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SEPTEMBER 2016

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announcements

SEPTEMBER

EDITORIAL STAFF

INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI The Association of Saints Church Radio Amateurs will air special event
station WSHQ all year in honor of their 40th Anniversary. Frequencies include 14.287 and 7.190. QSL to
ASCARA, P.O. Box 73, Independence MO 64051. Website: <http://ascara.org>.
SHELBY, NORTH CAROLINA The Shelby Amateur Radio Club will hold the 60th Annual Shelby
Hamfest and 2016 ARRL North Carolina State Convention Friday, September 2 through Sunday, September
4 at the Cleveland County Fairgrounds. Contact: Hamfest Chairman, (980) 295-5151. Email: <chairman@shelbyhamfest.org>. Website: <http://shelbyhamfest>. Talk-in 146.880-. VE exams.
ALAMOGORDO, NEW MEXICO The Alamogordo Amateur Radio Club will hold its 32nd Annual
Hamfest Saturday, September 3 at the Otero County Fairgrounds. Contact: Rick Norton, KB7SQF, (575) 4914290. Email: <alamogmailgmail.com>. Website: <http://www.qsl.net/k5lrw>.
UNIONTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA The Uniontown Amateur Radio Club will hold its 67th Annual Hamfest
Saturday, September 3 at its club grounds on Old Pittsburgh Road. Contact: Tony Alviar, (724) 430-1277 (MF, 8-4). Email: <talviar@fcema.org>. Website: <http://www.w3pie.org>. Talk-in 147.045+ (PL 131.8).
WISCONSIN RAPIDS, WISCONSIN The Mid-State Repeater Association will air special event station
W9W from 0001-2359 UTC daily from Wednesday, September 7 through Monday, September 13. Frequencies
include 21.350, 14.250, 7.250, and 3.850. QSL to: Mid-State Repeater Association, W9W Event, P.O. Box 1001,
Wisconsin Rapids, WI 54495.
BOXBOROUGH, MASSACHUSETTS FEMARA will hold Boxboro! 2016 and 2016 ARRL New England
Section Convention Friday, September 9 through Sunday, September 11 at the Holiday Inn Boxboro Woods.
Contact: Mike Raibeck, K1TWF, <k1twf@boxboro.org>. Website: <http://boxboro.org>.
LUBBOCK, TEXAS The Lubbock Amateur Radio Club will hold its 3rd Annual LARC Hamfest Saturday,
September 10 at the Noble Stidham Memorial Club House. Website: <http://k5lib.org>. Talk-in 147.200.
MENA, ARKANSAS The Queen Wilhelmina Hamfest will be held Friday, September 9 and Saturday,
September 10 at the Queen Wilhelmina State Park. Contact: Randy, (479) 461-1519. Email: <randykg5ne
@gmail.com>. Website: <http://www.menahamfest.net>. VE exams.
OMAHA, NEBRASKA The Ak-Sar-Ben Amateur Radio Club will hold Flea-Esta 2016 Saturday,
September 10 at the 4-H Building at the Sarpy County Fair Grounds. Email: <flea@aksarbenarc.org>. Website:
<http://www.aksarbenarc.org>.
RUSH CITY, MINNESOTA The East Central Minnesota Amateur Radio Club will hold its annual Rush
City Radio Rendezvous Saturday, September 10 at Rush City High School. Email: <lj@ecenet.com>. Website:
<http://www.arz.com/db/k0ecm>. Talk-in 145.33- (PL 146.2)
SHEPHERDSVILLE, KENTUCKY The Greater Louisville Hamfest Association will hold the Greater
Louisville Hamfest 2016 and 2016 ARRL Kentucky State Convention Saturday, September 10 at the Paroquet
Springs Conference Centre. Contact: GLHA, P.O. Box 34444, Louisville, KY 40232-4444. Website:
<http://louisvillehamfest.com>. Talk-in 146.7000 (PL 79.7) or 443.700. VE exams and card checking.
VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA The Tidewater Radio Conventions Inc. will hold the Virginia Beach
Hamfest Electronic & Computer Flea Market Saturday, September 10 at the Virginia Beach Convention
Center. Website: <http://www.vbhamfest.com>. Talk-in 146.970 (PL 141.3). VE exams.
BALLSTON SPA, NEW YORK The Saratoga County Amateur Radio Association will hold Hamfest 2016
Sunday, September 11 at the Cornell Co-Op Ext. (Solar Bldg.). Contact: Jim Polewczak, KG2H, (518) 703-9558.
Email: <kg2h@arrl.net>. Website: <http://www.k2dll.org>. Talk-in 147.000 (PL 91.5) or 147.240 (PL 91.5).
BUTLER, PENNSYLVANIA The Butler County Amateur Radio Club will hold the BCARA/W3UDX
Swapfest 2016 Sunday, September 11 at the Unionville Fire Department. Website: <http://www.w3udx.org>.
Talk-in 147.360+ (PL 131.8). VE exams
FINDLAY, OHIO The Findlay Radio Club will hold the 74th Annual Findlay Hamfest Sunday, September
11 at the Hancock County Fairgrounds. Contact: Findlay Radio Club, Box 587, Findlay, OH 45839. Phone: (419)
423-3402. Email: <hamfest@findlayradioclub.org>. Website: <http://findlayradioclub.org>. Talk-in 147.15+ or
444.15+.
LANCASTER, NEW YORK The Lancaster Amateur Radio Club will hold the Lancaster Hamfest Sunday,
September 11 at the Bowen Road Grove. Website: <http://w2so.org>. Talk-in 147.255 (PL 107.2).
MULLICA HILLS, NEW JERSEY The Gloucester County Amateur Radio Club will hold its Hamfest
2016 Sunday, September 11 at the Gloucester County 4-H Fairgrounds. Contact: Sheldon Parker, K2MEN, P.O.
Box 370, Pitman, NJ 08071. Email: <sheldonparker@comcast.net>. Website: <http://www.w2mmd.org>. Talkin 147.180+ (PL 131.8). VE exams and DXCC/VUCC/WAS card checking.
SCHAUMBURG, ILLIONOIS W9DXCC will hold the 64th Annual W9DXCC DX Convention and Banquet
Friday, September 16 and Saturday, September 17 at the Hyatt Regency. Contact: Jim Westberg, K9IDX, <westbej@gmail.com>. Website: <http://w9dxcc.com>. DXCC/WAS/VUCC & WAZ/WPX/CQDX card checking.
ST. PETERSBURG, FLORIDA The Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Corp. and the ARRL will hold the
35th Annual Digital Communications Conference Friday, September 16 through Sunday September 18 at
the Hilton St. Petersburg Bayfront. Contact: TAPR, P.O. Box 852754, Richardson, AZ 75085-2754. Phone: (972)
671-8277. Website: <http://www.tapr.org>.
CINCINNATI, OHIO The OH-KY-IN Amateur Radio Society will hold its 3rd Annual Hamfest Saturday,
September 17 at Aiken High School. General Contact: Lynn Ernst, WD8JAW, 10650 Aspen Place, Union, KY
41091. Email: <wd8jaw@arrl.net>. Vendor contact: Ted Morris, NC8V, 6306 Kincaid Road, Cincinnati, OH 45213.
Email: <nc8v@arrl.net>. Website: <http://hamfest.ohkyin.org>. Talk-in 146.67- (PL 123). VE exams and fox hunt.
GROVETOWN, GEORGIA The Amateur Radio Club of Augusta will hold the Augusta Hamfest 2016
Saturday, September 17 at the Liberty Park Community Center. Website: <http://w4dv.club>.
LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS The Central Arkansas Radio Emergency Net will hold the 2016 All Arkansas
Hamfest Saturday, September 17 at the Catholic High School. Website: <http://www.carenclub.com>. VE exams.
PEORIA, ILLINOIS The Peoria Area Amateur Radio Club will hold the Peoria Superfest Saturday,
September 17 and Sunday, September 18 at the Exposition Gardens. Contact: PAARC, P.O. Box 3508, Peoria,
IL 61612-3508. Phone: (309) 692-3378. Email: <w9uvi@arrl.net>. Website: <http://www.w9uvi.org>. Talk-in
147.075+ (PL 156.7). VE exams.
ADRIAN, MICHIGAN The Adrian Amateur Radio Club will hold its 44th Annual Hamfest and Computer
Show Sunday, September 18 at the Lenawee County Airport. Email: <adrianhamfest@w8tqe.com>. Website:
<http://www.w8tqe.com>. Talk-in 145.370 (PL 85.4).
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS The Harvard Wireless Club, MIT Electronics Research Society, MIT
UHF Repeater Association, and the MIT Radio Society will hold Flea at MIT Sunday, September 18 at the
Parking Garage on Albany and Main Streets. Contact MIT Radio Society, P.O. Box 397082, Cambridge, MA 021397082. Phone: (617) 253-3776. Website: <http://www.swapfest.us>. Talk-in 146.52 or 449.725- (PL 114.8).
MADISON, INDIANA The Clifty City Amateur Radio Society and the Ivy Tech Community College
Amateur Radio Club will air special event stations from 1700-2100 UTC Sunday, September 18 during the 15th
Annual Riley Memorial Air Show. Frequencies include 7.268, 14.268, and 28.440. Electronic QSL only to
<k9@cinergymetro.net>.
TINTON FALLS, NEW JERSEY The Garden State Amateur Radio Association will hold its Hamfest
Sunday, September 18 at the MOESC Parking Lot, 100 Tornillo Way. Contact: Rem Hunnewell, K2REM, (732)
889-6692. Email: <hamfest@gardenstateara.org>. Website: <http://www.gardenstateara.org>. VE exams and
card checking.
PIGEON FORGE, TENNESSEE The Southeastern DX & Contesting Organization (SEDCO, W4DXCC)
will hold the W4DXCC DX and Contest Convention 2016 Friday, September 23 and Saturday, September 24
at the Mainstay Hotel & Conference Center. Contact: Rosie Lamb, 3134 Allen Drive, Maryville, TN 37803. Phone:
(865) 898-2279. Email: <ka4s@roslynn.net>. Website: <http://www.w4dxcc.com>.
ALEXANDRIA, LOUISIANA The Central Louisiana Amateur Radio Club will hold its Hamfest Saturday,
September 24 at the Shriners Club. Contact: Jack Brossette, 580 Rubin Drive, Pineville, LA 71360. Phone:
(318) 481-0929. Email: <wa5etl@suddenlink.net>. Website: <http://www.clarc.us>.
BELVIDERE, ILLINOIS The Chicago FM Club will hold Radio Expo 2016 Saturday, September 24 at
the Boone County Fairgrounds. Contact: Chicago FM Club, 218 S. Fairview Avenue, Park Ridge, IL 60068.
Phone: (773) 614-4733. Email: <wa9orc@gmail.com>. Website: <http://www.chicagofmclub.org>. Talk-in
147.255+ (PL 114.8) or 444.725+ (PL 107.2). VE exams.
BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA The Bloomington Amateur Radio Club will hold its Hamfest Saturday,
September 24 at the Monroe County Fair Grounds, 4-H Building. Talk-in 146.640- (PL 136.5). VE exams.
CEDARBURG, WISCONSIN The Ozaukee Radio Club will hold the 11th Annual ORC Regional Fall
Swapfest Saturday, September 24 at the Firemans Park. Phone (262) 377-6945. Website: <http://www.
ozaukeeradioclub.org>.

Richard S. Moseson, W2VU, Editor


Jason Feldman, KD2IWM, Associate Editor
Susan Moseson, Editorial Consultant

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
Kent Britain, WA5VJB, Antennas
Gerry L. Dexter, The Listening Post
Joe Eisenberg, KNEB, Kit-Building
Tony Emanuele, WA8RJF, VHF
Tomas Hood, NW7US, Propagation
Irwin Math, WA2NDM, Maths Notes
Ted Melinosky, K1BV, Awards
Joe Moell, KOV, Homing In
Ron Ochu, KOZ, Learning Curve
Jeff Reinhardt, AA6JR, Mobile/Radio Magic
Scott Rought, KA8SMA, QRP
Don Rotolo, N2IRZ, Digital
Rob de Santos, K8RKD, Communications Horizons
Cory GB Sickles, WA3UVV,
Emergency Communications, Off the Air
Bob Schenck, N2OO, DX
David Siddall, K3ZJ, Contesting
Tom Smerk, AA6TS, International
Dan Srebnick, K2DLS, RF Bits
Jason Togyer, KB3CNM, Spurious Signals
Gordon West, WB6NOA, Short Circuits
Wayne Yoshida, KH6WZ, The Ham Notebook

AWARD MANAGEMENT
John Bergman, KC5LK, WAZ Award
Steve Bolia, N8BJQ, WPX Award
Keith Gilbertson, KKG, CQ DX Award
Ted Melinosky, K1BV, USA-CA Award

CONTEST MANAGEMENT
Andy Blank, N2NT, CQ 160 Meter Contest
Steve Bolia, N8BJQ, CQ VHF Contest
Ed Muns, WYK, CQ RTTY Contest
John Sweeney, K9EL, CQ DX Marathon
Terry Zivney, N4TZ, CQ WW WPX Contest
Douglas Zwiebel, KR2Q, CQ WW DX Contest

BUSINESS STAFF
Richard A. Ross, K2MGA, Publisher
Jonathan Kummer, Advertising Director
Emily Leary, Sales Coordinator
Doris Watts, Accounting Department

CIRCULATION STAFF
Cheryl DiLorenzo, Customer Service Manager

PRODUCTION STAFF
Elizabeth Ryan, Art Director
Dorothy Kehrwieder, Production Director
Emily Leary, Production Manager
Hal Keith, Illustrator
Larry Mulvehill, WB2ZPI, Staff Photographer
Rod Somera, Webmaster
A publication of

CQ Communications, Inc.
17 West John Street
Hicksville, NY 11801 USA.
CQ Amateur Radio (ISSN 0007-893X) Volume 72, No. 9.
Published monthly by CQ Communications, Inc., 17 West John
Street, Hicksville, NY 11801, Telephone 516-681-2922. E-mail:
cq@cq-amateur-radio.com. Fax 516-681-2926. Web site:
www.cq-amateur-radio.com. Periodicals Postage Paid at
Hicksville, NY 11801 and at additional mailing offices.
Subscription prices (all in U.S. dollars): Domestic-one year
$38.95, two years $70.95, three years $102.95; Canada/
Mexico-one year $51.95, two years $96.95, three years
$138.95: Foreign Air Post-one year $63.95, two years $120.95,
three years $177.95. U.S. Government Agencies: Subscriptions to CQ are available to agencies of the United States
government including military services, only on a cash with
order basis. Requests for quotations, bids, contracts., etc. will
be refused and will not be returned or processed. Entire contents copyrighted 2016 by CQ Communications, Inc. CQ does
not assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts. Allow six
weeks for change of address.

Printed in the U.S.A.


POSTMASTER: Send address changes to:
CQ Amateur Radio, 17 W. John Street., Hicksville, NY 11801

(Continued on page 67)

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

The general chairman of the 2017 Dayton Hamvention


announced at the end of July that the owners of Hara
Arena had decided to permanently close the facility.
However, Ron Cramer said show officials had already
been developing contingency plans (Haras future has
been questionable for several years) and that a great
new home had been lined up, although details were
still being finalized. Cramer assured Hamvention vendors and visitors that the event would remain on the
same weekend and would still be in the Dayton area.
For more information, see this months Off the Air column on page 70.

Amateur Radio Parity Act Moves Forward


A bill intended to guarantee operating rights to hams living in antenna-restricted communities was reported out
of committee in the House of Representatives in midJuly for a vote by the full House. The bill, H.R. 1301
also known as the Amateur Radio Parity Act was first
amended to replace a requirement for reasonable
accommodation of amateur antennas with language
guaranteeing amateurs the right to use an effective outdoor antenna. The amended language is the result of
lengthy negotiations between the ARRL and the
Community Associations Institute, which represents
homeowners associations, along with key members of
Congress. According to the ARRL Letter, Communications and Technology subcommittee chairman Rep.
Greg Walden, W7EQI, called the revised bill a good balance between the needs of amateurs and homeowners associations.

AES Goes Out of Business, HRO Takes Over


Key Elements
Amateur Electronic Supply (AES) announced in early
July that it would be closing its doors by the end of the
month. Management of the nations second-largest ham
retailer offered no explanation for the decision.
Within a couple of weeks, the largest ham retailer
Ham Radio Outlet announced that it had agreed to
take over AESs telephone and internet businesses as
of July 28, that it had offered jobs to an unspecified number of AES employees and that it would be remodeling
AESs flagship Milwaukee, Wisconsin location and reopening it by the end of August as the largest amateur
radio retail showroom in America.
At press time, there was no word as to what, if anything, might happen with the AES stores in Wickliffe,
Ohio; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Orlando, Florida.

Hams in Turkey Still On the Air


A report on a website that hams in Turkey had been
forced off the air in the wake of the attempted coup
against President Recep Erdogan was quickly denied
by Turkish amateurs and as of late July, it appears that
hams there are still on the air.
The initial report stated that more than 3,000 amateur
licenses had been cancelled by the government, along
with shutting down many radio and TV stations.
However, a denial was quickly posted on VK3HXTs
blog, which quoted TA1HZ as saying the country is now
under extraordinary circumstances law, but BTK the
Communications Authority, has not released any
announcement about ham radio restrictions.
Several days later, TA1E, the president of Turkeys
national ham association (TRAC) posted a message on

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

the organizations website saying that no licenses had


been revoked and that ham radio operators are operating normally. The ARRL reported that several Turkish
hams had been heard on 10 meters during a July 21
opening to central Europe.

ham radio news

.%73&,!3(: Hara Arena to Close

47-GHz Ham Band Protected For Now


From 5G Wireless Growth
If youre wondering about the value of the ham bands in
the gigahertz (GHz) portion of the RF spectrum, just ask
any engineer working on developing 5G wireless broadband networks. Our cover this month along with our
VHF+ column features N1JEZ and fellow hams who
established a new U.S.-Canadian distance record on the
47-GHz band. This band is among many frequencies
being considered at the next World Radiocommunication Conference in 2019 (WRC-19) to possibly
accommodate next generation 5G wireless networking.
The ARRL reported that a new FCC recommendation
in advance of the conference included 11 gigahertz of
spectrum above 24.25 GHz for consideration, but did not
include the 47.0- to 47.2-GHz amateur allocation. This
band is allocated to amateurs on a primary basis worldwide, but could still face pressure as demand for broadband wireless bandwidth continues to grow.

International Court Rules Against China on


South China Sea Islands
The Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague
(Netherlands) has ruled that China has violated
Philippine sovereignty by claiming exclusive control over
South China Sea islands and shoals including Scarborough Reef and the Spratlys. The court ruled that,
even though Chinese sailors and fishermen have historically made use of these islands, so have other countries and there is no evidence that China had historically exercised exclusive control over the waters or
resources, according to a report in the ARRL Letter.
China refused to participate in the arbitration and said it
is not bound by the ruling.
It is unclear what, if any, impact the decision may have
on future efforts by amateurs to operate DXpeditions
from disputed islands in the South China Sea. They have
historically been very dangerous locations, with several
instances of hams being fired on by naval vessels.

West Coast Hams Participate in Major


Disaster Drill
Amateur radio operators were key players in a five-day
disaster drill in the Pacific Northwest. According to the
ARRL Letter, the Federal Emergency Management
Agencys Cascadia Rising exercise simulated a major
earthquake and tsunami, which wiped out all normal
channels of communications. More than 500 hams from
three states took part in the drill, along with additional
amateurs in British Columbia, which was conducting a
parallel exercise. We were able to support all our served
agencies and clients, the Western Washington Section
Manager reported to the ARRL.
A second earthquake simulation exercise scheduled for September 21 will focus on communications
among and between Native American communities on
tribal lands, many of which are located in remote areas.
According to Newsline, the National Tribal Emergency
Management Council and the National Tribal Amateur
Radio Association are recruiting ham radio clubs and
individual hams in tribal communities to participate in the
Day of the Quake drill.

September 2016

CQ

VOLUME 72 NUMBER 9

SEPTEMBER 2016
CONTENTS
FEATURES
10
13
17
24
28
31
98

COLUMNS
38
40
46
50
54
59

66

70

THE DAY THE FCC CAME KNOCKING


By David Dary, W5ZAX
W7DXX REMOTE: 17 YEARS AND COUNTING
By Keith Lamonica, W7DXX
RESULTS OF THE 2016 CQWW WPX SSB CONTEST
By Terry Zivney, N4TZ
THE QUIET REBIRTH OF MARS PART III
By Bill Sexton, N1IN
RF BITS: CQ REVIEWS: THE DV4mini
By Dan Srebnick, K2DLS
BUILDING THE ozQRP MDT QRP DSB TRANSCEIVER
By Jack Purdum, W8TEE
COMPLETE SCORES OF THE 2016 CQWW WPX RTTY
CONTEST

x{

MATHS NOTES: Passive Antenna Investigations


By Irwin Math, WA2NDM
THE LISTENING POST: Add One More New Station On the Air
By Gerry Dexter
CQ WORLD WIDE: Ham News from Around the World and
Beyond
By Tom Smerk, AA6TS
KIT-BUILDING: Go Big Red
By Joe Eisenberg, KNEB
THE HAM NOTEBOOK: Projects and Workspaces
By Wayne Yoshida, KH6WZ
LEARNING CURVE: Field Day, Bandpass Filters, and the
Scientific Method
By Ron Ochu, KOZ
DIGITAL CONNECTION: Diagnosis Process (or Why
Doesnt the #%@$ Thing Work)
By Don Rotolo, N2IRZ
OFF THE AIR: My Inbox Runneth Over
By Cory GB Sickles, WA3UVV

DEPARTMENTS
43

EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS: Dayton in the Rearview


Mirror Part 2
By Cory GB Sickles, WA3UVV

Cover Story
74
VHF PLUS: New DX Record on 47 GHZ
By Tony Emanuele, WA8RJF
80
82
88
94

2
3
8

AWARDS: Romania Offers Interesting and Colorful Awards


By Ted Melinosky, K1BV
DX: DXpedition Funding
By Bob Schenck, N2OO
CONTESTING: Ladies and Gentlemen, Start Your Stations ...
By David Siddall, K3ZJ
PROPAGATION: Solar Cycle 24 and Science
By Tomas Hood, NW7US
ANNOUNCEMENTS
HAM RADIO NEWS
ZERO BIAS

15
64
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Yaesu Celebrates Its 60th Anniversary from 1956 to 2016,


Reaffirming Our Commitment to Achieving
Superiority and Excellence in Performance.

Yaesu is a unique company making innovative communications equipment.


Our Founders vision of pursuing excellence and excitement in our products
has been our goal for 60 years, and we constantly endeavor to achieve this
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Yaesu will continue to achieve new milestones in the coming decade through
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CQ

BY RICH MOSESON,* W2VU

zero bias a CQ editorial


8

7"7>>,>`
e hams sometimes have trouble with matters
of ownership in certain parts of our hobby. For
example, while we generally own the equipment in our stations, we dont own our licenses or our
callsigns, even though, for many of us, our calls have
become part of our identities and changing a call is akin
to changing your name. But our calls arent really ours.
Amateur licenses and callsigns are granted (in the U.S.)
by the FCC, which can also take them away. There is
no inalienable right to have a ham license or a particular callsign.
We certainly dont own our frequencies, despite the
fact that there are those among us who feel otherwise.
All amateur bands are shared with the rest of the amateur population, and in the case of 60 meters and most
UHF bands, with other radio services. Plus, as with our
licenses and callsigns, what the FCC giveth, the FCC
can also taketh away (operate on 220-222 lately?).
On the other hand, certain things in amateur radio are
owned, and there seems to be some confusion at the
moment over who owns what. For example, as this is
written in late July, there is a dispute going on between
the ARRL and some of its volunteers in the National
Traffic System (NTS). Earlier in the month, the ARRL
Executive Committee removed an NTS area director for
allegedly making unauthorized commitments on behalf
of ARRL to FEMA the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This has created quite a backlash among
some other NTS leaders, including calls for a declaration of independence, a petition drive at change.org
calling for more transparency by the ARRL board of
directors and a shutdown of some upper-level NTS operations. The former area director who was fired has filed
a federal lawsuit against the League, alleging defamation. The other two area directors have since resigned.
From reading through various emails and newsletters
on the subject, it is clear to us that this whole mess is
the result of making inaccurate assumptions, jumping
to conclusions about motivations, and blowing opportunities to resolve the issue amicably, with plenty of blame
to go around on both sides. It is a classic case of trained
communicators failing to communicate.
We have no intention of taking sides in this internal
ARRL squabble, but one thing is clear: Whether or not
the decision was the right one to make, the Leagues
executive committee was totally within its rights to make
it. NTS is an integral part of the ARRLs field organization, and the Leagues rules and regulations for its field
organization clearly state that any appointment may be
canceled by the ARRL Executive Committee if it feels
the action would be in the best interest of the ARRL.
One may agree or disagree with the wisdom of the committees action, but there is no question that it had the
authority to take that action.
As ARRL CEO Tom Gallagher, NY2RF, explained in
an email to NTS leaders, NTS is not a stand-alone organization. It is a program of the American Radio Relay
League. In fact, it is a program that is as old at the
League itself, which was founded more than 100 years
ago to formalize a network of message relay stations
across the country (thats where the Relay in the
ARRLs name comes from). NTS is not only a program
of the ARRL, it is a linchpin of the Leagues history. The

September 2016

ARRL owns it, just as it owns ARES, the Amateur


Radio Emergency Service. Both of these services are
administered primarily by volunteers, most of whom
have been given a great deal of autonomy. But that
doesnt change the fact that NTS and ARES are programs of the ARRL, and that the ARRL is ultimately
responsible for their actions.
(By the way, this is not exclusively an ARRL issue. We
have occasionally found it necessary to remind some of
the wonderful volunteers on our contest and award committees that administering a program on a day-to-day
basis, even for a long time, does not give one ownership of that program. CQs contests and awards are programs of CQ magazine and thus are owned by the magazine, not by their administrators or the participants. We
also need to occasionally remind readers that purchasing a copy of this magazine does not give them ownership of the information inside it, nor the right to scan articles or entire issues and post them online without
our permission. The contents of this magazine are the
intellectual property of CQ and/or the articles authors,
and protected by copyright laws.)
Returning briefly to the NTS mess, our hobby cannot afford to have in-fighting among various constituencies and interest groups. As Buffalo Springfield
sang in For What Its Worth back in the 70s
Nobodys right if everybodys wrong. It sure looks to
us like everybodys wrong to one degree or another in
this case, and the worst part is that it makes amateur
radio look bad in the eyes of one of our major government partners, the Federal Emergency Management
Agency. Everybody needs to move beyond the infighting and the turf wars and work together to create a unified amateur radio response network that makes the
best use of everyones skills and training. It is too bad
that this couldnt have happened before there were firings, resignations, and lawsuits.

Hall of Fame Authors


In this issue, were honored to start things out with articles by two recent inductees to the CQ Amateur Radio
Hall of Fame. David Dary, W5ZAX, recalls the day the
FCC came knocking and how his early, unknowing
and very brief experience in pirate radio led to a lifetime in amateur radio, a career in broadcast journalism and journalism education, and becoming a highly-regarded writer on the American West. Next, Keith
Lamonica, W7DXX, relates the story behind the first
remotely-controlled amateur radio station accessed
via the internet, as well as its current status and future
plans. The concept of remote operating is revolutionizing amateur radio and making it possible for many
people in antenna-restricted homes to get on the air
and remain active hams.
Weve also got the SSB results of the 2016 CQWW
WPX Contest, the conclusion of our three-part series on
the first 90 years of Army MARS and its new role for
the future in fighting cyberterrorism. We also review the
DV4mini for digital voice with a Raspberry Pi, and in our
cover story, explore what goes into setting a new DX
record on one of our frontier bands, 47 GHz. We hope
you enjoy these articles and the rest of this issue.
73, W2VU

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Noted author, journalist and recent CQ Amateur Radio Hall of Fame


inductee David Dary, W5ZAX, recalls how running afoul of FCC rules as
a kid got him introduced to ham radio and set a course for his career.

