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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in

the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

(Final Version)

HYDROCHINA CORPORATION

July 2012

Approved by:

Yu Shaofeng and Yang Jianshe

Reviewed by:

Yang Jianshe, Wang Chaoyang and Lu Zhaoqin

Checked by:

Tang Xiubo, Yang Mingqun, Zuo Ming,


Zhang Yuxin, Qin Zhongping and Tan Qilin

Verified by:

Zhang jiali, Li Shaopeng, Tang Xiubo,


Wang Xiaoying, Jian Huawei and Pan li

Prepared by:

Ma Jiangtao, Xu Lushi, Zhao Kai,


Guo Shuhua, Li Xiaojun, Wu Chengzhi
Zhang Bo

and

Foreword
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, a major inland country of East Africa, is located in the east of
African continent and neighbors Djibouti, Eritrea, Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya and Somalia. Most of
Ethiopia is located on the vast Ethiopian Plateau, and well-known East African Great Rift Valley
passes across the country from south to north. Unique terrain and geomorphy and particular
geographic location create ample wind energy resources and solar energy resources of Ethiopia.
In recent years, global renewable energy industry has developed rapidly. Many countries have taken
developing wind energy, solar energy and other renewable energy as important opportunity and
means for responding to future dual challenges of energy and climate change. In order to promote the
development of domestic energy industry and guarantee domestic energy security, Ethiopian
government determined a new national energy development strategy to encourage the development
of domestic renewable energy resources (especially wind energy, solar energy and other new energy
resources) and realize its development objective of Energy Diversification.
The Peoples Republic of China, as a major power of renewable energy development, with ample
renewable energy resources and huge market demand and a series of laws and regulations
promoting the development of renewable energy industry, has been taking renewable energy industry
on a tendency of rapid development, which installed capacity of wind and solar energy expands
rapidly and related independent technical innovation capability has been greatly improved. At present,
China has established relatively complete industry system and technical standard system.
China, as a responsible developing major power, is willing to share its achievements and experiences
of reform and opening to the outside with other developing countries. In order to support the
development and utilization of wind and solar energy of Ethiopia, Chinese government and Ethiopian
government amicably negotiated and formally exchanged documents in respect of Ethiopian Wind
and Solar Energy Development Planning Project in 2010, thereupon Chinese government agreed to
rendering economic aid gratuitously for the planning project above and authorized Ministry of
Commerce of the Peoples Republic of China to organize the project implementation.
On Dec. 15, 2010, Ministry of Commerce of the Peoples Republic of China sent Notification of Award
(Shang He Cu Zhao Shou Han [2010] No. 229) to HYDROCHINA. On Jan. 6, 2011, Ministry of
Commerce of the Peoples Republic of China formally signed the work contract of the project with
HYDROCHINA. On Feb. 22, 2011, HYDROCHINA formally entrusted Hydrochina International to
organize and manage the project, and Beijing Engineering Corporation undertook the implementation
and design of the planning project.
Work content of the wind and solar energy development planning project in Ethiopia: make field
investigation for wind and solar energy resources of Ethiopia, prepare Ethiopian wind and solar
energy development master planning report, recommend 2 wind farm sites and 1 photovoltaic power
station site and observe the data of basic resources, prepare the pre-feasibility study report of 2 wind
farms and 1 photovoltaic power station and accept the 30-day training of 10 Ethiopian technicians in
both Ethiopia and China.
According to the deliberate opinions of Chinese government and Ethiopian government on the project,
the report of master plan preparation and engineering requirements will mainly refer to Chinese
national and international codes and specifications.

II

In Oct. 2011, the report makers finished the draft of Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in
the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia submitted for approval according to plan; on Jan. 16,
2012, HYDROCHINA Corporation convened an internal review meeting on the draft above in Beijing,
later, the report makers modified the report according to the opinions of the participants; on Apr. 18,
2012, HYDROCHINA Corporation and Ministry of Water and Energy of Ethiopia, Representative
Agency of the projects Ethiopian Party, held an exchange meeting on the draft at request for comment
of the master plan report in Addis Ababa, later the report makers revised the report according to the
opinions of the participants. Herein we submit the final version of the master plan report thereupon.
Restricted by insufficient basic information for compilation, difference in view of engineering
technology as well as unique limitations of planning period, please make allowance for the report if
failed to reflect local social, economic and cultural development requirements in some senses.
Herein we sincerely thank Chinese government and Ethiopian government and related departments
inclusive of Ministry of Commerce of China, Institute of Atmospheric Physics of Chinese Academy of
Sciences as well as Ministry of Finance and Economic Development of Ethiopia, Ministry of Water and
Energy of Ethiopia, National Meteorological Services Agency of Ethiopia, National Highways Agency
of Ethiopia, Ministry of Culture & Tourism & Environmental Protection of Ethiopia, Ministry of Mines of
Ethiopia, Ethiopia Mapping Agency and Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation for their great help.

III

Contents
1. Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1
1.2
1.3

Social, Economic, Geographic and Natural Conditions of Ethiopia ......................................... 1


Natural Resource Conditions .................................................................................................... 5
Technical Route of Report Preparation ..................................................................................... 5

2. General Conditions of Planning ........................................................................................... 7


2.1

Target of Planning ................................................................................................................................. 7

2.2

Principles of Plan Preparation ............................................................................................................. 7

2.3

Basis of Plan Preparation .................................................................................................................... 9

2.4

Scope of Planning ............................................................................................................................... 10

2.5

Target Years of Planning .................................................................................................................... 10

2.6

Arrangement of Construction Project ............................................................................................... 10

3. Feasibility and Necessity of Wind and Solar Energy Development in Ethiopia .... 12
3.1

Feasibility Analysis of Wind and Solar Energy Development ....................................................... 12

3.2

Necessity Analysis of Wind and Solar Energy Development ....................................................... 17

3.3

General Situation of Ethiopian Renewable Energy Development ............................................... 19

4. Assessment on Wind and Solar Energy Resources in Ethiopia ............................... 21


4.1

General Climatic Conditions of Ethiopia and Genetic Analysis of Local Wind and Solar
Energy Resources .............................................................................................................................. 21

4.2

Common Methods for Wind and Solar Energy Resource Assessment ...................................... 23

4.3

Process of Wind and Solar Energy Resource Assessment in Ethiopia ...................................... 27

4.4

Wind and Solar Energy Resource Assessment in the Report ...................................................... 31

4.5

Setting up and Verification of Wind and Solar Resource Assessment System ......................... 32

4.6

Assessment of Wind Resources ....................................................................................................... 53

4.7

Assessment of Solar Resources....................................................................................................... 73

4.8

Summary of Resources Assessment ............................................................................................... 81

5. Electric Power System Analysis of Ethiopia................................................................... 83


5.1

Status of Power System ..................................................................................................................... 83

5.2

Power Source Planning of Electric System ..................................................................................... 85

5.3

Overview of Potential Power Supply Market ................................................................................... 87

5.4

Analysis of Grid Features................................................................................................................... 94

5.5

Calculation of Peak Regulation Capacity of Power Grid ............................................................... 99

5.6

Calculation Result of Wind Power Absorption Capacity of Power Grid .................................... 101

6. Preliminary Selection of Wind Energy and Solar Energy Sites ............................... 102
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7

Selection Principle of Wind Farm Site................................................................................... 102


Field Reconnaissance ........................................................................................................... 104
Site Selection of Wind farms ................................................................................................. 106
Site Selection Principle of Solar PV Power Station ............................................................... 110
Site Selection of Solar PV Power Station .............................................................................. 112
Analysis of other Construction Conditions of Wind Farm and PV Station Sites .................... 113
Diksis Large-Scale Wind Power Development Base ............................................................ 121

IV

7. Preliminary Evaluation on Environmental Impact ....................................................... 124


7.1

Environment Status ........................................................................................................................... 124

7.2

Screening of Main Environmental Factors .................................................................................... 126

7.3

Preliminary Evaluation of Environmental Impact .......................................................................... 127

7.4

Environmental Protection Measures .............................................................................................. 130

7.5

Overall Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 132

8. Development Schedule, Grid Connection, and Power Balance Analysis ............. 133
8.1

Development Sequence of Planning Areas .................................................................................. 133

8.2

Scheme of Electric Power Outgoing Transmission ...................................................................... 135

8.3
8.4

Electric Output and Load Balance Analysis .................................................................................. 141


Further Instructions on Power Grid Connection Scheme and Electric Output and Load
Balance Calculation .......................................................................................................................... 146

9. Construction Condition of Planning Areas Listed in 2015 ....................................... 148


9.1

Construction Analysis of Nazret Wind Farm Area ........................................................................ 148

9.2

Construction Analysis of Mekele South Wind Farm Area........................................................... 151

9.3

Construction Analysis of Sheno Wind Farm Area ........................................................................ 154

9.4

Construction Analysis of Chacha Wind Farm Area .................................................................... 157

9.5

Construction Analysis of Iteya Phase I Wind Farm Area............................................................. 161

9.6

Construction Analysis of Sulalta Wind Farm Area ........................................................................ 164

9.7

Construction Analysis of Gondar West Wind Farm Area ............................................................ 167

9.8

Construction Analysis of Imdibir Wind Farm Area ........................................................................ 169

9.9

Construction Analysis of Dire Dawa Wind Farm Area ................................................................. 172

9.10 Construction Analysis of Awash Solar PV Project Area .............................................................. 176


9.11 Construction Analysis of Demonstration Base of Addis Ababa Wind Farm and Solar PV
Station ................................................................................................................................................. 179

10. Rough Estimation of Investment ..................................................................................... 184


10.1 Compilation Basis and Boundary Conditions................................................................................ 184
10.2 Rough Estimation of Investment of Wind Power Planned Projects ........................................... 185
10.3 Rough Estimation of Investment of Solar PV Planed Project..................................................... 186

11. Development Policy Analysis of Wind and Solar Power Projects .......................... 187
11.1 Examples and Analysis of Development Institution for Renewable Energy ............................. 187
11.2 Existing Energy Policies and Strategies in Ethiopia .................................................................... 191
11.3 Preliminary Recommendation ......................................................................................................... 194

12. Achievement Summarization and Work Suggestion .................................................. 197


12.1 Basic Achievement............................................................................................................................ 197
12.2 Basic Advices..................................................................................................................................... 199

Acronyms ...................................................................................................................................... 201


List of References ....................................................................................................................... 202
Annexes and Attachment .......................................................................................................... 203

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

1.

Overview

1.1

Social, Economic, Geographic and Natural Conditions of Ethiopia

1.1.1

Social conditions
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (formerly named Abyssinia and hereinafter referred
to as Ethiopia), one of African ancient civilized countries and major inland country of east
Africa, is located in the east of African continent and the southwest of Red Sea, has gross area
of 1,104,000 km2 and borders on Djibouti, Eritrea, Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya and Somalia.
Meanwhile, Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, is also the locus of headquarters of African
Union.
Geographic location of Ethiopia is shown Figure 1.1-1.

Figure 1.1-1 Geographic Location Map of Ethiopia

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Ethiopia has gross population of about 77.40 million people (according to official data of
Ethiopia in 2005) and population growth rate of 2.9%. The country has more than 80 ethnic
groups, including Oromo (54%), Amhara (20%), Tigray (8%), Somali (6%), Sidama (4%), Afar,
Welayta, etc. Among Ethiopian people, 45% of them believe in Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity,
40 to 45% of them believe in Islam, and some people believe in Protestantism, Catholicism
and African traditional religion. In Ethiopia, Amharic is work language, English is general
language, and main ethnic languages include Oromifa and Tigrinya.
The country has 9 states including Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambela, Harari,
Oromia, Somali, Southern Nationalities and Tigray and 2 chartered cities including capital
Addis Ababa and commercial city Dire Dawa.
1.1.2

Economic conditions
Ethiopia is the largest economic body of East Africa. Based on traditional agriculture, Ethiopia
is in a stage of very weak overall economic basis. In recent years, Ethiopia has been centering
on economic construction, implementing the development strategy piloted by agriculture and
infrastructure construction and transiting to market economy. With rapid economic recovery,
Ethiopia has become a country with rapid economic growth.
Since 2002, the government has been implementing Sustainable Development and Poverty
Reduction Programme (SDPRP) and Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to
End Poverty (PASDEP), modified investment and migration policies, decreased export tax
and bank interest rate, enhanced capability construction, popularized vocational and technical
training and took other measures in sequence, as a result, the national economy has taken on
a good momentum of development, winning the praise of international financial institutions.
In 2005, the government started to implement Agriculture-piloted Industrialized Development
Strategy, increase agricultural input, powerfully develop emerging industries, industries
exporting goods to earn foreign currency, tourism and aviation and attract foreign investors to
participate in Ethiopian energy and mineral resource development. As a result, the national
economy kept the rapid growth at 9% and above.
In 2010, the country started to implement Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP), and its
overall economy entered a track of rapid growth. In that year, its gross domestic product (GDP)
and per capita GDP were USD 26 billion and USD 336 respectively.
Basic characteristics of national economy of Ethiopia are as follows:
Agriculture and animal husbandry is pillar of national economy. Agriculture and animal
husbandry labors account for more than 85% of national gross population, output value of
agriculture and animal husbandry accounts for about 48.1% of national GDP, and amount of
exports of agriculture and animal husbandry accounts for 85% of national gross export.
Agricultural production relies on petty farmer cultivation and planting, adopts traditional
cropping pattern and basically crops and harvest by weather, moreover, the irrigated area
accounts for only 0.77% of cultivable area, thus the natural disaster resistance is low. Main
agricultural products include teff, corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, millet, oat and others, and

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

main economic crops include coffee, chat, flowers, vegetable, oil crop, etc. Ethiopia ranks at
the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Africa for its coffee yield, but its coffee processing
technologies are out of dated, and most of its exported coffee is roughly processed or
unprocessed. In recent years, Ethiopian flower plant and export of Ethiopia have greatly
increased, and Ethiopia has ascended to the 2nd place in Africa for its gross export of flowers,
moreover, Ethiopian flowers are popular in the international market for their large size, long
blooming period and scape.
Animal husbandry is in huge scale, and Ethiopia ranks at the 1st place in Africa for its livestock
quantity up to 44 million heads, inclusive of cattle, sheep and goat. Animal husbandry weighs
20.6% in gross value of agricultural output. However, traditional pasturing makes the unit
output of animal husbandry very small, basically small scale household pasturing is dominant,
and herdsmen live dispersedly and are mainly distributed in low-lying areas of East and South
Ethiopia. Meanwhile, animal husbandry is significantly affected by climate and plague and
develops slowly.
Industrial basis is weak, industrial sectors are incomplete, industrial structure is unreasonable,
industrial output value accounts for only about 12.6% of national GDP, and industrial products
mainly include textile, leather, food & beverage, metal, furniture, tyre, building materials, etc.
Ethiopian manufacturing industry seriously lacks of materials, skilled labors, technicians,
researchers, managers, etc.
1.1.3

Geographic and natural conditions


Ethiopia has very complex terrains including towery African Ridge, vast tropical grasslands
and rainforests, large tropical deserts in the northeast and low-lying lands below sea level.
Overall, mountain land and plateau are dominant at the rate of about 2/3 in Ethiopia, and the
overall topography of Ethiopia is characterized by ridged middle and low edges. Midwest, the
main body of highlands, has average altitude near 3,000m and belongs to lava plateau, and its
top peak Ras Dashen at the altitude of 4,620m is called African Ridge. More than 30 rivers
originate from middle highlands, thus Ethiopia is renowned as Water Tower of East Africa.
World famous East African Great Rift Valley passes through Ethiopia. Both banks of the rift
valley are steep, the valley is deepest, the rift zone width is scores of kilometers to 200 km, the
height difference between valley bottom and cliff top is hundreds of meters to 2 km. There are
a string of lake clusters, volcanic clusters and hotsprings in the Great Rift Valley region,
forming unique geographic landscape.
Although in tropical zone, Ethiopia, with large latitude, span and altitude differences, have
large climatic contrasts involved in cold, heat, precipitation and others at different places and
obvious climatic diversity. Thereof, Somali State and Danakil low-lying land in Afar State have
low altitude, very dry and torrid weather and large desert and semi-desert terrains, vast middle
plateau region has very cozy and mild climatic conditions for its high altitude, inclusive of
multiple climates inclusive of mountain climate, tropical grassland climate and subtropical
forest climate. Ethiopia has three seasons including main rainy season from June to Sep., dry
season from Oct. to Jan. and small rainy season from Feb. to May. In addition, latitudes and
topographic conditions differ in different places, so the transition time of season differs. Rainy
season is harvest season. Precipitation of rainy season is not only crucial for Ethiopia but also

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

important for every country in the lower reach of Nile, abundant precipitation is essential
condition of production and life of local people, also basis of local irrigation farming. Drought in
rainy season may be disastrous for people in an entire basin.

Figure 1.1-2 Sketch Map of Topographic Conditions of Ethiopia

Figure 1.1-3 Geomorphic Map of East African Great Rift Valley

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

1.2

Natural Resource Conditions


Ethiopia has large land area, complex and changeful terrains and very ample natural
resources. Thereof mineral resources with proven reserves include gold, platinum, nickel,
copper, iron, coal, tantalum, silicon, sylvite, phosphate, marble, limestone, oil and natural gas,
but a large part of local land hasnt been prospected yet, so the actual resource reserves are
to be confirmed by future prospecting.
Ethiopia, known as Water Tower of East Africa, has numerous rivers and lakes and ample
water resources. Ethiopian Highlands in the middle is the origin of many North African rivers,
and most of such rivers, e.g. Blue Nile River, Atbara River, Sobat River, Shebeli River and
Jubba River, radiate to all directions. In dry season, rainwater is scarce, river level drops, and
flow quantity is small. In rainy season, rainfalls soar, river level rises, flow quantity increases,
and flow velocity accelerates, causing flood to many river valley regions in the lower reach.
Regular flooding of main rivers above makes the farmland in lower-reach river valley fertile,
provides favorable natural conditions for local agriculture and gestates the long-history brilliant
civilization of Nile Basin in North Africa.
At present, Ethiopia has built up hydropower stations with different installed capacities, e.g.
Gilgel Gibe II, Tekeze, Gilgel Gibe I, Tis Abay I, Tis Abay II, Finchaa, Awash III, Awash II and
Koka. According to plan, Ethiopia will construct large power stations such as Gilgel Gibe III
and Gilgel Gibe IV to make further use of hydropower energy.

1.3

Technical Route of Report Preparation


According to the opinions of both the Chinese Party and the Ethiopian Party on the project, the
planning projects report preparation and technical requirements will mainly refer to related
Chinese national and international codes and specifications.
Objectives and route of the planning mainly include
(1)

Determination of planning principles and methods;

(2)

Implementation of Ethiopian nationwide wind and solar energy resource assessment;

(3)

Power consumption balance analysis and estimation of wind and solar power
consumption of Ethiopian national power grid in different planning periods according to
grid data;

(4)

Selection and recommendation of potential sites for wind farms and solar power stations
according to resource distribution, power grids, road traffic and other conditions;

(5)

Further integrated comparison of farm/station sites and their regional characteristics


according to preliminary selection results, recommendation of development sequence of
preliminarily selected farm/station sites in consideration of national overall economic
requirements, grid consumption ability and others, introduction to preferred farm/station
sites and rough estimation of investment of preferred farm/station sites;

(6)

Preliminary policy analysis and advising in combination with planning requirements and

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

the actual need of wind and solar energy development and utilization in Ethiopia;
(7)

Suggestions on future work.

Technical flow of the planning is detailed in Fig. 1.3-1.

Figure 1.3-1 Technical Flow Chart of Planning

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

2.

General Conditions of Planning

2.1

Target of Planning
Ethiopia has unproven large-scale developable oil, natural gas, coal and other primary fossil
energy resources, so Ethiopian energy policy is mainly oriented to development and utilization
of hydropower, wind power, solar energy and other renewable energy resources. At present,
hydropower has greatly developed in Ethiopia and become main source of national energy
supply.
Ethiopian Government recently issued national energy development strategy to encourage the
development of domestic renewable energy resources inclusive of wind and solar energy, so
as to realize the objective of Energy Diversification and guarantee energy security. In recent
years, with global warming and frequent appearance of extreme drought, sometimes
reservoirs cant normally store water and generate power at full load in rainy season, as
seriously affects Ethiopian energy supply dominated by hydropower, causes power shortage
at many places and hampers social and economic development. On the other hand, wind
energy resources and hydropower resources are very complementary, seasons without
rainfall (i.e. droughty seasons) have high natural wind speed and very strong solar radiation,
and the alternation between droughty season and rainy season form the good
complementation among hydropower, wind power and solar power. Therefore wind and solar
power generation projects have very strong resource advantage and actual demand in
Ethiopia.
Currently Ethiopian national grid construction is relatively lagged, and many regions are still
not covered by power grid. Increase of national grid coverage rate and decrease of electricity
free villages depend on construction and generalization of wind and solar power generation
project. In current hydropower-dominated energy supply mode, the support of large scale
intensive grids is essential for increasing grid coverage rate to effectively transmit power to
numerous families. Therefore, large scale development of wind and solar energy resources
and construction of wind and solar power generation project near a power load center can
effectively reduce the restriction of power grid to power transmission and power loss, supply
power for remote regions not covered by master grid, significantly increase social and
economic benefits and improve peoples living standard, and is also the optimal choice under
existing technical conditions.
The master planning study of wind and solar power generation projects is important for
identifying the gross amount and distribution condition of wind and solar energy resources,
construction conditions, cost and other limiting factors of wind and solar power generation
projects. Scientific and reasonable planning is very necessary for promoting the scientific,
reasonable and orderly development and construction of wind and solar power generation
projects and important for harmony and consistency of energy construction projects involved
in wind and solar energy with national economic development strategy. This is where the
purpose of the planning at.

2.2

Principles of Plan Preparation


7

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

(1)

Consistent with the overall macroscopic economy planning of Ethiopia


The planning shall be carried out in a scientific and reasonable way so that its scientific,
instructive and feasible through fully considering the characteristics of social and
economic development of Ethiopia, referring to the Growth and Transformation Plan
formulated by Ethiopian Government and in close combination with national power
development plan. It is an important request to assure the planning to be scientific,
applicability and feasibility.

(2)

Wind and solar energy development shall be in harmony with social and economic
development.
Ample wind and solar energy resources of Ethiopia shall be reasonably developed and
utilized, project layout shall be in harmony with the social and economic development of
Ethiopia, project site selection shall be consistent with local social and economic
development as possible, meanwhile, local economic development level, future
development room and other factors shall be concurrently considered for project
development, power demand and bearing capacity of regional social and economic
development and others shall be taken into account.

(3)

Site selection of wind and solar energy development shall be connected with power grid
development planning.
When the installed capacity of wind and solar power generation of a region forms certain
scale, especially its scale reaches certain weight in total installed capacity of power grid,
intermittence and instability of wind and solar power generation may cause some
particular problems in the grid, even significantly affect the grid. If regional wind and
solar power is mainly outputted, the connection with a power grid sending out its power
to others or the influence on a power grid receiving power from others must be taken into
account. If the development scale of wind or solar energy planning is in large scale and
cant be fully absorbed at the local place, the problem arising from sending out its power
will be prominent. Therefore, convenience and feasibility of access conditions must be
considered for the site selection of wind and solar energy development, and such site
selection shall be connected with related power grid development plan as possible.

(4)

Resource development shall be in harmony with environmental protection.


Importance shall be attached to the harmony between resource development and
ecologic and environmental protection for the development of Ethiopian wind and solar
power generation project to realize scientific planning, reasonable layout and orderly
development. A project site shall be far away from natural reserves and historic and
cultural protection areas as possible. Cultivated land occupancy shall be reduced or
avoided as possible to protect cultivated land resources. A project site shall be far away
from residential areas as possible to avoid or minimize the impacts of noise, light
shadow and others generated by wind turbine operation on local residents. The impacts
of wind and solar power generation facilities on other buildings and aircrafts shall be
avoided or minimized as possible.
Except for the planning principles above, the plan preparation shall also follow the work

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

thought below:
The principle of determining a plan according to resource and project according to
plan shall be followed;
On the basis of fully considering the bearing capacity of Ethiopian resources and
environment, the principle of Effective utilization, protecting environment, reasonable
layout, orderly development, suiting measures to local conditions, staged
implementation and planning before development shall be followed;
The principle of Combining dispersed development with centralized development
shall be followed to promote local economic development and realize overall planning
and reasonable development;
The relation between power generation benefits and engineering cost shall be
properly treated to make full and reasonable use of topographic conditions;
Wind and solar energy project planning shall be dominated by grid-connected large
scale power generation project.

2.3

Basis of Plan Preparation


In wind energy development and utilization, China has had a complete set of mature techincal
codes and specifications, mainly involved in regional planning, wind resource measurement
and assessment, site selection, pre-feasibility study, feasibility study, investment estimate,
utilization of land in construction, environmental protection management, wind turbine
foundation design, etc.
In solar energy development and utilization, China is actively sorting and completing with
related document specifications. Although such specificaitons havent been formally issued
yet, they have taken shape.
The master planning project will mainly accord with existing Chinese technical standards and
engineering specifications of wind and solar energy utilization, meanwhile, also refer to related
European and American standards and specifications.
Main related technial standards and engineering specificaitons are as follows:
(1)

Fa Gai Neng Yuan [2004] No. 865 National Technical Specifications of Wind Energy
Resource Assessment

(2)

Fa Gai Neng Yuan [2005] No. 899 Method of Preparation of Wind Farm Project Planning
Report

(3)

GB/T18710-2002 Methodology of Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Wind Farm

(4)

Fa Gai Neng Yuan [2003] No. 1403 Technical Specifications of Wind Energy Resource
Measurement and Assessment for Wind Farm

(5)

Fa Gai Neng Yuan [2003] No. 1403 Technical Specifications of Site Selection for Wind
Farm

(6)

Fa Gai Neng Yuan [2003] No. 1403 Technical Specifications of Engineering Geologic

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Investigation for Wind Farm


(7)

Fa Gai Neng Yuan [2005] No. 1511 Interim Measures for Use of Land in Construction
and Environmental Protection Management of Wind Farm

(8)

GD001-2011 Method of Preparation of Photovoltaic Power Generation Project Planning


Report (Interim)

(9)

GD002-2011 Method of Preparation of Photovoltaic Power Generation Project


Pre-feasibility Study Report (Interim)

(10) GD003-2011 Method of Preparation of Photovoltaic Power Generation Project


Feasibility Study Report (Interim)
(11) Technical Specifications of Solar Energy Resource Measurement and Assessment
(Draft for Approval)
(12) Notification of Bid Negotiation for Planning of Aid to Ethiopia in Wind and Solar Energy
Power Generation (Bid No. 2010-159)
(13) Memorandum of Understanding for Financing and Implementation of Ethiopian Wind
Power & Solar Master Plan Project
(14) Technical Proposal of Ethiopian Wind and Solar Power Generation Planning
(15) Documents exchanged between Chinese government and Ethiopian government in
respect of wind and solar power generation planning project.

2.4

Scope of Planning
The master planning covers all territorys of Ethiopia. Thereof, in consideration of diversified
influencing factors such as population, economic development and power consumption, key
areas of wind and solar energy project shall be mainly sited in populous regions with
developed economy and heavy power load, e.g. capital Addis Ababa and its peripheral regions,
central city of every state or chartered city and its peripheral regions.

2.5

Target Years of Planning


The planning takes 2010 as reference year and has two target years 2015 and 2020. In
addition, long-term project reserve and work outlook were also discussed during the planning.

2.6

Arrangement of Construction Project


Key points of planning of wind farm and solar power station construction project include site
layout, construction scale and construction sequence.
On the basis of overall layout of planning, the arrangement of wind farms and solar power
stations in short and medium-term target years of planning 2015 and 2020 shall accord with
the principles and conditions as follows:
(1)

Conforming to scope of planning: Short and medium-term new construction projects


shall be arranged in combination with distribution of projects under construction to
harmonize and balance the overall layout of planning;

10

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

(2)

Highlighting the key points of construction: Short and medium-term wind farm and solar
power station construction projects shall have relatively superior development
conditions and be favorable for promoting subsequent work from point to plane;

(3)

Excellent economic indicators and obvious social and ecological benefits: Short and
medium-term new construction projects shall have good indicators of wind or solar
energy resources, simple engineering construction conditions and low environmental
impacts to guarantee excellent economic, social and environmental benefits;

(4)

Favorable for the optimization of grid system structure: Short and medium-term wind
farm and solar power station construction projects shall be arranged in consideration of
reasonable planning and basic requirements of power grid system to realize the organic
combination and overall optimization and improvement of resource point selection and
power grid development.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

3.

Feasibility and Necessity of Wind and Solar Energy Development


in Ethiopia

3.1

Feasibility Analysis of Wind and Solar Energy Development


Energy resources are the basic drive of development of entire mankind and growth of world
economy, also basis of survival of mankind. The history of energy utilization is also the history
of the mankinds recognizing and conquering nature.
The history of the mankinds energy utilization is in five stages, including (1) Discovery and
utilization of fire; (2) Utilization of animal power, wind power, hydropower and other natural
powers; (3) Fossil fuel development and heat utilization; (4) Discovery, development and
utilization of electricity; (5) Discovery, development and utilization of atomic energy. The
emerge of steam engine sped up the industrial revolution as of the 18th Century and promoted
large scale coal mining. In the second half of the 19th Century, energy conversion appeared for
the first time in the history of mankind. In world primary energy consumption structure, coal
accounted for 24% in 1860, and the weight rose diagram to 62% in 1920. Then the world
entered the Age of Coal. In 1870s, electric power substituted for steam engine, electrical
industry developed rapidly, and the weight of coal in world energy consumption structure
decreased gradually. In 1965, oil first ranked on the top instead of coal, and the world entered
the Age of Oil. In 1970s, oil accounted for 54% in world energy consumption structure,
natural gas and coal accounted for 18% respectively, and oil & gas accounted for as much as
72% together. Therein oil substituted coal and finished the second energy conversion.
However, the earths reserves of oil, coal, natural gas and other fossil energy resources are
limited. Huge consumption of oil and coal causes serious energy shortage, meanwhile,
triggers major environmental and social problems. The use of fossil fuel causes the emission
of much carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, global warming, sea level rise and other
serious environmental problems, threatening the survival and development of mankind. It has
been a primary common issue for energy utilization of entire mankind to secure energy supply,
reduce greenhouse gas emission and promote sustainable development.
With the increase of world population and the rise of energy utilization level, global energy
consumption will further increase, and its foreseeable that the increase of energy
consumption will be startling in future. In order to secure energy supply, the scope of energy
utilization must be extended, i.e. changing fossil energy consumption mode dominated by oil
and coal to diversified energy supply structure. New energy resources, inclusive of nuclear
energy, wind energy, solar energy, tide, sea wave, sea current, seawater temperature
difference, seawater salinity gradient and geothermal heat, shall be developed, and water
energy development and utilization shall be enhanced. Thereof, renewable energy
represented by wind and solar energy as well as nuclear energy is the most promising.
Renewable energy development is important for every country to secure energy supply,
respond to global climate change and reduce greenhouse gases, also major part of realizing
sustainable energy supply and implementing environment and resource-friendly development
strategy. Wind energy resource is the most promising for large scale industrial development

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

after hydropower resource among renewable energy resources. In recent scores of years, with
the advance of wind energy utilization technologies, wind energy development has entered a
stage of rapid growth, and global installed capacity of wind energy has quickly increased.
Meanwhile, with the stimulation of huge market demand, global solar energy development and
utilization have also shown a new upsurge. In recent years, the change of production
technology and cost of crystalline silicon and other core components for solar photovoltaic
power generation has sharply cut the cost of solar photovoltaic power generation and
gradually created the basic conditions for the competition with conventional energy resources.
3.1.1

Analysis of world wind power technology and market


At present, wind energy utilization technologies centering on wind turbine manufacturing
technology and large scale wind power grid-connection technology have been increasingly
mature, market system, laws and regulations and technical standard system related to wind
energy utilization have been increasingly complete, providing strong guarantee for large scale
wind energy development of current stage. Technical development trend of wind power
generation equipment is mainly embodied in the respects as follows:
(1)

Large size of wind turbine


In 1980s, wind turbines had unit power of about 50kW and hub height less than 20m. In
early 1990s, unit capacity of wind turbine rose to 100 to 300 kW; in middle 1990s, unit
capacity of wind turbine rose to 500 to 750 kW, and hub height of wind turbine rose to
50m. In the new century, megawatt scale wind turbine develops rapidly, related
technologies have been increasingly mature and reliable and commercialized.
Nowadays, no matter in Europe, America or China, MW scale wind turbine has become
main stream machine model. Presently a vast majority of existing Chinese wind farms
have been adopting wind turbines with unit capacity of 1.5MW and above. The E-126
wind turbine produced by German Enercon and installed in Emden of Germany, the
overland wind turbine in service with the largest unit capacity, has unit capacity up to
7MW, hub height up to 135m, impeller diameter up to 126m and total height up to 198m.

(2)

Variable propeller pitch technology as main stream


In the past, most wind turbines were in fixed blade stall-controlled mode and had simple
control and good reliability, but their constant rotating speed couldn't well adapt to wind
speed change, moreover, rated wind speed was high under the restriction of blade stall
performance, generating power dropped once wind speed exceeds its rated value, and
wind energy utilization efficiency was low.
At present, variable propeller pitch mode has gradually become main stream. By virtue
of variable propeller pitch regulation technology, angle of blade can adjust upon the
change of wind speed, and blade angle of attack can remain in certain reasonable range
when wind speed changes. At the wind speed above its rated value, the output power
can be still stable.
Normally variable speed wind turbine adopts doubly fed asynchronous generator or
multipolar synchronous generator and variable speed, makes blade tip speed ratio of
wind turbine approach its optimal value through adjusting the rotating speed of

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

generator according to the change of wind speed, further, maximize wind energy
utilization and raise the operation efficiency of wind turbine.
(3)

More and more market share of direct drive wind turbine generator
Currently wind turbines have three main drive modes, i.e. multistage speed increasing
gear box drive doubly fed asynchronous generator, briefly called doubly fed mode;
wind rotor direct drive multipolar synchronous generator, briefly called Direct drive
mode or gear box free mode; single stage speed acceleration device plus multipolar
synchronous generator technology, briefly called Hybrid mode. In view of international
trend, direct drive wind turbine occupies more and more market share for its small
energy loss of driving chain, low maintenance cost and good reliability.

(4)

Offshore wind power technology in practical application stage


Offshore wind speed is stable and higher than overland wind speed, as provides ampler
wind energy resources, but increases the difficulty in wind energy development. With the
improvement of wind power technologies, offshore wind power development has a very
broad outlook.
Normally, under the same installed capacity, offshore wind power generation cost is 60%
up overland wind power generation cost, but annual offshore wind power output is more
than annual overland wind power output by more than 50%. In addition, offshore wind
speed is higher than overland wind speed by 20%, and offshore calm winds are rare,
wind energy can be increased by 72%, favorable for increasing power output, moreover,
offshore turbine tower is not high, offshore air flow is stable than overland air flow,
offshore wind turbine has smaller fatigue load and service life longer than that of
overland wind turbine by 25%; offshore wind turbines are far away from land, have small
noise, light and shadow impacts and freely adjustable rotating speed, even attract fish
shoals for inhabit; offshore land requisition is simpler than overland land requisition and
seldom causes disputes; offshore wind farm may have larger scale and easily form
economy of scale and shorten investment recovery period.
At present, offshore wind farm has become a new field of international offshore wind
power development.

(5)

Obvious improvement of the reliability of wind turbine generators


Application of new technologies and materials and improvement of manufacturing
techniques greatly boost the reliability of wind turbine generators. Meanwhile, control
and monitoring technologies are continuously perfected, and the application of
advanced control laws, fast nonimpact grid connection technology, remote monitoring
technology, independent blade control technology, isolated wind turbine, weak power
network operation and other technologies has increased annual utilization rate of wind
turbine generators from about 50% in 1980s to current more than 95%, and wind power
generation has become very reliable.

Currently global wind power market keeps the tendency of rapid growth. According to related
statistics of World Wind Energy Association, the global installed capacity of wind turbines has
grown by about 30% every year on average for many years. By late 2010, global accumulative
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

installed capacity of wind turbines had reached 194.39GW, 22.5% up that of 2009. In 2010,
the new installed capacity of global wind power industry drove the output value of about USD
65 billion and increased 500,000 jobs. At present, the world has had three major wind power
markets in North America, Europe and Asia respectively. Thereof, American, German and
Chinese markets are the most representative. In 2010, China newly increased the installed
capacity of 16.5GW, surpassed America and became the most quickly growing wind power
market. Presently China has become world largest wind power market, with accumulative
installed capacity up to 42.3GW.
In 2010, African wind power market scale also expanded in a full grown way. Installed capacity
of wind power continuously expanded in Morocco, Egypt and Tunis, thereof Egypt had new
installed capacity of 120MW and ranked in front in Africa for its accumulative installed capacity
of 550MW.
3.1.2

Market development analysis of world solar power technologies


Nowadays, a vast majority of energy used by the mankind directly or indirectly comes from the
sun. Coal, oil, natural gas and other fossil fuels were formed by ancient animal and plant
bodies buried in the ground after a long geological age, in essence, they are also solar energy
resources retained by ancient organisms. In narrow sense, Solar energy means directly
utilizable radiant energy of the sun. Solar energy is primary and renewable energy with ample
resources and no pollution. Large scale development and utilization of solar energy will create
a bran-new life style for the mankind.
At present, large scale utilization of solar energy by the mankind is mainly in two forms, i.e.
solar photothermal utilization and solar power generation. Solar photothermal utilization
includes solar water heater, solar greenhouse, etc. Solar power generation mainly includes
solar photovoltaic power generation and solar photothermal power generation.
By the way, in respect that solar photothermal power generation technologies is relatively
immature than photovoltaic power generation technologies, the report will limit the
arrangement of planning project of solar grid-connected power generation of Ethiopia to solar
photovoltaic power generation technology.
Solar photovoltaic power generation technology is a technical method that solar photovoltaic
cell is used for directly converting solar energy into electric energy according to photovoltaic
effect principle. No matter separate grid or grid-connected power generation used,
photovoltaic power generation system is mainly composed of solar photovoltaic module,
controller and inverter. Entire photovoltaic system is mainly made up of electronic components
and not involved in any mechanical components, so photovoltaic power generation equipment
is reliable and stable and has long life and simple installation and maintenance.
The basicest elements of solar photovoltaic power generation are solar cells (panels),
inclusive of monocrystal silicon cell, polysilicon cell, amorphous silicon cell and hull cell.
Currently monocrystal silicon and polysilicon cells are most widely used, photoelectric
conversion efficiency of monocrystal silicon cell is higher than that of polysilicon cell, but
monocrystal silicon cell is at a higher cost.
Currently solar photovoltaic power generation technology is relatively mature, and the core

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

problem of large scale development and utilization is the price of raw silicon for photovoltaic
cell making. Efficient solar module can be made only if enough high quality raw silicon is used.
Price of high purity raw silicon directly influences the development cost of solar project. Its
foreseeable that, with the advance of technologies and the expansion of market demand,
there will be large room for the cost cutting of solar photovoltaic power generation, and large
scale development and utilization of solar photovoltaic power station will have a broad outlook.
In recent years, the advance of photovoltaic technologies is mainly embodied in continuous
improvement of cell efficiency, continuous decrease of silicon slice thickness, continuous
improvement of industrialized technologies and others, and the improvement of such
technologies is decisive for the cost cutting of photovoltaic power generation.
According to the relation with power grid, solar photovoltaic power generation is in two forms
including grid-connected power generation and off-grid power generation. According to layout
form, solar photovoltaic power generation may adopt separate power station or power station
in combination with building. Therefore solar photovoltaic power generation has strong
adaptability, flexible and diversified application modes, and its development scale may flexibly
change according to demand. In early stage, distributed power generation mode in
combination with building is dominant, but large scale grid-connected independent power
station weighs more and more recently.
In the context of world energy development, many countries encourage the development of
solar photovoltaic industry. German government launched Million Solar Roofs Initiative and
passed Act of New and Renewable Energy Resources to guarantee grid connection at high
electricity price for solar power generation, directly propelling the demand growth of solar
power generation in Germany. Japanese government provides overall support, enterprises
actively follow, the masses powerfully coordinate, policies, technologies and market promote
each other, as not only effectively cuts the cost of photovoltaic power generation and
increases the market competitiveness of photovoltaic power generation but also develops
product application market, continuously improves production capability and forms mutual
balance and benign interaction between different parts of industry chain. America also
implements Million Solar Roofs Initiative to promote the development of solar energy
utilization inclusive of solar photovoltaic power generation.
According to related forecast of International Energy Agency (IEA), by 2050, photovoltaic
power generation will have accounted for 11% in global power supply, and then global
photovoltaic power generation capacity will have approached 3,000GW, annual power output
will have reached 4,500TWh, photovoltaic power generation capacity will have increased by
nearly 100 times relative to that of 35GW in 2010. Here from it can be seen that photovoltaic
power generation has very broad development outlook and room.
3.1.3

Technical feasibility analysis of wind and solar power generation


In view of actuality of wind and solar energy development of every country, large scale
development needs two conditions inclusive of resources and power grid. On one hand, wind
and solar energy resources must be ample enough. Resource scarcity is bound to cause
overhigh development cost and uneconomicalness and hamper large scale development.
Meanwhile, both wind power generation and solar power generation are intermittent and

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

instable, so their large scale development inevitably needs the coordination with a large power
grid to effectively avoid the impact of instability on power grid and guarantee the normal
operation of power grid and station.
Ethiopia has ample wind and solar energy resources, its main load areas are basically
interconnected, moreover, its national power grid is dominated by hydropower with excellent
controllability. Therefore the large scale utilization of wind and solar energy has good
conditions in Ethiopia.
In summary, it can be concluded that, wind and solar energy development in Ethiopia is fully
feasible in technology and has a broad outlook upon the strong support of highly globalized
wind power technologies and solar photovoltaic power generation technologies and
manufacturing market as well as favorable domestic development conditions.

3.2

Necessity Analysis of Wind and Solar Energy Development


In order to effectively eliminate poverty, promote development and realize industrialization,
Ethiopian Government formulated Growth and Transformation Plan for propeling the allsided
development of Ethiopian society and economy and the overall improvement of peoples living
standard and happiness index. Thereof the advance of various economic fields inclusive of
agriculture, industry, transportation and mining depends on the powerful support of energy
industry, and the development of energy industry is important part of overall growth and
improvement of society and economy. The Growth and Transformation Plan incorporates the
development of renewable energy inclusive of wind and solar energy into national energy
strategy for the major reasons as follows:
(1)

Wind and solar energy development can effectively relieve power shortage.
Through rural electrification plan, Ethiopian Government increased the total number of
electrified villages and towns to 5,163. But its necessary to further improve rural
electrification level accoridng to current situation. Hydropower and other power
construction are lagged, so power shortage still exsists, and its still difficult to meet the
basic power demand of rural electrification. Meanwhile, towns and other regions
covered by power grid are faced with increasinbly prominent power shortage with the
growth of local economy and rapid rise of power demand. In order to effectively relieve
power shortage, power construction must be sped up, but hydropower projects cant
effectively relieve power shortage in a short time for their difficult construction and
financing, long construction period and limited distribution. In respect of this, wind and
solar power generation becomes a solution for relieving power shortage.

(2)

Wind and solar energy development is essential for guarnateeing energy security and
relealizing energy diversification.
Ethiopian energy structure is dominated by hydropower. Ethiopia is rich in hydropower
resources but relatively scarce of oil, coal and natural gas reserves. Currently the
installed capacity of hydropwer accounts for more than 90% of national total installed
capacity, and the rest of national total installed capacity is for geothermal power
generation and diesel power generation.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Hydropower resource is highly developable renewable resource and has the merits such
as mature technology, low generating cost, clean and no greenhouse gas emission, but
its affected by change of season and extreme weathers. In recent years, global warming
causes frequent appearance of extreme drought, sometimes reservoirs cant normally
store water or generate power at full load in rainy season, as seriously affects local
power supply and causes power shortage at many places.
Ethiopian wind energy resources and water energy resources are very complementary,
seasons without rainfall (i.e. droughty seasons) have high natural wind speed and very
strong solar radiation, and the alternation between droughty season and rainy season
form the good complementation among hydropower, wind power and solar power. Large
scale development of wind and solar energy can effectively overcome the deficiency of
hydropower development.
Therefore large scale development of wind and solar energy is essential for Ethiopia to
exert its resource potential and guarantee energy security.
(3)

Wind and solar energy development is necessary for promoting natinal economic
development and improving peoples living standard.
Ethiopia takes agriculture and animal husbandry as main economic basis, with main
agricultural products inclusive of teff, barley, wheat, sorghum, corn and other grain crops
and main economic crops including coffee, beans and peas, oil chrysanthemum, cole,
cotton, sesame, flax and chat. Ethiopian industrial products mainly include food, textile,
leather, shoes, chemical, timber, cement, oil, iron and steel, gold, platinum, manganese
and other minerals.
In recent years, Ethiopian Government has formulated a series of policies for promoting
national economic development, especially implemented Sustainable Development and
Poverty Reduction Programme (SDPRP) and Plan for Accelerated and Sustained
Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) as well as Growth and Transformation Plan
(GTP), and its overall economy has entered a track of rapid growth. In the past five
years, the annual average growth rate of real GDP reached 11%, and those of
agriculture, industry and service sector were 8.4%, 10% and 14.6% respectively.
However, in view of current situation, there is still a long way to go for realizing the
long-term objective of national GTP.
Powerful development of wind and solar energy resources can promote the economic
development of Ethiopia. Power industry is important basis of national economy, and the
technical innovation and overall improvement of power industry can greatly propel the
development of other economic sectors. Powerful development of wind and solar power
generation projects can promote employment and increase national fiscal revenue.
According to current distribution of Ethiopian wind and solar energy resources, many
future power generation projects may be arranged in some underdeveloped regions to
promote local economic development, increase power supply and change the concept
of life of local people.
Ethiopia is rich in renewable energy resources, so related government departments
think about how to change resource advantage to economic advantage all the time.
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Ethiopian power department is actively planning the interconnection between Ethiopian


national power grid with the power grids of Djibouti, Sudan, Kenya and other peripheral
countries to realize power export for earning foreign currency and promote national
economic development. Undoubtedly wind and solar power generation can effectively
strengthen the resource advantage and lay a firmer practical foundation for Ethiopian
power export.
(4)

Wind and solar energy development can effectively optimizing grid structure and power
layout.
Currently Ethiopian national power grid mainly relies on several large hydropower
stations for power supply to the whole country. Tekeze Hydropower Station in the north,
Gelgel Gibe II Hydropower Station and future Gelgel Gibe III Hydropower Station being
planned in the southwest are all far away from main load areas and need a high voltage
transmission network, increasing power utilization cost and causing large line loss. In
addition, such highly centralized power supply mode makes the increase of grid
coverage rate more difficult. In respect of this, the construction of wind and solar
photovoltaic power generation system can effectively improve power system layout and
relieve electric network tide transmission pressure, meanwhile, the construction of small
wind and solar photovoltaic power generation projects can build up a micro-network
power system and supply power to some remote regions without electricity access to
large power grids.

(5)

Wind and solar energy development is important for responding to global climate
change and realizing sustainable development.
The use of fossil fuel inclusive of coal and oil by the mankind as of industrial revolution
emits much carbon dioxide, aggravates greenhouse effect, and causes frequent seal
level rise, drought, rainstorm, hurricane, cold wave and other extreme weathers, trigging
serious environmental problems. In order to realize the sustainable development of
mankind, current energy consumption mode dominated by fossil fuel must be changed
to sharply reduce carbon dioxide emission. The United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change is the common action guideline formulated by all countries for
reducing carbon dioxide emission, responding to global climate change and protecting
the common homestead of mankind.
Ethiopia is a developing country not obliged to assume mandatory emission reduction,
moreover, current Ethiopian energy structure dominated by hydropower has made
contribution to global carbon dioxide emission reduction, however, further development
of wind and solar energy resources and other renewable resources can better conform
to the trend of international energy development and help Ethiopia build up a good
image of Green development on the international stage, take strategic position for the
gaming on international topics concerning carbon emission reduction and get more
benefits from carbon emission transaction.

3.3

General Situation of Ethiopian Renewable Energy Development


Ethiopia, an East African country rich in renewable energy reserves, is very willing to develop

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

its renewable energy resources. Currently hydropower dominates the power supply of
Ethiopia. In order to diversify energy supply, relieve power shortage and decrease regions
without electricity access, Ethiopian Government put forward a strategic plan of powerfully
developing renewable energy resources in GTP.
At present, there hasnt been any large scale wind and solar PV (photovoltaic) projects put into
commercial operation in Ethiopia yet, but two wind farms Ashegoda in Mekele and Adama in
Nazret are under construction. Grid-connected solar PV power generation projects are still
blank in Ethiopia.
Ethiopian nationwide wind resource census survey is still in early stage. Only some regions
have standard wind masts, there are only scores of such masts in the whole country, and the
representativeness of these masts is rather limited relative to vast wind resource enriching
regions in the country.
In 2007, Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) organized by United
Nations Environment Program (UNEP) finished Ethiopian solar and wind resource
assessment, as the second systematic assessment of nationwide solar and wind resources of
Ethiopia.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

4.

