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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
In many countries like India it is difficult to obtain water resources for irrigation or
other purposes, especially in the arid regions. The problem of water scarcity is also
observed in other places of the world due to lack of rain fall. However, in humid areas
such as places close to sea or atmosphere temperatures at the range of 20 0 to 380C
,water can be obtained by condensing the water vapour present in the air. Here, we are
going to present the method and basic concept to develop a water condensation
system on the basis of condensing of air by using peltier effect. This system consists
of cooling elements, heat exchanging unit and air circulation unit. A solar cell panel
unit with a relevant high current output drives the cooling elements through a
controlling circuit. Atmospheric water generator is a device that can convert
atmospheric moisture directly into usable and even drinkable water. It is such a device
which uses the principle of latent heat to convert molecules of water vapour into
water droplets. It has been introduced a bit before, through it is not very common
India and some other countries. It has a great application standing on such age of
technology where we all are running behind renewable sources. This project also
describe the experimental results and the systems performance.
ATMOSPHERIC WATER GENERATOR is a device that extracts water from humid
ambient air. Water vapor in the air is condensed by cooling the air below its dew
point, exposing the air to desiccants, or pressurizing the air. Unlike a dehumidifier, an
AWG is designed to render the water potable. AWGs are useful where pure drinking
water is difficult or impossible to obtain, because there is almost always a small
amount of water in the air that can be extracted. The two primary techniques in use
are cooling and desiccants.
The extraction of atmospheric water may not be completely free of cost, because
significant input of energy is required to drive some AWG processes. Certain
traditional AWG methods are completely passive, relying on natural temperature
differences, and requiring no external energy source. Research has also developed
AWG technologies to produce useful yields of water at a reduced (but non-zero)
energy cost.

1.1 KNOWLEDGE OF TECHNOLOGY:


According to the past survey there are two popular techniques used elsewhere.
Namely
1) wet desiccation.
2) cooling condensation.
1) wet desiccation:

Fig: block diagram of wet desiccation


One form of wet desiccant water generation involves the use of salt in a concentrated
brine solution to absorb the ambient humidity. These systems then extract the water
from the solution and purify it for consumption. A version of this technology was
developed as portable devices which run on generators. Large versions, mounted on
trailers, are said to produce up to 1,200 US gallons (4,500 l) of water per day, at a
ratio of up to 5 gallons of water per gallon of fuel. This technology was contracted for
use by the US Army and the US Navy from Terralab and the Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA).A variation of this technology has been developed to
be more environmentally friendly, primarily through the use of passive solar energy
and gravity. Brine is streamed down the outside of towers, where it absorbs water
from the air. The brine then enters a chamber and subjected to a partial vacuum and

heated. The water vapor is collected and condensed, while the renewed brine is
recirculated through the system. As the condensed water is removed from the system
using gravity, it creates the vacuum which lowers the boiling point of the
brine.Prototype systems combining adsorption, refrigeration and condensation are
also being developed.
2) cooling condensation:

Figure :block diagram of cooling condensation process


In a cooling condensation type atmospheric water generator, a compressor circulates
refrigerant through a condenser and then an evaporator coil which cools the air
surrounding it. This lowers the air temperature to its dew point, causing water to
condense. A controlled-speed fan pushes filtered air over the coil. The resulting water
is then passed into a holding tank with purification and filtration system to help keep
the water pure and reduce the risk posed by viruses and bacteria which may be
collected from the ambient air on the evaporator coil by the condensing water.
The rate at which water can be produced depends on relative humidity and ambient air
temperature and size of the compressor. Atmospheric water generators become more
effective as relative humidity and air temperature increase. As a rule of thumb,
cooling condensation atmospheric water generators do not work efficiently when the

temperature falls below 18.3C (65F) or the relative humidity drops below 30%. This
means they are relatively inefficient when located inside air-conditioned offices. The
cost-effectiveness of an AWG depends on the capacity of the machine, local humidity
and temperature conditions and the cost to power the unit.
New emerging technology utilize the Peltier effect of semi-conducting materials in
which one side of the semi-conducting material heats while the other side cools. In
this application, air is forced over the cooling fins on the side that cools which lowers
the temperature of the air to its dew point, causing water to condense. The resulting
water is then collected. Due to the solid-state nature of the semi-conducting material
and the lower power usage, some of these new designs use solar energy panels as the
power source.
The drinking water generation capacity can be enhanced in low humidity ambient air
conditions, first by using the evaporative cooler with a brackish water supply to
increase the air humidity near to dew point condition. Thus drinking water is
generated using brackish water without depending on ambient air humidity by the
water generator