7KH'D\WKH)&&&DPH.QRFNLQJ
Memories of a Broadcasting Oops and Six Decades
of Ham Radio
BY DAVID DARY,* W5ZAX
fter more than 60 years as a ham, my mind is filled
with countless memories of amateur radio and the
role it has played in my life. Like many long-time hams
who exchange stories over coffee, reliving the past is fun and
entertaining.
As a wet behind the ears teenager, it was shortwave listening (Photo A) that pushed me toward ham radio with
an extra nudge from two FCC engineers in 1952. First, my
great uncle owned a hardware store in my hometown of
Manhattan, Kansas. He introduced me to shortwave radio.

Starting With Shortwave


Uncle Charlie had a table model shortwave radio near the
potbelly stove in the center of his hardware store and a wire
antenna stretching to the rafters. I remember vividly listening to overseas radio broadcasts on his radio in 1944. It
seemed like magic. Later my parents gave me a Hallicrafters
S-38 as a Christmas present.
In time I located a copy of World Radio Handbook and
spent hours locating stations, sending reception reports and
collecting their QSL cards and letters. In time, I began reporting what I had heard to Ken Board, a DXer, who had a monthly column in a national radio magazine, and to Short Wave
News (Photo B), a British publication that sponsored the
International Short Wave League (ISWL), which I joined.
Later, I followed SWLing in Popular Communications.
The mailman began delivering electronics catalogues from
several companies including the Burstein and Applebee
store in Kansas City, Missouri, about 125 miles east. One
of those catalogues offered an item labeled as Own Your
Own Radio Station, selling for a few dollars. I figured it must
be OK to use since the company said so. It was called a
phono-oscillator and one was ordered.
When it arrived, I followed the meager instructions and
plugged in the cheap microphone they sent, along with my
45 rpm record player, and attached my shortwave listening
long-wire antenna. The units output was less than one watt.
It was set-up in my homes second story bedroom where
a screwdriver was used to tune the phono-oscillators front
panel screw to a clear frequency on my AM radio dial. I could
introduce and play records on-the-air. Downstairs in the living room, the signal was strong on my parents floor model
radio. A neighbor boy living next door said my station was
* e-mail: <ddary@cox.net>

10

CQ

September 2016

Photo A. The author as a teenaged shortwave listener, just


before obtaining his Novice license in 1952. SWLing and
a few other radio activities pushed him toward a career in
broadcasting and a lifetime as a ham. (All photos courtesy
of the author)
loud and clear. It was like magic. I had my own radio station just like the catalogue claimed.
Many evenings at 7 p.m., I played records for about an
hour and used KDAD, a call-sign made up using my initials
after the K, the prefix for most broadcast stations west of the
Mississippi. A few days later I put a stack of records on my
player, got in my old 1934 Ford, turned on its radio and drove
around the neighborhood. To my amazement, I could hear
my station several blocks away as one record after another
played.
Everything was fine for about a month until one Saturday
morning when the doorbell rang. My mother answered the
door and was surprised to find two gentlemen in suits. They
Visit Our Web Site

Photo C. One of the authors early contacts was with Bob


White, W1WPO (later W1CW), founder and manager of the
DXCC program for many years.

Photo B. David Dary on the cover of Short Wave News, a


British magazine in July, 1951. The magazine published SWLing information and sponsored the International Short Wave
League (ISWL), of which Dary was a registered monitor.
identified themselves as Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Hester, engineers from the FCC field office in Kansas City, Missouri. They
asked to speak to her son.
I answered mothers call and the two gentlemen came in
and sat down in the living room. One of them soon asked
me, Have you been broadcasting on radio? I said yes and
explained what equipment was being used and where it had
been purchased. They did not ask to see my station.
They informed me that my station was illegal and implied
that they had heard me on the air. My stomach filled with
butterflies. I wondered how my tiny station could break the
law. Scared, I did not think to ask where and how they heard
my station, but they hinted it may have been heard about
200 miles north at their monitoring station located at Grand
Island, Nebraska. I never found out.
As they were ending their surprise visit, one of the engineers asked if I had heard of amateur radio. Although my
shortwave listening was pretty much limited to overseas
broadcast stations like the BBC, OTC in what was then the
Belgian Congo, and Radio Australia among others, I told
them that occasionally I heard hams on my radio but paid little attention to them. Both engineers encouraged me to get
an amateur license and gave me printed material on ham
radio. That way, they said, I could operate a legal station.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

Photo D. QSL card from CBS colleague Ed Laker, W3TM.


Ed was the engineer and David was the newscaster who
introduced President John F. Kennedy on CBS Radio the
night he made his Cuban missile crisis speech.
A few days later, my father received a letter from the FCC
saying that since I was a minor, he was responsible for my
actions and could be fined $10,000. Needless to say, my life
was more difficult until I promised him that I would study for
a ham license and be legal. Later the FCC sent him a letter
saying the case had been dropped.

Getting Legal
Needless to say, station KDAD became history. With help from
Clifford Simpson, W0YUQ, who operated a local radio supply
company and who became my Elmer, I passed my novice exam
in 1952 and was assigned the call WN0QDG. Soon I was making CW contacts on 80 and 40 meters with a Heathkit transmitter, an RME 45 receiver and my long-wire antenna.
Many of the QSL cards from those contacts are still in my
collection, including one from Robert L. White, W1WPO, following a CW QSO on September 9 1953 (Photo C). Later I
learned that White (whose call was later changed to W1CW)
was manager of ARRLs DX Century Club from 1952 until
1976. It was White who established the DXCC award and
its high standards. White became known as Mr. DXCC.
He died in Florida in 2002 at the age of 84.

Career Path
My early radio experiences led me to study broadcasting at
Kansas State University in my hometown. Between stud-

September 2016

CQ

11

Photo E. The author interviewing John F. Kennedy a few


months before Kennedy was elected President. Later, while
covering the White House during the Kennedy administration, Dary got JFK to sign the photo for him.
ies, I slowly increased my code speed to 13 wpm. When I
passed my general exam, the N in my call was dropped and
my general license read WQDG.
After college graduation, ham radio time was limited as I
married and became morning news editor of WIBW radio in
Topeka, Kansas. Two of the stations engineers were hams
and our conversations kept my amateur radio interest alive.
Ham radio, however, continued to take a back seat as I pursued a career in broadcasting to make a living. I moved to
KWFT, a CBS affiliate in Wichita Falls, Texas. There, the
FCC assigned me a new call, W5DAO.
Based on my Texas reporting for the network from KWFT,
CBS News in Washington, D.C. hired me as a reporter when
I was 26 years old.
The first day on the job, my editor sent me to cover the
White House. President Eisenhower was in his last months
as president and my assigned CBS engineer was Edwin F.
Laker, a long-time ham whose call was W3TM. We became
good friends. He is gone, but I still have his QSL card (Photo
D) which lists his earlier ham calls 3OP, 3AJJ, 7AON,
W7GE, W6PK, W4EU and W3JRE. He worked the world on
QRP and kept my ham radio interest alive.
One day at lunch near the White House, he said I should
get a 4 call since we had just moved to northern Virginia
outside of Washington, D.C. After lunch, he took me down
the street to the FCC amateur office, then located just off
Pennsylvania Avenue, where he introduced me to a staff
member friend. Ed explained that I had just moved to the
area and need a new call. Within a few minutes we walked
out of the FCC office with my new call, W4ZAX.
Ed Laker was my engineer on the evening of October 22,
1962 when my editor sent me to the White House to intro-

12

CQ

September 2016

duce President Kennedy (Photo E) from the oval office in his


now famous Cuban Missile Crisis speech on CBS Radio . At
the time, I said to myself, How about that? Here are
two hams enabling listeners to hear the President address
the nation.
My memory also recalls having served on several of Lowell
Thomass CBS news programs originating from Washington,
D.C. We became friends. When Thomas learned I was a
ham, we talked about his trip to Tibet in 1948 and he related
how he had broadcast from there over Reginald Foxs ham
station, AC4YN, in Lhasa. Thomas had great admiration for
hams and amateur radio and had many ham friends around
the world, including the late Father Marshall Moran, S.J.,
9N1MM, in Nepal. Later, I was thrilled to work Father Moran
on 20 meters.
Reporting the news on CBS was a dream come true. I had
grown up listening to CBS duringWorld War II and now I was
covering Washington and meeting interesting people. One
day, my editor gave me the assignment to interview Edward
R. Murrow, who had recently been appointed by President
Kennedy to head the U.S Information Agency. It was the
anniversary of the founding of the Voice of America. Being
a shortwave listener and a ham, I knew the subject well.
Later, the same was true when I was assigned to investigate and report on the Gibraltar Steamship Co. in New York.
The company owned no steamships but served as a cover
for the CIAs covert Radio Swan in the western Caribbean
that broadcast into Castros Cuba. Swan Island was then a
DXCC entity (KS4) even though the FCC said it had no control over Radio Swan because ownership of the island was
disputed between the U.S. and Honduras. The island
became part of Honduras in the early 1970s.
A few years later, I joined NBC News in Washington, D.C.
as manager of local news responsible for news within the
Beltway. There, I found more engineers who were hams. One
was Sam Newman, W3HN, who headed up the engineering
department. I will never forget sitting in Sams office talking
ham radio on November 22, 1963, when his phone rang. His
facial expression changed as he hung up. The call was from
NBC in New York informing him that President Kennedy had
been shot in Dallas and that the network needed hot TV cameras in Washington, D.C. for the networks coverage. We both
rushed out of his office, realizing our responsibilities to get
cameras warmed up and news bulletins on the air. The four
days that followed were long and filled with much hard work.

Looking Back
There are countless other memories of more than 60 years
in amateur radio. There have been unforgettable DX contacts, the joy of receiving their QSL cards, memorable QSOs,
of earning my DXCC and more recently the W1AW
Centennial Worked All States (and territories) Award, and
many visits over coffee with numerous hams including Walter
Cronkite (KB2GSD) and then-CBS News President Bill
Leonard (W2SKE), and of the equipment and antennas I have
used and the ham stores visited.
I credit ham radio for a giving me a career in broadcasting
that eventually led to teaching journalism at the University of
Kansas for two decades, of heading the journalism program
at the University of Oklahoma for more than a decade and
authoring more than 20 non-fiction books on the history of
the American West. It has been an interesting life thanks in
large part to the two FCC engineers who surprised me on
that Saturday morning more than 60 years ago and encouraged me to get my ticket. For me amateur radio has been
more than just a hobby.

Visit Our Web Site

The worlds first dedicated remotely-controlled ham station accessible via


the Internet was set up in 1999 by N2JEU and W7DXX. Heres a brief
look at the station, its history, and its ongoing operation.

:';;5HPRWH<HDUVDQG&RXQWLQJ
BY KEITH LAMONICA,* W7DXX

t has been over 17 years since Bob Arnold, N2JEU (SK),


and I launched W7DXX, the worlds first Internet remote
base station. Our goal was to provide those amateurs who
are faced with antenna zoning problems, TVI, or those who
just want to operate a well-equipped amateur station, the
opportunity to do so without needing to invest a lot of money
on equipment.
In 1999, Kachina Radio in Arizona had what was probably
the first amateur radio transceiver with a serial port, a vital
requirement for computer control. The company donated a
505 transceiver to get our Internet remote base project started. Alpha provided us with an 87A amplifier and Peter Juul,
W6PJ, donated a Tennadyne T-11 log-periodic antenna
(Photo A). With 1 kilowatt to an 11-element antenna, it
appeared as though we were all set.
The most serious problem we had was radio frequency
interference (RFI). RF was getting into almost everything in
the house. Our nearest neighbors lived several hundred feet
away, yet we even caused them grief. Not only did we interfere with their television and telephone, we also got into their
electronic organ. When the remote base was on the air, their
organ played strange music. Further, in their bedroom they
had a lamp, the kind you turned on and off by touching the
base. The lamp rectified our audio, producing a very weird
sounding, muffled voice. At one point the neighbors wife was
convinced their house was haunted because her lamp was
talking to her.
Another problem we had to overcome was high SWR, particularly on 75 and 40 meters. MFJ came to the rescue by
donating an MFJ-998 1,500-watt automatic antenna tuner.
We were now able to operate 80-6 meters with very low SWR.
From Boston, propagation was good to Europe and the world,
even on six meters.

New QTH, New Challenges


In 2005 we moved from Boston to southern New Mexico. We
secured a location to build a new remote base facility away
from neighbors, TVI, and QRM. Much of the remote base equipment was dated and in need of replacement. For a transceiver we picked the Elecraft K3, not only because of its outstanding
performance, but because it has features making it ideal for
remote base use, including built-in line audio input/output, a
CW keyer, band data output, and more. (Photo B)
For an amplifier to replace our aging Alpha 87A, we chose
the SPE 2K-FA. It, too, is ideal for remote base operation.
The 2K-FA delivers 1,500 watts on all ham bands from 160
through 6 meters. It has a built-in automatic antenna tuner
and a six-position antenna coax switch. The 2K-FA software
* w7dxx@w7dxx.com
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

Photo A. The log-periodic antenna at W7DXX makes sure


the station hears from, and is heard in, whatever parts of the
world the propagation gods allow. (Photo courtesy of Don
Nesbitt, N4HH)
is rich in protection features allowing it to be reliably operated remotely. The 2K-FA allowed us to eliminate the MFJ tuner
and coax switch.
The biggest challenge at our new location in rebuilding an
Internet-controlled remote base was the lack of reliable
Internet service. Our new facility was being built on a 4,000foot bluff 13 miles from town. The only Internet service available was low speed, less than reliable, wireless service. With
us running 1,500 watts output from the remote, it was nearly impossible to keep RFI out of the Internet receiver and our
control computer. Jim Brown, K9YC, authored a Cook Book
on how to address RFI problems. A thorough reading of Jims
book led us to effectively reduce RFI, including coax common mode problems.
The problem with the unreliable Internet was relatively easy
to overcome, but difficult at the same time. With no wired
Internet service available near the remote base site,
microwave or satellite seemed to be the only options. Satellite
was ruled out because of the latency, a problem that would
make break-in CW next to impossible. Microwave equipment
is expensive.
September 2016

CQ

13

Photo B. The W7DXX remote station nothing fancy on the walls since most
of the operators never see this! From left, the internet-connected computer and
monitor, the Elecraft K3, and the SPE 2K-FA amplifier. (Photo courtesy of W7DXX)
The solution to our Internet problem
was soon to be solved, though. A company named Ubiquity had the answer.
One of its products is a 5-GHz Internet
range-extending unit. A pair of Ubiquity
units (one at the remote base and one
at a control point), including the antennas, cost less than $150. It took us less
than two hours to install and align the
antennas and program a frequency
channel. We took advantage of the 100-

mbs Internet service at my home and


relayed Internet service to the remote.
Even though the signal path is over 10
miles, the 5-GHz signal is strong and
very reliable. We have not had one failure with our 5-GHz units.
Software to control an Internet remote
base has been a challenge. The pioneering software efforts of Bob Arnold
were text-based. A control operator
would log on at <www.w7dxx.com> and

enter a frequency in a text window. Only


SSB mode was supported. We had no
amplifier to control or beams to rotate.
And then along came Stan Shretter,
W4MQ, with his software that allowed
us to greatly enhance the capabilities of
W7DXX remote. With Stans software,
we were able to control an amplifier,
operate all modes (including OSCAR
satellite modes), change antennas,
rotate a beam, and have password-protected access to the remote.
The most exciting development in
Internet remote base software came
when Brandon Hansen, KG6YPI, introduced his remote base software (Photo
C). Brandons software features the
ability to control a number of different
transceivers. It has a built-in chat window which control operators can use to
talk with each other. More than one
operator can be logged on at the same
time. Other features include DX spotting, CW macros, and amplifier and
beam rotor control. We have been using
Brandons brilliant software since it was
first introduced and find it stable and
very reliable. Its at <remotehams.com>.

W7DXX Remote Today


Most of our control operators are rabid
CW DX-chasers (Photos D & E). With
1,500 watts to an 11-element log-periodic, their results have been impres-

Photo C. Closeup view of the W7DXX Super Remote software as viewed on a users computer screen. See text for details
of what it can do. (Courtesy of W7DXX)

14

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

Photo D. Don Nesbitt, N4HHs remote station for operating via the W7DXX remote base. The large monitor on the left
shows his N1MM logging and station control software; the laptop screen shows the settings of the W7DXX transceiver.
(Photo courtesy of Don Nesbitt, N4HH)

How to Travel with 1,500 Watts in Your Back


Pocket and Not Catch Your Pants on Fire
I love operating HF mobile but I have never found a transceiver
small enough to fit gracefully in my small automobile, or a
mobile antenna that would survive the rigors of a drive-through
car wash. I also like chasing DX from my home base station.
Wouldnt it be nice if I could combine the advantages of mobile
operation with my 1,500-watt base station? Better yet, do it all
with an HT-size transceiver? There is an easy way to do this.
Over the past few years many communication-related apps
have become available for smart phones. One particular application allows me total control of my K3, SPE 2K-FA, and logperiodic. I can travel almost anywhere in the world and remotely operate my own station, plus over 100 other stations
worldwide. All you need is an Android smart phone and software you download from the Internet. Just follow these steps:
1. Open up the browser on your droid.
2. Navigate to: <http://www.remotehams.com/>
3. Click on RCForb Client for Android Beta
Once the program launches, a list of stations with which you
can connect will load and be displayed. Scroll down and find
W7DXX Super Remote. Click on it and you will be connected. If you click on chats, you will see the calls of others who
may be logged on and be able to text-chat with them. From
that same window, click on more to access the amplifier or
antenna rotor. You can even click on DX Summit to keep up
with DX you may be chasing.
The application is pretty self-intuitive, but if you have any
questions, you can email me at <w7dxx@w7dxx.com>.
Enjoy!

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

CQ

15

Photo E. Another shot of N4HHs station, with everything happening on one computer screen. The Elecraft K3/Mini control
head in the center is connected to W7DXX via the Internet, while the KX3 on the right is used for local operation (note the
coax plugged in at the far right). (Photo courtesy of Don Nesbitt, N4HH)
sive. Some of our operators have
worked over 300 DX entities, others
have worked DXCC exclusively via the
remote (With very few exceptions, operators use their own station callsigns on
the W7DXX system). With the chat window, operators can spot DX for each

other, and often after one operator


works a DX station he can pass the
remote to someone else on chat so that
person can work the DX. In addition to
working DX, we sometimes participate
in contests and have earned first place
in a major worldwide DX contest.

>,>`
>}>i

-
t

Enjoy quick and easy access to


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broken down by years!
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16

CQ

September 2016

Heres how one user, Greg Morrow,


NI5W, summarizes his experience as a
W7DXX control op: After 20 years off
the air, I got bitten by the ham bug again.
By then, I was living in a HOA (homeowner association) neighborhood with
lots of restrictions. Remote was the only
way for me to get back on the air. Now
Im up to 301 countries, 432 islands, and
still have had time to enjoy a few
ragchews. One of the things I enjoy the
most about the remote is when a group
of us get on at the same time and tag
team working a new one together.
If your enjoyment of our hobby suffers
because of antenna zoning restrictions,
TVI, lack of equipment, or you just want
to operate a world-class amateur radio
station via your computer from anywhere in the world, consider joining us.
Membership is $200/year, all of which
goes to help cover the costs of operating and maintaining the station. Go to
<www.w7dxx.com> for details on how
to become a control operator of W7DXX
internet remote.
Visit Our Web Site

5HVXOWVRIWKH&4:::3;
66%&RQWHVW
BY TERRY ZIVNEY*, N4TZ
4HEGENERALLYDECLININGPROPAGATION COUPLED
WITHTHECONTESTAGAINFALLINGON%ASTER
WEEKEND LEDTOFEWERLOGSRECEIVEDTHISYEAR
3TILL WITHOVER LOGSRECEIVED ITSHARDTO
COMPLAINABOUTINTERESTINTHECONTEST

ou gotta go with the flow, Joe. Sometimes plans dont


work out but when you adapt to the situation, you can
still make things happen. For example, Ben, N3UM,
was planning to do a two-man Multi-Two from K3CCR, the
club station at the Collington continuing-care retirement community in Maryland, but his teammate was busy so he operated Single-Operator High-Power and won a certificate for
the W3 call area with his laid-back effort in the TribanderSingle Element overlay category. If you would like to know
a little more about the station, visit the QRZ page at <www.
qrz.com/lookup/k3ccr>.
The generally declining propagation, coupled with the contest again falling on Easter weekend, led to fewer logs
received this year. Still, with over 5,300 logs received, its
hard to complain about interest in the contest. Indeed, we
received a record number of logs from Asia and Oceania,
with impressive numbers of entries received from Japan,
China, and Indonesia.
You can find out how you and your competitors did by
checking out the complete line scores in the back of this issue
and at <www.cqwpx.com> where the line scores are accompanied by a searchable database of scores for all past CQ
WPX contests. You will also find public logs from all the competitors to help you identify missed opportunities.
Heres a rundown of this years top finishers:

Photo A. Jose,
WP4PGY, wins
the World
Rookie plaque.

Photo B.
WP4PGY used
this 5-element,
5-band, 50-foot
boom quad
antenna to post
the highest
Rookie score in
the world.

Single-Operator All Band


Tom, W2SC, made it a three-peat from his 8P5A station.
Andy, AE6Y, at his P49Y QTH, held on to beat Didier, FY5FY
for the runner-up position. Krassy, K1LZ, again won the U.S.,
this time edging out many-time champion Bob, KQ2M/1.
Stephane, F4DXW, used the TM6M alias to beat out last
years European champ, Davor, 9A1UN, who also sported
the special callsign 9A77A. A couple of senior citizens made
the top ten U.S. list: Fred, K3ZO, and Paul, N4PN, who borrowed the WQ6SL/4 callsign.

Single-Operator Single Band


Last year, there were big scores from all continents on 10
meters. This year, the top nine scores were from South
America, with CX2DK at the top. P45A ran away from the competition to capture the 15-meter plaque, with the highest score
on any single band. The rest of the single-band winners operEmail: <n4tz@cqwpx.com>

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

CQ

17

}
*Vi>i

+-i
,EW-C#OYON!NTENNAS
by Lew McCoy, W1ICP
Unlike many technical
publications, Lew presents
his invaluable antenna info
in a casual, non-intimidating
way for anyone!

8.5 X 11 Paperback $19.95


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0ROPAGATION(ANDBOOK
by W3ASK, N4XX & K6GKU
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predictions, unusual
propagation effects and do-ityourself forecasting tips.

8.5 X 11 Paperback $19.95


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2016 CQWW WPX SSB TROPHY WINNERS AND DONORS


SINGLE OPERATOR ALL BAND
WORLD: Stanley Cohen, W8QDQ Trophy. Won by: 8P5A operated by Tom Georgens, W2SC
WORLD Low Power: Caribbean Contesting Consortium Trophy. Won by: WP2Z operated by Fred Kleber, K9VV
WORLD QRP: Phil Krichbaum, NKE Trophy. Won by: Tomislav Kunst, 9A7JZC
USA: Atilano de Oms, PY5EG Trophy. Won by: Krassimir Petkov, K1LZ
USA Low Power: Terry Zivney, N4TZ Trophy. Won by: WW2Y operated by Andy Blank, N2NT
USA QRP: Doug Zwiebel, KR2Q Trophy. Won by: Russyll Barnette, AB3WS
USA Zone 3 High Power: Lauri "Mac" McCreary, KG7C Trophy. Won by: Gregory Glenn, NR6Q
USA Zone 3 Low Power: Buz Reeves, K2GL Memorial Trophy. Won by: NF6A operated by Bob Wolbert, K6XX
USA Zone 4 High Power: Society of Midwest Contesters Trophy. Won by: George A. DeMontrond III, NR5M
USA Zone 4 Low Power: Society of Midwest Contesters Trophy. Won by: KN5A operated by Bob Evans, K5WA
USA Zone 5 High Power: Charles Wooten, NF4A Trophy. Awarded to: Robert Shohet, KQ2M/1*
EUROPE High Power: Dave Siddall, K3ZJ Trophy. Won by: TM6M, operated by Stephane Van Langhenhoven,
F4DXW
EUROPE Low Power: Ed Sawyer, N1UR Trophy. Won by: OK7Z, operated by Karel Odehnal, OK2ZI
AFRICA: Peter Sprengel, PY5CC Trophy. Won by: 3V8SS, operated by Ashraf Chaabane, KF3EYY
ASIA: Chris Terkla, N1XS Trophy. Won by: 4LA, operated by Andy Kotovsky, RW7K
NORTH AMERICA: Albert Crespo, F5VHJ Trophy. Awarded to: FG4KH operated by Philippe Levron, F1DUZ*
NORTH AMERICA Low Power: Ed Sawyer, N1UR Trophy. Awarded to: V43Z operated by Felipe J. Hernandez,
NP4Z
NORTH AMERICA QRP: Phil Krichbaum, NKE Trophy. Won by: Jose Osuba, WP4DT
OCEANIA High Power: Phillip Frazier, K6ZM Memorial Trophy. Won by: ZM4T, operated by Holger Hannemann,
ZL3IO
OCEANIA Low Power: YB Land DX Club Trophy. Won by: Yohanes Budhiono, YB2DX
SOUTH AMERICA: Andrew Faber, AE6Y Trophy. Won by: P49Y, operated by Andrew Faber, AE6Y
SOUTHERN CONE (CE, CX, LU) Low Power: LU Contest Group Trophy. Won by: CW5W operated by Jorge Diez,
CX6VX
CANADA High Power: Saskatchewan Contest Club Trophy. Won by: VY2ZM, operated by Jeffrey T. Briggs, K1ZM
CANADA Low Power: Paul Cassel, VE3SY Memorial Trophy by Contest Club Ontario. Won by: Yuri Onipko, VE3DZ
JAPAN: Hamad Alnusif, 9K2HN Trophy. Won by: Masaki Okano, JH4UYB
ASEAN (3W, 9M, 9V, DU, HS, V85, XU, XW, XZ, YB) High Power: Karsono Suyanto, YBNDT Trophy. Won by:
XW1IC, operated by Champ Muangamphun, E21EIC
ASEAN (3W, 9M, 9V, DU, HS, V85, XU, XW, XZ, YB) Low Power: YB Land DX Club Trophy. Awarded to: Vector
Aliendry, YB5BOY
SINGLE OPERATOR, SINGLE BAND
WORLD: Steve Merchant, K6AW Trophy. Won by: Jean-Pierre Lauwereys, P45A (21 MHz)
WORLD 28 MHz: Mamuka Kordzakhia, 4L2M Trophy. Won by: Marcelo Egues, CX2DK
WORLD 28 MHz Low Power: Six Stars Contest Station LS1D Trophy. Won by: Javier Capdebilla Alvarado, CA7CAQ
WORLD 21 MHz: Stuart Santelmann KC1F Memorial (Gene Shablygin, W3UA/RA3AA sponsor) Trophy. Awarded to:
TM1W operated by Marc Sentuc, F1HAR
WORLD 14 MHz: Lynn Schriner, W5FO Memorial by N5RZ Trophy. Won by: SJ2W operated by Mikael Larsmark,
SM2WMV
WORLD 7 MHz Low Power: Neal Campbell, K3NC Trophy. Won by: Mladen Bogdanov, YT6W
WORLD 1.8 MHz: UA2 Contest Club Trophy. Won by: Algirdas Uzdonas, LY7M
USA 28 MHz: Maurice Schietecatte, N4LZ Trophy. Won by: Ralf Hucke, WE6EZ/5
USA 21 MHz: Maurice Schietecatte, N4LZ Trophy. Won by: Peter Bizlewicz, KU2M
USA 14 MHz: Charles Wooten, NF4A Trophy. Won by: WR8AA operated by David Siddall, K3ZJ
USA 7 MHz: Yankee Clipper Contest Club Trophy. Won by: John Bayne, KK9A/4
USA 3.7 MHz: Bernie Welch, W8IMZ Memorial Trophy. Won by: Karl Brandt, ND8DX

3LOPER!NTENNAS

ated in Europe: SJ2W (20), HG8R (40),


OK7K (80), and LY7M (160).

By Juergen A. Weigl, OE5CWL


Single- and Multi-Element
Directive Antennas
for the Low Bands

Single-Operator Low Power


By far, the most popular category continues to be single-operator unassisted
low-power all-band. Fred, K9VV, used
WP2Z to edge out Felipe, NP4Z, who
traveled to V43Z. The top five low-power
scores came from North America.
WW2Y (N2NT) let his amplifiers take the
weekend off and took the low-power U.S.
record away from N1UR, who has moved
on to the high-power category. As was
the case in the high-power categories,
stations to the south dominated the 10and 15-meter bands, while European
stations dominated the rest of the lowpower, single-band standings.