Assessment on Wind and Solar Energy Resources in Ethiopia

4.1

General Climatic Conditions of Ethiopia and Genetic Analysis of Local Wind


and Solar Energy Resources
Ethiopia is located in the east of continental Africa and to the southwest of the Red Sea. There
are wide Ethiopian Highlands, extended East African Great Rift Valley as well as hot dry
depression and desert in the country, near 3000m in average altitude. Southeast Ethiopia is
low Somali Highland, and theres long and narrow plain in coastal part of Northeast Ethiopia.
Diagonally running through central Ethiopia, East African Great Rift Valley consists of chasmal
valley, series of lakes, volcanoes and hotsprings. Although the country is located in tropic, due
to long span of latitude and large difference in altitude, there are significant temperature
differences among different parts. Temperature there is 13 (average annual), ranging from
9.7 to 25.5. Indicated as main rainy season (Kiremt, June~September), dry season (Bega,
October~January) and small rainy season (Belg, February~May), annual precipitation there
decreases from the west plateau (1500mm) to the northeast part and the southeast part
(100mm). Tropical savanna climate and subtropical forest climate cover most part of the
country, in addition with mountain climate and tropical desert climate. Desert and semi-desert
cover about 1/4 of the country.
Ethiopia spans latitudes from 3N to 14N. Due to the long span, every winter, with southward
movements of direct solar radiation point and subtropical high pressure in North Africa, the
whole country is controlled by deep east air flow in the south of subtropical high pressure
(namely controlled by the northeast trade wind). The trade wind is continuously strong and
stable in direction. Weather of the season is sunny and dry with strong radiation, bringing rich
wind energy and solar energy. With coming of summer in Northern Hemisphere, subtropical
high pressure in North Africa moves northwards thus trade-wind zone also moves northwards.
At this, intertropical convergency zone in South Ethiopia (the equator) moves northwards to
control the country thus bring plentiful precipitation. With increase in precipitation, solar
radiation decreases.
Seasonal conversion in large-scope planetary scale weather system is the essential reason
for formation and change of wind energy and solar energy in Ethiopia. See also Figure 4.1-1
and Figure 4.1-2.
Unique complex topographic conditions of Ethiopia are also important cause of formation of
wind and solar energy resources. Because of regional differences in latitude, altitude,
topographic conditions, earth surface conditions and other external conditions, wind and solar
energy resources have complicated and diversified compositions and distribution
characteristics in different regions of Ethiopia.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.1-1 Schematic Diagram of Ground Circulation Situation of Africa in July

Figure 4.1-2 Schematic Diagram of Ground Circulation Situation of Africa in December

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

In light of the distribution characteristics of wind energy resources, there are four major
regions including the Great Rift Valley zone, mid north highland region, west low-relief terrain
and east Somali plain region.
World famous East African Great Rift Valley passes through Ethiopia from northeast to
southwest and extends for more than 1,000 km. Gradually rising stepwise tableland and tall
and straight gibbous cliffs on both sides of the rift valley, as such large terrain transformations,
greatly influence the wind speed on surface layer. The basic strike of East African Great Rift
Valley in Ethiopia is northeast to southwest and approaches the wind direction of northeast
trade wind, moreover, under the venturi effect of the Great Rift Valley and the forced
acceleration action of megarelief, vast regions rich in wind energy resources form in the rift
zone and on both sides of it, hence the regions above become major target region of wind
power development in Ethiopia.
Mid north highland region of Ethiopia mainly includes the middle of Oromia State, most of
Armhara State and the mid east of Tigray State. The region is the principal part of Ethiopian
highlands. In the region, plateau tablelands and mountainous lands are widely distributed,
many zones rich in wind energy resources usually form in high relief areas, but its very difficult
to develop and utilize such resources because of complex terrains there.
West Ethiopia mainly means the large area near the boundaries of Sudan and South Sudan.
With the gradual fall of relief in the region, the forced acceleration action of terrain weakens,
and the wind speed on surface layer is small, so wind energy resources are scarce.
Ethiopian east plain region mainly means a large area of Somali region. The region is broad
and has small relief. All year round, the region has strong wind power under the alternative
influence of northeast trade wind zone and southwest monsoon zone. Hence its richest in
wind energy resource reserve in Ethiopia.
Solar radiation resource is influenced by solar elevation angle, altitude and surface layer
weather conditions, etc. Ethiopia is in a low latitude region with approximately perpendicular
incidence of sunshine so that, in general, its very rich in solar radiation resource. However,
solar radiation resources are distributed differently in different regions with the change of
terrain height and weather conditions. To be exact, solar radiation resources are mainly
distributed north highland region, mid south region and east Somali state plain region.
North highland region is under the influence of downward flows of northeast trade wind on the
south side of subtropical anticyclone. It has dry air and few clouds, moreover, plateaus have
relatively thin air with low water vapor content, so solar radiation is very strong there and forms
ample solar wind energy resources.
Mid south region has lower latitude, but it has rich precipitation, high water vapor content and
large cloud amount, so its solar radiation is obviously weakened, forming relatively poor solar
resources.
East Somali state plain region is near an ocean and has high water vapor content in air and
large cloud amount, forming relatively weak radiation resources.

4.2

Common Methods for Wind and Solar Energy Resource Assessment

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

4.2.1

Technical methods for wind energy resource assessment


Wind energy is the kinetic energy contained in horizontal air flow. A common way of wind
energy utilization is to convert the horizontal kinetic energy of air into electric energy by wind
turbine generator.
In order to meet the demand for large scale wind energy development, first accurate resource
assessment shall be conducted. At present, main common technical methods for wind energy
resource assessment include assessment based on observation data of meteorological
stations, assessment based on observation data of wind masts and assessment based on
numerical simulation technique.
(1)

Assessment based on observation data of meteorological station


In order to explore the law of air motion and accurately forecast weather, human beings
started to observe air motion and its changes long ago. At present, through the
concerted efforts of all countries, the globe has established a complete weather
observation network for uninterrupted air observation and accumulated a lot of
observation data. For example, China has more than 2,000 basic observation stations,
and most of them have been in service for more than a half century. Ethiopia has
hundreds of various meteorological observation stations.
Its the directest and simplest assessment method for wind energy resource assessment
to use the data of meteorological stations. America has ever acquired the wind energy
resource distribution 80m above the ground according to surface observation data and
meteorological sounding data. Denmark has ever acquired the vertical profile of wind
speed changing with height variation and gave the wind energy resource distribution
50m above the ground through calculation based on the modification of observation data
of meteorological stations and in consideration of the surface roughness of every
meteorological station. China has conducted 3 wind energy resource censuses,
calculated the wind energy parameters inclusive of average wind speed and Weibull
parameter of every meteorological station and gave the wind energy resource
distribution 10m above the ground by statistical methods based on historical wind
measurement data. But the method has obvious shortcomings as follows: First, the wind
measuring height of most meteorological stations is only 10m, and the height of wind
measuring instruments in most Ethiopian meteorological stations is only about 2m, the
change of wind speed on surface layer with height variation depends on local terrain and
ground surface conditions as well as local atmospheric stability to a very large extent, so
its rather difficult to accurately deduce the wind data of turbine hub height according to
related data at the height of 10m; second, the spatial distribution density of
meteorological stations can hardly meet the need of assessing the developable wind
energy resources of a region; third, many meteorological stations have greatly changing
ambient environments upon the progress of urbanization, seriously affecting station
observation, thereof relocation, instrument change and others of some meteorological
stations may also greatly influence wind energy resource assessment.

(2)

Assessment based on observation data of wind masts


Wind mast is a basic wind energy observation mode for wind energy development in
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

every country. Wind measuring instruments are set at every level of wind mast for
vertical gradient wind observation. Through the data of wind masts, the detailed changes
of local wind regime can be fully learnt about, bringing good assessment effect.
Nevertheless, the construction of wind masts costs much labor and many articles,
restricting the wide application of such masts. Meanwhile, the data of wind mast still
represent the wind energy conditions of certain areas in the surroundings of the mast
only and have poor spatial representativeness, so more wind masts must be used for
reflecting the changes of large area wind resources. Therefore the use of observation
data of wind masts also needs the help of some commercial software for wind energy
resource assessment, i.e. the distribution conditions of wind resources in a whole wind
farm shall be calculated by software and in combination with wind mast data. Currently
related commercial software with large market share includes WindPro, Windsim,
Windfarmer and others, and the users may select and use one or more of them
according to terrain complexity.
In order to conduct long-term continuous and stable meteorological observation, China
is planning to set up a professional wind energy resource observation network in major
wind energy development regions, and construct 400 wind masts for long-term high
density observation of such regions. This network is bound to greatly drive the
development of wind energy assessment technologies and the improvement of wind
energy assessment quality.
In order to develop local wind energy resources, Ethiopia has built up a few of wind
masts in some major wind energy development regions and accumulated certain
amount of wind measurement data, as is very referable for nationwide wind energy
resource assessment of Ethiopia.
(3)

Numerical simulation for wind energy resources


Based on the defects of the two methods above, numerical simulation has become a
very effective technical means for detailed survey and assessment of wind energy
resources. The method is based on the fundamental principles of atmospheric dynamics
and thermodynamics, and establishes a set of nonlinear dynamic system of equations
accurately describing atmospheric motion, applies computer to derivation, and studies
the time and spatial distribution conditions of wind energy resources and their changes.
In theory, numerical simulation technique can simulate the distribution of wind energy
resources at any height or horizontal resolution, from scores of meters to several
kilometers and with different ground features, further, give the continuous wind regime of
wind energy in the calculation range. Existing numerical simulation methods for wind
energy resources mainly include statistics + dynamic force long-term numerical
simulation methods, e.g. Canadian WEST mode extensively classifies weather ambient
fields, and then conducts numerical simulation according to type, finally obtains the
numerical simulation result of wind energy resources in a long period; in addition,
short-term numerical simulation methods are inclusive of American MM5, WRF, RAMS
and other meso- and micro-scale meteorological models. In these methods, one years
observation data are selected, and the numerical simulation result of wind energy
resources of one year is obtained accordingly, later, according to the long period wind
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

measurement data of meteorological station nearby, the distribution conditions of wind


energy resources in a long period are deduced by the one-year simulation result, or
multiyear simulation calculation is directly made for wind farm. But the method has
certain limitation mainly because it has complicated technique and large amount of
calculation and needs special huge computer, meanwhile, simulation result is greatly
influenced by initial input conditions and boundary condition, additionally simulation
accuracy and wind mast observation have certain error. However, it can provide large
scope and high resolution wind energy analysis results, and is very suitable for large
area census and assessment of wind energy resources.
4.2.2

Technical methods for solar energy resource assessment


To solar energy resource, here means the solar radiant energy to ground surface. It includes
both the solar radiant energy directly arriving at the ground surface and that arriving at the
ground through atmospheric refraction and reflection. Solar energy resource is in close
relation to local climate, terrain, etc. Assessment methods for solar radiant energy resources
are similar to those for wind energy resources, and mainly include three methods, i.e. ground
station observation assessment, satellite remote sensing assessment and numerical
simulation assessment.
(1)

Ground station observation assessment


Ground station observation means solar radiant energy resource assessment based on
the radiation observation function of meteorological stations in a conventional
meteorological observation network, inclusive of professional radiation measurement
base stations specially set up for solar energy resource assessment, etc. The method
has the advantages including good continuity of observation time and high observation
accuracy, but it also has the disadvantages including high operating cost, limited point
distribution and dispersed spatial distribution of stations, and can hardly give the
continuous and fine distribution characteristics of a region. Although spatial interpolation
may be used for makeup, large interpolation error may exist, especially for regions with
sparse stations.

(2)

Satellite remote sensing assessment


Satellite remote sensing assessment of solar energy resource means a technical
method inversing ground radiant energy distribution by virtue of the radiation
observation data of meteorological satellite. Satellite data have the advantage of broad
spatial coverage, so they can be used for large area solar radiant energy resource
assessment or radiation assessment of regions short of ground radiation observation
data. Satellite data assessment has the advantages including continuous spatial
distribution and large area, but it also has the disadvantages including discontinuous
data time distribution and weather-affected data quality. The technique uses satellite
observation data and inverses ground solar radiation by radiation transfer equation, so
its restricted by the development of inversion technique and its assessment accuracy
needs further improvement.

(3)

Numerical simulation assessment

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Numerical simulation method for solar radiant energy resources is similar to that for wind
energy resources. Through introducing radiation transfer equation to atmospheric
dynamic mode, the method concludes the distribution conditions of solar energy
resources by model derivation. It effectively overcomes spatial discontinuity of station
observation as well as time frequency and inversion of satellite remote sensing. The
accuracy of its analysis and assessment is influenced by the physical chemical
mechanism and mathematical calculation methods considered in the overall numerical
simulation. With the advance of numerical simulation technique, the gradual perfection
of physical chemical mechanism involved and the continuous development of computer
technology, its simulation precision and accuracy will be greatly improved.

4.3

Process of Wind and Solar Energy Resource Assessment in Ethiopia


In the past, restricted by technology and cost, Ethiopia didnt input a lot in the development
and utilization of wind and solar energy resources, moreover, people didnt fully recognize the
significance of wind/solar energy as potential renewable resource for national energy supply.
With the development of world wind power and solar energy utilization technologies and the
expansion of related markets, the development and utilization of wind and solar energy
resources are more and more regarded by every country, and Ethiopia has also gradually
recognized the significance of renewable energy resources inclusive of wind and solar energy
for national energy supply.
At present, development and utilization of renewable energy resources have become major
energy development objective of Ethiopia, and it has become an important task of related
departments to quicken the promotion of wind and solar energy resource assessment and
grasp the reserves and distribution situation of national wind and solar energy resources as
early as possible.
As far as we know, nationwide resource assessment has been conducted twice in Ethiopia.
The first was the first wind and solar resource assessment finished by CESEN-ANSALDO in
1980s, and the second was the wind and solar energy resource assessment finished by
SWERA in 2007.

4.3.1

Brief introduction to the resource assessment by CESEN-ANSALDO


Ethiopian national wind resource assessment by CESEN-ANSALDO was finished in middle
1980s. The assessment was mainly based on the original wind speed data collected and
recorded by Ethiopia National Meteorological Services Agency. At that time, Ethiopian
Meteorological stations mainly served aviation, moreover, standard authentication wasnt
conducted for most wind speed measuring instruments, additionally the heights of such
instruments were below the standard height of 10m (most of them were 2m), and there were
only a few of measuring stations, finally its difficult to obtain any assessment result with very
high geographic resolution.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Region 1: < 3.5m/s


(<63W/m2);
Region 2: 3.55m/s
(63190W/m2);
Region 3: >5.5m/s
(>190W/m2)

Figure 4.3-1 Wind Resource Distribution Map by CESEN-ANSALDO (inclusive of Eritrea)

Wind resource assessment by CESEN-ANSALDO just simply graded Ethiopian major regions
rich in wind energy through theoretical analysis and some ground verification data. The
assessment graded all Ethiopian regions with utilizable wind energy into 3 grades, thereof the
overall wind speed took on the tendency of gradually rising from west to east till to its
maximum at the boundaries of Djibouti and in the coastal areas of Red Sea.
4.3.2

Brief introduction to the resource assessment by SWERA


Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) was a technical demonstration
project intended for propelling the large scale development and utilization of renewable energy
resources in developing countries. It was jointly sponsored by Global Environment Facility
(GEF) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). In early stage, the plan finished
the overall assessment for wind and solar energy resources in 13 developing countries, and
the activity above was intended for providing high quality resource assessment information
and technical support for the development of wind and solar energy resources in such
countries, further, promoting the development of global renewable energy resource
undertaking and propelling global environmental protection.
(1)

Ethiopian wind energy resource assessment by SWERA


The renewable resource assessment finished by SWERA for relevant countries in early
stage included Ethiopian nationwide wind and solar energy resource assessment.
Ethiopian national wind resource data assessment was based on the data generated by
the Risoe model of Denmark Risoe National Laboratory, at the height of 50m and the
resolution of 5km2, and the original data were sourced from CESEN data. Similarly, the
conclusion of SWERA on resource assessment was also affected by the rarity of local
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

ground wind speed measuring stations. Based on the wind speed data at the height of
50m and generated by SWERA in Risoe model, SWERA systematically analyzed the
distribution characteristics and gross amount of Ethiopian wind energy resources by GIS
technique and in combination with distribution of local terrains, forests and lakes, roads
and other conditions, moreover, classified different wind resource regions of the country
into 7 grades according to the abundance of wind resources.
Wind resource distribution concluded by SWERA is shown in Figure 4.3-2.

Figure 4.3-2 Ethiopian Wind Energy Resource Distribution Map by SWERA

According to the wind energy resource analysis of SWERA, regions rich in wind energy
resources are basically centralized along the Great Rift Valley, i.e. from capital Addis
Ababa to Mekele in the north and from Addis Ababa to Mega in the south. Major regions
rich in wind energy resources are centralized on east and west sides of the Great Rift
Valley, inclusive of the large mountainous region from the capital to the east till to Harar
and Jijiga.
According to the estimate conclusion of SWERA, the total utilizable area, regions
suitable for wind energy development in Ethiopia include mechanical energy utilization
and grid connection regions, is about 166,000 km2, inclusive of about 20,000 km2
suitable for grid-connected power generation. According to preliminary estimate, annual
power output potential is about 890TWh.
(2)

Ethiopian solar energy resource assessment by SWERA


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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Just like the assessment data of wind energy resources, the Ethiopian solar energy
resource data of SWERA were the nationwide resource assessment data with the first
resolution up to 10km2. Through the comparison among solar energy resource
assessment data of SWERA, CESEN-ANSALDO and National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA), it can be seen that, the resource assessment conclusion of
SWERA was about 50% less than that of CESEN, while the estimated data of CESEN
were closer to those of NASA.
Figure 4.3-3 is Ethiopian national solar energy resource distribution map drawn by
SWERA.
The assessment conclusion of SWERA shows that, the regions richest in solar energy
resources in Ethiopia are mainly centralized in Afar State in the northeast, the desert
region in Somali State in the southeast and some western and southern regions. Mid
north region of Ethiopia is relatively weaker in solar energy resources.

Annual Average Daily Radiation in kWh/m2/yr at Wereda Level

Fig. 4.3-3 Ethiopian Solar Energy Resource Distribution Map by SWERA

Based on SWERA data, nationwide solar energy resource reserves were analyzed by
virtue of GIS system. Multiyear average daily radiant quantity of Ethiopia is 3.74kWh/m 2.
According to estimate, the national technical exploitable potential of grid based and
building Integrated PV dispersed system is about 1.1TWh/y, the national technical
exploitable potentials of the off-grid application such as home, rural health centers and
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

rural schools PV scattered systems are about 4TWh/y, 6.24GWh/y and 15.6GWh/y
respectively, and the national technical exploitable potential of independent PV systems
mainly for water lift operations of some households or farms is about 36GWh/y.

4.4

Wind and Solar Energy Resource Assessment in the Report


To facilitate wind and solar energy resource assessment in Ethiopia especially based on
newly-collected data series and newly-mastered numerical simulation mean, with basic
technical demands considered, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of
Science was invited for study on the special topic. The institute has compiled Resource
Assessment Report on Wind Energy and Solar Energy in Ethiopia.
The task is to precisely simulate all meteorological elements (wind direction, wind speed, solar
radiation, cloud amount, temperature and precipitation) in Ethiopia with advanced
technologies of meteorological forecast, which includes meso and micro scale meteorology
model of high temporal and spatial resolution, meteorological information assimilation and
real-time monitoring of meteorological element. Based on the 30-year (1980~2009)
meteorological simulation and fine-mesh meteorological simulation result, wind energy and
solar energy are assessed in detail.
Main contents of the assessment:
(1)

Assess simulation capabilities of different meteorological models (MM5, WRF), select


proper model parameters, update topographic information, select and build single-model
optimal simulation system;

(2)

Based on the optimal simulation system, carry out long-term elaborate simulation
(spatial resolution: 2km), build meteorological element database;

(3)

Based on the meteorological element database, calculate characteristics of spatial


distribution and temporal variation of solar energy and wind energy grid by grid via solar
energy and wind energy statistical assessment model;

(4)

Based on different data presentation software platforms (Grads, Gis, Vis5D), statically
and dynamically present characteristics of temporal and spatial variation of solar energy
and wind energy in Ethiopia.

General route of the task see Figure 4.4-1:

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

4 dimensional
assimilation

Figure 4.4-1 Technical Route and Scheme of the Task

Wind and solar energy resource assessment in the report are divided into building and
verification of assessment system, wind energy resource assessment, solar energy resource
assessment and conclusion of topic.

4.5

Setting up and Verification of Wind and Solar Resource Assessment System

4.5.1

Comparison and selection of model system


The key for accurate assessment on wind and solar resources is precision of simulation data.
In the task, precision in simulating meteorological elements (wind direction, wind speed, solar
energy) is compared between the mesoscale meteorological models MM5 and WRF, and
characteristics of different solar radiation transfer models (CCM2, Cloud, Goddard, Dudhia,
GFDL, CAM, RRTMG, Harrington) are analyzed. On the basis, proper meteorological model
and parameterization scheme are selected according to geological and meteorological
characteristics of the country.
(1)

Characteristics of MM5
MM5 is an integrated system with functions of numerical weather forecast and weather
process mechanism research. As an advanced mesoscale numerical forecast model,
since issued, it aroused wide concerns by scientists of service departments and
scientific research departments dedicated to related disciplines, in different countries,
depending on its good performance. Widely used in research on different mesoscale
phenomena, the model serves multiple disciplines and fields such as meteorology,
environment, ecology and hydrology.
Compared to its predecessor MM4, MM5 is largely enhanced in information initiation
and physical process parameterization, added with non-hydrostatic part and function of
regional nesting. In MM5, coriolis force is three-dimensional, while in MM4, compared to
other components, vertical component of coriolis force is less, so is omitted. As for

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

numerical calculation, given that theres propagation of sound wave in MM5, for the
purpose of stability in numerical calculation, integration of some components in the
model equation must be in short time step. The most important improvement of MM5 is
introduction of non-hydrostatic equilibrium effect, which enables the model to describe
small spatial scale movement and develop strong weather system thus describe
generation and development of local perturbation in a way better than MM4 and
correspondingly reduces restrictions for simplification of dynamic equations.
MM5 consists of 4 basic modules:
TERRAIN: calculate location of each grid according to longitude and latitude of
regional center, number of grid points and parameters of grid system, download
topographic data and underlying surface characteristic parameter, followed by horizontal
interpolation on rectangular grid of MM5.
REGRID: interpolate meteorological data on different isobaric surfaces on
mesoscale grid by double parabola method. The module consists of pregrid and
redridder. Pregrid converts data to intermediate file in format required by regridder.
Subsequently, regridder generates large-scale initial field based on topographic data in
the file TERRAIN.
INTERPF: read result of REGRID/regridder, calculate the vertical speed w and the
barometric disturbance p in the coordinate z, interpolate each isobaric layer field to
sigma levels thus form initial field, lateral boundary conditions and lower boundary
conditions.
Main module: undertake time integration for forecast.
Basic equations of MM5 are an atmospheric non-hydrostatic equilibrium original
equation. Its vertical structure and horizontal structure are the coordinate sigma and
B-type staggered grid, respectively, using real information about terrain classification
and underlying surface classification. Adopting splitting time integration scheme, the
model considers physical processes including horizontal and vertical eddy diffusion,
cumulus convective parameterization, explicit microphysical process scheme, solar
shortwave radiation scheme, solar long wave radiation scheme and planetary boundary
layer scheme. It can implement grid nesting and four dimensional data assimilation thus
is a strong tool for numerically simulating characteristics of temporal and spatial
distribution of wind energy and solar energy.
(2)

Characteristics of WRF
WRF (Weather Research Forecast) is a new-generation mesoscale meteorological
forecast model developed by scientists from many research institutes and universities of
USA, transplantable, maintainable, high-efficiency and convenient.
WRF is a full-compressible non-hydrostatic model. Any of its control equation sets is in
the form of flux. As for form of grid, different from MM5 that adopts Arakawa B grid point,
the model adopts Arakawa C grid point that improves its accuracy in high-resolution
simulation. As for dynamic frame, there are three schemes. Both of the former two solve

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

dynamic equation set with time spitting explicit scheme, namely vertical high frequency
wave is solved with implicit scheme while other waves are solved with explicit scheme.
The most important difference between the two is difference of vertical coordinate
(geometric height coordinate, quality (static pressure) coordinate). The third scheme
solves dynamic equation set with semi-implicit and semi-lagrangian scheme. Its
advantage is that compared to the former two, longer time step can be adopted.
WRF has been an important tool for improving precision in forecasting important
weather characteristics from cloud scale to synoptic scale. To meet demands in
simulating actual weather, the model must have a set of physical processes such as
radiation, boundary layer parameterization, convective parameterization, subgrid
turbulent diffusion and microphysical process. In the model, weather variable prediction
of 1~10km in horizontal resolution can be taken into account. Compared to MM5, WRF
adopts more advanced technologies of numerical calculation and data assimilation and
more perfect physical processes (especially, connective process and mesoscale
precipitation process) thus can implement grid nesting by means of multi-movement.
Applicable in weather forecast, atmospheric chemistry, regional climate and pure
simulation research, WRF is helpful for developing high-resolution numerical simulation
of different weather processes in different regions thus improving resolution and
accuracy of weather forecast. Many previous researches indicate that, WRF presents
performance better than MM5 under complex urban scale and other complex
topographic conditions.
(3)

Simulation performances of WRF and MM5


Although there have been many researches involved in simulation performance
comparison between WRF and MM5, to analyze simulation performances of the two
models in Ethiopia, in the research, a one-month simulation was carried out to compare
and assess the two models. Wind speed distributions simulated by WRF and MM5 are
given in Figure 4.5-1. Solar radiation plans simulated by WRF and MM5 are given in
Figure 4.5-2.

Figure 4.5-1 Wind Speed Plans Simulated by WRF (Left) and MM5 (Right), m/s

34

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.5-2 Downward Solar Radiation Plans Simulated by WRF (L) and MM5 (R),
W/m

Seen from the above, wind speed distributions simulated by WRF and MM5, as well as
solar energy distributions simulated by both approaches, are very similar. In Ethiopia,
there are two long and narrow high wind speed belts where average wind speed can
reach 10m/s. In Central Ethiopia, downward solar radiation is higher, possibly exceeding
300W/m2.
The approximate simulation results indicate theres less difference between the two
models. Given less uncertainty in the results, the simulations are reliable. However,
there are some differences between the simulation results. For example, in solar energy
spatial distribution simulated by MM5, theres an obvious low-value zone in East
Ethiopia, while in that simulated by WRF, theres no such spatially-discontinuous
singular zone, which is more reasonable.
Based on previous researches and the comparative analysis above, in the task, WRF was
selected for fine-mesh simulations of wind energy and solar energy in Ethiopia.
4.5.2

Setting of simulation assessment system


(1)

Projection model
There are three coordinate projection models common in WRF (Lamberto conformal
projection, stereographic projection, Mercator projection).
Light source of Lamberto conformal projection is on the core of Earth. Mapping face of
the projection is a circular conical surface intercrossing with 30N and 60N on Earth
(coning angle a=90). The projection is also called double standard parallel
equiangularity conic projection, suitable for middle-latitude and low-latitude region. Light
source of stereographic projection is in the South Pole. Its mapping face is a plan
intercrossing with 60N, suitable for high-latitude region. Light source of Mercator
projection is on the core of Earth. Its mapping face is a cylindrical surface intercrossing
with 22.5N and 22.5S, suitable for simulation of low-latitude region. Given these, in the
research, Mercator projection is selected for simulation of Ethiopia.

(2)

Selection of regional setting and topographic data

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Data about underlying surface decides energy budget on Earths surface, as another
key element for precise simulation. In a numerical model, physical processes such as
Earths surface albedo, thermal capacity, roughness and usable water content are
parameterized based on given information about utilization type so that connection is
built between atmosphere and surface of the Earth.
The region under assessment in the paper covers the whole territory of Ethiopia.
Established simulation region covers the whole country. Regional settings in the model:
Center: 40.5E, 9.5N
Grid interval: 10km
Grid number: zonal, e_sn=140; warp-wise, e_we=170
Topographic mapping type, map_proj = 'mercator'.
For simulated region, see Figure 4.5-3, topographic data: from USGS.

Figure 4.5-3 Schematic of Simulated Region

(3)

Selection of simulation time and re-analysis data setting


Re-analysis data set provides initial and boundary conditions for meteorological model,
and can be used for modifying forecast field by data assimilation. High-precision
re-analysis data is a key factor for precise meteorological simulation. Assessment period
of the research is 30 years (1980~2009). For simulation from 2000 to 2009, FNL data
from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) is used. The data is
1.01.0 in spatial resolution and includes a lot of observation data and satellite
inversion data, widely used in numerical model and weather/climate diagnosis and
analysis. Due to absence of FNL data from 1981 to 1999, for the period, re-analysis data
set from NCEP is used. The data is globally assimilated, obtained by global

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

meteorological data assimilation system upon quality control and assimilation of


observation data from Earths surface, ship, radio sounding, pilot balloon, plane and
satellite. In the data (resolution: 2.52.5, temporal resolution: 6 hours), there are 32
element fields in three types (isobaric surface with 17 levels, Earths surface, flux). Each
element field is distributed globally.
(4)

Selection of parameterization scheme


Grell-Devenyi collection scheme is adopted for cumulus parameterization. Prototype of
the scheme is A-S mass flux scheme. By quasi-equilibrium hypothesis, two cloud
models comprised of stable circulation determined by upward airflow and downward
airflow are used. No direct mixing occurs between cloud and ambient air, except on
circulation top and bottom. Various cumulus models and variables are operated on each
grid point, followed by result equalization and feedback to model. Entrainment of upward
airflow, detrainment of downdraft airflow and precipitation are different from previous
models. Cloud mass flux is controlled jointly by static and dynamic conditions. Dynamic
control is decided by available potential energy (CAPE), lower vertical speed and
water-vapor convergence.
Eta Mellor-Yamada-Janjic TKE (WRF=2) is adopted as boundary layer scheme. In the
scheme, Mellor-Yamada 2.5-order turbulent closed model is replaced by turbulence
parameterization in boundary layer and free atmosphere. Forecasting turbulent kinetic
energy, the scheme has local vertical mixing. SLAB (thin layer) is called to calculate
Earths surface temperature. In front of SLAB, exchange coefficient is calculated by
similar theory. In rear of SLAB, Implicit diffusion scheme is adopted for calculating
vertical flux.
Lin (WRF=2) is adopted as explicit microphysical scheme. The scheme involves
complex descriptions of physical processes. In the scheme, predictands concerning
substances in aqueous phase are cloud water, rain, ice, snow, graupel and water vapor.
Under T<-40, all cloud water is frozen. Under T>0, all cloud ice is unfrozen. Under
-40T0, cloud water, cloud ice, rain, snow and graupel can coexist.
RRTM (WRF=1) is adopted as radiation scheme. Used together with cloud radiation
short wave scheme, the long wave scheme is quite accurate and effective. As a rapid
radiating transfer model, it uses a related k model to describe detailed effect of band
absorption primarily targeting water vapor, carbon dioxide and ozone.
Noah (WRF=2) is adopted as parameterization of land surface process scheme.
Developed by NCAR and NCEP, the scheme provides uniform codes identical to codes
in NCEPs North America mesoscale model for scientific research and service
application, thus is consistent with time-dependent soil temperature variation in analysis
data. It can forecast temperature and humidity of four soil layers, tree canopy
transpiration and snow depth of equal water volume, meanwhile output runoff volume on
Earths surface and underground. For processing evaporation and transpiration, types of
vegetation and soil, as well as monthly vegetation index, are taken into account.
Providing heat flux and latent heat flux, compared to OSU, the scheme can forecast
influences of soil ice and small-piece snow cover, which is helpful to improve urban
37

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

cover and consider surface radiation coefficient.


(5)

Statistical assessment on wind energy and solar energy


Exploitation and utilization of wind energy and solar energy are restricted by geography,
land resource, traffic, grid and local development planning. As a result, for calculating
potential exploitable quantity, the factors must be comprehensively taken into account.
Based on fine-mesh meteorological data from long-term simulation, in the research,
detailed statistical assessment is developed that statistical models of wind energy and
solar energy are used to calculate characteristics of temporal and spatial variation of
solar energy and wind energy grid by grid, to finally find out temporal and spatial
distributions of the two energies in the whole country.
Based on fine-mesh simulation result and geological data about terrain and land
utilization, on distribution graph of the two resources from numerical simulation, position,
area and potential exploitable quantity of a zone supporting solar energy exploitation are
calculated by ArcGIS software system.
Potential exploitable quantity of unit area is influenced primarily by terrain and landform.
Potential exploitable quantity on gentle simple terrain is much more than that on
fluctuating complex terrain. In the project, based on spatial correspondence between
elements (altitude, land type) and solar radiation or wind speed (incl. shading effect), in
reference to international like methods, data from simulation and assimilation in grid
point is spatialized by ArcGIS software system, to determine non- exploitable zone and
limited zone and conclude monthly average distributions and average annual
distributions of total solar radiation and wind energy. On the basis, a high-resolution
atlas is built concerning seasonal and average annual situation of solar radiation and
wind energy distribution & evolution in each province in recent 30 years.

4.5.3

Verification of model assessment system


Wind energy resource and solar energy resource of Ethiopia are simulated by WRF mode in
the report. However, given characteristics of observation and the mode, outcome shall be
verified to learn about simulation performance and result characteristic of the mode, for further
utilization and development of subsequent result.

4.5.3.1 Wind energy simulation result comparative verification


(1)

Verification by wind mast data


EPPCo has set up many wind masts of the heights of 10m or 40m in some regions of the
country, for wind energy observation. Now, wind observations from different years have
been accumulated. Wind speed data from the masts has high temporal resolution and
good quality, thus can act as an important reference for outcome verification. Masts with
valid data collected in the planning are shown at Table 4.5-1, which locations of the
masts are shown at Figure 4.5-4.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Table 4.5-1 Existing Wind Masts with Valid Information


No.

Name of masts

Height of mast (m)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Ashegoda I
Ashegoda II
Aysha
Bahir Dar
Debre Birhan
Dibagot(Gondar)
Diche Oto
May Makden
Mossobo
Nazret New
Nazret
Negele Borena
Sululta

10
40
10
10
10
40
10
10
40
10
40
10
10

Height of
observation (m)
10
10. 40
10
10
10
10. 40
10
10
10. 40
10
10. 40
10
10

Location of masts
Tigray
Tigray
Somali
Amhara
Amhara
Amhara
Afar
Tigray
Tigray
Oromia
Oromia
Oromia
Oromia

Figure 4.5-4 Position Schematic of Existing Wind Masts

Comparative analysis of wind speed at 10m height


Wind speed is an important parameter for wind energy resource assessment. There's
direct output of wind speed at the height of 10m in WRF model adopted in the simulation.
Therefore, to judge and analyze simulation result and characteristics of the model,
observations from the masts can be compared with wind speed at the height of 10m that
was output by the model in the same period.
Comparison of mean wind speeds from different stations is shown in Table 4.5-2. Trend
comparison between observed data and simulated data at some wind masts is shown in

39

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.5-5~4.5-10.

Table 4.5-2 Comparison between Observed Data and Simulated Data at 10m Height
No.

Name of masts

Observed value (m/s)

Simulated value (m/s)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Ashegoda I
Ashegoda II
Aysha
Bahir Dar
Debre Birhan
Dibagot(Gondar)
Diche Oto
Maymekden
Mossobo
Nazret New
Nazret
Negele Borena
Sululta

8.2
6.7
7.8
3.3
4.5
5.6
5.5
5.9
5.3
7.6
6.9
5.1
3.8

6.6
6.3
7.9
4.7
7.8
5.2
6.9
6.9
5.6
4.8
4.6
7.1
6.2

Figure 4.5-5 Wind Speed Trend Comparison between Ashegoda I Mast and Simulation,
10m Height

Figure 4.5-6 Wind Speed Trend Comparison between Aysha Mast and Simulation, 10m
Height
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.5-7 Wind Speed Trend Comparison between Maymekden Mast and
Simulation, 10m Height

Figure 4.5-8 Wind Speed Scatters between Observed and Simulated Values at
Maymekden, 10m Height

Figure 4.5-9 Wind Speed Trend Comparison between Dibagot Mast and Simulation,
10m Height

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.5-10 Wind Speed Trend Comparison between Nazret Mast and Simulation,
10m Height

Seen from the analysis above, WRF can bring good simulation result that reflects
characteristics of local wind energy variation, for height of 10m. Seen from order of wind
speed, at the height, simulated values from Ashegoda I, Nazret New and Nazret are
lower than observed values, while those from Bahir Dar, Debre Birhan, Diche Oto,
Negele Borena and Sulata are higher than observed values, and those from other
stations are equivalent to observed values. Seen from trend with time, trend of simulated
value fits that of observed value, indicating that describing trend of wind speed on
boundary layer by the model is reasonable, and the model has strong capability of
simulating and analyzing variation of wind speed. However, seen from Figure 4.5-10,
systemic deviation of the model is higher (Nazret, height of 10m).
Comparative analysis of wind speed at 40m height
Simulation performance of the model is further verified by comparing observations
collected at the height of 40m with output of the model. Detailed result of the comparison
is shown in Table 4.5-3. Trend of wind speed data is shown in Figure 4.5-11, Figure
4.5-12 and Figure 4.5-13.

Table 4.5-3 Comparison between Observed Data and Simulated Data at 40m Height
No

Name of tower

Observed value (m/s)

Simulated value (m/s)

2
6
9

Ashegoda II
Dibagot(Gondar)
Mossobo

7.6
6.1
6.6

7.3
6.2
6.7

Seen from the comparative analysis, overall simulation result from height of 40m is
better than that from height of 10m, regardless of wind speed value and trend. In detail,
error of mean wind speed is lower, and trend of wind speed better fits actual variation.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Fig. 4.5-11 Wind Speed Trend Comparison between Ashegoda II Mast and Simulation,
40m Height

Fig. 4.5-12 Wind Speed Trend Comparison between Dibagot Mast and Simulation, 40m
Height

Fig. 4.5-13 Wind Speed Trend Comparison between Mossobo Mast and Simulation,
40m Height

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

From the above, WRF model adopted in the assessment well reflects variation of wind
speed on boundary layer. Simulated value of wind speed at height of 10m can reflect
trend of observed value with time, while there's error in simulated values from some
masts. Cause of such error may be complicated. One important factor is resolution of
the model. Wind speed at the height of 10m is sensitive to local landform and
environment. Under the resolution 10km10km, the model is weak in simulating some
low-scale quickly-varying atmospheric motions on boundary layer that are produced by
dynamic and thermodynamic effect of local environment. This causes error of simulated
value at some stations, especially in region with complex landform and thermodynamic
situation on surface. Compared to wind speed at height of 10m, one from height of 40m
is less sensitive to landform and environment. Therefore, its typicality is better than that
from height of 10m. With increase in height, error of simulated value gets lower and
lower.
Seen from the analysis above, the model can reflect trend of wind speed at the height of
10m with time at most stations, and at the height of 40m, there's good consistency
between simulated value and observed value as well as their trends.
(2)

Verification by meteorological station data


To further verify and analyze numerical simulation result, data from some meteorological
stations of Ethiopia is collected for analysis. Those stations are in East Ethiopia. For
their detailed positions, see Figure 4.5-14.

Figure 4.5-14 Distribution of Some Meteorological Stations in East Ethiopia

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Each of the four stations for the assessment is airport meteorological station. They were
different at the wind speed observation time series and sampling rate with 2 or 3 times
every day. Given their poor temporal continuity and low observation height, they can't
accurately reflect local wind energy change. However, since there's less measured
information in East Ethiopia, they are valuable for reference. The report is to reflect basic
law and characteristics of wind energy change in East Ethiopia.
Gode station
Gode station is located in Shabelle River Valley in the south central part of Somali
Region. As for result of simple analysis on wind speed observations from Gode station,
wind speed change of each month is shown in Table 4.5-4 and Figure 4.5-15, frequency
distribution of wind speed is shown in Figure 4.5-16, and direction distributions of wind
speed and wind energy are shown in Figure 4.5-17.

Table 4.5-4 Monthly Mean Wind Speed and Wind Power Density, Gode Station
Month

Wind speed (m/s)


Wind Power
2
Density (W/m )
Month

8.10

7.98

7.12

5.77

7.50

10.34

11.34

565.9

460.3

372.7

270.0

453.5

840.1

1086.2

Wind speed (m/s)


Wind Power
2
Density (W/m )

10

11

12

Average

10.13

8.48

6.10

5.69

6.98

7.96

883.3

535.1

301.0

274.8

356.5

533.3

Monthly Average Wind Energy Density and Average Wind Speed variation Curve
wind energy
density (W/m 2)

Average Wind Energy Density

Wind Speed
m/s

Average Wind Speed

1200.0

12.00

1000.0

10.00

800.0

8.00

600.0

6.00

400.0

4.00

200.0

2.00

0.0

0.00
1

10

11

12

Figure 4.5-15 Curves of Monthly Mean Wind Speed and Wind Power Density, Gode
Station

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Wind Speed and Wind Energy Density Frequency Distribution

Frequency
(%)

18.00
16.00
14.00
12.00
10.00
8.00
6.00

4.00
2.00
0.00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Wind Speed
(m/s)

Figure 4.5-16 Frequency Distribution of Wind Speed, Gode Station

Wind Energy Direction

Wind Direction

N
NNW 15.0
NW

ENE

5.0

NNE

15.0

NW

NE

10.0

WNW

NNW 20.0

NNE

NE

10.0

WNW

ENE

5.0
E

0.0

WSW

ESE

SW

0.0

WSW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Figure 4.5-17 Direction Distributions of Wind Speed and Wind Energy, Gode Station

Seen from the analysis result, there's rich wind resource around Gode station. Although
the observed time was only once at 15:00 each afternoon, annual mean wind speed and
wind power density respectively reached 7.96m/s and 500W/m2. There was still
significant increase from June to September. Seen from frequency distribution, the wind
speed above 10m/s shared higher. This indicates high frequency of high wind. It is also
an evidence for that there is rich wind resource in the region. Seen from direction
distribution, east wind and southwest wind play the main role. In detail, the main role is
played by east wind in winter half year of the Northern Hemisphere and south or
southwest wind in summer half year of the Northern Hemisphere. This indicates
significant characteristics of monsoon climate.
Negele station
Negele station is located in the south of Oromia. The analysis result on wind
observations from Negele station is shown in Table 4.5-5 and Figure 4.5-18, frequency
distribution of wind speed is shown in Figure 4.5-19, and direction distributions of wind
speed and wind energy are shown in Figure 4.5-20.
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Table 4.5-5 Monthly Mean Wind Speed and Wind Power Density, Negele Station
Month

Wind speed (m/s)


Wind Power
2
Density (W/m )
Month

4.45

4.83

3.98

3.36

4.35

5.74

6.28

87.7

109.8

58.9

36.0

78.2

139.6

160.1

10

11

12

Average

Wind speed (m/s)

6.17

4.91

3.45

4.15

4.31

4.66

Wind Power
2
Density (W/m )

164.4

96.8

53.4

64.3

69.4

93.2

Monthly Average Wind Energy Density and Average Wind Speed variation Curve
wind energy
density (W/m 2)

Average Wind Energy Density

Wind Speed
m/s

Average Wind Speed

180.0

7.00

160.0

6.00

140.0
5.00

120.0
100.0

4.00

80.0

3.00

60.0

2.00

40.0
1.00

20.0
0.0

0.00
1

10

11

12

Figure 4.5-18 Curves of Monthly Mean Wind Speed and Wind Power Density, Negele
Station

Frequency
(%)

Wind Speed Frequency Distribution

20.00
18.00
16.00
14.00
12.00
10.00

8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
0

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Wind Speed
(m/s)

Figure 4.5-19 Frequency Distribution of Wind Speed, Negele Station

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Wind Energy Direction

Wind Direction

N
NNW 15.0
NW

NNE

20.0

NW

NE

10.0

WNW

NNW 25.0

NNE

NE

15.0
WNW

ENE

5.0

ENE

10.0
5.0

0.0

WSW

WSW

ESE

SW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

0.0

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Figure 4.5-20 Direction Distributions of Wind Speed and Wind Energy, Negele Station

Seen from the analysis result, there's rich wind resource around Negele station. Annual
mean wind speed there is as high as 4.66m/s at the height of 2m. Similar to that of Gode
station, wind speed is higher from June to September. Seen from frequency distribution,
the wind speed of 4.0m/s shares high, even one above 10.0m/s also has a big ratio. It
indicates there is a big ratio of high wind speed weather in the region. Seen from wind
direction distributions, northeast wind and southwest wind play the main role. In detail,
the main role is played by east wind in winter half year of the Northern Hemisphere and
southwest wind in summer half year of the Northern Hemisphere. This also indicates
significant characteristics of monsoon climate.
Robe station
Robe station is located on the plateau of Shabelle River in the south central part of
Oromia, also an airport meteorological station. As for result of simple analysis on wind
speed observations from Robe station, wind speed change of each month is shown in
Table 4.5-6 and Figure 4.5-21, frequency distribution of wind speed is shown in
Figur4.5-22, and wind direction distributions are shown in Figure 4.5-23.

Table 4.5-6 Monthly Mean Wind Speed and Wind Power Density, Robe Station
Month

Wind speed (m/s)


Wind Power
2
Density (W/m )
Month

2.40

2.94

3.33

2.71

2.95

2.65

2.68

18.0

44.0

45.4

37.4

46.5

27.1

26.3

10

11

12

Average

Wind speed (m/s)

2.38

2.24

1.88

2.16

2.45

2.56

Wind Power
2
Density (W/m )

20.0

18.4

10.3

12.9

17.5

27.0

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Monthly Average Wind Energy Density and Average Wind Speed variation Curve
wind energy
density (W/m 2)

Average Wind Energy Density

Wind Speed
m/s

Average Wind Speed

50.0

3.50

45.0

3.00

40.0
2.50

35.0
30.0

2.00

25.0
1.50

20.0
15.0

1.00

10.0
0.50

5.0
0.0

0.00
1

10

11

12

Figure 4.5-21 Curves of Monthly Mean Wind Speed and Wind Power Density, Robe
Station

Wind Speed Frequency Distribution

Frequency (%)

30.00
25.00
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00

0.00
0

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Wind Speed
(m/s)

Figure 4.5-22 Frequency Distribution of Wind Speed, Robe Station

Wind Energy Direction

Wind Direction

N
NNW 25.0

20.0

NW

NNW 40.0

NNE

30.0

NW

NE

15.0
WNW

ENE

10.0

NE

20.0

WNW

ENE

10.0

5.0
W

NNE

0.0

WSW

ESE

SW

0.0

WSW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Figure 4.5-23 Direction Distributions of Wind Speed and Wind Energy, Robe Station

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Higher in ASL than the two stations before, Robe station is closer to inland. As a result,
significant change can be seen in wind speed statistics. High wind occurs from February
to May, at a lower frequency. Seen from direction distribution, east wind plays the main
role, with characteristics of monsoon climate weakened.
Dire Dawa station
Located in the north of Dire Dawa, broadly speaking, Dire Dawa station is on the
transition from hilly area to plain in East Ethiopia. As for result of simple analysis on wind
speed observations from Dire Dawa station, wind speed change of each month is shown
in Table 4.5-7 and Figure 4.5-24, frequency distribution of wind speed is shown in Figure
4.5-25, and wind direction distributions are shown in Figure 4.5-26.

Table 4.5-7 Monthly Mean Wind Speed and Wind Power Density, Dire Dawa Station
Month

Wind speed (m/s)


Wind Power
2
Density (W/m )
Month

1.98

2.30

2.56

2.79

3.01

3.51

3.56

9.0

13.9

20.6

23.1

25.9

43.2

43.3

10

11

12

Average

Wind speed (m/s)


Wind Power
2
Density (W/m )

3.34

2.77

2.38

2.05

1.90

2.68

41.7

21.3

18.6

8.6

8.3

23.1

Monthly Average Wind Energy Density and Average Wind Speed variation Curve
wind energy
density (W/m 2)

Average Wind Energy Density

Wind Speed
m/s

Average Wind Speed

50.0

4.00

45.0

3.50

40.0

3.00

35.0
30.0

2.50

25.0

2.00

20.0

1.50

15.0

1.00

10.0

0.50

5.0
0.0

0.00
1

10

11

12

Figure 4.5-24 Curves of Monthly Mean Wind Speed and Wind Power Density, Dire
Dawa Station

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Wind Speed Frequency Distribution

Frequency (%)

35.00
30.00
25.00

20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00
0

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Wind Speed
(m/s)

Figure 4.5-25 Frequency Distribution of Wind Speed, Dire Dawa Station

Wind Direction

Wind Energy Direction


N

N
NNW 30.0

25.0

NW

NNW 40.0

NNE

15.0

WNW

ENE

10.0

30.0

NW

NE

20.0

NE

20.0

WNW

ENE

10.0

5.0
W

NNE

0.0

WSW

ESE

SW

WSW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

0.0

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Figure 4.5-26 Direction Distributions of Wind Speed and Wind Energy, Dire Dawa
Station

Dire Dawa station is in East Ethiopia. Influenced by location and landform, its
characteristics of wind speed change are slightly different the stations above. Seen from
wind speed statistics, high wind occurs from June to August at a lower frequency. This
can be attributable to landform. In detail, the south part of the region is hilly area, which
may obstruct south wind that plays the major role in direction distribution.
Information from local meteorological stations is limited, and wind speed information
from local meteorological stations was acquired by observing at lower height. Despite
this, upon the analysis above, level and variation profile of wind energy in East Ethiopia
are reflected by and large. Mean wind speed of Somali region in east Ethiopia is much
higher than west region in Ethiopia, and southwest wind shares higher in direction
distribution. This indicates Southeast Ethiopia is highly influenced by low-level jet from
Somalia. Besides, high wind season there is different from the region of the Great Rift

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Valley.
By means of verification by wind mast and meteorological station data, it can be seen that,
result of the simulation is reliable and can full reflect basic variation rule and distribution
characteristics of wind energy resource of Ethiopia, with reasonable error. Therefore, it meets
requirements for assessing macro wind energy resource all over the country.
4.5.3.2 Solar energy simulation result comparative verification
As found in check on result of solar energy assessment, theres good consistency between
simulation value and observed value.
Shown in Figure 4.5-27, most simulation values are around one time of observed value so that
theres good comparability between simulation value and observed value, indicated as
correlation coefficient of 0.38 (far above that at confidence level of 99.9% (0.22)). This
demonstrates that simulation result can well reflect variation trend of solar radiation.
2

Average daily solar radiation flux (W/m )

Figure 4.5-27 Scatters of Simulated Average Daily Solar Radiation Flux and Observed
Average Daily Solar Radiation Flux at All Stations at Different Times
(Orderly from Upper Left to Lower Right: y=2x, y=4/3x, y=x, y=3/4x, y=1/2x)

Besides, seen from Figure 4.5-28, at most times, simulation value and observed value from
each station are close to each other. Simulation result reflects variation trend of solar radiation
to some extent. For example, decrease in solar radiation from Oct 16 to Oct 18 and that on
Nov 13 are simulated at Addis Ababa station, but continuing decrease on Nov 14 is not
simulated. At Hagere Mariam station, simulated variation trend of solar radiation of September
is well consistent with but the simulated trend of October is significantly different from the
observation results, which indicates that at some times, theres error in the numerical model.
However, given approximation between simulation value and observed value and the purpose
of resource assessment, result of the model is reliable.

52

Average daily solar radiation flux (W/m2)

Average daily solar radiation flux (W/m2)

Average daily solar radiation flux (W/m2)

Average daily solar radiation flux (W/m2)

Average daily solar radiation flux (W/m2)

Average daily solar radiation flux (W/m2)

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.5-28 Time Series Comparison between Observed Results and Simulated Results
from Different Stations

From the above, simulated solar radiation flux and observed solar radiation flux are consistent
with each other in both value and variation trend. Therefore, the model can be used in
long-term simulation and assessment of solar energy.

