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SAMPLING
SIVARAM PCET

MEANING

1.

A sample is a finite part of a statistical population whose properties are studied to gain information about the whole(webster 1985) When dealing with people, it can be defined as a set of respondents(people) selected from a larger population for the purpose of a survey.

1.

Sampling process

Defining the population Specifying Sample Method

Developing a sampling Frame

Determining Sample Size

SELECTING THE SAMPLE

PROBABILITY

SIM PLE RA ND OM

SYST EMA TIC RAN DOM

STA RIFI ED RAN DOM

RA ND OM CLU STE R

S T R AI FI E D

COMPLE X MULTIS TAGE RANDO M

NON PROBABILITY

CONVENIENCE

QUOTA

PURPOSIVE

PROBABILITY SAMPLING

A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection In order to have a random selection method, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen.

SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING
The simplest form of random sampling is called simple random sampling.

Objective: To select n units out of N such that each NCn has an equal chance of being selected. Procedure: Use a table of random numbers, a computer random number generator, or a mechanical device to select the sample

SYSTEMATIC RANDOM
Number the units in the population from 1 to N Decide on the n (sample size) that you want or need k = N/n = the interval size Randomly select an integer between 1 to k Then take every kth unit

STARIFIED RANDOM
Stratified Random Sampling, also sometimes called proportional or quota random sampling, involves dividing your population into homogeneous subgroups and then taking a simple random sample in each subgroup. In more formal terms. Objective: Divide the population into nonoverlapping groups (i.e., strata) N1, N2, N3, ... Ni, such that N1 + N2 + N3 + ... + Ni = N. Then do a simple random sample of f = n/N in each strata

RANDOM CLUSTER
Done correctly, this is a form of random sampling Population is divided into groups, usually geographic or organizational Some of the groups are randomly chosen In pure cluster sampling, whole cluster is sampled. In simple multistage cluster, there is random Sampling within each randomly chosen cluster

Stratified cluster
Reduce the error in cluster sampling by creating strata of cluster Sample one cluster from each stratum The cost-savings of clustering with the error reduction of stratification

Stratification vs. Clustering
Stratification Divide population into groups different from each other: sexes, races, ages Sample randomly from each group Less error compared to simple random More expensive to obtain stratification information Clustering Divide population into comparable groups: schools, cities Randomly sample some of the groups More error compared to simple random Reduces costs to sample only some areas or organizations

COMPLEX MULTISTAGE RANDOM
Large national probability samples involve several stages of stratified cluster sampling The whole country is divided into geographic clusters,metropolitan and rural Some large metropolitan areas are selected withcertainty (certainty is a non-zero probability!) Other areas are formed into strata of areas (e.g. middle-sized cities, rural counties); clusters are selected randomly from these

Non-probability

quota

• Pre-plan number of subjects in specified categories(e.g. 100 men, 100 women) In uncontrolled quota sampling, the subjects chosen for those categories are a convenience sample, selected any way the interviewer chooses In controlled quota sampling, restrictions are imposed to limit interviewer’s choice No call-backs or other features to eliminate convenience factors in sample selection

Convenience sampling

Subjects selected because it is easy to access them. No reason tied to purposes of research. Students in your class, people on State Street, friends

Purposive Samples
Subjects selected for a good reason tied to purposes of research Small samples < 30, not large enough for power of probability sampling. – Nature of research requires small sample
– Choose subjects with appropriate variability in what you are studying

Hard-to-get populations that cannot be found through screening general population

Thanks for the people sitting opposite to me