With calculations and


practical experience, this book
shows which basi
concepts have to be
considered for sloper
antennas for the low bands.

6 X 9 Paperback $24.95
CD Version $18.95
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Amateur's Journal
Phone 516-681-2922
FAX 516-681-2926
http://store.cq-amateur-radio.com

18

CQ

September 2016

Single-Operator Assisted
Photo C. Tucker, W4FS, wins the U.S.
Rookie plaque.

There were 1,773 single operators who


reported using assistance during the
contest. Worldwide, E7DX (E77DX, op)
edged out PX5E (PP5JR, op), while

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EUROPE: 28 MHz: Chuck Dietz, W5PR Trophy: Won by: Alfonso Sanchez Sanchez, EA3FZY
EUROPE 14 MHz: SJ2W Contest Team Trophy. Awarded to: EI7M operated by Dmitrij Pavlov, EI3JZ*
EUROPE 3.7 MHz: Ranko Boca, 4O3A Trophy. Awarded to: Jordi Casali Portet EA3PT
SINGLE OPERATOR ASSISTED
WORLD: D4C Contest Team Trophy. Won by: E7DX operated by Emir Braco Memic, E77DX
WORLD QRP: Explorers Radio Club Trophy. Won by: Fabio Menna, IZ8JFL/1
USA: Alabama Contest Group Trophy. Won by: WU3A/1 operated by Gene Shablygin, W3UA
EUROPE: Martin Huml, OL5Y Trophy. Awarded to: Pavel Bogachev, RK4FD
OCEANIA: Sid Caesar, NH7C Trophy. Won by: Bill Main, VK4ZD
OVERLAY CATEGORIES
WORLD Tribander/Single-Element: Nate Moreschi, N4YDU Trophy. Won by: Steve Telenius-Lowe, PJ4DX
USA Tribander/Single-Element: Paul H. Newberry, Jr., N4PN Trophy. Won by: WQ6SL/4 operated by Paul H.
Newberry, Jr., N4PN
USA Tribander/Single-Element Low Power: Alex M. Josza, KG1E Trophy. Won by: Doug Friend, WB8TLI
Europe Tribander/Single-Element: Roger Miner, K1DQV Trophy. Won by: EW5Z operated by Sergey Babakhin,
EU1A
WORLD Rookie: Val Edwards W8KIC Memorial (K3LR sponsor) Trophy. Won by: Jose Cano, WP4PGY
USA Rookie: Joe Cazzalino, WX4CAZ Trophy. Won by: NN2DX operated by Tucker McGuire, W4FS
MULTI-OPERATOR, SINGLE-TRANSMITTER
WORLD: Latvian Contest Club Trophy. Won by: P33W operated by LZ2HM, 5B4AIE, R4FO, UA4FER, RW4WR,
and RA3AUU
WORLD Low Power: Mike Goode, N9NS Memorial (Hoosier DX and Contest Club sponsor) Trophy. Won by: YV1KK
operated by YV1CTE, YV1JGT, YV1KK, YY1YLY, and YY1ALE
USA: Steve Bolia, N8BJQ Trophy. Won by: KE3X operated by AJ3M, KD4D KE3X, N3HBX, N3QE, and W3IDT
USA Low Power: Matt Tatro, NM1C Trophy. Won by: KB3WD operated by KB3WD and NZ3D
AFRICA: Rhein Ruhr DX Association Trophy. Won by: CQ9T operated by CR9ABH, CS9ABC, CS9ABE, and CT3KN
ASIA: W2MIG Memorial (NX7TT Sponsor) Trophy. Awarded to: UP2L operated by R9IR, R9HBA, RM9I, UN7LZ,
and UN9LG *
EUROPE: Tonno Vahk, ES5TV Trophy. Won by: IR4M operated by I4EWH, I4FYF, I4IFL, IK4DCW, IK4HVR, IK4MGP,
IZ4JUK, IZ4ZZB, and IZ5ICH
MULTI-OPERATOR, TWO-TRANSMITTER
WORLD: Ken Adams, K5KA Memorial Trophy. Won by: CN2AA operated by RA3CO, RL3FT, RM2U, RN5M,
RX3APM, UA3ASZ and UA4Z
USA: Florida Contest Group Trophy. Won by: NV9L operated by NV9L, AC9IG K9GS, and WB9Z
AFRICA: Walter Skudlarek, DJ6QT Trophy. Awarded to: 5E5E operated by OK1RI, OM6NM, OK1FFU, OK1JKT,
OK1VVT, EA9LZ, EA7GX, and W7EJ*
EUROPE: Rich Strand, KL7RA Memorial Trophy. Won by: HG7T operated by HA7TM, HA8LLK, HA9PP, HA0DU,
HG5DX, and UZ5DX
MULTI-OPERATOR, MULTI-TRANSMITTER
WORLD: Gail M. Sheehan, K2RED Trophy. Won by: D41CV operated by DF7ZS, HB9DUR, I4UFH, IZ4DPV, RD1A,
RW1F, SQ9CNN, and SQ9DIE
USA: Dale Hoppe, K6UA Memorial Trophy. Won by: WX3B operated by WX3B, WR3R, K1RH, N8IVN, N8II, K3AJ,
K3WI, NH7C, KB3LLS, KK4ODQ, N3SB, and ELIZABETH
EUROPE: Rick Dougherty, NQ4I Trophy. Won by: LZ9W operated by LZ1ZD, LZ1PM, LZ2CJ, LZ1KU, LZ2HQ,
LZ2UU, LZ1UQ, LZ1ZX, LZ1WDX, LZ3FM, LZ1FG, LZ3UM, LZ1ANA, LZ1BMV, LZ1LG, LZ1PJ, LZ3AS, and
VASKO
CONTEST EXPEDITION
WORLD: C6APR Memorial by Andre Coelho, PT7ZZ Trophy. Won by: FP/KV1J operated by Eric Willliams, KV1J
*Denotes awarded to runner-up in category

WU3A/1 (W3UA, op) was tops in the


U.S. A lot of activity took place in the
assisted single-band categories as well.
LR1E (LW6DG, op) repeated on 10
meters. 4Z7T (4X6TT) handily won on
15, 9Y4D beat RW9USA on 20, US1I
(UX2IO) beat S56X by an eyelash on 40,
while IY1A (IZ1LBG) nosed out S54ZZ
on 80. Assistance in finding stations was
especially useful on 160 where SP1FPG
was the king of the band.

Single-Operator QRP
In spite of declining conditions, 257 very
low-powered operators sent in logs.
9A7JZC was world-high QRP all bands,
beating out DL8LR. AB3WS was the top
U.S. finisher. IZ8JFL/1 was the top
assisted QRP all-band scorer. QSO
finding assistance seemed to add more
to the QRP scores than to the top scores
of the higher-powered categories.

Overlay Categories
The Rookie overlay category was
established to encourage recently-

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

licensed hams to try the contest experience. This year, 284 entries checked
this overlay category, down slightly
from 306 last year. Jose, WP4PGY,
operated all-band, high-power to win
the World Rookie plaque (Photos A and
B). W4FS used the remote NN2DX station to lead the U.S. Rookies (Photo C).
HZ1HZ and EF7D (EA7JXZ, op) were
other rookies scoring more than a million points. Laila obtained her late
fathers callsign (HZ1HZ), in case you
were wondering about that familiar call
used by a rookie entry!
The Tribander/Single-Element overlay category was intended to provide a
measuring tool for average stations.
Still, the best operators with good locations for their tribanders can achieve
huge scores. There were 808 entrants
in this overlay. Steve, PJ4DX, ran away
with this category (see sidebar), while
VE3DZ dominated the low-power
crowd with a score that would have
been fifth place among the high-power
TBW stations. N4PN showed up with

September 2016

CQ

19

2016 CQWW WPX SSB TOP SCORES


WORLD

DL2ARD .............................6,838,155
EF8U (EA8AVJ) ..................6,030,291

RT4W ......................................89,908
UT5UUV ..................................81,054

Single Op All Band High Power


8P5A (W2SC)...................27,306,666
P49Y (AE6Y) ....................21,149,649
FY5FY...............................20,120,620
4L$$A (RW7K).................19,525,195
VY2ZM (K1ZM) ................17,320,144
TM6M (F4DXW) ...............17,114,076

Single Op 14 MHz High Power


Assisted
9Y4D ..................................8,086,400
RW9USA ............................7,380,184
EA9KB ................................5,113,464

Single Op 3.7 MHz QRP


OM7KW...................................39,936
SQ8MFB ..................................38,682

Single Op 28 MHz High Power


CX2DK................................3,158,342
PX2F (PY2PT) ....................2,401,560
CV7S ..................................2,107,728
Single Op 21 MHz High Power
P45A ................................11,302,080
TM1W (F1HAR)..................5,310,375
KU2M .................................4,223,389
Single Op 14 MHz High Power
SJ2W (SM2WMV)............10,553,158
EI7M...................................8,803,848
4L8A...................................6,340,740
Single Op 7 MHz High Power
HG8R (HA8JV) ...................7,276,000
S51F...................................5,225,040
LZ5K (LZ1RAY) ..................3,959,200
Single Op 3.7 MHz High Power
OK7K (OK1BN)...................2,916,576
EA3PT ................................1,878,720
PA9M .................................1,758,225
Single Op 1.8 MHz High Power
LY7M ....................................502,712
S53O .....................................184,875
LY4T........................................62,310
Single Op All Band Low Power
WP2Z (K9VV)...................10,455,225
V43Z (NP4Z) ....................10,301,496
VE3DZ ................................8,601,725
WW2Y (N2NT) ...................8,047,572
KC3R (LZ4AX)....................6,881,056
R8CT ..................................6,664,758
Single Op 28 MHz Low Power
CA7CAQ ................................746,544
EA8TX ...................................673,748
KP2XX...................................635,901
Single Op 21 MHz Low Power
ZV2C (PY2CX)....................1,783,744
HK6F ..................................1,640,483
ZP5WBM............................1,549,008
Single Op 14 MHz Low Power
UN6LN ...............................1,807,002
TG9ANF ..............................1,397,276
PD9Z ..................................1,395,351
Single Op 7 MHz Low Power
YT6W .................................1,561,485
RC7KY................................1,466,172
YV2CAR ................................884,268
Single Op 3.7 MHz Low Power
LY5Q .....................................469,836
LY5I ......................................334,620
EA9CD...................................280,140
Single Op 1.8 MHz Low Power
SP1FPG.................................101,094
EW8R ......................................94,122
HA1TI ......................................66,132
Single Op All Band High Power
Assisted
E7DX (E77DX)..................18,419,245
PX5E (PP5JR) ..................18,111,120
PJ4DX ..............................17,032,845
RK4FD ..............................13,216,034
9A7$$5Y (9A7DX)............11,829,888
WU3A/1 (W3UA) ..............11,453,130
Single Op 28 MHz High Power
Assisted
LR1E (LW6DG) ..................2,304,180
CE6SAX.................................432,288
PY2XC...................................388,926
Single Op 21 MHz High Power
Assisted
4Z7T (4X6TT) .....................8,016,255

20

CQ

Single Op 7 MHz High Power


Assisted
US1I (UX2IO) .....................5,540,766
S56X ..................................5,518,512
IR2R (IZ2EWR) ..................4,329,671
Single Op 3.7 MHz High Power
Assisted
IY1A (IZ1LBG)....................2,281,735
S54ZZ.................................2,271,564
I4AVG....................................768,690
Single Op 1.8 MHz High Power
Assisted
S56P .....................................435,727
ES5RY...................................217,061
S57O .....................................204,351
Single Op All Band Low Power
Assisted
5D5D (HB9EOU).................5,322,681
NP2P (N2TTA)....................5,162,430
KP3Z (WP3A).....................4,555,236
DF2F (DF2SD) ....................3,986,925
UR6EA................................3,664,122
RA9V..................................3,345,748
Single Op 28 MHz Low Power
Assisted
PU2UAF.................................405,657
LU4DJB.................................262,542
PU8WHJ................................131,890
Single Op 21 MHz Low Power
Assisted
YV6YV................................1,062,432
KP2DX (KP2BH).................1,032,766
YBMWM .............................882,180
Single Op 14 MHz Low Power
Assisted
HI8JSG...............................1,473,392
UR2Y (USYW) .................1,041,381
R7CA.....................................819,681
Single Op 7 MHz Low Power
Assisted
YV8ER................................1,403,424
YR5N (YO5PBF) ....................866,985
EC7WR..................................641,556
Single Op 3.7 MHz Low Power
Assisted
OK1AY...................................500,871
YU7YZ...................................388,396
OM6ADN ...............................303,052
Single Op 1.8 MHz Low Power
Assisted
E74R .....................................156,860
9A1IW ...................................103,400
ES4NY.....................................54,872
Single Op All Band QRP
9A7JZC..................................724,015
DL8LR...................................595,940
DK3WE..................................507,450
UX2MF ..................................403,782
RW3AI...................................356,487
OZ6OM..................................353,958
Single Op 28 MHz QRP
3E1FD......................................51,408
W5GAI.....................................17,182
WA6FGV..................................15,052
Single Op 21 MHz QRP
OT6M (ON9CC) .......................75,831
4F4IX.......................................58,050
JR2EKD...................................57,794
Single Op 14 MHz QRP
UN7EG ....................................82,478
YO5PCB ..................................43,056
RZ4WZ ....................................37,820
Single Op 7 MHz QRP
SP4GFG.................................103,878

September 2016

Single Op 1.8 MHz QRP


HA5NB ....................................22,116
SQ6PHP ..................................10,074
Single Op All Band QRP Assisted
IZ8JFL/1 ................................856,854
OK2FD ...................................530,244
IZ3NVR..................................380,380
AK8H.....................................231,012
S51DX...................................212,319

VC2A (VA2WA) ................10,772,584


ZZ2T (PY2MNL) .................8,881,128
EW5Z (EU1A) .....................8,556,240
RJ4P ..................................7,843,887
Single Op All Band Low Power
VE3DZ ................................8,601,725
3V8SS (KF5EYY) ................5,804,316
NP2P (N2TTA)....................5,162,430
7Z1SJ.................................4,715,200
DK8ZZ ................................3,170,412

UNITED STATES

Single Op 21 MHz QRP Assisted


YP8A (YO8WW) ......................43,920
J43N........................................35,340
DO7PRM .................................27,354

Single Op All Band High Power


K1LZ.................................15,981,756
KQ2M/1............................15,481,923
KU3K (N3KS) ...................14,863,792
AC1U (N1UR) ...................13,223,180
NR5M...............................10,362,600
KT5J (K5TR) ....................10,138,605

Single Op 14 MHz QRP Assisted


YU7ZZ ...................................251,836
IZ1ANK..................................126,252
MI1M (MILLG)....................108,112

Single Op 21 MHz High Power


KU2M .................................4,223,389
K3UA..................................2,126,020
KR4Z (N4OX) .....................1,932,480

Single Op 7 MHz QRP Assisted


EE3X (EA3KX) .......................197,138
DF8AE .....................................43,030
MWLY...................................41,674

Single Op 14 MHz High Power


WR8AA (K3ZJ) ...................1,135,464
NR7ON ..................................343,343
AI3Q ......................................105,185

Single Op 3.7 MHz QRP Assisted


E74O .....................................117,390
DJ7MH ..................................115,670
HG6C (HA6IAM) ......................77,064

Single Op 7 MHz High Power


KK9A/4 ...............................3,761,604
K4NV.....................................734,977

Single Op 1.8 MHz QRP Assisted


YU1XX.....................................25,376
Multi-Single High Power
P33W ...............................39,377,940
UP2L ................................27,226,238
IR4M ................................20,487,495
RU1A................................18,470,100
9K2HN..............................18,337,947
S5G................................17,989,202
Multi-Single Low Power
YV1KK..............................14,432,220
KB3WD.............................10,457,546

Single Op 3.7 MHz High Power


ND8DX ..................................914,300
NR1I (W1NT) ........................416,172
KZ5MM (W5PR)....................372,096
Single Op All Band Low Power
WW2Y (N2NT) ...................8,047,572
KC3R (LZ4AX)....................6,881,056
WC5T/1 (W1UE).................4,206,122
AD4Z ..................................3,850,185
NF6A (K6XX) ......................3,289,755
KN5A (K5WA) ....................3,140,613
Single Op 28 MHz Low Power
WE6EZ/5 .................................30,616

Multi-Two
CN2AA..............................84,221,766
5E5E.................................61,290,260
C4A ..................................35,162,043
PS2T ................................28,445,298
HG7T ................................27,034,852
KH6J ................................24,405,261

Single Op 21 MHz Low Power


AA4NP...................................132,840
K7XE/6 ....................................85,746
WW6OR/4 (K6JAT) .................80,337

Multi-Multi
D41CV..............................77,122,771
LZ9W ...............................34,927,605
WX3B ...............................22,411,200
KL7RA..............................17,627,575
JA3YBK ............................16,288,728
SX9C ................................14,549,090

Single Op 7 MHz Low Power


W6AFA ..................................528,775
W9QL ....................................136,746

Rookie
Single Op All Band High Power
WP4PGY ............................2,520,825
NN2DX (W4FS) ..................2,116,230
HZ1HZ ................................1,501,360
EF7D (EA7JXZ)...................1,361,504
WR1ST (KC1CWF) ................484,807
Single Op 14 MHz High Power
A96A .....................................217,327
KC1DAD ..................................57,260
Single Op All Band Low Power
IT9EWR .................................983,412
IB9P (IT9FRX) .......................908,960
YV5LAY.................................714,926
PA9IGB..................................667,492
ED3T .....................................464,215
9A5RPZ.................................441,000
Single Op 7 MHz Low Power
WK9U....................................590,058
Tribander/Single Element
Single Op All Band High Power
PJ4DX ..............................17,032,845
VE9CB ..............................13,723,754

Single Op 14 MHz Low Power


N7FLT....................................162,816

Single Op All Band High Power


Assisted
WU3A/1 (W3UA) ..............11,453,130
NZ3D (K3ZU)....................10,032,715
KU1CW/4 ...........................5,562,089
W8MJ.................................4,677,711
KA6BIM/7...........................3,738,080
Single Op 21 MHz High Power
Assisted
K5ZO ..................................1,722,600
KX1BK (W1QK) .....................909,558
Single Op 14 MHz High Power
Assisted
KVQ .................................3,122,574
KT7I (K7YK) .......................1,210,221
WR2G....................................399,938
Single Op All Band Low Power
Assisted
N5DO .................................1,709,512
N2SQW ..............................1,674,306
KT4ZB ................................1,480,500
N1API....................................605,320
WJ4X (N4XL) ........................589,818
WB2WPM..............................587,820
Single Op 28 MHz Low Power
Assisted
NA4W (K4WI) .........................59,264

Single Op 21 MHz Low Power


Assisted
KG1E .....................................684,156
N9TGR ..................................558,672
N3ZA .....................................131,634
Single Op 7 MHz Low Power
Assisted
WK9U....................................590,058
Single Op 3.7 MHz Low Power
Assisted
WUB/4 ..................................81,879
Single Op All Band QRP
AB3WS..................................311,934
NDC ....................................286,261
W6QU (W8QZA) ....................178,176
KA8SMA................................161,602
Single Op 28 MHz QRP
W5GAI.....................................17,182
WA6FGV..................................15,052
Single Op 21 MHz QRP
K2GMY/6.................................33,880
WO9S......................................14,896
Single Op 7 MHz QRP
KF7TLL....................................44,416
Single Op All Band QRP Assisted
AK8H.....................................231,012
Single Op 14 MHz QRP Assisted
WB4OMM..............................106,680
N9NBC ....................................33,880
Multi-Single High Power
KE3X ................................16,714,324
NQ2F ..................................4,250,128
NM5O.................................3,831,044
KX7M/6 ..............................3,634,814
NMA.................................3,283,523
K3MD .................................3,280,515
Multi-Single Low Power
KB3WD.............................10,457,546
NE5LL ................................1,007,128
N3ZV/4 ..................................774,180
AI1W/3 ..................................596,772
Multi-Two
NV9L ..................................9,292,988
KI7Y ...................................7,306,358
KN5TX................................4,981,566
WA2CP...............................3,657,278
Multi-Multi
WX3B ...............................22,411,200
NE1C ..................................9,709,975
Rookie
Single Op All Band High Power
NN2DX (W4FS) ..................2,116,230
WR1ST (KC1CWF) ................484,807
Single Op All Band Low Power
KC3AZX.................................427,558
AD2KA...................................391,800
AB3WS..................................311,934
KG7GYI .................................268,800
WX7JM .................................206,257
Single Op 7 MHz Low Power
WK9U....................................590,058
Tribander/Single Element
Single Op All Band High Power
WQ6SL/4 (N4PN) ...............5,880,216
K4BAI .................................4,662,888
KM5VI ................................4,199,536
WD5K.................................2,210,046
WR5O.................................2,139,310
NF4A ..................................1,145,435
Single Op 3.7 MHz High Power
ND8DX ..................................914,300
Single Op All Band Low Power
WB8TLI ..............................1,305,285
N8SBE...................................501,972
N9UA.....................................492,356
N8MWK.................................483,298
KCDEB ................................454,310

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yet another nice callsign, WQ6SL/1, to lead the U.S.


Tribander/Single-Element all band competitors. N4BP, using
the WN1GIV callsign on 10 meters, won with less than 10%
of his score last year. WB8TLI had the highest U.S. lowpower score.

Multi-Operator
The guys at P33W recaptured the Multi-Operator SingleTransmitter plaque, even though their score dropped substantially with the disappearance of 10 meters. The KE3X crew
had the top U.S. M/S score. YV1KK raised the bar in our
newest category, Multi-Single Low Power, with KB3WD and
HI3K also beating last years record. KB3WD set the new
U.S. low-power mark. A total of 91 stations (up from 76 last
year) tried this category, compared to the 133 (down from 184)
stations in the more established High-Power category.
Last years Multi-Multi champs CN2AA led the pack of 41
(66 last year) stations in the Multi-Two category. Only six
U.S. stations entered the Multi-Two category, with NV9L
beating KI7Y. D41CV blew away the Multi-Multi Category,
more than doubling the score of runner-up LZ9W. WX3B led
the three U.S. stations entering this category. This contest

marked the last time KL7RA will be heard as Rich passed


away and the North Pole Contest Group decided to obtain
his call and retire it.

Records
The only new world record this year was in the relatively new
Multi-Single Low Power category, where YV1KK set the
mark. Other new records of note were 8P5A (North America
AB), K1LZ (USA AB), WW2Y (USA AB-LP), and SJ2W
(Europe-14MHz),
Records for all of the various categories and countries can
be found at <www.cqwpx.com/records.htm>.

Final Observations
We are glad to be able to once again include the complete
listing of stations and their line scores. Assisted stations line
scores are found immediately after the single-operator unassisted line scores for each call area or country. Logs received
after the official deadline are shown in italics and were not
eligible for any awards. In addition, searchable databases of
the entire history of the CQWW WPX Contest results are
available on the contest website, <www.cqwpx.com>.

Steve, PJ4DX, at the controls of his station.

CQ WPX SSB March 2016 de PJ4DX

A Spiderbeam at 30 feet worked wonders for PJ4DX, the


winner of the World Tribander/Single-Element plaque.

22

CQ

September 2016

Everything was down this year. My beam was down about


6 feet (one telescopic mast section) due to strong winds. My
40-meter, phased array was down due to a mysteriouslyhigh SWR condition that I didnt have time to fix before the
contest (but every cloud has a silver lining and this allowed
me to enter the Tribander/Single Element section). My QSO
total was down by nearly 1,300 QSOs compared with 2015,
my multiplier total by nearly 100 mults, and my claimed score
was down by nearly 6 million points!
Last year I recorded over 2,500 QSOs on 10 meters alone.
This year, I only had 314. Conditions were poor on Day 1,
and I was seriously considering calling it a contest before
midday on Sunday, but suddenly things improved and
Sunday afternoon and evening were really great.
Rig: Yaesu FT-2000, Acom 1500-amp at 1-kilowatt output
to a Spiderbeam for 10, 15, 20 meters at only 30 feet above
ground, and single quarter-wave wire verticals on 40 and 80
meters mounted on fiberglass poles.
73, Steve, PJ4DX

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There are a number of volunteers who make this contest possible. K5ZD, K3WW,
and W4AU provided the skilled personal analysis of the logs that computers alone
cannot provide. Software support from K1EA and K5TR enables the timely processing of your logs. Doug, K1DG, handles the plaques in a very timely manner.
Paper logs were manually entered by KD9MS, KC9EOQ, W7KAM, K9ZM,
KB9OWD, and N4TZ. K5ZD has updated the outstanding CQ WPX website.
The 2017 CQWW WPX SSB Contest will be held March 25-26. The log deadline is five days after the conclusion on the contest, March 31 at 2359Z. Updated
rules will be published in the January issue of CQ and will be posted on the websites mentioned above.
(Scores on page 98)

From
To

MILLIWATTS
KILOWATTS

SM

More Watts per Dollar

SM

Transmitting &
Audio Tubes

CQWW WPX SSB CONTEST


ALL-TIME RECORDS
The contest is held each year on the last full weekend of March. The All-Time Records will be updated and
published annually. Data following the calls: year of operation, total score, and number of prefix multipliers.
WORLD RECORD HOLDERS
Single Operator
1.8
CN2R (07) ................1,613,955
3.5
CN2R (06) ..............11,849,076
7.0
CN2R (05) ..............14,724,696
14
CN2R (08) ..............15,778,840
21
CN2R (11) ..............20,704,164
28
D4C (14) ................17,885,556
AB
CN2R (13) ..............30,683,396
LP
FY5FY (15) ............17,380,143
QRP
HC8A (94) ................7,520,562
Assisted CQ3L (15) ..............23,505,780

399
894
931
1199
1443
1404
1433
1251
714
1388

U.S.A. RECORD HOLDERS


Single Operator
1.8
K1ZM (95) ...................327,712
3.5
K1UO (10) ................2,161,782
7.0
WU3A/1 (11) ............4,731,424
14
KQ2M (09) ...............7,034,082
21
KQ2M/1 (11) ............9,591,670
28
KQ2M/1 (14) ............8,264,263
AB
K1LZ (16) ...............15,981,756
LP
WW2Y (16) ..............8,047,572
QRP
KR2Q (00) ................2,688,158
Assisted KI1G (11) ...............13,075,616

308
602
796
1082
1210
1141
1281
1027
649
1268

Multi-Operator Single Transmitter


CN2AA (14).............................52,766,482 1759

Multi-Operator Single Transmitter


WW2DX(12)............................19,167,080 1373

Multi-Operator Two Transmitter


D4C (15) ................................86,622,448

Multi-Operator Two Transmitter


K1LZ(10) ................................30,393,480

1936

Multi-Operator Multi-Transmitter
CN2AA (15)...........................121,620,720 2040
CLUB RECORD
Contest Club Finland (00) ........250,320,141

1560

Multi-Operator Multi-Transmitter
NQ4I(14) ................................31,335,980 1690

QRP RECORD
HC8A (94) ..........7,520,562

WPX (Prefix) RECORD


ES9C (14) ...............2057

CONTINENTAL RECORD HOLDERS

1.8
3.5
7.0
14
21
28
AB

AFRICA
CN2R (07) ................1,613,955
CN2R (06) ..............11,849,076
CN2R (05) ..............14,724,696
CN2R (08) ..............15,778,840
CN2R (11) ..............20,704,164
D4C (14) ................17,885,556
CN2R (13) ..............30,683,396

399
894
931
1199
1443
1404
1443

1.8
3.5
7.0
14
21
28
AB

ASIA
*YMT (05) .................486,846
H2T (10) ...................3,067,296
5B/KC2TIZ (10) ........6,761,872
P33W (10) ................8,004,130
4L8A ('15) .................7,816,419
H22H (00) ................9,092,146
UPL (12) ..............18,541,055

222
534
754
1030
1053
931
1235

1.8
3.5
7.0
14
21
28
AB

EUROPE
SN3R (07) ...................835,884
EI7M (10) .................3,527,075
EI7M (11) ...............10,787,690
SJ2W (16) ..............10,553,158
CR6T (14) ..............10,338,560
GM7V (00) ...............8,305,756
CQ8X (14) ..............20,759,765

434
731
1054
1309
1312
982
1385

1.8
3.5
7.0
14
21
28
AB

NORTH AMERICA
VA1A (99) ...................535,225
ZF1A (08) .................2,269,344
TI4CF (05)................8,057,479
KP2A (95) ................7,088,976
VP2EH (11) ............14,899,185
KP2A (00) ..............11,385,710
8P5A (16) ...............27,306,666

271
462
751
912
1305
1046
1422

1.8
3.5
7.0

OCEANIA
KH6ND (07) ..................26,432
WH7Z (03) ...............1,208,900
ZL3A (08) .................8,200,800

59
308
816

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

COMMUNICATIONS
BROADCAST
INDUSTRY
AMATEUR

14
21
28
AB

KH6ND (03) .............6,493,727


AH7DX (00)..............7,645,990
TXDX (00) ............12,049,422
KH7X (11) ..............20,676,524

887
890
847
1244

1.8
3.5
7.0
14
21
28
AB

SOUTH AMERICA
HK1KYR (10) ................44,814
77
P4A (96).................1,715,076
426
HK1T (12) ..............14,512,230 1062
HK1X (11) ..............13,783,532 12599
ZX5J (10) ...............16,746,977 1369
PX5E (14) ..............17,817,600 1450
HC8A (01) ..............25,180,199 1199

MULTI-OPERATOR SINGLE TRANSMITTER


AF
D4C (15) ................86,622,448 1936
AS
P33W (14) ..............43,457,520 1720
EU
EI7M (14) ...............31,158,736 1648
NA
VP2EC (92) ............24,409,580 1115
OC
KH7X (12) ..............19,038,120 1180
SA
HC8A (93) ..............32,502,677 1107

AF
AS
EU
NA
OC
SA

MULTI-OPERATOR TWO TRANSMITTER


EB8AH (11) ............68,072,520 1765
UP2L (14)...............46,044,068 1748
OL4A (14) ..............36,280,074 1774
WP2Z (14)..............34,886,363 1607
VK4KW (11) ...........26,528,482 1369
PJ4Z (12) ...............57,741,867 1641

3CPX800A7
3CPX1500A7
3CX400A7
3CX800A7
3CX1200A7
3CX1200D7
3CX1200Z7
3CX1500A7
3CX3000A7
3CX6000A7
3CX10000A7
3CX15000A7
3CX20000A7
4CX250B

4CX1000A
4CX1500B
4CX3500A
4CX5000A
4CX7500A
4CX10000A
4CX15000A
4CX20000B
4CX20000C
4CX20000D
4X150A
572B
805
807

810
811A
812A
833A
833C
845
6146B
3-500ZG
3-1000Z
4-400A
4-1000A
4PR400A
4PR1000A
...and more!