4.6

Assessment of Wind Resources

4.6.1

Introduction to method of wind energy assessment


In the report, upon WRF simulation, data sets about wind energy and solar energy in
resolution of 10km in the whole country and in resolution of 2km in key areas are obtained, by

53

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

means of numerical simulation. To further provide spatial resolution of data, data about the
whole country is improved from 10km to 5km in spatial resolution by means of spatial
interpolation, and that about key areas is improved from 2km to 1km in spatial resolution.
Spatial and temporal continuity of simulation value and dynamic coordination among different
meteorological elements require a proper method for interpolation in data set of coarse
resolution. Common methods for spatial interpolation in meteorological elements are distance
weighting, interpolating polynomials, Kriging, spline methods, etc. Among these, physical
interpretation of interpolating polynomials is unclear and tends to conclude value hard for
explanation. Spline method is to produce smooth interpolation curve with some limited point
values and characteristic nodes by polynomial fitting and estimated variance control. Simplest
and most practical, distance weighting is adopted in the report to interpolate simulated data
set of 10km in resolution to data set of 5km in resolution, and interpolate data set of 2km in key
areas to data set of 1km. In the method, distance between point and sample point are taken as
weights for weighting coefficient, by the formula below:
N

X (
i 1

N
Xi
1
)
/(
)

p
p
di
i 1 di

Here,
di :

distance between interpolation point and the ith sample point

X i:

value of the ith sample point (namely simulation value of coarse resolution)

N:

number of sample points involved in interpolation

p:
power exponent for calculating distance weight, which is established according to detail
of data distribution to minimize interpolation error
X:
post-interpolation high-resolution value that will be used for the calculation of average
wind speed and wind power density based on high-resolution data set.
Wind power density is an important parameter that measures richness of wind energy and the
most typical factor for assessing potential of wind energy. It refers to power in unit area vertical
to wind direction, calculated by the formula below:

1 n
3
D
vi

2n i 1
Here,
D:

average wind power density (w/m2)

n:

number of wind speed records within established period

vi:

the ith recorded wind speed (m/s)

: air density (kg/m3), subject to the formula below:

1.276
p 0.378e
(
)
1 0.0036t
1000
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

4.6.2

e:

vapor pressure (hPa)

t:

temperature ()

p:

atmosphere (hPa)

Rule of spatial distribution of wind resources


(1)

Distribution of average wind speed (1980~1989, 1990~1999, 2000~2009)


Figure 4.6-1~4.6-8 show distribution of average wind speed in the three 10-year periods
and the 30 years, in heights of 10m and 50m in the whole country. Seen from the figures,
spatial distribution of wind speed is consistent among different heights. Wind speed is
high in both long and narrow zones in Central Ethiopia, the border region Djibouti and
Somali Region. Wind speeds in some parts of them exceed 8m/s in height of 10m and
exceed 10m/s in height of 50m. Wind speed is low at sides of the two long and narrow
zones and West Ethiopia. From 10m to 50m, theres a significant shear that wind speed
in height of 50m is significantly higher than that in height of 10m. In the same height,
spatial distribution of average wind speed is consistent between 1980~1989 and
1990~1999, but there exists relatively obvious difference between the former two
periods and 2000~2009. This may be attributable to use of different meteorological data
for 2000~2009.
Given that meteorological model highly depends on initial and boundary conditions
formed upon input data, resolution and quality of input data may influence final
simulation result thus influence calculated characteristics of temporal and spatial
distribution of wind resources.

Figure 4.6-1 Distribution of Average Wind Speed, m/s (Height: 10m, 1980~2009)

55

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.6-2 Distribution of Average Wind Speed, m/s (Height: 50m, 1980~2009)

Figure 4.6-3 Distribution of Average Wind Speed, m/s (Height: 10m, 1980~1989)

56

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.6-4 Distribution of Average Wind Speed, m/s (Height: 10m, 1990~1999)

Figure 4.6-5 Distribution of Average Wind Speed, m/s (Height: 10m, 2000~2009)

57

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.6-6 Distribution of Average Wind Speed, m/s (Height: 50m, 1980~1989)

Figure 4.6-7 Distribution of Average Wind Speed, m/s (Height: 50m, 1990~1999)

58

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.6-8 Distribution of Average Wind Speed, m/s (Height: 50m, 2000~2009)

(2)

Distribution of wind power density (1980~1989, 1990~1999, 2000~2009)


Figure 4.6-9~4.6-16 show distribution of average wind power density in the three
10-year periods and the 30 years, in heights of 10m and 50m in the whole country. Seen
from the figures, spatial distribution of wind power density is consistent among different
heights. Wind power density is high in both long and narrow zones in Central Ethiopia,
the area bordering Djibouti and Somali Region. Wind power density is low at sides of
both long and narrow zones and West Ethiopia. Similar with distribution of average wind
speed, due to use of different meteorological data for 2000~2009, spatial distribution of
average wind power density is consistent between 1980~1989 and 1990~1999, but
significantly differ between the former two periods and 2000~2009.
From 10m to 50m, theres a significant shear that wind power density in height of 50m is
significantly higher than that in height of 10m. The characteristics above are well
consistent with distribution of average wind speed. As for its reason, wind power density
is in proportion to cube of wind speed thus wind speed decides wind power density,
while wind power density is in proportion to air density thus air density less influences
wind power density.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.6-9 Distribution of Wind Power Density, W/m (Height: 10m, 1980~2009)

Figure 4.6-10 Distribution of Wind Power Density, W/m (Height: 50m, 1980~2009)

60

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.6-11 Distribution of Wind Power Density, W/m (Height: 10m, 1980~1989)

Figure 4.6-12 Distribution of Wind Power Density, W/m (Height: 10m, 1990~1999)

61

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.6-13 Distribution of Wind Power Density, W/m (Height: 10m, 2000~2009)

Figure 4.6-14 Distribution of Wind Power Density, W/m (Height: 50m, 1980~1989)

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.6-15 Distribution of Wind Power Density, W/m (Height: 50m, 1990~1999)

Figure 4.6-16 Distribution of Wind Power Density, W/m (Height: 50m, 2000~2009)

63

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Wind power densities in many parts of both long and narrow zones in Central Ethiopia,
the area bordering Djibouti and Somali Region exceed 200 W/m2 in height of 10m and
exceed 400 W/m2 in height of 50m, indicating rich wind energy resource. Regardless of
restrictions, wind energy can be full used for power generation in these parts.
Table 4.6-1 shows wind energy classification specified in Methodology of Wind Energy
Resource Assessment for Wind Farm (GB/T18710-2002). The standard is applied in
Ethiopia as below to analyze distribution and enrichment of wind energy resource.

Table 4.6-1

Classes of Wind Power Density

Height of 10m
Height of 30m
Height of 50m
Class of
Applied for
Ref.value of
Ref value of
Ref value of
wind
grid- based
Wind power
Wind power
Wind power
average
average
average
power
power
density
density
density
annual wind
annual wind
annual wind
2
2
2
density
generation
(W/m )
(W/m )
(W/m )
speed (m/s)
speed (m/s)
speed (m/s)
1
<100
4.4
<160
5.1
<200
5.6
2
100~150
5.1
160~260
5.9
200~300
6.4
Relatively
3
150~200
5.6
240~320
6.5
300~400
7.0
good
4
200~250
6.0
320~400
7.0
400~500
7.5
Good
5
250~300
6.4
400~480
7.4
500~600
8.0
Excellent
6
300~400
7.0
480~640
8.2
600~800
8.8
Excellent
7
400~1000
9.4
640~1600
11.0
800~2000
11.9
Excellent

Seen from Figure 4.6-9 and 4.6-10, at heights of 10m and 50m, wind power densities
are highest on both narrow belts of central Ethiopia, the area bordering Djibouti and
Somali Region where wind power density reaches class 4 in most parts thus
grid-connected power generation is supported. In most parts of Central Ethiopia and
West Ethiopia, wind power density is low, and grid-connected power generation is not
supported.
According to the CNS Methodology of Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Wind
Farm (GB/T18710-2002), Table 4.6-2 shows share of area suitable for grid-connected
power generation and small-scale off-grid power generation in each state of Ethiopia
and the whole country (average of 1980~2009).

Table 4.6-2 Share of Area Suitable for Grid-connected Power Generation and
Small-scale Off-grid Power Generation in Each State and the Whole Country (%)
Height
Wind power utilization
mode
Amhara
Tigray
Afar
SNNP
Gembela
Oromiya
Benshagul
Somali
Ethiopia

(3)

10m

50m

Grid-connected power generation


15.13
39.84
15.54
13.75
0.00
18.00
0.00
77.75
33.00

22.78
43.55
30.97
17.05
1.99
23.28
5.36
80.85
38.55

Statistics of regional wind energy resource


64

10m

50m

Off-grid power generation


22.85
25.98
23.98
11.16
3.59
19.07
13.49
13.66
17.48

69.81
58.01
73.51
38.66
15.14
52.87
62.50
22.19
47.07

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Table 4.6-3 shows wind energy distribution in height of 10m, in each state of Ethiopia
and the whole country. Among all the states, average wind power density is highest in
Somali and lowest in Gembela.

Table 4.6-3 Statistics of Wind Energy Resource in Ethiopia (Height: 10m)


2

Country/state

Area (10000km )

Amhara
Tigray
Afar
SNNP
Gembela
Oromiya
Benshagul
Somali
Ethiopia

15.50
5.02
9.41
10.99
2.46
32.00
4.95
30.03
110.36

Average power
2
density (W/m )
116.12
159.68
131.18
89.78
37.88
116.09
67.92
297.19
162.12

Average annual wind power


2
density (kWh/ (m a))
1017.21
1398.80
1149.14
786.47
331.83
371.49
33.62
892.46
1789.16

Table 4.6-4 shows wind energy distribution in height of 50m, in each state of Ethiopia
and the whole country. Among all the states, average wind power density is highest in
Somali and lowest in Gembela.

Table 4.6-4 Statistics of Wind Energy Resource in Ethiopia (Height: 50m)

4.6.3

Country/state

Area (10000km )

Amhara
Tigray
Afar
SNNP
Gembela
Oromiya
Benshagul
Somali
Ethiopia

15.50
5.02
9.41
10.99
2.46
32.00
4.95
30.03
110.36

Average power
2
density (W/m )
193.39
286.09
204.5
152.02
76.12
195.68
124.92
486.05
269.04

Average annual wind power


2
density (kWh/ (m a))
1694.10
2506.15
1791.42
1331.70
666.81
1714.16
1094.30
4257.80
2356.79

Characteristics of monthly variation in wind speed and wind power density


(1)

Characteristics of monthly variation in spatial distribution of wind speed


In Resource Assessment Report on Wind Energy and Solar Energy in Ethiopia,
characteristics of monthly variation in spatial distributions of wind speed and power
density are calculated.
In general, there are obvious characteristics of monthly variation in spatial distribution of
average wind speed.
From January to March, wind speed is low in most parts of West Ethiopia and high wind
speed is not obvious in Central Ethiopia, but wind speed is high in Somali Region, as
well as the area bordering Djibouti.
From April, wind speed rises in the two high-value belts in central Ethiopia, but falls in
Somali Region and gets minimum in the area bordering Djibouti. In May, wind speed is
lowest in Somali Region and highest in Central Ethiopia where spatial distribution is

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

obviously high. In the area bordering Djibouti, wind speed begins to rise from May.
From June to August, wind speed falls in the north part of Central Ethiopia. Wind speed
in Somali Region gets increasing, distributed in zonal way, but share of high-value area
is much less than those in January, February and March. From September, wind speed
gets decreasing in the south part of Central Ethiopia, with high-value area reduced. Up
to December, average wind speed and high-value area get minimum, while high-value
area in the north part of Central Ethiopia gets increasing. From October to December,
wind speed gets decreasing in the area bordering Djibouti.
Characteristics of monthly variation in average wind speed and average wind power
density at some stations
Monthly variation in average wind speed
Figure 4.6-17~4.6-20 show characteristics of monthly variation in average wind speed at
Bole Station (in Addis Ababa) and Maymekden Station (in Mekele), in heights of 10m
and 50m (1980~2009). Seen from the figures, wind speed is lowest in June, July, August
and September at the two stations. In the four months, in height of 10m, wind speed is
mostly lower than 6m/s, and in height of 50m, wind speed is mostly lower than 7m/s.

wind speed at 10m (m/s)

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1

10

11

12

month

Figure 4.6-17 Monthly Variation of Average Wind Speed at Addis Ababa Bole Station
(Height: 10m)

10

wind speed at 50m (m/s)

(2)

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1

10

11

12

month

Figure 4.6-18 Monthly Variation in Average Wind Speed at Addis Ababa Bole Station
(Height: 50m)

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

wind speed at 10m (m/s)

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1

10

11

12

month

Figure 4.6-19 Monthly Variation in Average Wind Speed at Maymekden station


(Height: 10m)

Wind Spees at 50m (m/s )

14

12
10
8
6

4
2
0
1

6
7
Month

10

11

12

Figure 4.6-20 Monthly Variation in Average Wind Speed at Maymekden station


(Height: 50m)

Monthly variation in average wind power density


Figure 4.6-21~4.6-24 show characteristics of month-to-month variation in average wind
power density at Bole Station (in Addis Ababa) and Maymekden Station (in Mekele), in
heights of 10m and 50m (1980~2009). Seen from the figures, wind power density is
lowest in June, July, August and September at the two stations. Given that wind power
density is in proportion to cube of wind speed, monthly variation in wind power density is
more obvious than that of wind speed. In the four months, in height of 10m, wind power
density is mostly lower than 150W/m2, and in height of 50m, wind power density is
mostly lower than 200 W/m2. In other months, in height of 10m, wind power density is
above 200 W/ m2 and in height of 50m, wind power density is above 300 W/ m2. In the
country, high wind energy occurs in main rainy season (Kiremt, June~September), dry
season (Bega, October~January), small rainy season (Belg, February~May)), which can
make up insufficiency of water energy in the season.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1

10

11

12

Figure 4.6-21 Monthly Variation in Wind Power Density at Addis Ababa Bole Station,
2

W/m (Height: 10m)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1

10

11

12

Figure 4.6-22 Monthly Variation in Wind Power Density at Addis Ababa Bole Station,
2

W/m (Height: 50m)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1

10

11

12

Figure 4.6-23 Monthly Variation in Wind Power Density at Maymekden Station, W/m
(Height: 10m)

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1

10

11

12

Figure 4.6-24 Monthly Variation in Wind Power Density at Maymekden station, W/m

(Height: 50m)

4.6.4

Calculation of wind resource reserve index


(1)

Calculation of total wind energy resource reserve


Total wind energy resource reserve refers to total of wind energy resource on a height
layer in given zone.
According to Chinese National Technical Specifications of Wind Energy Resource
Assessment, for calculation of total wind energy resource reserve, typical value of wind
power density in zone represented by a grid shall be determined according to wind
power density of the grid, followed by calculation as the formula below:

Total wind energy resource reserve =

1 n
S i Pi
100 i 1

n:

total of grid points

S i:

area of zone represented by the grid

P i:

typical value of wind power density of the ith grid, determined by Table 4.6-5

Table 4.6-5

Typical Value of Wind Power Density


2

Wind power density of grid point (W/m )


<50
50~100
100~150
2
(Increase by step of 50 W/m as demand)

Typical value of wind power density (W/m )


25
75
125
2
(Increase by step of 50 W/m as demand)

Based on result of calculation upon WRF, total wind energy resource reserve in each
state of Ethiopia and the whole country is concluded by the method above (see Table
4.6-6). Total wind energy resource reserve of the whole country is 3,030GW (GigaWatt),
here the state with maximum reserve 1,490GW is Somali.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Table 4.6-6

Theoretical Wind Energy Resource Reserve in Height of 50m

Country/state
Amhara
Tigray
Afar
SNNP
Gembela
Oromiya
Benshagul
Somali
Ethiopia

(2)

Area (1,000 km )
155.0
50.2
94.1
109.9
24.6
320.0
49.5
300.3
1,103.6

Total reserve (GW)


310
140
200
170
20
640
60
1,490
3,030

Calculation of potential exploitable quantity


Potential exploitable quantity refers to wind energy resource reserve on the premise that
geology, environmental protection and other factors restricting exploitation are taken into
account based on total reserve.
In the report, main considered restrictions for exploiting wind energy resource in Ethiopia
are lake, forest, protection zones and natural reserve. Based on total reserve, only
regions with wind power density class 3 and above are included, with reserve of
restricted zones deducted, thus potential exploitable quantity is concluded (statistical
height: 50m).
As statistics, potential exploitable quantity is 1,599 GW. Table 4.6-7 shows potential
exploitable quantity in height of 50m in each state of Ethiopia and the whole country.

Table 4.6-7 Potential Exploitable Quantity of Wind Energy Resource in Height of 50m
Country/state
Amhara
Tigray
Afar
SNNP
Gembela
Oromiya
Benshagul
Somali
Ethiopia

(3)

Area (1,000 km )
155.0
50.2
94.1
109.9
24.6
320.0
49.5
300.3
1,103.6

Total reserve (GW)


86
83
57
53
0
87
0
1,231
1,599

Calculation of potential installed capacity


Potential installed capacity refers to wind power installed capacity achievable on the
premise that terrain and landform that restrict wind farm construction are taken into
account based on potential exploitable quantity. With no regards to restrictions by grid,
road network and economic development planning, potential installed capacity is of
difference with actual installed capacity.
In the report, potential installed capacity is only calculated for height of 50m and zones
not lower than class 3 (see table 4.6-1) in wind power density, not for grid points lower
than class 3 in wind power density.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Potential installed capacity of unit area is influenced by terrain and landform. In general,
that on gentle simple terrain is much more than that on fluctuating complex terrain. In the
report, in reference to results in China Wind Energy Resource Assessment, relation
between GIS slope and installed capacity coefficient P is built (see Table 4.6-8).
Table 4.6-8 Relation between GIS Slope and Installed Capacity Coefficient P
Horizontal resolution in
terrain information

Slope

(%)

Installed capacity coefficient P


2
(MW/km )

2
2 3
3 4
4

10km10km

5
3
2
0

Figure 4.6-25 Schematic of Grid

GIS slope reflects vertical variability of terrain of a grid. As shown in Figure 4.6-25,
assuming heights of grid a, b, , i are Ha, Hb, and Hi, respectively, and DS is grid
interval, variability of terrain of grid e in x direction and y direction are,

dz ( H a 2 H f H i ) ( H a 2 H d H g )

dx
8 DS
and
dz ( H g 2 H h H i ) ( H a 2 H b H c )

dy
8 DS
, respectively.
Based on the two variabilities, slope
below:
2

100

dz
dz
( ) ( )
dy
dx

of grid e can be worked out by the formula

From this, in reference to functional relation of installed capacity coefficient and terrain
slope given in Table 4.6-8, installed capacity of regional area can be estimated by the
formula below:
n

WP Pdi A
i 1

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

WP: potential installed capacity


n:

total of grids within region supporting exploitation

Pdi:

installed capacity coefficient of the ith grid within region supporting exploitation

A:

area of a single grid

With terrain information from USGS, potential installed capacity in each state of Ethiopia
and the whole country is worked out as the method above (see Table 4.6-9). Shown in
the table, potential installed capacity in the whole country is 1,350 GW, and that in
Somali state is highest while that in Gembela and Benshagul is lowest.

Table 4.6-9 Potential Installed Capacity in Each State and the Whole Country
2

Country/state
Amhara
Tigray
Afar
SNNP
Gembela
Oromiya
Benshagul
Somali
Ethiopia

Area (1,000 km )
155.0
50.2
94.1
109.9
24.6
320.0
49.5
300.3
1,103.6

Potential installed capacity (GW)


59
78
52
26
0
75
0
1,060
1,350

The values of potential installed capacity above are based on numerical simulation.
There would be a certain difference to the values in future actual development.
(4)

Brief description
This report proposes the three parameters of wind energy resource reserve, potential
exploitable quantity and potential installed capacity of wind resources in Ethiopia based
on numerical simulation. For easy to understand, also for responding to an explanation
request, a brief comparison with SWERA report mentioned before is given here
It should be emphasized that to analyze SWERA report is not objective and the analysis
probably is only kept at surface understanding. Therefore, it is please forgiven for if there
is improper statement.
It is realized that, for the numerical simulation between this report and SWERA report,
there are differences not only at model system and basic dada but also at assessment
index definition and calculation. Some difference are given in Table 4.6-10

Table 4.6-10

Comparison Table of the Calculation Methods of Two Reports

No.
1
2

Items
Model system
Basic data

SWERA report
RISOE
CESEN + meteorological stations

Assessment index

potential installed capacity

72

This Report
WRF
NCEP
energy resource reserve,
potential exploitable quantity
potential installed capacity

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

The calculation results of potential installed capacities of two reports are shown in Table
4.6-11, in which one of SWERA report was limited at class 4 and above wind categories,
but one of this report is at class 3 and above wind categories. For convenience of
comparison, the values with class 4 and above wind categories correspond to this report
also are also listed out.

Table 4.6-11

Comparison Table of potential installed capacities


This report (class 3)

SWERA

This report(class 4)

Country
/state

Value (GW)

Percentage

Value (GW)

Percentage

Value (GW)

Percentage

Amhara
Tigray
Afar
SNNP
Gembela
Oromiya
Benshagul
Somali
Addis
Dira Dawa
Harar
Ethiopia

10
16
0
12
0
60
0
1
1
0
2
101

9.6%
15.3%
0.1%
11.9%
0.0%
58.9%
0.0%
1.4%
1.0%
0.0%
1.8%
100%

59
78
52
26
0
75
0
1060
0
0
0
1350

4.4%
5.8%
3.9%
1.9%
0.0%
5.6%
0.0%
78.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
100%

21
29
20
11
0
28
0
879
0
0
0
988

2.1%
2.9%
2.0%
1.1%
0.0%
2.8%
0.0%
89.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
100%

It can be seen from the Table, the main difference at the potential installed capacities of
two reports is embodied in Somali state region. They are 1.0 GW and 1.4% in SWERA,
but 879 GW and 89% in this report (for class 4). As we may think, if exclusive of
Somali state region, the potential installed capacities of Ethiopia country in two reports
would be approximate, i.e.
SWERA: 101 - 1 = 100 (GW);
This report: 988 - 879 = 109 (GW).
In short, there is value difference indeed at Somali state region between two reports. As
for the reason brought about the difference, in our opinion, it mainly is related to model
systems and basic data of two reports.
This report reveals there is high wind resource in Somali state region. Whether it
accords with real condition of Somali state region or not, it can be verified by more
studies time and again. Actually, some verification values shown in Section 4.5.3,
included verification values of several wind masts and meteorological stations in Somali
region, can be helpful for us to sort out some evidences.

4.7

Assessment of Solar Resources

4.7.1

Introduction to method of solar energy assessment


Solar shortwave radiation transfer model is embedded in each of mesoscale or small-scale
meteorological numerical models (WRF, MM5, etc.). In the research, Dudhia of WRF model is
73

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

adopted. The model was once successfully adopted for long-term simulation and assessment
of solar energy resource in China, bringing simulation result well consistent with observed
results from 122 observation stations. In the model, solar shortwave radiation reaching upper
bound of earth-atmosphere system, scattering and absorption by cloudless atmosphere
(molecule in air, water vapor, aerosol, etc.) on solar radiation travel path and loss of solar
shortwave radiation due to cloud reflection and absorption are calculated successively, thus
solar radiation power of unit area can be worked out. Based on integration for different regions
and times, solar powers and solar energy reserves in different regions can be concluded. This
provides conditions for statistics and assessment solar energy resource.
Calculation formula of solar radiation flux in Dudhia:

Here, : cosine of solar zenith angle, S0: solar constant.


For cloudless day, water vapor absorption is calculated according to function of water vapor
quantity.

Here, y: water vapor quantity, function of water vapor path and solar zenith angle

In addition, approximate Rayleigh scattering and aerosol scattering are considered:

Here,

: length of mass path.

For cloudy day, back scattering (or reflection) and absorption of cloud are concluded
according to

and

by bilinear interpolation. Here, w: vertically-integrated liquid

water characteristic,

: cosine of solar zenith angle. In the scheme, reflection (ALB) table and

absorption (ABS) table are provided. Path of liquid water:

Here, QC, QI, QR, QS and QG are mixing ratios of cloud water, cloud ice, rain, snow and
graupel, respectively. The marked feature of the model is that for calculating path of liquid
water, contributions of different types of liquid water and solid water are taken into account.
Transmittance:

Here, S, Awv, Rcld and Acld are Rayleigh scattering & aerosol scattering, water vapor absorption
and cloud reflection & absorption, respectively. So, solar short wave radiation flux of the (K+1)
th
layer is,
74

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

For further detail of Dudhia, see the reference document J. Dudhia (1989).
4.7.2

Distribution rule and statistics of annual total solar energy


Located in low-latitude tropical zone near the equator, Ethiopia owns rich solar energy
resource. According to the standard of Chinese meteorological industry Assessment Method
for Solar Energy Resources (QX/T 89-2008), annual total solar radiation in any region of the
country reaches class very rich (1400 kWh/(m2a) annual total solar radiation 1750
kWh/(m2a)) or richest (annual total solar radiation1750 kWh/(m2a)).
(1)

Distribution of annual total (1980~2009,1981~1990,1991~2000,2001~2010)


Distribution of solar energy resource in Ethiopia features high in the north and low in the
south, especially, annual total solar radiation exceeds 2100 kWh/(m2a) in the central
part of North Ethiopia (see Figure 4.7-1).

Figure 4.7-1 Distribution of Average Annual Total Solar Radiation, kWh/(m a)


(1980~2009)

As for reasons for such distribution, on the one hand, Ethiopia is in tropical zone where
solar radiation is strong all the year round; on the other hand, most parts of the country
are plateau and mountain lands, especially the north and the central part are on high
altitude where atmospheric optical path is short, solar radiation is less lost at transfer
through atmospheric layer and solar shortwave radiation reaching Earths surface is
strong. Besides, seen from Figure 4.7-2 and Figure4.7-3, due to high altitude, theres

75

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

less precipitation thus more solar radiations can reach Earth surface.

Figure 4.7-2 Distribution of Average Annual Precipitation, mm

Figure 4.7-3 Distribution of Average Annual Atmospheric Cloud Water, g/kg

In addition, annual precipitation in Ethiopia decreases from the west plateau (1500mm)
to the northeast part and the southeast part (100mm). As a result, in the west part,
frequent precipitations obstruct solar shortwave radiation reaching Earths surface so

76

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

that theres low-radiation zone. Seen from comparison between annual precipitation and
cloud water distribution, there are more non-precipitating clouds in Somali Region (in
Southeast Ethiopia), which causes less solar radiation. As for reason for formation of
non-precipitating cloud, the region is near ocean and high in humidity, and underlying
surface there is shrub-desert alternation where day-night temperature difference is
significant, water vapor in air tends to be saturated to cloud due to low temperature and
saturation specific humidity from night to early morning. However, due to absence of
strong ascending motion, precipitation granule with larger radius cant be formed. With
gradual increase in diurnal solar radiation, temperature in the region rises and cloud
returns to water vapor so that no precipitation is brought.
Seen from Figure 4.7-4~4.7-6 that show distributions of total solar radiation (1980~1989,
1990~1999, 2000~2009), distribution of total solar radiation is similar between the
former two periods but significantly differ between the former two periods and
2000~2009. This is attributable to use of meteorological drive field of higher resolution
for 2000~2009 and climatic change.

Figure 4.7-4 Distribution of Average Annual Total Solar Radiation,


2

(Unit: kWh/(m a), 1980~1989)

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.7-5 Distribution of Average Annual Total Solar Radiation,


2

(Unit: kWh/(m a), 1990~1999)

Figure 4.7-6 Distribution of Average Annual Total Solar Radiation,


2

(Unit: kWh/(m a), 2000~2009)

Compared to previous periods, in the period 2000~2009, solar radiation fell in Central
Ethiopia and West Ethiopia. Low-radiation zone was more obvious in the south parts of

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Central Ethiopia and West Ethiopia. Despite reduction in radiation quantity of


high-radiation zone, area of such zone increased. In the southeast part, solar radiation
of low-radiation zone increased, without obvious low-radiation zone.
(2)

Regional total solar energy


Table 4.7-1 shows situations of solar energy resource in different regions. Figure 4.7-7
and 4.7-8 show average solar radiation flux and total solar radiation power in different
regions, respectively. Figure 4.7-9 and 4.7-10 show average annual solar density and
average annual total solar reserve, respectively.

Table 4.7-1 Statistics of Solar Energy Resource in Different Regions of Ethiopia


Country /state
Amhara
Tigray
Afar
SNNP
Gambela
Oromiya
Benshagul
Somali
Ethiopia

Average solar
Area
Total regional
radiation flux
2
(1,000 km )
power (TW)
2
(W/m )
155.0
240.34
37.26
50.2
246.48
12.38
94.1
239.90
22.57
109.9
226.65
24.91
24.6
222.48
5.48
320.0
223.96
71.66
49.5
232.52
11.5
300.3
217.19
65.21
250.98
1,103.6
227.42

Average annual
solar density
2
(MWh/(m a))
2.105
2.159
2.102
1.986
1.949
1.962
2.037
1.903
1.992

Average annual
total reserve
(PWh/a)
326
108
198
218
48
628
101
571
2199

Average solar radiation power and average annual total solar energy of unit area are
higher in Tigray, Amhara and Afar (all in North Ethiopia) where solar radiation power
density exceeds 230W/m2. For example, solar radiation power density in Tigray exceeds
245W/m2, and average annual solar density exceeds 2.15 MWh/(m2a). However, to
consider total solar energy in different regions, it is necessary to consider areas of
different regions. For this, Oromiya, Somali and Amhara are of advantage.

Figure 4.7-7 Average Solar Radiation Flux in Different Regions

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 4.7-8

Total Solar Radiation Power in Different Regions

Figure 4.7-9

Average annual Solar Density in Different Regions

Figure 4.7-10

Average Annual Total Reserve in Different Regions

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

4.7.3

Characteristics of monthly variation in solar energy


Tropical savanna climate and subtropical forest climate cover most part of Ethiopia, in addition
with mountain climate and tropical desert climate. Distribution of solar energy resource largely
differs among main rainy season (June~September), dry season (October~January) and small
rainy season (February~May). In small rainy season, high-radiation zone moves northwards.
In main rainy season, solar radiation in high-altitude zones in North Ethiopia is much stronger
than South Ethiopia, and theres low-radiation zone in West Ethiopia due to frequent
precipitations. In dry season, solar radiation is low all over the country.
In Resource Assessment Report on Wind Energy and Solar Energy in Ethiopia, specific
characteristics of solar radiation distribution in different months in Ethiopia are analyzed and
calculated.
In general, obvious characteristics of monthly variation are indicated in spatial distribution of
solar radiation.
January: Average solar radiation energy density is lower than 6 kWh/(m2day). Theres a
low-radiation area in Southeast Ethiopia. Minimum average solar radiation power is 4
kWh/(m2day) or so.
February: Average solar radiation power is high in Southwest Ethiopia, possibly exceeding 6
kWh/(m2day). Theres a low-radiation area in Southeast Ethiopia where average solar
radiation power is 5 kWh/(m2day) or so.
March: Average solar radiation power exceeds 6 kWh/(m2day) in many parts of Central
Ethiopia and West Ethiopia, slightly lower in Southeast Ethiopia.
April and May: Average solar radiation power is higher in North Ethiopia, exceeding 6.5
kWh/(m2day) in most parts, and is slightly lower in Southeast Ethiopia.
June: Average solar radiation power is higher in North Ethiopia, exceeding 6.56
kWh/(m2day), and is slightly lower in Southeast Ethiopia. Solar radiation significantly falls in
Southwest Ethiopia. This is attributable to precipitation in rainy season.
July and August: Average solar radiation power falls in North Ethiopia, and gets minimum is
West Ethiopia, lower than 4 kWh/(m2day) in some parts.
September: Compared to August, in the month, solar radiation significantly rises in West
Ethiopia. This is attributable to reduction of precipitation with coming of end of rainy season.
October: From the month, due to movement of direct radiation point to the Southern
Hemisphere, high radiation in plateau and mountain area in North Ethiopia significantly falls,
and radiation is weak in most parts of Southeast Ethiopia.
November and October: Average solar radiation power is lower than 6 kWh/(m2day) in most
parts of Ethiopia, at the lowest level all the year round.

4.8

Summary of Resources Assessment


In the chapter, based on WRF (high-resolution atmospheric numerical mode) and various
boundary conditions, fine-mesh simulation of wind energy resource and solar energy resource

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all over the country is carried out, using re-analysis data from NCEP and FNL. According to
result of the simulation, total wind energy reserve, potential exploitable quantity and possible
installed capacity are analyzed and calculated, using the analysis tool ArcGIS, and solar
energy resource in the whole country is analyzed.
Upon analysis, total wind energy resource reserve, potential exploitable quantity and potential
installed capacity are 3.03 TW, 1.599 TW and 1.35 TW in the whole country, respectively.
Average annual solar radiation energy density of unit area and annual total solar energy
reserve are 1.992 MWh/(m2a) and 2,199 PWh/a in the whole country, respectively. These
indicate Ethiopia owns very rich wind energy resources and solar energy resources.
It must be stated that, given that the atmospheric numerical model is adopted for assessing
wind energy and solar energy in the report, quality of assessment is significantly influenced by
boundary conditions, namely part of the re-analysis data from NCEP and FNL concerning the
whole country directly influences assessment result in the chapter. The re-analysis data from
NCEP and FNL very depends on quality of observed data from local meteorological
observation network. At present, both spatial density and time resolution of meteorological
observation network in the country are far to meet actual demands. Given this, quotation of or
reference to assessment conclusion of the chapter shall be based on knowledge and
emphasis of related calculation conditions. In the subsequent chapters, emphasis is laid on
conjunction with conclusion of on-the-spot survey and assessment of wind resources and
solar resources.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

5.

Electric Power System Analysis of Ethiopia

5.1

Status of Power System


Water energy resources are rich in Ethiopia. There are 9 rivers that are applicable for
developing hydropower in the whole country, ranking second in the total water energy
resources in Africa. According to the statistics, the total hydropower resource reserves in the
whole Ethiopia are about 45,000MW. At present, the development level is relatively low, about
4% of the total amounts. Meanwhile, there are abundant geothermal resources in Ethiopia,
with total 16 confirmed geothermal resource rich areas currently. However, the petroleum and
natural gas resources are relatively short in Ethiopia. Until 2003, the total crude oil reserves in
the whole country were about 428,000 barrels and the natural gas reserves were about
2.51010 m3, which can not satisfy the domestic demand.
Currently, hydropower is the main power supply in Ethiopia. EEPCo is the only electric untility
enterprise in Ethiopia. The power system in Ethiopia is divided into two systems, namely ICS
(Interconnected System) and SCS (Self Contained System). ICS is the most important power
system in Ethiopia, which is a system dominated in hydropower. SCS is relatively independent,
comprising small hydropower and diesel generators.
Until the end of 2010, the total installed capacity of power system in Ethiopia was 2,059.69MW,
with total ICS installed capacity of 2,022.2MW and total SCS installed capacity of 37.49MW.
Now, there are 141 substations in EEPCo, including 138 ICS substations, 10 hydropower
substations, 3 diesel substations and 3 small SCS hydropower substations. By the zones,
there are 20 substations in Addis Ababa region (ZONE-1), 28 substations in central region
(ZONE-2), 13 substations in eastern region (ZONE-3), 10 substations in northeast region
(ZONE-4), 8 substations in northern region (ZONE-5), 14 substations in northwest region
(ZONE-6), 15 substations in western region (ZONE-7) and 17 substations in southern region
(ZONE-8).
The existing transmission line system is 10,397.42km in EEPCo at present. In which, ICS
possesses 400kV line of 620.72km single circuit power transmission and 65.98km double
circuit power transmission, 230kV line of 2842.53km single circuit power transmission and
443.77km double circuit power transmission, 132kV line of 4,202.81km single circuit power
transmission and 113.34km double circuit power transmission, 66kV line of 1835.11km, and
45kV line of 264.16km single circuit power transmission and 9km double circuit power
transmission. The remaining transmission line is possessed by SCS.
According to the data provided by EEPCo, the total ICS installed capacity in 2010 was
2022.2MW. In which, there were 11 hydropower stations, with a total installed capacity of
1,842.6MW, accounting for 91.1% of the whole ICS; with 172.3MW in diesel generator,
accounting for 8.5% of the whole ICS.
See Table 5.1-1 and Figure 5.1-1 for the specific power supply structures.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Table 5.1-1 List of 2010 EEPCo ICS Installed Capacity, Unit: MW


Name of power
station
Finchaa
Meleka Wakena
Koka
Awash II
Awash III
Tis Abay I
Tis Abay II
Gilgel Gibe
Kaliti
Awash Sabatt killo
Dire Dawa
Aluto Langano
Nazret Diesel*
Debre Zeit Diesel*
Gilgel Gibe II
Tekeze
Beles
Sub Total
Alemaya
Dire Dawa (MU)
Adigrat
Axum
Adwa
Mekelle
Shire
Jimma
Nekemot
Ghimbi
Sub Total
ICS Sub Total

Hydropower
generation
134
153
43.2
32
32
11.4
73
184

Diesel power
generation

Geothermal
power generation

14
35
38
7.3
30
30
420
300
460
1,842.6

147

0
1,842.6

2.3
4.5
2.5
3.2
3
5.7
0.8
1.1
1.1
1.1
25.3
172.3

Total
134
153
43.2
32
32
11.4
73
184
14
35
38
7.3
30
30

7.3

816.9

0
7.3

2.3
4.5
2.5
3.2
3
5.7
0.8
1.1
1.1
1.1
25.3
2022.2

Figure 5.1-1 Schematic Diagram of EEPCo ICS Power Supply Installed Capacity Structure

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

5.2

Power Source Planning of Electric System


Until 2015, EEPCo is planning to construct 12 hydropower stations, with an installed capacity
of 8,791MW; 1 geothermal power station, with an installed capacity of 70MW; and 3
cogeneration stations, with an installed capacity of 104MW.
The long-range planning after 2015 will construct 13 hydropower stations and 5 geothermal
power stations, with total installed capacity of 10,599MW.
Until 2015, EEPCo is planning to construct 1,504.311km transmission line, including 400kV
line of 485.661km double circuit power transmission and 90km single circuit power
transmission; 230kV line of 395.72km double circuit power transmission and 261.12km single
circuit power transmission; 132kV line of 271.81km.
Until 2015, EEPCo is planning to construct and expand 35 substations.
With the construction of power supply and power grid and the fast development of national
economy, the power consumption in Ethiopia will increase very fast in the future. Until 2015,
the generating production in Ethiopia will reach to 12,703 GWh, with a maximum load up to
2,663MW.
(1)

Power installed capacity planned to put into production in Ethiopia in 2015


According to the data provided by EEPCo, until 2015, Ethiopia is planning to put a total
of 8,719MW installed capacity into production. See Table 5.2-1 for the specific power
point development planning.

Table 5.2-1 2015 Power Development Planning in Ethiopia, Unit: MW


Name of power station Hydropower
Amerti Neshe HEPP
Project
Gibe III HEP Project
Genale Dawa III
Genale Dawa VI
Chemoga Yeda I
Chemoga Yeda II
Geba I
Geba II
Halele Warabesa HEPP
Project Stage 1
Halele Warabessa
HEPP Project Stage 2
Millennium - 5000
Adama 1 Wind Park
Ashegoda Wind Park
Messobo/Harena Wind
Park
Ayisha wind Park
Debre Birhan wind Park
Asela wind Park
Adama II wind Park
Aluto Lang II
Geothermal

Diesel
power

Geotherma
l power

Wind
power

Cogenerat
ion power

Production
time

97

2013

1870
254
246
162
118
215
157

2013
2014
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015

96

2015

326

2015

5,250

70

85

51
120

2015
2011
2012

51

2012

300
100
100
51

2012
2013
2013
2013
2015

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Finchaa Sugar Factory
Wonji Sugar Factory
Tendaho Sugar Factory
ICS Sub Total(2015
plan)

(2)

6
20
78
8,791

70

773

2011
2012
2013

104

Long-range planning of power development


According to the data provided by EEPCo, the long-range total installed capacity after
2015 in Ethiopia is 10,599MW, which includes total installed capacity of 10,224MW for
hydropower station, accounting for 96.5% of the long-range planned total installed
capacity; total installed capacity of 375MW for geothermal power station, accounting for
3.5% of the long-range planned total installed capacity.
See Table 5.2-2 for each power supply situation.

Table 5.2-2 Long-range Power Development Planning in Ethiopia


No.

Qty. of
turbine

Generating
production
(GWh)

Installed
capacity
(MW)

50,752

10,224

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11

Hydropower station
Hydropower
Tekeze II
Beko Abo
Border
Gibe 5TH
Wabi Shebele
Birbir
Lower Dedessa
Dabus
Tams
Genale Dawa 5th
Gibe IV

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8

1730
8600
6000
1957
460
2726
3208
2036
5892
655
5930

450
1600
1200
660
87
467
613
425
1000
100
1472

1.12

Gojeb

364

150

1.13

Mendaya

11194

2000

2,628

375

701
526
701
280
420
53,380

100
75
100
40
60
10,599

2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
3

(3)

Name of power
station

Geothermal power
station
Tendaho Geothermal
Corbetti Geothermal
Abaya Geothermal
Tulu Moya Geothermal
Dofan Geothermal
Total

1
1
1
1
1

Progress

Feasibility study phase


Pre-feasibility study phase
Pre-feasibility study phase
Feasibility study phase
Study phase
Preliminary study phase
Preliminary study phase
Preliminary study phase
Preliminary study phase
Preliminary study phase
Pre-feasibility study phase
To complete feasibility
study phase
To complete feasibility
study

Pre-feasibility study phase


Pre-feasibility study phase
Pre-feasibility study phase
Pre-feasibility study phase
Pre-feasibility study phase

Electric quantity forecasting and export plan of Ethiopia


According to the data provided by EEPCo, until 2015, the demanded electric quantity of
power grid in Ethiopia is 13,294.9 GWh, with a maximum load of 2,662.6MW; the electric
quantity exported to Sudan is 9,460.8 GWh, with the corresponding capacity of
1,200MW; the electric quantity exported to Djibouti is 699GWh, with the corresponding
capacity of 84MW; the electric quantity exported to Kenya is 8,322 GWh, with the
corresponding capacity of 1,000MW; the total net electric quantity for domestic

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

demanded and exported power is 31,776.8 GWh, with a maximum load of 4,946.6MW.
At the same time, the data show that until 2020, the total net electric quantity for
domestic demanded and exported power in Ethiopia will reach up to 57,457.6 GWh, with
a maximum load of 10,089.8MW.
See Table 5.2-3 for the specific situation.

Table 5.2-3 Electric Quantity Forecasting and Export Plan,


Domestic demand
Reform plan

Electric
quantity

Capacity

Electric
quantity

Capacity

Electric
quantity

Capacity

Net
electric
quantity

Maximum
load

Total

Capacity

2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020

Power plan for exporting to the neighboring


countries
To Sudan
To Djibouti
To Kenya

Electric
quantity

Year

Unit: GWh/MW

4535.0
5623.4
6973.0
8646.5
10721.7
13294.9
16485.7
20442.3
25348.4
31432.0
38975.7

859.5
1126.2
1396.5
1731.7
2147.3
2662.6
3301.6
4094.0
5076.6
6295.0
7805.8

788
788
788
788
788
9460.8
9460.8
9460.8
9460.8
9460.8
9460.8

100
100
100
100
100
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200

318
699
699
699
699
699
699
699
699
699
699

50
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84

0
0
0
0
0
8322
8322
8322
8322
8322
8322

0
0
0
0
0
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

5641.0
7110.4
8460.1
10133.6
12208.8
31776.8
34967.5
38924.1
43830.3
49913.9
57457.6

1009.5
1310.2
1580.5
1915.7
2331.3
4946.6
5585.6
6378.0
7360.6
8579.0
10089.8

5.3

Overview of Potential Power Supply Market

5.3.1

Sudan
The Republic of the Sudan, located at the Northeast of Africa, the coast of the Red Sea, the
East of the Sahara and the Northwest of Ethiopia, is the third largest country in Africa, with an
area of 1,886,000 km2. Its capital is Khartoum. The central region of Sudan is Sudan basin,
with the Nile River running through and the confluence of the Blue Nile and the White Nile is
the most fertile territory; the western and the eastern are plateaus. Sudan is hot all the year
around, mainly belonging to tropical grassland and desert climate.
Sudans economy is based on agriculture and animal husbandry and the most important
agricultural regions in domestic are the peninsula area mingled by the White Nile and the
Blue Nile, and Khartoum. Throughout the country, more than half of the population and 80% of
the cultivated land are in these areas. Sudan abounds in Arabic gum, which accounts for three
fourth in the world. There are small gold ore, manganese ore and magnetite ore at the coast of
the Red Sea and copper ore in western Jebel Marra region. The modern industries in Sudan
include cotton manufacturing, flour, sugaring, tobacco, tanning, slaughtering, oil
manufacturing and other commodity factories.
Until 2006, 32% of power system was hydropower station and 68% was thermal power plant in
Sudan. From 2006 to 2010, the power generating capacity of thermal power plant in Sudan
National Electric Company (NEC) increased from 2555GWh to 15092GWh. Until 2016, the

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

total installed capacity of thermal power plant will reach up to 3958MW, with the power
generating capacity up to 3048.8 billion kWh. Obviously, thermal power plant is the main
power system in Sudan.
Power exchange between Sudan and Ethiopia is beneficial to both parties, which mainly
shows in the following points:

5.3.2

(1)

Ethiopia can sell its surplus hydropower to substitute for the expensive thermal power
system in Sudan.

(2)

According to Sudans power system experience, the power demand seasonality and the
seasonality of hydropower generation are especially high. After Merowe Hydropower
Station is put into production in Sudan, NEC will generate more power and transmit to
EEPCo, to reduce the impoundment in reservoir for hydropower generation. During the
peak demand period in Sudan, NEC can import hydropower energy from EEPCo, to
replace thermal power generation. This type of energy exchange is deemed as energy
bank.

(3)

Sudan can sell thermal power to EEPCo. When Ethiopia is in drought, EEPCo is obliged
to run the relatively expensive thermal power, to eliminate insufficient power supply. The
thermal power in Ethiopia is relatively expensive, because Ethiopia is an inland and
non-petroleum production country.

Djibouti
The Republic of Djibouti is located on the west coast of Gulf of Aden in northeast of Africa, the
east of Ethiopia, passing the Red Sea to the gateway of Indian Ocean Bab el Mandeb Strait,
bordering on Somalia in the southeast and neighboring to Eritrea in the north. Djibouti mainly
belongs to tropical desert climate and is hot with little rain all the year around. The inlands are
mainly plateaus and mountain lands, belonging to tropical savanna climate. The whole year is
divided into cool season and hot season. From April to October, it is hot season, with an
average temperature of 37 and maximum temperature up to 45; from November to March,
it is cool season, with an average temperature of 27. Djibouti is poor in natural resources
and the agriculture and industry foundation is weak, 95% of the agricultural products and
industrial products are imported. The transportation industry, commerce and service industry
(mainly as port service industry) take dominant place in economy, accounting for about 80% of
GDP.
It is estimated that the total electric power coverage in Djibouti will be 50% and about 81% of
population in urban areas. The annual power consumption per capita is 288kWh, which is
higher than that in Ethiopia. In this country, the energy available in rural areas is very limited.
On the other hand, since the electric power cost is too expensive, most families in urban areas
use kerosene.
In 2005, the total installed capacity of power system in Djibouti was 108MW. The transmission
system is connected by 5km of 63kV underground cable to Boulaos and Marabout, with total
300km of 20kV distribution system. In 2010, the total installed capacity was 375GWh (with
peak value of 67MW), with about 65% of load coefficient. According to the long-term
development plan of Djibouti Electric Company (EDD), it is forecasted that the demand peak

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

and energy demand in 2025 will be 102MW and 496GWh respectively.


Djibouti is lack of petroleum and natural gas resources, without any water resources.
Obviously, Djibouti is a relatively limited market for power system in Ethiopia.
According to Djiboutis power system experience, from May to October, the first power
consumption peak is at 3:00 PM, at that time, people is resuming work after noon time; the
second peak is from the midnight to the morning due to use of air conditioner. Actually, the
power consumption peak in Djibouti just begins after that ends in Ethiopia. Although the
system in Djibouti is small, it is quite obvious that the power consumption peaks in both
countries are different, which is beneficial for Ethiopia providing power to Djibouti.
5.3.3

Kenya
The Republic of Kenya is located in the east of Africa, with the Equator traversing its central
region and Great Rift Valley in East Africa across the north and south. It is adjacent to Somalia
in the east, adjoining with Tanzania in the south, connecting with Uganda in the west,
bordering on Ethiopia and South Sudan in the north and closing to Indian Ocean in the
southeast, with a coastline of 536km. there are many plateaus in its territory, with an average
elevation of 1500m. It has a total area of 583,000 km2 and a total population of about 38.6
million (in 2009), with the population growth rate of 2.7%. The whole territory of Kenya lies in
the tropical monsoon region. The coastal area is damp and hot while the plateau-climate is
temperate. The maximum temperature in the whole year is 22~26 and the minimum
temperature is 10~14.
Kenya is one of the countries with a better economic foundation in Africa in the south of
Sahara. It implements the mixed economy system combining with the dominated private
economy and the coexisting diverse economic forms, in which the private economy accounts
for 70% of the total economy. The tourism is already prosperous, the industry is relatively
developed in East Africa and the commodities are basically self-sufficient. In 2007, its
economic growth rate reached up to 7%, which was mainly from transport and communication
(23.3%), tourism (16.4%), wholesale and retail (15.7%) and manufacturing industry (8.8%). In
2010, its GDP was US 31.4 billion dollars, with GDP per capita of US 813 dollars and the
economic growth rate of 5.6%.
After the reconstruction of power sectors in the 1990s, the assets of power plant is assigned to
Kenya Power Generation Company (KenGen), which provides 80% of power supply in the
whole country. The assets of transmission and distribution are assigned to Kenya Power
Generation Company and Lighting Company, which changed the name as Kenya Power on
June 22, 2011. Currently, there are two main problems in power system of Kenya, as follows:
(1)

Hydropower generating capacity accounts for 55% of the total generating capacity
Until 2006, the total installed capacity of power grid in Kenya was 1124MW, with the
system peak load of 1070MW, a total generating capacity of about 6561GWh and the
hydropower generating capacity accounting for 55% of the total generating capacity.
This means that once Kenya is short of water, such as in drought, the other generating
capacity cannot meet the power consumption demand at all. For example, in 2010,
Kenya was in drought in a large area, the power sector had to use the expensive

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

liquefied petroleum gas to generate power, which does a lot of damage to the
environment as well as limits the power consumption of the poor to a large extent.
(2)

Power grid coverage in rural areas is only 10%


Among 35 million populations in Kenya, only about 5 million people can use the
electricity. Especially in the rural areas, the lack of electricity is very ordinary. Currently,
the power grid coverage in rural areas is only 10%, which is lower than 30% average
level of the developing countries in the global and has an influence on the agricultural
production.
For this reason, the government plans to vigorously strengthen the power construction.
In 2007, the government of Kenya invested 8 billion shillings to start the rural power
system plan. Until 2012, it is proposed to improve the rural power grid coverage up to
20% and make one million families use the electricity in the following five years. Until
2020, the power grid coverage will reach to 40%.
According to the power construction planning of the next 20 years established by Kenya,
the thermal power generation will become to the main power sources in Kenya. Until
2028, the total thermal power generating capacity will reach up to 1000MW. In addition,
until 2019, Kenya is planning to construct 6 geothermal power stations with an installed
capacity of 4 MW, 1 hydropower station with an installed capacity of 161 MW and
several diesel power plants with total installed capacity of 540MW.
Affected by economic growth, insufficient rainfall capacity and many other factors, the
power supply in Kenya is in increasingly tension and the shortage is emerging gradually.
To solve this problem, Kenya is aiming at the green energy resources, hoping to
increase the generating capacity through green energy resources.
With the economic development and population growth in Kenya, it is estimated that
until 2012, its demand for generating capacity will increase to 1500MW; until 2015, the
system peak load will reach to 2420MW and the total generating capacity will be about
14839GWh; until 2018, it will increase to 3000MW; and until 2030, it will increase to
9000MW.
It is estimated that in the next 20 years, the power system in Kenya will still has a gap of
about 200MW in power supply every year. To make up this gap, the import is only
choice. Therefore, as the member countries of East African Community, Kenya, Uganda
and Tanzania have achieved an agreement, to realize the interconnection of each power
grid in 2011, so as to support each other when these three countries are short of power.
Kenya also signs an agreement with its neighboring country Ethiopia, which abounds in
hydropower resources. It plans to import the electricity from Ethiopia. In addition, South
Africa is also one of the countries that Kenya is intended to import the electricity.

