USSR (http:/ / www. starlightsite. co. uk/ keston/ lectures/ sound/ conference. htm)  Born Again. Putin and Orthodox Church Cement Power in Russia. (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB119792074745834591. html?mod=hpp_us_inside_today) by Andrew Higgins Wall Street Journal Dec 18, 2007.  Выписки из отчетов КГБ о работе с лидерами Московской патриархии (http:/ / www. krotov. info/ acts/ 20/ 1960/ 1967_loubyanka. html) Excerpts from KGB reports on work with the leaders of the Moscow Patriarchate  Russian Patriarch 'was KGB spy' (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 1999/ feb/ 12/ 1) The Guardian February 12, 1999  Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West, Gardners Books (2000), ISBN 0-14-028487-7  Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia - Past, Present, and Future. 1994. ISBN 0-374-52738-5, page 46.
Russian Orthodox Church
 Konstantin Preobrazhenskiy - Putin's Espionage Church (http:/ / cicentre. com/ Documents/ putin_espionage_church. html), an excerpt from a forthcoming book, "Russian Americans: A New KGB Asset" by Konstantin Preobrazhenskiy  Confirmed: Russian Patriarch Worked with KGB (http:/ / www. cwnews. com/ news/ viewstory. cfm?recnum=13868), Catholic World News. Retrieved 29-12-2007.  George Trofimoff Affidavit (http:/ / cicentre. com/ Documents/ DOC_Trofimoff_Affidavit. htm)  Ириней (Зуземиль) (http:/ / ortho-rus. ru/ cgi-bin/ ps_file. cgi?2_599) Biography information on the web-site of the ROC  "Official spokesman for the Moscow Patriarchy Father Vsevolod Chaplin labeled such reports as "absolutely unsubstantiated" in a Wednesday interview with Interfax. "There is no data indicating that Patriarch Alexy II was an associate of the special services, and no classified documents bear his signature," he said. "I do not think that direct dialogue between the current patriarch and KGB took place," Father Vsevolod continued. However, "all bishops communicated with representatives of the council for religious matters in the Soviet government, which was inevitable, since any issue, even the most insignificant one, had to be resolved through this body. It is quite another matter that the council forwarded all its materials to the KGB," he said." Moscow Patriarchate Rejects Times Report of Alexy II'S Collaboration with KGB, Sept 20, 2000 (Interfax) (http:/ / www. stetson. edu/ ~psteeves/ relnews/ 0009b. html) "Chaplin, the church spokesman, said in March, "Nobody has ever seen a single real document that would confirm the patriarch used his contacts with Soviet authorities to make harm to the church or to any people in the church." Russia's Well-Connected Patriarch, Washington Post Foreign Service , 23 May 2002 (http:/ / www. stetson. edu/ ~psteeves/ relnews/ 0205e. html); "Father Chaplin said: 'In recent times many anonymous photocopies of all sorts of pieces of paper have been circulated. In none of them is there the slightest evidence that the individuals we are talking about knew that these documents were being drawn up, or gave their consent. So I don't think any reasonably authoritative clerical or secular commission could see these papers as proof of anything.'", Russian Patriarch 'was KGB spy', The Guardian (London) , February 12, 1999  Nathaniel Davis, A Long Walk to Church: A Contemporary History of Russian Orthodoxy,(Oxford: Westview Press, 1995),p .96 Davis quotes one bishop as saying: "Yes, we -- I, at least, and I say this first about myself -- I worked together with the KGB. I cooperated, I made signed statements, I had regular meetings, I made reports. I was given a pseudonym -- a code name as they say there... I knowingly cooperated with them -- but in such a way that I undeviatingly tried to maintain the position of my Church, and, yes, also to act as a patriot, insofar as I understood, in collaboration with these organs. I was never a stool pigeon, nor an informer."  From an interview of Patriarch Alexy II, given to "Izvestia" No 137, June 10, 1991, entitled "Patriarch Alexy II: -- I Take upon Myself Responsibility for All that Happened", English translation from Nathaniel Davis, A Long Walk to Church: A Contemporary History of Russian Orthodoxy,(Oxford: Westview Press, 1995),p 89. See also History of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (http:/ / orthodoxinfo. com/ ecumenism/ roca_history. aspx), by St. John (Maximovich) of Shanghai and San Francisco, December 31, 2007  Charles Clover (December 5, 2008). "Russia's church mourns patriarch" (http:/ / us. ft. com/ ftgateway/ superpage. ft?news_id=fto120520081735416422& page=1). Financial Times. . Retrieved December 8, 2008.  