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760-744-1943
888-744-1943
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MULTI-OPERATOR MULTI-TRANSMITTER
AF
CN2AA (15)..........121,620,720 2040
AS
P3A (00) .................53,554,592 1456
EU
ES9C (14) ..............73,120,179
205
NA
KL7RA (14) ............42,051,076 1763
OC
KH7R (02) ..............32,806,032 1304
SA
HK1NA (13)............65,361,128 1687
*Low Power

September 2016

CQ

23

Changing with the times and technology, what is now the Military
Auxiliary Radio System has provided emergency and public service
communications for Americas military over nine decades. Here is the
last of three articles adapted from the new book MARS at 90
Helping Protect the Homeland - by Bill Sexton, N1IN, the former
Public Affairs Officer of Army MARS1.

7KH4XLHW5HELUWKRI0$563DUW,,,
New Mission: Joining the Safety Net against Cyber-Attack
BY BILL SEXTON,* N1IN
rriving out of the blue, a Dec. 2, 2011 message to state
and local emergency agencies announced over Army
MARS Chief Jim Griffins signature: HQ AMARS has
been directed to phase out Winlink 2000. In other words,
MARS was about to abandon the primary messaging system that served its principal customer base of state and local
emergency operations offices. It seemed unthinkable.
Members of the auxiliary received no such notification.
As luck would have it, one was on duty at an EMA installation that Friday afternoon when the email arrived. He
immediately posted it on the Web. The result was a firestorm
of disbelief and protest across the internet. Members and
customers both were appalled. I seem to be watching

* 7 Walden Lane
Pittsfield, MA 01201
Email: <william.c.sexton@gmail.com>

AMARS disintegrate before my eyes was one in the deluge of comments.


Incredulous members had to wait until after the weekend for
confirmation. Then, four weeks later, the Chief formally withdrew the notice of cancellation, but it did little to calm anxiety
over the apparent collapse of the auxiliarys primary function.
From all appearances, no one outside HQ and few if any
inside it knew that AMARS had been at the center of a
security investigation since 2007. A disgruntled ex-member
complained to the DOD Inspector-Generals office that the
auxiliary failed to obtain certification of conformance with
Army-wide standards for data security what the military
calls Information Assurance, or IA. Members had no
inkling of the developing crisis.
The timing couldnt have been lousier, said Stephen
Klinefelter, the NETCOM Deputy Chief of Staff who was
assigned to resolve the issue (Photo A).

Photo A. Visiting the


original three-acre
antenna field at Fort
Huachuca, Chief
Stephen Klinefelter (left)
and Operations Officer
David McGinnis (right),
with colleagues from
NETCOM G3 section,
pose in front of the
Spiracone omnidirectional antenna
serving all HF bands.
MARS is refurbishing a
second Fort Huachuca
antenna field which will
connect to the gateway
station by fiber-optic
cable for redundancy.
(Courtesy of Army
MARS)

24

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

To the IG, MARS must have seemed


a convenient target for making an
example on IA enforcement. Although
Winlink wasnt cited in the initial complaint, the investigation seized on it
because of its reliance on the internet.
NETCOM was able to stave off a final
ruling until late 2011, when MARS was
directed to shut down its Winlink system forthwith. By then, it had become
the backbone of ARMARS civil support.

Klinefelters End Run


Klinefelter personally approached the
general officers who control IA policy.
Instead of attacking the IGs finding, he
proposed the simpler solution of removing the auxiliary from IA jurisdiction. There was no way amateur radio
equipment could meet the IA hardware
requirements, he argued, but even so,
the slight risk of sensitive data being
exposed on HF is far outweighed by
the benefits of amateur radio support.
During a break at a meeting in the
Pentagon, the ex-colonel encountered
a group of generals and top-drawer
civilian officials standing in the hallway.
I was never going to get such a chance
again, he said. I took a risk in bypassing all manner of proper staffing to get
them to listen and sign. (They did both
see Photo B).
Unfortunately, the Winlink shutdown
order had already been transmitted to
the agencies (via Winlink!). It was a
case of the left hand not knowing what
the right hand was doing. Weeks of confusion and contention followed with an
excruciating episode made worse by
the fumbling at HQ and subsequent
internet flaming.
In the midst of the flap, Klinefelter personally took over directing AMARS from
his office in NETCOM, replacing Chief
Griffin but not assuming Griffins title.
As 2011 turned to 2012, Klinefelter reorganized AMARS headquarters. Fullspeed implementation continued of the
M110 digital waveform used by the
military. Griffin took retirement and
Klinefelter officially became Chief.

The Armys About-Face


After two decades with only the civil side
to support, AMARS returned to its original priority of serving the military. Quite
apart from the Winlink debacle (Klinefelters term), an entirely new mission
had made its way down the chain of command. This had the potential of causing
far more grief than the Winlink muddle,
but wiser heads were in charge.
Retirements in the two senior jobs at
HQ (Chief Griffin and Operations Officer
Grant Hays) cleared the way for a comwww.cq-amateur-radio.com

Photo B. The scribbled approvals on this document spared Army MARS from
having to shut down its primary messaging system because it utilized internet
channels vulnerable to hacking (see text for details). Soon-to-be Chief Stephen
Klinefelter went to the Pentagon and personally rounded up the support of half
a dozen generals and top civilian officials for an alternate plan. They agreed to
exempt the volunteers radios from the security certification required for military
equipment. The shutdown order mistakenly sent out by MARS HQ was rescinded, but not in time to head off major controversy.
pletely fresh start. Klinefelter began the
new year by promoting a relatively young
volunteer member, David McGinnis, to
the paid, full-time post of Operations
Officer, replacing Hays. McGinnis had
spent 20 years as a sheriffs deputy in
Missoula, Montana, putting technology
to work for law enforcement. Hed been
a licensed ham since age 14, he knew
radio theory inside out, and he possessed a rare knack for converting dense
military and technical concepts into crystal-clear language. As a MARS volunteer, McGinnis had been state director
for Montana and the Dakotas, and, since
2010, national training officer. Now,
McGinnis would effectively be the organizations third in command.
Klinefelter next set about recruiting a
Program Officer, a new post for AMARS.
He (or possibly she) would become the
second-in-command.

New HQ Team Keeps


Volunteer Leaders,
Spells Out New Missions
Ramifications
At the next level of leaders the volunteer field officers Klinefelter
retained all 11 region directors and 36
state directors (some of the latter holding multi-state commands, such as
McGinniss MT-SD-ND). The first-ever
face-to-face national meeting of HQ
staff and regional leaders was held at a
motel adjoining Dallas-Fort Worth
Airport over four days in September
2012. That was where the 11 regional
directors received their first detailed
briefing on MARSs new national mission, much of which was and still is clas-

sified. Chief Klinefelter did provide a


sanitized description of the connection
with a joint Army-Navy-Air Force combat command: You can tell the members its not just Army support its
national support.
So without receiving full explanation
of the underlying reason, the membership at large would be asked to reconfigure personal radio gear and PCs as
well as on-air procedures, and then take
on the unfamiliar task of collecting information instead of merely relaying the
messages of others. Also, there was the
abrupt break from years-long concentration on the civil components of state
and local homeland security.

Lucky Encounter
Launching this extraordinary transformation fell to David McGinnis. A dozen
years prior to becoming training coordinator, McGinnis got to know a young
IT consultant while the two were separately investigating a DOD protocol for
transmitting data over HF radio much
like WL2K but radio-only. The two
worked together on their otherwise
unrelated assignments.
In the spring of 2010, McGinniss IT
acquaintance from 1998-99 had an
assignment scouting fail-safe disaster
communications backup for an unnamed
combatant command (COCOM) with
global jurisdiction. He contacted MARS
HQ and was handed on to the newlyappointed national training coordinator
McGinnis.
Still holding down his day job in law
enforcement, McGinnis organized and
directed the MARS re-training program
September 2016

CQ

25

from his home in Montana for two years.


He and the COCOMs man spent many
hours on the telephone coordinating. In
mid-2010, the previously relaxed weekly training nets of tradition became a
crash course. Finally, in May 2012,
McGinnis moved his family to Fort
Huachuca and began full-time paid
employment as national Operations
Officer.

National Exercises and


Superstorm
Test Auxiliarys Worst-Case
Readiness
Specific details of the overall tasking
remained classified but the first Training
Bulletin of 2011 hinted strongly of
preparing for a doomsday deployment.
Over the next month I would like everyone to think about what impacts a largescale denial of internet service would
bring, McGinnis wrote. I believe this is
a very real threat. Who would be impacted by this event? he asked. What sort
of things would stop working? How
would this event affect AMARS? When
would we be ready?
First there had been the challenge of
adapting home computers to serve in
place of the $30,000 transceivers the
Army issued for serial-tone waveform
messaging. In August 2010, Steve
Hajducek, the Navy-Marine Corps
MARS member leading Tri-MARS software development, switched his priority from ALE2 to completing a software
modem solution for M110a transmission readable by Army radios.
McGinnis and Hajducek personified
the remarkable talent available to
MARS in the ham radio community.
Originally from New Jersey (as was
McGinnis), Hajducek acquired his interest in radio from his father, who served
in the Signal Corps in World War II.
Meanwhile, that autumn saw Bob Mims,
director of AMARS Region 1, busy
organizing the backbone network that
would tie the state and regional nets to
the Fort Huachuca Gateway station
with its onward channels to DOD.
MARS had no precedent for a real-time
message-delivery system of such
scope and complexity.

Superstorm Intervenes
The late summer of 2012 had the whole
of MARS deeply immersed in preparation for another national exercise on
November 3-5. Anxious trainers dubbed it the final exam. But on October
29 at just about the worst possible
moment Superstorm Sandy barreled
into New Jersey on its way toward New

26

CQ

September 2016

York City. MARS nets from Florida to


Maine were activated as Sandy pushed teasingly northeastward off the
coast before making an unexpected
left turn straight into Atlantic City. The
newly-tuned up national operations
net was fully functional throughout the
storm. At AT&Ts hardened disaster
recovery station in Middletown, New
Jersey, region 2 emergency operations officer Mark Emanuele worked
double shifts at the MARS console
relaying information reports throughout Sandys onslaught.
Barely a week later, the auxiliarys
capacity for all-radio cross-country
traffic handling got its official test in the
previously-scheduled quarterly exercise of Army communications. Still a
work in progress, encryption procedure
was also receiving its first try-out in
national use. The auxiliary passed its
exams, although not exactly with an
A-plus.

New Deputy Chief


On Nov. 29, 2012, 18 months after
resolving the Winlink muddle, Steve
Klinefelter announced the appointment
of just-retired Col. Paul English as
Program Officer and assuredly the next
Chief of AMARS. The new Program
Officer wore the erect and self-assured
look of seasoned line officer and indeed
hed deployed to Baghdad with the
famed 1st Cavalry Division during Operation Desert Shield in 1990. En route,
he encountered a MARS member in a
Saudi Arabian staging area. I organized the 1st Cavalry G6 personnel to
assist set-up and operation of the
MARS station, he recalled. My most
memorable event was late one night at
the Saudi port, seeing the line of hundreds of soldiers outside the MARS tent
waiting to make a phone patch home,
he said. One was a soldier who learned
that his wife had just delivered a healthy
son and that mother and son were doing
fine. Ten years later, English led Army
Souths advance party into earthquakedevastated Haiti useful considering
the imminent involvement of AMARS in
overseas HADR (humanitarian assistance and disaster relief) operations.

MARS Takes on Overseas


Task
Barely six months into the job, English
found himself in a central role for U.S.
Pacific Commands disaster response
planning. PACOM participates in a consortium of Asian defense forces set up
to pool assets in severe humanitarian
contingencies. Working with the DoD

MARS The Book


This three-part series, The Quiet
Rebirth of MARS, is adapted from
Army MARS at 90 Helping Protect
the Homeland the new unofficial history of Army MARSs first 90 years by
a 25-year member and former Public
Affairs Officer of MARS. The 98-page
paperback was issued by Lulu Press
<www.lulu.com>. For ordering info,
visit <http://bit.ly/25PEO4g>.
Chief Information Officer/G6 section in
the Pentagon, English coordinated
MARS activation for Pacific Endeavior13, the first test of amateur radios ability to back up disrupted commercial
communications in Asia much as
MARS would do it in the U.S.
By mid-2014, Klinefelter had reached
the midpoint of a nominal three-year
term as Chief, but his deputy was in fact
already running the auxiliarys day-today affairs. As Klinefelter saw it, his
chief value no pun intended was
his accessibility up the chain of command, not down. MARS has struggled
to get visibility at higher levels, he once
commented. Im well-placed to get it to
the highest level as necessary. His No.
2 said he had no problem with that.
English dealt with the other two chiefs
as an equal.

MARS Makes Ready for the


Next Big Task:
Bringing a Larger Ham
Community Aboard
Given historys attachment to recurring
cycles of war and peace, nobody should
have been surprised when the glory
days of MARS in the Vietnam era were
followed by a dozen years of dozing.
Then came a half-dozen years of headVisit Our Web Site

long spurts in technology and mission. In one sense, the


unhappy idle span from Desert Storm to Winlink 2000 spun
off an excitement of its own. Self-motivated and vigorous, the
volunteers in MARS both leaders and rank-and-file
grasped the mission and initiative even as NETCOM planned
to let the organization lapse. Volunteer loyalty hadnt been
foreseen by NETCOMs decision-makers. Just prior to the
United States entry in World War II, AARS showed 2,159 active
members. In 2007 Chief Carter reported a total membership
of 2,800. However, a state-by-state tabulation of actual participation reports for the calendar year 2009 totaled only 1,320.
The next chief counted 916 fully eligible for membership
(MARS 101s requirements fulfilled). Some of that apparent
slippage resulted from the high requirements established by
Carters MARS 101 program, but not all. When Klinefelter took
office in 2012, it was discovered that for some years an administrative clerk had failed to purge the deceased, terminated,
and retired members from the roster.
Now the benchmark was reset by the demise of Navy-Marine
Corps MARS. Of its 1,560 members reported by the Chief Bo
Lindfors shortly before his death, 353 transferred to Air Force
MARS, giving it total membership of 1,536; 236 joined Army
MARS, making a total of 1,268 members. The stiffer AMARS
requirement of a General Class FCC amateur license (a step
above the Technician license needed for AFMARS) probably
had some bearing on the difference.
To give the figures tactical significance, the overall twobranch total yielded an average of 55 members per state, keeping in mind that membership is heavily tilted toward the east
(as is the general population). Thats respectable. With the
unintended winnowing effect of the heightened operational
burden since 2010 a likely reason for at least some of the
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

971 Navy members dropping membership entirely the new


force was a stronger one, too.
By 2015, state and regional nets were fully functional. That
fall, the transformation process moved to the crucial next phase:
Bringing the rest of the ham community aboard. Last November, hams in ARRLs Amateur Radio Emergency Service
(ARES) were active participants in a DoD national exercise.

New National Operations Plan


The auxiliarys active support customers were mostly civil
agencies when Chief Carters The Road Ahead was published in 2009. Its out-of-date agenda got a thorough
makeover in the National Operations Plan (AM 3) issued in
September 2015. The new national OPPLAN filled many of
the gaps in previous documentation but not all. Applying
orderly military procedures to the chaos inherent
in real-life contingencies is at best a herculean task.
The ninth decades intense pace allowed little time for thinking ahead to the tenth, even though current accomplishments
were piling up a substantial to-do list. Members should have
no difficulty making up their own lists if they heed David
McGinniss advice to think about what impacts a large-scale
denial of Internet service would bring ... What sort of things
would stop working? How would this event affect AMARS?
When would we be ready?
Notes:
1. Parts I and II of this series appeared, respectively, in the
March and June 2016 issues of CQ. Bill Sextons book, Army
MARS at 90 (paperback, 98 pages, 60 illustrations), is available from Lulu Press, <www.lulu.com>.
2. Automatic Link Establishment
September 2016

CQ

27

BY DAN SREBNICK,* K2DLS

rf bits

CQ Reviews: /i 6{
A Mini Digital Solution Provides Major Fun
he idea of a miniature amateur radio digital
access point is certainly not new. The D-Star
world has had the Digital Voice Dongle (DV
Dongle) <http://www.dvdongle.com>, the Digital
Voice Access Point (DVAP) <http://www.dvap
dongle.com>, and other digital node solutions for
many years. These are mature solutions, and they
have evolved to support non-ICOM voice conferences such as the X Reflectors (XRF) <http://
xrefl.net> and Digital Communication Services
(DCS) <http://xreflector.net> reflector systems
[Note: This page is in German, but if you scroll down
the left-hand column, you can learn all sorts of stuff
about the US-based DCS-006 reflector, discussed
below].
The DV Dongle allows the digital user to connect
to a reflector using a computer and a headset, while
the DVAP is an RF-based local simplex node. The
original DVAP was produced for 2-meter use and
the 70-centimeter DVAP came along later.
Ive owned a 2-meter DVAP for several years and
use it primarily to support HT access to the D-Star
network. My home is located in between reliable HT
coverage of the Martinsville, New Jersey and the
New York City D-Star repeaters. Id thought about
moving up to 70 centimeters to take advantage of
reduced frequency congestion, but it was not at the
top of the priority list until my trip to the Orlando
Hamcation last February. Ham Radio Outlet had a
too good to be true sale on the ICOM ID-31A UHFonly D-Star radio. I brought back a few at the request
of some of my local ham friends up north.
The ID-31A (Photo A) is a second-generation DStar radio that is far easier to program for DV use
than some of its predecessors. It also has a 100milliwatt output power setting, making it perfect for
use with a local DV node while maintaining a longer
interval between charges. It has nice features such
as SD Card support for saving multiple configurations and storing recordings of QSOs. It also comes
preprogrammed with every known ICOM-based DStar repeater in the world.
Now that I had the radio, I needed to be able to
put it to use around my property. I thought about
adding a 70-centimeter DVAP until I heard some
of the guys on the UK Allstar Hub (node 27066)
talking about the DV4mini (Photo B).

Photo A. The
Icom ID-31A is a
compact secondgeneration D-Star
radio with a low
power setting that
makes it perfect
for use with a
local digital
access point.
(ICOM photo)

Digital Dongle of the Future?


The DV4mini could have been invented by Ralph
Kramdens Chef of the Future <http://bit.ly/
29ralQ8>, because it is the ham radio utensil that
does the work of many others, does it better, and
does it cheaper. The DV4mini is a micro digital
node on a USB stick. It speaks a number of digital
amateur protocols including D-Star, System Fusion,
* Email: k2dls.rfbits@gmail.com

28

CQ

September 2016

Photo B. My 70-centimeter DV4mini device plugged into a Raspberry Pi 2. The small device to the
right of the DV4mini is the USB Wi-Fi dongle. The
Raspberry Pi 3 comes with built in Wi-Fi.
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Figure 1. This is the DV Operation tab of the DV4MF2.exe console. Here the device is connected to the BrandMaster DMR
network on reflector 4639, which is the U.S. Nationwide channel. Note the .4 mw power output setting.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

CQ

29

DMR, and P25. It also supports dPMR, which is a digital


personal communications protocol used in Europe. dPMR
is akin to the U.S. Family Radio Service (FRS) in that it
requires no license for use throughout Europe in the 446.1to 446.2-MHz band <http://bit.ly/29pMe8O>. The DV4mini
includes a milliwatt-power, 70-centimeter transceiver and
the modem needed to decode the various digital protocols
<http://bit.ly/29rQS4u>.

By Hams For Hams!


The DV4mini was created by three German amateur radio operators: Stefan Reimann, DG8FAC; Torsten Schultze, DG1HT;
and Kurt Moraw, DJABR. Their motivation for creating the
device was that many hams live outside the reach of an amateur digital repeater. They saw a need for a device that would
allow those hams to access the various amateur digital networks that have developed. The U.S. distributor of the DV4mini
is Wireless Holdings LLC of Florida <http://wirelesshold.
com/modems.aspx>. The dongle and the antenna are sold separately, so be sure to order an antenna.
The DV4mini is definitely a hobbyists tool. The software is
evolving and it helps to have some computer knowledge in
case Windows cant find the proper driver or you decide to
develop a portable Raspberry Pi-based node. However,
with the right knowledge, in most cases the device will install
without a hitch.
I did experience a conflict between my Ten Tec Eagle USB
serial driver and the DV4mini serial driver. However, once I
figured out which devices were in conflict, I uninstalled/rein-

stalled the Eagle driver and both the DV4mini and the Eagle
worked fine.

Quick Start Guide


Heres a quick guide for getting starting with the DV4mini.
As I write this column, a 2-meter version has been released.
So, decide whether you want to operate on 70 centimeters
or 2 meters. Assuming that youre going to install it on a
Windows desktop or laptop computer, download the following collection of files to end up with the latest dashboard
and capabilities:
Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 Redistributable (32 bit):
<http://bit.ly/1Dtwt7I>
DV4mini version 1.65 software: <http://bit.ly/29wLYRL>
DV4FM2.exe: <http://bit.ly/29kRCJ6>
The latest firmware: <http://bit.ly/29wLYRL>
You must use Windows 7 or later. Even if you have a 64bit version of Windows, you must install the 32-bit Visual C++
redistributable for the software to operate properly, as it is a
32-bit application. Interestingly, when I last attempted to
download the Visual C++ Redistribute using Firefox, it would
not take me to the correct page. I used the new Windows 10
Edge browser to successfully download it.
Install the downloaded files in the following order:
1. vcredist_x86.exe
2. 2016_05_23_setup.exe
3. Unzip the contents of DV4MF2_V2.0.0.12.zip and copy
the .exe file to the directory where you installed step #2

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CQ

September 2016

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above. This is likely c:\Program Files


(x86)\dv4mini.
4. Create a desktop shortcut for
DVMF2.exe. You should now have two
DV4mini shortcuts on your desktop, one
for DV4mini and one for DV4MF2.

ID Needed
The DV4mini software requires that you
be entered into the CCS7 callsign routing database. CCS stands for Callsign
Communication System and the length
of the CCS7 number is 7 digits. CCS7
uses the same database maintained
for DMR use <http://register.hamdigital.
net/>. In addition to DMR, the DCS DStar network developed in Germany also
makes use of DCS. For more on CCS7,
the Dayton Amateur Radio Association
has a nice article at <http://bit.ly/
29DrQAe>.
Plug your DV4mini into an available
USB port on your computer. With any
luck and the absence of conflicting
drivers, the device should automatically discover the device and load
the proper serial driver. You can verify
with the Windows Device Manager
that it was found to be a USB Serial
Port manufactured by Microchip
Technology, Inc.
Once your CCS7 ID is approved, you
can start up DV4MF2. Click on the
Gateway Setup tab and populate the
screen with your DMR ID, callsign, location, and 6-character Maidenhead grid
identifier. Next to the callsign field is a
dropdown box with a choice of the letters A-E. Convention is that B is used
for a 70-centimeter hotspot and C is
used for a 2-meter hotspot. A is used
for 1.2 GHz, but I dont yet know of any
digital dongles for that band.
Next switch to the Interface Setup
tab. Check the Local USB Connected
box. If you now see some messages
with the header DV4mini: in the console window, your device is recognized
by DV4MF2. If not, review all the steps
above.
Now lets upgrade the firmware. You
downloaded that file earlier, so check
your Download directory for DV4mini_
165.fw2. Select the Service tab and
then click on Flash Firmware. Reply
Yes to the Start Bootloader question
and then a file browser will appear.
Browse to the location of the firmware
file to start the upgrade.

On The Air
Youre ready to operate so switch to the
DV Operation tab (Figure 1). Enter a
clear and legal frequency for your country and class of license! While the device
can operate split, simplex operation will
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

be appropriate for most users. I have


had great results with power on the
DV4mini set as low as .4 mw, so use
the power slider to lower the power if
you dont need the access point to be
heard several houses away.
Set your D-Star radio to the frequency of your DV4mini. Use the standard
D-Star connect commands or the software dashboard and connect to the
reflector of your choosing. If using the
dashboard, be sure to select REF, XRF,
or DCS, depending upon the network
that you choose to use.
Ive really come to like DCS, because
the DV4MF2 software has a dashboard
function that shows currently connected
callsigns. This is displayed on the Reflector Info tab. For example, DCS006
is a U.S.-based reflector. Select any
DCS006 channel and then take a look at
the Reflector Info tab. Youll see every
connected callsign and the channel to
which each station is connected. Some
callsigns may be dongle users, some
may be higher-powered hotspots, and
some may be repeaters.

Multimode
But it is not just about D-Star. If you have
a DMR radio, try the Brandmaster network. The talkgroups sometimes use
the same numbers as the corresponding DMR talkgroups, but the networks
are not necessarily cross-linked (although they could be in the future as
Brandmaster catches on in popularity).
To use a DMR radio with the DV4mini,
program a memory with TG9, TS2, and
CC 1. Use Admit on Color Code. At this
point, talkgroups must be changed from
the DV4MF2 console.
Have a P25 or System Fusion radio?
I dont, but the DV4mini speaks those
protocols too. And for unlicensed use in
Europe, there is dPMR, although it
looks like the CCS7 number is still
required. That will limit the unlicensed

dPMR use to those with a valid amateur


callsign.