5.3.4

Somalia
The Federal Republic of Somalia is located at Somalia Peninsula on the easternmost part of
Africa Continent, neighboring to Gulf of Aden in the north, closing to Indian Ocean in the east,
adjoining to Kenya and Ethiopia in the west and bordering on Djibouti in the northwest. It has a
coastline of 3200 km, a total area of 638,000 km2 and a population of about 9.1 million. The
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

most regions of Somalia belong to tropical desert climate and the southwest region belongs to
tropical savanna climate, which is hot all the year around, dry and rainless. Due to the
influence of warlordism in domestic, the economy in Somalia develops slowly, which makes it
become one of the most undeveloped countries in the world. Animal husbandry dominates the
economy and the industry foundation is weak.
At the eastern side of Ethiopia, there is the possibility to export power to Somalia. The market
in Somalia requires about 50 to 100MW, with a smaller potential. Because it is lack of peace
and safe environments for a long time, this country need a longer time to realize the power
grid connection outsourcing.
5.3.5

Eritrea
The State of Eritrea is located at the most northern part of East Africa and Horn of Africa,
passing the south section of the Red Sea, neighboring to Ethiopia in the south, closing to
Sudan in the west, bordering on Djibouti in the southeast, separating to the Red Sea in the
northeast and opposite to Yemen and Saudi Arabia. The total area of Eritrea is 124,000 km2,
with a population of 5.07 million (in 2009).
The main minerals in Eritrea are copper, iron, gold, nickel, manganese, barite, feldspar, kaolin,
potash, halite, gypsum, asbestos and marble. It is rich in geothermal resources and there is
likely to be petroleum and natural gas on the coast of the Red Sea and the western region, the
reserves are not demonstrated until now. Agriculture dominates the economy in Eritrea and
80% of population is engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. Its production is somewhat
backward, with grain self-sufficiency rate of only 60%~70% in an abundant year. In 2010, its
GDP was US 2.117 billion dollars (estimated value).
The power system in Eritrea has a potential of 60MW to 100MW, while the power system in
Ethiopia is 230kV and is now expanding to the boundary of Eritrea. A joint can be constructed
between Inda-Selasse substation in Ethiopia and Asmara substation in Eritrea, with total
length of 200km.
In consideration of the political situations between Ethiopia and Eritrea at present, this joint is
difficult to realize recently, but it may be achieved in the near future.

5.3.6

Egypt
The Arab Republic of Egypt is an important country located in north Africa, crossing the Asia
and Africa, with most territory seated in the northeast of Africa, only Sinai Peninsula to the east
of the Suez Canal located in the southwest of Asia. Egypt has total area of 1,001,450 km2,
connecting with Libya in the west, Sudan in the south, the Red Sea and Palestine and Israel in
the east, Mediterranean Sea in the north. Its coastline is about 2900km. The whole territory is
dry and rainless. The Nile Delta and coastal areas in the north belong to Mediterranean
climate, with an average temperature of 12 in January and 26 in July. Most of the rest
areas belong to tropical desert climate, hot and dry. The temperature in desert areas can
reach up to 40.
Egypts economic foundation is good, which belongs to open market economy and possesses
relatively entire system in industry, agriculture and service. The service industry accounts for

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

about 50% of GDP. The light industry such as textile manufacturing and food processing
dominates the industry. The rural population is 55% of the total population and agriculture
accounts for 14% of GDP. Petroleum and natural gas, tourism, overseas remittance and the
Suez Canal are four resources of foreign exchange earnings. The main mineral resources are
petroleum, natural gas, phosphate and iron as well as manganese, coal, gold, zinc, chromium,
silver, molybdenum, copper and talcum. The average crude oil output reaches up to 675,000
barrels per day and the natural gas output reaches up to 6.4 billion cubic foot per day. The
natural gas quantity consumed in domestic accounts for 70% of the total natural gas output,
the other 70% is for exporting.
Thermal power and hydropower dominate the power supply in Egypt and the power grid
coverage reaches 99.3% in the whole country, ranking first among African countries and
ranking fourth in the world. Nile River, the first longest river in the world, flows through the
whole territory from the South to the North, with a length of 1350km in the territory. Aswan
Dam is one of the seven largest dams in the world, with the generating capacity of 10 billion
kWh in a whole year. In 2008, Egypt invested 1.6 billion Egyptian pounds to improve the power
generators of Aswan Dam and invested 15 billion Egyptian pounds to improve the national
power grid. Currently, Egypt is speeding up the applications of new energy and renewable
energy in the power field.
Thermal power dominates the installed capacity of power generation in Egypt. In 2004, the
installed capacity was 20,123MW, in which the installed capacity of regular thermal power was
14,633MW (with natural gas as the fuel), accounting for 72.72% of the total installed capacity;
the installed capacity of combined cycle power generation was 2605MW, accounting for
12.95%; the installed capacity of hydropower was 2745MW, accounting for 13.64%; and the
installed capacity of wind power was 140MW, accounting for 0.70%.
In 2004, the generating capacity in Egypt was 94,913GWh, in which the power holding
company generated total power of 81,335GWh, accounting for 85.69%; the purchased power
was total 13,578.4GWh, accounting for 14.31%.
In recent years, the average power consumption in Egypt increased by more than 6% per year.
In which, the residential power consumption and commercial power consumption had the
higher proportion, respectively 37.38% and 35.60%.
Egypt has completed power grid interconnection with Jordan and Libya in May and October
1998 respectively. The interconnection voltage classes are respectively 400kV and 220kV.
Since it is located at the junction among the North Africa, the Middle East and the
Mediterranean Sea, Egypt plays an important role on power grid interconnection with the
surrounding countries. Currently, the surrounding countries including Egypt propose a
planning, which is to construct Arab-Europe power grid: Arab-Europe power grid is divided into
the eastern part and the western part. After the power grid is interconnected, the countries
within the interconnection can stagger the power consumption peak in each country, to use the
electricity reasonably. The power grids in the west include Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria,
Morocco and Spain, Italy. Morocco has interconnected with Spain through undersea cables in
1997 and Egypt-Libya interconnection has started to run in December 1999. In 2000, the
power grids in the west were basically interconnected and the power grids project in Syria,

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Iraq and Turkey were completed in 2002.


In recent years, Sudan, Egypt and Ethiopia have established the East Nile Plan, to realize
power interconnection among three countries. This plan is called Road of Power Trade,
which is planning to construct the power market among these three countries in 2030, to
expand power supply and power consumption. In which, Egypt plans to build the nuclear
power and other emerging energy power station project. It is reported that this project will cost
US 18 billion dollars and will produce tremendous economic profits after construction. In this
project, 85% of lines are located in the uninhabited desert zone, which has a limited influence
on the environment.
5.3.7

Yemen
The Republic of Yemen is located at the southwestern end of the Arabia, neighboring to Saudi
Arabia and Oman in the North and East respectively, adjoining with the Red Sea, the Gulf of
Aden and the Arabian Sea, and opposite to Somalia and Djibouti, with a coastline of 1906km.
Its total area is about 555,000 km2, the climate of mountain lands and plateau areas within the
borders is temperate and the climate of the desert areas is hot and dry. The average maximum
temperature in a year is 39 and the minimum temperature is -8. The total population in
Yemen was about 23.6 billion (in 2010) and most of them are Arabians. Its official language is
Arabic.
The economy in Yemen is backward, which makes it become one of the most undeveloped
countries in the world. Its economic development mainly relies on the oil export income.
Currently, the proven recoverable reserve of oil is about 0.55 billion tons and that of natural
gas is about 760 billion cubic meters. The government of Yemen emphasizes the exploration
and exploitation of oil, striving to conquer the financial difficulty by exploiting the oil and
mineral resources. Besides oil, Yemen also has copper, iron, aluminum, chromium, nickel,
cobalt, gold, silver, coal, salt, marble, sulphur, petroleum, natural gas and gypsum. The
industry in Yemen is undeveloped. Except oil exploitation, there is textile manufacturing,
chemical industry, aluminum industry, leather working, cement, building materials, cigarette,
food processing and other industries. The agricultural population accounts for about 71% of
national population. The main agricultural products include cotton, coffee, sorghum, millet,
corn, barley, beans, sesame, carter and tobacco. The grain is not self-sufficient, thus one half
of the grain relies on import. The cotton and coffee are available for export.
Ethiopia can enter into the power market in Yemen through Djibouti power grid. The closest
point between Djibouti and Yemen is about 26km. It is available to connect Djibouti and
Yemen through high-voltage transmission lines (submarine cables). The exported power in
Ethiopia can replace the thermal power generation system in Yemen.
EPPCo of Ethiopia provides the possible interconnection lines for power transmission to the
neighboring countries. See Figure 5.3-1.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

EG
YP
T

Possible Interconnection Lines


with Neighboring Countries
Cairo

Aswan

Merowe

km

E
N

Asmara

ER
IT
RE
A
Shire

Y
E
M
8 2 km

90 km

is
Koka

M.Wakena
GD-06
GD-08

Mogadishu
km

465 km

80

km

LEGEND
590

220 kV

ELDORET
230 kV Sub-marine Cable

A
NY
KE
Nairobi

400 kV

370 km

LI
A

km
100

Mega

22

0k

50

GG-III

km

GD-03

GG-II

S
O
M

GG-I

230 kV

Hargessa

SOMALILAND

185 km
D.Dawa

Mandaya

Finchaa

km

km

ba
A
ba

i
ob
K
.D

DJIBOUTI

201

ie

Bord
e

km

Djibouti

Berbera

B.Dar

A
dd

SUD

Gonder

Beles

Roseries

le

Tekeze

Shehedi

w
Pa

26

ke

km

ra

37

me

AN

Hu

7k

Me

15

Gedaref

17

8 0 km

120

Khartoum

Kisimayou
LEGEND
Substation at 230 kV and above
Substation with Generation Facility
(Switchyard at 230 kV and above)
Town

500 kV

AC/DC Station
(Converter/Inverter)

HVDC Link

Figure 5.3-1 Schematic Diagram of Power Transmission in Ethiopia

5.4

Analysis of Grid Features


(1)

Annual load curve


The maximum monthly load is calculated based on the maximum daily load data table
5.4-1 of ICS from the year of 2006 to the year of 2008. See Table 5.4-2 and Figure 5.4-1
for the results.

Table 5.4-1
Date
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
Jun.
Jul.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.

ICS Monthly Load Distribution from 2006 to 2008, Unit: MW


2006
587
552.6
542.1
567.7
553
557.5
541.9
572.8
572.7
582.7

94

2007
620.6
622.6
615.7
623
596.4
623.8
615
624.5
632.3
650.7

2008
672.8
673.9
664.2
657.1
604.2
602
611
651.3
667
673.4

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Date
Nov.
Dec.
Maximum load

2006
611.4
612.5
612.5

Table 5.4-2
Month

Coefficient

2007
668.9
667.5
668.9

2008
668.9
673.2
673.9

ICS Annual Load Curve

0.943 0.916 0.903 0.929 0.897 0.921 0.902 0.934

9
0.94

10

11

0.962 0.999

12
1

Figure 5.4-1 ICS Load Schematic Diagram of 2006~2008

Daily load curve


According to ICS grid data offered by EPPCo, select daily load curves of March, 2009
and September, 2009 as reference. See Table 5.4-3, Table 5.4-4, Figure 5.4-2 and
Figure 5.4-3 for details. The conclusion is drawn that daily load feature curve of ICS grid
is shown in Figure 5.4-4.

Wakena

Finchaa

Tis Abay II

Koka

Awash II III

G.G I

Tis Abay I

Aluto

Kaliti

DD Diesel

Awash 7K D

D.Zeit

Nathret

ICS Total

Table 5.4-3 Load Process of Each Generating Set of ICS in March 2009, Unit: MW
TIME

(2)

1:00
2:00
3:00
4:00
5:00
6:00
7:00
8:00

0
0
0
0
10
20
40
50

115
115
115
120
120
125
130
130

63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63

2
20
20
15
2
2
2
2

32
40
46
46
46
46
46
46

20
20
20
20
20
20
20
40

6
6
6
6
6
8
8
8

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
30
30
30
30

0
0
0
30
30
30
30
30

270.5
296.5
302.5
332.5
359.5
376.5
401.5
431.5

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
9:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
0:00

70
90
100
100
80
70
70
70
70
100
110
110
110
100
70
40

130
130
132
132
130
130
130
132
132
132
132
132
132
132
132
122

63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63

24
33
24
10
2
2
2
2
2
2
24
24
24
10
2
2

46
46
46
46
34
24
24
24
24
34
48
48
48
34
34
34

40
70
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
60
130
130
130
60
20
20

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
6
6
4

Average 61.67 127.58 63.0 10.58 39.25 53.75 7.25

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2.5
2.5
2.5
0
0
0

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
9
9
0
0
0

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

473.5
532.5
535.5
521.5
479.5
449.5
449.5
451.5
451.5
491.5
619
619
619
497.5
419.5
347.5

2.5

0.31 30.0 1.13 24.78 26.25 447.02

TIME

Wakena

Finchaa

Tis Abay II

Koka

Awash II III

G.G I

Tis Abay I

Tekze

G.G II

DD Diesel

Awash 7K D

D.Zeit

Nathret

ICS Total

Table 5.4-4 Load Process of Each Generating Set of ICS in Sep. 2009, Unit: MW

1:00
2:00
3:00
4:00
5:00
6:00
7:00
8:00
9:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
0:00

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
70
90
100
90
50
20
0

90
115
115
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
100
100

57
57
57
57
57
57
57
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58

2
20
20
20
2
2
2
2
12
20
20
10
2
2
2
2
2
2
33
33
33
33
2
2

32
40
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
34
24
24
24
24
34
49
49
49
49
49
34

35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
70
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
180
180
180
70
50
35

0
0
0
0
0
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
0
0
0

30
30
30
30
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

70
70
70
70
70
70
70
80
90
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
70

16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16

0
0
0
0
0
0
6
6
6
6
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
6
6
6
6
6
6
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25

332
383
392
397
399
407
413
509
564
597
597
587
558
548
548
548
538
604
770
780
770
612
511
420

Average 29.58 116.67 57.71 11.67 41.88 73.54 5.33 46.67 91.67 16.00 3.00 21.25 17.71 532.67

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 5.4-2

Daily Load Curve of ICS System in March, 2010

Figure 5.4-3 Daily Load Curve of ICS System in September, 2010

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 5.4-4 Daily Load Feature Curve of ICS System

(3)

Output features of hydropower station


According to the existing data offered by EPPCo, the output features of hydropower
station are projected and listed in Table 5.4-5.

Table 5.4-5 Output Feature Table of Existing Major Hydropower Stations in Ethiopia,
Unit: MW
Plant

month
Projecte
d output
Makena Average
output
Projecte
d output
Koka
Average
output
Projecte
d output
Finchaa Average
output
Projecte
Awash d output
II and III Average
output

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

153

153

153

153

153

153

153

153

153

153

153

153

101

104

90

46

26

22

35

27

53

64

83

92

43.2

43.2

43.2

43.2

43.2

43.2

43.2

43.2

43.2

43.2

43.2

43.2

12

11

11

13

15

10

25

15

12

13

134

134

134

134

134

134

134

134

134

134

134

134

92

90

89

94

95

87

76

44

90

94

96

94

64

64

64

64

64

64

64

64

64

64

64

64

45

44

42

47

50

36

35

22

40

45

47

45

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Plant
Tis I

Tis II

G.G I

G.G II

Tekeze

Beles

G.G III

5.5

month
Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Projecte 12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
d output
Average
2
3
3
4
2
4
5
3
4
6
6
3
output
Projecte 73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
d output
Average 46
45
44
45
46
33
30
24
46
39
49
45
output
Projecte 184 184 184 184 184 184 184 184 184 184 184 184
d output
Average 75
69
64
54
38
91
146
73
82
93
101 103
output
Projecte 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420
d output
Average 197 183 169 141 101 241 384 192 217 245 265 270
output
Projecte 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300
d output
Average 111 103
95
79
57
135 216 108 122 138 149 152
output
Projecte 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420
d output
Average 191 177 163 137
98
233 372 186 210 237 257 262
output
Projecte 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800
d output
Average 777 720 665 557 398 950 1515 758 855 967 1046 1066
output

Calculation of Peak Regulation Capacity of Power Grid


According to Ethiopia power grid load prediction and power supply construction planning, it
makes an analysis on surplus and shortage of peak regulation capacity in Ethiopia in 2015,
2020, 2025 and 2030.
So far, the collected data about Ethiopia power grid is limited, among which there is only
domestic load prediction data but no regional data. Especially, basic data about peak
regulation capacity of the existing hydropower station and the planning hydropower station is
insufficient. Hence, based on the analysis of present data, the major principles of calculation of
regulation capacity balance are as follows:
(1)

Its assumed that wind power is put into operation first, and calculated first.

(2)

According to the collected data, installed capacity of Ethiopia ICS system is much larger
than the peak load of ICS and many hydropower stations are planning to be put into
operation during 2010 to 2015. In the calculation of regulation capacity balance,
regulation capacity of hydropower stations is determined by the maximum load of the
system.

(3)

Peak regulation range of diesel power station is 100%.

(4)

Rotating reserve capacity is 8% of the maximum load, among which there is 3% of load
reserve and 5% of emergency reserve.

(5)

Its assumed that all the existing and planning power plants can be used as regulation
plants (load following plants), just with different range of regulation ability. Then, all the
regulation capacity of the existing and planning power plants is calculated, to see
whether it can follow the maximum daily load.

(6)

In the analysis of peak regulation capacity balance, the hydropower station is regarded

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

as the major peak regulation power supply. Its capacity is adjusted to make actual peak
regulation capacity and demanded peak regulation capacity of power grid equivalent, so
as to calculate the maximum absorption ability of wind power when the power grid meet
demands of balance of peak regulation capacity.
Scheme setting: for the data about regulation ability of Ethiopia hydropower station is unable
to be collected so far, it is predicted that overall peak regulation ability of Ethiopia hydropower
station is 70%~80% (ratio of power station with daily regulation ability above in the total
capacity of hydropower). In order to absorb the wind power to the greatest degree and make
full use of quantity of wind power, anti-regulation rate of wind power adopted in the calculation
is 60%. In order to calculate absorption of wind power of ICS power grid, the following scheme
is set:
Scheme I: hydropower peak regulation ability is 80% and wind power anti-regulation rate is
60%;
Scheme II: hydropower peak regulation ability is 70% and wind power anti-regulation rate is
60%.
See Table 5.5-1 and Table 5.5-2 in the following for calculation results of peak regulation
capacity balance.

Table 5.5-1 Peak Regulation Capacity Balance Calculation of Scheme I, Unit: MW


Item
Maximum load
Minimum load
regulation capacity needed
Peak-valley difference
Rotating reserve
Operating capacity
diesel power generation
hydropower station
Wind power
Actual peak regulation capacity
Diesel power generation
hydropower station
Wind power
Surplus (+) and shortage (-) of peak regulation
Peak regulation ability of diesel power generation
Wind power anti-regulation rate
Hydropower peak regulation range

2015

2020

2025

2030

2663
1133
1716
1530
186
2849
172
2677
997
1716
172
2142
-598
0
100%
60%
80.0%

7806
3323
5030
4483
546
8352
172
8180
2811
5030
172
6544
-1687
0
100%
60%
80.0%

12571
5351
8100
7220
880
13451
172
13279
4492
8100
172
10623
-2695
0
100%
60%
80.0%

20246
8618
13046
11628
1417
21663
172
21491
7199
13046
172
17193
-4319
0
100%
60%
80.0%

Table 5.5-2 Peak Regulation Capacity Balance Calculation of Scheme II, Unit: MW
Item

2015

2020

2025

2030

Maximum load
Minimum load
regulation capacity needed
Peak-valley difference
Rotating reserve
Operating capacity

2663
1133
1716
1530
186
2849

7806
3323
5030
4483
546
8352

12571
5351
8100
7220
880
13451

20246
8618
13046
11628
1417
21663

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
diesel power generation
hydropower station
Wind power
Actual peak regulation capacity
Diesel power generation
hydropower station
Wind power
Surplus (+) and shortage (-) of peak regulation
Peak regulation ability of diesel power generation
Wind power anti-regulation rate
Hydropower peak regulation range

5.6

172
2677
551
1716
172
1874
-330
0
100%
60%
70.0%

172
8180
1448
5030
172
5726
-869
0
100%
60%
70.0%

172
13279
2279
8100
172
9295
-1367
0
100%
60%
70.0%

172
21491
3617
13046
172
15044
-2170
0
100%
60%
70.0%

Calculation Result of Wind Power Absorption Capacity of Power Grid


Upon calculation of peak-shaving capacity, when hydropower peak-shaving capacity is 80%,
the absorption ability for wind power of ICS grid can be 1000MW by 2015, 2800MW by 2020,
4500MW by 2025 and 7200MW by 2030.
When hydropower peak-shaving capacity is 70%, the absorption ability for wind power of ICS
grid can be 550MW by 2015, 1400MW by 2020, 2300MW by 2025 and 3600MW by 2030.
Given that hydropower plays the major role in ICS grid, whether wind power can be connected
to the grid on a large scale depends on regulation capability of the whole power system. In the
analysis, with limited information, on the premise that the grid covers the whole country,
maximum wind power absorption capability is concluded by assuming hydropower regulation
capability. If more detailed basic information there is, the conclusions above may be modified.
Besides, given Ethiopia is an important power sender in East Africa and primarily sends
hydropower with strong regulation capability, wind power capacity can be carried on sending
line to relieve stress of the country in wind power absorption and contribute more to
development of green power.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

6.

Preliminary Selection of Wind Energy and Solar Energy Sites


Due to geological position of Ethiopia and unique landform and climatic features, it is rich in
resources of wind energy and radiation resources of solar energy. Scientifically develop these
resources and change naturally existing resources into pratically available energy through
specific wind energy and solar energy generation engineering.
Feasibility of actual wind energy and solar energy power project construction shall be
considered, including technical feasibility and economcial feasibility, namely, comprehensive
analysis of resource features of the project, power transmission and asorption condition,
engineering construction condition, construction costs and others, and specific factors like
society, culture and environment.
This chapter is going to show a discussion about preliminary selection of wind energy and
solar energy sites, based on the factors above and the technic requirments of planning.

6.1

Selection Principle of Wind Farm Site


Scores of or even hundreds of wind turbines in wind farm and groups of wind turbines
arranged in a certain way shall be installed in the region with better wind energy. A wind farm is
an effective way to use wind energy in a large scale. Analysis of economical feasibility of
construction of wind farm shall be done and adaptability of wind turbines to wind conditions,
conditions of access to power grid and influence on power grid shall be considered in the
construction of wind farm, including environmental influence and limitations of systems.

6.1.1

Conditions of wind energy resources


Resources with rich wind energy and steady wind direction are the basic conditions for
construction of wind farm. Distribution of wind energy resources and climatic background in
the domicile of site, ambient large topography and partial micro topography of wind farm are
closely related. According to current technical conditions of wind energy development, region
rich in wind energy resources means the one where average annual wind speed is above
6~7m/s on the top of wind turbine hub and average annual wind power density is above
200W/m2, and distribution of wind speed is reasonable, wind direction is steady and
destructive wind speed is little.
Wind farm site selection should also try to choose relief is open, the terrain of the simpler field
area, on the one hand, is for construction is convenient, also be helpful for reducing the wind
turbulence intensity, favors the wind turbine generator extended service life.

6.1.2

Power grid access conditions and consumption ability


Power grid access conditions shall be considered in the construction of large-scale grid
connection wind farm. Mostly, power grid conditions are not excellent in regions rich in wind
energy resources. Hence, power grid conditions shall be considered in the selection of wind
farm.
So far, the output voltage shall be 33kV in relatively small wind farms and the output voltage
shall be 132kV or 230kV in medium wind farms. Thus, it shall effectively reduce investment in

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

transmission system and loss of circuit and voltage drop. As for specific conditions in Ethiopia,
small-scale wind farm shall make use of current conditions of power grid to the greatest extent
and single transmission circuit matched with wind farm shall be constructed in large-scale
wind farm or wind power base.
Contribution of wind power changes with actual wind speed. Due to changeability of wind
speed, contribution of wind power is evidently unsteady. To ensure stability of power grid,
consumption ability of power grid shall be considered in the transmission of wind power. As for
selection of wind farm, backbone network shall be selected. The wind farm shall be near the
load center to avoid influence on power grid due to frequent staring and grid connection or
closing down and step-out of wind turbines.
Besides, the planning of overall capacity of wind farm shall be connected with development
planning of the connected power grid. The planned wind power capacity in different stages
shall not exceed the consumption ability of power grid in the corresponding stage.
Consumption ability of wind power of Ethiopia power grid in different planning levels is studied
in Section 5.5. Preliminary selection of wind energy generation construction project sites is
developed based on this.
6.1.3

Construction conditions of wind farm


According to current wind power technical development, MW wind turbine is the mainstream
product in global wind power market and developing. The actual wind turbine is massive. The
engine room, blade and tower are overweight and super-long large-scale equipment. So far,
the engine room including the engine weighs about 100t, most of blades are over 40m in
length and the tower is over 100m in height. Hence, transportation and installation of wind
power equipment are technically difficult, which need special transportation equipment and
installation equipment. About 400t caterpillar crane is needed in the hoisting of wind turbine.
As for transportation of wind turbines alone, road condition shall sometimes limit the
construction of wind farm.
Other engineering restrictive conditions shall be considered in the site selection of wind farm.
Influence of bad geological condition shall be avoided. Large fault zones and regions where
rock-fall, landslip and mudslide easily happen shall be avoided. Regions where ground water
level is relatively low shall be selected to avoid bad effect on safety of wind farm.

6.1.4

Social and environmental factors


Construction of wind farm shall follow the principle of harmony between environment and
nature. In the site selection of wind farm, environmentally sensitive areas shall be avoided,
such as natural reserve, forest park, important landscape protection area and important ruins
and sites and others. Migration channels of birds shall be avoided to the greatest extent.
Wind farm shall be far away from environmentally sensitive areas like school, hospital, and
large residential areas. Wind turbines in wind farm shall be away from residential areas within
protection scope to prevent residents from being interfered by noise and flickering light.
Besides, wind farm shall be away from religious facilities like church or mosque and away from
military zones and other facilities with important social influence.

6.1.5

Economy
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Economy analysis of wind farm is based on overall consideration of the above factors. They
have different influence on costs and benefits of wind farm, positive or negative, large or
relatively small. The appropriate site shall be considered with all the above factors. For
example, magnitude of wind energy has relatively large influence on economy of wind farm.
The larger the wind energy is, the more stable the wind direction is and the better the benefits
of wind farm are; wind farm in regions with complex mountain topography generally needs
relatively high construction costs. To reduce construction costs, proper balance of wind energy
and economy shall be sought in the aspects of traffic roads and construction measures.

6.2

Field Reconnaissance
Actual site selection of wind farm is based on the above principle and specific conditions of
proposed area to analyze information make synthetic judgment and select the best. In the
perspective of specific operation, site selection of wind power shall include field
reconnaissance and information processing.
According to the overall work arrangement of wind energy and solar energy planning project,
the project team organizes major members to make field reconnaissance of the planning in the
initial stage. Supported by the government in Ethiopia, the reconnaissance team makes field
investigation on representative and key areas that are possibly referred in the project planning,
collects large amounts of basic materials and makes wide communication with relevant
organizations in Ethiopia on the development of the planning.
What shall be noted is that development zones of wind energy and solar energy in Ethiopia in
the study are relatively similar or overlapped to some extent. In the route and specific contents
of the field reconnaissance, investigations on potential farm (station) site of wind energy and
solar energy generation project are completed together.

6.2.1 Major purposes

6.2.2

(1)

Experience social economy, engineering technology, infrastructure, and human


environment on site in Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and learn features of
wind energy and solar energy in Ethiopia and basic overview of development;

(2)

Make field investigation on key regions or representative areas for the development of
wind energy and solar energy power project and pre-select the plan farm (station) site of
power generation by wind energy and solar energy;

(3)

Recommend the farm (station) site used in feasibility report and propose the installation
position of observation equipment;

(4)

Collect all kinds of basic materials on development of the planning.

Investigation route
According to distribution of wind energy and solar energy resources and combined with
specific conditions in Ethiopia, the field reconnaissance in the planning project is done by
group. According to regional features, the investigation group has northern group and eastern
and southern group. The northern group is mainly responsible for areas in the north of the
capital. The eastern and southern group is responsible for areas in the south and in the east of

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

the capital. The two investigation groups are equipped with professionals evenly and they start
to investigate from Addis Ababa.
The northern group starts from Addis Ababa and passes by important cities like Debre birhan,
Debre Sina, Dessie, Weldiya, Mekele, Shine, Debark, Gondar, Bahir Dar, Debre Markos,
Dejen. The journey totals over 3000km. And it has investigated 17 areas of wind farm site and
1 photovoltaic power station site. And it has also investigated Debre birhan meteorological
station and substation, Mekele meteorological station and substation and Gondar substation.
The eastern and southern group also starts from Addis Abeba and passes by important cities
and towns like Bu`I, Butajira, Hosaena, Shashemene, Hawassa, Nazret, Iteya, Metehara,
Awash, Dire Dawa, Harar. The journey totals about 3000km. The investigation is mainly
developed in East African Great Rift Valley and around. It has investigated 20 areas of wind
energy and solar energy photovoltaic power generation project, including resource condition in
the plant, topographic condition, road construction condition, power grid access condition and
population distribution and environmental condition, etc.
The eastern and southern group has also investigated meteorological stations like Bu`I,
Hawassa, Nazret, Metehara, etc and mainly focused on development of observation in the
meteorological station and its equipping. Besides, it has investigated substations like Butajira,
Hawassa, Nazret, Koka.
The specific investigation route is shown in the schematic diagram 6.2-1.

Figure 6.2-1 Schematic Diagram of Field Reconnaissance in the Site Selection

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

6.2.3

Investigation report
Based on collection and analysis of large amounts of primary data, it finished the compilation
of The First Investigation Report of Wind and Solar Energy Grid-Based Master Plan in the
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Figure 6.2-2 shows two pictures of investigation.

Figure 6.2-2 Pictures during Investigation

6.3

Site Selection of Wind farms


According to overall features of wind energy resources in Ethiopia and power grid and
combined with terrain, traffic transportation, environment and other factors, the master plan
determines the wind power capacity is 6,820MW and there are 51 recommended construction
areas for wind farm.
See Table 6.3-1 and Figure 6.3-1~Figure 6.3-6 for condition and distribution of all sites.
What shall be noted is that the recommended sites in the following are different in the
development and all sites have their advantages and disadvantages to some extent. In order
to make a preliminary assessment on development conditions of alternative sites, the report
makes an overall rating of sites from richness of resources, power grid access condition,
engineering construction condition, environment and other factors. The full mark in the rating
is 100 scores, including 30 scores of resource condition, 30 scores of power grid access and
consumption condition, 30 scores of construction condition and outer transportation condition
and 10 scores of environment and other factors. A relative mark is given according to overall
assessment based on practical conditions of all sites.
See Attached Table for specific marking.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Table 6.3-1 Preliminary Result of Wind Farm Site Selection in Ethiopia


No.

Name of site

F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
F11
F12
F13
F14
F15
F16
F17
F18
F19
F20
F21
F22
F23
F24
F25
F26
F27
F28
F29
F30
F31
F32
F33
F34
F35
F36
F37
F38
F39
F40
F41
F42
F43
F44
F45
F46
F47
F48
F49
F50

Nazret wind farm


Mek'ele South wind farm
Sheno wind farm
Ch'ach'a wind farm
Phase I wind farm in Iteya
Sulalta wind farm
Gondar West wind farm
Imdibir wind farm
Dire Dawa wind farm
Dilla East wind farm
Mek'ele North wind farm
Debre Markos East wind farm
Soddo wind farm
Sendafa North wind farm
Sendafa South wind farm
Gondar North wind farm
Phase II wind farm in Iteya
Bu'i East wind farm
Aysha wind farm
Phase I wind farm in Bolo
Diche Oto wind farm
Bahir Dar wind farm
Assela wind farm
Jacho wind farm
Phase II wind farm in Bolo
Hula wind farm
Dilla West wind farm
Dangla wind farm
Debre Markos West wind farm
Ambo wind farm
Babile wind farm
Dabat wind farm
Phase I wind farm in Weldiya
Phase II wind farm in Weldiya
Gondar East wind farm
Rufa'el wind farm
Debre Birhan wind farm
Bale wind farm
Harar West wind farm
Harar Eest wind farm
Jijiga wind farm
Durame wind farm
Debre Sina wind farm
Bui West wind farm
Butajira wind farm
Fonka West wind farm
Fonka East wind farm
Yabelo wind farm
Mega East wind farm
Mega West wind farm
Wind energy and solar energy
demonstration base in Addis
Ababa

F51
Total

254
77
56
56
66
60
49
47
40
268
185
143
160
70
70
65
70
80
60
60
100
80
71
330
300
220
230
170
150
130
130
61
43
40
76
100
67
60
90
75
80
65
30
40
30
25
25
45
30
30

Grading in
preliminary
selection
100
85
88
86
95
92
82
90
91
96
85
87
84
88
88
80
95
83
83
90
78
82
93
73
90
64
96
67
87
72
56
56
70
70
73
73
68
78
65
58
65
67
74
73
74
67
76
68
66
66

Oromiya
Tigray
Oromiya
Amhara
Oromiya
Oromiya
Amhara
SNNP
Dire Dawa
SNNP
Tigray
Amhara
SNNP
Oromiya
Oromiya
Amhara
Oromiya
SNNP
Somali
Oromiya
Afar
Amhara
Oromiya
SNNP
Oromiya
Oromiya
SNNP
Amhara
Oromiya
Oromiya
Oromiya
Amhara
Amhara
Amhara
Amhara
Amhara
Amhara
SNNP
Oromiya
Harar
Somali
SNNP
Amhara
SNNP
SNNP
SNNP
SNNP
Oromiya
Oromiya
Oromiya

20

28

89

Oromiya

6720

4823

Capacity
(MW)

Area
2
(km )

300
100
100
100
100
100
50
50
50
300
200
200
200
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
50
50
50
600
500
300
300
200
200
200
200
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

107

Domicile

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

North part

East part
North Center part

South Center part

South part

Figure 6.3-1 Block Index Plan of Ethiopia Planned Wind Farm Sites

Figure 6.3-2

Distribution Graph (North) of Ethiopia Planned Wind Farm

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 6.3-3

Distribution Graph (Mid-North) of Ethiopia Planned Wind Farm

Figure 6.3-4 Distribution Graph (Mid-South) of Ethiopia Planned Wind Farm

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 6.3-5 Distribution Graph (South) of Ethiopia Planned Wind Farm

Figure 6.3-6 Distribution Graph (East) of Ethiopia Planned Wind Farm

6.4

Site Selection Principle of Solar PV Power Station

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Solar energy PV power station is located in the region with relatively good solar energy
resources and flat and open terrain, installed with a large-scale solar energy power generation
system made up of large amounts of PV cells and accessory system according to a certain
arrangement rule or combined with large-scale structures to form a large-scale solar energy
PV power generation system made up of several solar energy PV batteries and corresponding
accessory system in the outer wall and roof, etc. The former is generally called self-contained
solar energy PV power station and the latter is generally called PV system combined with
constructions. The scale of self-contained solar energy PV power station is mainly determined
by the site and transmission condition. Permitted by the site, the power station shall be large
so that electricity output shall be boosted by boosting transformer and combined into the
backbone power grid. Limited by the scale of constructions, the PV system combined with
constructions has small capacity and grounding consumption or low-voltage grid connection is
mostly adopted in the transmission. The solar energy PV power station in the report mainly
means the large-scale self-contained grid connection solar energy PV power station.
Resource condition as well as power grid access condition shall be considered in the
construction of large-scale self-contained solar energy PV power station. In the present stage,
the capacity of solar energy PV power station is smaller than other ways of generation
generally and its influence on power grid is less. But when the scale of accessed power grid is
relatively small, influence on power grid and absorption of electric quantity shall be
considered.
6.4.1

Condition of solar energy radiation resources


Solar illumination with rich energy and steady radiation intensity and appropriate
environmental condition are basic conditions for construction of large-scale solar energy PV
power station. Distribution of solar energy radiation resources is closely related with latitude,
altitude, local weather and climate, and terrain in the domicile of site. The lower the latitude is
and the higher the altitude is, the richer the radiation resources are.
Ethiopia, low in latitude and mostly located above plateau, is rich in solar energy resources.
For solar energy radiation resources are obviously affected by weather, solar energy radiation
may be reduced in regions with cloudy, foggy and rainy days and frequent variation of
radiation value has relatively big influence on work efficiency of PV battery. Besides, solar
energy PV battery may be affected by temperature. The higher the temperature is, the lower
the PV conversion efficiency is. So, the site selection of power station shall avoid high
temperature.

6.4.2

Power grid access condition and consumption ability


Power grid access condition shall be considered in the construction of large-scale grid
connection PV power station. According to the existing construction of PV power station,
generally, capacity of PV power station is relatively small. Mostly, the output voltage in the
power station is 33kV. Considering loss of circuit and costs, the PV power station shall not be
far away from access power grid or load center, generally within 20km.
Besides, the master plan of capacity of solar energy PV power station shall be connected with
development plan of accessed power grid. The project capacity in different stages shall not
exceed consumption ability of power grid in corresponding stage. Absorption ability of wind
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

power of Ethiopia power grid in different planning levels is studied in Section 5.5. Arrangement
of solar energy PV power generation capacity shall also refer to this.
6.4.3

Construction condition of PV power station


So far, relevant technologies in the PV power station are relatively mature. The main parts are
solar energy batteries. The mainstream products mainly include mono crystalline silicon and
polycrystalline silicon. Construction of PV power station is relatively simple and its equipment
transportation is more demanding than that of wind farm. General road shall meet
transportation of equipment. The installation in the whole project is relatively simple and less
influenced by the exterior.

6.4.4

Environmental and social factors


Other restrictive factors shall also be considered in the construction of solar energy PV power
station. For solar energy PV batteries cover a relatively large area, forest and grasslands shall
be avoided to prevent environmental protection and desert with quicksand on the surface shall
be avoided to prevent sand coverage from affecting efficiency of power station. Besides, site
selection of power station shall avoid bad geological conditions, large geological fault and
regions where rock-fall, landslip, mudslide and flood easily happen to prevent safety of power
station from being affected.
PV power station shall be far away from environmentally sensitive areas like natural protection
area, forest park, important landscape protection area and important ruins and sites and also
from religious facilities like church or mosque and military zones and other facilities with
important social influence.

6.5

Site Selection of Solar PV Power Station


It shall be pointed development of solar energy project is obviously affected by economic
factors and high price of solar energy PV batteries has restricted large-scale promotion of PV
power generation project. So far, on-grid power tariff of the built PV power stations are
overpriced. Hence, the built solar energy power stations in all countries mainly focus on
demonstration and cultivation of market. In operation of specific projects, the electricity price
shall be supported by governmental subsidy or the one that is subtracted by average
electricity price of power grid is shared by the whole power grid.
Considering the present social development of Ethiopia, the report suggests that at present,
the development of renewable energy shall mainly focus on hydropower and wind power and
development of solar energy projects shall mainly focus on demonstration and cultivation of
market. Although Ethiopia is rich in solar energy resources, volume of solar energy PV power
generation project shall be controlled and large-scale development and construction shall be
done after progress of PV technique and reduction of costs.
According to conclusion on analysis of solar energy resources in Ethiopia and overall features
of power grid, specific terrain, traffic transportation condition and environment in regions and
comparative analysis, field investigation and costs of PV power generation, the capacity of
solar energy PV power generation in the master plan is 135MW and 5 sites of solar energy PV
power station are recommended.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

See Table 6.5-1 for all recommended sites of PV power station. See Figure 6.5-1 for specific
planned sites and their distribution.
Similar to the site selection of wind farm, the report is based on features of sites of PV power
station to mark the proposed areas. The specific marking is shown in Attached Table.

Table 6.5-1 List of Recommended Sites of Solar PV Power Stations in Ethiopia


No.

Name

Capacity
(MW)

Area
2
(km )

Grade in
preliminary
selection

Domicile

G1

Debre birhan PV power station

10

0.39

95

Amhara

G2

Metehara PV power station

50

1.6

92

Oromiya

G3

Awash solar energy PV power


station

20

0.62

99

Afar

G4

Dera solar energy PV power station

60

1.59

97

Oromiya

F51

Addis Ababa wind energy and solar


energy demonstration base

95

Oromiya

141

4.2

Total

Figure 6.5-1

6.6

Schematic Diagram of Position of Planned Solar Energy PV Power Station in


Ethiopia

Analysis of other Construction Conditions of Wind Farm and PV Station


Sites
Chapter 4 and 5 in the report has made a detailed analysis and introduction of distribution of
national resources in Ethiopia and condition of power grid. The section makes a brief

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

introduction of geological factors and traffic transportation in the proposed site selection.
6.6.1

Geological condition
The whole Ethiopia is divided into four main landform units, namely, western highland,
southeastern highland, main rift valley in Ethiopia and hollow in Afar.
Lithology in the deep of highland in Ethiopia is Africa-Arabia early Precambrian rocks. The
covered rocks on Precambrian rocks are mainly glaciers and oceanic settled layers from
Permian to Eogene and tertiary volcanic and the new generation volcanic activities are parts of
East African Great Rift Valley.
With magma activities from Proterozoic era to the early Palaeozoic era, peneplanation of
metamorphic basement happened from Carboniferous to Permian. Sandstone in Enticho
group deposits in the north of Ethiopia from late paleozoic era to early Mesozoic, the Permian
sandstone deposits in the south and west of Ethiopia, sandstone in Waju group deposits in the
east of Ethiopia and the deposited sandstone in Gum group in the southern basin of Ethiopia
cuts the Precambrian basement. Paleozoic continental settlings are widely distributed in Tigray,
Harar, and Abaihe Valley.
Two major transgression circulations happened in the Mesozoic era. The first transgression in
early Jurassic or late Triassic extended from Ogaden in the southeast to the northwest and
achieved the greatest degree in Kimmeridgian. In the period, stratum in Adigrat group (Ja)
(mainly made up of sandstone and siltstone lens), stratum in Hamanilei group (Jh) (mainly
made up of limestone and dolomite), stratum in Abay group (mainly made up limestone,
sandstone, gypsum and shale) and stratums in Urandab group and Antalo group (mainly
made up of fossilferous limestone) are deposited.
Retreating of sea water began from the late Jurassic and it deposited lagoon stratum in Agula
group (Jag) (mainly made up of black shale, malm and claystone and limestone, gypsum and
dolomite in Mekele in the north of Ethiopia). The stratum in Gabredare group (Jg1 and Jg2)
(mainly made up limestone and malm) represents the topmost part of Jurassic in Ogaden in
the east of Ethiopia.
Stratum in Korahe group (Kg1 and Kg2) (mainly made up of limestone, malm and shale and
dolomite in Ogaden) represents the down-most stratum in the Cretaceous period and
represents the end of the first transgression return. The second major transgression happened
between Aptian and Turonian and formed stratum in Mustahil group (Km), stratum in Ferfer
group (Kf) and stratum in Belet Uen group (mainly made up of limestone, shale, malm,
dolomite and anhydrite). The second return in the late Cretaceous deposited continental
settlings in Amaba Aradom group (mainly made up of interbedded shale, siltstone and
sandstone).
The third partial transgression happened from the late Cretaceous to the middle late
Pleistocene and deposited sandstone in Jessoma group (Pj), anhydrite in Taleh group (Pt) and
limestone containing shale and gypsum interlayer in Karkar group (Pk) in the extended corner
in the east of Ogaden.
Since the the transgression from the late Mesozoic to the early Tertiary, it has happened
large-scale orogenic movement (in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and the present Red
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Sea and the domicile of fault in the Gulf of Aden). According to Mohr Theory (in 1962), the
rising of basic rock related with East African Great Rift Valley amounted to a certain degree.
The uplifting range is outside the fold belt. The main reason for uplifting is that huge amounts
of basaltic magma are formed in the rock circle due to relevant pressure reduction fusion and
a typical mantle plume of mainland overflow. The upheaval and uparched tension permits the
rising of basaltic magma, which formed the sunken area of Ethiopia.
The first apparent volcanic activity happened in the late Mesozoic along the edge of Proto-Afar.
The alkaline and tholeiitic basalt interlaid with sand rock in the Cretaceous period with edge in
the south and west of Afar sunken area. In the southeastern Kulibi plateau and northwestern
Sakota plateau, the basalt volcano happened widely until the late Pleistocene or early
Pleistocene according to geological data. In the map, these early basalts like Ashangi basalt
(P2a), Jima volcanic (Pjb and Pjr), Aibe basalts (P3a), Arsi and Bale basalts(pNab), Makonnen
basalts (Pmb), Alajae basalts (PNa) and Tarmaber Gussa and Tarmaber.Megezez basalts
(PNtb and Ntb) are widely distributed in the western and southeastern plateau.
Through research on relevant volcanic activities with major structures, the early volcanic
activities are related with the Red Sea and rift valley in the Gulf of Aden (before 20Ma) and
transferred from the center in the early volcanic activities to the present ones. Through
distribution of basalt magma in the early stage in the south, east and west, it determines Afar
sunken area is related. The axis of the northeastern direction of the volcanic zone is parallel
with the rift valley in the west of Ethiopia. The magma erupted in the alkaline volcano in the
west and southeastern plateau is 4000m in length (ct.Tarmaber group).
With long-term uplifting movement of Afro-Arabia, part of East African Great Rift Valley in the
axis started to develop in the Miocene. The rift valley movement started from the Red Sea and
rift valley in the Gulf of Aden. The above is the joint of young and continental Ethiopia main
fault with original Afar ocean (Afar sunken area). The Ethiopia main fault, as an important
continental part of East African Great Rift Valley, is extended into Turkana Lake, Stifane Rifts
Lake, and Reireba original rift valley lake in the south of Chamo Lake in the south.
According to the study of Kazmin in 1980, the initial sediment of Ethiopia main fault started
15Ma years ago and the main rift valley happened between 10Ma, 5Ma, 4Ma and 1.81.6 Ma
years. Drop of rift valley and fault in each stage has double peaks, namely acid basic rock in
the rift rock and basalt and trachyte formed in the shoulder of valley and volcano in the edge.
Commonly, the drop of fault of Afar sunken area started relatively early. Basalt appeared with
the eruption of rift valley. Some people think extension started in the early Miocene. The
opening in the depression is eroded by alkaline granite and the settlings of fragments in
Danakil group (Nrs) were formed.
With the sediment of Afar sunken area and Ethiopia main fault, continuous volcanic activities
formed the rift valleys and became the core area of volcanic activities in the Quaternary period
and lately. East African Great Rift Valley in Ethiopia includes the following main structures and
landforms:
(1)

Fault in Gulf of Aden formed the southern edge of Afar sunken area, which determines
the outline of the region, like the landform of Addis Ababa - Ambo Nekemte in the
northwestern plateau;
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(2)

Red Sea rift valley, is formed along the sea in the north of Eritrea and Danakil Horst
separates the Red Sea, Afar sunken aera and bluff in the west of Afar sunken area. It is
extended to the west, the same wth Marda fault in the southeastern plateau;

(3)

Sunken area in Afar includes three important rift valley systems, namely, Ethiopia main
fault, Red Sea fault and Gulf of Aden fault;

(4)

The main fault in Ethiopia is in the direction of NNE of the latitude (interchange of the
fault and sunken area in Afar) of Addis Ababa from Chamo Lake

(5)

Turkana Lake, Chew Bahir Rifts Lake and Heireba original rift valley in Heireba in the
south of Ethiopia are not directly connected and transferred to the east from the north
gradually.

In the development of African Great Rift Valley system in Ethiopia, all kinds of continental
sedimentary basins have formed since Miocene epoch of the Tertiary system. In the sunken
areas of Afar, original settlings due to rapid erosion of steep cliff and large amounts of volcanic
matters are filled in the sunken areas, but movement of deep structures is faster than the filling
speed of volcanic settlings. Besides, nature of settlings is determined by the edge of basin or
the axis. Evaporation rock bed is formed in the limitation ocean in the north of sunken area in
Afar. From Pliocene epoch to Pleistocene, settlings are widely distributed in the fault area of
Ethiopia. In the main fault area of Ethiopia, in the the Pleistocene Epoch of Quaternary system,
lake sediment is widely distributed. So far, rift valley lakes are the remaining of the former lake,
which cover most of the fault layer.
6.6.2

Traffic transportation condition


Ethiopia is complex in terrain. The plateau accounts a high proportion. Many wind farms with
good wind energy are in the plateau mesa, or near the East African Great Rift Valley, with large
mountain and deep ditch, complex pavement. Especially in the north, many roads are
mountainously winding. Turns, slopes and tunnels limit transportation through large-scale
equipment. Road transportation shall be considered in details in the site selection of wind
farm.
(1)

Water transportation
Ethiopia is a continental nation, without available port. Most of domestic materials are
transported from Djibouti Port to Ethiopia by ocean shipping.
East African Djibouti Republic Port, a transfer port in Ethiopia, is located in the
southeastern cape in the western end of Gulf of Aden, 77 nautical miles away from the
Mandab Strait in the north, and 130 nautical miles away from Gulf of Aden in the east.
There are 12 berths in the port. In the south of southeastern wall are 2 berths of
containers. It is 400m in length and the water is 9.7~12.1m deep. The northeastern wall
is about 700m in length and the water on the interior side is deep. It is a dock for trade
ships along the sea and the exterior side is a storage depot and an import dock for
petroleum, liquefied gas and honey and sugar, able to add water for passing ships. The
northwestern jetty is about 700m in length, with 7 berths. Water in the interior side and in
the south is relatively shallow. Only No.8 berth shall bear refrigerated vessel with ten
thousand t; No. 10~12 berths are in the exterior side. The water is 11~12m deep. They
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are respectively for loading and unloading of heavy oil, imported coals and oceanic
groceries.
The loading and unloading equipment includes truck crane, gantry crane, floating crane,
forklift, trailer and rolling facilities. The maximum lifting ability of truck crane is 40t and
the one of floating crane is 80t. There is open storage area and warehouse of containers
and rolling goods in the port.

Figure 6.6-1 Overlook of Gantry Crane in Djibouti Port

(2)

Railway
There is only one railway in Ethiopia, namely, the railway from Djibouti to Addis Ababa.
The railway is narrow, shared by Djibouti and Ethiopia, reconstructed by EU and
unavailable to be operated.

Figure 6.6-2 Pictures of Addis Ababa to Djibouti Narrow Railway

(3)

Road
So far, road transportation is the main transportation way in Ethiopia, which accounts for
90% of the total transportation. The government in Ethiopia determines the improvement
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of national road network as the core of economic reform.