Europaica Bulletin, No 130 (October 21, 2007) (http:/ / orthodoxeurope. org/ page/ 14/ 130. aspx#3)  Interfax, Bishop Hilarion requests the Theologian Commission to examine the ambiguous document adopted at the Orthodox-Catholic conference in Ravenna, 16 November 2007 (http:/ / www. interfax-religion. com/ ?act=news& div=3945)  Progress in dialogue with Catholics, says Ecumenical Patriarchate (http:/ / new. asianews. it/ index. php?l=en& art=10597) new.asianews.it October 19, 2007.  Ecumenical progress, Russian isolation, after Catholic-Orthodox talks (http:/ / www. cwnews. com/ news/ viewstory. cfm?recnum=54270) CWNews.com October 19, 2007.  Orthodox Church Spreads Antisemitic Propaganda in Kamenets-Podolsky, Ukraine (http:/ / www. fsumonitor. com/ stories/ 090208Ukraine. shtml), Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union, September 2, 2008  President Putin and the patriarchs. (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ comment/ faith/ article3172785. ece) by Michael Bourdeaux The Times January 11, 2008.  Piety's Comeback as a Kremlin Virtue. (http:/ / www. cdi. org/ russia/ johnson/ 2008-30-16. cfm) By Alexander Osipovich The Moscow Times February 12, 2008. Page 1.  Clifford J. Levy. At Expense of All Others, Putin Picks a Church. (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 04/ 24/ world/ europe/ 24church. html?_r=1& scp=4& sq=russia& st=nyt& oref=slogin) New York Times April 24, 2008  Патриарх Алексий Второй: эпоха упущенных возможностей (http:/ / portal-credo. ru/ site/ ?act=news& id=67353& topic=618) RISU December 11, 2008  Ветряные мельницы православия (http:/ / kommersant. ru/ doc. aspx?DocsID=1094071& ThemesID=1011) Vlast December 15, 2008.  Charles Clover (December 5, 2008). "Russia's church mourns patriarch" (http:/ / us. ft. com/ ftgateway/ superpage. ft?news_id=fto120520081735416422& page=2). Financial Times. . Retrieved December 8, 2008.  Незнакомый патриарх, или Чему нас учит история храма Христа Спасителя (http:/ / www. izvestia. ru/ obshestvo/ article3124663/ ) Izvestia January 26, 2009.  На Московский Патриарший Престол избран митрополит Смоленский и Калининградский Кирилл (http:/ / patriarchia. ru/ db/ text/ 542649. html) MP official web site, January 27, 2009.  (Russian) Имя нового Патриарха названо: Кирилл (http:/ / newsru. com/ religy/ 27jan2009/ gewaehlt. html) NEWSru January 27, 2009.  http:/ / www. interfax-religion. com/ ?act=news& div=7254  Very Rev. John Matusiak, Director of Communications, Orthodox Church in America. A History and Introduction of the Orthodox Church in America (http:/ / www. oca. org/ MVhistoryintroOCA. asp?SID=1)
Russian Orthodox Church
 OrthodoxWiki. ROCOR and OCA (http:/ / www. orthodoxwiki. org/ ROCOR_and_OCA).  "Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (ROCA), Synod of Bishops" (http:/ / sinod. ruschurchabroad. org/ engindex. htm). Sinod.ruschurchabroad.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-25.  "Russian Orthodox Church in America - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia" (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Russian_Orthodox_Church_in_America). En.wikipedia.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-25.  Communique of the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia, June 30, 2007 (http:/ / www. russianorthodoxchurch. ws/ synod/ eng2007/ 7ensfcommunique. html); DEEPENING OF SCHISM: Some clergy of the diaspora church created their own higher church administration, by Pavel Krug, NG-Religiia, 18 July 2007 (http:/ / www. stetson. edu/ ~psteeves/ relnews/ 0707a. html)  http:/ / www. patriarchia. ru/  http:/ / www. mospat. ru/ en/  http:/ / www. orthodoxworld. ru/ english/ index. htm  http:/ / www. orthodoxlinks. info/ orthorus/  http:/ / www. orthodoxwiki. org/  http:/ / www. alexandrmen. ru/ biogr/ english. html  http:/ / www. wco. ru/ biblio/  http:/ / www. radonezh. ru/  http:/ / www. stsl. ru/ languages/ en/ index. php  http:/ / www. holytrinityorthodox. com/ calendar/  http:/ / days. pravoslavie. ru/ en/ Days/ 20070907. htm  http:/ / www. valaam. ru/ en/  http:/ / en. pstgu. ru/  http:/ / www. orthodoxtheologicalschool. org/ journal/ VanOpstall_Ruspat. html  http:/ / www. regels. org/ Russian-Church. htm