And Now Some Pi for


Dessert...
It wouldnt be an RF Bits column without a mention of the Raspberry Pi,
would it? Ive put together a complete
image for the DV4mini that will run on a
Raspberry Pi 2 (Photo B) or Raspberry
Pi 3. It will boot and automatically run in
the background, completely headless.
To connect to the console, use vncviewer <http://bit.ly/29rcjjx> from another
Windows or Linux box.
Heres what you need to know to get
the image and run it:
The image is available via anonymous
ftp <http://bit.ly/29lRpS6>. It comes as
a gzipd file. To extract the image on
Windows, use 7-zip.
Youll need an 8-GB Class 10 micro
SD card. Copy the extracted .img file to
the SD card. Be sure to properly eject
the media before removing. Heres a
nice explanation on how to use
Win32DiskImager to create the card
<http://bit.ly/1z64151>.
Insert the SD card into your Raspberry
Pi, plug in the DV4mini and apply power.
It doesnt matter if you dont have a monitor or keyboard connected. You can
use a vnc client such as Tiger vncviewer <http://bit.ly/29pPMYu> to remotely
connect.
The default user and password are the
Raspbian Jessie defaults of pi/raspberry. The hostname is dv4mini. Please
open a terminal window and use the
passwd command to change the
default password immediately. Write it
down. The vncviewer password is
dv4m. You should also change that
using x11vnc -storepasswd inside a
terminal window. Write down that password, too!
See you on the reflectors!
73 de K2DLS

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31

If youd like to try operating QRP low power but dont feel
confident with CW, then the MDT double-sideband voice QRP kit from
down under may be just the ticket. W8TEE takes us through the
process of building this little rig and getting it on the air.

%XLOGLQJWKHR]4530'7453
'6%7UDQVFHLYHU
BY JACK PURDUM, Ph.D.,* W8TEE

heres nothing earth-shaking about


a QRP transceiver these days.
Theyre all over the place and at a
wide range of price points. Most of these
transceivers are CW kits, ranging from
half-watt affairs for $5 on the internet to
multi-band rigs costing more than $500.
Now consider the MDT (Minimalist
Double-sideband Transceiver) from Australian kitmaker ozQRP <http://ozqrp.
com/MDTindex.html> with the specs
shown in Table 1. (See sidebar for discussion of DSB vs. the much more common SSB.)
These are pretty good, and when you
consider that the rig sells for a little over
$60 (US) at current exchange rates, you
now have a low-cost QRP entry point
for hams who dont use CW, or who
want to add voice capabilities to their
QRP stations. The MDT was designed
and kitted by Leon Williams, VK2DOB.
I have one of Leons MST2 20-meter
transceivers (which has been replaced
with the MST3) and was impressed with
it so much, I had to give the new younger
brother a try. This article walks you
through the process of building the
MDT. The finished kit can be seen in
Photo A. You can see a short video
about the rig by Peter Parker, VK3YE,
at: <http://bit.ly/2adoxzS>. The rig is
about the size of a nice club sandwich
and probably weighs less, so it would
be a perfect candidate for SOTA (Summits on the Air) and backpacking.

Why QRP?
If you havent used QRP methods, you
might be asking yourself: Why QRP?
After all, you could be saying: I have a
gallon and a half sitting in the corner and
I do just fine. Probably true, but how
* email: <jjpurdum@yahoo.com>

32

CQ

September 2016

often have you used it just outside your


tent next to a high mountain lake? Or
thrown a long wire out the window of a
hotel while on a business trip to grab a
few QSOs? You might be surprised
what a few watts from a long wire up
200 feet can do. Personally, I like the

challenge of operating QRP. Yes, not


having balls of RF fire leaping from your
antenna requires a tad more effort to
make a contact, but I find that fun, challenging, and worthwhile. Also, my experience is that, when the ham on the other
end finds out youre running QRP, the

Photo A. The MDT transceiver.


Double Sideband operation
Small size: 5.25 x 4 x 2
Sensitive direct conversion receiver
2W output
Frequency range choices: 7.050-7.130, 7.215-7.300 MHz (Note that for U.S.
hams, the 40-meter phone band begins at 7.125-7.175 for Generals and that
the QRP SSB calling frequency is 7.285 MHz)
Low impedance dynamic or Electret microphone
Stereo headphone jack, but enough power for external speaker
Carrier suppression up to 50dB; spurious outputs better than -46dBC
Low receive current of about 50 mA
Transmit current of about 250mA at max power
Polarity protection
Table 1. MDT Specifications
Visit Our Web Site

Photo C. Resistors with value written


on grouping tape.

Photo B. Kit contents.


conversation is more than the usual
name-signal-report-rig-wx exchange...
I like that, too.

Beyond the Personal


Challenge
There are a couple of other reasons
why am I interested in a 2-watt DSB rig.
First, the Milford Amateur Radio Club
where Im a member, runs a GOTA (Get
On the Air) station every year during
Field Day. Last year, I noticed a young
boy who had just made a contact on our
station. I overheard him excitedly talking to his mom about getting his license.
Her response: Yes, it looks like a fun
hobby, but where are you going to get
the thousands of dollars it takes to buy
the radio? Not good. We need to dispel the perception that you need to
spend a small fortune to enjoy our
hobby.
Second, I think we could get more
young blood into our hobby if we had a
non-CW transceiver that is low cost.
True, you can buy a 2-meter rig for next
to nothing and work through a repeater.
However, I had one new Tech ham tell
me he can do all that with my cell
phone. I think the MDT would let them
experience a little more of what ham
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

radio is all about at a price that doesnt


break the bank.
Finally, I think QRP makes you a better operator. Making contacts with a few
watts not only takes more skill and
patience, but also I find it much more
satisfying and the QSOs more interesting. I recently read about a Japanese
operator who made DXCC with
500mW. I doubt Ill ever be that skilled,
but I would like to make WAS on QRP.
If any of this tweaks your interest, read
on. This little rig is pretty cool.

The Kit
First, the kit contains all of the necessary parts, including the case and control knobs (but not the microphone).
Photo B shows how the kit arrives. The
components are divided into poly bags
and, within those bags, many of the
parts are ganged together. That is, if
there are six 1K resistors, they are held
together with masking tape on their
leads. If youve ever bought a resistor
assortment online, this is the way multiple items of the same value are organized. Taping like values together
makes it much easier to inventory/use
the components. Once I determine the
value of a resistor or capacitor, I write

that value on the tape, which makes


finding the next one much faster. In my
view, this is the way all kits should be
distributed.
As to the capacitors, I can never keep
micro, nano, and pico farads straight,
so I have to look them up. A good conversion chart for resistors and capacitors can be found at <http://solderboard.blogspot.com/> (the capacitor
chart is towards the bottom of the page).
I like this chart because it not only
shows the conversion between micro,
nano, and pico farads, it also has the
standard capacitor numbering system
as part of the chart. The chart tells you
that a disc ceramic cap with the number 474 on it is a 470-nF (or 0.47-uF)
capacitor. This will help you select the
correct capacitors when you start adding them to the PCB. The polarized
capacitors are in their own poly bag, as
are the low-pass filter caps. (These are
packaged separately because they
vary according to the slice of the 40meter band you select when you order.)
The other components (e.g., wire,
toroids, plugs, sockets, etc.) are also in
poly bags and are pretty obvious from
the bag descriptions. Note that the PCB
has one surface-mounted component
already installed on it, which is one reason its shipped in an electrostatic resistant bag, as are the other semiconductors in the kit. My shack is in the
basement so I can rub two cats togethSeptember 2016

CQ

33

Photo D. PCB after installing all resistors and non-polarized capacitors.

Photo E. Mic and PTT clips.


er and not get a spark. However, if
youre working in a high-static area,
make sure you and your work surface
are grounded before working with static-sensitive components.

Construction
First, I usually print out a copy of the
schematic before starting the build. You
can download the schematic from the
ozQRP website (The manual is also on
the website and is not provided with the
kit ed.). Next, I print out the component overlay for the parts. Even though
the board is nicely silk screened, printing out Figure 20 from the construction
manual gives me a convenient, highcontrast, copy of the overlay. Also, pay
close attention to the numbers when
soldering a component in place. The
numbers 6 and 8 look very similar on a
silk screen to these old eyes, as do 8

34

CQ

September 2016

and 0. For me, a magnifying glass is


always nearby when I build something.
I almost always begin construction by
locating the power socket and mounting
that to the board. I use a small screwdriver to bends the connector tabs on the
underside of the board to hold it tight to
the board while I solder it in place.
Because the socket is used a lot as I connect and disconnect the power source, I
make sure it is mechanically sound
before making it electrically sound.
Make sure you use a good quality solder. I prefer a 0.022-inch diameter
63/36/2 (tin/lead/silver) rosin core solder as its small enough to melt without
overheating things. RadioShack is the
brand I use, but its getting hard to find.
In fact, I found an internet ad for seven
spools and I bought them all. You can
find similar content solder with a 0.025inch diameter, but it seems to be sold
only in 1-pound spools.
Once the power socket is soldered in
place, I apply power to it and then test
between various positive voltage points
on the board and ground (e.g., the
anode of D8). Obviously not all points
will read an expected positive voltage
since components (e.g., resistors) are
not in place yet. I also probe around the
board for various points that should be
part of the ground plane. You may as
well do this at the outset, as its a lot
easier to find a power short in the board
when nothing else is connected.

Resistors
Next, I start adding the resistors to the
board, usually in groups of five or so.
Leon made this easy for us, as he pro-

vides two resistor lists in the documentation: 1) grouped by common values,


like 1.5 ohm for R19 and R20, and 2) by
number in ascending order (R1 through
R44). I found it easiest to print out and
use the sorted-order resistor list. That
way, I could check off each resistor as
I mounted it to the board. Because duplicate resistors are taped together, I use
toenail clippers to remove a resistor,
leaving the tape with the resistance
value on it still attached to the remaining resistors. Photo C shows the group
of 470-ohm resistors after Ive removed
one of them. This can be a nice timesaver.
Because the resistor color codes are
read left to right, I try to mount all the
resistors with the same orientation on
the board. That way, all resistor values
can be read easily with no more than
one 90-degree rotation of the board.
After I have about five resistors
mounted in place, I flip the board over
and solder those leads. By force of
habit, I tend to solder only one side of
the resistor and then move to the next
one. I then return and solder the remaining legs. While this probably makes no
difference to resistors, it can with
diodes, transistors, and other heat-sensitive components. By soldering only
one connection at a time, I give the component a chance to cool a bit before soldering the remaining leg. After all connections are soldered, I strum each
lead with my fingernail. If it produces an
almost musical note, I clip the lead with
the toenail clippers. If I hear a thud
instead of a note, I re-solder the joint.
Cold solder joints are the bane of kit
building. Its good idea to wear safety
glasses when clipping component
leads as they have somehow learned to
travel at the speed of light when clipped.
(Another good option is to hold the end
of the lead with a pair of pliers as you
clip it. ed.)
Solder shorts are no fun, either. When
I was mounting R6 and R7, I couldnt be
sure if they were supposed to be connected or not, and the solder joints were
quite close. Just to make sure, I held a
flashlight on the opposite side of the
board and looked for a trace between
the two resistors. I could immediately
tell that a trace connected the two resistors. When in doubt...check it.

Capacitors
Next, I added all of the capacitors to the
board. I did these in the groupings
shown on page 17 in the assembly manual so I could check them off as I added
them. Make sure you pay attention to
the capacitor type as you place them on
Visit Our Web Site

What is Double Sideband (DSB)?


To keep things simple, Ive taken some liberties with the physics of things, but
the central idea is basically correct.
If you listen to an AM (Amplitude Modulation) radio station, even when there
is no one talking or playing music (i.e., no audio), you can tell that you are on
the right frequency because there is no background hiss or noise. The reason
is because AM always broadcasts a carrier signal on top of which the audio
signal is imposed. AM receivers then have to filter the audio component from
the carrier component of the signal for reproduction on your radio.
After a lot of experimentation, it was discovered that you could transmit just
the modulated component of the signal and more-or-less eliminate the carrier
signal. By just transmitting the modulated signal, it was possible to simplify the
receiver because it no longer had to filter out the carrier component of the signal. This is the basis of Double Sideband (DSB). If you visualize a DSB signal
on an oscilloscope, think of a signal hill where the left half of the signal hill is
a mirror image of the right half of the signal hill. DSB simplified things a little
since the carrier was no longer present. Also, all of the power was used sending the information contained in the signal, not the carrier.
After some more experimentation, they realized it wasnt necessary to transmit both sides of the hill, since they were mirror images of one another. The
result was to transmit half-a-hill, with the left half now called Lower Sideband
(LSB) and the right half called Upper Sideband (USB). One significant advantage of this split is that the required bandwidth is cut in half.
Any radio that can detect LSB and USB can detect a DSB signal, like that of
the MDT transceiver. By using DSB, the design of the transmitter is simplified
and the cost kept lower.

the board (see Figure 12 in the assembly manual). Obviously, you need to
observe the polarity when you add the
electrolytic capacitors. Each electrolytic has a small plus sign printed via the
silk screen.
Soldering the capacitors in place is no
different than what you did for the resistors. Again, I try to position them so they
can be easily identified. Keep in mind
that large components (e.g., toroids,
pots, etc.) that are not yet on the board
may obscure component numbers later
on. This may affect the positioning of
non-polarized capacitors. Photo D
shows the PCB with the resistors and
caps in place.

Diodes
These are fragile components, often
smaller than a grain of rice, and are
more sensitive to heat than resistors or
caps. Fortunately, tape holds the
1N4148 and 1N4004 diodes together.
That leaves you to figure out the
1N5819 and D1, the SVC236 dual varicap diode.
The D1 diode was the cause of a flatforehead mistake on my part. (You
know that kind of mistake: You discover your error and slam the heel of your
hand to your forehead while asking how
you could be so stupid.) When I was
doing the parts inventory, I couldnt find
D1. I even got on my hands and knees
checking out the floor in case I knocked
it off the table...not easy for an old person with two titanium knees. Then, a
good whack in the forehead as I remembered reading that there was one surface-mounted component already on
the board. Thats the one. Duh...
After the headache subsided, it was
pretty easy to identify and mount the
rest of the diodes. Make sure you pay
attention to the anode/cathode orientation as you mount them. Also, I would
use the solder-one-lead-move-to-thenext approach for both the diodes and
transistors. Theyre a bit fussy about too
much heat. Both the 1N4148s and the
Zener diodes are pretty fragile, so prebend them to fit the mounting holes.
While it might work on caps, pulling
them into place by their leads is not a
good idea.

Transistors and ICs

Photo F. Taa-Daa!

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

There are eight semiconductors to


mount and two ICs. Both ICs are 8 pin
affairs and Im not a big fan of mounting ICs directly to the board. Because I
have a bunch of 8-pin sockets, I chose
to use two for the MDTs ICs. The
chances of an IC failure are pretty
remote, but since I had the sockets, I
September 2016

CQ

35

On the Cover

Item
T1-1
T1-2
T1-3
T2-1
T2-2
L1
L2
L3
L4

Length (inches)
4.75
7.10
4.75
7.10
3.50
12.60
8.57
11.80
11.10

Table 2. Wire lengths for toroids (in


inches)

Pushing the limits Whiteface Mountain, in New Yorks Adirondacks, is no


stranger to people using its elevation to
challenge themselves and the record
books. Best known for its ski slopes,
Whiteface regularly hosts national and
international competitions and was the
skiing venue for the 1980 Winter Olympics in nearby Lake Placid.
More recently, one of its north-facing
overlooks became the venue for Mike
Seguin, N1JEZ (pictured), and Henry
Ingwersen, KT1J, to challenge the U.S.Canada distance record on the 47-GHz
ham band. They succeeded, making
contact with Ren Barbeau, VE2UG,
and Ray Perrin, VE3FN, 134 miles away
on Mont Tremblant, Quebec. More
details on the contact are in this months
VHF Plus column on page 74. (Also
see News on page 3 for story on 47 GHz
being spared so far from reallocation for 5G wireless services.)
Mikes interest in microwaves was an
outgrowth of his interest in satellites. He
is very active in AMSAT, assembling the
AMSAT Frequency Guide each year and
serving as the command operator for AO7, the miracle satellite that came back
to life after years of being inoperative.
Mike says, I first got interested in microwave work after talking with Larry Filby,
K1LPS, and Chip Taylor, W1AIM After
being hooked on 10 GHz, I started building 24 GHz. Not long after that, AO-40
was launched. I built a 24-GHz system
for working that satellite and successfully completed the first transatlantic 24GHz contact via that bird with G3WDG
in 2002.
After that, Mike said, I started working with Henry, KT1J, on higher
microwave bands. At this point, Ive
made successful contacts on all amateur bands except 134 GHz. He says
he and Henry are both hoping to earn
the Worked All Bands award, offered
by the North East Weak Signal Group.
Mike lives in Burlington, Vermont, where
he is a radio engineer with Vermont
Public Radio.
(Cover photo by Henry Ingwersen,
KT1J)

36

CQ

September 2016

chose to use them. Clearly, they are not


necessary. If you do use them, make
sure you mount them so the socket
notch aligns with the silk screen notch
for later reference. Its hard to see the
silk screen once the sockets in place.
There are three BD139 transistors as
detailed in the manual. Make sure you
orient them correctly with the base on
the left side when viewed from the front
of the board. When you view them from
the back of the board, you should be
able to see the printing on the transistors. The 2N3904s are a lot easier to
mount if you splay their leads slightly
before mounting them. If youre like me,
once the transistor is mounted, youll
splay the two outside leads from below
to hold the transistor in place. When you
go back to clip the leads after soldering
and strumming, clip the center lead first.
It makes it easier to clip the two outside
leads. Obviously, you need to align the
flat side of the transistor with the flat side
shown on the silk screen. The 2N7000
MOSFET is stuck in anti-static foam and
was the last semiconductor I mounted.
The ceramic resonator, X1, determines which segment of the 40-meter
band you chose to operate. I selected
7.215 to 7.270 MHz and this was
attached to an information sheet that
came with the kit. I also had a second
resonator included in the bag of parts.
Im not sure of its value, but I just
stashed this away in my parts drawer.

Toroids
Some people get nervous when they
find out they have to wind a toroid.
Theres no reason to feel that way. Leon
has done a great job of explaining how
to wind the toroids for the kit. If this is
your first toroid-winding experience, do
toroids L1 through L4 first, as they are
easy to wind. The two transformer
toroids are a little more complex (but not
much) and the manual has great photos, so you cant go wrong.
I would mount the transformers and
toroids before the remaining compo-

nents since the toroids are fairly large


and require you to fish their leads
through their mounting holes. Table 2
presents the wire lengths in inches
instead of millimeters. The wire is
included in the kit and while it may not
look like enough, theres plenty. Wind
T1 last, as it is the most complex. Also,
you may wish to make each wire in T1
a little longer than shown in Table 2 to
make it easier to thread the leads into
the board.
When you are winding a toroid, each
pass of the wire through the center
counts as a turn. I find it helpful to thread
the wire through the center and pull the
rest through gently. When you have the
wire for that loop through the center,
hold the toroid and wire with your thumb
and forefinger of your non-threading
hand and place the other thumb and
forefinger down near the toroid, grasping the wire somewhat firmly, and then
slide the entire remaining length of wire
through your thumb and forefinger of
your winding hand to smooth and
slightly stretch the remaining wire. That
procedure will seat the turn firmly on the
toroid and help keep the remaining wire
kink-free.
Make sure you sand, scrape, or burn
the enamel off the leads and tin them
before you mount each toroid on the
board. If you scrape with a box cutter
like I do, take care not to nick or otherwise weaken the wire. Keep in mind that
the toroid mounts snugly against the
board, so make sure you scrape/tin
almost to the bottom of the toroid. When
you are done, spread the turns out
evenly over the core as shown in the
manual. After I mount the toroid to the
board, I do a continuity check just to
make sure I have a clean connection. It
should show a dead short between the
board pads for each winding.

Miscellaneous
Now you can start mounting the larger
parts on the board. Most of these dont
need any discussion. However, some
of you may not have used the clips that
are used on the microphone connector.
There are four of these clips tied to a
mounting carrier strap that keeps
them from flying all over the place. The
manual tells you how to prepare the wire
and solder the wire to the clip. Photo E
shows a side view of the fourth clip,
including the carrier strap, which I prefer to leave on while soldering it.
Leaving the strap connected makes it
easier to work with the clip. There are
four very small triangle-shaped tabs on
each clip and a figure-4 like bend at the
other end of the clip. The two tabs closVisit Our Web Site

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est to the figure-4 part of the clip are bent around the bare
wire, which is then soldered in place with as little heat as possible. Once the clip has cooled a bit, bend the two tabs at the
end closest to the strap around the insulation and break off
the carrier strap. The clip with the attached wire can then be
inserted into its plastic holder.
When mounting the mic connector to the front panel, place
the key notch at an angle that makes sense to you. This notch
makes sure the correct connections are made from the mic
to the connector. If you look closely on the external side of
the connector, youll see a section where the external mic
threads have been filed smooth. This is a perfect grab
point on the connector to tighten it with needle-nose pliers
without damaging the threads.
Mount the relay, paying attention to the alignment line on
the top of the relay. Mount the LED, phone jack, antenna connector, and front panel according to the instructions. When
youre convinced that youve mounted all of the components
on the board, pour yourself a beverage of choice...youre
done! Your work should look similar to Photo F. Once you
perform the testing and alignment sequences in the manual,
youre ready to go.

Running QRP
When you use QRP operating methods, keep in mind youre
a sapling in a forest of redwoods. I find it pays off much
more if I use the listen-and-pounce (LAP) method rather
than calling CQ. If you hear a really strong signal, propagation may be working in your favor such that a call at end
of the stations current QSO may produce a contact. If you
do want to call CQ, try letting the band know youre running
QRP. I usually use something like: CQ CQ CQ this is
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

W8TEE, Whiskey 8 Tango Echo Echo running QRP. I usually mention the QRP thingie at the end of each identification sequence. Calling CQ QRP CQ QRP... doesnt seem
to work as well, perhaps because they think youre only willing to talk with another QRP station. In other words, let them
know youre running QRP, but dont beat them over the head
with it.
So, how well does it work?

Results
I spent several hours over a recent weekend with the MDT
and conditions werent all that good. My 40-meter antenna is
an end-fed Zepp that varies in height from about 15 feet at
the house end to about 50 feet at the tree end. My first
contact was in eastern Iowa, a distance of about 300 miles,
and my report was 56. The OM at the other end was astonished that I was only running 2 watts into a simple antenna.
My furthest contact was in northern Florida, about 700 miles
away, with a 55 report. Its the R part that matters when
youre running QRP. I did hear one station in Italy, but I didnt
even try to call as there was a pileup on him. Most people
have no clue youre using DSB instead of LSB.
Personally, I had a blast using the rig. However, if you dont
enjoy listening before calling, QRP may not be for you. My
best guess is that using LAP, I averaged one contact per hour
of listening. I dont mind that at all. Indeed, I rather enjoy it.
When you tell them youre running 2 watts, you can almost
see their eyes growing to the size of pie-plates. If you want
to go big, look at Leons MST3. It runs a rock-crushing 5
watts on a choice of bands.
If you feel life is getting a little stale in the shack, QRP
might be just what you need to perk things up.
September 2016

CQ

37

BY IRWIN MATH,* WA2NDM

maths notes

*>ii>i}>
n the past I have commented from time to time
upon how amateurs have contributed to wireless
communications with developments that commercial entities would not even initially consider, as
they could not possibly be of practical use.
Examples of these range from Thomas Edisons
Edison effect, which was in reality a vacuum tube
diode detector years before Alexander Fleming
discovered its real value, to a 1903 college
physics textbook (that I have) which described the
work of Heinrich Hertz proving that an electromagnetic wave could actually be produced, but
ended with the statement that: Although this is an
interesting phenomenon, there is probably no real
practical application for it.
Even as late as the 1920s, the wavelengths from
200 meters down were considered worthless and
given to the amateurs. Well, I still believe that we,
as a technical group, can continue to innovate and
with that in mind, I would like to describe a product I have recently come across which, in a way,
is really food for thought.

Passive Antenna Repeaters


There are a number of so-called passive antenna
repeaters on the market that brag about how they
can route an RF signal from a good receiving location to a poor one without external power of any
kind. Specifically, one that I came across was
designed to improve the operation of a cell phone
inside an automobile. It consisted of a small whip
antenna that was capacitively coupled to a dipole
for use in a car. The whip was supposed to be
mounted outside of the car where it would pick up
cell phone signals. These would then pass through
a capacitor mounted on either side of the rear win*c/o CQ magazine

dow of the car, which would then be routed to a


dipole inside the car. This dipole would then reradiate the signals, achieving a gain of a few dB,
for use by a cell phone that would otherwise be
shielded by the metal of the car.
While I have not tried this product myself, I did
read reviews that ranged from a great product to
dont waste your money. Figure 1 is the theory of
the system. Since the antenna (which seemed to be
tuned) would receive signals in the normal manner
and, by means of either coax or a capacitively-coupled device, route them to another antenna (a dipole
in this case) which was also tuned, the dipole
would then retransmit the signal. Furthermore, the
system was fully reversible, allowing 2-3 dB
improvements in transmitting as well as receiving.
The theory actually seemed to be OK, but many of
the customer reviews seemed to suggest that it
would not and in fact, did not, work.
As I mentioned, I have not actually tried this, but
wonder if it could really be made to operate practically. Since antennas for the 2-meter band and
above are fairly small and simple to fabricate, this
might be a great area for experimentation. Any
antenna will receive RF signals and convert them
to tiny electrical currents. Thats what an antenna
does. These currents (or any RF currents, for that
matter), when applied to another antenna, should
be re-radiated and obviously they are. The only
drawback I could come up with is that the levels
and losses would be very high, but perhaps clever
engineering could improve on this. Since cell
phones, GPS receivers, and many radio-related
devices operate with microwatts of power (and similar receiver sensitivity), the proper handling of
these levels should be within the realm of what we
can do today.
Any comments?
73, Irwin, WA2NDM

Loaded Whip Antenna

Dipole
Coupling
Capacitor

Car Body

38

CQ

September 2016

Figure 1. Passive
Antenna Theoretical
System

Visit Our Web Site

BY GERRY DEXTER*

the listening post

``"ii i->
"i
Radio Niger Delta/Voice of Peace Joins Madagascar
World Voice in Bucking Trend of Closures
Lets wade through a few short wave-lets:
~ The new, long-awaited Madagascar World
Voice seems to be getting much of the attention in
the shortwave press lately. But lets not forget that
Radio Madagasikara from Ambohidrano is still
active on 5010. It is scheduled in the Malagasy language from 0300-0500 UTC (and around midday
in North America).
~ Another new broadcaster is Radio Niger
Delta/Voice of Peace, beamed to West Africa via
Issoudun using English at 1900-1955 UTC on
*c/o CQ magazine

11985 and 0500-0555 UTC on 9515. This is aimed


at people in the Niger Delta who feel they havent
benefited from their regions natural wealth.
~ The seldom-reported Radio Verdes Florestas
from Acre, Brazil has been noted in Peru around
1100 UTC on its normal 4865.
~ One of the longest-active opposition broadcasters, Radio Republica beamed to Cuba, continues on 9490 via France from 0000-0300.
~ Radio Quillabamba in Quillabamba, Peru, is
observing its 50th anniversary this year. In an email
to Rich DAngelo, one of the religious stations volunteers commented that the stations antenna is
providing only limited coverage, causing problems
for the interior. The station is aware of the problem
and is working towards a solution.
~ Radio Gaucha in Porto Alegre, Brazil is back
on the air with its 10-kilowatt signal. I dont know
about 6020 yet.
~ That pesky Nigerian opposition broadcast,
Radio Biafra, continues to bug Abuja on 11700 from
1800-2100 UTC.
~ Voice of Spring (Sadye Bahar) is a new opposition speaker beamed at Iran on 7495 at 17301800, billed as Iran Prisoners Radio and beamed
from Moldova.
~ Another new opposition voice is the Voice of
Independent Oromia, targeting Ethiopia at 16001630 UTC on Sundays, believed via France.
~ As I predicted, the reborn Radii TV Guinee did
not last long. Its off the air already.