For many roads are lack of repair and the pavement is in bad condition, and the traffic in
rural areas is poor, in the past 13 years, the government has allocated funds of 6 billion
USD to repair roads, which makes the transportation of road network expand by 90%.
By the end of 2010, the built road in Ethiopia is 49000km in length. The density of road is
increased from 21km/ 1000 km2 in 1995 to 44.4km/ 1000 km2 in 2010.
So far, the major national road network includes the following 15 mainlines in Ethiopia.
They are introduced as follows:
No.1 line: AddisModjoNazret/AdamaAwashMileDjibouti
The road is 925km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.5m2+1.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. The road is economic lifeline in Ethiopia. Most of goods and
materials are transported from Djibouti Port to other regions through the road. The road
is comfortable in grade line. The radius of turn is over 50m. The maximum longitude
slope is less than 8%. The pavement is good in condition.
The equipment transportation line of Adama wind farm under construction is the line.
No.2 line: MileChifraWeldiya
The road is 168km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.5m2+1.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. Part of sections is under reconstruction. The existing road is
gravel pavement, 7m in width, with relatively poor pavement. Winding road is about
43km in length, narrow, with lots of sharp turns and poor pavement and grade line. The
other sections are open and flat on both sides, with comfortable grade line. The
maximum longitude slope is 10%.
No.3 line: AddisWeldiyaAxum
The road is 1025km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.5m2+1.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. K0 pile is Addis. The pavement is good in condition. The
sections of K190~K210, K598~K616 and K910~K930 are winding roads, with lots of
sharp turns, poor pavement and poor grade line; The other sections are open and flat on
both sides, with comfortable grade line. The maximum longitude slope is 10%.
No.4 line: AddisWeretaGonder
The road is 710km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.25m2+0.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. K0 pile is Addis. The pavement is good in condition. The
section of K186~K222 is winding road, with lots of turns. The radius of turn is relatively
small. The other sections are open and flat on both sides, with comfortable grade line.
The maximum longitude slope is 10%.
No.5 line: AddisAmboGamoHula
The road is 288km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.25m2+0.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. K0 pile is Addis. The pavement is good in condition. The
section of K0~K230 is winding road, with lots of turns. The radius of turn is relatively
small. The other sections are open and flat on both sides, with comfortable grade line.

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No.6 line: GonderAxum


The road is 430km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3m2+0.25m2;
partially asphalt concrete pavement and partially sandstone pavement. The section of
Selekleka to Debark is winding road, with lots of turns and poor grade line; the other
sections are open and flat on both sides, with comfortable grade line. The maximum
longitude slope is 10%.
No.7 line: WeretaWeldiya
The road is 293km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.5m2+1.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. K0 pile is Wereta. The pavement is good in condition. The
section of K247~K27 is winding road, with sharp turns and poor grade line; the other
sections are open and flat on both sides, with comfortable grade line. The maximum
longitude slope is 10%.
No.8 line: AddisTuLu BoLoWelkite
The road is 155km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.5m2+1.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. The pavement is good in condition. It is open and flat on
both sides of the road. The road is comfortable in grade line. The maximum longitude
slope is 10%.
No.9 line: AddisSodo
The road is 329km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.5m2+1.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. K0 pile is Addis. It is open and flat on both sides of the road.
The road is comfortable in grade line, with dense vegetation. The pavement is good in
condition. The sections of K22~K27, K188~K213, and K266~K278 are winding roads,
with lots of turns. The maximum longitude slope is 8%. The pavement is good in
condition.
No.10 line: SodoAlaba KulitoShashemene
The road is 128km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.25m2+0.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. Part of sections is under construction. So far, generally, the
pavement is relatively poor in condition. It is open and flat on both sides of the road. The
road is comfortable in grade line, with dense vegetation. The section of Sodo to Boditi
has about 14km winding road, with many turns. The radius of turn is over 50m.
No.11 line: ModjoShashemeneAwasaDilaYabeiloMega
The road is 588km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.5m2+1.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. It is open and flat on both sides of the road. There is
dense vegetation along the road. The pavement is good in condition. K0 as pile number
of Modjo; the section of K0~K240 is comfortable in grade line; there are lots of turns in
the section of K240~K0+385; mostly, the radius of turn is over 50m; the section of
K385~K588 is comfortable in grade line.
No.12 line: NazretDeraIteyaAsela
The road is 75km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.5m2+1.5m2; asphalt

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concrete pavement. It is open and flat on both sides of the road. The road is comfortable
in grade line, with dense vegetation. The pavement is good in condition.
No.13 line: AwashAsebe TeferiKulubiDengegoHarerJigjiga
The road is 394km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.5m2+1.5m2;
asphalt concrete pavement. The section of Asebe teferiKulubiDengego is about
165km in length, mostly winding road with lots of S-turns and hair pin bends. Parts of
turns are relatively small in radius. The other sections are open and flat, with dense
vegetation and comfortable grade line. The maximum longitudinal slope is 10%. The
pavement is good in condition.
No. 14 line: DengegoDiri Dawa
The road is 25km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.5m2+1.5m2; asphalt
concrete pavement. The road is continuous downgrade, relatively abrupt, with relatively
dense vegetation and continuous S-turns, sharp turn. Outside the turn is mountain,
where large-scale equipment shall be difficult to pass. The pavement is good in
condition.
No. 15 line: Diri DawaAysha
The road is 184km in length. The width of roadbed/pavement is: 3.25m2+0.5m2;
sandstone pavement. It is open and flat on both sides of road. There are little vegetation
and serious desertification along the road. The road is comfortable in grade line, with
common pavement.
See Figure 6.6-3 for photos of the existing traffic network.

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Figure 6.6-3 Pictures of the Existing Traffic Network in Ethiopia


Note : On the top left is 10m asphalt pavement; on the top right is 7.5m asphalt pavement; on
the lower left is 7m wide sandstone pavement; on the lower right is 3~5m wide clay
pavement.

6.7

Diksis Large-Scale Wind Power Development Base


Large-scale wind power development base is an important development way in the industrial
development of global wind power at present. It aims at achieving large-scale and
intensification development of wind energy through overall planning and scientific organization
of construction scale and development progress of wind energy projects in regions rich in wind
energy resources and with large development potential to realize highly efficient and
reasonable use of wind energy resources, power transmission system and other accessory
resources and central consumption of wind power.
In China, wind development also focuses on central development with large-scale base
according to its distribution of wind energy resources. Based on the base with million kilowatts
in Zhangjiakou Dam in Hebei Province, in recent years, 8 super-large wind power bases with
ten Gigawatts have been developed in Jiuquan, Gansu, east of Inner Mongolia, west of Inner
Mongolia, Kumul, Sinkiang, north of Hebei. At present, these wind power bases are being
constructed orderly. Besides, in many European countries, due to limited continental
resources, large-scale wind power bases are mainly offshore wind power bases. So far, lots of

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assessment and development have been done.


According to wind energy distribution, terrain, distribution of power grid in Ethiopia, the report
thinks the plateau mesa in the middle of Ethiopia and East African Great Rift Valley is good for
construction of large-scale wind power base. It suggests the construction of relevant wind
power base shall be done. The wind power base has excellent geological conditions, relatively
near the load center in the capital, with relatively excellent outer transportation condition and
extremely excellent development condition. The large-scale wind power development base
mainly covers Diksis, Guna, Coshita, Kula, Robe, Kerota, temporarily named as Diksis
large-scale wind power development base.
See Figure 6.7-1 and Figure 6.7-2 for planning scope and landform of large-scale wind power
development base in Diksis.

Figure 6.7-1 Schematic Diagram of Planning Scope of Wind Power Base in Diksis

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Figure 6.7-2

Geomorphic Map of Planning Area of Wind Power Base in Diksis

Due to terrains in the above planning areas and influence of North African trade wind, large
scope of wind energy formed in the plateau mesa, which is the available development zone of
wind energy with the largest scale in Ethiopia. The whole planning area is plateau mesa with
altitude about 2400m~2600m, flat and relatively less fluctuant. Its micro topography is low
mountain, rippling. The planning area is mainly made up of farmlands and some forests. The
whole wind energy development base has an area of about 3,700km2. According to capacity
coefficient of 3MW/km2, the installed capacity of the whole planning area shall exceed 10GW,
with large development potential.
But what shall be pointed is that in the large-scale wind power base, there is no large-scale
reliable power transmission facility so far. As for the existing demand for electricity in Ethiopia,
wind energy resources in the above area may not be developed. In the present wind energy
engineering development, power grid arrangement condition and power demand shall be
combined and the neighboring principle shall be adopted in the site selection of wind power
project. Besides, due to unsteady wind power, construction of large-scale wind power base
shall be supported by solid intelligent power grid and matched with construction of other power
supply points and safe and steady operation of power grid shall be ensured through
reasonable and scientific power grid dispatch and precise power prediction system. Hence,
the wind power base can be an important project reserve base for development of wind power
in Ethiopia. After further increase in demand for national electricity and construction of large
power grid in East Africa and equipping of construction of power grid, construction of wind
power base shall be further developed to realize the conversion of huge wind energy
resources in Ethiopia to energy economy.

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7.

Preliminary Evaluation on Environmental Impact

7.1

Environment Status

7.1.1

Country profile
Ethiopia as a landlocked country in East Africa is adjacent to the Djibouti and Somalia on the
east, borders with Sudan and South Sudan on the west, adjoins Kenya on the south, and
borders with Eritrea on the north. The total area of the country is 1.14 million km 2, and 2/3 of
the country area is plateau, the greater part shall be Ethiopian Highland, and the central and
western parts are the main body of the highland with an average altitude of 2500 ~ 3000m,
which is known as the "Roof of Africa" with the highest peak Ras Dashen of 4620m. In
southeast part there is Somalia Highland with lower altitude, and there is a narrow plain on the
northeast coast. Dallol depression in the north is the lowest point of the country down to 113m
below the sea level. The East African Great Rift Valley zone penetrates the central part, the
valley bottom is deep with lakes, volcanoes and hot springs distributed like clusters. There are
more than 30 rivers originated in the central plateau region of Ethiopia territory, therefore
Ethiopia is often ironically referred to as the "water tower of East Africa. Abbai River (also
known as Blue Nile), Tekeze River and Baro River belong to Nile River system, Shabelle River
and Juba River belong to Indian Ocean system. Lake Tana, Lake Ziwaii and Abiyata are
relative large lakes.
Ethiopia has complex climate, the temperature differences of areas are large, which is mainly
the savanna climate and subtropical forest climate and rarely with mountain land and tropical
desert climate. Although located in the tropical zone, due to the high terrain, most areas have
a moderate climate, the annual average temperature is 10 ~ 27 , and the annual average
temperature of capital is 16 . Generally, the temperature is highest from March to May, and
the temperature is lowest from November to January. In most areas, the dry season is from
October to February. The average annual precipitation of plateau area is 1000 ~ 1500mm, and
the average annual precipitation of lowlands and valleys is 250 ~ 500mm. The average annual
precipitation decreases from 1500mm to 100mm from the west plateau to northeast and
southeast areas. Desert and semi-desert areas are about a quarter of the total area.
Due to Ethiopia locating in the east of African continent and near the equator, which combines
with its unique geographic and geomorphic conditions, especially impacted by Ethiopia
Highland and unique East African Great Rift Valley terrain, these factors create a rich wind
energy resources and solar energy resources.

7.1.2

Environmental profile of planed wind farms


Ethiopia is totally divided into 9 states and 2 municipalities. 9 states are respectively Afar,
Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambela, Harari, Oromia, Somali, Southern Nations,
Nationalities, and People's Region, Tigray; 2 municipalities are respectively Addis Ababa and
Dire Dawa. The planned wind farms are mainly located in Tigray, Amhara, Southern Nations,
Nationalities, and People's Region and Oromia and surrounding areas, which can be referred
to Table 6.3-1.

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Tigray locates in the most northern part of Ethiopia; it is planned with two wind farms, i.e.,
Mek'ele north wind farm and Mek'ele south wind farm. The natural environment of Mek'ele
north wind farm and Mek'ele south wind farm is relatively poor with dead soil, the vegetation is
mainly sparsely distributed low shrubs, and there is also a small part of farmland. An airport is
located between the two wind farms; the interaction between the airport and the wind farms
shall be investigated and analyzed in the next stage.
There are more planned wind farms within Amhara, Debark wind farm, Gondar north wind
farm, Gondar east wind farm, Gondar west wind farm, Rufa'el wind farm terrain at the north
side of Lake Tana mainly refers to plateau or ridge with favorable wind resource conditions,
there are also more farmlands distributed in these wind farms with rare trees, Debark wind
farm and Gondar north wind farm have many villages, which shall be avoided properly during
construction; Bahir Dar wind farm, Dangla wind farm, Debre Markos West wind farm and
Debre Markos East wind farm are at south side of Lake Tana, these wind farms have flat
terrain with less fluctuation, the land is mainly agricultural land, the vegetation is sparsely
distributed with a small amount of residents; the planning wind fields in the southeast corner of
Amhara are mainly Debre sina wind farm, Debre birhan wind farm and Ch'ach'a wind farm,
these wind farms also have flat terrain with less fluctuation, the land is mainly farmland,
grassland, and uncultivated land, there is a small part of forest and a small amount of
residents; the Weldiya Phase I and Weldiya Phase II wind farms located in the eastern state
have flat terrain with less fluctuation, the land is mainly grassland and uncultivated land, there
is a small part of farmland and a small population density.
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region mainly includes Bui east wind farm, Bui
west wind farm, Butajira wind farm, Bale wind farm, Fonka east wind farm, Fonka west wind
farm, Durame wind farm, Jacho wind farm, Soddo wind farm, Dilla east wind farm and Imdibir
wind farm, these wind farms are basically located in the northeast of the state, on the plateau
or hills located on the west side of East African Great Rift Valley, these wind farms are
generally farmland and forest land with more residents.
Oromia and surrounding areas mainly include Sendafa north wind farm, Sendafa south wind
farm, Sheno wind farm, Hula wind farm, Ambo wind farm, Sulalt wind farm located in the state
west region, Harar west wind farm, Harar east wind farm (located in the territory of Harar),
Babile wind farm and adjacent Dire Dawa wind farm (located in the territory of Dire Dawa)
located in the state northeast region, Nazret wind farm, Bolo Phase I wind farm, Bolo Phase II
wind farm, Iteya Phase I wind farm, Iteya Phase II wind farm, Assela wind farm located in the
state central region, as well as Yabelo wind farm, Mega east wind farm, Mega west wind farm,
Dilla west wind farm located in the state south region. For these 6 wind farms in state west
region, the first 3 wind farms have flat terrain, which is mainly farmland with less villages and
low population density, the later 3 wind farms are plateau terrain, which is mainly uncultivated
land with vegetation of forest land, low shrubs and grass; the terrain of these 4 wind farms
located in the state northeast region are mainly flat mountain land with less fluctuation, the
land is mainly farmland with occasionally distributed sparse trees, and also a small amount of
villages, where Dire Dawa wind farm is adjacent to Dire Dawa city area, the impact on the
town shall be properly avoided during construction and operation period; the terrain of these 6
wind farms located in the center region of the state is mainly low mountain relief or flat

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farmland, and the farmland is relatively more with sparse forest land, of which Nazret wind
farm is adjacent to the Adama Phase I wind power project in construction; these 4 wind farms
in the state southern region are mainly low mountain relief, and the vegetation is mainly forest
land and farmland with few villages.
In addition, there is also Jijiga wind farm, Aysha wind farm scattered in Somali and Dicheoto
wind farm scattered in Afar. These wind farms have little vegetation; there is a small amount of
forest land and shrubs, but rarely residents.
7.1.3

Environmental profile of solar PV power station


The recommended solar PV power station sites for Ethiopia include Debre birhan PV power
station, Metehara PV power station, Awash solar PV power station, Dera solar PV power
station, Addis Ababa wind energy and solar energy demonstration base. Debre birhan solar
PV station site region has a flat terrain, which is mainly farmland; the terrain of Metehara solar
PV station site is open and flat, and the surface is mainly sparse shrubs, but rarely residents;
the terrain of Awash solar PV station site is open and flat, and the surface is mainly tropical
sparse shrubs, but without residential point; the terrain of Dera PV power station site is open
and flat, and the surface is mainly grassland; Addis Ababa wind energy and solar energy
demonstration base is low and hilly region, and the surface vegetation is mainly forest land
with a few villages, the site is near the city area of Addis Ababa.

7.2

Screening of Main Environmental Factors


The main impact of project construction on the environment: the impact of construction area
on ecological environment, the construction and excavation and transportation will generate
noise and dust, the earthwork excavation, backfilling, road construction and other construction
activities will impact the vegetation and the geographic and geomorphic conditions, the
cleaning, mechanical repair and vehicle maintenance of concrete transport vehicles, mixers
and construction machineries will generate a certain wastewater, the domestic sewage and
garbage of constructors. The main environmental impact during operating period: the noise
and electromagnetic radiation, the domestic sewage and garbage of constructors generated
during operating period will have a certain impact on the environment. There are totally 50
planned wind farms in Ethiopia, 4 solar PV power stations and 1 wind and solar
complementation demonstration base, which has a total area of 4,827.2km2 and a total
installed capacity of 6861MW, seen from the current materials, there is no national park and
other environmental sensitive protected objectives within the planning site, and the
environmental sensitive protected objectives shall be detailed and accurately investigated and
understood in the following work, so as to ensure that the project will not impact on the
national park and residential points, etc. According to the characteristics of project
construction and operation, combined with the importance of the environmental impact factors
for the project area, screen the main environmental impact factors.
The environmental factors affected by the project construction and operation include:
ecological environment, atmospheric environment, water environment, acoustic environment,
solid waste, population health, human environment; in view of the operating characteristics of
wind farm and PV power station, the ecological environment, solid waste, population health

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shall be regarded as the main environmental impact factors.

7.3

Preliminary Evaluation of Environmental Impact

7.3.1

Impact on ecological environment


(1)

Impact on land utilization and expropriation


The occupied area of planned project of Ethiopia wind energy and solar energy power
generation project is 4,827.2km2, and the main land types are forest land, grassland and
farmland. The permanently occupied project areas include WTG foundation occupied
area, substation occupied area, cable burying occupied area and permanent road
occupied area, under normal circumstances; the permanently occupied project area
shares a relatively smaller proportion of total occupied area. Except the permanently
occupied area, the temporary construction area shall be returned to the local owner after
completing the project, and the restoration measures shall be taken for the vegetation,
therefore, the project construction has a relatively smaller impact on local land utilization.
When comes to the expropriation of farmland or forest land, appropriate compensation
and payment shall be provided according to Ethiopia Proclamation No.455/2005 and
other proclamations.

(2)

Impact on water loss and soil erosion


Due to the relative backwardness of agriculture and forestry management, its basically
still in the original farming state of relying on the weather, blindly and exceedingly felling
seriously damaged the forest resources, which also causes serious water loss and soil
erosion and a worse ecological environment. The excavation, backfill, road building and
other construction activities in the process of project construction change the most of the
native landform within the construction area, the surface vegetation is damaged, which
will inevitably produce new problems on water loss and soil erosion. However, due to a
certain amount of soil and water conservation measures will be carried out at the end of
the project, it will not cause serious damage to the local water and soil and vegetation,
and may optimize the situation of water loss and soil erosion problems.

(3)

Impact on vegetation
The vegetation type existing within the planning occupied area is widely distributed in
that region, and they are usually shrub, grassland, forest land and farmland. Except the
permanently occupied area, the temporary construction area will be recovered through
the plant measures after completing the construction; therefore, the project construction
has a smaller affect on local plant diversity.

(4)

Impact on birds and wild animals


The construction noise and operation noise of wind turbine will interfere with the living
environment of the birds, and the birds are likely to hit the wind turbine blades due to
vision or electromagnetic interference. Combining Figure 7.3-1 with the planning
drawing of Ethiopia wind energy and solar energy power generation project, it can be
seen that the planning sites located in the birds distribution region are Hula wind farm,
Harar west wind farm, Mek'ele north wind farm, Debre birhan wind farm and Bahir Dar

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wind farm. Therefore, the wind turbine arrangement of these plant areas shall pay
attention to the impact of wind turbine location and operation on the activities of birds.

Figure 7.3-1 Main Birds Distribution Region in Ethiopia

Due to the range of planned wind farm site is small relative to the whole region and the
strong activity ability of wildlife, which enables them a strong danger-avoiding instinct,
the wind farm construction and operation have little impact on the wildlife and it will not
cause decrease of wildlife types and quantities.
7.3.2

Impact on acoustic environment


The equipment operation noise of construction machineries will be produced in the
construction process of planning site. Seen from the planning and arrangement drawing, there
are residential points distributed within or near part of the planning wind farm sites, such as
Gondar North wind farm, Dire Dawa wind farm, Hula wind farm, etc., in order to protect the
normal life of residents nearby, the noise source shall be located away from the residential
points when arranging these site constructions, so as to ensure that the acoustic environment
quality at the residential points can meet the requirement of lower than or equal to 55dB in the
daytime specified by Class 1 standard in Acoustic Environment Quality Standards (GB 3096 2008).
In addition, the PV power station will not produce noise impact during the operating period, and
the noise during the operating period of generator unit is generated from the blade sweeping
and the operation of unit's internal machineries, which is mainly the mechanical noise within
the unit. When arranging the wind turbines, the unit shall have appropriate protective distance
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(usually greater than 250m for one single unit) away from the acoustic environment sensitive
point around, or take the noise reduction or other protection measures, so that the acoustic
environment quality of acoustic environment sensitive points, such as residential points nearby,
can meet the requirement of lower than or equal to 55dB in the daytime and lower than or
equal to 45dB in the nighttime specified by Class 1 standard in Acoustic Environment Quality
Standards (GB 3096 - 2008).
7.3.3

Impact on population health


The impact on population health mainly comes from the foreign population settlement during
the construction period and the electromagnetic radiation generated during the operation
period of wind farm and PV power station.
During the construction period, a large number of constructors enter the site, part of the
constructors is foreign population, which may feel uncomfortable for the local climate and
environment, and the population density increases, coupled with the relatively simple and
incomplete living facilities, if the management of food hygiene, domestic water, environmental
health is not strengthened, it may cause the infectious diseases.
During the period of wind turbine operating or PV power generation, the substation or inverter
may generate the electromagnetic radiation with certain energy. The survey results of other
wind farm built domestically show that the currently operated wind farms have no effect on the
radio, television and other electrical equipments inside the residential areas 500m away from
the wind farms. Therefore, in order to avoid the impact of electromagnetic radiation on the
environment, the substation and inverter shall be arranged 500m away from the residential
areas.

7.3.4

Impact of construction waste water on environment


The construction waste water mainly includes wastewater and domestic sewage.
The project construction wastewater is usually generated by the cleaning, mechanical repair
and vehicle maintenance of concrete transport vehicles, mixers and construction machineries,
etc. The construction arrangement of wind farms and PV power stations are generally
scattered, so the wastewater generating points are also scattered, and the wastewater
generating time is not continuous, if the wastewater volume is smaller, it will not form water
flow generally. Therefore, the wastewater during the construction period will not have a great
impact on the environment.
The construction period will also generate a certain amount of domestic sewage. The main
pollutant in the domestic sewage is suspended matters, organic pollutants, bacteria, etc, if
directly discharge the domestic sewage without dealing with, it will cause environment
pollution.

7.3.5

Impact of solid waste on environment


The solid waste generated during the project construction period includes the construction
debris and domestic garbage.
The solid waste of project construction is mainly generated by the excavation of wind turbine
foundation, and other construction sites may result only a small amount of solid waste. The

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remained earthwork is preferred to be used for the hoisting site backfill of wind turbine
construction after completing the construction, and the project construction shall no longer
produce any debris as far as possible.
Although the construction period is short and the constructors is less, the limited domestic
garbage amount may also pollute the air, water and soil if left without treatment, and the
garbage easily attracts mosquitoes, rats and others if decays, which may increase the
probability of disease dissemination and cause larger harm.
7.3.6

Impact on ambient air


The atmospheric pollution sources are mainly the construction excavation and transportation
during the construction period. The atmospheric pollutant is mainly dust. Because the
construction area is scattered, the pollution sources are small, and it is intermittent and mobile,
coupled with the open construction area terrain and fast local wind speed, and the terrain and
weather conditions are also conducive to the spread of the pollutant, the construction will not
constitutionally affect the regional ambient air quality.

7.3.7

Impact on human environment


For the diversification of Ethiopian national culture and religious belief, the project construction
of wind farm and PV power station shall not constitute any impact on the lifestyles and
religious need of local residents and minorities, nor rise too large conflict of interest. Therefore,
the project construction shall reduce its human environment impact on the planning area, and
confirm whether there is any building facility with historical, cultural, religious or archaeological
value within the planning site, and make appropriate treatment prior to the development and
implementation.

7.3.8

Analysis on project environmental benefit


The production process of wind energy and solar energy is transforming the wind energy and
solar energy into mechanical energy, and then transforming it into electrical energy, during the
whole process, it rarely produces the air, water, solid waste and other pollutants, it will not
produce obvious noise pollution, compared with coal-fired power plants, it can save a certain
amount of standard fuel and reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon
dioxide and other pollutants, which has a significant environmental benefit.

7.4

Environmental Protection Measures


The adverse environmental impact of this project is mainly reflected in ecology and
construction impacts. To reduce the adverse impact, the following environmental protection
measures shall be taken:
(1)

Ecological environment protection measures


Reduce the land occupation to a minimum extent as far as possible.
Indicate the construction activity area, prohibit the constructors going to the
non-construction area willingly. The vehicle transportation must be conducted along the
specified roads, in order to protect the forest and grass better, its not free to travel on
the grassland.
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Minimize the large-scale mechanical construction as much as possible, it is


recommended that the foundation excavation shall apply artificial excavation, and its
suggested to loose and transport the rock artificially, so as to protect the forest and
grass and farmland.
The construction machineries and equipments must be placed on the assembly
field of construction site in strict accordance with the designed and planned specified
location, they shall not be freely piled up, the construction area of ancillary facilities such
as living area or living service area shall be minimized as far as possible, so as to
effectively control the occupied area and protect the forest and grass better.
During the recovery period of forest and grass, isolate the forest and grass to be
recovered, and minimize the human and livestock walking and vehicles rolling on forest
and grass.
During the project construction process and after completing the construction,
timely take the soil conservation measures to reduce the water loss and soil erosion.
(2)

Preventive measures for construction impact


The domestic sewage of construction living area shall be used as ecological
restoration and green water after treatment.
Set litter bins for construction living area, its preliminarily proposed to take the
concentrated landfill measures for the collected wastes, but it should make a good
choice for the landfill site and take proper seepage control and drainage measures. After
the construction is completed, take the vegetation restoration measures for the landfill to
avoid secondary environment pollution caused by the wastes.
If water the construction site in windy days, conduct temporary protective measures
such as barring and covering for excavated earth and gravel material storage yards to
prevent dust.

(3)

Water and soil conservation measures


Water and soil conservation measures for the foundation construction and installation of
wind turbine:
Balance construction. The progress of wind turbine foundation site leveling,
earthwork excavation and concrete pouring must be handled in proportion. As the
vegetation of leveled site has been damaged, the surface soil is loose, if reserved for a
long time, the erosion frequency of local gale will certainly increase, which would
increase the hazard of wind erosion. The engine base quantity of site leveling and
earthwork excavation in early stage shall not affect the concrete pouring, which cannot
be reserved too much.
As the expansion of the operating site will result in a larger destruction area of
vegetation and the destruction of soil surface, which may worsen the wind erosion
situation, the operating site area shall be controlled within a certain range.

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Water and soil conservation measures for site permanent roads:


The design of site permanent roads shall comply with the principle of more filling
and less digging to arrange the road location and avoid the excavation of "U" road
trough.
The surface of permanent roads shall be hardened by concrete pavement.
The wind-break and sand-fixing shrubs shall be planted for the greening on both
sides of the road, the plant species can be different according to the different section
environments.
Water and soil conservation measures for cable chutes:
The cable burying lines shall appropriate avoid and pass through the sides if meet
trees and shrubs, so as to minimize the vegetation destruction caused by construction.
When excavating the cable chute, the excavated earthwork shall be placed in the
windward side of the chute.
After laying the cables, promptly backfill the excavated earthwork, compact the
backfill by layers and restore the original vegetation.
Water and soil conservation measures for temporary construction area:
After the construction is completed, the construction unit shall timely remove the
temporary buildings, clean and level the site, as well sow the original zonal vegetation
seed on the bare ground to recover the vegetation.
Greening and beautifying measures for site management and living areas:
The site management and living areas are generally located in the substation, the
greening parts within the substation shall be greened, the combination of flowering
shrubs and lawn can be taken.

7.5

Overall Conclusion
According to the available material analysis, there is no natural preservation zone and other
significant environmentally sensitive protected objectives within the planned range of Ethiopia
wind energy and solar energy power generation project, so it will not produce significant
adverse effects on the environment.
The adverse effects of the project on the environment are mainly generated during the
construction period, such as construction dust, the noise effect on constructors, etc., it will
produce little adverse effects on the local environment after taking appropriate environmental
protection and water conservation measures, and it will bring great environmental benefit of
clean energy. There is no constraining environmental factor for Ethiopia wind energy and solar
energy power generation project planning, and it is feasible viewed from the environmental
point.

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8.

Development Schedule, Grid Connection, and Power Balance


Analysis

8.1

Development Sequence of Planning Areas


This report takes 2010 as the planning base year of reference and mainly focuses on planning
for the development sequence of Ethiopia wind energy and solar energy power generation
project in the target year 2015 and 2020, and it also takes into account the arrangement of
long term wind power and solar PV power generation reservation project.
The report obtains the basic situation of Ethiopian wind energy resources and solar radiation
resources through computer numerical model calculations, and it clears the distribution
characteristics and key development areas of Ethiopia national wind energy resources and the
solar energy resources. Further, the report formulates the planned capacity and its distribution
method of Ethiopia wind power and solar PV power generation according to the existing power
system and its future development consumption capacity and trend analysis in Ethiopia.
Chapter 6 of this report detailed discusses the selection principles and applied methods for the
wind power projects and solar PV power generation project sites involved in the planning.
Meanwhile, combining with the specific resources of various plant areas, power grid,
construction conditions and other factors, Chapter 6 also conducts comprehensive
comparison by scoring. The development sequence arrangements of various planning areas
involved in this chapter take the aforementioned results as reference. Based on the site
selection results, this report further considers the external factors and the overall economic
factors, macro-distribution for each plant area etc. to develop the development sequence
arrangements for Ethiopia wind energy and solar energy power generation project in the future
planning target years.
The elaboration process of this development sequence arrangements considers the total
installed capacity of wind power and solar PV power generation, at the same time, it also
considers the overall degree of the wind farm and solar PV power station construction
conditions, and the conditions of electric power outward transmission and power grid access,
which complies with the development principle of from easy to difficult, from near and far, from
low-cost to high-cost, it will promote the overall objective of Ethiopia wind energy and solar
energy resources development and use with technical feasibility and economic rationality.
See Table 8.1-1~Table 8.1-3 for Ethiopia planned wind power and solar PV power generation
project in different target years.

Table 8.1-1 Ethiopia Short Term (~2015) Planning Areas


No.

Category

1
2
3

Wind
energy

Code
No.

Wind farm name

Installed
capacity
(MW)

Area
2
(km )

F1

Nazret wind farm

300

254

F2

Mek'ele South wind farm

100

77

F3

Sheno wind farm

100

56

133

Total
(MW)

970

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

F4

Ch'ach'a wind farm

100

56

F5

Phase I wind farm in Iteya

100

66

F6

Sulaltaw ind farm

100

60

F7

Gondar West wind farm

50

49

F8

Imdibir wind farm

50

47

F9

50

40

10

F51

20

28

20

0.6

11
12

Solar
energy

G3
F51

Total(MW)

Dire Dawa wind farm


Addis Ababa wind energy and solar
energy demonstration base
Awash PV power station
Addis Ababa wind energy and solar
energy demonstration base
991

21

Table 8.1-2 Ethiopia Medium Term (2016 - 2020) Planning Areas


Code
No.

Wind farm name

F10

Dilla East wind farm

Installed
capacity
(MW)
300

F11

Mek'ele North wind farm

200

185

F12

Debre Markos East wind farm

200

143

F13

Soddo wind farm

200

160

F14

Sendafa North wind farm

100

70

F15

Sendafa South wind farm

100

70

F16

Gondar North wind farm

100

65

F17

Phase II wind farm in Iteya

100

70

F18

Bu'i East wind farm

100

80

10

F19

Aysha wind farm

100

60

11

F20

Phase I wind farm in Bolo

100

60

12

F21

Diche Oto wind farm

50

100

13

F22

Bahir Dar wind farm

50

80

F23

Assela wind farm

50

71

G1

Debre birhan PV power station

10

0.39

G4

Phase I of Dera PV power station

10

0.3

No.

Category

6
7
8

Wind
energy

14
15
16

Solar
energy
Total(MW)

Area
2
(km )

Total
(MW)

268

1750

20

1770

Table 8.1-3 Ethiopia Long Term Reservation Project Planning Areas


Code
No.

Wind farm name

F24

Jacho wind farm

Installed
capacity
(MW)
600

F25

Phase II wind farm in Bolo

500

300

F26

Hula wind farm

300

220

F27

Dilla West wind farm

300

230

F28

Dangla wind farm

200

170

F29

Debre Markos West wind farm

200

150

F30

Ambo wind farm

200

130

F31

Babile wind farm

200

130

F32

Dabat wind farm

100

61

No.

Category

4
5

Wind
energy

134

Area
2
(km )

Total(M
W)

330

4000

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

10

F33

Phase I wind farm in Weldiya

100

43

11

F34

Phase II wind farm in Weldiya

100

40

12

F35

Gondar East wind farm

100

76

13

F36

Rufa'el wind farm

100

100

14

F37

Debre Birhan wind farm

100

67

15

F38

Bale wind farm

100

60

16

F39

Harar West wind farm

100

90

17

F40

Harar Eest wind farm

100

75

18

F41

Jijiga wind farm

100

80

19

F42

Durame wind farm

100

65

20

F43

Debre Sina wind farm

50

30

21

F44

Bui West wind farm

50

40

22

F45

Butajira wind farm

50

30

23

F46

Fonka west wind farm

50

25

24

F47

Fonka east wind farm

50

25

25

F48

Yabelo wind farm

50

45

26

F49

Mega east wind farm

50

30

27

F50

Mega east wind farm

50

30

28

G4

Phase II of Dera PV power station

50

1.6

G2

Metehara PV power station site

50

1.6

29

Solar
energy
Total(MW)

100

4100

See Attached Figure 5 for the planning timing progress of Ethiopia wind energy and solar
energy power generation project.

8.2

Scheme of Electric Power Outgoing Transmission


According to the site and capacity distribution condition of the proposed wind farm and PV
power station and combining with Ethiopia power grid wiring diagram, power system
geographic wiring diagram provided by EEPCo, it finishes the access system design for the
aforementioned development sequence arrangements of various proposed projects. Of which,
the long term reserve planning (station) area projects are not included.
The access system design shall follow the following 5 criterions:
(1)

The planned lines and transformers of planned level stage in 2015 can not be
overloaded due to the accessing of wind farm and PV power station. 2020 target year
and long term planning are not limited by this requirement.

(2)

For remote areas, preferentially arrange the project access with an electricity demand
greater than supply area (power flow region).

(3)

Preferentially arrange the wind farms and PV power station projects in load
concentrated areas.

(4)

In view of the installed capacity of Ethiopia hydropower and thermal power project can
meet the maximum load demand, the planned wind power and PV power generation
capacity is mainly replace the water and electricity capacity, the replaced hydropower
will be used as load reserve and spinning reserve.
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(5)

8.2.1

Preferentially arrange the easily access and outward transmission power plant around
the transformer substation.

Power flow calculation


In this planning, the purpose of power flow calculation is only to simulate the power flow
direction and power distribution, which would be used as the basis for the proposed
arrangements for development sequence and development capacity of recommended wind
energy and solar PV power plants (stations).
The power flow calculation software adopts ETAP, and the calculating method applies fast
decoupled method.
According to the predict of EEPCo information, the minimum load of Ethiopia national power
system in 2015 will be 1133MW, and the maximum load will be 2663MW, the predict matches
the total capacity of distribution transformers in Ethiopia power system wiring diagram
provided by EEPCo. 2015 power system power flow estimation in this report is based on the
following preconditions:
(1)

Collect the power supply, transformer substation, lines, load data and wiring diagram of
Ethiopia power system and geographic wiring diagram of power system from EEPCo.

(2)

In view of the specific operating parameters of the generator set have not been collected,
and assume that the nodes of TEKEZE power plant, GALUB GAS power plant, BELES
power plant are balanced.

(3)

In view of the actual representative load situation of various transformer substations has
not been collected, and assume that all the distribution transformers in the wiring
diagram of collected Ethiopia power system are in full load operation.

(4)

The long term planned power plants, transformer substations and lines in the wiring
diagram of collected Ethiopia power system are not involved in the power flow
calculation.

See Attached Figure 6 for the result diagram of Ethiopia power system power flow calculation.
8.2.2

Proposed projects connection scheme to grid


This report proposes 6,720MW installed capacity for wind power and 141MW installed
capacity for PV power generation. Prior to 2015, build ten wind farms with installed capacity of
970MW; one PV power station with installed capacity of 20MW; one wind and solar
complementation demonstration power plant with installed capacity of 1MW. Till 2020, 14 new
wind farms will be constructed to add installed capacity of 1750MW; two PV power stations
with installed capacity of 20MW.
(1)

Short term (~2015) proposed projects connection scheme to grid


10 substations of proposed wind farm shall be planned before 2015, including four
132kV wind farm substations, one PV power plant transformer substation, one wind and
solar power complementation plant transformer substation and seven 230kV wind farm
transformer substations.
See Table 8.2-1 for the installed capacity and connection scheme to grid before 2015.
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Table 8.2-1 Table of Connection Scheme of Ethiopia Proposed Projects before 2015
No.

Name

Nazret wind farm

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Mekele South wind farm


Sheno wind farm
Chacha wind farm
Phase I wind farm in Iteya
Sulalta wind farm
Gondar West wind farm
Imdibir wind farm
Dire Dawa wind farm
Addis Ababa demonstration wind
farm wind energy
Awash solar energy wind farm
Addis Ababa demonstration wind
farm solar energy

10
11
12

Installed
capacity
(MW)
200
100
100
100
100
100
100
50
50
50

Voltage
grade
(kV)
230
132
230
230
230
132
230
230
230
132

Koka
Nazret
Mekele
Build a 230kV shared
substation, towards Cotobie II
Awash II
Sulalta
Gonder II
Wolkite
Dire Dawa

20

132

Addis-North

20

66

Awash 7kilo

35

Addis-North

Accessed transformer
substation

Specific scheme for 230kV substation


A

230kV side wiring


The wind farms with a capacity of 50MW (Gondar West farm, Imdibir wind farm)
apply the line group of transformer for wiring. Accessing the system transformer
substation through one loop 230kV wire, the main transformer selects 230
8*1.25%/33kV oil immersed three-phase double-roll air-cooled load tap-changing
transformer with a capacity of 50MVA.
Wind farm with a capacity of 100MW applies the line group of transformer for wiring;
230kV side wiring of Nazret 200MW plant area apply single busbar wiring method,
which adopts multi inlets and one outlet plus PT bay scheme. Accessing the system
transformer substation through one loop 230kV wire, the main transformer selects
230 8*1.25%/33kV oil immersed three-phase double-roll air-cooled transformer
with a capacity of 100MVA.
For sharing a substation by multiple power stations, high-voltage side shall be
subject to single bus connection.

33kV side wiring


The voltage level of main transformer low voltage side is 33kV, 50MW and 100MW
wind farm voltage side applies single busbar wiring.
The transformers of wind turbine generators are packeted and accessed to 33kV
high voltage switch cabinet of wind farm 230kV booster station. The connection of
main transformer low voltage side applies the common enclosure bus of 2500A 3000A. The metering point of wind farm project and power grid shall be 230kV line
outlet side of wind farm booster station.

Reactive power compensation device

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

The wind generating set is assumed to be asynchronous generator. The power


factor of this generator can be automatically adjusted to close to 1.0 during operating
time. Therefore, this type of wind generating set is not needed to configure the
reactive power compensation device. The reactive power loss of wind farm is mainly
concentrated on the main transformer in the booster substation and 33kV unit
transformer near the wind turbine, so set 1 set of capacity reactive power
compensation device for every 33kV busbar in the wind farm substation and confirm
the compensation capacity according to the access system requirements.
Specific scheme for 132kV substation
A

132kV side wiring


The wind farm applies the line group of transformer for wiring, it accesses the system
transformer substation through one loop 132kV wire, the main transformers of Iteya
plant area and Nazret plant area select 132 8*1.25%/33kV oil immersed
three-phase double-roll air-cooled transformer with a capacity of 100MVA. The main
transformers of Dire Dawa plant area and Addis Ababa demonstration plant area
select 132 8*1.25%/33kV oil immersed three-phase double-roll air-cooled
transformer with a capacity of 30MVA.

33kV side wiring


The low voltage of main transformer is 33kV, and it applies single busbar wiring.
The transformers of wind turbine generators are packeted and accessed to 33kV
high voltage switch cabinet of wind farm in 132kV booster substation. The busbar
connecting the main transformer low voltage side and 33kV switch cabinet applies
the common enclosure busbar of 2500A - 3000A.
The metering point of wind farm project and power grid shall be 132kV line outlet
side of wind farm booster substation.

Reactive power compensation device


The wind generating set is assumed to be asynchronous generator. The power
factor of this generator can be automatically adjusted to close to 1.0 during operating
time. Therefore, this type of wind generating set is not needed to configure the
reactive power compensation device. The reactive power loss of wind farm is mainly
concentrated on the main transformer in the booster substation and 33kV unit
transformer near the wind turbine, so set 1 set of capacity reactive power
compensation device for every 33kV busbar in the wind farm substation and confirm
the compensation capacity according to the access system requirements.

Specific scheme for 66kV PV station substation


A

66kV side wiring


The 66kV side wiring of wind farm applies the line group of transformer for wiring, it
accesses the system transformer substation through one loop 66kV wire;
The main transformers selects 66 2*2.5%/33kV oil immersed three-phase
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

double-roll air-cooled transformer with a capacity of 20MVA.


B

33kV side wiring


The low voltage of main transformer low voltage side is 33kV, and the wiring method
applies single busbar wiring. The 33kV busbar shall be divided into two sections
according to the capacity of PV power farm, 16 inlets and 1 outlet for each section; it
adds bus couple, PT cabinet and auxiliary power cabinet, which forms 20
switchgears. The solar energy component-SC630HE inverter is divided into 32 sets,
every two sets connect to one set of triple winding load oil-immersed booster
transformer to form the expanded unit connection, the transformer model is
SZ10-1250/33 334*2.5%/0.315/0.315kV, there are totally 16 sets of booster
transformers, the main wiring 16 inlets and 1 outlet at 33kV side applies 33kV single
busbar wiring. Set arc suppression and harmonic elimination device for 33kV side of
the substation.

Reactive power compensation device


Set 1 set of capacity reactive power compensation device for every 33kV bus of PV
power farm and confirm the compensation capacity according to the access system
requirements.

(2)

Access system scheme for medium term (2016 - 2020) proposed projects
See Table 8.2-2 for the installed capacity and access transformer substation of wind
farm planned to be built before 2020.

Table 8.2-2 Table of Ethiopia Proposed Project Access System Scheme before 2020
Voltage
grade
(kV)

Sendafa north wind farm

Installed
capacity
(MW)
100

Sendafa south wind farm

100

230

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Debre sina east wind farm


Debre Markos wind farm
Mekele north wind farm
Gondar north wind farm
Bahir Dar wind farm
Diche Oto wind farm
Phase II wind farm in Iteya
Assela wind farm
Bui east wind farm
Aysha wind farm
Phase I wind farm in Bolo
Dilla east wind farm
Soddo wind farm
Debre birhan PV power station site
Dera PV power station site

100
200
200
100
50
50
100
50
100
100
100
300
200
10
10

230
230
230
230
230
132
132
230
230
132
230
230
15
15

No.

Name

230kV transformer substation


A

230kV side wiring


139

Accessed transformer
substation
Build a 230kV substation
together with Chacha
site and Sheno site for
share, towards CotobieII
Debre Markos
Mekele
Gondar II
Bahir Dar
Diche Oto
Build a substation for
share in sending
Wolkite
PK12
Nazret
Welaita
Debre Birhan
Awash II

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

The wind farms with a capacity of 50MW apply the line group of transformer for
wiring, they access the system transformer substation through one loop 230kV wire,
the main transformers select 230 8*1.25%/33kV oil immersed three-phase
double-roll air-cooled load tap-changing transformer with a capacity of 50MVA.
The wind farms with a capacity of 100MW apply the line group of transformer for
wiring; the 230kV side wiring of wind farms with a capacity of 200MW and 300MW
apply single busbar wiring method, which adopts multi inlets and one outlet plus PT
interval scheme. Accessing the system transformer substation through one loop
230kV wire, the main transformers select 230 8*1.25%/33kV oil immersed
three-phase double-roll air-cooled load tap-changing transformer with a capacity of
100MVA.
For sharing a boosting station by several power stations, high-voltage side shall be
subject to single bus connection.
B

33kV side wiring


The voltage grade of main transformer low voltage side is 33kV, the wind farm
voltage side of 50MW and 100MW apply single busbar wiring; the wind field of
200MW and 300MW apply single busbar sectional wiring.
The transformers of wind turbine generators are packeted and accessed to 33kV
high voltage switch cabinet of wind farm 230kV booster station. The connection of
main transformer low voltage side applies the common enclosure bus of 2500A 3000A.
The metering point of wind farm project and power grid shall be 230kV line outlet
side of wind farm booster station.

Reactive power compensation device


The wind generating set is assumed to be asynchronous generator. The power
factor of this generator can be automatically adjusted to close to 1.0 during operating
time. Therefore, this type of wind generating set is not needed to configure the
reactive power compensation device. The reactive power loss of wind farm is mainly
concentrated on the main transformer of booster transformer substation and 33kV
transformer of site wind turbine, so set 1 set of capacity reactive power
compensation device for every 33kV bus on the wind farm substation and confirm
the compensation capacity according to the access system requirements.

132kV transformer substation


A

132kV side wiring


The wind farm applies the line group of transformer for wiring; it accesses the system
transformer substation through one loop 132kV wire, the main transformers of Iteya
Phase II plant area and Assela plant area select 132 8*1.25%/33kV oil immersed
three-phase double-roll air-cooled transformer with a capacity of 100MVA.

33kV side wiring

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

The voltage grade of main transformer low voltage side is 33kV, and it applies single
busbar wiring.
The transformers of wind turbine generators are packeted and accessed to 33kV
high voltage switch cabinet of wind farm 132kV booster station. The connection of
main transformer low voltage side applies the common enclosure bus of 2500A 3000A.
The metering point of wind farm project and power grid shall be 132kV line outlet
side of wind farm booster station.
C

Reactive power compensation device


The wind generating set is assumed to be asynchronous generator. The power
factor of this generator can be automatically adjusted to close to 1.0 during operating
time. Therefore, this type of wind generating set is not needed to configure the
reactive power compensation device. The reactive power loss of wind farm is mainly
concentrated on the main transformer of booster transformer substation and 33kV
transformer of site wind turbine, so set 1 set of capacity reactive power
compensation device for every 33kV bus on the wind farm substation and confirm
the compensation capacity according to the access system requirements.

15kV PV transformer substation


The installed capacity of transformer substation is 10MWp, the solar energy
component-SC630HE inverter is divided into 16 sets, every two sets connect to one
set of triple winding load oil-immersed booster transformer to form the expanded
unit connection, the transformer model is SZ10-1250/15 154X2.5%/0.315/0.315kV,
there are totally 8 sets of booster transformers, the main wiring 8 inlets and 1 outlet
at 15kV side applies 15kV single busbar wiring. Set arc suppression and harmonic
elimination device for 15kV side of the substation.

8.3

Electric Output and Load Balance Analysis


In order to judge whether the planned power capacity can be sufficiently consumed in the
power system on time, this report conducts the electric power and energy balance analysis.

8.3.1

Output feature of power station


(1)

Hydropower station output feature


According to the available materials provided by EPPCo, see Table 8.3-1 for the output
feature of hydropower stations.

Table 8.3-1 Hydropower Station Output Feature Table, Unit: MW


Station
Makena
Koka
Finchaa

Month

Exp output
Ave output
Exp output
Ave output
Exp output
Ave output

153
101
43.2
12
134
92

10

11

12

153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153
104 90
46
26
22
35
27
53
64
83
92
43.2 43.2 43.2 43.2 43.2 43.2 43.2 43.2 43.2 43.2 43.2
11
11
13
15
10
8
6
25
15
12
13
134 134 134 134 134 134 134 134 134 134 134
90
89
94
95
87
76
44
90
94
96
94
141

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Station
Awash IIand III
Tis I
Tis II
G.G I
G.G II
Tekeze
Beles
G.G III

Month

10

11

12

Exp output
Ave output
Exp output
Ave output
Exp output
Ave output
Exp output
Ave output
Exp output
Ave output
Exp output
Ave output
Exp output
Ave output
Exp output
Ave output

64
45
12
2
73
46
184
75
420
197
300
111
420
191
1800
777

64
44
12
3
73
45
184
69
420
183
300
103
420
177
1800
720

64
42
12
3
73
44
184
64
420
169
300
95
420
163
1800
665

64
47
12
4
73
45
184
54
420
141
300
79
420
137
1800
557

64
50
12
2
73
46
184
38
420
101
300
57
420
98
1800
398

64
36
12
4
73
33
184
91
420
241
300
135
420
233
1800
950

64
35
12
5
73
30
184
146
420
384
300
216
420
372
1800
1515

64
22
12
3
73
24
184
73
420
192
300
108
420
186
1800
758

64
40
12
4
73
46
184
82
420
217
300
122
420
210
1800
855

64
45
12
6
73
39
184
93
420
245
300
138
420
237
1800
967

64
47
12
6
73
49
184
101
420
265
300
149
420
257
1800
1046

64
45
12
3
73
45
184
103
420
270
300
152
420
262
1800
1066

Note: Exp output is expected outputAve output is average output.

(2)

Recommended wind farm output feature table


According to the wind speed simulation results of recommended wind resource sites,
see Table 8.3-2 and Table 8.3-3 for the wind power output feature analysis results of
2015 recommended plant areas and 2020 recommended plant areas in Ethiopia.