1.2. Summary based on previous research papers from calvin


institute of technologies :
the wet desiccation method on which they researched for gave them unsatisfactory
results. And they concluded that this method is almost impractical for usage and only
produces 0.720 liters/day with significant potential for improvement. However, one
of the metrics used to compare this unit to comparable units is the water per unit
energy. Water from air can produce 72.1 ml of water per kw-hr,ecoblue, a leading
competitor, can produce 1031 ml of per kw-hr. given this factor of 10 difference, they
have concluded that this design is impractical for atmospheric water generation.
So we are preferring the other method i,e to condense water from the atmospheric air

To acknowledge how to proceed first we first studied about refrigeration.


1.3 METHODS OF REFRIGERATION:
The science of refrigeration utilizes several methods of providing
temperature different facilitating heat transfer between bodies. Following are the
various methods of refrigeration
ICE REFRIGERATION:
In this method an ice block is placed at an elevated position in a room.
Air surrounding this block becomes denser. Warmer air at lower level is replaced by
cold dense airflows up. It comes in contact with ice block at top and becomes cod and
hence the cooling effect is produced in the room.
DRY ICE REFRIGERATION:
Solid CO2 is known as dry ice. It evaporates directly into vapour state
with passing to liquid state. When the dry ice placed between the food cottons during
transportation over a long period, it absorbs the heat from the food cottons does
freezing the contents.
That is,
C.O.P=Heat absorbed from refrigerated space/heat energy equivalent of the energy
supplied to the compressor. (or)
C.O.P=Refrigerating effect/heat of compressor
AIR EXPANSION REFRIGERATION:
The cooling effect is provided in this method without changing phase of
gases Thermodynamic relation governs this effect.
T2\T1=[P2\P1]^[(r-1)/r]
The air at -15C and having the pressure allowed to expand down to 1bar pressure
adiabatically its temperature falls to -91C. This cool air is sent into cold chamber it
absorbs heat from the product, which are placed in that chamber.

EVAPORATIVE REFRIGERATION:
In this method dry atmospheric air is through water soaked picking. Water
evaporates by absorbing heat in the dry air. Air gets cooled. Cool air blown into room
or chamber to provide human comfort.

GAS-THROTTLING REFRIGERATION:
In GAS THORTTLING REFRIGRATION SYSTEM gas at high pressure is
throttled down to a pressure through a porous plug or an orifice. The temperature falls
and gas is cooled the temperature drop would be around 0.25C, for each atmospheric
drop in pressure. The cool gas is passed into a space to be cooled.
STEAM JET REFERIGERATION:
In this methods water is filled in flash chamber, steam generator in boiler is
ejected out at a high velocity through a nozzle. Due to the throttling of steam through
the nozzle low pressure is produced in flash chamber and water evaporates rapidly by
continuing this process.
LIQUID-GAS REFRIGERATION:
In this method is filled in an insulated cylinder. The cylinder is connected to pipe with
intermittence perforation operating a value required quantity of liquid is passed
through this pipe. It is sprayed through perforations into the space to be refrigerated.
VAPOUR ABSORPTON REFRIGERATION:
In vapour an absorber and generator provide absorption system of
refrigeration the motive force. In this is system two working fluids are employed a
refrigerants and absorbent.The flow cycle for the refrigerants is from the condenser to
the evaporator, through an expansion from evaporator to the absorber to the generator
and back to the condenser. The flow cycle for the absorbent is from the absorber to the
generator and back to the generator.
VAPOUR COMRESSION REFRIGERATION:
A compression provides the motive force that circulates the refrigerant through the
system, compressor increases the pressure and temperature vapour refrigerant is
converted into liquid state while passing through the condenser. The condenser is
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provided with suitable cooling system. At the outlet of the condenser the capillary
tube is provided. The pressure expands to low pressure; low temperature partial liquid
enters the evaporator, where the heat is absorbed. The refrigerant absorbs latent heat
of evaporation in the evaporator.