The Sked Shed


South Africas Channel Africa broadcaster is on the
air via Meyerton on the following schedule:
0300-0400 on 5980
0300-0500 on 3345
0500-0700 on 7230
0600-0700 on 15255
0700-1200 on 9625

USAIDs Eye Radio beams to South Sudan via


Nauen. (Thanks DAngelo)

40

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

1500-1600 on 9625
1700-1800 on 15235

Leading Logs
Here are this months leading logs. All times are in UTC. If no
language is mentioned, the broadcast is assumed to be in
English. Remember, your shortwave broadcast station logs
are always welcome. But please be sure to double or triple
space between the items, list each logging according to the
stations home country and include your last name and state
abbreviation after each. Also needed are spare QSLs, station
schedules, brochures, pennants, station photos, and anything
else you think would be of interest. You amateur radio operators who are also SWLs are also most welcome.
ANGOLARadio Nacional de Angola, 4949.7-Mulvenos
at 0020-0045 with a man in Portuguese taking phone calls.
Mention of station during studio chatter then light instrumental
music. (DAngelo, PA)
AUSTRALIAABC Northern Territory Service: VL8A,
4835-Alice Springs at 1258 discussing how America deals
with terrorism. (Brossell, WI)
BOLIVIARadio Panamericana, La Paz, 6105.4 at 0250
with Bolivian soccer match losing to Chile. (DAngelo, PA)
ETHIOPIARadio Fana, 6110 with Afro pops at 2058.
Group vocal. Off at 2101. (Brossell, WI)
IRELANDRadio Telifis Eireann, 5820 via Madagascar
with news at 1935. (Padazopulos, Greece)
MADAGASCARMadagascar World Voice/African
Pathways Radio, 9480-Mahajanganga at 0436-0456* with
religious features and several IDs. (DAngelo, PA)
VATICANVatican Radio, 11525 via Madagascar in
French with talks, 15595 in Latin at 1846. (KB2DMD, PA)
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

11730 at 1440 with a mans voice and English news features,


another with closedown announcements at 1448*.
(DAngelo, PA)
VIETNAMVoice of Vietnam, 9755 at 2153 in Arabic.
(Brossell, WI) 11730 at 0145 in English with news headlines,
Man with closedown ID and announcements, followed by IS,
12018 in Japanese at 1434 with male announcer in
Japanese. (Taylor, Lake Farm Park, WI)
ZANZIBARZanzibar Broadcasting Corp., 11735 at 2032
with talks in Swahili. (Brossell, WI)
More loggings are posted online at
<http: //cqpluslisteningpost.blogspot.com>.

Who Goes There?


~ 6925u pirate at 0011-0116* with Hootie and the Blowfish
singing I Want to be With You, followed by another song,
then dead air and gone by 0116. (DAngelo, PA)
~ 6950u at 0205-0211* with males voice over instrumental music. Carrier off suddenly at 0211. No ID or anything
close to it noted. (DAngelo, PA)
~ 6925u at 0214-0238 with You Belong to Me and other
fairly old pop things. Male announcer in English mentioning
untitled twice along with other chatter. Seemed to disappear around 0238. (DAngelo, PA)
~ 9935 in English at 1211 with woman in Chinese-accented religious talk making some reading mistakes. (Taylor,
Lake Farm Park, WI)

QSL Quests
Ralph Perry reports a reply from the Voice of Truth (Zambia),
via the Bible Voice Broadcasting Network on 17515 via Nauen.
September 2016

CQ

41

Adventist World Radio/KSDA from Guam also QSLd for DAngelo.

NHK-Radio Japan is also relayed by


Woofferton, Dhabbaya, Issoudun, and
Singapore in addition to its Yamata
broadcasting location.

DAngelo also got Madagascar World Voice.


Rich DAngelo saw answers from the
South Sudan opposition broadcaster
Eye Radio through USAID; Adventist
World Radio and KSDA in Guam; and
Madagascar World Voice (see photos).

Just Sayin
Are you aware that stressed spelled
backwards is desserts?

Back in the Day


Belgian Radio TV (BRT) from Waryve,
Belgium, in Dutch at 0455 on November
2, 1989.

Thanks Good Guys


Back slaps, salutes and high fives to the
good guys who checked in this month:
Fotios Padazopulos, Athens, Greece;
Mark Taylor, Madison and Lake Farm
Park, near Madison, WI; Ralph Perry,
Wheaton, IL; Richard Parker, KB2DMD,
Pennsburg, PA; Bob Brossell, Pewaukee, WI; Harold Sellers, Vernon, BC; Rick
Barton, El Mirage, AZ; Dave Valko,
Dunlo, PA; and Rich DAngelo,
Wyomissing, PA. Thanks to each of you.
Until next month...Keep on keepin on!

42

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

emergency communications

n Part 1 last month, I covered some of the new


things I saw at the Hamvention and attempted to connect the dots between different products offered (or teased) and how they might work
together. I left off with repeaters.

CORY GB SICKLES, WA3UVV

>i,i>iq
*>

CQ

43

DR-1X and UDRC


While some have said D-STAR is on the decline
citing the number of models ICOM has discontinued in recent months (without filling the holes)
there is a substantial investment in radios
owned by hams (like me). However, some D-STAR
repeaters are starting to show their age, so some
clubs and EmComm teams are looking for alternatives. With the advent of the UDRC (Universal
Digital Radio Controller) from NW Digital Radio
(Photo A; mentioned in Part 1) in combination with
the Yaesu DR-1X repeater (Photo B), there is a
very exciting one.
I talk with many hams throughout the year and
Dayton was no exception. It seems as though more
than a few are systematically replacing their original D-STAR repeaters with new DR-1X machines,
much in the way that Yaesu enticed analog
repeater owners to upgrade to digital voice (DV).
With the combination of DR-1X and UDRC, they
can now support three different ways to communicate; D-STAR, analog FM, and System Fusion.
Thus, they are able to restore/add an analog presence which the original didnt support and
add System Fusion to the mix.
This allows them to embrace what has become
the fastest growing form of DV, use their existing
D-STAR gear and invite FMers back to the frequency pair. Normal FM works fine if the original
D-STAR repeater replaced an analog machine
based on a 25-kHz allocation. If the repeater pair
assigned was based on a newer 12.5-kHz expansion or narrow spacing, then all is well digitally,
but the analog functionality needs to be used with
*e-mail: <wa3uvv@gmail.com>

Photo A. NW Digital Radios UDRC (Universal


Digital Radio Controller) can add D-STAR capability to System Fusion digital voice and analog
FM already supported by the Yaesu DR-1X
repeater. (Photo courtesy NW Digital Radio)

narrow FM available on most radios designed


in the last decade.
Thankfully, the DR-1X already supports this out
of the box, so its ready for the task. Now, a club
or EmComm team has a choice of two DV methodologies and can provide support for legacy users,
who may not have been able to use this pair in
some time.
For UHF machines, this may make little difference, but for VHF it could be a huge consideration. One of the selling points for System Fusion
and homebrew D-STAR repeaters has been the
Auto Mode Select or mixed-mode ability to continue supporting analog FM. Thus, this encourages
DV operation on 2 meters, whereas most D-STAR
activity has been on UHF.
With a cost of $600 for the new repeater, $90 for
the UDRC and $35 for a Raspberry Pi (which hosts

Photo B. Yaesus new DR-1X repeater supports both analog FM and System Fusion digital voice (DV).
Adding a UDRC controller provides D-STAR capability as well.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

the UDRC) the outlay for a new DV and


analog solution comes in for most at less
than $750. Thats pretty impressive.
Impressive enough apparently that,
as I was composing this column, a purchase of multiple DR-1Xs was made to
replace the networked D-STAR repeaters in southern New Jersey (see
SCERN: A Network Built on Relation-

ships, CQ October 2013). Thats additionally significant, as it will also mean


multiple purchases of System Fusion
mobiles and portables for DV-inclined
hams in the area.

Cannibals in the Flea Market


Back in the flea market, interest in older
commercial repeaters (Motorola, GE,

etc.) seemed to be high as well. This


was not so much because of an interest to fire up any more analog repeaters
in the neighborhood, but rather to harvest the amplifiers for use with DV
repeaters.
Many of these amps are rated in the
120- to 250-watt range, depending on
model. As most have a drive requirement of somewhere between <1-5
watts, an attenuator may be required,
but the extra effort is worth it. Some of
the clubs that retired their analog
machine(s) in favor of something digital
soon realized the potential to keep part
of the older machine still pumping out
electrons.
While there was a buyers market for
a short period, with folks dumping their
older technology, many soon came to
their senses when wanting to maintain
or enhance their original coordinated
power allowance. Whether its patience
or procrastination, many times its best
not to act in haste.

New Goodies from MFJ

Photo C. Radios arent the only things youll find as you walk around the
Hamvention. Survival tools were also on display, including this water purifier kit.
Perhaps a little chlorine bleach will do the trick or you might want to go with a
professional kit for more assurance. Either way, keep a reasonable supply of
drinkable water in mind when youre away from home.

Photo D. It is always a good idea to keep some supplies around just in case you
find yourself in an isolated situation. You can put a suitable backpack together
yourself or just buy one thats already done. Keep in mind though, the number of
days listed is per person.

44

CQ

September 2016

While there wasnt a crowd looking for


some breakthrough product from MFJ
Enterprises, a steady flow of hams kept
coming to the companys noticeable
presence inside the venues core. I
could try to figure out just how many
products MFJ offers, but I have a feeling that by the time I finished, that number would be out of date. Looking
through their catalog and website, you
soon realize that they offer well over a
thousand items perhaps several.
It is difficult to imagine what the average ham shack would look like without
MFJ. With the extensive number of station accessories, interfaces, adapter
cables, QRP rigs, and so much more,
the absence of these products would
have had quite an effect on amateur
radio. Thankfully, they do exist and they
keep coming up with more and more.
Although they didnt have any in
stock by the time I remembered to look
at my shopping list, I did order an MFJ9232 QRP (25-watt maximum, actually) Mini Loop Antenna Tuner. With it
now in hand, I am wiring up a few loop
designs to try out in the yard with my
FT-817ND, MFJ-9296, and other QRP
radios Ive built. That should keep me
busy for a while.
Easy to set up and break down, loop
antennas can come in handy when your
EmComm needs include HF. Even
though we typically rely very heavily on
2 meters and up for our FM and DV
needs, we should also consider HF as
part of our communications toolkits.

Visit Our Web Site

Over an extended period during which you find yourself


without the electrical grid or the ability to obtain more fuel for
backup generators, repeaters may not be as available as
youd like. Having HF available for voice or data can
come in handy. For very mountainous areas, you may find
yourself in a valley, where an NVIS (near vertical incidence
skywave) antenna strung close to the ground or an angled
mobile antenna on 75, 60, or 40 meters is needed to keep
you in touch with the outside world.

Non-Radio Vendors
Being on your own is a reality for which you should at least
somewhat be prepared in advance. Along those lines, some
of the non-radio vendors at the Hamvention such as The
Prepper Stop specialized in what is regarded by many as
(no surprise) the prepper market. The issue of being a prepper vs. being prepared is something Ive talked about in the
past, but for the moment, well look at the intersection of the
two philosophies.
There were batteries that operated on saltwater, water
purification kits (Photo C), freeze-dried foods and survival
backpacks (Photo D). Pretty much all of the things in such a
backpack can be purchased for less, if youre willing to do
some research and shop frugally. If youre not, then pay for
the convenience of someone else doing the work for you and
putting it all in one convenient grab n go package.
As the recent floods in southern West Virginia have demonstrated, fast-moving water can ravage an area and devastate its population. In one instance, when the rains fell,
approximately 500 people were left stranded at a shopping
area. Private homes on higher elevations can become tiny
islands as neighbors homes are washed away. While you
may not need to have an excess of supplies on hand for the
aftermath of natural disasters, a reasonable amount of bottled water, purification supplies, and things that can be eaten
without cooking or refrigeration might just come in handy.
With the pictures and a desire to leave more room in this
months issue for the WPX SSB Contest results, Ill finish with

just one more thought on the Hamvention. While walking


about, I picked up on the wonderful aroma of coffee in one
of the rooms. Following my olfactory senses, I found The
Unseen Bean and had a nice conversation with Gerry Leary,
Master Coffee Roaster, while enjoying a sample of his
Kilowatt Coffee (Photo E).
Gerry has been blind since birth, but apparently has never
let that limit his goals and achievements. Once an auto
mechanic, he turned his attention to the world of coffee. Gerry
uses his hearing and sense of smell to roast a wide range of
coffees with delicious results. He also incorporates his coffee skills in the production of delectable chocolate bars. I
picked up several pounds of the Kilowatt Coffee and
Contesters Blend, plus some candy, before I bid him and his
friendly assistants adieu. The aroma was so addictive the following day, I returned for more this time as gifts for a few
special friends.
Im enjoying a cup as I wrap up this months column. The
Dayton Hamvention is an experience full of new technology,
radios yet to come, a look to the past, and related products
that make our ham lives better and more enjoyable. Its a
place to take the pulse of whats happening in amateur radio
and consider if theres some unexplored aspect of the service we might find interesting. Plus, as it turns out, you can
find a good cup of coffee and some interesting conversation,
if you seek them out.

2014 and 2015

Back issues of CQ Amateur Radio are now available


on disk in PDF format!
The years 2014 and 2015 are now available in easy-toaccess PDF format for you to read and refer to again
and again . . . at a fraction of their original cost!
Remember 2015 was our 70th Anniversary Year!

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Photo E. Another key to survival coffee! I discovered some


wonderful coffee and an interesting back story, as I enjoyed
a cup of Kilowatt Coffee from The Unseen Bean and brought
home a few pounds, too.

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

CQ Communications, Inc.
17 W. John St., Hicksville, NY 11801
Phone 516-681-2922 FAX 516-681-2926
http://store.cq-amateur-radio.com
September 2016

CQ

45

BY TOM SMERK,* AA6TS

cq world wide

> iv`i
7`>` i`
amfests, satellites, meetings, drills, club
news, a petition to add 1.25-meter MHz privileges, and ARISS hams return to earth.
Read the latest amateur radio news and stories
from around the world and beyond!

Ham Radio 2016 Expo at


Friedrichshafen
Each year for the past 41 years on the last weekend in June, the International Exhibition for Radio
Amateurs, known as HAMRADIO, which is
Europes largest and best-known hamfest, takes
place in the Messe Friedrichshafen Convention
Centre and surrounding fairgrounds in Friedrichshafen on the shores of Lake Constance in southern Germany.
This year, the event, which began in 1976 with
62 exhibitors, attracted a total of 17,230 visitors
(up from 17,080 the previous year). The expo
caters to ham radio, electronics, internet, and computer enthusiasts. This years motto was Amateur
radio On land, on water, and always on the air.
In other words, not only the modes in amateur radio
*17986 Highway 94, Dulzura, CA 91917
e-mail: <aa6ts@cq-amateur-radio.com>

are numerous, but also the places from which radio


amateurs can operate.
During the three days of the show, 198 companies and associations from 36 countries presented their services and products related to radio and
telegraphy (Photo A). The flea market area filled
three exhibit halls and again proved to be a good
source for treasures (Photo B).
Together with the German Amateur Radio Club
(DARC) as a partner, we have put together a
diverse supporting program with high-quality presentations and competitions for amateur radio
enthusiasts. emphasized Messe Friedrichshafen
project leader Petra Rathgeber, adding, with the
Ham Rallye, the youth camp, and the teacher training offerings, supporting the next generation has
also taken on a more prominent role.
This years program included a fox hunt in the
woods near the fairgrounds and a youth camp
(Photo C). The Ham Rallye was open to young people between 8 and 18. A Contest University (CTU)
sponsored by the DARC took place on Friday for
beginners and again on Saturday for experienced
contesters. Both sessions were aimed at improving
contesting performance. The SDRA-2015 (software defined radio) on Saturday featured 14 talks
from speakers from all over the world.

Photo A. The annual HAMRADIO Expo in Friedrichshafen, Germany, is the biggest hamfest in Europe
and second only to Dayton worldwide. (Photos A-D courtesy Messe Friedrichshafen)

46

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

Photo B. The HAMRADIO flea


market offered hidden treasures
for those who needed what the
sellers were offering.

Emergency communication was the


focus of some Ham Radio 2016 activities. IARU Region 1 hosted a meeting
for those interested in emergency communication on Friday, June 24. The session included an open forum for national coordinators to report on activities in
their respective countries.
The Maker Faire Bodensee, a parallel event that took place alongside the
Ham Radio fair for its fourth year on the
same dates, featured 64 exhibitors
(Photo D) and showed how familiar
objects could be redesigned using new
ideas and unconventional materials.
Many workshops and lectures encouraged visitors take a shot at being makers themselves.
Ham Radio and the Maker Faire will
also appear together again next year.
In 2017, the international ham radio

exhibition will take place from July 14 to


16, with the Maker Faire Bodensee running from July 15 to 16.
More information and some great photos from this years event are available
at <www.hamradio-friedrichshafen.de>.
For Maker Faire information, see <www.
makerfairebodensee.com>.
[Ham Radio 2016 and ARRL News]

ISS Hams Return to Earth


The International Space Stations Expedition 47 crew (Photo E) arrived back
on Earth on June 18 after 86 days in
space. The crew included three hams:
Commander Tim Kopra, KE5UDN, of
NASA; Flight Engineer Tim Peake,
KG5BVI, of ESA (European Space
Agency), and Soyuz Commander Yuri
Malenchenko, RK3DUP, of the Russian
space agency Roscosmos.

The ISS Expedition 47 crew members


contributed to hundreds of experiments
in biology, biotechnology, physical science, and Earth science while in orbit,
but to me, the most exciting part was the
Principia Mission program, offering
ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station) contacts between Astronaut Tim Peake and school
children from many countries around the
world. The ability to speak with an astronaut in orbit around the Earth has kindled a new appreciation for science and
for amateur radio not only for the school
children, but also the parents and teachers who attended the ceremonies that
accompanied each ARISS contact.
A big thanks to Astronaut Peake and
his fellow hams aboard the ISS for their
interest in promoting science and amateur radio to the next generation of hams.
Two more hams are now aboard the
International Space Station (ISS) as
part of Expedition 48. Docking with the
ISS on July 9 was NASA astronaut
Kate Rubins, KG5FYJ, and astronaut
Takuya Onishi, KF5LKS, of the Japan
Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
Together with cosmonaut Anatoly
Ivanishin of Roscosmos, the trio joined
a three-member crew already aboard
the ISS. They are spending approximately four months on the station,
returning to Earth in October.
[ARISS, ARRL News, and Southgate
Amateur Radio News]

Several Satellites With


Amateur Radio Payloads
Launched in India

Photo C. Youth was a prime focus at Friedrichshafen, with special activities and
a Maker Faire run in parallel with the hamfest.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

On June 22, the Indian Space Research


Organization (ISRO) launched several
satellites that carry amateur radio payloads. One of the satellites, Swayam-1,
carries a half-duplex digital store-andforward messaging system for use by
the amateur radio community. It operates on an uplink and downlink freSeptember 2016

CQ

47

quency of 437.025 MHz with a power


output of 1 watt through a dipole antenna. Swayam-1 generates a CW beacon
every 90 seconds.
Other satellites on the launch that carried amateur radio payloads were
BEESAT-4 (Berlin Experimental and
Educational Satellite-4), operating on
435.950 with 4800 bps GMSK and CW;
BIROS, operating on 437.525 with 4800

bps GMSK; Max Valier at 145.860 MHz


down with 145.960 MHz CW beacon;
Venta-1 with a CW beacon on 437.325,
and Sathyabamasat, operating on
145.980 with 2400 bps BPSK.
These satellites were part of a record
launch of 22 satellites from the U.S.,
India, Canada, and Germany that were
launched from the Sriharikota barrier
island along Indias southeast coast.

Photo D. The Maker World maker faire featured several dozen additional
exhibitors, displaying everything from 3-D printers to drones.

[CSAT COEP Satellite Initiative,


ARRL News, and Southgate Amateur
Radio News]

Hams Save the Day in a


Vancouver Island Emergency
Exercise
Fifty-two years ago, in March 1964, a
magnitude 9.2 earthquake off Alaska
caused two devastating tsunami waves
to strike the city of Port Alberni, British
Columbia, a coastal community of about
18,000 people northwest of Victoria,
sweeping away houses and vehicles.
Fortunately, there were no deaths.
In order to prepare for the possible
occurrence of a similar event, the Cowichan Valley Amateur Radio Society
partnered with 600 people from more
than 60 different organizations in a threeday exercise called Exercise Coastal
Response. The scenario of the $1.2 million government exercise was a magnitude 9 earthquake, followed by at least
two tsunami waves striking Port Alberni.
A special effects company was hired to
produce realistic disaster settings.
While telephone lines, cellular and
wireless communications were knocked out in the simulated scenario, volunteer ham radio operators were able
to contact a Canadian Forces longrange patrol aircraft flying over the
Rockies, which in turn relayed the rescue information.
Naomi Yamamoto, British Columbias
emergency preparedness minister,
acknowledged the value of the radio
volunteers as a vital lifeline during a
disaster.
Theres the old amateur radio saying
that when everything else fails, theres
amateur radio, said Steve Bradshaw,
president of the Cowichan Valley
Amateur Radio Society, who participated in the exercise with about a dozen
other radio operators.
[The Globe and Mail and The Vancouver Sun]

New Zealand Seeks 1.25-Meter


Band

Photo E. The International Space Station Expedition 47 crew included three ham
radio operators. (NASA photo)

48

CQ

September 2016

The New Zealand Association of Radio


Transmitters (NZART) recently contacted the Radio Spectrum Management
Policy and Planning manager requesting an amateur radio allocation at 222223 MHz. This area of the 1.25-meter
band is already available in other countries, primarily in IARU Region 2 (the
Americas), for amateur radio use.
NZART is interested in this spectrum
area because it has characteristics that
are different from the adjacent amateur
bands of 144 and 430 MHz.
Visit Our Web Site

1(:1(:1(:

In its letter to the regulator, NZART


clarified that it is not seeking to exclude
any other users from the band, adding
that there is sufficient spectrum available in the band to satisfy all those seeking an allocation.
[NZART, reported by Southgate Amateur Radio News]

:HVWRFNWKHQHZUXJJHG)5((6&$/(.:WUDQVLVWRUDQG
SDUWVIRUWKH0DQG-0+]DPSOLILHUGHVLJQV

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Japan International DX
Meeting
The Japan International DX Meeting
2016 was scheduled to take place in
Tokyo on August 20. The main focus of
the meeting was to be the DXpedition,
a large scale project including the
VP8STI/VP8SGI and FT4JA teams;
and Integration of information technology and amateur radio,
Festivities include a reception with an
award presentation and a lottery with
lavish prizes.
[Southgate Amateur Radio News]

Hams in UK Campaign to Save


Their Floating Club Station
In the UK, a campaign is under way to
save the Lightship Planet from being
scrapped. Amateur radio club GB2LBL
has been using the lightship for club
operations for the past 7 or 8 years. A
group of Marine Radio Museum Society
(MRMS) volunteers operates the amateur radio station on the Planet each
week.
According to John Hudson, MCMW,
the Planet used to mark the bar at
the entrance to the River Mersey in
Liverpool.
[ARRL News]

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In Closing
As I put the finishing touches on this column in July, here in the U.S. the summer weather has been too nice to sit
inside our ham shacks, so many hams
are taking it outdoors with mobile rigs
and handhelds. In the Southern California region I call home, many wildfires
are giving our EmComm hams a real
workout, but the amateur radio volunteers have been doing an excellent job!
Once again, I would like to ask you to
send me your stories of what is new and
interesting about amateur radio in your
country. Include what your clubs have
been up to, any EmComm deployments, hams honored for their service,
notable meetings or conventions, or in
other words, anything at all about amateur radio that our readers would be
excited to hear about! And please send
photos we all love photos! You can
reach me at <aa6ts@cq-amateurradio.com>.
73 de AA6TS
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

CQ

49

BY JOE EISENBERG,* KNEB

kit-building

 },i`
t this time of the year here in Nebraska, the
chant of Go Big Red is everywhere. The
Big Red theme this month extends to my
workbench. From talented kit designer Craig
Johnson, AAZZ, and the Four State QRP Group,
comes the ZZRX-40. This kit is a simple 40-meter
direct conversion receiver with a couple of twists.
As with many of the other Four State kits, Craig
has incorporated the use of PC board material to
form a nice shielded case along with pre-marked
panels to enclose this receiver. The other twist is
that he has incorporated three different options for
frequency control, allowing the builder to choose
which to use, and to be able to easily change to
another option. The three options include a full

*7133 Yosemite Drive, Lincoln, NE 68507


e-mail: <k0neb@cq-amateur-radio.com>

The ZZRX-40 40-meter receiver case being


soldered together.
The ZZRX-40s PC
board assembled
and ready to mount
in the case.

Here the PC board


has been mounted
into the case and is
ready for the top
cover.

50

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

The Completed ZZRX-40 ready to go with no alignment


needed!

bandwidth VFO, a crystal controlled narrow and much more


stable VXO, or the use of an outside oscillator, such as a
DDS. There are many Arduino nano-based DDS circuits
available. I chose to set my ZZRX-40 for the wideband VFO
at first, later going to the VXO.
The receiver is a pretty straightforward and simple directconversion design, making for a relatively low parts count
and easy assembly. When assembling it, you are reminded
in the instructions to place the supplied jumpers on the pins
for the mode desired. In addition, there is the option of adding
an internal battery pack consisting of four AA batteries. I did
not use that option, and it is up to the builder to supply the
battery holder, which fits in the lower half on the case. I chose
instead to utilize the outside power option. If you choose to
use an internal battery pack, be sure to use some means of
securing it to the bottom of the case, such as double stick
tape or glue.
A unique problem presented by the use of potentiometers
with extra long legs is solved by the use of stacks of PC board
material pre-marked and stacked to form standoffs. Following
the directions makes this task quite easy and very effective

Sandford Meter unboxed and ready to build!

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

CQ

51

whats new

at holding the pots in their proper positions for mounting the


finished unit in the case.
Assembling a PC board case presents a challenge for
builders not accustomed to this clever method of providing a
very low cost and strong enclosure. The directions call for the
use of tape or rubber bands to hold the segments of the case
together. I used both when assembling mine, resulting is a good
fit. It is suggested to work on one corner at a time, placing a
small dab of solder to connect them together, allowing for easy
reheating, if necessary, to make the case perfectly square.
Once it is all together, I soldered the entire edges on all sides
to make an extra strong bond between them. It is advised to

ilumi Introduces Smartstrip: First Outdoor-Rated


Individually Addressable
LED Strip with Bluetooth Mesh Connectivity
Expanding its portfolio of smart lighting products, ilumi solutions has introduced a new series of app-controlled, outdoorrated and colorful LED light strips.
The ilumi Smartstrip incorporates Bluetooth Mesh wireless
connectivity, outdoor-rated materials, and uniquely bright
digitally addressable RGB+W LEDs. This unique combination enables the Smartstrip to be the most flexible and functional lighting strip on the market. Enabled through ilumis
free iOS and Android app, the Smartstrip can be controlled
from smartphones and tablets up to 150 feet away without
the need for a hub, survive in the outdoors through tough
weather conditions, and illuminate any and all colors within
the spectrum from bright functional whites to rich hues.
The Smartstrips digitally addressable nature enables each
LED to be controlled and to change color independently of
any other, creating dynamic effects and patterns that add
interest and atmosphere to any room or outdoor space.
Additionally, the ilumi Smartstrip utilizes a novel and patentpending RGB+W digital LED strip design created by ilumi
that overcomes the brightness limitations of white light experienced by competing digitally addressable LED strips. This
design allows a user to enjoy any shade of bright white light
from warm to cool for everyday use as well as activate dynamic colorful effects.
The Smartstrip comes with an adhesive backing and is
IP65-rated for an easy installation process. Its outdoor rating allows the Smartstrip to be placed anywhere to create
special lighting effects for any occasion.
The base level ilumi Smartstrip kit comes with a universal
24-volt power supply, in-line Bluetooth controller, and six feet
(two meters) of the flexible strip. The length of the Smartstrip
can easily be extended with extensions in lengths of three
feet (one meter) and a Kickstarter exclusive of 13 feet (four
meters), as well as long extensions that are easily connected up to a full length of 10 meters total.
The ilumi Smartstrip collection is available now on
Kickstarter for an introductory price of $59 and will retail for
$89 when fully available in December 2016. Additional
pledges for the Smartstrip include packages that offer the
entire ilumi family of products, such as the new BR30
Outdoor. The ilumi Smartstrip will begin shipping to supporters by December 2016. For more information, visit
<www.ilumi.co/kickstrip>.