Table 8.3-2
Time
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00

1
32.7
30.4
28.1
25.8
25.0
24.2
23.4
22.2
20.9
19.6
20.1
20.6
21.1
25.0
29.0
33.0
41.0
49.0
56.9
53.4
49.9
46.4
41.0
35.7

2
36.0
33.8
31.5
29.3
28.1
26.9
25.7
24.8
23.8
22.9
23.4
23.9
24.4
28.4
32.4
36.4
43.8
51.3
58.7
55.3
51.9
48.6
43.6
38.7

Short Term (- 2015) Wind Project Output Table, Unit: MW


3
40.7
38.9
37.1
35.3
33.3
31.4
29.5
28.8
28.1
27.4
27.3
27.3
27.3
30.3
33.4
36.4
43.8
51.2
58.6
55.7
52.8
49.9
46.2
42.5

4
37.9
36.3
34.6
33.0
31.5
30.1
28.6
29.0
29.5
29.9
30.0
30.1
30.2
32.0
33.8
35.5
43.5
51.5
59.4
56.3
53.2
50.0
45.4
40.8

5
31.0
29.6
28.1
26.6
25.2
23.8
22.4
25.2
28.0
30.8
32.5
34.2
35.9
36.0
36.1
36.2
43.2
50.3
57.3
53.1
48.8
44.6
39.6
34.6

6
21.0
20.2
19.5
18.8
17.8
16.9
15.9
17.3
18.7
20.2
21.8
23.4
25.0
25.4
25.8
26.2
30.0
33.8
37.7
34.2
30.8
27.3
25.0
22.6

7
28.0
27.5
26.9
26.3
25.0
23.6
22.3
21.6
20.9
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.7
21.7
22.8
23.9
27.9
31.8
35.8
33.9
32.1
30.2
29.3
28.4

8
24.6
24.0
23.3
22.6
21.5
20.4
19.2
19.6
20.1
20.5
21.2
22.0
22.7
23.4
24.1
24.8
27.9
31.1
34.2
32.0
29.8
27.6
26.4
25.2

9
19.2
18.3
17.5
16.7
16.1
15.4
14.8
17.5
20.2
22.9
24.7
26.5
28.3
27.8
27.2
26.6
30.5
34.4
38.3
34.9
31.5
28.1
24.9
21.6

10
41.8
40.4
39.1
37.7
36.5
35.3
34.1
36.5
38.8
41.1
41.7
42.4
43.0
43.0
43.0
43.1
51.2
59.2
67.3
63.1
59.0
54.8
50.0
45.2

Table 8.3-3 Medium Term (2016 - 2020) Wind Project Output Table,
Time
0.00

1
92.4

2
98.8

3
109.5

4
98.7

5
80.3
142

6
66.5

7
88.6

8
75.8

9
51.0

10
102.6

11
38.7
36.8
35.0
33.2
32.5
31.8
31.0
31.2
31.4
31.6
31.7
31.9
32.0
34.0
36.0
37.9
46.6
55.3
64.0
60.2
56.5
52.7
47.4
42.1

12
33.5
32.6
31.8
30.9
32.4
33.8
35.3
34.2
33.1
32.0
31.7
31.4
31.1
33.2
35.3
37.4
43.8
50.3
56.7
53.4
50.1
46.8
42.1
37.4

Unit: MW
11
104.6

12
94.4

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00

8.3.2

84.6
76.7
68.9
63.2
57.5
51.9
50.8
49.7
48.6
51.7
54.8
57.8
69.3
80.8
92.3
117.1
141.8
166.6
156.1
145.5
135.0
118.2
101.4

91.1
83.3
75.6
68.2
60.8
53.3
54.0
54.6
55.3
59.0
62.7
66.4
77.6
88.8
100.0
123.2
146.3
169.4
159.0
148.5
138.1
122.4
106.7

103.4
97.4
91.4
81.6
71.8
62.0
63.2
64.3
65.4
67.7
70.0
72.2
80.7
89.2
97.7
120.1
142.6
165.0
156.2
147.4
138.6
126.9
115.2

94.0
89.4
84.7
76.9
69.1
61.3
64.8
68.3
71.8
74.0
76.3
78.5
82.7
86.9
91.1
115.2
139.2
163.3
153.9
144.6
135.3
121.5
107.8

76.6
72.9
69.2
61.1
53.0
44.8
52.9
60.9
69.0
75.2
81.4
87.6
86.9
86.3
85.7
107.3
128.9
150.6
139.3
128.1
116.8
103.4
90.0

64.5
62.5
60.5
53.5
46.6
39.6
39.7
39.7
39.7
43.1
46.6
50.0
52.6
55.2
57.8
72.9
88.1
103.2
95.9
88.6
81.3
75.7
70.1

87.5
86.3
85.2
77.7
70.2
62.7
57.4
52.0
46.7
45.7
44.6
43.6
47.9
52.1
56.3
70.8
85.3
99.8
97.0
94.1
91.3
90.0
88.7

74.7
73.6
72.4
65.8
59.2
52.5
50.3
48.0
45.8
46.4
47.1
47.8
50.8
53.7
56.7
67.9
79.1
90.2
86.6
83.0
79.4
77.9
76.3

49.5
48.0
46.5
41.4
36.3
31.2
36.1
40.9
45.8
50.5
55.2
59.9
58.5
57.0
55.6
68.2
80.7
93.3
86.0
78.8
71.5
64.2
56.8

98.9
95.2
91.5
84.1
76.8
69.5
78.3
87.2
96.0
100.5
105.0
109.5
107.8
106.1
104.4
128.8
153.1
177.4
165.1
152.8
140.6
126.7
112.8

98.8
93.0
87.2
81.7
76.2
70.7
73.4
76.1
78.7
81.5
84.3
87.1
91.6
96.2
100.7
126.7
152.7
178.7
167.8
157.0
146.1
130.3
114.6

90.5
86.7
82.8
84.1
85.4
86.7
85.3
83.9
82.5
83.1
83.7
84.3
90.3
96.4
102.4
121.7
140.9
160.1
151.0
141.9
132.8
118.7
104.6

Calculating principles and parameters


During the electric power and energy balance and variable load capacity balance, the
hydropower stations shall be involved in balance before diesel engine unit; and the built
hydropower stations shall be involved in balance before the hydropower stations under
construction and proposed to be built; the hydropower stations with good regulation
performance shall be preferentially involved in balance, and the poor ones shall follow.
The reserve capacity and maintenance downtime shall be considered according to the
following principles:
(1)

Reserve capacity
Load reserve capacity: the load reserve capacity shall be calculated according to 3% of
the designed maximum annual load.
Accident reserve capacity: the accident reserve capacity shall be calculated according to
9% of the designed maximum annual load.
Spinning reserve capacity: the spinning reserve capacity shall be the sum of half system
load reserve capacity and accident reserve capacity.

(2)

Maintenance downtime
According to the specification provisions, the average annual maintenance downtime of
conventional hydropower unit shall be 30 days.

8.3.3

Electric output and load balance results


According to the aforementioned load prediction, power construction plan, calculation
principles and calculation method, the electric power and quantity balance of different Ethiopia
power grid installation schemes in 2015 and 2020 are calculated to analyze the impact of
power grid on the consumption capacity of wind power (without considering the PV power
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

generation part).
According to the electric power and quantity balance results of typical year, see Figure 8.3-1
and Figure 8.3-2 for the classified electric power and quantity balance figure for the typical day
of Ethiopia power grid in 2015 and 2020.

Figure 8.3-1

2015 Ethiopian Power Grid Daily Power Balance Diagram

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 8.3-2

2020 Ethiopia Power Grid Daily Power Balance Diagram

According to the results of electric power and energy balance, the wind power installed
capacity of Ethiopia power grid is 970MW in 2015, the maximum load of power grid is
2,663MW, because the hydropower installed capacity has a significant proportion of the power
grid and a good overall adjusting performance. It means that the recommended wind power
capacity could be absorbed.
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

The installed capacity of wind power is planned 2,720MW in 2020, the maximum load of power
grid reaches 7,806MW, because the hydropower installed capacity has a significant proportion
of the power grid and a good regulation performance. It means that the recommended wind
power capacity could be absorbed.

8.4

Further Instructions on Power Grid Connection Scheme and Electric Output


and Load Balance Calculation
This report conducts electric power and quantity balance calculation, but it shall be noted that
it's made for the whole grid, and the calculation preconditions are sound power grid devices,
flexible scheduling and reliable technology.
According to the materials provided by EPPCo, they show that Ethiopian electric power load,
power supply and power grid are in a stage of rapid development, but the power grid has
some shortcomings in the structure and transmission capacity, these shortcomings will affect
the wind power access in a certain extent.
In general, the utilization and development of wind power often encounter a few problems.
Firstly, the so-called voltage flickers. Most wind turbines apply soft grid connection, but it still
has a greater impulse current at startup, and when the wind speed exceeds the cut out wind
speed, the unit will automatically exit running from the rated output state. For both start and cut
out, if all the generating units of the whole wind farm almost run at the same time, such an
impact shall be likely to cause voltage flicker and voltage fluctuations.
Second is the stability of power grid. The weak short circuit capacity of power grid, fluctuations
of power grid voltage and frequent disconnection of wind turbine will significantly impact the
power grid. With the constant expansion of wind power development scale, the installed
capacity of wind farm can even reach the size of conventional generating units, so the wind
farm connection related problems such as voltage, reactive power control, active scheduling,
static stability and dynamic stability will increasingly obvious. Most wind farms apply the
induction generator, it needs the system to provide reactive power support, and otherwise,
they may cause voltage instability to small power grid. If the induction generator is adopted,
unless taking necessary precautions such as dynamic reactive power compensation, it will
increase the line losses, the voltage will reduce for end users with a long transmission distance.
This reduction of the power grid stability will lead to voltage collapse of the whole grid in case
of the three-phase ground fault.
Third is the generation calculating and scheduling. The power generation plan of the system is
based on the reliability of power supply and predictability of load, the development and
implementation of power generation program can be reliably guaranteed based on these two
factors. However, because the prediction level of wind farm capacity can not reach the project
practical degree and the formulation of power generation plan becomes difficult. If the wind
farm is regarded as a negative load, it will not be predictable; if it is regarded as the power
supply, its reliability is not guaranteed. Perhaps for that reason, after the connection of wind
power generators, if the operation method of the power system does not make corresponding
adjustments and optimizations, the dynamic response of the system will not be able to track
the amplitude of wind power, fluctuations of high frequency, power quality and dynamic
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

stability of system will be significantly affected, these factors will limit the wind power level of
system access in turn, therefore, it is necessary to make appropriate improvements and
adjustments to the traditional operation mode and control method of power system.
Therefore, in order to ensure the safe and stable operation of electric power system, this
report suggests to prepare for the relevant further works when developing the wind power
according to the planning: during the implementation process of the every project
development, the power flow calculation, stability calculation, short circuit current calculation
and scheduling operation plan of electric system shall be carefully conducted for each wind
project.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

9.

Construction Condition of Planning Areas Listed in 2015


Before this, preliminary arrangements have been made on the developing timing sequence of
projects in different target years. Some of these projects have favorable basic conditions in
wind energy or solar energy resources, construction conditions and accession to power
network, while some projects have considered active driving efforts to local economic
development which may be brought by the project itself. On the basis of arrangements on
developing sequences of various plant areas, this chapter will mainly introduce wind farm site
and PV power station site which have big development potential in advance and are listed in
the development plan of 2015 target year, in order to get better and more understanding of the
project.

9.1

Construction Analysis of Nazret Wind Farm Area


Nazret wind farm area as planned in this report is located in the west part of Adama, with east
side closely connecting with downtown area. It is only 10km from area center to downtown
Adama, 13km to Kola hydropower station, 75km to Addis Ababa as linear distance. Inside the
area, No.4 Highway goes from downtown Adama to Addis Ababa, and the outside
transportation conditions are convenient too.
The altitude of this wind farm is between 1700 and 2200m, not hilly in landform, mainly with
low mountains in ridging shape from south to north. The land types inside the area are mainly
farmland, wasteland and grassland with a few trees.
The total planning area is about 220km2,, with development capacity of about 300MW,
including the areas of Adama first-stage 51MW project under construction, Adama
second-stage 150MW project under feasibility study and another about 100MW area in the
rest northern part.
About detailed wind farm range, see Figure 9.1-1.

9.1.1

Condition analysis on wind power resources


Nazret wind farm planning plant area is rich in wind power resources. At present, within the
range of this plant area, several wind masts have been built. Actual measurement data in this
report is collected from two towers of 10_Nazret_II_40m and 16_Nazret_10m.About the
detailed statistical analyzing results see Table 9.1-1.

Table 9.1-1 Statistical Result of Wind Mast Data in Nazret Wind Farm
Wind mast

Wind speed (m/s)


10
40

10_Nazret_II_40m

6.64

16_Nazret_10m

7.73

8.60

Wind power density(W/m )


10
40
205
296

148

464

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Koka hydropower station

Figure 9.1-1 Schematic Diagram of the Range Of Nazret Wind Farm

Wind Energy Direction (40m)

Wind Direction (40m)

N
NNW 40.0

30.0

NW

NNW 80.0

NNE

20.0

WNW

60.0

NW

NE

0.0

WSW

SW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

0.0

WSW

ESE

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Figure 9.1-2

ENE

20.0

10.0
W

NE

40.0

WNW

ENE

NNE

Wind Rose Diagram at 40m Height of the Nazret Wind Mast

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Wind Energy Direction(10m)

Wind Direction(10m)

N
NNW 40.0

30.0

NW

NNW 60.0

NNE

20.0

WNW

NW

NE

30.0

ENE

20.0

10.0
W

NE

40.0

WNW

ENE

NNE

50.0

10.0
W

0.0

WSW

WSW

ESE

SW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

0.0

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Figure 9.1-3 Wind Rose Diagram at 10m Height of the Nazret Wind Mast

9.1.2

Equipment recommendation and preliminary estimation of dynamoelectric benefits


According to the conditions of the wind resources in this wind farm and current developing
situations of wind power technology, wind generation sets with single capacity of 1.5MW are
recommended, with the hubs height of 70m for temporary consideration.
On the basis of the data from onsite wind mast in this wind farm, the average wind speed is
8.6m/s at the height of 40m and the annual wind power density is 464W/m 2. Preliminary
calculation from the above situation: the average annual equivalent full load hour is about
3100h, with huge development potential and very good dynamoelectric benefits.

9.1.3

Analysis on the geological conditions of the project


Nazret wind farm planned in this report is located in the large area between Adama and Mojo,
with total area of 220km2 and the altitude between 1555m and 1667m. It is slightly hilly in
landform and the micro relief unit belongs to low-mountain hills on the plateau.
(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions, there are many
northeast- southwest faults in the east side of planning site. For the faults are small in
scale, it is a relatively complete and steady area.
From the regional geological data, the planned site is suitable for the construction of
large-scale wind farm project.

(2)

Stratum lithology and engineering properties


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions combining with
onsite exploration and geological research, stratum in Nazret wind farm belongs to
Alluvial and lacustrine deposites(Q) with fine sand, silt and cohesive soil as stratum
lithology and the geological age dates back to Quaternary undifferentiated.
The bearing capacity of the sedimentary sand, sit and cohesive soil of the Quaternary in
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the planning area is comparatively higher, which can be used as natural foundation
support for wind generator system and buildings inside the substation. The basic type of
wind generator sets can be finally confirmed according to the survey results in the
development phase combining with the designing load and structural features of the
wind generator system.

Figure 9.1-4 Photo of Landform in Nazret Wind Farm Area

(3)

Conditions of underground water


The planning area is located in the northern part of Awash River, with no rivers inside
the area, but a few gullies on the surface. And the underground water is buried deep.

(4)

Adverse geological conditions


It is slightly hilly in landform, with the micro relief unit of low-mountain hills on the plateau,
belonging to relatively steady area without negative geological effects.

9.1.4

Analysis of the construction organizational conditions


This project has good transportation conditions, with No.1 Highway going through the
southern area and in the southeast part of the Adama wind farm which is under construction.
The wind turbine generators can be transported to the wind farm by highway, with the line of
DjiboutiMileAwashAdamaNazret wind farm, which is regarded as the economic life
line of Ethiopia, through which most goods and materials for national demands are transported
from Djibouti to all parts of the country. Road subgrade/road width is: 3.5m2+1.5m2. The
whole line is bituminous concrete. The terrain isnt undulating greatly inside the plant area,
mainly north-south ridge-type low mountains. There is a 4-7m wide gravel road between north
and south. The construction conditions are pretty good.

9.2

Construction Analysis of Mekele South Wind Farm Area


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Mekele South wind farm area planned in this report is located about 4 km to the southeast
part of Mekele, an important city in northern Ethiopia. The wind farm is located on both sides
of No.1 national highway in the south of Mekele airport, the distance from whose center to
downtown Mekele is only 12km and the linear distance to Tekeze hydropower station is about
86km. The No.1 national highway goes through the wind farm and the transportation
conditions outside are very convenient as well.
The altitude of this planning area is between 2210m and 2400m, with comparatively large
undulating in part of the landform, and the micro relief unit belongs to medium and low
mountains on the plateau, the land types within the plant area are mainly farmland, wasteland
and grass land, together with a few trees. The total acreage of the planning area is about
54km2, and the total development capacity is about 100MW. The site covers scope of
Ashegoda wind farm under construction at present. About the schematic diagram of detailed
plant area range, see Figure 9.2-1.

Figure 9.2-1 Schematic Diagram of the Planning Range of Mekele South Wind Farm

9.2.1

Analysis on wind power resource conditions


At present, relative wind power measuring has been done within Mekele south planning area.
This report has collected the data from Ashegoda wind mast. By analyzing the data of wind
speed at the height of 10m and 40m of the wind masts onsite, it is found that the planning area
is rich in wind resources, with steady wind direction and large potential. About the detailed
statistical analyzing results, see Table 9.2-1 and Figure 9.2-2.
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Table 9.2-1 Statistical Result of Wind Mast Data in Mekele South Wind Farm
Wind mast

Wind speed (m/s)

Ashegoda

Wind power density (W/m )

10

40

10

40

6.8

7.9

198

298

Wind
direction

Wind
energy

N
NNW 80.0

60.0

NW

NNW 50.0

NNE
NE

NW

ENE

WNW

10.0
E

0.0

WSW

ESE

SW

ESE

SW

SSE

SE
SSW

9.2.2

0.0

WSW

SE
SSW

Figure 9.2-2

ENE

20.0

20.0
W

NE

30.0

40.0

WNW

NNE

40.0

SSE
S

Wind Rose at 40m Height of the Wind Mast in Mekele South Wind Farm

Equipment recommendation and preliminary estimation of dynamoelectric benefits


According to the conditions of the wind resources in this wind farm and current developing
situations of wind power technology, wind generation sets with single capacity of 1.5MW are
recommended, with the hubs height of 70m for temporary consideration.
On the basis of the data from onsite wind mast in this wind farm, the average wind speed is
7.9m/s at the height of 40m and the annual wind power density is 298W/m2. Preliminary
calculation from the above situation: the average annual equivalent full load hour is about
2300h, with huge development potential and relatively good dynamoelectric benefits.

9.2.3

Analysis on the geological conditions of the project


(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions, there lay two
faults from northwest to southeast, 10 km south and north of the site center, with the
development length of about 60km. It is suggested to collect detailed regional geological
materials in the next phase to analyze the structural stability of the chosen site.

(2)

Stratum lithology and engineering properties


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions and combining
with onsite exploration and geological research, it is found that the stratum of Mekele
south wind farm is mainly Agula Formation(Jag) kimmeridgian shale, marl and
limestoneand the geological age is at late Jurassic period. The Agula Formation rock
within the planning area has comparatively higher bearing capacity, which can be used
as natural foundation support layer for wind turbines and buildings inside the substation.
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However, final basic type of wind turbine sets will be confirmed according to exploration
results.
(3)

Underground water conditions


Rivers cant be seen within the site and the underground water is buried very deep.

(4)

Adverse geological conditions


The topographic undulation within the plant area is slightly greater and the micro relief
unit belongs to medium-low mountains on the plateau; It is suggested to make karsts
research on the limestone distribution region in the following stage, to see if there
develop karsts within the area. If yes, check the scale and depth to offer detailed
information for basic designing.

9.2.4

Analysis on construction organizational conditions


The transportation conditions in this project are common, with No.3 highway going through the
plant area. The wind turbine equipment can be delivered to the wind farm through highway,
with the delivering line of DjiboutiMileWeldiyaMekeleMek'ele south area. Part of the
line from Mile to Weldiya is winding road, which is narrow with many turnings and steep slopes,
bad in road conditions as well as horizontal and vertical curves. Most road subgrade/road
width is 3.5m2+1.5m2. Most part of the road is bituminous concrete while some part of it is
macadam, even in terrain with good terrain and construction conditions.

9.3

Construction Analysis of Sheno Wind Farm Area


The planned site for Sheno wind farm is near Sheno, to the northeast of Addis Ababa.
Neighboring 1# asphalt highway, the site is very accessible for outside transport. Located on
the margin of the terrace in the west of East African Great Rift Valley, the site is flat and
2820m~2910m in ASL. Most part of the site is grassland and farmland, with a few dwellings.
Total planned area and development capacity of the site are about 55.7km 2 and 100MW,
respectively. For detailed scope of the site, see Figure 9.3-1; for physiognomy of the site, see
Figure 9.3-2.

9.3.1

Analysis on wind resources conditions


Onsite wind measuring activities havent been carried out within the planning area of Sheno
wind farm, to make assessment on the wind energy resources. This report makes a brief
analysis on the wind resources with the help of simulated results from the computer data. After
the statistical analysis on the stimulated wind energy grid points values distributed in the plant
area in the Sheno wind farm, statistical values of various wind energy elements can be got.
About the details, see Table 9.3-1 and Figure 9.3-3 and Figure 9.3-4.

Table 9.3-1 Statistical Result of Wind Energy Data in the Phase I Area of Sheno Wind Farm
Height (m)
50
70

Average wind speed (m/s)


8.11
8.61

154

Average wind power density (W/m )


290
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Figure 9.3-1 Schematic Diagram of the Range of Planning Area in Sheno Wind Farm

Figure 9.3-2 Physiognomy of Sheno Wind Farm Site

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Wind Energy Direction (50m)

Wind Direction (50m)

N
NNW 40.0

30.0

NW

NNW 50.0

NNE

WNW

ENE

ENE

20.0

10.0
W

NE

30.0

20.0

WNW

NW

NE

NNE

40.0

10.0
W

0.0

WSW

WSW

ESE

SW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

0.0

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Figure 9.3-3 Wind Rose Diagram at 50m Height in Sheno Wind Farm

Wind energy
70m

Wind direction
70m
N

NNW 25
20
NW
15
WNW
10
5
W
0

NNW 20

NNE
NE

15

NW
ENE

NNE
NE

10

WNW

ENE

WSW
SW

ESE

WSW

SE
SSW

ESE
SW

SSE

SE
SSW

SSE
S

Figure 9.3-4 Wind Rose Diagram at 70m Height in Sheno Wind Farm

According to numerical analysis result, there's rich wind energy resource, and SSE plays the
major role in direction distribution, which is concentrated. Therefore, the site has potential of
large-scale development.
9.3.2

Equipment recommendation and preliminary estimation of dynamoelectric benefits


According to the conditions of the wind resources in this wind farm and current developing
situations of wind power technology, wind generation sets with single capacity of 1.5MW are
recommended, with the hubs height of 70m for temporary consideration.
Since there is no onsite data of wind masts in this wind farm, according to the stimulation
results of assessment of atmospheric values, the onsite annual average wind speed at the hub
height is about 8.61m/s, the annual average wind power density is about 349W/m2. Make
preliminary estimating combining with the above situations: The average annual equivalent full
load hour is about 2,500h, with great development potential of wind resources and relatively
good dynamoelectric benefits.

9.3.3

Analysis on geological conditions of the project


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(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1:2000000 Geologic Map and its instructions, there are three
small faults in north/east-south/west direction near the site, developing to about 10km
long. It is suggested that on the next stage, detailed geological information should be
collected to analyze structural stability of the proposed site.

(2)

Stratum lithology and engineering properties


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions and combining
with onsite exploration and geological research, the strarum in planning area of Sheno
wind farm is mainly transitional and alkaline basalt(Ntb), and the geological age dates
back to Middle-Miocene. The bearing capacity of transitional and alkaline basalt inside
the planning area is rather higher, which can be used as natural foundation support layer
for wind turbines and buildings inside the substation. However, final foundation type of
wind turbines will be confirmed according to the exploration results, combining with
design loadings and structural features of the wind turbine equipment.

(3)

Underground water conditions


No rivers are found within the range of the site, and the underground water is buried very
deep.

(4)

Adverse geological conditions.


The terrain of the site area is flat, slightly undulating in landform, which is terrace relief
on the plateau, a relatively steady regional block without negative geological effects.

9.3.4

Condition analysis of engineering organization


Depending on 1# highway that passes closely, the site has good accessibility. Wind turbines
can be delivered to the wind farm by highway, as the route Djibouti-Mile-Awash-Addis
Ababa-Sheno-the site. In the route, the section Djibouti-Addis Ababa is the economic lifeline.
Most materials necessary for the country is distributed from Djibouti to regions, by the section.
Its subgrade and pavement are 3.5m2+1.5m2 wide, and all its surface is made of
bituminous concrete, which brings good transport conditions. Less relief and flatness of the
site are good for construction.

9.4

Construction Analysis of Chacha Wind Farm Area


Chacha wind farm area is about 105km to the northeast of Addis Ababa, at between Chacha
and Debre birhan. Located on the raised plateau in the west of East African Great Rift Valley,
site of the wind farm is gentle, and about 2900m in ASL. The land types in the plant area are
mainly grass land, forest land and farm land, besides there are a few dwellings distributed
inside. The total area of the planning area is about 56km2 with the development capacity of
about 100MW.
About the detailed area range, see Figure 9.4-1, and about the landform inside the area, see
Figure 9.4-2.

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Figure 9.4-1 Schematic Diagraph of the Range of Chacha Wind Farm

Figure 9.4-2

9.4.1

Landform Photo of Chacha Wind Farm

Condition analysis of wind resources


Onsite wind energy measuring activities havent been carried out within the planning area of
Chacha wind farm. This report makes a brief analysis on the wind resources with the help of
simulated results from the computer data. About the various wind energy elements inside the

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plant area after statistic of stimulation grid points materials of wind energy values, see Table
9.4-1 and Figure 9.4-3 as well as Figure 9.4-4.

Table 9.4-1 Statistical Result of Wind Energy Data of Phase I Wind Farm in Chacha
Height (m)
50
70

Average wind speed (m/s)


8.11
8.60

Average wind power density (W/m )


290
349

Wind Energy Direction (50m)

Wind Direction (50m)

N
NNW 40.0

30.0

NW

NNW 50.0

NNE

WNW

ENE

10.0
W

0.0

WSW

SW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Wind Rose Diagram at 50m Height in Chacha Wind Farm

Wind Energy Direction (70m)

Wind Direction (70m)

N
NNW 40.0

NNW 50.0

NNE

30.0

NW

WNW

ENE

ENE

20.0
10.0

0.0

WSW

SW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

0.0

WSW

ESE

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Figure 9.4-4

NE

30.0

10.0
W

NNE

40.0

NW

NE

20.0

WNW

0.0

WSW

ESE

Figure 9.4-3

ENE

20.0

10.0
W

NE

30.0

20.0

WNW

NW

NE

NNE

40.0

Wind Rose Diagram at 70m Height in Chacha Wind Farm

From the results of numerical analysis in this plant area, Chacha wind farm is rich in wind
energy resources, and the wind direction is mainly SSE, concentrated with large-scale
development potential.
9.4.2

Equipment recommendation and preliminary estimation of dynamoelectric benefits


According to the conditions of the wind resources in this wind farm and current developing
situations of wind power technology, wind generation sets with single capacity of 1.5MW are
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recommended, with the hubs height of 70m for temporary consideration.


Since there is no onsite data of wind masts in this wind farm, according to the stimulation
results of assessment of atmospheric values, the onsite annual average wind speed at the hub
height is about 8.61m/s, the annual average wind power density is about 349W/m2. . Make
preliminary estimating combining with the above situations: The average annual equivalent full
load hour is about 2500h, with great development potential of wind resources and very good
dynamoelectric benefits.
9.4.3

Engineering geological condition analysis


(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1: 2000000 geological map and its instructions, within Chacha
wind farm, there develops two northeast southwest faults, with the development length
of 20km - 40km. It is suggested to collect detailed regional geological materials in the
following stage, to analyze the structure stability of the plant site planned to be chosen.

(2)

Stratum lithology and engineering properties


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions and combining
with onsite exploration and geological research, the stratum of Chacha wind farm is
Tarmaber Megezez Formation (Ntb); the stratum lithology is Transitional and alkaline
basalt and the geological age dates back to middle-Miocene. The partial stratum
lithology inside the planning area is Transitional and subalkaline basalts with minor
rhyolite and trachyte eruptives, Tarmaber Gussa Formation (PNtb) and the geological
age dates back to Oligocene-Miocene. Tarmaber Megezez Formation and Tarmaber
Gussa Formation have higher capacity, which can be used as natural foundation support
layer for wind turbines and buildings inside the substation. However, the foundation type
of final wind turbines shall be confirmed according to the exploration results in the
following stage and combining with the design loading and structural features of the wind
turbines.

(3)

Underground water conditions


Rivers were not found within the range of plant area and the underground water is
buried very deep.

(4)

Adverse geological conditions


The terrain of the planning area is slightly undulating and the micro relief unit belongs to
low-mountain hills on the plateau. It is suggested to collect detailed regional geological
materials in the following stage to analyze the structure stability of the site planned to be
chosen.

9.4.4

Engineering organization condition analysis


Depending on 1# highway that passes, the site has good accessibility. Wind turbines can be
delivered directly to the wind farm by highway, as the route Djibouti-Mile-Adama-Addis Adada
-Chacha wind farm. Its subgrade and pavement are 3.5m2+1.5m2 wide, and all its
surface is made of bituminous concrete, which brings good transport conditions. Less relief
and flatness of the site are good for construction.
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9.5

Construction Analysis of Iteya Phase I Wind Farm Area


Phase I plant area of Iteya wind farm in this report is located near Iteya, south of Nazret city.
The planning area is on the eastern terrace of Great Rift Valley. The northwest part of the
planning area is 22km away from Koka Lake, only 4km away from Iteya. The terrain of this
plant area belongs to the terrace landform of Great Rift Valley, at the altitude of 2100m~2810m.
The terrain within the whole planning area is open and flat, which is perfectly suitable for
construction wind farm. The land types inside the plant area are mainly farmland and
woodland. The total planning area is about 66.2km2 and the total planning development
capacity is 100MW.
About the detailed range of the plant site, see Figure 9.5-1, and about the landform of the plant
area, see Figure 9.5-2.

Figure 9.5-1

Schematic Diagraph of Iteya Phase I Wind Farm

Figure 9.5-2 Schematic Diagraph of the Landform of Iteya Phase I Wind Farm
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

9.5.1

Wind energy resources condition analysis


Since there are no wind masts in the planning area of Iteya phase I wind farm, this report
make a brief analysis on the wind resources in this wind farm with the help of stimulating
analyzing results of computer data. After the statistical analysis on the stimulating grid point
values in the planning area of Iteya phase I wind farm, statistical values of various wind energy
elements can be got. About the details, see Table 9.5-1 and Figure 9.5-3 as well as Figure
9.5-4.

Table 9.5-1 Statistical Result of Wind Energy Data in Phase I of Iteya Wind Farm
Height (m)
50
70

Average wind speed (m/s)


6.5
6.6

Average wind power density (W/m )


222
224

Wind Energy Direction50m

Wind Direction50m
N
NN 20

N
NNE

15

NW

NE

ENE

NE

ENE

10

NNE

15

10

NW

NN 25
20

5
E

WS

ESE

SW

W
WS

SE
SSW

ESE

SW

SSE

SE
SSW

SSE

Figure 9.5-3 Wind Rose Diagram at 50m Height of Iteya Wind Farm Phase I

Wind Direction70m

Wind Energy Direction70m

N
NN 20

15

NW

NN 30

NNE
NE

10

NW

ENE
E

WS

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

NE

20

ENE

10

NNE

WS

ESE

SW

SSE

SE
SSW

SSE
S

Figure 9.5-4 Wind Rose Diagram at 70m Height of Iteya Wind Farm Phase I

Accroding to the data analyzing results of Iteya phase I wind farm, the wind energy resource in
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this wind farm is very rich, and the main wind direction concentrated on SE. This plant area
has certain development value.
9.5.2

Equipment recommendation and preliminary estimation of dynamoelectric benefits


According to the conditions of the wind resources in this wind farm and current developing
situations of wind power technology, wind generation sets with single capacity of 1.5MW are
recommended, with the hubs height of 70m for temporary consideration.
Since there is no onsite data of wind masts in this wind farm, according to the stimulation
results of assessment of atmospheric values, the onsite annual average wind speed at the hub
height is about 6.6m/s, the annual average wind power density is about 224W/m2. . Make
preliminary estimating combining with the above situations: The average annual equivalent full
load hour is about 2300h, with great development potential of wind resources and very good
dynamoelectric benefits.

9.5.3

Engineering geological condition analysis


(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions, there are no
active faults near Iteya plant area, so the geological structure is steady. There are no
geological disasters caused by internal and external forces, which makes it a relatively
complete and steady block area. Drawn from the regional geological materials, the site
planned to be chosen is suitable for the construction of large-scale wind farm.

(2)

Stratum lithology and engineering properties


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions and combining
with onsite exploration and geological research, The stratum lithology of the phase I
Iteya wind farm is Alkaline olivine basalt (Qbb) and the geological age dates back to
Quaternary undifferentiated. Alkaline olivine basalt inside the planning area has higher
bearing capacity, which can be used as natural foundation support layer for wind
turbines and buildings inside the substation. However the foundation type of wind
turbine shall be confirmed according to the exploration results in the following stage, and
combining with the design loading and structure features of the wind turbine.

(3)

Underground water conditions


Rivers were not found within the range of plant area and the underground water is
buried very deep.

(4)

Adverse geological conditions


The terrain of the plant site is flat, which belongs to the terrace landform on the plateau.
It is a relatively steady block area without any bad geological effects.

9.5.4

Engineering organization conditions analysis


The transportation conditions of this project are good, with No.12 highway passing through the
east side of the plant area, close to the plant area. The wind turbine equipment can be
delivered to the wind farm through highway with the line of DjiboutiMileAwashAdama
IteyaIteya phase I wind farm. Road subgrade/ road width is: 3.5m2+1.5m2. The whole
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line is bituminous concrete. The terrain inside the plant area is slightly undulating, mainly low
mountains of ridging shape from south to north. There is a 4-7m wide gravel road passing
through south and north, so the construction conditions are pretty good.

9.6

Construction Analysis of Sulalta Wind Farm Area


Sulalta wind farm in this report is located about 20km north of Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia,
and on the ridges about 8km east of Sulalta. It is a mountain land wind site with the altitude
from about 2,700m to 3,110m. The terrain is greatly undulating and the micro relief belongs to
mountain land on the plateau. The land types are grassland and waste land, with a few forest
land and farm land. The total acreage of the planning area is about 60km 2 and the total
development capacity is about 100MW.
About the detailed plant area range, see Figure 9.6-1

Figure 9.6-1 Schematic Diagram of Sulalta Wind Farm Range

9.6.1

Condition analysis of wind energy resources


Because there are no wind masts in the planning area of Sulalta wind farm, this report make a
brief analysis on the wind resources in this wind farm with the help of stimulating analyzing
results of computer data. After the statistical analysis on the stimulating grid point values in the
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planning area of Sulalta, statistical values of various wind energy elements can be got. About
the details, see Table 9.6-1 and Figure 9.6-2 as well as Figure 9.6-3.

Table 9.6-1 Statistical Result of Wind Energy Data in Sulalta Wind Farm
Height (m)
50
70

Average wind speed (m/s)


7.7
8.1

Average wind power density (W/m )


314
364

Wind Direction50m

Wind Energy Direction50m

N
NW

NN 25
20

N
NNE
NE

NW

NN 25
20

15

NE

15

ENE

10

ENE

10

5
W

NNE

5
E

WS

ESE

SW

W
WS

SE
SSW

ESE

SW

SSE

SE
SSW

SSE

Figure 9.6-2 Wind Rose Diagram at 50m Height in Sulalta Wind Farm

Wind Direction70m

Wind Energy Direction70m

N
NW

NN 25
20

N
NNE
NE

NW

NN 25
20

15

NE

15

ENE

10

ENE

10

5
W

NNE

5
E

WS

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

WS

ESE

SW

SSE

SE
SSW

SSE
S

Figure 9.6-3 Wind Rose Diagram at 70m Height in Sulalta Wind Farm

According to the data analysis results of this wind farm, Sulalta wind farm is rich in wind
energy resources. The wind directions of SSE, S, N have a higer distribution ratio. This wind
farm has great exploitation value.
9.6.2

Equipment recommendation and preliminary estimation of dynamoelectric benefits


According to the conditions of the wind resources in this wind farm and current developing
situations of wind power technology, wind generation sets with single capacity of 1.5MW are
recommended, with the hubs height of 70m for temporary consideration.
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Since there is no onsite data of wind masts in this wind farm, according to the stimulation
results of assessment of atmospheric values, the onsite annual average wind speed at the hub
height is about 8.1m/s, the annual average wind power density is about 364W/m2. Make
preliminary estimating combining with the above situations: The average annual equivalent
using hour of wind farm is about 2500h, with great development potential of wind resources
and very good dynamoelectric benefits.
9.6.3

Engineering geological condition analysis


(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions, several
northeast-southwest faults have developed in the southeast part of Sulalata site. The
scale of the faults are small, which makes it a relatively complete and steady area
block. From the regional geological materials, the site planned to be chosen is suitable
for the construction of wind farm.

(2)

Stratum lithology and engineering properties.


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions and combining
with onsite exploration and geological research, the terrain in this are is maily Alage
Formation (PNa). The stratum lithology is transitional and subalkaline basalts with minor
rhyolite and trachyte eruptives and the geological age dates back to Oligocene-Miocene.
The bearing capacity of Alage Formation basalts and Tarmaber Megezez Formation
basalt within the planning area are higher, which can be used as natural foundation
support layer for wind turbine equipment and buildings inside the substation. However,
the basic type will be confirmed according to the exploration results, combining with the
design lading and structural features of wind turbine equipment and solar PV board.

(3)

Underground water conditions


Rivers were not found within the range of plant area and the underground water is
buried very deep.

(4)

Adverse geological conditions


The planning wind and PV hybrid electric field is flat in topography, slightly undulating in
lansform and the micro relief unit belongs to middle mountain. The geological conditions
are good, which belongs to relatively steady area block without bad geological effects.

9.6.4

Engineering organization condition analysis


Sulalta plant area is located on the terrace 20km north of capital Addis. The wind turbine
equipment can be delivered to the wind farm by highway and the delivering line is
DjiboutiMileAwashAddis AbabaSulalta wind farm, among which the period from
Addis Ababa to Sulalta plant area is a winding road, with steep slope and small turning radius.
The horizontal and vertical line of the rest road is better and the road conditions are good.
Road subgrade/ road width: 3.5m 2 + 1.5m 2. The whole line is bituminous concrete,
slightly undulating in landform. A gravel road with the width of 4-7m leads to the plant area and
the construction conditions are pretty good.

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9.7

Construction Analysis of Gondar West Wind Farm Area


Gondar West wind farm planned in this report is located in the west of Gondar, an important
city on the northwest of Ethiopia. The planning area is on the south-north ridges in the west of
Gondar, belonging to mountain wind field. The distance from the center of wind site to Gondar
city is 7km, and the altitude is about 2140m-2670m. The coherence between ridges is very
good, which is beneficial for the development and construction of wind farm. The land types
inside the area are mainly farm land and waste land as well as a few trees. The total acreage
of the planning area is 49km2 and the total development capacity is 50MW.
About the detailed plant area range, see Figure 9.7-1.

Figure 9.7-1 Schematic Diagraph of the Range of Gondar West Wind Farm

9.7.1

Analysis on wind energy conditions


Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EPPCo) has set up a 40m high anemometer mast in
Gondar West wind farm. Wind speed observations have been accumulated for a few years
from February 2006. Upon analysis on information from the mast, there's rich wind resource in
site of the wind farm, with development potential. The mast functions at heights of 10m and
40m. Statistics of each wind energy factor can be concluded by processing data of wind speed.
For detail, see Table 9.7-1, Figure 9.7-2 and Figure 9.7-3.

Table 9.7-1 Statistical Result of Wind Energy Data in Gondar West Wind Farm
2

Height (m)

Average wind speed (m/s)

Average wind power density (W/m )

10

5.51

172

40

6.33

259

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Wind Energy Direction (10m)

Wind Direction (10m)

N
NNW 20.0

15.0

NW

NNW 60.0

NNE

10.0

WNW

NW

NE

30.0
10.0

0.0

WSW

SW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Wind Rose Diagram at 50m Height in Gondar West Wind Farm

Wind Energy Direction (40m)

Wind Direction (40m)

N
NNW 20.0

NNW 50.0

NNE

15.0

NW

NE

30.0
WNW

ENE

ENE

20.0

5.0
W

NNE

40.0

NW

NE

10.0

WNW

10.0
W

0.0

WSW

SW

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

0.0

WSW

ESE

SE
SSW

SSE

SSE
S

Figure 9.7-3

0.0

WSW

ESE

Figure 9.7-2

ENE

20.0

5.0
W

NE

40.0

WNW

ENE

NNE

50.0

Wind Rose Diagram at 50m Height in Gondar West Wind Farm

According to the data analyzing results of Gondar West plant area, this wind farm is rich in
wind energy resources, the direction of which is mainly NNW. The distribution is concentrated.
This plant area has a higher development value.
9.7.2

Equipment recommendation and preliminary estimation of dynamoelectric benefits


According to the conditions of the wind resources in this wind farm and current developing
situations of wind power technology, wind generation sets with single capacity of 1.5MW are
recommended, with the hubs height of 70m for temporary consideration.
According to data from the tower, wind speed at the height of 70m (turbine hub height) is
concluded by variation rule of wind shear. On the site of wind farm, annual mean wind speed
and annual mean power density at turbine hub height are 6.85m/s and 328W/m2, respectively.
Preliminarily estimated according to the conditions above, annual mean equivalent full load
hour of wind farm is about 2200h in the wind farm, indicating high development potential and
good benefits of power generation.

9.7.3

Engineering geological condition analysis

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions, a small
south-north fault has been developed inside Gondar West site, with the development
length of 14km. It is suggested to collect detailed regional geological materials in the
following stage to make analysis on the structure stability of the site planned to be
chosen.

(2)

Stratum lithology and engineering properties


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions combining with
onsite exploration and geological research, the stratum lithology of Gondar West wind
farm is mainly Tarmaber Gussa Formation basalt (PNtb), covered by quaternary silt, grit
and silty clay. The quaternary stratum in this area is thin, about 1.02.0m. Tarmaber
Gussa Formation basalt distributed inside the plant area dates back to the geological
age of Oligocene to Miocene, Basalts of the Tarmaber Formation in contrast to the
tholeiitic and mildly alkaline nature of the earlier flood basalts typically have an alkaline
affinity. On the northwestern plateau, the Tarmaber shield volcanoes become
progressively younger from north to south. Tarmaber Gussa Formation basalt has higher
bearing capacity, which can be used as natural foundation support layer for wind
turbines and buildings inside substation. The basic type of wind turbine shall be finally
confirmed according to the exploration results in the following stage, combining with the
design loading and structural features of wind turbines.

(3)

Underground water conditions


Rivers were not found within the range of plant area and the underground water is
buried very deep.

(4)

Adverse geological conditions


The terrain of the site is flat, slightly undulating in landform. The micro relief unit belongs
to terrace on the plateau, which is a relatively steady area block, without bad geological
effects.

9.7.4

Engineering organization condition analysis


The transportation conditions of this project are common, with No.4 highway passing through
the south part of plant area. The wind turbine equipment can be delivered to the wind farm by
highway, with the delivering line of DjiboutiMileChifraWeldiya WeretaGondar West
wind farm. Part of this road is winding road, with many turnings of small radius. Road
subgrade/ road width: 3.5m2+1.5m2. Most part of the line is bituminous concrete while part
of the MileChifraWeldiya period is sand-gravel. A 3 to5m wide earth road of Addis Ababa
Gondar highway leads to the plant area, the terrain inside which is mountain land. The
construction conditions are very common.

9.8

Construction Analysis of Imdibir Wind Farm Area


The Imdibir wind farm planned in this report is located 30km east of Welkite, a city in the
middle south of Ethiopia, 15km northeast of Imdibir. The terrain of Imdibir wind farm is plateau
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terrace in Great Rift Valley. The whole planning area is undulating in land form and all the
mountains are distributed in a T type, at the altitude between 2200m and 2800m. The micro
relief unit is low-mountain. The land types inside the planning area mainly include farm land,
waste land and forest land, with the total planning acreage of about 45km 2 and the total
development capacity of 50MW. About the detailed range of the plant area, see Figure 9.8-1.

Figure 9.8-1 Schematic Diagraph of Imdibir Wind Farm Range

9.8.1

Wind energy resources condition analysis


Because there are no wind masts in the planning area of Imdibir wind farm, this report makes
a brief analysis on the wind resources in this wind farm with the help of stimulating analyzing
results of computer data. After the statistical analysis on the stimulating grid point values in the
planning area of Imdibir, statistical values of various wind energy elements can be got. About
the details, see i9.8-1 and Figure 9.8-2 as well as Figure 9.8-3.

Table 9.8-1 Statistical Result of Wind Data in Imdibir Wind Farm


Height (m)
50
70

Average wind speed (m/s)


6.7
6.9

170

Average wind power density (W/m )


351.2
362.8

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Wind Direction50m

Wind Energy Direction50m

N
NN 30
NW

N
NE

20

NN 60

NNE

ENE

10

NW

WS
SW

ENE

20

WS

SE
SSW

NE

40

ESE

NNE

ESE

SW

SSE

SE
SSW

SSE

Figure 9.8-2 Wind Rose Diagram at 50m Height of Imdibir Wind Farm

Wind Direction70m

Wind Energy Direction70m

N
NN 30
NW

N
NE

20

NN 60

NNE

ENE

10

NW

WS

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

NNE
NE

40

ENE

20

WS

ESE

SW

SSE

SE
SSW

SSE
S

Figure 9.8-3 Wind Rose Diagram at 70m Height of Imdibir Wind Farm

According to the data analyzing results of Imdibir wind farm, the wind energy resouces are rich
in this wind farm. The wind directions mainy concentrates in the direction of SSE and the
distribution is concentrated too. Wind energy in this plant area has higher development value.
9.8.2

Equipment recommendation and preliminary estimation of dynamoelectric benefits


According to the conditions of the wind resources in this wind farm and current developing
situations of wind power technology, wind generation sets with single capacity of 1.5MW are
recommended, with the hubs height of 70m for temporary consideration.
Since there is no onsite data of wind masts in this wind farm, according to the stimulation
results of assessment of atmospheric values, the onsite annual average wind speed at the hub
height is about 6.9m/s, the annual average wind power density is about 362W/m2. Make
preliminary estimating combining with the above situations: The average annual equivalent full
load hour is about 2500h, with great development potential of wind resources and very good
dynamoelectric benefits.

9.8.3

Engineering geological condition analysis


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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions, there are no
active faults passing through near the site of IMdibir wind farm, so the geological
structure is steady. There are no geological disasters caused by internal and external
forces, so it is a relatively complete and steady block area. From the regional geological
data, the site planned to be chosen is suitable for the construction of large-scale wind
farm.

(2)

Stratum lithology and engineering properties


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions and combining
with the geological research, the stratum lithology of Imdibir wind farm is Chilalo
Formation (Nc), covered by quaternary silt, grit and silty clay. The quaternary stratum in
this area is rather thin, about 1.0-2.0m. Chilalo Formation distributed inside the plant
area dates back to the geological age of PliocenePleistoceneThe lower unit (Nc)
comprises intercalation of peralkaline ignimbrites and trachytes which show clear flow
structures.The dominant rock type is a strongly porphyritic dark grey trachyte with
sanidine phenocrysts. Chilalo Formation has a higher bearing capacity, which can be
used as natural foundation support layer for wind turbines and buildings inside the
substation. However, the basic type of wind turbine shall be confirmed finally according
to the exploration results in the following stage, combining with the design loading and
structural features of wind turbines.

(3)

Underground water conditions


Rivers were not found within the range of plant area and the underground water is
buried very deep.

(4)

Adverse geological conditions


The altitude difference in this plant site is bigger but some part of it are flat, which
belongs to low-mountain land form on the plateau. It is a relatively steady block area,
without bad geological effects.

9.8.4

Engineering organization condition analysis


The transportation conditions in this project are good, with No.8 highway passing through the
southeast side of the plant area, close to it as well. The wind turbine equipment can be
delivered to the wind farm through highway, with the line of DjiboutiMileAwash
AddisTuLu BoLoWelkiteImdibir wind farm. Road subgrade/road width is
3.5m2+1.5m2. The whole line is bituminous concrete. The terrain is slightly undulating
inside the wind farm, with a 4-7m wide gravel road leading to the plant area. The construction
conditions are good.

9.9

Construction Analysis of Dire Dawa Wind Farm Area


Dire Dawa wind farm in this report is located on the southern hillside of Dire Dawa, an
important eastern city in Ethiopia, close to downtown Dire Dawa. The terrain of this planning
area is low-mountain hill, greatly undulating inside, with an altitude between 1,200m and
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

1,800m. The land types are mainly wasteland and grassland. The total acreage of the
planning area is 43km2, and the total development capacity is 50MW. About the details of the
plant area range see Figure 9.9-1

Figure 9.9-1 Schematic Diagraph of Dire Dawa Wind Farm Range

9.9.1

Wind energy resource condition analysis


Because there are no wind masts in the planning area of Dire Dawa wind farm, this report
make a brief analysis on the wind resources in this wind farm with the help of stimulating
analyzing results of computer data. After the statistical analysis on the stimulating grid point
values in the planning area of Dire Dawa, statistical values of various wind energy elements
can be got. About the details, see Table 9.9-1 and Figure 9.9-2 as well as Figure 9.9-3.

Table 9.9-1 Statistical Result of Wind Energy Data in Dire Dawa Wind Farm
2

Height (m)

Average wind speed (m/s)

Average wind power density (W/m )

50
70

7.9
7.9

455
470

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Wind Energy Direction (50m)

Wind Direction (50m)


N
NW

NN 25
20

N
NNE
NE

NW

NN 50
40

15

NE

30

ENE

10

ENE

20

5
W

NNE

10
E

WS

ESE

SW

W
WS

SE
SSW

ESE

SW

SSE

SE
SSW

SSE

Figure 9.9-2 Wind Rose Diagram at 50m Height of Dire Dawa Wind Farm

Wind Direction (70m)

Wind Energy Direction (70m)

N
NW

NN 25
20

N
NNE
NE

NW

NN 50
40

15

NE

30

ENE

10

ENE

20

5
W

NNE

10
E

WS

ESE

SW

SE
SSW

WS

ESE

SW

SSE

SE
SSW

SSE
S

Figure 9.9-3 Wind Rose Diagram at 70m Height of Dire Dawa Wind Farm

According to the data analyzing results of Dire Dawa wind farm, the wind energy resouces are
rich in this wind farm. The wind directions mainy concentrate in the direction of ESE and the
distribution is concentrated too. Wind energy in this plant area has higher development value.
9.9.2

Equipment recommendation and preliminary estimation of dynamoelectric benefits


According to the conditions of the wind resources in this wind farm and current developing
situations of wind power technology, wind generation sets with single capacity of 1.5MW are
recommended, with the hubs height of 70m for temporary consideration.
Since there is no onsite data of wind masts in this wind farm, according to the stimulation
results of assessment of atmospheric values, the onsite annual average wind speed at the hub
height is about 7.9m/s, the annual average wind power density is about 470W/m2. Make
preliminary estimating combining with the above situations: The average annual equivalent full
load hour is about 3000h, with great development potential of wind resources and very good
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

dynamoelectric benefits.
9.9.3

Engineering geological condition analysis


(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions, there have
developed many faults from east to west in the neighborhood of Dire Dawa wind farm. It
is suggested to collect detailed regional geological materials to make analysis on the
structural stability of the plant site planned to be chosen.

(2)

Stratum lithology and engineering properties


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 geological map and its instructions and combining
with onsite exploration and geological research, the stratum of Dire Dawa wind farm is
mainly Amba Aradom Formation(Ka). And the stratum lithology is mainly sand stone,
dating back to the geological age of Cretaceous. Some stratum in certain areas is
Hamanlei Formation (Jh) Oxfordian limestone and shale.
Sandstone, limestone and shale inside the planning area have higher bearing capacity,
which can be used as natural foundation support layer for wind turbine and buildings
inside substation. However, the basic type of wind turbine shall be confirmed finally
according to the exploration results in the following stage, combining with the design
loading and structural features of wind turbines.