1.4

working principle of AWG(AIR WATER GENERATOR BY

CONDENSATION OF AIR )

This device uses the principle of latent heat to convert water vapour molecules into
water droplets. Hear we are establishing the concept of air condensation as well as
generation of water with the help of peltier devices, such as using peltier plates that
are powered by photo voltaic solar energy, etc According to previous knowledge,
we know the temperature required to condense the water is known as dew point
temperature. Practically or experimentally to condense water with the help of some
electronic devices. The project consists of peltier plates .which is used to create the
environment of water condensing temperature or dew point, indeed conventional

compressor and evaporator system could also be used condense water by simply
exchanging the latent heat of coolant(freezer) inside the evaporator. The condensed
water will be collected to use for drinking purpose and various other uses.

1.5 IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY


REFRIGERATING EFFECT:
The rate of heat absorbed in the cycle from the body or space to be cooled is called
Refrigerating effect.
UNIT OF REFRIGERATION:
The unit of refrigeration is expressed commonly as ton of refrigeration.
The heat absorbed in the system from body or spaces to be cooled equivalent to the
latent heat of fusion of one ton of ice from and at 0C in 24hrs is called as one ton of
refrigeration.
COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE(C.O.P):
This is an expression of cycle efficiency and is defined as the ratio
of the heat absorbed in the refrigerated space to the heat energy equivalent of the
energy supplied to the compressor.
VOLUMETRIC EFFICIECY:
The actual volume suction vapour (va) compressed per minute is the
actual displacement of the compressor. The ratio of actual displacement is known as
the total or real volumetric efficiency of compressor.
VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY=ACTUAL VOLUME / STROKE VOLUME
MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY:
It is defined as the ratio of work delivered to the gas to the work delivered
to the compressor shaft refrigerants. It may be employed for refrigeration plants from
compressor shafts refrigerants. It may be employed for refrigeration plants from small
capacity of 1/4th to large capacity of 2 tons. In the reciprocating compressor pressure
of refrigerants is increased by the co-coordinated action of pistons.

CHAPTER 2

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2. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
2.1. WATER CONTROL EQUIPMENT:
1) Compressor
2) Condenser
3) Capillary tube
4) Evaporator
5) Accumulator
6) Thermal insulation
7) Thermostat
8) Drier or filter
9) Suction line
10) Heat exchanger
11) Discharge line
12) Peltier plate
2.1.1. COMPRESSORS:
Reciprocating compressors
a) Single acting reciprocating compressor
b) Open type compressor
c) Hermetically sealed compressor
Rotary compressors
a) Roller type
b) Compressors
c) Screw type compressors
d) Centrifugal compressors

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2.1. HERMETICALLY SEALED COMPRESSSOR:


The refrigerators are provided with hermetically sealed compressor and electrically
motor enclosed in welded steel case compressor and electrically perfect and
permanently lubricated. As the motor in casing is exposed to low temperature
refrigerator vapor it helps to cool the motor. The only connections to this type of
compressors are the suction and discharge connections to the casing and electrical
connections to the motor. Dehydration of the unit, before gas charging is essential as
the moisture in the system may damage the motor.

ADVANTAGES:
1) Complete prevention of refrigerant leakage
2) Compact and occupies a less space
3) Less noisy
4) Effective cooling of motor windings
5) It is suitable for small C.O.P units

LIMITATIONS:
1) Complicated design
2) Any moisture in the refrigerant vapor may damage the wiring
3) A separate vacuumed pump is required for evacuation and charging the refrigerant