The business end of the Sandford Meter showing the four


flat film ceramic resistors that form the dummy load.

.OTEWhats New is not a product review and does not constitute a product endorsement by CQ. Information is primarily provided by manufacturers/vendors and has not necessarily been
independently verified.

The completed Sandford Meter ready to go.

52

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

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be very sure it is secure and exactly square before adding any


more solder.
Once assembled, the board is mounted to the front panel,
lowered into the case and secured. Having a shielded case
around a direct conversion receiver helps its immunity to
close-by signals. Be sure to follow the stage-by-stage format
of the manual and perform each test as you go along, to be
sure you have assembled each stage correctly. I had a fun
time assembling my ZZRX-40, and will be teaming it up with
a number of QRP CW transmitters. The manual has a very
complete explanation of the circuit as an educational tool. I
highly recommend this kit as a great group kit-building experience as well. Take your time, and enjoy this fine kit. You
can order the ZZRX-40 from the Four State QRP Group for
$45 plus shipping at <http://www.4sqrp.com>. Keep in mind
that the Four State QRP Group uses the proceeds generated from kit sales to help finance their great Ozarkcon QRP
convention every April in Branson, Missouri. See you there!

Sandford QRP Wattmeter/Dummy Load


While at Dayton, I also had the chance at the FDIM (Four
Days in May) Vendor Night to pick up a Sandford QRP analog wattmeter/dummy load kit from the Kanga UK folks. Also
with a relatively low parts count, this kit comes with all of the
parts needed to complete it, including the case. The meter
will measure up to 20 watts of RF. However, it cannot be used
as a dummy load at that RF level for a long period of time. It
can, however, be used at 5 watts or less for an indefinite
period of time.
The assembly instructions are quite complete and explicit,
so there was no confusion following them when assembling
this kit. The kit uses four unusual flat film resistors as the
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

info@buddipole.com
www.buddipole.com

> Used by Emergency Services


Groups throughout the world
> Rated from QRP to 250 watts
PEP

See our videos

www.youtube.com/buddipole

dummy load to dissipate the heat generated, and those were


easy to mount by soldering just one leg first while using a tool
to hold them in place. The other leads were then easy to solder. The assembly of this kit should not take more than a couple of hours at most, and the result is a very valuable tool for
QRP builders and operators. The meter not only acts as a
dummy load and wattmeter, but it also provides a highly attenuated output suitable for connection to an oscilloscope, frequency counter, or spectrum analyzer. Connection is made
via an RCA jack on the front panel.
At times, I mention in my kit-building seminars the importance of having a variable voltage power supply available.
This kit uses one to provide a steady voltage needed to perform the calibration of the meter. A source of precisely 12
VDC is needed to set the trimpot that calibrates the meter. I
use a variable voltage power supply and had my Fluke benchtop meter connected to it to adjust the voltage to precisely
12.00 VDC. This adjustment goes very quickly and does not
have to be repeated again.
When doing a group kit-building experience in which a QRP
transmitter is involved, having this meter handy will make the
transmitter testing phase of the project go quickly. A cable
with a BNC connector on one end and whatever connectors
are needed to connect to your project on the other is essential. Most QRP projects use a BNC connector for RF, so a
short BNC to BNC cable is best, along with adapters for any
other needs, such as SMA or RCA connectors. To order your
Sandford wattmeter, go to <http://www.kanga-products.
co.uk/>. As of this writing, Kangas website was undergoing
changes, but there is contact information there.
With autumn at hand, I will look forward to seeing my readers in October at NEARfest in New Hampshire!
Until next time, 73 de KNEB
September 2016

CQ

53

/ 8/  *"/"- 979 9"- I]7<

the ham notebook

*iV>`7>Vi
fter setting up a temporary workbench on
my dining room table in order to accommodate several Maker Faire projects and a
guest project-builder, I decided to clean up my
house and make a dedicated space for building
projects.
In this case, the temporary workbench/dining
table lasted over a year. Although it seemed to be
okay to eat my meals outside on the patio, I
changed my mind when a non-ham guest visited
my house and said, boy, your entire house looks
like a laboratory.
I needed to do something quickly, since my list
of new projects continues to get bigger. Add unexpected projects like fixing my 10-GHz transverter
system (Photo A) and several bench power supplies (Photos B & C), and I am drowning in multiple unfinished chores to complete.
New projects in the works or planned include
Arduino and Raspberry Pi projects for the shack
as well as for the next Maker Faire season, completing a 24-GHz transverter, restoring a complete vintage Heathkit HF station, and building a

* Email: kh6wz@cq-amateur-radio.com
LinkedIn:
http://www.linkedin.com/in/wayneTyoshida

Photo A. Fixing my 10-GHz rig was one of my


unexpected projects. The modified surplus frequency synthesizer is not locking properly. I am
looking for a replacement.

54

CQ

September 2016

modern regenerative receiver, with some old and


new parts.

Its a Start
I read a post about turning an Ikea Rast nightstand/bookshelf (article number 443.611.09,
shown in Photo D) into a relay rack cabinet for various types of audio recording equipment. I thought
that was an interesting idea, so I made my version to fit the test equipment on my workbench.
The relay rack brackets are unnecessary, since
the intermediate shelf should be strong enough to
support the items on top. Small L-brackets and
number 10 machine screws and nuts hold the shelf
in place as shown in Photo E. I finished the racks
in dark gray spray paint.
My workbench is made with a tabletop (I forgot
its name) purchased at the Ikea As-Is section. It
was a great price (less than $20) and a perfect
size. The tabletop is screwed onto a pair of Ikea
nightstands. The nightstands are too small for me
to use for their original purpose, so rather than
throwing them away or donating them, I decided
to turn them into very sturdy workbench legs,
shown in Photo F.
Heavy-duty commercial AC power strips were
purchased (used) at a nearby electronics parts
and surplus store for about $20, a great price.
They fit perfectly along the entire length of the
workbench. One at the rear of the bench powers
the equipment and one in the front is used to power
items being repaired or items near the front of the
bench. I had to replace the original twist-lock AC
plug with a normal three-prong plug, but I had
some of them on-hand in my junk box. A cable
trough will be added to the rear of the bench to

Photo B. This variable power supply needed to


be repaired. Some epoxy and a good cleaning
fixed the issue.

Visit Our Web Site

hide the various wires and cables, and keep them above the
floor so my Roomba vacuuming robot can clean underneath
the bench.

Some Useful Workbench Items


I made the Regulator Regulator (Photo G) after seeing a
friend fry something he was testing in a friends lab. He used
an adjustable bench power supply and applied power to his
project without checking the supply voltage. Applying 48 volts
to a gadget that requires 5 volts is something a bit too exciting to see in my workshop.
Since I do not have anything in my shop or shack that uses
48 volts, I decided to make my Regulator-Regulator more
practical from a desired voltage output point of view. The unit
takes 12-volts DC in and converts it into three often-used out-

Photo C. This high-current, fixed 5- and 12-volt power supply failed on the 5-volt side. I replaced the 5-volt module, but
I need to find out how and why it failed.

Photo F. A pair of (different) Ikea nightstands are turned into


nice and sturdy workbench legs.
Photo D. The Ikea Rast nightstand is a perfect fit for 19inch relay rack items. I turned the nightstand into an equipment rack by moving the shelf to a more useful height.

Photo E. Small L-brackets and number 10 machine screws


and nuts support the shelf.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

Photo G. The Regulator-Regulator is a handy device to


ensure an adjustable power supply does not unintentionally cook something.
September 2016

CQ

55

}
*Vi>i

+-i
2EFLECTIONS)))
by Walter Maxwell, W2DU
Includes all the information
in Reflections I & II and
much, much more! This fully
revised and updated, this
424-page, third edition is
truly a must have!

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CD Version $29.95
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'ROUND2ADIAL

Photo H. An inside view of the Regulator-Regulator. Three terminals supply voltages below the input of 12 volts, and a 12-volt to 24-volt converter provides a
useful output for testing surplus RF relays.

by Sevick, W2FMI
This small but solid guide
walks you through the
design and installation of inexpensive, yet
effective short HF vertical antennas. With
antenna restrictions becoming a problem, it
could keep you on the air!

6 x 9 Paperback $10.00

Photo I. I always
wanted an AC
line voltage
monitor. So when
I found one at a
local swap meet
for five bucks, I
bought it.

$8 7ORLD'UIDE
by Franz Langner, DJ9ZB
This 384-page DXers guidebook is the first edition using
color throughout and the first
to be entirely in English.
Includes info on well over 300
DX entities.

6 X 9 Paperback $42.95
CD Version $22.95
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additional. Buy Both=single item!

CQ The Radio
Amateur's Journal
Phone 516-681-2922
FAX 516-681-2926
http://store.cq-amateur-radio.com

56

CQ

September 2016

put voltages: Five, nine, and 24 volts.


Three terminal regulators and a 12-volt
in, 24-volt out, DC-DC converter ensure
a fixed and lower voltage coming out. A
variation of this unit could be to take a
higher voltage input, for example, 50
volts, and have various fixed lower voltages coming out. Photo H shows the
simple circuitry inside the unit. You may
notice some extra holes in the chassis
box. This is because the cabinet was a
found item in a trashcan at the office.
All parts were in the junk box, so the cost
to use value is very good.
I have always wanted an AC line voltage monitor, but I am not sure why. So
when one turned up at the monthly ham

radio and electronics swap meet, I


bought it (Photo I). The meter case has
a crack on the right side, but it monitors
my line voltage for $5.
There is an inverse relationship
between my eye vision and the size of
electronic parts these days. So, several years ago, I bought an inspection
microscope on eBay (Photo J). It is in
excellent shape and came at a very reasonable price. I can easily see the laser
markings on parts almost invisible to the
naked eye. I can see invisible inductors and capacitors that are used in
microwave L- and C-circuits. I use the
microscope when looking for cracked
solder joints or broken surface mount
Visit Our Web Site

components. For slightly larger parts, I


use an illuminated bench magnifier. The
ring light provides shadow-free visibility for parts and assemblies.
A Hewlett-Packard Z3816A GPSlocked 10 MHz reference is on the left
side of the equipment shelf (see Photo
K). It provides a much more accurate
and stable reference for my microwave
frequency counter in the center of the
equipment rack.
Finally, on the far left of the left side
equipment rack is my 1152-MHz board

(Photos L and M). It is known as the


1152L Large Synthesizer Board. It is
a modified Qualcomm synthesizer
board, and is a popular item from the
San Diego Microwave Group. For
microwave frequency experimenters,
1152 MHz is a most useful frequency,
since its harmonics can be used as a
weak-signal reference for the 2304-,
3456-, 5760-, and 10368-MHz ham
bands. Information on this board and
the modifications are listed in the
References section.

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Photo J. An inspection microscope is highly recommended for inspecting surface


mount components and looking at tiny laser-marked parts.

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Photo K. A GPS-disciplined frequency reference is a must-have for microwave
radio experiments and tests. It is connected to my microwave frequency counter
to increase accuracy.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

x{n

i>}V

< 

*Vi>

i`iVL}]6{

September 2016

CQ

57

whats new

My workbench, test equipment and projects are continuously evolving and


changing. My participation in microwave contesting has decreased over the last
few years, but building radio-related Maker Faire projects and restoring vintage
gear are filling this void. And this is one of my favorite aspects of ham radio
building and using useful or artful electronic and electro-mechanical gadgets.
Whats on your workbench these days?
73, Wayne, KH6WZ
References:
Ikea Rast 19-Inch Equipment Cabinet: <http://bit.ly/29SPQMa>
HP Z3801 GPS Standard: <http://bit.ly/29Ceu4D>
Qualcomm 1152 Synthesizer Board (and other technical articles and projects):
<http://bit.ly/29ybiIt>

SOTABEAMS Audio Filter


Modules
SOTABEAMS has added a new continuously variable audio filter module to its filter line-up: The LASERBEAM-VARI can
produce near-perfect filters from as narrow as 200 Hz up to 3500 Hz. LASERBEAM-VARI modules been designed for
ease of use by employing a single clickable rotary encoder that provides its main
functionality.
Users can click the encoder to switch
between variable bandwidth, center frequency or store setting as a power-up
default. The filters are continuously variable
and always have near perfect characteristics unattainable with conventional analog
techniques.
An LED on the module lights if the input
level is too high, making it easy to set up
your filter. The audio input is protected on
the PCB so you cant easily damage it.
The filter module will drive high-sensitivity (e.g. > 110 dB SPL/mW) earbuds directly. For higher outputs, a simple audio amplifier such as an LM380N could be added.
The modules can be used in existing
radios or as an outboard filter. For example, SOTABEAMS says they will work with
Rockmites and the popular PIXIE transceiver. And if you like stuffing transceivers
into Altoids cans, the LASERBEAM-VARI
can fit in there, too.
Whether you need passband tuning, filters for digital modes and APRS, low pass
filters or CW filters, the LASERBEAM-VARI
does it all in one compact module. Dial up
EXACTLY the filter you need. In addition,
the LASERBEAM-VARI will work with
all modes including: SSB-CW-Digi-AMNBFM. The modules come ready-built and
but do require a few external components
(supplied) for use.
SOTABEAMS says the new LASERBEAM-VARI modules are available now
with a suggested retail price of $58.44 (inc
tax for UK and Europe) or $48.70 (exc tax
outside the EU). For more information, contact: SOTABEAMS, 2nd Floor, Paradise
Mill, Park Lane, Macclesfield, SK11 6TL
UK. Phone: +44 (0) 7976 688359. Website:
<http://www.sotabeams.co.uk>.

58

CQ

September 2016

Photo L. The 1152 board is at the upper left, second row, in this picture. You can
see part of my callsign on the unit.

Photo M. A look inside the magic box. The 1152 board is a great tool for testing
microwave receivers. Its harmonics can be used for the 2304-, 3456-, 5760- and
10368-MHz ham bands.
Visit Our Web Site

Field Day
Field Day is a time-honored annual tradition in
amateur radio that takes place the fourth weekend in June. Its a 24-hour event that tests our ability as radio amateurs to set up a station and communicate using alternative power if an emergency
were to arise. Field Day also allows clubs to showcase amateur radio to the public. In fact, bonus
points are awarded to operators who pursue the
public relations aspect of the event.
While Field Day is a serious event, it can also
be a lot of fun. Field Day allows clubs to challenge other clubs in friendly competition, which
is good for amateur radio and for clubs. I believe
clubs serve as the lifeblood of ham radio and
anything that helps a club, in turn, is beneficial for
ham radio.

Throwing Down the Gauntlet


One thing that helps a club includes throwing
down the gauntlet. The phrase goes back to
medieval times when armored knights would challenge each other by throwing down ones gauntlet or armored glove.
In my neck of the woods, central Illinois, I am a
member of the Macoupin County Amateur Radio
Club, K9MCE (Photo A). About 30 miles away is
Bond County, home to the Okaw Valley Amateur
Radio Club, AD9OV (Photo B). Three years ago,
*e-mail: <ko0z@cq-amateur-radio.com>

AD9OV challenged K9MCE to a Field Day competition. Both clubs agreed to operate 3A, IL for
the 24-hour period and whichever club worked the
most stations and earned the most bonus points
would win.
Jim Thibeault, KF4NBG, of Jims Engraving,
<http://www.jimsengraving.com/>, an Okaw Valley
ARC member, agreed to make a traveling trophy
befitting our friendly club completion (Photo C). Jim
does excellent work, and I knew this trophy would
look great at our club meetings. However, the
adage the best laid plans of mice and men often
go awry comes into play. Year one almost provided K9MCE with a win. We made more QSO
points, but we lost out on some of the bonus points.
Year two, Okaw Valley handed our collective heads
back to us on the proverbial platter. Ouch!

learning curve

his months title appears to be thematically


all over the place. Nonetheless, I invite you
to read on and, hopefully, I will tie together
these seemingly unrelated topics so nicely that it
will appear to be as unified as a frequency chart
depicting audio through visible light frequencies.

BY RON OCHU,* KOZ

i` >] >`>i]>`


i-VivVi`

Gracious Winners
Both clubs agreed that the losing club president
would present the Field Day Challenge trophy to
the winning club at their clubs Christmas banquet
(Photo D). Okaw Valley could not have been more
gracious, sportsmanlike, and accommodating
hosts and winners. Our meals were paid for and
the celebratory cake (Photo E) is to die for, not
only in appearance but in taste as well.
We were not made to feel like losers; rather, quite
the opposite was true. We were made to feel welcome among friends. Sure there was some gloating, but all of it was fun in nature and very funny.
The thing is, even though Macoupin County ARC
lost, both times, we still won in that we took a look
at ourselves and our operating and we looked for
ways to improve. Likewise, Okaw Valley members
became even more energized and more contacts
were made. In the true spirit of amateur radio,
AD9OV didnt hide its winning strategy; rather, this
FB (Fine Business) ham club is more than willing

Photo A.
Macoupin
County, Illinois,
Amateur Radio
Club, K9MCE,
logo. (Courtesy
of Wikimedia
Commons)

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

CQ

59

Photo B. Okaw Valley Amateur Radio


Club, Bond County, Illinois, AD9OV,
logo. (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons)
to share. Establishing goals is worthwhile, and isnt that one of the major
themes of Field Day?

Photo C. Field Day traveling trophy made by Jims Engraving. Will 2016 be
K9MCEs year? (Photo by KOZ)

Tired of Eating Crow


Making goals is important, but I have to
admit winning would be nice. I jokingly
told my club president, Mark Kerhlikar,
WD9HBF, over the linked central Illinois
repeater system that I was tired of eating crow as we were making carpool
arrangements to Bond County to
attend, for the second time, AD9OVs
Christmas banquet. Of course, AD9OV
leaders heard the comment and when
Mark and I presented the trophy, Okaw
Valley ARC presented us with a turkey
decoy, since they werent able to procure a crow on such short notice (Photo
F). I have absolutely no doubt that, if a
crow decoy could have been found,
resourceful Okaw Valley ARC leaders
would have found one.

Never Give Up Never


Surrender
With turkey photos in tow, Mark and I
formed a club committee to take a serious look at what AD9OV was doing right
and what we at K9MCE could do to
improve our score. K9MCE club members Mark, WD9HBF; Skip, WS9V; and
I believe that when it comes to clubs,
education is the key. Our club mantra
for Field Day 2016 was taken from the
movie, Galaxy Quest, Never give up;
never surrender!
We reasoned that people dont plan
to fail; rather, they simply fail to plan.
What we discovered was that many of
our club members are Technician
licensees who needed to be introduced
to HF operations. Getting QSO (contact) rates up is important, but not as
important as getting club members

60

CQ

September 2016

Photo D. K9MCE president Mark Kerhlikar, WD9HBF, on the left, presenting the
2015 Field Day trophy to Okaw Valley ARC president Ken Norris, KK9N, during
AD9OVs 2015 Christmas banquet. (Photo by KOZ)

Photo E. AD9OVs cake is delicious. It definitely sweetens losing the FD challenge to the FB AD9OV club. More gracious winners cannot be found. (Photo
by KOZ)
Visit Our Web Site

introduced to HF. What our club needed was to strike a balance between getting rates up and getting members on
the air. Our solution was to use our Get
On The Air (GOTA) station to serve as
a mentor to the public as well as some
club members to teach them about the
wonders of HF operation. One of the
stations operating 3A would be for HF
newbies and the remaining two HF rigs
would be operated by more experienced ops such as Skip, who is a rate
junkie and a contester par excellence
(Photo G).

Club education efforts also introduced


club members on how to log using
N3FJPs FD logging software (Photo
H). We made it a point to have all three
radios operating throughout the Field
Day period and secured a tri-band Yagi
(Photo I). In addition, the club introduced PSK-31 into the mix.
Last year, K9MCE operated from an
air-conditioned building, but all of the
antennas were located on the roof and
our radios experienced front-end overload. We interfered with each other,
which lowered our Q rate. Okaw Valley

ARC has the best of all worlds; namely, a public park with an air-conditioned
building and minimal front-end overload! This year, K9MCE decided to
forgo the comforts of air-conditioning
and to stage from Girards town square.
We had plenty of room to string up
antennas and I made it my goal to equip
the club with HF bandpass filters to aid
us in reducing interference and frontend receiver overload. The thought was
that these filters would allow us to
increase QSO (contact) rates. Hopefully these planned improvements will
prove to be the charm in K9MCEs
quest to dethrone AD9OV!

Bandpass Filters

Photo F. Mark and I were tired of eating crow, so AD9OV offered turkey instead!
WD9HBF is on the left and KOZ is on the right. (Photo by KOZ)

Photo G. Pictured are Christy Tapp, KD9GKL, and Skip Riba, WS9V, operating
on 20 meters during Field Day. (Photo by KOZ)

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

Since front-end overload was a big problem for us last year, I needed to find a
solution. The simplest would be to purchase commercially made bandpass filters, but our club budget didnt allow for
that expenditure. One option would be to
make tuned bandpass stubs out of coax,
but I shied away from that because I
didnt want folks tripping over the coax
filters. Furthermore, while doing my
research, I came across a friends
September 1988 QST article entitled
Band-Pass Filters for HF Transceivers,
and I was in the mood for a worthwhile
homebrew project that would help the
club. As an added bonus, this bandpass
project could serve as a future club
homebrew night presentation.
Between the Dayton Hamvention,
my junk box, and Digi-Key Electronics,
I picked up all the parts I needed to build
Lew Gordons QST bandpass filter project. Lew, K4VX, uses a Butterworth
bandpass filter design. Photo J is a
chart depicting a bandpass curve (also
known as a skirt) produced by a
Butterworth filter. The important thing to
notice is the skirt only allows a particular range of frequencies through unattenuated and greatly reduces (attenuates) all other frequencies. Why is this
feature important? The HF bands used
for Field Day are all harmonically related. For example, 40 meters is the second harmonic of 80 meters (3.5 MHz x
2 equals 7.0 MHz). 20 meters is the second harmonic of 40 meters and 15
meters is the third harmonic of 40
meters (7.0 MHz x 3 equals 21.0 MHz).
In essence, the bandpass filter allows
the band of interest to be transmitted
and received, but any other bands are
greatly reduced in signal strength. This
allows a club with multiple transceivers
operating in close proximity to minimize
front-end overload to the receiver;
thereby, allowing club ops to log more

September 2016

CQ

61

contacts! AD9OV uses band-pass filters, so K9MCE needs to as well.

Lets Glance Under the


Bandpass Hood
A schematic variation from the Butterworth design used by K4VX in his article
is shown in Photo K. The Butterworth
bandpass filter employs a capacitor and
a toroid coil that form a resonant circuit.
The band of interest determines the
capacitor and coil values. Another toroid
coil connects the first resonant capacitor/coil pair with a second resonant pair,
thereby forming a circuit that passes the
band of interest and attenuates (reduces) all the other bands. This should
result in reduced front-end overload.
Lews article goes into much more operational-theoretical detail and offers a full
schematic diagram.

Photo H. Main screen of Scott Davis, N3FJPs, excellent Field Day software being
used by K9MCE. (Photo by KOZ)

Building Filters Using the


Scientific Method
After acquiring the needed components,

Photo I. Erecting a tri-band Yagi next to the Girard, Illinois, town square. (Photo by KOZ)

62

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

so I didnt have an easy way to determine the inductance of my homemade


toroid inductors before installing them in
the circuit.
I knew from Lews article that I could
get the toroid values close, but my pro-

WiFi Antenna Switch 4x1

Free iphone control app

www.snaptekk.com

it came time to put in some bench time.


Unfortunately, I dont have a network
analyzer on my workbench, but I do have
a dummy load and an antenna analyzer
(Photo L). My Resistance Capacitance
Inductance (RCL) bridge was on the fritz

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from anywhere!

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Photo K. A schematic
example of a
Butterworth bandpass
filter. (Photo by KOZ)

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http://store.cq-amateur-radio.com

AT
IO

Photo J. Butterworth bandpass filter skirt. Note frequencies within the skirt are
not attenuated. Very helpful to reduce interference when running a multi-transceiver station. (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons)

NAL RE

SO

Study Materials by

Gordon West, WB6NOA


with

Eric P. Nichols, KL7AJ


Photo L. An air-cooled 50-Ohm dummy-load, homebrew 40-meter Butterworth bandpass filter and an antenna analyzer were used to tune the filter. (Photo by KOZ)

Order today from...

The W5YI Group


www.w5yi.org 800-669-9594

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

CQ

63

our readers say

Joe,
I want to thank you for your wonderful pages in CQ. I have been a ham since
1959 and in the old days have built many Heathkits ... but that was a long time
ago! Your pages renewed my interest in kit building. I had no idea such possibilities existed today!
For starters, I ordered the clock kit in your January pages. For under $4 including postage, how could I go wrong? This afternoon, I put it together (see photo)
and had the thrill of it working right away!
I hope you continue with CQ as you have brought immeasurable joy to me in
my pursuit of ham radio.
73, Marv Feldman, K4KEW
Jacksonville, Florida

ject would also require trial and error


and using the scientific method. I reasoned that if one end of the band-pass
filter sees a perfect 50-ohm load when
I connect my antenna analyzer to the filter input, I should be able to tune my filter to the intended design passband by
observing when I achieved a low
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR). The antenna analyzer would also measure my
filter skirt bandwidth. Once I measured
the frequency where minimum SWR
occurred (frequency center or Fc) it
would then be possible to record the frequency where the SWR rapidly rose on
each side of the center frequency,
which would, in turn, determine my
band-pass filter skirt.
My hypothesis worked. I made my
measurements and fiddled with the wire
spacing on the toroid coils. During the
process I kept copious, detailed notes.
I carefully wrote down if I increased or
decreased the coil winding spacing. I
recorded if I removed or added any
windings to each coil and all the time I
recorded my measurements. I cant
stress enough the importance of keeping accurate notes. After a few failed
attempts of not getting the right results,
its easy to experience frustration, become confused, and forget exactly what
was done just moments earlier.
Using the scientific method requires
recording data, analyzing data, and
making adjustments to the experimental procedure. I used each and every
one of these steps numerous times to
finally achieve a workable bandpass filter (Photo M).

Skin Effect, Q and Litz Wire

Success!

The following letter was directed to Antennas Editor Kent Britain, WA5VJB,
regarding his June 2016 column on skin effect and measuring Q:

I spent almost a week fiddling around


with the filters. I made bandpass filters
for 15, 20 and 40 meters. I drilled out
the boxes, cut the circuit boards, and
soldered all the parts. I wound my own
toroid coils for each band and after plenty of adjusting and measuring, I finally
achieved success. However, my workbench is one thing; using the filters during Field Day would be another. As it
turns out, the 20-meter filter wasnt
used, but I sure needed my 40-meter
bandpass filter and it worked flawlessly! The 15-meter filter wasnt much help
on the CW portion of the band. I had
tuned it for the phone section and the
filter skirt wasnt wide enough to include
the lower end of the 15-meter band.

Holland America Still Prohibits Hamming


Editor, CQ:
In June 2016 CQ, AH6CY sets forth in his article QRP Maritime Mobile on
Cruise Ships that Holland American Line is among the Ham-Friendly Cruise
Lines. I checked with HAL yesterday since I have a December cruise scheduled with them to see if the no-hamming policy had changed. I was informed that
it had not. Also, (I learned that) the prohibition was instituted after several
instances of abuse by hams operating in ports of call from the ship against policy which resulted in complaints from the governmental communications agency
in the affected countries.
Quark Expeditions, also mentioned, charters its vessels and thus has very little influence over any ships captain and crew, who have been known to prohibit ham operations on board.
73, Mel Manning, WB3D
W2VU replies: WB3D wrote about Hamming on the High Seas in our November
2015 issue and reported on a recent policy change by Holland America Lines
that now prohibited ham operations aboard its ships. AH6CY double-checked
his reference, but got a different answer. It appears that the answer you get may
depend on who you talk to. Always remember that the final authority on radio
operation aboard a cruise ship is the ships captain.