(3)

Underground water conditions


Rivers were not found within the range of plant area and the underground water is
buried very deep.

(4)

Adverse geological conditions


The terrain of the plant is flat and slightly undulating. The micro relief unit belongs to
low-mountain hills. It is suggested to make research on karsts in the area in which
limestone distributes in the following stage, to check if there are karsts developing inside
the plant area. If yes, check the scale and depth, to offer detailed materials for basic
designing.

9.9.4

Engineering organization condition analysis


The plant area of Dire Dawa is next to the south side of downtown Dire Dawa, and a
10km-long road shall be built newly to connect with No.15 highway. The wind turbine
equipment can be delivered to the wind farm through highway, with the line of
DjiboutiAyshaDiri DawaDire Dawa wind farm. The road subgrade/road width is
3.25m2+0.5m2 and the whole line is gravel road except that within the borders of Djibouti.
Both sides of the road are open and flat, with few trees along the road, and desertification is
very serious. The horizontal and vertical line is comfortable but the road conditions are
common.
The landform inside the planning area is mountain, so the construction conditions are very
bad.

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9.10 Construction Analysis of Awash Solar PV Project Area


The plant area of Awash solar energy PV generation project in this report is located on the
north side of Awash, an important city in the east of Ethiopia, only 1.5 km away from the
planning power station. The terrain inside the whole planning area is very flat, with the altitude
between 910m and 920m. The land types are mainly wasteland, and tropical shrubs with
horns are the major vegetation on earth. The total acreage of the whole plant area is about
0.62km2 and the PV installed capacity is 100MWp.
About the detailed range of plant area, see Figure 9.10-1, and about the landform, see Figure
9.10-2.

Figure 9.10-1 Schematic Diagraph of Planning Site Range of Awash Solar PV Station

Figure 9.10-2 Schematic Diagraph of Landform of Awash Solar PV Station Site


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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

9.10.1 Resource condition analysis


Since the measuring of solar energy radiation resources havent been carried out in the
planning area of Awash Solar PV Station project, in order to make assessment on the solar
radiation resources in this plant area, this report makes a brief analysis on the resources in
this planning area with the help of stimulating analyzing materials of atmospheric dynamics
values. After the statistical analysis on the materials of stimulating radiation grid points in the
Awash PV site, it is found the regional radiation resources are rich.
About the detailed calculation results, see Table 9.10-1, Figure 9.10-3, Table 9.10-2 and
Figure 9.10-4.

Table 9.10-1

Awash Solar PV Station Annual Radiation Value, Unit (MJ/m Year)

1980

Annual
radiation flux
8281.3

1990

Annual
radiation flux
7826.0

2000

Annual
radiation flux
7768.9

1981

7732.3

1991

8071.1

1982

2001

7683.9

7503.8

1992

7220.0

2002

7885.8

1983

7512.6

1993

7668.8

2003

7825.2

1984

8216.6

1994

8204.2

2004

7792.0

1985

8155.2

1995

7744.6

2005

7736.6

1986

8266.7

1996

7769.8

2006

8517.2

1987

8016.3

1997

8132.2

2007

8343.3

1988

8254.9

1998

7567.1

2008

8572.6

1989

7680.0

1999

8034.0

2009

8742.7

Year

Radiation Flux
( MJ/m2Year)

Year

Year

Awash Solar PV Site Yearly Radiation Flux

10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008

Figure 9.10-3 Awash Solar PV Station Yearly Radiation Flux

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
2

Table 9.10-2 Awash Solar PV Station Monthly Average Radiation Flux, Unit (MJ/m Month)
Month

Monthly radiation flux


Month

693.6
7

697.7
8

718.1
9

711.8
10

765.3
11

712.8
12

Monthly radiation flux

416.5

485.0

680.3

665.0

737.5

673.8

Radiation Flux
( MJ/m2Month)

Awash Solar PV Site Monthly Radiation Flux

900
800
700
600
500
400
300

200
100
0
1

Figure 9.10-4

10

11

12

Month

Awash Solar PV Site Monthly Radiation Flux

From the analysis of the above, Awash solar PV station is rich in radiation resources, with an
annual radiation flux density of nearly 8,000MJ/m2, suitable for the development of large-scale
solar PV generation project. From Figure 9.10-4, the annual whole radiation inside the plant
area is higher except July and August, when the radiation is a little lower, suitable for
development.
9.10.2 Equipment recommendation and Preliminary estimation of dynamoelectric benefits
According to the above analysis on the situations of radiation resources in the PV power
station as well as the features of current PV module, this PV station recommend the PV
module of polysilicon with a unit capacity of 230W, which are commonly used in the market at
present. The PV module operates at a fixed dip angle.
There is no onsite radiation measuring data in the Awash solar PV station, so make
preliminary estimation according to the stimulating analyzing results of the average solar
radiation to the horizontal plate in many years which is 7958MJ/m2: The equivalent full load
hour of the solar PV station is 1800 hours. The development potential of radiation resources is
huge and the dynamoelectric benefits of the PV station are good too.
9.10.3 Engineering geologic condition analysis
(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1:2000000 Geological Map and Introductions, there are no
active faults passing through in the nearby area of plant area of Awash solar PV power
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

generation project, so the geological structure is stable; there is no geological disaster


caused by interaction of internal and external force in the plant area, so it belongs to
relatively complete and stable plot area. According to the materials of regional geology,
the site that is intended to be chosen is suitable for the construction of the engineering of
large-scale PV power generation.
(2)

Lithology and engineering properties


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 Geological Map and Introductions and uniting site
exploration and geological survey, the stratum of the plant area of Awash solar energy
power generation project is mainly Dino Formation (Qd) green and gray ignimbrites with
well developed fumme and associated unwelded pyroclastics and waterlain pyroclastics
with occasional intercalated lacustrine beds and aphyric basalts which have a maximum
reported thickness of 50 meters , Dino Formation green and gray ignimbntes. Geologic
age is Pleistocene. The Dino Formation ignimbrites within planning area have high
bearing capacity. They can serve as natural foundation bearing stratum for PV solar
panels and buildings in the transformer substation.

(3)

Groundwater condition
There are no rivers within site. Groundwater buries deep in the earth.

(4)

Unfavorable geological condition


The terrain for the planning solar PV power generation station is flat. The
microtopography unit is plateau terrace which belongs to relatively stable block. So there
is no unfavorable geological effect.

9.10.4 Construction organization condition analysis


The transportation condition for this project is good. Highway 1 passes through south of plant
area. Solar electrical energy generation equipment can be transported to power station
through highway. The transportation route is DjiboutiMileAwashAwash solar power
station. The roadbed/road width is 3.5m2+1.5m2. The whole route is bituminous concrete
pavement. The terrain within the plant area does not undulate greatly. There is gravel road
which is 4~7m wide leading to site. So the construction condition is very good.

9.11

Construction Analysis of Demonstration Base of Addis Ababa Wind Farm


and Solar PV Station
At present, the development and utilization of wind and solar energy for Ethiopia is still in the
initial stage. There is no project of wind power or solar PV power generation which has been
constructed and put into commercial operation in Ethiopia. The public have little knowledge of
wind power and PV power generation. In order to promote the healthy development of
enterprise of Ethiopias wind power and solar PV power generation, to enlarge the social
influence of wind power and PV power generation, to search for more social support and
attract more excellent talents and capital to participate in the Ethiopias enterprise of
development and utilization of wind and solar energy, at the same time, to further accumulate
construction experience for the wind and solar energy power generation project, this report
recommend the plant area which is located in the south mountain area of capital Addis Ababa
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to serve as demonstration base of wind and PV hybrid new energy integrated power
generation project.
This demonstration base is located in the south mountaintop of capital Addis Ababa. The plant
area is alp mountainous region. Large-scale wind turbines can be installed in the chine of
mountaintop area, among which, PV power stations can be constructed in the area with small
slope and flat surface. This demonstration base spreads along the chine trend. The altitude for
this whole plant area is between 2,800m and 3,200m. There are mainly farmland and forest
land within the plant area. It is preliminarily recommended that the wind power installed
capacity is 20MW and solar PV capacity is 10MW for integrated demonstration base.
Please see Figure 9.11-1 for specific range of demonstration base planned area and Figure
9.11-2 for landform of project area.

Figure 9.11-1 Schematic Diagram of Demons. Base of Addis Ababa Wind and Solar Project

Figure 9.11-2 Photo for the Demonstration Base of Addis Ababa Wind and Solar Project

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9.11.1 Resource condition analysis


Wind and solar energy testing is not conducted within the demonstration plant area of Addis
Ababa wind energy and solar energy project development. This report shows a brief analysis
of wind resource in the plant area with the help of analysis result of computerized numerical
simulation. According to the statistic analysis of wind energy numerical simulation grid point
numerical value in the planning area of project demonstration base, wind energy elements
statistics in the plant area can be obtained. For the details, see Table 9.11-1 and Figure 9.11-3,
Figure 9.11-4.

Table 9.11-1

Statistical Result of Wind Data in Demons. Base of Addis Ababa Wind and
Solar Project

Height (m)
50
70

Average wind speed (m/s)


7.1
7.2

Average wind power density (W/m )


248
270

Figure 9.11-3 Wind Rose Diagram of 50m Height of the Demonstration Base of Addis
Ababa Wind and Solar Project

Figure 9.11.4 Wind Rose Diagram of 70m Height of the Demonstration Base of Addis
Ababa Wind and Solar Project

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9.11.2 Machine type and equipment recommendation as well as preliminary estimate of


efficiency of power generation
According to the condition of wind resource in the demonstration base of Addis Ababa wind
energy and solar energy project development and current development situation of wind
power technology, wind turbine generator system whose unit capacity is 1.5MW is
recommended for the wind power of this base. The tentative hub height is 70m. According to
the result of resource assessment atmospheric numerical simulation, annual average wind
speed of the hub height in this wind farm is about 7.2m/s. Annual average wind power density
is 270W/m2. At the same time, in consideration of the topographic condition of this wind farm, it
is preliminarily estimated that annual average equivalent full load hour of the wind farm of
demonstration base is 2200h, so wind resource is with great development potential and the
efficiency of power generation of this wind farm is excellent.
According to the radiation resource condition analysis and the features of current PV cell
module, polysilicon PV cell module used often in the market whose monolithic capacity is
230W is recommended for the PV power generation of this base. The PV module adopts the
mode of operation of fixed dip angle. According to the analysis result of atmospheric numerical
simulation, the average total solar radiation is 7200MJ/m2 for many years in the level of this
plant area. In consideration of the above situations, it is preliminarily estimated that annual
average equivalent full load hour of solar PV module in the demonstration base is 1700h, so
radiation resource is with great development potential and the efficiency of power generation
of this PV power station is excellent.
9.11.3 Engineering geological condition analysis
(1)

Regional structure
According to Ethiopia 1:2000000 Geological Map and Introductions, there are multiple
faults whose trend is northeastsouthwest in the northeast of the demonstration base
site of Addis Ababa wind energy and solar energy project development. The fault scale
is relatively small and it belongs to relatively complete and stable plot area. According to
the geological data, the site that is intended to be chosen is suitable for construction of
the engineering of large-scale wind power and PV power generation.

(2)

Lithology and engineering properties


Referring to Ethiopia 1:2000000 Geological Map and Introductions and uniting site
exploration and geological survey, the stratum of the demonstration base of Addis
Ababa solar energy and wind energy project development is mainly Alage Formation
(PNa). Geologic age is Oligocene-Miocene. The stratum of some area of the planning
area is Tarmaber Megezez Formation (Ntb), the lithology is Transitional and alkaline
basalt. And the geologic age is Middle-Miocene.
Alage Formation basalts and Tarmaber Megezez Formation basalt in the planning area
have high bearing capacity. They can serve as natural foundation bearing stratum for
wind turbines, buildings in the transformer substation and solar PV cell panels.

(3)

Underground water conditions

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Rivers were not found within the range of plant area and the underground water is
buried very deep.
(4)

Unfavorable geological condition


The terrain for the planning wind and PV hybrid farm is flat. The terrain undulates slightly.
The micro-topography unit is plateau terrace which belongs to relatively stable block. So
there is no unfavorable geological effect.

9.11.4 Construction organization condition analysis


Addis Ababa demonstration plant area is located in the north mountainous region of capital
Addis. Power generation equipment can be transported to the plant area through highway.
The transportation route is DjiboutiMileAwashAddisDemonstration plant area. A
section of twisting mountain road is passed through from Addis to the demonstration plant
area. The slope is steep and the turning radius is small. Other sections of road are with good
parallel and lengthways linearity. The road condition is good. The roadbed/road width is
3.5m2+1.5m2. The whole route is bituminous concrete pavement. The terrain within the
plant area does not undulate greatly. There is gravel road which is 4~7m wide leading to site.
So the construction condition is common.

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10.

Rough Estimation of Investment


This wind and solar energy power generation project in Ethiopia has made planning
respectively for the planned target year of 2015 and 2020 as well as forward reserve project.
There are 51 wind farm plant areas and the related aggregate planning capacity is 6,720MW.
There are 5 plant areas for PV power generation project and the related aggregate planning
capacity is 141MW.
There are many projects in this planning; geographical distribution is wide; time span is long;
construction conditions differs greatly; meanwhile, market factors in general sense of wind
power generation and solar PV power generation change rapidly, so at the present stage,
detailed investment estimation for each wind farm is difficult to made exactly. As a result, this
report adopts construction cost of average unit capacity estimate method to make rough
estimation of investment for every planned wind farms and PV power station.
Moreover, for the planning projects involved in the forward reserve project, the stage period is
far, so the development tendency of future market is difficult to judge. The actual value of
making rough estimation of investment is small. So this report only makes rough estimation of
investment for planned target year of 2015 and 2020.

10.1 Compilation Basis and Boundary Conditions


10.1.1 The basis of compilation
Project rough estimation of investment in this planning mainly refers to and takes example by
related technical regulations of the rough estimation of investment of wind power and solar PV
power generation project within China at the present stage. Specifically include:
(1)

Fa Gai Neng Yuan [2005] No. 899 Method of Preparation of Wind Farm Project Planning
Report;

(2)

GD001-2011 Method of Preparation of Photovoltaic Power Generation Project Planning


Report (Interim);

(3)

Compilation Method and calculation standard of the Wind Farm Project Feasibility
Report Design Budget Estimate (edition 2007);

(4)

Budget Estimate Quota of Wind Farm Project (edition 2007).

10.1.2 Boundary conditions


(1)

The main equipment of wind power project involved in these planned projects includes:
wind turbines, blade, and tower etc. The main equipment of solar PV power generation
project involved in these planned projects includes PV cell module and inverter, etc. The
source of equipment is considered to import from the abroad. The engineering
construction of projects is estimated temporarily according to Chinese construction
enterprises international engineering construction standard.

(2)

This rough estimation of investment doesnt include engineering insurance premium and
all kinds of taxes which are collected in Ethiopia, such as tariff, value-added tax and
withholding income tax of equipment and materials import, etc.; at the same time, it
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doesnt include the rough estimation of investment of power export project of every
planned project.
(3)

The price target year of this rough estimation of investment is the fourth quarter of 2011.
The rough estimation of investment of each planned wind farm is calculated according to
the price of the price target year, without regard to the variation trend of wind power
equipment price in the near and long future and overall trends of wind power
engineering construction cost as well as other influencing factors, such as inflation.

10.2 Rough Estimation of Investment of Wind Power Planned Projects


At present, the development of wind power in Ethiopia is in the initial stage. There is not too
many wind power projects which have been put into operation in Ethiopia. According to the
conditions of existing projects in Ethiopia and the current situation of wind power project
development, this report adopts method of the average cost of construction whose unit is kW
to make rough estimation of each planned wind farm. In consideration of the differences of
construction and transportation conditions among every project, connecting with reality, this
report divides the rough estimation index of each planned wind farm into three grades
according to zone bit. Thereinto, east planning area is calculated in 2,200 $/kW in 2015 and
2000$/kW in 2020. This area mainly refers to the planning areas which are located near the
city of Dire Dawa and the city of Djibouti; the central planning area is calculated in 2,300 $/kW
in 2015 and 2,100 $/Kw in 2020. This area mainly refers to surrounding area of capital,
including Nazret, Debre birhan, Iteya, Butajira, etc. The planning areas in this area are not
difficult to construct on the whole and the road transport condition is good; north and south
planning areas are calculated in 2,500 $/kW in 2015 and 2,300 $/kW in 2020. And this area
includes the central north of Amhara Province and Tigray as well as the plant areas which are
located in the south of Oromia Region and near Kenya. The terrain of plant areas in the
above-mentioned range is complex, and the terrain undulates greatly. The road transport
distance is long. There are many limiting factors.
According to the above-mentioned index, for the overall rough estimation of investment of
specific projects in the planned wind farms please see Table 10.2-1 and Table 10.2-2.

Table 10.2-1 Rough Invest Estimation of Wind Farm Projects in Ethiopia in 2015
Planned
target year

2015

No.

Plant area

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Nazret wind farm


Mek'ele South wind farm
Sheno wind farm
Ch'ach'a wind farm
Phase I wind farm in Iteya
Sulalta wind farm
Gondar West wind farm
Imdibir wind farm
Dire Dawa wind farm
Wind energy of Addis Ababa
demonstration base

10

Total

185

Planning
capacity
(MW)
300
100
100
100
100
100
50
50
50

2300
2500
2300
2300
2300
2300
2500
2300
2200

Overall
investment
(millon$)
690
250
230
230
230
230
125
115
110

20

2300

046

970

2256

Unit price
($/kW)

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Table 10.2-2 Rough Invest Estimation of Wind Farm Projects in Ethiopia in 2020
Planned
target year

2020

No.

Wind farm

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Dilla East wind farm


Mek'ele North wind farm
Debre Markos East wind farm
Soddo wind farm
Sendafa North wind farm
Sendafa South wind farm
Gondar North wind farm
Phase II wind farm in Iteya
Bu'i East wind farm
Aysha wind farm
Phase I wind farm in Bolo
Diche Oto wind farm
Bahir Dar wind farm
Assela wind farm
Total

Planning
capacity
(MW)
300
200
200
200
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
50
50
50
1750

Unit price
($/kW)
2100
2300
2100
2100
2100
2100
2300
2100
2100
2000
2100
2000
2300
2100
/

Overall
investment
(millon$)
630
460
420
420
210
210
230
210
210
200
210
100
115
105
3750

10.3 Rough Estimation of Investment of Solar PV Planed Project


At present, there is no large-scale project of grid-connected PV power generation. This report
determines the average investment cost by referring to the price level of PV products in
current international market and the cost of construction level of related projects in China as
well as factors such as different transportation cost because of different regions. But for the
equipment of PV power generation, the requirement for outer transportation conditions is
relatively low. According to the comprehensive consideration, it determines that the average
cost of construction of PV power generation project in Ethiopia is calculated in 2,300 $/kW in
2015 and 2,100 $/kW in 2020. According to the above-mentioned index, for the rough
estimation of overall investment of specific projects in the planned PV power station please
see Table 10.3-1 and Table 10.3-2.

Table 10.3-1 Rough Invest Estimation of PV Projects in Ethiopia in 2015


Planned
target year

No.
1

2015

Wind farm
Awash solar energy wind farm
Addis Ababa demonstration wind
farm solar energy
Total

Planning capacity
(MW)
20

Overall investment
(millon$)
46

2.3

21

48.3

Table 10.3-2 Rough Invest Estimation of PV Projects in Ethiopia in 2020


Planned
target year
2020

No.

Wind farm

Debre birhan PV power station site

Dera solar PV power station site


Total

186

Planning capacity
(MW)
10

Overall investment
(millon$)
21

10

21

20

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11.

Development Policy Analysis of Wind and Solar Power Projects


There are abundant wind energy resources and solar energy resources in Ethiopia. In the
process of future national economic construction in Ethiopia, apart from rapid development of
hydroelectric power generation, the development and utilization of renewable energy such as
wind energy and solar energy also shall be strived to promote. Because it has special
important meaning for Ethiopia to realize the development target of energy diversification
and implement national energy development strategy comprehensively.
This planning report puts forward the target of total power generation capacity for the
development of wind energy and solar energy in Ethiopia, including that the forward
accumulative installed capacity shall reach 970 MW wind power and 21MW PV power
generation in 2015; 2,720MW wind power and 41MW PV power generation in 2020; and
6,720MW wind power and 141MW PV power generation in the forward future. The realization
of this target is an important reflection of Ethiopia national energy development strategy.
The realization of development targets in economic field needs the support of economic
development policy. This chapter particularly focuses on the research and suggestion related
to relevant policy.

11.1

Examples and Analysis of Development Institution for Renewable Energy


In order to promote the development of renewable energy industry, many countries including
China have already made their own development strategy, put forward clear development
targets and guarantee the realization of strategic targets through legislation. A country shall
make suitable policies and institutions according to its own specific condition. The study of
existing institutions and measures of other countries has important reference meaning.
Among the development ideas of renewable energy in different countries, the following
policies and methods which are widely adopted deserve reading:
(1)

Tendering of renewable energy


Tendering of renewable energy means that the government chooses the developer of
renewable energy power generation project through the procedure of tendering. In
general, the final bid winner is determined by the amount of quoted on-grid power tariff.
After the determination of developer, in the coordination of government, electric power
company signs Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with developer to make agreement
that the developer shall purchase all the electric quantity of on-grid energy at bidding
electric price within prescribed time limit.
The developer who won the bidding is the property owner of this renewable energy
power generation project. The developer has right and obligation of investment,
construction and operation of this project. Price difference of on-grid power tariff in the
renewable energy project is usually resolved through apportionment.
Since 2003, China has used Wind Concession in several onshore and offshore wind
power projects. This is a kind of competitive bidding activity.

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Wind Concession is a kind of resource exclusive development mode which is set by


government to promote utilization and development of wind energy. At the beginning
stage of bidding activity, tenderee will hold a public bidding for the proposed site area
which has obtained preliminary resource assessment result. Then, bidder offers tender
conditions such as electric price promising after he/she makes further assessment of the
bidding regional resources and estimates project investment benefits comprehensively.
Tenderee determines bid winner through evaluation of bid. Tenderee will ask bid winner
to sign concession contract. Moreover, tenderee will ask bid winner to sign electricity
purchase and sell contract with electric power company according to bidding agreement.
electricity purchase and sell contract shall make specific regulation of project period,
on-grid power tariff as well as purchasing electric quantity of on-grid energy in full
amount, etc.
Once the resource is exploited, developer and government share the profits and benefits
of resource development according to contract agreement.
Competitive bidding policy has following advantages:
Project is targeted. The development of proposed regional resources and
technology which is preferred started will get effect instantly;
Competitive development policy endows developer with the possibility of long term
benefits. This urges developer to be willing to offer initial high investment and assume
investment risk;
The competition among developers is beneficial to reduce development cost and
improve competitive force of renewable energy.
The competitive process of reducing development and extension influence is
beneficial for the localization development of main equipment and technology.
Competitive public bidding is beneficial to attract various kinds of capital inside and
outside and promote diversification of business entity.
Under the constraint of bidding agreements and already electricity purchase and
sell contract (electric price, networking and cost apportionment is regulated), the
success rate of project development is relatively high.
The electric price of competitive bidding can reflect the development cost at that
time relatively accurately. So it is beneficial for government to make clear reasonable
price of general projects through typical projects.
(2)

Public Benefits Funds (PBF) for Renewable Energy


Actually, PBF is a kind of fund providing serve for public benefits. It is also a special
policy to support those which cannot develop by only relying on market competition. The
purpose and source of PBF for Renewable Energy is both connected with energy. The
public benefits include: promote the technology development of renewable development;
enlarge the development strength of renewable energy; improve the utilization ratio of
renewable energy; reduce the production cost of renewable energy; save the energy
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consumption of society and bring economical benefit and environmental improvement


benefit to the public.
The establishment of PBF for Renewable Energy shall include at least three aspects of
work: collect certain charges from specific targeted units and groups; make use of
charges to support the development of the renewable energy industry; establish
complete management system of charge and expenditure.
Application experience of some countries shows that PBF is a kind of effective support
policy of renewable energy. PBF has following advantages:
It can raise enough money and offer long-term and stable financial security for the
establishment and implementation of economic incentive mechanism of renewable
energy.
Because the source of money is mainly from charges of the public, the public may
become the shareholders of the fund. This will benefit for improving the publics sense of
participation and enthusiasm.
The operation of PBF asks for high transparency. It is beneficial to introduce market
competitive mechanism and choose projects reasonably.
The operation of PBF is beneficial to estimate policy cost in advance. So it is
beneficial to guarantee the using effect of money and improve the use ratio of money.
Renewable Energy Law of China makes regulation of taking the establishment and
utilization of special fund for renewable energy as a basic institution. It asks central
finance and local finance to establish special fund for renewable energy. The special
fund is used as the subsidy and allowance of the development and utilization projects of
some renewable energy as well as other kinds of financial support. Provisional
Regulations of Management of Special Fund for Renewable Energy Development of
China makes complete regulations for the support focus, declaration, accreditation,
financial management examination and supervision of special fund.
(3)

Feed-in Law (FIL)


Feed-in policy is also called regular electricity purchase policy. Government offers the
on-grid power tariff of renewable energy electric power and forces electric power
company to purchase the on-grid energy of renewable energy that fits the demands in
full amount. The regulatory department which is authorized by government determines
electric price and adjusts in due time according to general cost of renewable energy
power generation. Developers determine whether taking over development and
production of renewable energy according to market demand and potential profits.
Electric Power Company takes over and purchases the whole electric quantity of
renewable energy that fits the demands (for example, fits project construction
procedures and government approves) according to policy.
Clear electric price and the guarantee of grid connection are beneficial to eliminate the
difficulty of capital operation. The difficulty occurs because the development cost of
renewable energy is higher than that of conventional energy. The additional cost which
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is produced by electric power company purchasing renewable energy can be shared


equally by nationwide electricity consumers through government management system.
If there is power grid access barrier or the production of renewable energy doesnt get
reasonable retribution for a long time in a country or region, or the additional cost of
power grid purchase is difficult to digest, or it needs to promote intentionally the
technology development of renewable energy, mandatory feed-in policy can serve as
priority selection.
China is implementing this kind of policy.
(4)

Renewable Portfolio Standard, RPS


Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard is mandatory regulation of market portfolio of
renewable energy power generation made by government of a country or region in legal
form. This means that there shall be renewable energy electric power with prescriptive
proportion of whole electric power.
Renewable energy electric power includes two parts of value: principal value and
environmental benefit (the former is equal to that of conventional energy electric power;
the later shows the environmental and social value which is peculiar to renewable
energy). Renewable Portfolio Standard can make use of Tradable Green Certificate
(TGC) to reflect specially the environmental and social value of renewable energy. TGC
offers a certificate that can be tradable and cash currency. It is shared by the nationwide
or regional power consumers finally.
Obligation undertaken by electric power enterprise regulated by Renewable Energy
Portfolio Policy can occur in two ways: one is that electric power enterprise owns power
generation equipment of renewable energy by itself. The other is it purchases TGC
which exceeds obligatory amount from other electric enterprises who have completed
prescriptive Portfolio.
The combination of demands for the market portfolio of Renewable Energy Portfolio
Standard and the trade of TGC can build market demand and mode of exchange for
renewable energy electric power.
If a country or region intends to development renewable energy on a large scale, or
hope to introduce competitive mechanism and improve market competitive force, or
promote localization and commercialization of renewable energy technology, it can
choose RPS.
At present, China hasnt yet carried forward this policy completely.

(5)

Other economic incentive policies


Feed-in tariff
Feed-in tariff is a common economic incentive policy. The common ones are investment
allowance, output allowance and user allowance, etc.
Feed-in tariff is flexible and fast for economic incentive. But attention shall be paid to the
source of capital and strategy formulation in the process of operation. If state finance or
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local finance is limited, relying on the support of government finance cannot be perfect. If
attention is not paid to formulate strategy reasonably and the selection of subsidy
objects or policy operation mechanism is not settled well, the anticipated targets of
government may not be achieved.
Tax policy
Tax policy is a kind of economic policy which is used most by many countries, including
China. There are usually two kinds of types: tax preferential policy and mandatory tax
policy. Tax preferential policy usually includes tariff reduction and exemption, formed
fixed asset tax reduction and exemption, reduction and exemption of value-added tax
and income tax, etc. Mandatory tax policy, such as emission tax policy, etc. is common in
some developed countries.
Price policy
Because the cost of renewable energy products is usually higher than that of
conventional energy products, many countries in the world adopt preferential price policy
of renewable energy. Theoretical analysis and practice prove that price concession is a
very effective incentive policy. And if this policy is used appropriately, it can promote
technology improvement and reduce cost. But attention shall be paid to two key issues:
One is the capital source of price difference allowance. The other is selection criteria of
price concession objects. Many countries including China choose that capital of price
difference allowance is assumed by government, electric power company and users
together, or assumed by users alone, such as electric price markup. If the scale of
renewable energy industry is small, allowance quantity demanded is also small. Under
this circumstance, this method is a kind of realistic consideration.
Low-interest (interest subsidy) loan policy
Low-interest (interest subsidy) loan policy can relieve enterprises burden of returning
current interest. This is beneficial to reduce cost of production. The disadvantage is that
government needs to raise certain capital to support allowance for interest reduction and
discount.

11.2

Existing Energy Policies and Strategies in Ethiopia


Solar and Wind Energy Utilization and Project Development Scenarios which is completed
by United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in 2007 generalized and analyzed the
existing energy policies and strategies in Ethiopia comprehensively.
The main strategies and policies include:
(1)

The National Economic PolicyNovember 1991


The National Economic Policy was issued in 1991. This document makes regulations for
policy formulation of all the single industries or multi-industries. Though this document
has existed for 17 years and maybe some contents need be amended, the fundamental
principle is still applicable. This document urges the change of governments role in
economic activities. This means that government changes from the role of unified
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planning and implementation to the market based role as well as the role of guiding
private sector development.
(2)

The Rural Development StrategyNovember 2001


Agricultural economy dominates in Ethiopia, and agricultural productivity and yield are
both low. These two objective facts demand Ethiopia to develop and increase
agricultural production rapidly and achieve the target of guaranteeing and improving
national economy and the life of common people. Rapid transformation of agriculture is
beneficial for the blending development between agriculture and industry or service
industry.
The target of the Rural Development Strategy is to improve agricultural productivity.
This document considers that productivity and yield depend on investment and market.
This consideration also prompts the strategic vision of developing infrastructure
construction and improving the investment environment of agriculture and market.
Energy is considered as a basic rural infrastructure. This document clearly states the
problem of rural electrification as well as suggestions for the simultaneous development
of public sector and private sector. There is such description in page 231: Solar and wind
energy are specifically addressed in the strategy as potential alternatives for rural
electrification.

(3)

The Natural Resources and Environment Policy1994


This policy is related to energy industry. It states the problems about the sustainability of
biomass energy.

(4)

Science and Technology policy1993


The formulation of this policy is to promote the determination of solution for the problems
of capacity building. It shall draw support from education, promotion, application and
spread of appropriate technology to promote the realization of national development
target.
Thereinto, it includes basic and high-efficient utilization technology of natural resources
as well as renewable energy technology and its popularization.

(5)

The Amended Investment ProclamationNo. 116/1998


Investment proclamation makes regulations for the activities of Ethiopias domestic and
overseas investment. General investment regulations are implemented in energy field.
But the proclamation states that electric power industry shall be limited within the
prescriptive range of foreign investment: Electricity generation from sources other than
hydropower is reserved for the government and local developers. Development of
non-hydro plants larger than 25MW is left to the government while those below this are
left for the local private sector. The government remains the sole operator of the national
grid. Electricity generation from hydropower is open to both local and external
developers without limit on capacity
At present, limitation on the overseas investment domain of electric power industry has
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been adjusted. Overseas investment is not limited in the domain of hydropower now.
(6)

The National Energy Policy, 1994


The target for the formulation of this energy policy is to offer reliable and cheap energy
which satisfies the national development. Meanwhile, it states the relationship between
energy, development and environmental sustainability: The general policy direction was
towards a least-cost, indigenous resource based and environmentally sustainable
development for the energy sector.
This policy states many issues including energy development, energy supply, energy
protection, environmental sustainability, technology research and development and
institution system. The following ten points are basic nuclear policy:
Realize the increase of hydropower application and development by means of
small-sized hydropower development in the aspect of electric power generation;

Improve and strengthen exploitation and development of natural oil gas;

Enlarge and strengthen agriculture and forestry planning project greatly;

Offer alternate energy to family, industry, agriculture, transportation and other fields;

Introduce measures of energy protection and saving in all the fields.

Make sure the competitive force of energy resource application and development
through forceful practical action which fits ecology and environmental requirement;

Enhance confidence in the science development of energy resources;

Guarantee social participation especially womens participation in all the aspect of


energy resources and encourage private sector participation in the field of energy
development.
Launch mass movement and create public opinion atmosphere between the public
and decision makers of energy issues with the help of media which use every peoples
language widely, moreover,
Formulate appropriate institution and legal framework in order to deal with all the
energy issues. Preferential guaranteed policies include water energy development and
energy efficiency in the field of hydropower as well as the transformation of modern
technology which serves families. These targets shall adapt the requirements of wide
private sector participation and environmental sustainability.
Energy Resource Development states the policies of solar energy and wind energy:
Solar and geothermal energy will be used, wherever possible, for process heat and
power generation [6.1.3 (1)]; Ethiopia's wind energy resources will be developed to
provide shaft power for water pumping and irrigation [6.1.3 (2)].
(7)

The Rural Electrification Strategy, 2002


This strategy suggests three basic approaches of rural electrification: power grid is
developed by EEPCo. And off-grid electrification is developed by private sector to
improve utilization of new energy.
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For electric power demand of independent and remote areas, electrification based on
PV power generation is suggested. This strategy stresses that attention shall be paid to
three elements for the success of new energy utilization: capacity building of
development of these energies, affordable capital support and taxes which is beneficial
for cost recovering.
This strategy also suggests establishing a fund named Rural Electrification Fund (REF).
(8)

Rural Electrification Fund Establishment Proclamation (Proclamation no. 317/2003)


Rural Electrification Fund (REF) is from The Rural Electrification Strategy.
Non-government capital is considered as the main investment of off-grid rural
electrification. The target of this fund is to enlarge the participation of private sector
through licensing capital and technology support.
RFF Proclamation clearly states giving priority to the development of electrification
based on renewable energy.

(9)

Growth and Transformation Plan-GTP


On the basis of analyzing SWARA report, other materials which are newly collected are
studied.
At present, the economic growth of Ethiopia is fast. According to the introduction of
Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) (2010/11-2014/15) by Ethiopia Finance and
Economy Development Department, during the period of last Five-Year
Plan(2005/06-2009/10), annual GDP reaches 11%. The national Growth and
Transformation Plan (GTP) which is newly drawn up will commit itself to complete
Ethiopias long-term planning and keep the economic growth which is fast and
broad-based.
"Enhancing expansion and quality of infrastructure development" is the fourth one of the
seven strategic pillar industries planned by GTP. According to the Electricity Production
and Construction Planning in this part, efforts should be made to develop the clean
renewable energy like hydraulic energy, wind energy and geothermal energy to promote
energy restructuring, reduce energy expenditure, encourage rational energy
consumption, and lower investment costs of energy production to supply affordable
electricity.

11.3

Preliminary Recommendation
The report suggests that the Energy Development Strategy of Ethiopia, including the existing
policy on the renewable energy is generally applicable.
However, with the rapid developing of national economy, especially with the ever-growing
power demand in Ethiopia, the report also suggests deep study and feasible policy proposals
to develop wind and solar power as the significant supplements to national power supply.
(1)

Wind and solar power generation can be considered as significant supplements to


electricity supply
At present, Ethiopian power system is an electricity structure with hydroelectric
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

generation as major, which depends on features of local energy and resources and
technology maturity of hydroelectric generation.. However, Ethiopia also has rich wind
energy and solar energy besides rich water energy and it shall seize the historical
opportunity brought by the world's enthusiasm in developing and utilizing wind and solar
energy since 21st century.
As use technology development of wind energy and solar energy, the development cost
is dropping unceasingly. Ethiopia can spare no efforts to develop water and electricity
engineering and meanwhile pay attention to development of wind energy and solar
energy so as to let the latter become important supplement of national electricity
support.
Present condition is very different from 1990s. Wind energy and solar energy can make
full use of big-scale development to become main target of village electrification as well
as important role in power grid. Actually, in recent years, Ethiopia is constructing wind
energy project of over 150MW, which can be evidence.
Of course, role of wind energy and solar energy in power grid also depend on scale and
structure and application level of power grid. It is also covered in the report on peak
shaving of power grid and electric power and electric quantity balance analysis.
(2)

Define open policy on wind and solar power generation investment market
The Amended Investment Proclamation makes regulation on investment activity of
electric power industry and later adjusts partial policies. In order to accelerate the
construction of electric power system, it is proposed to further carry out or define the
open policy of wind energy and solar energy investment market. In consideration that
wind energy and solar energy will become the important role of electric power system, it
is necessary in consideration to enlarge and extend overseas investment permission
range of wind and solar power generation field so as to promote the increase of
construction project.
Some problems that should be resolved during open policy can be set, explored and
researched in capital import and project construction and operation such as restraint of
electric power production of new investors, confirmation of rational benefits (on-grid
power tariff), how to promote local effect, etc.

(3)

Push wind energy and solar energy project bidding


Explore, attempt and apply investment bidding of wind energy and solar energy power
generation project. Concessions Project under governmental dominance can wholly or
partially invite bids to domestic and foreign investors. If design is perfect, special
contract can be signed with the winner to restrain investment activity and avoid over-big
impact to state-owned assets. However, via full competitive bidding, it is helpful to figure
out rational electricity price of wind and solar power generation project and create
convenience to master investment discipline and management experience on future
related investment. Such project bidding is beneficial in introducing capital in, enlarging
electric installed capacity, absorbing technology and enlarging employment as well as
shaping demonstration effect of development and use of renewable energy sources.
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Whats worth attention is the digestion problem that price of power generation with wind
energy and solar energy may be higher than normal electricity price. It has been proved
in experiences that digestion can be borne jointly by government; electric power
company and user or the user bears all difference (for instance, electricity price makeup
method). In near period, Ethiopian renewable energy sources have not very big scale
and also have small subsidy fund. Proper method can be chosen with consideration of
detailed situation.
(4)

Research and promote the development way of distribution-way wind and solar power
generation
Though The Draft Rural Energy Strategy has not formally issued, solution proposed by it
that implements distribution-way micro-grid system and family power generation and
supply system is obviously rational. Here, respecting remote regions or regions far from
main power grid framework, another application plan of distribution-way wind and solar
power generation is proposed. The difference between distribution-way application plan
and micro-grid or family power generation and supply system is that distribution-way
application plan is connected to end phase of existing power grid. However, on account
that it is connected to end of power grid and belongs to low-pressure distribution network,
the access point can be only of limited capacity, which makes it obviously different from
large scale grid-connected wind power generation.
Wind power generation scale gained in this way is very big in whole scale of several
countries of Europe. At present, China also researches on promoting a distribution-way
development way that pushes wind power generation forward. Wind energy and solar
energy in one region can be distributed and developed and used in many points and are
featured with near grid connection, simple technology, easy consumption and low
development cost so that are very popular.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

12.

Achievement Summarization and Work Suggestion


Nowadays, boosting exploitation and utilization of renewable energy has become the
important way of global countries to guaranty energy support safety, reply global climate
change and decrease emission of greenhouse gases. Meantime, it is also the important
constituent part of strategy that realizes sustainable development of energy support and
implements friendly development to environment and sources. As technical progress and cost
decrease of the exploitation and utilization, the development scale of renewable energy,
represented by wind energy and solar energy, has becomes larger and larger.
The report, just under such situation and background, carries out all-round plan and research
on development potential, technology feasibility and development scale of Ethiopian wind
resources and solar resources, aiming to offer effective technology support to development
and construction of Ethiopian wind power and solar PV power generation via the report.

12.1 Basic Achievement


(1)

Macro simulation of Ethiopian wind resources and solar resources


The report implements research on total reserves, distribution regularity and
developable conditions of Ethiopian wind resources and solar resources by means of
atmospheric dynamics numerical simulation. The method regards WRF high-resolution
atmospheric numerical mode as basis and NCEP and FNL reanalyzed data as initial
data. It carries on an elaborate simulation on national wind resources and solar
resources of Ethiopia, taken certain of boundary conditions into account. Afterwards,
based on simulation result, the reserves analysis of Ethiopian wind resource and solar
resource is carried out with assistance of analysis tools such as ArcGIS.
Via calculation, Ethiopia has total wind energy resource reserve of 3,030 GigaWatt,
potential exploitable quantity of wind energy of 1,599 GigaWatt, potential installed
capacity of 1,350 GigaWatt. And, annual solar energy radiation density for unit area of
1.992 MWh/(m2a) and annual total solar reserves of 2,199 PWh/a. From this, it is
known that Ethiopia has rich wind resources and solar resources and the potential of
exploitation and utilization is huge.
It shall be explained that the assessment conclusion on wind resources and solar
resources has close relation to adopted data materials and boundary conditions. There
is more-direct influence to NCEP and FNL reanalyzed materials related to Ethiopia. In
consideration of insufficiency of space density and time interval of present Ethiopian
meteorological observatory net, it could cause a precision decrease of reanalyzed
materials mentioned above and calculation conclusion of the report further. Therefore,
precision of resource assessment of the report shall be verified via practice in the future.
Quotation of some conclusions shall be made with consideration of understanding
relevant calculation conditions and premises.

(2)

Analysis on power grid absorption ability of wind power and PV power generation
Based on power system analysis, the report carries out Ethiopian absorption ability
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

analysis on wind power generation (PV capacity is small in plan and special analysis is
not made). It is analyzed that: the wind power absorption ability of Ethiopian ICS
electrical network is 550MW~1,000MW in 2015 and 1,400MW~2,800MW in 2020;
meanwhile wind power absorption ability is 2,300MW~4,500MW in 2025 and
3,600MW~7,200MW in 2030.
It can be seen that since Ethiopian power network materials collected are limited at
present, of which load precast material is only overall data without regional data,
especially lacks basic data on peaking ability of hydropower stations constructed and
planned to run. Therefore, the absorption ability data mentioned above are based on
present limited materials. The analysis course uses effective materials, supposed to be
an intact network that power transmission among regions is fluent, and gains the
conclusion on relevant absorption capacity. If fuller and more accurate basic data are
collected, abovementioned conclusion may change.
(3)

Recommendation of wind farms and solar power stations


Generally, construction of wind power and solar power generation projects should takes
technology feasibility and economy feasibility into account, also comprehensive analysis
of energy feature, power transmission and absorption conditions, engineering
construction conditions and construction cost, etc. and more other factors such as
society, culture and environment.
The report recommends 51 wind projects (with total planned capacity of 6,720MW) and
5 solar PV projects (with total planned capacity of 141MW), based on planning principles
drawn up, considered field survey and applied comprehensive analysis.
Restricted by insufficient basic information for compilation, difference in view of
engineering technology as well as unique limitations of planning, the report might not
sufficiently meet requirements to reflect local social, economic and cultural development
requirements in some senses. As a result, in future development, the report
recommendation shall be perfected and adjusted by those who refer, according to actual
conditions.

(4)

Development Schedule in 2015 and 2020


According to the selection result of abovementioned projects and more consideration of
outside factors related to overall economy and macro distribution, etc., for an overall
development objective assuring technology reasonable and economy rational, in which
follows development principle from easy to hard, from near to remote and cost from low
to high, as one of achievement, the report gives a development schedule of Ethiopian
wind farm and solar PV station projects of planned target year of 2015 and 2020.
Total capacity of development project in 2015 is 991 MW and its annual generation
production can reach up to 2.607TWh. Investment in rough estimate is USD 2.304 billion;
total capacity of development project in 2020 is 1,770MW and investment in rough
estimate is USD 3.792 billion.
Schedule of development projects and relevant figures abovementioned is related to the
calculation used before.
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

(5)

Bearing capability of electric power system


With basis of development schedule of recommended projects in discussion, the report
discusses grid connection scheme and calculates electric output and load balance. It is
worth attention that such discussion and calculation are conducted with respect to
complete power network and with premise that equipment of power network is in good
condition, flexible in scheduling and reliable in technology. Thus, to Ethiopian power
network at fast development stage, if there is something different in structure and
transmission capability of power network, the actual access of wind and solar PV power
generation projects during implementation may be different.
The report believes that relevant project management and electric power operation
organization shall pay special attention to problems such as voltage flicker, stability
and running and control way. Therefore, it is advised that in order to guaranty safe and
stable operation of power system, further relevant work shall be made when wind farm
project is developed according to plan. For every step in project implementation, the
power flow calculation, stability calculation, short-circuit current calculation as well
schedule and operation plan should be carried out.

12.2 Basic Advices


It is proved in data of the report that Ethiopia has rich wind resources and solar resources.
There is a huge of development and utilize potential about resources. Making good efforts to
reinforce wind power and solar power generation industry must offer an important contribution
to Ethiopian energy development in the future. All-round exploitation and utilization of wind
resources and solar resources, besides of one of hydroelectric resources, will be helpful to
make Ethiopia become the important energy base of East Africa in the future.
The report has proposed initial plan on construction of Ethiopian future wind power and solar
power generation. However, it is long to make plan become true. There are some works
needed to do of following aspects:
(1)

Survey resources of important development regions in details


This plan completes Ethiopian resources survey but detailed resources condition of
development plant areas shall be further surveyed so as to offer basis to following work.

(2)

Consider wind farm and solar PV generation project as a whole development plan
It is advised that conclude wind power and solar power generation project mentioned in
the report into national overall energy development plan so as to promote orderly
implementation of exploitation and utilization of renewable energy.
Construction and development of wind power and solar power generation shall keep
consistent with state overall energy strategy and it is necessary to realize scientific unity
in many aspects such as macroeconomic layout, power network plan layout, traffics and
transportation plan and environment protection. According to features of wind resources,
solar resources and actual projects, over planning on construction and development of
Ethiopian power system will extremely enhance the sound development of wind power
and solar power generation cause.
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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

(3)

Reinforce electric power grid and prepare for plan implementation


According to implement requirements of planned projects, promote electric grid
construction and technological preparation so as to make preparations for mass
development of wind-energy and solar-energy power generation and all-round
realization of energy development strategy.

(4)

Reinforce ability trainning


Reinforcement of talents training is the important basis of implementing wind resource
and solar resource development. At present, wind power and solar power generation of
Ethiopia are still at starting stage. As scale of exploitation and utilization is enlarged in
the future, the demand for various project managers and engineering technicians that
master wind power and solar PV power generation is urgent. Therefore, it is very
necessary to reinforce the training and reserves of Ethiopian professional as early as
possible.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Acronyms
EEPCo: Ethiopia Electric Power Corporation
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
GTP: Growth and Transformation Plan
GW: Giga watt (109 watt)
GWh:

Giga watt hour

ICS: Interconnected System


MM5:

Meso-scale Model 5

MW: Mega watt (106 watt)


MWh: Mega watt hour
NCEP: National Centers for Environmental Prediction
PASDEP: Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty
PV: Photovoltaic
PW:
PWh:

Peta watt (1015 watt)


Peta watt hour

USGS: United States Geological Survey


SCS: Self Contained System
SDPRP: Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme
SNNP: Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region
SWERA: Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment
TW: Tera watt (1012 watt)
TWh:

Tera watt hour

WRF: Weather Research Forecast


WTG: Wind Turbine Generator

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

List of References
Compilation of the report involves wind resource and solar resource assessment all over
Ethiopia, wind power and solar power absorption capacity analysis for power system all over
Ethiopia, site selection for wind farms and PV power stations, recommendation and
suggestion of development sequence, preliminary environment impact assessment, rough
estimate of investment and policy analysis. For this, plentiful basic information is used and
referred to, covering multiple professional fields e.g. meteorology, grid, road, geology,
environment. For easy access and gratefulness to compilers of the information, types and
names are hereby listed below.
(1)

Atmospheric background field re-analysis information, NCEP (incl. FNL)

(2)

Information about landform and underlying surface, USGS

(3)

Observation information from some meteorological stations of Ethiopia and organized


climatic information, National Meteorological Services Agency of Ethiopia

(4)

Data from some anemometer masts of Ethiopia, EPPCo

(5)

Data from some anemometer masts of Ethiopia, HYDROCHINA

(6)

Information about load and distribution of power system in Ethiopia, EPPCo

(7)

Information about geology and mineral distribution of Ethiopia, Ministry of Mines of


Ethiopia

(8)

Highway map of Ethiopia, National Highways Agency of Ethiopia

(9)

Growth and Transformation Plan, Ministry of Finance and Economic Development of


Ethiopia

(10) Topographic map of some regions of Ethiopia, Ethiopia Mapping Agency


(11) Solar and Wind Energy Utilization and Project Development Scenarios, SWERA plan

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Annexes and Attachment


1.

The First Investigation Report of Wind and Solar Energy Grid-Based Master Plan in the
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Ethiopian Planning Project Department of
HYDROCHINA, March 2011. (-provided separately)

2.

Resource Assessment Report on Wind Energy and Solar Energy in Ethiopia, Institute of
Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, August 2011. (-provided
separately)

Attached Table: Comprehensive comparison table of site selection of wind and solar PV
power generation project in Ethiopia.

4.

Attached Figures 1~6:


(1) Attached Figure 1: Average wind speed distribution at 50m high in 1980~2009
(2) Attached Figure 2: Average wind power density distribution at 50m high in
1980~2009
(3) Attached Figure 3: Aavailable installed capacity distribution of the wind energy all
over Ethiopia
(4) Attached Figure 4:Total average annual solar radiation distribution in 1980~2009
(5) Attached Figure 5: Schematic diagram of the development progress of planning wind
and solar energy power generation project
(6) Attached Figure 6: Power flow calculation result of the power system of Ethiopia in
2015

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Attached Table

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Name

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

Nazret wind
farm

1. It has a low and gentle ridge-type


terrain and the topography undulates
slightly, which is beneficial to form
better wind energy conditions. The
altitude of the wind farm is within
1700m-2200m. The land surface is
dominated by grasslands, farmlands
and wastelands.
2. According to the on-site wind mast
data, this wind farm has excellent wind
resources conditions. The wind power
2
density is about 460W/m at 40m high,
which indicates that this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions.

Project site
Type

No.

F1

Weight scores

Wind
power

F2

Mekele South
wind farm

Weight scores

F3

Comprehensive Comparison Table of Site Selection

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Sheno wind
farm

1. The wind farm is near the 132kV


substation in Adama and the 230kV
substation in Koka and Koka
Hydropower Station is available to
adjust the capacity. The outward
transmission conditions are very
excellent.

2. The wind farm is near the load


centers of Adama and the capital. The
consumption is convenient.

1. It has a ridge-type low-mountain


micro-terrain. The construction
conditions are great. A few country
roads are available for use. There
are a few villages.

2. Highway No4 passes through the


wind farm and the area is near a city.
The traffic conditions are convenient.
External transportation conditions
are good without restrictions.

30

30

30

1. It has a low-gentle-mountain terrain,


and the mountaintop is beneficial to
form better wind energy conditions.
The altitude of the wind farm is within
2200m-2300m.

1. The central area of the wind farm is


about 13km away from the 230kV
substation in Mekele, so the electric
energy of wind farm can be
transmitted to the 230kV substation in
Mekele and the access conditions
are very convenient.