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2.2. CONDENSERS:
Condenser is that component which placed next to the compressor in vapor
compression refrigeration system. It is a heat exchanger that affects heat transfer
between refrigerant vapor coming from compressor and cooling medium such as air
or water. It removes heat absorbed by refrigerant in the evaporator and heat of
compression added in the compressor and condenses it back to liquid. The condenser
abstract the latent heat from the high pressure refrigerant at the same pressure and
constant temperature.
2.3. EXPANSION DEVICES:
An expansion device is needed to control the flow of liquid refrigerant in to the
evaporator. High pressure liquid refrigerant from compressor flows to an expansion
device, which expands it down to an evaporator pressure. An expansion device thus
comprises the dividing point between high pressure and low pressure side of the
system. The expansion takes place at constant enthalpy process and no external work
is done.
Basically there are two types of expansion devices.
2.3.1. VARIABLE RESTRICTION TYPE:
a) Thermostat expansion valve
b) Automatic expansion valve
2.3.2. CONSTANT RESTRICTION TYPE:
a) Capillary tube
CAPILLARY TUBE:
It is a fixed restriction type expansion device. The capillary tube length varies from 1
to 6 meters width and in-side diameter. Generally from 0.5mm to 2mm is used in
small size plants.

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Liquid refrigerant enter the capillary tube from the condenser, as it flows through the
tube. The pressure drop is caused due to heavy frictional resistance is directly
proportional to length and inversely proportional to the diameter. Different length and
diameter combinations are recommended for required for pressure drop and slow
quantity.
ADVANTAGES:
a) Simple in construction with no moving parts
b) Less expensive
c) Cost of unit reduces
d) Low start torque is enough to drive the compressor
e) It is best suited for hermetically sealed compressor
2.4. EVAPORATORS:
Evaporator is the component which absorbs heat from its surroundings or space to be
cooled where the liquid refrigerant absorbs the latent heat from the product to be
cooled and enters the compressor via section line. The refrigerant absorbs heat at
constant pressure in the evaporator.
2.4.1. CLASSIFICTION:
a) According to refrigerant used: flood type, dry (or) direct expansion type
evaporators.
b) According to surface construction: Bare tube, Plate surface, finned type
evaporators.
2.5. DISCHARGE LINE:
The refrigerant line carrying refrigerant from compressor to condenser inlet is called
as discharge line.
2.6. ACCUMULATOR:
An accumulator is fitted just after the evaporator. It is large cylinder designed to trap
any refrigerant liquid coming out of evaporator due to incomplete evaporation.
Accumulator saves the compressor from being damaged by a liquid refrigerant, which
otherwise likely to go inside it.
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2.7. HEAT EXCHANGERS:


It is a device, which connect suction pipe and discharge pipe. Indirectly the heat flows
from discharge line to suction line for reducing compression work.
2.8. THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVE:
Because of high efficiency and ready adoptability to any type of refrigeration
application, the thermostatic expansion valve is mostly used at present time. Its
operation based on maintaining constant degree of suction superheat as the evaporator
outlet, a circumstance which permits the later control to keep the evaporator
completely filled with refrigerant under all conditions of system loading, without the
danger of stopover in to the suction line.
2.9. SOLENOID VALVE:
Solenoid valves are widely used in refrigerant, water, and brine lines place of manual
stop valves In order to provide automatic operation. A solenoid valve is simply an
electrically operated valve which consists essentially of a coil of insulated copper wire
and a plunger made of two principle types,
a) Direct acting and
b) Pilot operated.
2.10. PELTIER PLATE:
Peltier plate is a device that works based on the principle of thermo electric cooling

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CHAPTER 3

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3.1. REFRIGERANT
3.1.1. INTRODUCTION:
Refrigeration is concerned is with the absorption of heat from where it is
objectionable plus its transfer to and rejection at a place where it is unobjectionable.
Regardless of means by which is heat transfer is accomplished; the problem is one of
applied thermodynamics. In some methods of refrigeration the working medium that
approaches perfect gases may be applied.
A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase
change from a gas to a liquid and back. The two main uses of refrigerants are
refrigerators/freezers and air conditioners. In broadest sense the word refrigerant is
also applied to such secondary cooling medium as brine solution, cooled water. The
refrigerants

include only those working medium, which pass through the cycle or

evaporation, recovery, compression and compression and liquefaction.