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Orthodox Church Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=367262702 Contributors: 1111tomica, 168..., 192.146.101.xxx, 198.54.202.xxx, 63.237.69.xxx, Aaajodko2000, Aalexandros, Aav, Abafied, Aby John Vannilam, Acecliffy, Acjelen, Adam Bishop, AdamRaizen, Adi.Dr., Adolf2000, Adrian, Adrian J. 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Божовић, Коваленко Кирилл, Методије, ОйЛ, Սահակ, 2203 anonymous edits Russian Orthodox Church Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=366196057 Contributors: 16@r, 4twenty42o, A. Parrot, ADimiTR, Adam Bishop, Afghana, Agne27, Alansohn, Alex Bakharev, Alexeykh, Alexyalex, Allstarecho, Altenmann, Amire80, Andres, Andrew c, Angusmclellan, Ans-mo, Antandrus, Anton Khorev, Antonios aigyptos, Anvish, Aphaia, Apoivre, Aram33, Arseni, Ashadeofgrey, Atrebatus, AuburnPilot, Awartha, Balcer, Beetstra, Bejnar, Biophys, Bluejay Young, Bluerasberry, Bnwwf91, BoLingua, Bobblewik, Bokpasa, Bolo1910, Born2cycle, Born2flie, Brevan, Briaboru, Cactus.man, Calculus, Calmer Waters, Camptown, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Carlaude, Carter, Catmoongirl, Causa sui, Charles Borromeo, Chesterg, Cholmes75, Colchicum, ColenFace, Colin chee, Coroboy, Costela, Cuchullain, Curps, Czalex, DanielM4, DarkFalls, Darwinek, Delirium, DevOhm, Deville, Didactohedron, Diego pmc, Dirrival, DmitryKo, DonDaMon, Dorftrottel, Dpr, Dr.alf, Drestros power, Drieakko, Drini, Dufus00, Duja, Dvavasour, ESkog, Eewanco, El Otro, ElationAviation, Elendal, Emperorbma, Ender mandalore, Equitor, Esrever, Etherialemperor, Eugeneacurry, Euryalus, Everyking, Evrik, Fedoroff, Feedmecereal, FeelSunny, Fisenko, Freyr35, Frjohnwhiteford, Frsymeon, Gabr-el, Gadfium, Genyo, Georgekonyev, Geregen2, Ghaly, Ghirlandajo, Gilliam, Gimmetrow, Gjalexei, Gnomz007, Goldencako, Good Olfactory, Googles123, Greenshed, Greyhood, Grue, Gthyu, Hadžija, Halcatalyst, HamburgerRadio, Happyman22, Heliomance, Homagetocatalonia, Howcheng, Hroðulf, IVasilov, Illyria05, Illythr, InfernoXV, Ingolfson, Int19h, Iorsh, Irishguy, Irpen, Ithinkhelikesit, Itinerant, Itinerant1, Itskamilo, J.delanoy, JKBrooks85, JamieStapleton, Jason Vanderhill, Jauerback, Jc3schmi, Jevansen, Jezzerk, Jimena1, Joeyjoeyjoey33, Johanneum, JohnCD, Johnbod, Johnnybird, JonHarder, Jorunn, Joseph Solis in Australia, JoshuaD1991, JuJube, Jurrgis, KNewman, Kcordina, Kharaku, Killer Swath, Koavf, Kochd, Kuban kazak, Lacrimosus, Latinitas, Leewonbum, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, LoveMonkey, LovesMacs, Lregelson, MLPachali, Manicsocks, Marco polo, Marcus2, Marek69, Mariah-Yulia, MarshallPoe, Martin451, MartinHarper, MartinSpamer, Mattissa, Maxamegalon2000, Maxis ftw, Mcarling, Mcpaul1998, Mentifisto, Mermaid from the Baltic Sea, Michael Hardy, MishaPan, Mmmready, Momirt, Monedula, Mr. Neutron, Muscovite99, Mxn, Mygerardromance, Mysdaao, Neelix, NewEnglandYankee, Nicetoknowyou, Nikitadanilov, Nikodemos, Nikola Smolenski, Niroman, Nixer, Offliner, Oldfaith123, Oldorthodox123, Olgerd, OrthoArchitectDU, Pakhomovru, Palaeologos, Palmleaf, Parhamr, Parisbestlodge, Peaceduck, Peshkov, PeterNuernberg, Petri Krohn, Pgunn, Phanar, PhilKnight, Philippe, Pinkstargazer, Polotet, Prayspot, Preost, ProhibitOnions, Puddhe, Pádraic MacUidhir, Qirex, RandomP, Razorflame, Rb000, Rchamberlain, Rdsmith4, RedWolf, Reginmund, Rich Farmbrough, Richard David Ramsey, Richardshusr, Rickjpelleg, Rknasc, Robertkgb, Rome1453, SJP, Sanddune777, Sardanaphalus, Scorpiona, Scwlong, SeNeKa, Shuffdog, Silence, SimonP, Simratpal, Smith2006, Snocrates, Sotnik, SpookyMulder, StaticGull, Sub-deacon, Summer Song, Superzohar, Supine, Tellervo, Tetromino, TheMidnighters, Tixity, Toledoartist, TomViza, Tosic100, Tovojolo, Trevor MacInnis, Trusilver, Ttiotsw, Tuulispask, Twin21956, Uuu87, Valip, Vanjagenije, Vasilij, Vectro, Verit, Vithum, Voyevoda, WODUP, WVhybrid, Wesley, Woohookitty, Xyzzy n, YBeayf, Yutt, Zscout370, Жужжание, Лев Регельсон, 542 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Icon-Pentecost.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Icon-Pentecost.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Phiddipus File:Biserica Manastirii Neamt.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Biserica_Manastirii_Neamt.