1. The topographic undulation within


the wind farm is slightly greater with
a broken terrain locally. The area is
dominated by wastelands and
farmlands. Highway No1 passes
through the area and some country
roads are available for use.

2. It is next to Mekele and the


consumption is convenient. The
electric energy of wind farm can also
be transmitted outward together with
hydropower by the 230kV backbone
network and is suitable for large-scale
development.

2. The condition of the highway for


external transportation is not good.
The highway shall pass through
mountainous areas with restricted
sections locally

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions.
The annual average wind speed of the
on-site wind mast is about 8m/s at
40m high, which indicates that this
wind farm has excellent wind
resources conditions and is suitable
for large-scale development.
30

30

1. On the margin of the terrace in the


west of East African Great Rift Valley,
flat, good for generating proper wind
energy conditions, ASL:
2820m~2910m.

1. With 230kV transmission line but


without substation nearby; directly
connected to grid of the capital, a little
longer distance for sending.

2. According to the numerical

2. About 65km from load center of the

204

20
1. The wind farm has better terrain
conditions with farmlands dominated
basically, low population density and
better construction conditions. There
are some country roads distributed
in the wind farm.
2. The wind farm is located on the

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

100

10

The wind farm


is closer to an
airport, so it is
necessary to
further verify
whether the
construction of
the wind farm
have an impact
on aviation.

85

5
Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

88

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

simulation analysis, this wind farm has


better wind resources conditions and
is suitable for large-scale
development, but there is no wind
mast data around it.
Weight scores

F4

Chacha wind
farm

Weight scores

F5

F6

Phase I Iteya
wind farm

23
1. It is located on the edge of the
terrace on the west side of Great Rift
Valley and has a gentle-hill terrain,
which is beneficial to form better wind
energy conditions. The altitude of the
wind farm is about 2900m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
is suitable for large-scale
development, but no wind mast data
around it.
23
1. It is located on the edge of the high
terrace on the east of Great Rift Valley
and the wind farm is flat, which is
relatively beneficial to form enrichment
of wind resources. The altitude of the
wind farm is within 2180m-2200m.
2. According to numerical simulation
analysis and site wind observations,
there's advantageous wind resource
condition, with potential for large-scale
development.

Weight scores

30

Sulalta wind
farm

1. It is a plateau mountain wind farm


with a north-south ridge, which is
beneficial to form enrichment of wind
resources. The altitude of the wind
farm is about 3000m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has

capital, strong power absorption


capacity

west side of National Highway No1


and the conditions of access roads
are better. Highway No1 leads to the
capital. External transportation
conditions are convenient without
restrictions.

25

30

1. With 230kV transmission line


nearby, with 132kV substation of
Debre Birhan accessible; about 20km
for sending

1. The wind farm has better terrain


conditions with farmlands dominated
basically, low population density,
better construction conditions and
common traffic conditions with some
country roads but no major highway
distributed.

2. The wind farm is about 20km away


from Debre Birhan and about 95km
away from the main load centre of the
capital. The consumption is
convenient.

2. The conditions of access roads


are better and it is about 8km away
from the major roads. External
transportation conditions are
convenient without restrictions.

23

30

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be directly transmitted to the
230KV substation in Koka which is
about 36km away.

1. It has a flat-farmland micro-terrain.


The construction conditions are
great. A few country roads are
available for use. There are a few
villages.

2. The electric energy can be


transmitted outward to the capital for
consumption by the 230kV lines.

2. Highway No8 is next to the wind


farm. The traffic conditions are
convenient. External transportation
conditions are good without
restrictions.

25

30

1. It is next to the key substation in


Sulalta, so the outward transmission
conditions are convenient.

1. It is a mountain wind farm and the


construction in the area is slightly
difficult. The area is dominated by
wastelands and woodlands.

2. The electric energy is transmitted to


the capital load centre. The

2. Highway 3 is on the west side of


the wind farm with a distance of

205

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

86

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

95

10
Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

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Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

better wind resources conditions and


is worthy of large-scale development.
There is no wind mast on site.

Weight scores

F7

Gondar West
wind farm

Weight scores

F8

Imdibir wind
farm

28
1. It is the located on the north-south
chine on the west side of Gondar and
has a mountain terrain, which is
beneficial to form enrichment of wind
energy. The altitude of the wind farm
is within 2230m-2650m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions. The
annual average wind speed of the
on-site wind mast is about 6.2m/s at
10m high, which indicates that this
wind farm is suitable for scale
development.
25
1. It is a wind farm with plateau
ridge-type mountain terrain on the
west side of Great Rift Valley, which is
greatly beneficial to form enrichment
of wind resources. The altitude of the
wind farm is within 2380m-2800m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions
and is worthy of large-scale
development. There is no wind mast
on site.

Weight scores
F9

Dire Dawa
wind farm

27
1. It is a low mountain wind farm and
the topographic undulation is slightly
greater, which is beneficial to form
better wind energy conditions. The

consumption is convenient.

30
1. The electric energy of wind farm
can be transmitted to the 230KV
substation in Gondar. The outward
transmission distance is about 3km.

2. The electric energy can be


consumed by Gonder or transmitted
outward to Sudan in future.

25
1. The electric energy of wind farm
can be transmitted to the 230kV
substation in Weltike on the west. The
linear distance of outward
transmission is about 32km and the
outward transmission conditions are
convenient.
2. The electric energy enters the main
network through the 230kV substation
in Weltike and is transmitted to the
capital. The consumption is relatively
convenient. It can also adjust the
output, combined with Gilgel Gibe
Hydropower Station.
25
1. The wind farm is near Dire Dawa
and the electric energy of it can be
transmitted to the 230kV local
substation. The outward transmission

206

about 7km. The construction of


access road is slightly difficult and
the road has greater gradient locally.
External transportation conditions
are better without restrictions.
24
1. It is a mountain wind farm and the
construction in the area is slightly
difficult. The area is dominated by
farmlands and there are a few
villages. The amount of construction
roads works is slightly greater.
2. The mileage of the highway for
external transportation is longer. The
highway shall pass through more
mountainous areas with restricted
sections locally.
22
1. It is a low-gentle-mountain wind
farm with better mountain
consistency. The construction
conditions are better. Some country
roads are available for use. The area
is dominated by farmlands and there
are also a few woodlands and
villages.
2. A highway is on the south side of
the wind farm. The access road is
about 16km long. External
transportation conditions are better
without restrictions.
28
1. It has a low-mountain hilly
micro-terrain. No existing roads in
the area are available for use. It is
next to a city and the overall

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

82

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

10
An airport is
nearby, so it is
necessary to
further evaluate

90

91

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

altitude of the wind farm is within


1300m-1350m. The land surface is
dominated by grasslands and
wastelands.

Weight scores

F10

Dilla East
wind farm

Weight scores

F11

Mekele North
wind farm

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions
and huge development potential.
There is no wind mast on site.
28
1. It has a plateau terrain on the east
side of Great Rift Valley and on the
east side of Dilla and the topography
within the wind farm undulates slightly,
which is relatively beneficial to form
enrichment of wind resources. The
altitude of the wind farm is within
2400m-2900m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
wonderful wind resources conditions
and large-scale development
potential. There is no wind mast on
site.
28

1. Raised terrace and gentle relief are


good for generating proper wind
energy conditions. ASL:
2200m~2400m

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions.
The annual average wind speed of the
on-site wind mast is about 6.5m/s at

distance is only less than 2km. with


excellent outward transmission
conditions. It is at the end of the
eastern part of the grid, so the load
flow transmission of the main network
can be reduced.

construction conditions are better.


The area is dominated by sparse
wastelands and has no residents
basically.

30

2. The wind farm is near a city. The


traffic conditions are convenient. The
condition of the road for external
transportation is slightly bad without
restrictions.
28

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 132kV local
substation in Dilla or transmitted
outward to the 400kV substation in
Soddo which is about 88km away.
The outward transmission conditions
are relatively excellent.

1. It has a low-mountain hilly


micro-terrain. The construction is
easier. The conditions of existing
roads in the area are worse. The
area is dominated by farmlands and
woodlands. The population density
is lower.

2. The electric energy can enter the


400kV backbone network. The
outward transmission ability is
stronger. The electric energy can be
transmitted outward to the capital or
Kenya for consumption.
28

2. Highway 6 is next to the west side


of the wind farm. The access road is
about 10km long with greater
gradient locally. External
transportation conditions are better
without restrictions.
30
1. The overall terrain within the wind
farm does not undulate greatly with
steeper slopes locally. The area is
dominated by grasslands and
wastelands. Highway No1 passes
through the area and some country
roads are available for use. The
overall construction conditions are
better.
2. The condition of the highway for
external transportation is not good.
The highway shall pass through
mountainous areas with restricted
sections locally

2. The wind farm is next to the load


centers of Harar and Dire Dawa. The
consumption is convenient.

1. The wind farm area is only 2km


away from the 230kV substation in
Mekele, so the electric energy of wind
farm can be transmitted to the 230kV
substation in Mekele and the access
conditions are very convenient.
2. It is next to the load center of
Mekele and the consumption is
convenient. The electric energy of
wind farm can also transmitted
outward together with hydropower by

207

Others
Weight
percent.: 10%
the impact of
the construction
of wind farm on
aviation.

Score
100

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

96

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

85

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Weight scores

F12

Debre Markos
East wind
farm

Weight scores

F13

Soddo wind
farm

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

40m high, which indicates that this


wind farm is suitable for large-scale
development.
25
1. It is located on the edge of the
plateau terrace on the southeast side
of Debre Markos and the windward
terrain is beneficial to form enrichment
of wind resources. The wind farm is
flat and the altitude of it is within
2300m-2350m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
is worthy of large-scale development.
There is no wind mast on site.
23
1. It has a plateau-hill terrain on the
west side of Great Rift Valley and the
topography within the wind farm
undulates slightly, which is relatively
beneficial to form enrichment of wind
resources. The altitude of the wind
farm is within 1650m-2050m.

the 230kV backbone network and is


suitable for large-scale development.
30

20

10

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 400kV local
key substation and transmitted
outward together with hydropower.
The access conditions are very
convenient.

1. The overall terrain within the wind


farm is flat and does not undulate
greatly. The area is dominated by
farmlands and there are more
villages. The construction is easier.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
common wind resources conditions
and is worthy of development. There is
no wind mast on site.
Weight scores

F14

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Sendafa
North wind
farm

18

2. The electric energy can be


consumed by Gonder or transmitted
outward together with hydropower to
the capital or Sudan by the backbone
network.
30

2. Long mileage of external highway,


restriction for passing Blue Nile
24

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted outward to the
400kV substation in Soddo. The
outward transmission distance is
about 18km and the outward
transmission conditions are excellent.

1. It has a hilly micro-terrain. The


construction conditions are better.
Only a few country roads are
available for use. The area is
dominated by farmlands and
woodlands. There are more villages.

2. The electric energy can enter the


400kV backbone network. The
outward transmission ability is
stronger. The electric energy can be
transmitted outward to the capital or
Kenya for consumption.

2. The wind farm is near Highway


No41. External transportation
conditions are better without
restrictions.

30

1. On the margin of terrace, low and


gentle hilly area, good for generating
proper wind energy conditions, ASL:
2850m~3100m

1. With 230kV transmission line but


without substation nearby; directly
connected to grid of the capital, a little
longer distance for sending.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and

2. The wind farm is about 40km away


from the capital load centre. The
distance is shorter and the
208

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

87

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

26

10

1. The wind farm has better terrain


conditions with farmlands
dominated, low population density,
better construction conditions and
common road conditions with no
major highway.
2. The conditions of access roads
are better and it is about 10km away
from the major highway. The major

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

84

88

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

is suitable for large-scale


development, but there is no wind
mast data around it.
Weight scores

F15

Sendafa
South wind
farm

Weight scores

F16

F17

Gondar North
Wind farm

23

consumption is convenient.

25

1. Flat with less relief, good for


generating proper wind energy
conditions, ASL: 2500m~2600m.

1. With 230kV transmission line but


without substation nearby; directly
connected to grid of the capital, a little
longer distance for sending.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
is suitable for large-scale
development, but there is no wind
mast data around it.

2. The wind farm is about 40km away


from the capital load centre. The
distance is short and the consumption
is convenient.

23

25

1. It is located on the edge of the


plateau terrace along Highway 3 on
the north side of Gondar and the
topographic prominence is beneficial
to form enrichment of wind resources.
The altitude of the wind farm is within
2800m-2900m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions
and is suitable for large-scale
development. There is no wind mast
data on site.

Weight scores

28

Phase II Iteya
wind farm

1. It is located on the edge of the high


terrace on the east of Great Rift Valley
and the wind farm is flat, which is
relatively beneficial to form enrichment
of wind resources. The altitude of the

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 230KV
substation in Gondar. The outward
transmission distance is about 33km.

2. The electric energy can be


consumed by Gonder or transmitted
outward to Sudan in future.
20
1. The electric energy of wind farm
can be directly transmitted to the
230KV substation in KOKA which is
about 42km away.

209

highway leads to the capital.


External transportation conditions
are convenient without restrictions.
30

10

1. The wind farm has better terrain


conditions with farmlands
dominated, low population density,
better construction conditions and
common road conditions with no
major highway.
2. The conditions of access roads
are better and the center of the wind
farm is about 4km away from the
major highway. The major highway
leads to the capital, with a distance
of no more than 100km. External
transportation conditions are
convenient without restrictions.

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

30

10

1. The overall terrain within the wind


farm is flat with slightly greater
undulation locally. The area is
dominated by farmlands and there
are slightly more villages. Highway 3
is on the west side of the wind farm.
The construction conditions in the
area are better.
2. The condition of the highway for
external transportation is complex
with longer transport mileage. The
highway shall pass through more
mountainous areas with restricted
sections locally.

As preliminarily
learned, there's
no sensitive
objective but
numerous
dwellings.

24

1. It has a flat-farmland micro-terrain.


The construction conditions are
great. A few country roads are
available for use. There are a few
villages.

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target

88

80

95

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

wind farm is within 2100m-2150m.


2. According to numerical simulation
analysis and site wind observations,
there's advantageous wind resource
condition, with potential for large-scale
development.
Weight scores

F18

BuI East wind


farm

Weight scores

F19

Aysha wind
farm

30
1. It has a north-south ridge-type
terrain on the west side of Great Rift
Valley, which is beneficial to form
enrichment of wind resources. The
altitude of the wind farm is within
2200m-2500m.
2. According to numerical simulation
analysis and data from anemometer
tower around, there's good wind
resource condition, with potential for
large-scale development. There's no
anemometer tower in the site.
23
1. It has a low-gentle-hill terrain in
plains and the topography within the
wind farm undulates slightly. The land
surface is dominated by wastelands.
The altitude of the wind farm is within
700m-750m.
2. According to numerical simulation
analysis and site wind observations,
there's advantageous wind resource
condition, with huge development
potential.

F20

Weight scores

30

Phase I Bolo
wind farm

1. It is located on the plateau terrace


on the east of Great Rift Valley and the
wind farm is flat and open, which is
beneficial to form enrichment of wind

2. The electric energy can be


transmitted outward to the capital for
consumption by the 230kV lines.
25
1. Weak grid conditions, support
sending to 132kV substation of
Butajira by a distance about 27km, or
to the capital by building transmission
line.

2. Sending is required due to limited


digestion capacity of local grid.

20

1. The site has not been covered by


grid. Its access to grid depends on
future building of sending line.

2. Power can be sent to Djibouti for


digestion. However, capacity of such
digestion is limited.
15
1. Support sending to 132kV
substation of Awash II hydropower
station or to the capital by building
transmission line.

210

2. Highway 8 is next to the wind


farm. The traffic conditions are
convenient. External transportation
conditions are good without
restrictions.
30
1. It has a ridge-type terrain. The
construction conditions are better.
Some country roads are available for
use. The area is dominated by
farmlands and there are also a few
woodlands. The population density
is not high.
2. Highway 9 is on the west side of
the wind farm with a distance of
about 2km. The condition of access
road is better. External
transportation conditions are better
without restrictions.

Others
Weight
percent.: 10%
in the wind
farm.

Score
100

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

30

10

1. It has a small-hill micro-terrain. No


existing roads in the area are
available for use. The terrain does
not undulate greatly. The
construction is easy. The vegetation
density of the area is low. There is
no resident basically. The overall
construction conditions are better.
2. There is a highway directly
leading to Djibouti Port within the
wind farm. The external traffic
conditions are convenient without
restrictions.

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm. But the
wind farm
temperature is
high, and there
are more
requirements
for wind turbine.

30

1. It has a flat-farmland micro-terrain.


The construction conditions are
great. A few country roads are
available for use. There are a few

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no

83

83

90

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

resources. The altitude of the wind


farm is within 2400m-2450m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions
and huge large-scale development
potential. There is no wind mast on
site.
Weight scores

F21

F22

28

villages.

2. Power must be sent to the capital


for digestion.

22

1. It has a raised terrace in plains and


the wind farm is flat. The land surface
is dominated by deserts. The altitude
of the wind farm is within 450m-630m.

1. Power can be sent through local


230kV substation. However, access
capacity is limited.

2. According to numerical simulation


analysis and site wind observations,
there's good wind resource condition.

2. Given limited digestion capacity,


power must be sent. The site is far
from load center, thus distance of
sending is longer, which brings
heavier loss.

Diche Oto
wind farm

Weight scores

25

Bahir Dar
wind farm

1. It is located on the plains on the


east side of Lake Tana. Low and
gentle hills are the dominant terrain
within the wind farm, which is suitable
for wind farm construction. The
altitude of the wind farm is within
1880m-2140m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
common wind resources conditions
and is worthy of development. There is
no wind mast on site.

Weight scores

18

2. Highway No8 is about 20km away


from the west side of the wind farm.
There is a gravel road leading to the
wind farm. The traffic conditions are
convenient but the access road has
greater gradient locally. External
transportation conditions are good
without restrictions.
30
1. It has a flatland micro-terrain on a
terrace. The area is flat. No existing
roads are available for use, except
for the National Roads. The overall
construction conditions are
excellent. The vegetation density of
the area is low. There is no resident
basically.
2. There is a highway directly
leading to Djibouti Port within the
wind farm. The external traffic
conditions are convenient without
restrictions.

15

30

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 400kV key
substation in Bahir Dar. The outward
transmission distance is about 11km
and the outward transmission
conditions are excellent.

1. The overall terrain within the wind


farm is flat with slightly greater
undulation locally. The area is
dominated by farmlands and there
are more villages.

2. The electric energy can be


consumed by Gonder or transmitted
outward together with hydropower to
the capital or Sudan by the backbone
network.

2. The mileage of the highway for


external transportation is longer. The
highway shall pass through more
mountainous areas with restricted
sections locally.

30

24

211

Others
Weight
percent.: 10%
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

10
Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm. But the
wind farm
temperature is
higher, and
there are more
requirements
for wind
turbines.

Score
100

78

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

10

82

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

F23

Name

Assela wind
farm

Weight scores

F24

Jacho wind
farm

Weight scores

F25

Phase II Bolo
wind farm

Weight scores

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 132KV
substation in Assela or directly
transmitted to the 230KV substation in
KOKA which is about 55km away.

1. It has a flat-farmland micro-terrain.


The construction conditions are
great. A few country roads are
available for use. There are a few
villages.

2. Part of the electric energy can be


consumed locally and the other part
can be transmitted outward to the
capital for consumption.

2. Highway 8 is next to the wind


farm. The traffic conditions are
convenient. External transportation
conditions are good without
restrictions.

1. It is located on the edge of the high


terrace on the east of Great Rift Valley
and the wind farm is flat, which is
relatively beneficial to form enrichment
of wind resources. The altitude of the
wind farm is within 2100m-2200m.
2. According to numerical simulation
analysis and data from anemometer
tower around, there's advantageous
wind resource condition, with potential
for large-scale development. There's
no anemometer mast in the site.
28
1. It has a plateau-terrace terrain on
the west side of Great Rift Valley and
the topography within the wind farm
does not undulate greatly, which is
greatly beneficial to form enrichment
of wind resources. The altitude of the
wind farm is within 1600m-2800m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
common wind resources conditions
and is worthy of development. There is
no wind mast on site.
18
1. It is located on the plateau terrace
on the east of Great Rift Valley and the
wind farm is flat and open, which is
beneficial to form enrichment of wind
resources. The altitude of the wind
farm is within 2500m-2600m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions
and huge large-scale development
potential. There is no wind mast on
site.
28

25

1. Power can be sent to Gilgel Gibe III


hydropower station, but the distance
is longer.

2. Given local digestion capacity is


limited, power from the site can be
sent together with power from
hydropower station, and adjusted by
hydropower station.
25

30
1. It has a hilly terrain on a big
terrace. The construction conditions
are better. Only a few country roads
are available for use. The area is
dominated by farmlands and
woodlands. The village density is
slightly high.
2. The wind farm is about 20km
away from Highway 9. There is an
unhardened road leading to the wind
farm. External transportation are
better without restrictions.
20

1. New line is needed to send power


to Koka substation or the capital.

1. It has a flat-farmland micro-terrain.


The construction conditions are
great. A few country roads are
available for use. There are a few
villages.

2. Power must be sent to the capital


for digestion.

2. Highway No8 is about 20km away


from the west side of the wind farm.
There is a gravel road leading to the
wind farm. The traffic conditions are
convenient but the access road has
greater gradient locally. External
transportation conditions are good.

22

212

30

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

93

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

73

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

10

90

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Conditions of wind energy and
solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Name

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

Hula wind
farm

1. It has a raised plateau-terrace


terrain and the north-south distribution
is beneficial to form enrichment of
wind resources. The altitude of the
wind farm is within 2200m-2500m.
There is lots of vegetation within the
wind farm.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
common wind resources conditions
and is worthy of development. There is
no wind mast on site.

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to Fincha
Hydropower Station nearby and
transmitted outward together with
hydropower. The outward
transmission distance is about 26km.

1. The overall terrain within the wind


farm is flat and does not undulate
greatly. The area is dominated by
farmlands and there are more
villages. The road conditions in the
area are worse and no major roads
are available for use.

2. The electric energy is mainly


transmitted outward together with
hydropower to the capital or Sudan by
the backbone network.

2. The site is far from major highway


and poor for entry. External highway
is long and passes many hilly
sections, restricted in local sections.

20

18
1. It has a low-mountain hilly
micro-terrain. The construction is
easier. The conditions of existing
roads in the area are worse. The
area is dominated by sparse
wastelands and there are also a few
farmlands and woodlands. The
population density is lower.
2. Highway 6 is next to the east side
of the wind farm. The traffic
conditions are convenient and the
condition of access road is better.
External transportation conditions
are better without restrictions.

Project site
Type

No.

F26

Weight scores

F27

Dilla West
wind farm

Weight scores

F28

Dangla wind
farm

16
1. It is located on the edge of the
plateau terrace on the east side of
Great Rift Valley and the topography
within the wind farm undulates slightly,
which is relatively beneficial to form
enrichment of wind resources. The
altitude of the wind farm is within
1450m-1700m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions
and large-scale development
potential. There is no wind mast on
site.
28

1. It is on both sides of Highway 3 on


the south side of Dangla and has a
plateau terrain. The wind farm is flat
and the altitude of it is within about
2200m-2500m.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
common wind resources conditions

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 132kV local
substation in Dilla or transmitted
outward to the 400kV substation in
Soddo which is about 66km away.
The outward transmission conditions
are relatively excellent.
2. The electric energy can enter the
400kV backbone network. The
outward transmission ability is
stronger. The electric energy can be
transmitted outward to the capital or
Kenya for consumption.
28
1. The voltage level of the local power
grid in the area where the wind farm is
located is too low to meet the outward
transmission requirements of wind
power. The electric energy of wind
farm can be transmitted to the 400kV
key substation in Bahir Dar. The
outward transmission distance is
about 70km.
2. Given local limited digestion
capacity, power must be sent together
with hydropower through backbone

213

30

1. The overall terrain within the wind


farm is flat and does not undulate
greatly. The area is dominated by
farmlands and there are more
villages. The construction is easier.

2. The mileage of the highway for


external transportation is longer. The
highway shall pass through more

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

64

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

96

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

67

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Weight scores

F29

Debre Markos
West wind
farm

Weight scores

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

and is worthy of development. There is


no wind mast on site.
18
1. It is located on the edge of the
plateau terrace on the southwest side
of Debre Markos and the windward
terrain is beneficial to form enrichment
of wind resources. The terrain of the
wind farm does not undulate greatly
and the altitude of it is within
2100m-2350m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
is worthy of large-scale development.
There is no wind mast on site.
23
1. It has a plateau-mountain terrain,
which is beneficial to form enrichment
of wind resources. The altitude of the
wind farm is within 2180m-2550m.

F30

F31

network.
15
1. The electric energy of wind farm
can be transmitted to the 400kV local
key substation and transmitted
outward together with hydropower.
The access conditions are very
convenient.

1. The overall terrain within the wind


farm is flat and does not undulate
greatly. The area is dominated by
farmlands and there are more
villages. The construction is easier.

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

2. The electric energy can be


consumed by Gonder or transmitted
outward together with hydropower to
the capital or Sudan by the backbone
network.

2. Long mileage of external highway,


restriction for passing Blue Nile.

30

24

10

1. It is a low-mountain wind farm and


the topographic undulation is slightly
greater. The area is dominated by
wastelands and the village
distribution is scattered. The road
conditions in the area are worse and
no major roads are available for use.
2. Highway 5 is on the south side of
the wind farm with a distance of
about 3km. The access road has
greater gradient locally. The mileage
of the highway for external
transportation is longer. The
highway shall pass through more
mountainous areas with restricted
sections locally.

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 230kV
substation in Addis Alem and
transmitted outward to the capital.

Ambo Wind
farm
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
is worthy of large-scale development.
There is no wind mast on site.

mountainous areas with restricted


sections locally.
24

2. The electric energy is mainly


transmitted outward to the capital for
consumption.

Weight scores

22

20

20

10

Babile wind
farm

1. It is located on the low and gentle


mountains in the southeast of Harar
and the topography undulates slightly,
which is beneficial to form better wind
energy conditions. The altitude of the
wind farm is within 1550m-1620m.

1. The wind farm is over 30km away


from the 132kV substation in Harar.
The outward transmission distance is
slightly long and the outward
transmission capacity may be
restricted.

1. It has a low-gentle-mountain
micro-terrain and the terrain does
not undulate greatly. The area is
dominated by farmlands and there
are a few country roads. The overall
construction conditions are good.

The planning
area may
coincide with
the protected
area, so it is
necessary to

214

87

72

56

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
huge development potential. There is
no wind mast on site.
Weight scores

F32

Dabat wind
farm

Weight scores

F33

Phase I
Weldiya wind
farm

23
1. On the raised plateau in the
southeast of Dabat, microtopography:
low and gentle hilly area, good for
enrichment on hilltopASL:
2500m~2600m.
2. According to simulation analysis
and data from anemometer tower
around, there's good wind resource
condition, with potential for large-scale
development. There's no anemometer
tower in the site. There's no data from
anemometer tower in the site.
28
1. On the margin of the terrace in the
west of East African Great Rift Valley,
low and gentle hilly area with
individual wide relief, good for
generating proper wind energy
conditions, ASL: 3300~3500m.

2. According to numerical simulation


analysis and data from anemometer
tower around, there's moderate wind
resource condition, supporting
development to some extent.
Weight scores

15

2. The wind farm is near the load


centers of Harar and Dire Dawa. The
consumption is convenient.

23

There are some villages.


2. The wind farm is near Highway
NO4. The access traffic conditions
convenient. The road for external
transportation shall pass through
mountainous with greater camber
and gradient in many sections.
Transportation of large-scale
equipments cannot be achieved.
5

1. Lower voltage class of grid around


can't support sending of wind power.
Sending to 230kV substation of
Gonder by a distance about 60km
needs line of higher voltage class.

1. Landform of the site is a little bitty


with local slight relief. Most of the
site is farmland, with not a few
villages. There's 3# highway to the
west of the wind farm.

2. Local power absorption capacity is


very limited.

2. External highway is complicated


and long and passes many hilly
sections, restricted in local sections.

15

20

1. A 230kV high-voltage line passes


through the wind farm, so the electric
energy can be transmitted to the
backbone network by T connection. It
can be transmitted outward together
with the electric energy of Tisaba
Hydropower Station, or directly
transmitted outward to Weldiya, finally
entering local power grid.
2. The electric energy of wind farm is
transmitted to the backbone network,
so the outward transmission and
consumption are relatively
convenient. But the power
transmission distance is relatively
longer and the loss rate is higher.
25

215

1. The terrain within the wind farm


does not undulate greatly. The area
is basically dominated by grasslands
and wastelands and there are also
some farmlands. The population
density is not high. Some major
highways pass through the area.

2. There are many hill roads and


high slope in some sections of
external highway. Besides the poor
transport conditions, transport cost is
high.
20

Others
Weight
percent.: 10%
make further
verification.

Score
100

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

68

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

10

70

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

F34

Name

Gondar East
wind farm

Weight scores

F36

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

1. It has a low-mountain, gentle-hill


and terraced terrain, which is
beneficial to form better wind energy
conditions. The altitude of the wind
farm is about 3500m.

1. A 230kV high-voltage line passes


through the wind farm, so the electric
energy can be transmitted to the
backbone network by T connection. It
can be transmitted outward together
with the electric energy of TISABA
Hydropower Station, or can be
directly transmitted to Weldiya, finally
entering local power grid.

1. The terrain within the wind farm


does not undulate greatly. The area
is basically dominated by grasslands
and wastelands and there are also
some farmlands. The population
density is not high. Some major
highways pass through the area.

2. According to numerical simulation


analysis and data from anemometer
tower around, there's moderate wind
resource condition, supporting
development to some extent.

2. The electric energy of wind farm is


transmitted to the backbone network,
so the outward transmission and
consumption are relatively
convenient. But the power
transmission distance is relatively
longer and the loss rate is higher.

2. The external access highway


passes through an uphill mountain
road with greater gradient and more
curves, so the transportation
conditions are worse. The highway
shall also pass through a tunnel.
There are constraints and the cost of
reconstruction works is higher.

15

25

20

1. It is the located on the raised


plateau terraces on the east side of
Gondar and the terrain is beneficial to
form enrichment of wind resources.
The altitude of the wind farm is within
2650m-2740m.

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 230KV
substation in Gondar. The outward
transmission distance is about 16km.

1. The overall terrain within the wind


farm is flat with slightly greater
undulation locally. The area is
dominated by farmlands and has a
small population.

Phase II
Weldiya wind
farm

Weight scores

F35

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Rufa'el wind
farm

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
is suitable for large-scale
development. There is no wind mast
data on site.
23
1. It is located on the plateau terrace
on the northeast side of Lake Tana
and the topographic prominence is
beneficial to form enrichment of wind
energy. The terrain within the wind
farm does not undulate greatly and the
altitude of it is within 2650m-3000m.

2. The electric energy can be


consumed by Gonder or transmitted
outward to Sudan in future.

20
1. The electric energy of wind farm
can be transmitted to the 230KV
substation in Gondar. The outward
transmission distance is about 42km.

216

2. The condition of the access


highway is complex with greater
gradient locally. It is further away
from the major highway and the
mileage of the highway for external
transportation is longer. The
highway shall pass through more
mountainous areas with restricted
sections locally.
20
1. The overall terrain within the wind
farm is flat with slightly greater
undulation locally. The area is
dominated by farmlands and has a
small population.

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

70

10

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

10
Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

73

73

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
is suitable for large-scale
development. There is no wind mast
on site.
Weight scores

F37

Debre Birhan
wind farm

Weight scores

F38

Bale wind
farm

23

20

1. It has a terraced terrain and is


located on the edge of the salient
terrace on the west side of Great Rift
Valley, which is greatly beneficial to
form better wind energy conditions.
The altitude of the wind farm is
3000m-3500m.

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 132kV
substation in Debre Birhan. The
outward transmission project has a
distance of about 20km.

2. According to numerical simulation


analysis and data from anemometer
tower around, there's moderate wind
resource condition, supporting
development to some extent.

2. The wind farm is about 20km away


from Debre Birhan and about 125km
away from the capital load centre. The
consumption is convenient.

15
1. It has a plateau-mountain terrain on
the west side of Great Rift Valley and
the topography within the wind farm
undulates greatly, which is relatively
beneficial to form enrichment of wind
resources. The altitude of the wind
farm is within 2290m-2600m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
common wind resources conditions
and is worthy of development. There is
no wind mast on site.

Weight scores

2. The electric energy can be


consumed by Gonder or transmitted
outward to Sudan in future.

18

23
1. In future, the electric energy of wind
farm can be transmitted to the G.Gibi
III Hydropower Station under
construction and transmitted outward
together with hydropower. It is about
12km away from the Hydropower
Station. The outward transmission
conditions are convenient.
2. The electric energy can enter the
400kV backbone network. The
outward transmission ability is
stronger. The electric energy can be
transmitted outward to the capital or
Kenya for consumption.
30

217

2. The condition of the access


highway is complex with greater
gradient locally. It is further away
from the major highway and the
mileage of the highway for external
transportation is longer. The
highway shall pass through more
mountainous areas with restricted
sections locally.
20
1. The topographic undulation within
the wind farm is slightly greater.
There are farmlands and woodlands
in the area and the population
density is common. Some highways
pass through part of the area and the
construction volume of the roads in
the area is slightly greater.
2. The conditions of access roads
are better and it is about 10km away
from Highway 1. External
transportation conditions are
convenient without restrictions.
25
1. It has a plateau-mountain terrain.
The construction is slightly difficult.
The traffic conditions are worse. The
area is dominated by farmlands and
woodlands. There are a few villages.
2. The major asphalt highway is
about 3km away from the north side
of the wind farm. The roads for
external transportation shall go
through mountainous areas with
restricted sections locally.
20

10

Some forest
reserves may
be involved in
the wind farm,
so it is
necessary to
make further
verification.

68

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

10

78

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

F39

Name

Harar West
wind farm

Weight scores

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

1. It has a low-gentle-mountain terrain


and the topography does not undulate
greatly, which is beneficial to form
better wind energy conditions. The
altitude of the wind farm is within
1900m-2200m.

1. The wind farm is about 10km away


from the 132kV substation in Harar.
The outward transmission conditions
are better but the outward
transmission capacity may be
restricted.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
huge development potential. There is
no wind mast on site.

2. The wind farm is near the load


centers of Harar and Dire Dawa. The
consumption is convenient.

1. It has a low-mountain
micro-terrain. The area is dominated
by farmlands and there are a few
country roads. The overall
construction conditions are better.
There are some villages.
2. The wind farm is near Highway 4.
The access conditions are better and
the traffic conditions are convenient.
The road for external transportation
shall pass through mountainous
areas with greater camber and
gradient in many sections.
Transportation of large-scale
equipments cannot be achieved.

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

25

25

10

1. It has a gentle-mountain
micro-terrain with steeper slopes
locally. The area is dominated by
sparse woodlands and there are also
a few farmlands and villages. The
construction conditions are relatively
better.
2. The wind farm is near Highway 4.
The access conditions are better and
the traffic conditions are convenient.
The road for external transportation
shall pass through mountainous
areas with greater camber and
gradient in many sections.
Transportation of large-scale
equipments cannot be achieved.

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
some forest
reserves may
be involved
around the wind
farm, so it is
necessary to
make further
verification.

1. It is located on the low and gentle


mountains in the northeast of Harar
and the topographic undulation is
slightly greater, which is beneficial to
form better wind energy conditions.
The altitude of the wind farm is within
1750m-2000m.
F40

Harar East
wind farm

Weight scores

F41

1. The wind farm is about 10km away


from the 132kV substation in Harar.
The outward transmission conditions
are better but the outward
transmission capacity may be
restricted.

Jijiga wind
farm

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
huge development potential. There is
no wind mast on site.

2. The wind farm is near the load


centers of Harar and Dire Dawa. The
consumption is convenient.

23

25

1. It is located on the low and gentle


north-south chine in the west of Jijiga,
which is beneficial to form better wind
energy conditions. The altitude of the
wind farm is within 1950m-2250m.

1. The wind farm is at the end of the


eastern part of the State Grid, so the
outward transmission capacity may
be restricted.

218

1. It has a mountain micro-terrain


with better mountain consistency.
But the construction of the roads in
the area is slightly difficult. The
vegetation density of the area is not
high. No existing roads are available
for use. The overall construction

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

65

58

65

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

2. According to numerical simulation


analysis and site wind observations,
there's advantageous wind resource
condition, with huge development
potential.

Weight scores

F42

Durame wind
farm

Weight scores

F43

Debre Sina
wind farm

30

2. Sending is required due to limited


digestion capacity of local grid.

20

conditions are slightly bad.


2. The wind farm is near Highway 4.
The access conditions are better and
the traffic conditions are convenient.
The road for external transportation
shall pass through mountainous
areas with greater camber and
gradient in many sections.
Transportation of large-scale
equipments cannot be achieved.
5

10
Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm. But there
are more
residents, so
please pay
attention to
avoiding the
impact such as
turbine noise on
residents.

1. It has a low-gentle-hill terrain on the


west side of Great Rift Valley, which is
relatively beneficial to form enrichment
of wind resources. The altitude of the
wind farm is within 2300m-2500m.

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 230kV
substation in Alaba on the east. The
linear distance of outward
transmission is about 30km.

1. It has a low-gentle-hill terrain. The


construction conditions are better.
Some country roads are available for
use. The area is dominated by
farmlands and woodlands. The
village density is high.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
common wind resources conditions
and is worthy of development. There is
no wind mast on site.

2. The electric energy can be


consumed by local power grid and it
can also enter the main network for
outward transmission through Weltike
Substation.

2. Highway 9 is near the west side of


the wind farm. The condition of
access road is better. External
transportation conditions are better
without restrictions.

18

20

1. On the margin of the terrace in the


west of East African Great Rift Valley,
low hilly area, ASL: 2800~3500m.

2. According to numerical simulation


analysis and data from anemometer
tower around, there's moderate wind
resource condition, supporting

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 132kV
substation in Debre Birhan. The
outward transmission project has a
distance of about 27km.

2. The wind farm is about 30km away


from Debre Birhan and about 135km
away from the capital load centre.
The consumption is convenient.

219

24

1. The terrain within the wind farm


does not undulate greatly. The area
is basically dominated by grasslands
and wastelands and there are also
some farmlands. The population
density is low. The construction
condition is common. Highway No1
passes through the area. However,
minor roads condition is worse.
2. The conditions of access roads
are better and external
transportation conditions are
convenient.

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

67

69

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

development to some extent.


Weight scores

F44

BuI West
wind farm

13
1. It is located on the edge of the
terrace uplifting gradually on the west
side of Great Rift Valley, with a high
terraced terrain, which is greatly
beneficial to form enrichment of wind
resources. The altitude of the wind
farm is within 2280m-2600m.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
common wind resources conditions
and is worthy of development. There is
no wind mast on site.
Weight scores

F45

Butajira wind
farm

Weight scores

23

23

23

10

1. Weak grid conditions, support


sending to 132kV substation of
Butajira by a distance about 30km
(with limited access capacity), or to
the capital by building transmission
line.

1. It has a low-gentle-hill terrain and


the terrain does not undulate greatly.
The construction conditions are
better. Some country roads are
available for use. The area is
dominated by farmlands and there
are also a few woodlands. There are
slightly more villages.

2. Sending is required due to limited


digestion capacity of local grid.

2. Highway 9 is on the west side of


the wind farm with a distance of
about 2km. The condition of access
road is better. External
transportation conditions are better
without restrictions.

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm. But there
are more
residents, so
please pay
attention to
avoiding the
impact of
factors such as
turbine noise on
residents.

20

25

1. It is located on the edge of the high


terrace on the west side of Great Rift
Valley, which is greatly beneficial to
form enrichment of wind resources.
The altitude of the wind farm is within
3200m-3400m.

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 132k
substation in Butajira. The outward
transmission distance is about 15km.

1. The area is relatively flat. The


construction conditions are better.
Some country roads are available for
use. The area is dominated by
farmlands and woodlands. There are
more villages.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
better wind resources conditions and
is worthy of large-scale development.
There is no wind mast on site.

2. It can supply power to local loads to


reduce the load flow of power grid.
But the consumption capacity is
limited.

2. Highway 9 is on the east side of


the wind farm. The access road is
about 30km long with greater
gradient in a few sections. External
transportation conditions are better
without restrictions.

23

20

220

28

73

5
Some forest
reserves may
be involved in
the wind farm,
so it is
necessary to
make further
verification.
Meanwhile,
there are more
residents in the
wind farm, so
please pay
attention to
avoiding the
impact such as
turbine noise on
residents.
3

74

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

F46

Name

Fonka West
wind farm

Weight scores

F47

Fonka East
wind farm

Weight scores

F48

Yabelo wind
farm

Weight scores

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

1. It is located in the hilly area on the


west side of Great Rift Valley, which is
beneficial to form enrichment of wind
resources. The altitude of the wind
farm is within 2300m-2550m.

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 132kV
substation in Hosaina on the west.
The linear distance of outward
transmission is about 12km.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
common wind resources conditions
and is worthy of development. There is
no wind mast on site.
18

2. The electric energy can be


consumed by local power grid and it
can also enter the main network for
outward transmission through Weltike
Substation.
20

1. It has a ridge-type terrain on the


west side of Great Rift Valley, which is
beneficial to form enrichment of wind
resources. The altitude of the wind
farm is within 2100m-2300m.

1. The electric energy of wind farm


can be transmitted to the 132kV
substation in Hosaina on the west.
The linear distance of outward
transmission is about 32km.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
common wind resources conditions
and is worthy of development. There is
no wind mast on site.

2. The electric energy can be


consumed by local power grid and it
can also enter the main network for
outward transmission through Weltike
Substation.

18

20

1. It is located in the low mountain


wind farm in the north of Yabelo,
which is relatively beneficial to form
enrichment of wind resources. The
altitude of the wind farm is within
2100m-2330m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions
and large-scale development
potential. There is no wind mast on
site.
27

1. There is no backbone network


covering the area, so it is difficult for
outward transmission. The power grid
conditions need to be improved in the
future.

1. It has a hilly terrain. Construction


conditions are better. Some country
roads are available for use. The area
is dominated by farmlands and there
are also a few woodlands. Village
density is high there.
2. Highway 9 is near the west side of
the wind farm. The condition of
access road is better. External
transportation conditions are better
without restrictions.
24
1. It has a ridge-type terrain. The
construction conditions are better.
Some country roads are available for
use. The area is dominated by
farmlands and there are also a few
woodlands. The population density
is not high.
2. Highway 9 is on the west side of
the wind farm with a distance of
about 2km. The condition of access
road is better. External
transportation conditions are better
without restrictions.
28
1. It has a low-mountain terrain with
better mountain consistency. The
construction is easy. The conditions
of existing roads in the area are
worse. The area is dominated by
sparse woodlands. The population
density is very low.

2. Local electric energy consumption


ability is very limited.

2. A grade highway passes through


the wind farm. The traffic conditions
are convenient. External
transportation conditions are better
without restrictions.

28

221

Others
Weight
percent.: 10%
There is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm. But there
are more
residents, so
need to
avoiding the
impact such as
turbine noise on
residents.
5

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

Score
100

67

76

10
Based on the
elementary
understanding,
some forest
reserves may
be involved in
the wind farm,
so it is
necessary to
make further
verification.
8

68

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

F49

Name

Mega East
wind farm

Weight scores

F50

F51

Mega West
wind farm

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

1. There is no backbone network


covering the area, so it is difficult for
outward transmission. The power grid
conditions need to be improved in the
future.

1. It has a low-mountain
micro-terrain with better mountain
consistency and slightly steeper
slopes locally. The construction is
slightly difficult. No existing roads in
the area are available for use. The
area is dominated by sparse
woodlands. The population density
is very low.

1. It is located on the salient low and


gentle mountains in the northeast of
Mega, which is greatly beneficial to
form enrichment of wind resources.
The altitude of the wind farm is about
2100m.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions
and large-scale development
potential. There is no wind mast on
site.

2. Local electric energy consumption


ability is very limited.

27

1. It is located on the salient low and


gentle mountains in the northeast of
Mega, which is greatly beneficial to
form enrichment of wind resources.
The altitude of the wind farm is about
1900m-2100m.

1. There is no backbone network


covering the area, so it is difficult for
outward transmission. The power grid
conditions need to be improved in the
future.

2. Highway No6 is next to the wind


farm. The traffic conditions are
convenient. External transportation
conditions are better without
restrictions.
26

1. It has a low-mountain
micro-terrain with better mountain
consistency and slightly steeper
slopes locally. The construction is
slightly difficult. No existing roads in
the area are available for use. The
area is dominated by sparse
woodlands. The population density
is very low.
2. Highway 6 is next to the wind
farm. The traffic conditions are
convenient and the access road is
about 4km long. External
transportation conditions are better
without restrictions.

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

2. According to the numerical


simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent wind resources conditions
and large-scale development
potential. There is no wind mast on
site.

2. Local electric energy consumption


ability is very limited.

Weight scores

27

26

Addis Ababa
wind energy
and solar
energy
demonstration
base

1. Hilly area on plateau, with


enrichment of wind source, ASL: about
3000m.
2. According to numerical simulation
analysis and site wind observations,
there's advantageous wind resource
condition, with potential for large-scale
development. There's no anemometer

1. Neighbor Sulalta substation hinge,


easy for sending.

1. The site is on hilly area that is


difficult for construction. Most of the
site is waste land and forestry land.

2. Power can be sent to load center of


the capital, easy for digestion.

2. There's 1# highway to the south of


the site. Local of the approach road
is high slope. The site is good for
external transport without restriction.

222

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.

It is necessary
to further verify
whether the site
is involved with
military zone or
protection zone.

66

66

89

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Project site
Type

No.

Name

Conditions of wind energy and


solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Others

Score

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight
percent.: 10%

100

30

26

tower in the site.


Weight scores

G1

Debre birhan
PV power
station

Weight scores

G2

PV
power

Metehara PV
power station

Weight scores

G3

Awash PV
power station

Weight scores

G4

Dera Solar PV
power station

28
1. The wind farm is open and flat and
the land surface is dominated by
farmlands, which is suitable for the
construction of large-scale PV power
stations.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent radiation source conditions
and huge development potential.
28
1. The wind farm is open and flat and
the land surface is dominated by
sparse shrubs, which is suitable for
the construction of large-scale PV
power stations.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
wonderful radiation source conditions
and huge development potential.
27
1. The wind farm is open and flat and
the land surface is dominated by
sparse tropical shrubs, which is
suitable for the construction of
large-scale PV power stations.
2. According to the numerical
simulation analysis, this wind farm has
excellent radiation source conditions
and huge development potential.
28
1. The wind farm is open and flat and
the land surface is dominated by
grasslands, which is very suitable for
the construction of large-scale PV
power stations.
2. According to the numerical

1. It is about 2.5Km away from Debre


birhan Substation, so the outward
transmission conditions are
convenient.

1. The area is flat and open and is


dominated by farmlands. The
construction conditions are
excellent.

2. It is next to the local load center.


The consumption is convenient.

2. It is next to a city and Highway 1.


The transportation conditions are
convenient without restrictions.

30
1. It is about 11km away from Awash
Hydropower Station and about 25km
away from Koka Hydropower Station,
so the outward transmission
conditions are relatively convenient.
2. It is near the load center of
Metehara. The consumption is
convenient.
30
1. It is less than 2Km away from
AWASH Substation, so the outward
transmission conditions are
convenient.
2. The power is transmitted to the
local power grid for consumption,
which can reduce the load flow
transmission supplied by the local
power grid.
30
1. It is about 11km away from Awash
Hydropower Station and about 25km
away from Koka Hydropower Station,
so the outward transmission
conditions are relatively convenient.
2. It is near the load centers of Dera

223

25
1. The area is flat and open and is
dominated by wastelands. The
construction conditions are
excellent.
2. It is next to Highway 4. The
transportation conditions are
convenient without restrictions.
30
1. The area is flat and is dominated
by wastelands. The construction
conditions are excellent.

2. It is next to Awash and Highway 4.


The transportation conditions are
convenient without restrictions.
30
1. The area is flat and open and is
dominated by grasslands. The
construction conditions are
excellent.
2. It is next to Highway 8. The

Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the PV
station.

95

10
The PV station
is an animal
protection area,
so please pay
attention to
avoiding the
impact on
animal habitats
on site.

92

3
Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind
farm.
10
Based on the
elementary
understanding,
there is no
sensitive target
in the wind

99

97

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Conditions of wind energy and
solar radiation resources

Power grid access conditions

Construction conditions

Name

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

Weight percentage: 30%

and Adama. The consumption is


convenient.

transportation conditions are


convenient without restrictions.

Weight scores

simulation analysis, this wind farm has


wonderful radiation source conditions
and huge development potential.
27

Project site
Type

No.

28

30

Others
Weight
percent.: 10%
farm.

Score
100

10

Remarks for scoring of site selection:


To better compare and describe characteristics of the sites preliminarily selected for wind farm projects and solar PV power station projects, comprehensive
comparison is carried out by means of comprehensive scoring. The scoring (total score: 100) is to reflect difference in comprehensive construction conditions
among all sites thus establish their priority, with resources (resource conditions, 30%), grid conditions (access and absorption, 30%), project construction
conditions (30%) and other factors related to project development (environment, etc., 10%) taken into account.
Resource conditions (30%): This part is established as richness of wind energy or solar energy resource in site, with generation basis and quality of resource
considered. Judgment on resource condition is based on results of site anemometry and numerical simulation analysis. Each site is scored by class, upon
classification of resource distribution.
Grid access and absorption conditions (30%): Two factors are considered in this part (grid access condition, 20; grid absorption condition, 10). As for grid
access condition, if there's substation accessible around, the site will be scored as 20; if there's no substation accessible around, the site will be scored as 0. In
detail, a site is scored by access distance and voltage class. As for grid digestion condition, the major considerations are distance from load center and
absorption convenience. The site close to load center and strong in absorption capacity is scored as 10, while the site, power output from which is much higher
than absorption capacity around thus can't be absorbed locally or can't be sent, is scored as 0.
Construction conditions (30%): This part is divided into internal condition and external condition. Internal condition refers to internal complexity of a wind farm
or PV station. The site which is flat and easy for construction is scored as 15 while that which is steep and impossible for construction is scored as 0. In detail, a
site is scored by class of the basic condition. External condition covers mobilization road and external transport condition. The site which has good mobilization
and is easy for external transport is scored as 15 while that which is subject to external restriction is scored as 0. If a site is scored as 0 in any of internal
condition or external condition, it will be scored as 0 in this part.
Other conditions (10%): For this part, a site is scored as 10, 5 or 0, by type and influence level of each condition.
Total of scores in the three parts is final score of the wind farm. The total reflects level of construction conditions, and also an important reference for
determining development sequence.

224

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Attached Figure 1

Average Wind Speed Distribution at 50m Height in Ethiopia in 1980~2009

225

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Attached Figure 2

Average Wind Power Density Distribution at 50m Height in Ethiopia in 1980~2009

226

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Attached Figure 3

Available Installed Capacity Distribution of the Wind Resources all over Ethiopia (Unit: Wind Power Density Grade)

227

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Attached Figure 4

Total Average Annual Solar Radiation Distribution in Ethiopia in 1980~2009

228

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Attached Figure 5

Schematic Diagram of the Development Schedule of Planning Wind and Solar Power Generation Projects in Ethiopia

229

Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Attached Figure 6

Load Flow Calculation Results of the Power System of Ethiopia in 2015

230