3.1.2. PROPERTIES OF REFRIGERANTS:
The refrigerants (working fluid) used in refrigerating system should posses the
following properties.
It should be non-poisoning
It should be non-explosive
It should be non-inflammable
It should be non-corrosive
Leakages should be easily detected
It should be operated under low pressure (low boiling point)
It should be a stable gas
Parts moving in the fluid should be easy to lubricate
It should be non-toxic
It should have a well-balanced enthalpy evaporation per unit mass
It should have small relative displacement to obtain a certain
refrigerating effect
A minimum difference between the vapour pressure and
condenser pressure is desirable.

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3.1.3. REFRIGERANTS:
There are many refrigerants available in market but here we are choosing
some of the refrigerants like R134,ammonia,..etc .
R134a (TETRAFLUROETHANE):- R134a is the long-term replacement refrigerant
for R12 because of having favorable characteristics such as zero ODP,
nonflammability, stability and similar vapour pressure as that of R12. The ODP of
R134a is zero, but it has a relatively high global warming potential. Many studies are
being carried out which are concentrating on the application of environmentally
friendly refrigerants in refrigeration systems.
Ammonia:- Ammonia is a chemical consisting of one atom of nitrogen and three
atoms of hydrogen. It is designated in chemical notation as NH3. Ammonia is
extremely soluble in water and is frequently used as a water solution called aqua
ammonia. Ammonia chemically combines with water to form ammonium hydroxide.
Household ammonia is a diluted water solution containing 5 to 10 percent ammonia.
On the other hand, anhydrous ammonia is essentially pure (over 99 percent) ammonia.
"Anhydrous" is a Greek word meaning "without water;" therefore, anhydrous
ammonia in ammonia without water.

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3.2. COMPRESSOR

3.2.1. TYPES OF COMPRESSORS:

3.2.1. CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR:

It is use to rotating disk or impeller in a shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of
the impeller, increasing the velocity of the gas. A diffuser section converts the velocity
energy to pressure energy. They are primarily used for continuous, stationary service
in industries such as oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants and natural gas
processing plants. Their application can be from 100 horsepower (75 kW) to
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thousands of horsepower. With multiple staging, they can achieve high output
pressures greater than 10,000 psi (69 M Pa).
Many large snowmaking operations use this type of compressor. They
are also used in Internal Combustion Engines as super chargers and turbochargers.
Centrifugal compressors are used in small gas turbine engines or as the final
compression stage of medium-sized gas turbines.

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3.2.2. DIAGONAL OR MIXED FLOW COMPRESSOR:

These are similar to centrifugal compressors, but have a radial and axial velocity
component at the exit from the rotor. The diffuser is often used to turn diagonal flow
to an axial rather than radial direction.
3.2.3. AXIAL-FLOW COMPRESSOR:
These are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like airfoils to
progressively compress the working fluid. They are used where there is a requirement
for a high flow rate or a compact design.
Axial compressors can have high efficiencies; around 90% polytrophic at their design
conditions. However, they are relatively expensive, requiring a large number of
components, tight tolerances and high quality materials. Axial-flow compressors can
be found in medium to large gas turbine engines, in natural gas pumping stations, and
within certain chemical plants.
3.2.4. RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR:

It is used to piston driven by a crankshaft. They can be either stationary or portable,


can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal
combustion engines. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower (HP)
are commonly seen in automotive applications and are typically for intermittent duty.

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Larger reciprocating compressors well over 1,000 HP (750 kW) are commonly found
in large industrial and petroleum applications.

3.2.5.