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Cezar Suceveanu. Original uploader was Cezarika1 at ro.wikipedia. Image:00058 christ pantocrator mosaic hagia sophia 656x800.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:00058_christ_pantocrator_mosaic_hagia_sophia_656x800.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Gryffindor, Louis le Grand, Wst, 2 anonymous edits Image:Russian Resurrection icon.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Russian_Resurrection_icon.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Aphaia, Bopox, Butko, Dodo78, Mxn, Testus, Waelsch, Wst Image:Vladimirskaya.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vladimirskaya.jpg License: unknown Contributors: .:Ajvol:., AndreasPraefcke, Aphaia, Berillium, Butko, Paddy, Razr, Shakko, Ustas, Warburg, Wp, Wst Image:Torcellomosaic.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Torcellomosaic.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Ghirlandajo at en.wikipedia Image:Orthodox-Church-interior.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Orthodox-Church-interior.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: User:Phiddipus Image:Temple Saint Sava.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Temple_Saint_Sava.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Vol de nuit Image:Hagia Sophia BW.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hagia_Sophia_BW.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: CristianChirita, G.dallorto, Panairjdde, Saperaud Image:fedorovskaya.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fedorovskaya.jpg License: unknown Contributors: .:Ajvol:., AndreasPraefcke, AndreyA, Butko, Goldfritha, Paddy, Ranveig, Testus, Ustas, Wp, Wst, Александр Сигачёв Image:Inside Orthodox Church.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Inside_Orthodox_Church.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Original uploader was Issagm at en.wikipedia Image:Iconostasis in Moscow.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Iconostasis_in_Moscow.jpg License: unknown Contributors: .:Ajvol:., Kneiphof, Shakko, Stan Shebs, 1 anonymous edits Image:EastOrthodoxcross.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EastOrthodoxcross.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Bartledan Image:Theotokos Prayer Corner.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Theotokos_Prayer_Corner.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alveus lacuna Image:Orthodox deacons.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Orthodox_deacons.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Testus Image:Receiving the Holy Light at Easter.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Receiving_the_Holy_Light_at_Easter.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Original uploader was Maggas at en.wikipedia Image:Katharinenkloster.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Katharinenkloster.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: G.Piezinger Image:megaloschema.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Megaloschema.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Bartledan Image:Orthodox clergy.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Orthodox_clergy.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Copyright © 2004 by Andrew Stephen Damick Image:Svetitskhoveli1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Svetitskhoveli1.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Sosomk at en.wikipedia Image:LocationByzantineEmpire 550.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LocationByzantineEmpire_550.png License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Red4tribe Image:Aya sofya.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aya_sofya.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Dustsucker, G.dallorto, Para, Saperaud, Themadchopper, 1 anonymous edits Image:Ayasofya-Innenansicht.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ayasofya-Innenansicht.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Andreas Wahra Image:Vologda Churches.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vologda_Churches.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Ghirlandajo, Palefire Image:Stavronikita Aug2006.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stavronikita_Aug2006.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Photo taken by Thodoris Lakiotis. 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