HERMETICALLY

SEALED,

COMPRESSOR:

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OPEN,

OR

SEMI-HERMETIC

Compressors used in refrigeration systems are often described as being either


hermetic, open or semi-hermetic, to describe how the compressor and motor drive are
situated in relation to the gas or vapor compressed. The industry name for a hermetic
is hermetically sealed compressor, while a semi-hermetic is commonly called a semihermetic compressor.
In hermetic and most semi-hermetic compressors, the compressor and motor driving
the compressor are integrated, and operate within the pressurized gas envelope of the
system.
The motor is designed to operate in, and be cooled by, the refrigerant gas being
compressed.
The difference between the hermetic and semi-hermetic, is that the hermetic uses a
one-piece welded steel casing that cannot be opened for repair; if the hermetic fails it
is simply replaced with an entire new unit. A semi-hermetic uses a large cast metal
shell with gasket covers that can be opened to replace motor and pump components.
The primary advantage of a hermetic and semi-hermetic is that there is no route for
the gas to leak out of the system. Open compressors rely on either natural leather or
synthetic rubber seals to retain the internal pressure, and these seals require a lubricant
such as oil to retain their sealing properties.
An open pressurized system such as an automobile air conditioner can be more
susceptible to leak its Operating gases. Open systems rely on lubricant in the system
to splash on pump components and seals. If it is not operated frequently enough, the
lubricant on the seals slowly evaporates, and then the seals begin to leak until the
system is no longer functional and must be recharged. By comparison, a hermetic
system can sit unused for years, and can usually be started up again at any time
without requiring maintenance or experiencing any loss of system pressure.

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The disadvantage of hermetic compressors is that the motor drive cannot be repaired
or maintained, and the entire compressor must be removed if a motor fails. A further
disadvantage is that burnt-out windings can contaminate whole systems, thereby
requiring the system to be entirely pumped down and the gas replaced. Typically,
hermetic compressors are used in low-cost factory-assembled consumer goods where
the cost of repair is high compared to the value of the device, and it would be more
economical to just purchase a new device.
An advantage of open compressors is that they can be driven by non-electric power
sources, such as an internal combustion engine or turbine. However, open
compressors that drive refrigeration systems are generally not totally maintenance free
throughout the life of the system, since some gas leakage will occur over time.
3.2.5.1.

ADVANTAGES

OF

HERMETIC

COMPRESSORS

OVER

COPRESSORS:
a) The leakage of refrigerant is completely prevented.
b) It is less noisy.
c) It requires small space because of compactness.
d) The lubrication is simple as the motor and compressor operate in a sealed space
with the lubricating oil.

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3.3. CONDENSER
3.3.1. INTRODUCTION:
Condenser is an important device used in the high pressure side of a refrigeration
system. Its function is to remove heat of the hot vapor refrigerant discharged from the
compressor. The hot vapor refrigerant consists of heat absorbed by the evaporator and
the heat of compression by mechanical energy of the compressor motor. The heat is
transferred first to the walls of condenser tubes and then to the cooling medium (may
be water or air or both). A condenser is selected depending upon the capacity of the
refrigeration system, type of refrigerant used and type of cooling medium.
3.3.2. CLASSIFICATION OF CONDENSERS:
Air cooled condenser
(a) Natural convection air-cooled condenser
(b) Forced convection air-cooled condenser
(c) Base mounted air-cooled condenser
(d) Remote air-cooled condenser
Water cooled condenser

Depending on water system


(a)Waste water system
(b) Re circulated water system

Depending on construction
(i) Tube-in-tube condenser
(ii) Shell and coil condenser

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(iii) Shell and tube condenser


Evaporative condenser

3.3.2.1. AIR COOLED CONDENSER:


In air-cooled condenser the removal of heat is done by air. It consists of steel or
copper tubing through which the refrigerant flows. The tubes are usually provided
with plate type fins to increase the surface area of heat transfer. The condensers with
single row of tubing provide the most efficient heat transfer. The temperature
difference between the air and the vapor refrigerant decreases in each row of tubing
and therefore each row becomes less effective. Generally used in small capacity
refrigeration systems such as domestic refrigerators, freezers, water coolers and room
air conditioners.
(a) Natural Convection Air-Cooled Condensers:
In this condenser the heat transfer from the condenser coils to the air is by natural
convection. As the air comes in contact with the warm condenser tubes, it absorbs
heat from the refrigerant and thus the temperature of air increases. The warm air,
being lighter, rises up and the cold air from below rises to take away the heat from
condenser. This cycle continuous in natural convection air cooled condenser. Rate of
heat transfer in natural convection condenser is slower, therefore they require a large
surface area as compared to forced convection condensers.
(b) Forced convection air-cooled condensers:
In forced convection air cooled condensers, the fan is used to force the air over the
condenser coils to increase its heat transfer capacity. These condensers, using
propeller fans, are mounted on the same base of compressor, motor, receiver and other
controls. The entire arrangement is called a condensing unit. These condensing units
are used on packaged refrigeration system of 10 tons or less.

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(c) The remote air cooled condensers:


These condensers may be horizontal or vertical and can be locater either outside or
inside the building. The remote condensers located outside the building. Use propeller
fans because they have low resistance to air flow and free air discharge. The remote
condensers located inside the building usually required duct work to carry air to and
from the unit. The duct work restricts air flow to and from the condenser and causes
high air pressure drop. Hence, inside condensers usually use centrifugal fans.
3.3.2.2. WATER COOLED CONDENSERS:

In water cooled condenser water is used as the condensing medium. They are always
preferred where an adequate supply of clear inexpensive water and means of water
disposal are available. They are commonly used in commercial and industrial
refrigerating units. In this, the water after circulating in the condenser is discharged to
a sewer. This system is used on small units and in locations where large quantities of
fresh in expensive water and sewer system large enough to handle the waste water are
available. In this, the same water circulating in the condenser is cooled and used again
and again.

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Thus this system requires some type of water cooling device. The cooling water
towers and spray ponds are the most common cooling devices. Once a re circulated
water supply is filled with water, the only additional water required is make up water.
The makeup water simply replaces the water that evaporates from the cooling tower
or spray pond.
3.3.2.3. TYPES OF WATER COOLED CONDENSERS:
Tube-in-tube or double-tube condensers:

The tube-in-tube consists of a water tube inside a large refrigerant tube. In this type of
condenser, the hot vapor refrigerant enters at the top of condenser. The water absorbs
the heat from the refrigerant and the condensed liquid refrigerant flows at the bottom.
Since the refrigerant tubes are exposed to ambient air, therefore some of the heat is
also absorbed by the ambient air by natural convection. When the water enters at the
bottom and flows in the direction opposite to the refrigerant, it is said to be counter
flow system. On the other hand when the water enters at the top and flows in the same
direction as the refrigerant, it is said to be parallel flow system. The counter flow
system is preferred because it gives high rate of heat transfer.

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Shell and coil condensers

A shell and coil condenser, consists of one or more water coils enclosed in a welded
steel shell. Both the finned and bare coil types are available. The shell and coil
condenser may be either vertical or horizontal. In this type of condenser, the hot vapor
refrigerant enters at the top of the shell and surrounds the water coils. As the vapor
condenses, it drops to the bottom of the shell which often serves as a receiver. Most
vertical type shell and coil condensers use counter flow water system. In a shell and
coil condensers, coiled tubing is free to expand and contract with temperature changes
because of its spring action and can with stand any strain caused by temperature
changes. Since the water coils enclosed in a welded steel shell, therefore the
mechanical cooling of these coils is not possible. The coils are cleaned with
chemicals. The shell and coil condensers are used for up to 50 tons capacity.
Shell and tube condensers:

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The shell and tube condenser, consists of a cylindrical steel shell containing a number
of straight water tubes. In this type of condenser, the hot vapor refrigerant enters at the
top of a shell and condenses as it comes in contact with water tubes. The condensed
liquid refrigerant drops to the bottom of the shell which often serves as a receiver.
3.3.2.4. Advantages of Shell and Coil condenser:
The advantages obtained by using shell and coil condenser over the other condensers
are mentioned below:
1. These condensers have high heat transfer capacity due to high thermal conductivity
of water. In addition to water cooling as the condenser will be outside the room there
will also be natural air convection. Since both cooling types are implemented there
will be high rate of heat transfer.
2. As the hot vapor refrigerant and cooling water moves in opposite direction, the
warmest water absorbs heat from the hottest vapor refrigerant, therefore the
temperature difference remains fairly constant.
3. The coiled tubing in this condenser is free to expand and contract with temperature
changes because of its spring action and can withstand any strain caused by
temperature changes. This provides long life to the coil.
4. The surface area of shell provides quicker transfer of heat from hot vapor
refrigerant and if we want to further increase the heat transfer rate we can add fins to
the shell of the condenser.

3.4 PELTIER PLATE


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Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the
junction of two different types of materials. A Peltier cooler, heater, or thermoelectric
heat pump is a solid-state active heat pump which transfers heat from one side of the
device to the other, with consumption of electrical energy, depending on the direction
of the current. Such an instrument is also called a Peltier device, Peltier heat pump,
solid state refrigerator, or thermoelectric cooler (TEC). It can be used either for
heating or for cooling, although in practice the main application is cooling. It can also
be used as a temperature controller that either heats or cools.
This technology is far less commonly applied to refrigeration than vapor-compression
refrigeration is. The primary advantages of a Peltier cooler compared to a vaporcompression refrigerator are its lack of moving parts or circulating liquid, very long
life, invulnerability to leaks, small size, and flexible shape. Its main disadvantages are
high cost and poor power efficiency. Many researchers and companies are trying to
develop Peltier coolers that are both cheap and efficient. (See Thermoelectric
materials.)
A Peltier cooler can also be used as a thermoelectric generator. When operated as a
cooler, a voltage is applied across the device, and as a result, a difference in
temperature will build up between the two sides. When operated as a generator, one
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side of the device is heated to a temperature greater than the other side, and as a
result, a difference in voltage will build up between the two sides (the Seebeck effect).
However, a well-designed Peltier cooler will be a mediocre thermoelectric generator
and vice versa, due to different design and packaging requirements.

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CHAPTER 4

WORKING
PRINCIPLE
GENERATOR

OF

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ATMOSPHERIC

WATER

4.1. WORKING PRINCIPLE:

Atmospheric water generator is a device that uses the principle of condensation of air
by making it to flow through the cooler region which is far below the dew point of air
. it mainly concerns with the humidity content of air that is already present in the air.
As we knew that whenever any material is heated, it gets expanded, I,e... the space
between each of its molecules tends to increase. this phenomenon is called free
thermal expansion. Also when any material gets cooled to lower temperature then the
molecules are tend to some action of compression without any force . similarly when
air is subjected to lower temperatures I,e below dew point temperature the air
molecules move closer to each other ,which leads to reduced space in between them
and loose the capability of holding water molecules . This makes air to condense
water on the walls of nearer surface (most probably cooler surfaces) .

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Here in this project we will create the lower temperature upto -300C by using peltier
plates (for which when supplied enough voltage of about 12V creates a cooler region
and hotter region on either sides of its thickness). When air is made to pass through
the tube or any enclosed area in insulated region ,the water vapour present in thae air
will be condensed along its walls and made to flow it into the collector, after which
the water collected gets filtered and it can be used for drinking after performing
certain tests on it( in order to re-assure that weather the water obtained through this
process is drinkable or not )

CONCLUSION
Our preliminary study of this projects research papers and some reference of
Previous methods for extracting water from air such as, extracting water by cooling

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the compressed air to lower temperature is failed due to lower output of water for
higher input of energy (electrical or mechanical) and they used brine as cooling agent
which has much lower tendency of producing cooling effect when compared to
commercially used refrigerants.
So we conclude that in order to improve the output and to reduce the cost of
refrigeration for small refrigerating units and also to produce more output (water) for
the given energy, we employ peltier plates instead of condenser (condensers in
refrigerators traditionally occupies a large area) and also there are suitable chances of
replacing compressor instead of pump . this arrangement of employing of peltier
plates (functional even at 12V) and a pump can eliminate almost all moving parts and
eliminating some of complexcities in refrigeration cycle.

REFERENCES:
1. S.C.Arora and S. Domakundwar, a course in refrigeration and air conditioning,
Dhanpat Rai and publications.

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2. R.S.Khurmi and J.K.Gupta , Refrigeration and Hol air conditioning, S.Chand


publications.
3. J P Holaman and souvik Bhattacharya, Heat transfer, SE publications
4. W.F. stoecker, Refrigeration and Air conditioning, McGraw-Hill book company

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