Keep on Building
The following letter was directed to Kit-Building Editor Joe Eisenberg, KNEB:

Kent,
Very nice article. Measuring Q explanation excellent. So Q less the effect of
coax loss, meaning how the coax loss would play on the distance between the
-3dB points, yes? Would love to hear more about Litz wire.
73 and thanks, Tom Dixon, K5AX
WA5VJB replies:
Hi Tom,
Glad you liked the article. Litz wire goes back nearly 100 years when they realized surface area was as important as resistance for low-Q coils. Just about
every AM radio antenna was made out of Litz wire for many years, as were many
of the IF transformers. You often see Litz wire used in the inductor windings of
switching power supplies, but Im reluctant to make Litz wire part of a project
because it is very hard to come by these days.
You can back out coax loss when measuring the Q of an antenna, but the math
is complex. But most of the high-Q antennas are in our new (nearly-there ed.)
600-meter, 160- or 80-meter bands, where coax losses are usually pretty small.
Always good to hear from readers and always looking for topics to cover.
Good luck with your project.
Kent, WA5VJB

64

CQ

September 2016

Revision
The band-pass filters did their job and
after the heat of Field Day, I am thinking about making some improvements.
Visit Our Web Site

I want to have a circuit board that offers


a ground plane all around the components. I also want to minimize coax
lengths by spending a little extra money
on a Bud Industries project box. These
boxes have removable tops that allow
me to mount the SO-239 connectors to
the same box as the circuit board,
instead of using two box shells.

nario and we have AD9OV to thank! So,


win or lose, on many levels weve
already won. However, Id be less than
honest if I didnt admit that Id love to

see the 2016 Field Day pin on the


K9MCE side of the trophy! Thank you
for reading CQ and I hope to hear you
on the air.
73 de Ron, KOZ

Is the Third Time a Charm?


As this article is being written, its too
early to tell. Results from the ARRL still
have not been published and will take
more time. In the meantime, suffice it to
say that K9MCE put out its best Field
Day effort yet. Many of the clubs goals
were met: Three transceivers were on
the air for almost the entire period, we
had a respectable GOTA station where
club members learned more about
PSK-31, CW, and phone. We made a
satellite QSO and we got new club
members to operate HF. K9MCE also
earned its highest point score to date as
a club. A good public relations effort was
made and the local community was able
to see amateur radio in action. AD9OV
puts out this level all the time and, in
many ways, its an honor to be challenged by this FB club. As a club,
K9MCE has grown technically and its
more operational. Its a win-win sce-

Photo M. A look under the hood of the homebrewed 40-meter bandpass filter.
(Photo by KOZ)

Photo N. K9MCEs 2016 Field Day ops. (Photo by KOZ)

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

CQ

65

BY DON ROTOLO,* N2IRZ

digital connection

>}*Vi7
iiJf/}7
f you own anything, you know that things sometimes dont work right. This months column is
about diagnosis, the process of finding whats
wrong. Fixing it is a different issue, and I really
cant help much with that, but if you know whats
wrong, you can then decide if you want to (or can)
make repairs.
The process is actually quite simple and many
of us practice it without realizing it can be reduced
to a formal process, making it easier to do. To better understand it, I will introduce some terms that
may seem odd when discussing diagnosis, but will
make perfect sense in a few minutes.

The Game
The game is just a name for the exact symptoms
youre experiencing. This could be as simple as
it does not switch on, or as complicated as a
packet link that seems to function only when it
wants to. What is important here is to really dig
deep and understand all of the symptoms clearly
and in context: What is supposed to be happening, and what is actually happening?
When you start out on a diagnosis, you probably know only a part of the game. For example,
you can see that the system powers up, but then
doesnt operate as expected. Which functions are
not operating? Which functions are? Are those
really operating correctly? The key here is to systematically try every possibility, to identify all the
items that are OK and all the items that are not.
This isnt as easy as it sounds, because it
assumes that you know how it is supposed to work
and how to see if everything is working the way it
is supposed to. For many items, like a desk lamp,
youre probably pretty safe in your understanding
of its operation, but for complex systems like a
modern transceiver or, say, your cars engine
management system you need to find a source
of the needed information, and study it. The goal
is to really know what this thing is supposed to do
a complete list of all symptoms.

The Players
The next concept is that of players. If were watching soccer, we know the game, and if one of the
players isnt working perhaps the goalie is chasing a butterfly we can all spot it easily and come
up with a solution, such as calling in a substitution.
If my transceiver isnt powering up, the players
might be the power supply, the fuse, the wiring, or
the power switch. Players is a name for the components involved in the game.
Finding the players takes some work, and at first
you might not know all of the possible players
involved. You have to know I mean really know
how the thing works, or youll be shooting in the
dark. For an electronic device, its essential to get
* c/o CQ magazine
e-mail: <N2IRZ@cq-amateur-radio.com>

66

CQ

September 2016

a schematic diagram of the circuitry. Even if thats


not possible again, think of the engine management system in your car you can still at least
determine if the black box is at fault or some
external sensor or device is causing the problem.
Well get back to players in a moment.

Tests: Return on Investment


Once you really know the game, and have definitively identified the players, you then can come up
with tests to identify which specific player is at fault.
In a desk lamp, the players include the AC plug,
the wiring, the socket and switch, and the bulb,
and of course the AC power supply itself. Surely
any of us can come up with tests to identify exactly which of these players is not operating properly; a Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter (VOM) might be helpful here.
Before starting on testing, we should first determine which test is the easiest to perform, and which
tests will eliminate (or condemn) the largest number of players. The goal here is to be as efficient as
possible that is, deliver the greatest return (of
diagnosis information) on our investment of diagnosis effort. In this case, I would unplug the lamp
and connect the Ohmmeter across the AC plug
prongs. Switching the lamp on, I expect to see about
zero Ohms. If I do, then the AC power is suspect;
if I dont, the next easiest thing to check is the bulb.
Ill unscrew it and measure its resistance, expecting to see about zero Ohms again. Taking it to its
logical conclusion, Ill check everything and compare my measurement to what I expect to measure.
If I find some deviation, Ill need to explain it and
determine if the component is really faulty or if my
test or test expectations are faulty.
The theory here is that if you know all the symptoms (including what IS working) and really know
how the thing works, you can use logic to determine which component, or player, is at fault. In
complex systems, it may be that several players
have a role so in these (typical) instances, so we
devise tests to eliminate from consideration as
many players as possible: The greatest effect for
the least effort.

More on Players
Identifying the game is often a challenge, but identifying the players is THE challenge in any diagnosis. It is essentially a list of every component
that could possibly cause the symptoms observed.
When first practicing the diagnosis process I am
describing, it is valuable to list each and every player so they are easier to keep track of. These can
be checked off as we perform tests, and if we eliminate everything thats working fine, were left with
what must be broken, right?
In some cases, we cant identify the players
because we dont have the information we need.
While the internet is a wonderful resource, it
doesnt have everything, like a schematic for my
Visit Our Web Site

ancient (1971) Lafayette Radio Electronics LA-125B stereo amplifier. Well,


I just looked and, actually, it does. But
lets ignore that inconvenient fact. In the
cases where you cant get a schematic, you may have to create one: It is just
a diagram of how all those parts are connected, and you have the whole thing,
fully assembled, right in front of you.
Sometimes you can compare a known
good system to the faulty one, do more
research on the internet and find something similar, or even just poke around
blindly...but dont expect much.
Or, of course, you can just chuck it in
the trash and get a new one.

FMEA
Once you do figure out how everything
relates to everything else, you then need
to understand, really understand, what
each components effect will be on the
systems function. In the engineering
world, there is a process called FMEA, or
Failure Mode Effects Analysis. Each
components possible failure modes are
all analyzed, in a thorough and comprehensive process, and the effect of each
and every failure mode of each and every
component is determined and documented. The goal is not to build the most
awesome list of symptoms and their
responsible components (wouldnt that
be nice?), but to identify anything dangerous that might happen, and redesign
the product so it is safer or more reliable
or more whatever goal the designer might
have. This is common practice for product liability and most every design engineer does it, although some companies
are less formal about it than others.
The players list is that FMEA, just in
reverse. It may take knowledge of components, systems, design, and more to
get from symptoms to components. It
was easy in our lamp example, but what
about that stereo audio amplifier? I hate
to say it, but there will be cases in which
you are simply not qualified to diagnose
something. If you have the schematic
and still cant figure out how it works,
either learn or let someone else fix it.
Now that doesnt mean you cant give
it a try, but dont expect 100% success.
In those cases where you ARE qualified, then 100% is absolutely expected.
When starting a diagnosis on a complex system, it helps to lump many players together, since identifying them individually can be tedious.
Lets look at the schematic section in
Figure 1, which is the power output
stage of a Lafayette Radio Electronics
stereo receiver from 1971. Very conveniently, the designer provides expected
voltage readings at several key locawww.cq-amateur-radio.com

announcements (from page 2)


GREENSBORO, NORTH CAROLINA The Qorvo
Amateur Radio Club will hold Freegate 2016 Saturday,
September 24 at the Qorvo Headquarters, 7628 Thorndike
Rd. Contact: QARC, 7628 Thorndike Road, Greensboro, NC
27409. Email: <info@kd4rf.org>. Talk-in 145.250 (PL 88.5).
HORSEHEADS, NEW YORK The Amateur Radio
Association of the Southern Tier Inc. will hold the 41st
Annual Elmira International Hamfest/Computerfest
Saturday, September 24 at the Chemung County
Fairgrounds. Contact: ARAST Inc., P.O. Box 614, Horseheads, NY 14845-0614. Phone: (607) 301-0040. Website:
<http://www.arast.org>. Talk-in 147.360+ or 146.700-.
VE exams.
JOHNSON, NEBRASKA The Southeast Nebraska
Radio Club (aka Southeast Nebraska Amateur Radio
Club) will air special event station KC from 1500-2100 UTC
Saturday, September 24 and from 1500-1900 UTC, Sunday,
September 25 to celebrate their 80th Anniversary. Frequencies include 14.230 and 7.180. Contact: Chuck Bennett,
KDPTK, (402) 310-5003. Email: <kd0ptk@gmail.com>.
PENSACOLA, FLORIDA The Five Flags Amateur
Radio Association will hold the Pensacola Hamfest
Saturday, September 24 at the Pensacola Fair Grounds.
Contact: Dave, WA2MVH, (850) 393-0836. Email: <pensacolahamfest@gmail.com>. Website: <http://www.w4uc.
org>. Talk-in 146.760- (PL 100). VE exams and DXCC card
checking.
RICHMOND, KENTUCKY The Central Kentucky
Amateur Radio Society will hold the Richmond Hamfest
Saturday, September 24 at the Madison County Fairgrounds.
Contact: Mike Rogers, KE4ISW, 144 Allen Douglas Drive,
Richmond, KY 40475. Phone: (859) 575-2199. Website:
<http://www.ckars.org>. VE exams.
SAN FELIPE, TEXAS The Stephen F. Austin Radio
Club will air special event station W5SFA Saturday,
September 24 and Sunday, September 25. Frequencies
include 14.240 and 7.240 (SSB) and 14.070 (PSK31).
Website: <http://www.w5sfa.org>.
SPOKANE VALLEY, WASHINGTON The Inland
Empire VHF Radio Amateurs, Kamiak Butte Amateur
Repeater Association, Northwest Tri-State ARO,
Spokane DX Association, Palouse Hills ARC, and
University High School ARC will hold the Spokane
Hamfest and 2016 ARRL Washington State Convention
Saturday, September 24 at University High School. Contact:
Betsy Ashleman, N7WRQ, (509) 448-5821. Email:
<n7wrq@aol.com>. Website: <http://www.kbara.org>. Talkin 147.38. VE exams.
WEST FARGO, NORTH DAKOTA The Red River
Radio Amateurs will hold the RRRA Hamfest and 2016
ARRL North Dakota State Convention Saturday, September
24 at the RRV Fairgrounds Hartl Building. Contact: WHNV
<wb0dsf@gmail.com>. Website: <http://rrra.org>.
WYOMING, MICHIGAN The Grand Rapids Amateur
Radio Association will hold the GRAHamfest 2016
Saturday, September 24 at The Home School Building.
Contact: KC8NKA, (616) 531-6218. Website: <http://
www.w8dc.org>. Talk-in 147.26+ (PL 94.8). VE exams.
BEREA, OHIO The Hamfest Association of
Cleveland Inc. will hold the 2016 Cleveland Hamfest and
Computer Show Sunday, September 25 at the Cuyahoga
County Fairgrounds. Contact: Hamfest Association of
Cleveland, Inc., P.O. Box 81252, Cleveland, OH 44181-0252.
Phone: (800) CLE-FEST. Website: <http://www.hac.org>.
Talk-in 146.73- (PL 110.9) or 444.900+ (PL 131.8). VE exams
and DXCC/WAS/VUCC card checking.

OCTOBER
BELTON, TEXAS The Temple Amateur Radio Club
will hold HamEXPO Fall 2016 The Belton Hamfest
Saturday, October 1 at the Bell County EXPO Center. Email:
<expo@tarc.org>. Website: <http://www.beltonhamexpo
.org>. Talk-in 146.820- (PL 123).
BOWLING GREEN, KENTUCKY The Kentucky
Colonels Amateur Radio Club will hold the Vette City
Hamfest Saturday, October 1 at the Sloan Convention
Center. Contact: Ed Gann, N4HID, (270) 843-8911. Email:
<edwardgann@twc.com>. Website: <http://www.vettecityhamfest.com> or <kcaraonline.com>. Talk-in 147.33 (PL
107.2). VE exams and DXCC/WAS card checking.
LAKESIDE, CALIFORNIA The Lakeside Amateur
Radio Club will hold the San Diego Hamfest 2016 Saturday,
October 1 at the Lakeside Rodeo Grounds. Website: <http://
www.sdhamfest.org>. VE exams.
ROCK HILL, SOUTH CAROLINA The York County
Amateur Radio Society will hold the 64th Annual Rock Hill
Hamfest Saturday, October 1 at the New Kirk Baptist Church.
Contact: Brent, K4BSC, (803) 230-5305. Email: <k4bsc@
arrl.net>. Talk-in 147.030- (PL 88.5). VE exams.
LONGMONT, COLORADO The Boulder Amateur
Radio Club will hold the 62nd Annual BARCfest Hamfest
Sunday, October 2 at the Boulder County Fairgrounds,
Exhibit Building. Contact: Mike, W3DIF, (303) 404-2161.
Email: <barc70@arrl.net>. Website: <http://www.qsl.net/
w0dk>. VE exams.
WEST LIBERTY, IOWA The Muscatine and Washington Area Amateur Radio Clubs will hold the Southeast
Iowa Hamfest Sunday, October 2 at the Muscatine County
Fairgrounds. Contact: Bob Weatherman, KDSVH, 408
Chestnut Street, Muscatine, IA 52761. Phone: (563) 506-

3390. Website: <http://www.waarc.net>. Talk-in 146.31+,


146.25+ (PL 192.8). VE exams and DXCC/VUCC/WAS/WAC
card checking.
BEND, OREGON The Pacific Northwest VHF Society
will hold the 22nd Annual Pacific Northwest VHF-UHFMicrowave Conference Friday, October 7 and Saturday,
October 8 at the Shiloh Inn Suites Hotel. Contact: Jim, K7ND,
<secretary@pnwvhfs.org>. Website: <http://pnwvhfs.org>.
VUCC card checking.
MELBOURNE, FLORIDA The Platinum Coast Amateur Radio Society will hold the 51st Annual Melbourne
Hamfest and 2016 ARRL Florida State Convention Friday,
October 7 and Saturday, October 8 at the Melbourne
Auditorium. Contact: PCARS Melbourne Hamfest, P.O. Box
1004, Melbourne FL 32902-1004. Email: <hamfest@
pcars.org>. Website: <http://pcars.org>. Talk-in 146.25+. VE
exams.
BREMERTON, WASHINGTON The Kitsap County
Amateur Radio Club will hold the KCARC Hamfest
Saturday, October 8 at the Filipino-American Community
Center. Email: <hamfest@kcarc.org>.
TOWAMENCIN TOWNSHIP, PENNSYLVNIA Special
event station W3T will air from Saturday, October 8 through
Sunday, October 16. Frequencies include 7.030 (CW). QSL
to Frank Gallo, 106 Tweed Way, Harleysville, PA 19438.
Phone: (215) 272-9088. Website: <http://www.qrz.com/
db/w3t>.
TOWNSHIP OF WASHINGTON, NEW JERSEY The
Bergen Amateur Radio Association will hold the BARA
Fall Hamfest Saturday, October 8 at Westwood Regional
High School. Contact: Jim Joyce, K2ZO, (201) 664-6725.
Email: <k2zo@arrl.net>. Website: <http://www.bara.org>.
Talk-in 146.19+ (PL 141.3). VE exams and DXCC card
checking.
FLUSHING, NEW YORK The Hall of Science
Amateur Radio Club will hold its Semi-Annual Hamfest
and Electronics Bazaar Sunday, October 9 at the New York
Hall of Science. Contact: Steve Greenbaum, WB2KDG, (718)
898-5599 (evenings only). Email: <wb2kdg@arrl.net>.
Website: <http://www.hosarc.org>. Talk-in 145.270- (PL
136.5) or 444.200+ (PL 136.5). VE exams.
HUBERTUS, WISCONSIN The Southeastern
Wisconsin FM Amateur Repeater Society will hold its
Swapfest Sunday, October 9 at the Sterling Chalet. Contact:
SEWFARS Swapfest P.O. Box 105, Eagle, WI 53119. Phone:
(262) 742-4903. Email: <sewfars@hotmail.com>. Website:
<http://www.sewfars.com>. Talk-in 146.82- (PL 127.3).
WEST FRIENDSHIP, MARYLAND The Columbia
Amateur Radio Association will hold the 2016 CARAFest
Sunday, October 9 at the Howard County Fairgrounds.
Contact: David Parkison, KB3VDY, (443) 492-9501. Email:
<vendorsales@carafest.org> or <info@carafest.org>. Website: <http://www.carafest.org>. VE exams and card checking.
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI The Saint Louis Area
Microwave Society will hold the Microwave Update 2016
Thursday, October 13 through Sunday, October 16 at the
Holiday Inn Airport West. Email: <mud2016.info@
gmail.com>. Website: <http://www.microwaveupdate.org>.
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA The Mt. Diablo Amateur
Radio Club will hold Pacificon 16 and the 2016 ARRL
Pacific Division Convention Friday, October 14 through
Sunday, October 16 at the San Ramon Marriott Hotel.
Contact: Pacificon 2016 P.O. Box 31372, Walnut Creek,
CA 94598. Phone: (925) 778-8977. Email: <info@
pacificon.org>. Website: <http://www.pacificon.org>. Talk-in
147.060+ (PL 100) or 145.390- (PL 100). VE exams.
LIMA, OHIO The Northwest Ohio Amateur Radio
Club will hold its Fall Hamfest Saturday, October 15 at the
Allen County Fairgrounds. Contact: Dick, N8IJ, (419) 2317277. VE exams.
BELTON, MISSOURI The SouthSide Amateur Radio
Club will hold its SouthSide Hamfest Saturday, October 15
at the St. Sabina Catholic Church. Contact: SSARC, P.O.
Box 701, Grandview, MO 64030. Email: <southsidearc@hotmail.com>. Website: <http://www.southsidehamfest.com>.
Talk-in 147.12+ (PL 151.4). VE exams.
GREENVILLE, TENNESSEE The Andrew Johnson
Amateur Radio Club will hold the 4th Annual Greenville
TN Hamfest Saturday, October 15 at the Greene County fairgrounds. Contact: Bob Etheredge, KM4EBZ, <km4ebz
@greenvillehamfest.com>. Website: <http://greenville
hamfest.com>.
MUSKEGON, MICHIGAN The Muskegon Area
Amateur Radio Council and Muskegon County RACES
will hold the 5th Annual Muskegon Color Tour Hamfest
Saturday, October 15 at the Fellowship Reformed Church.
Contact: Jim Durham (231) 638-7010. Website: <http://
www.muskegoncolortourhamfest.com>. Talk-in 146.820 (PL
94.8). VE exams.
POOLER, GEORGIA The Coastal Amateur Radio
Society will hold its 2016 Tailgate & Swapmeet Saturday,
October 15 at the Savannah Airport Facility. Website:
<http://coastalamateurradiosociety.net>.
SOCORRO, NEW MEXICO The Socorro Amateur
Radio Association, Tech Amateur Radio Association,
City of Socorro, Yaesu, and the Vertu Fine Arts Gallery
will hold the 2016 Socorro Hamfest Saturday, October 15
at the NM Fire Fighters Academy. Contact: Al Braun, AC5BX,
(575) 835-3456. Email: <hamfest@socorroara.org>. Website: <http://socorroara.org>. Talk-in 146.68- (PL 100) or
444.500 (055A). VE exams.

September 2016

CQ

67

68

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

tions. In this case, the game was highly distorted output from the left
channel, but the right channel was fine.
I could safely assume the power source
and supply were both fine, so I named
each individual board as a player. I
probed for signal using an oscilloscope
along the signal path, starting at the output. I lost signal at Q2s output nice
to find it so quickly. As I poked further,
I found that there was no +30 V at Q2s
base, meaning the transistor was not
biased properly and therefore could not
amplify. It turns out the diode D301L had
failed open-circuit, removing the path
for the bias voltage.
Now, had I not understood transistor
biasing and output stage design, Id
never know where to look. I could poke
around, but might have replaced the big
2SA485Y pre-driver transistor, thinking
it was faulty a failed diagnosis. It is
important to keep going until you find
the actual smoking gun, and not just
assume you have the failed part.
The last step for me was to figure out
why that diode had failed no sense
replacing it if it was just going to happen again. Unfortunately, I could not
find a cause. The diode case looked
fine, so it wasnt overloaded. Maybe it
just went bad after 45 years?

line is that I use this system for everything, from washing machines to cars,
and rarely do I buy a part or make a repair
that doesnt fix the problem. I call it being
smart when I talk to the neighbors, but
you can easily see its because I am a
cheapskate ham radio operator.
If youre reading this before midSeptember, and youre within travel distance of Florida, I urge you to make
plans to attend the 2016 ARRL/TAPR
Digital Communications Conference, at
the Hilton St. Petersburg Bayfront hotel
in St. Petersburg on September 16-18,
2016. This is the digital amateur radio

worlds 35th annual get-together, where


all the latest and greatest ideas come
together. Presentations are given Friday and Saturday at all levels, from
basic introductory to over-my-head
expert advanced, and the informal discussions at the bar, at the social, and at
the banquet can go well into the evening. Sundays are reserved for in-depth
seminars on various topics. Visit
<https://www.tapr.org/dcc.html> for details as they are posted.
If theres a topic youd like to see here,
drop me a line. Always glad to hear from
you.
Until next time, 73 de N2IRZ

For 50 years
our volunteers have
endured long hours
and tough
working conditions
for no pay.

Systems
My focus is on electronics, but this concept applies to any system. If my faucet
is leaking, its most likely the washer,
but a crack in the housing is another
player. The closet door that doesnt
latch closed could be a bad latch, or the
wood moved just enough from humidity that the strike plate is misaligned. If
the ADRO node in Blackwood isnt talking to SKIP in Chapel Hill, it could be
the radios, antennas, or TNC, so a quick
listen on the air might be a quick and
easy test for starters. The key is knowing the game, identifying the players,
and understanding how they work
together as a team.
I hope I have explained this all in a way
you can understand and use. Feel free
to write with questions. But the bottom
Figure 1: The output stage of an ancient
Lafayette stereo receiver. If you can
understand the information shown, and
explain why not having +30 V at the
base of Q2 (arrow) is a problem, youre
qualified to diagnose this item. But even
if you cant, a clear description of the
symptoms and a list of possible causes
will go a long way towards finding a
problem even outside the electronics world. See the text to find which
component was found to be bad.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

And 9 out of 10
would do it again.
TO FIND OUT WHY
contact

REACT International, Inc.


(301) 316-2900 (866) REACT-9-9
P.O. Box 21064, Glendale, CA 91221
REACT.HQ@REACTintl.org

www.REACTintl.org
September 2016

CQ

69

CORY GB SICKLES, WA3UVV

off the air

`v> > >q


>>i>
i
art of this column had originally been titled
The Future of Hara and discussed the challenges faced in recent years by the owners
of Hara Arena, their promises of renovations and
speculation about the ability of the Wampler family to keep the facility open. But on July 29, as this
issue was about to head to the printer, 2017 Dayton
Hamvention General Chairman Ron Cramer let
the ham world know that Hara Arena would be closing. "We have begun execution of our contingency
plan to move Hamvention 2017 to a new home,"
he wrote.
Cramer added that Hamvention officials have
spent many hours over the last few years evaluating possible locations in the event that Hara
became unavailable, adding that they have found
one in the area we believe will be a great new
home. A formal announcement would be forthcoming soon, he added, noting that visitors should
rest assured we will have the event on the same
weekend and, since it will be in the region, the current accommodations and outside events planned
for Hamvention 2017 should not be affected.
Its important to keep in mind that organizing and
running what is effectively Ham Radios Super
Bowl is a Herculean task that is taken on each
year by members of DARA (Dayton Amateur Radio
Association). Planning for the next Hamvention
begins as the current one comes to a close much
like the real Super Bowl. In addition, DARA does
not own Hara and has no control over the facility.
Through social media sites and online forums, its
much too easy to condemn and criticize DARAs
efforts and the individuals who strive to make things
happen. However, these men and women continue to get the job done each and every year. They
deserve our support and positive encouragement
before, during and after everythings been buttoned up for another year. I had not been to Dayton
in a number of years, but Im glad I was able to
make it this year. Hopefully, Ill see some of you
there in 2017 wherever there happens to be.
CQ will keep you posted on future developments,
both here in the magazine and in our online CQ
Newsroom (http://cqnewsroom.blogspot.com).

73 to AES
Also in the news from Ohio (as well as Wisconsin,
Nevada and Florida) was the announcement in
early July that Amateur Electronic Supply would be
closing at the end of the month. AES was around
long before I became a ham and at one time, was
the largest (in number of stores) retailer of ham
radio gear. At one time, I used to order quite a
number of things from them and still have a col*e-mail: <wa3uvv@gmail.com>

70

CQ

September 2016

lection of catalogs from years past. Also, many of


their closeout deals were just too good to pass up.
When I moved to South Jersey and Ham Radio
Outlet opened a store in nearby New Castle,
Delaware some two decades ago I ended up
buying most things from them, as they became the
home team. HRO has long been the largest ham
retailer, with more than a dozen locations and a
well-honed online presence.
I will be among those who will miss AES, even
though I wasnt much of a customer in recent times.
Whatever good news comes out of this, I noted that
the number of ham radio retail locations has been
on an increase. While the absence of AES will be
felt in the short term, there are many dealers out
there with good customer service records that will
pick up new business and possibly expand further.
That said, it would appear that the business side
of amateur radio is in good health overall, even if
we give pause at the passing of an old friend.
7E NOW RETURN YOU TO OUR PREVIOUSLY SCHED
ULEDCOLUMNx

My Inbox Runneth Over


In the early days of television, there was an upand-coming visionary by the name of Ernie Kovacs.
While hosting Three to Get Ready an early
morning program on Philadelphias WPTZ-TV
(channel 3s predecessor to KYW) he one day
became irritated that one of the shows members
had probably slept in. In an impulsive moment, he
wrote down the telephone number of this person
and held it to camera, asking for audience members to call and wake the person up.
Apparently, hundreds of viewers did so. This
accomplished several things: Waking up the sleeping staff member, giving Kovacs some inner satisfaction while driving home a point of workplace
punctuality, and giving station management some
idea of just how many people were watching the
program. In the very early 1950s there were
reportedly more interactive viewers than some
previously thought there were television receivers
in the Philadelphia area.
In my last Off the Air column, I recounted my
experiences in trying to participate in a CW contest and some of the frustrations I encountered,
including one outstanding insult QRQ LID.
While my writings were not an attempt to channel
the late Mr. Kovacs, it did let me know that many
of you read this column. The feedback I received
was incredible! As I like to respond personally to
each communication I get, it took me a while to get
back to everyone. Hopefully, Ill be caught up by
the time you read this.
While there was one ham who mistakenly thought
I was a contest hater, I pointed out that I was
Visit Our Web Site

in fact trying to actively participate in a contest, not avoid


it. Another thought that before I tried to play with the big
boys, I should get my CW speed up even higher, plus also
helpfully pointed out the existence of contest simulating software thinking that might assist me in getting ready to give
it another try.
Out of the others, a few streams of consciousness emerged.
Almost universally expressed was the idea that no radio amateur should ever have behaved on the air the way Mr. Lid
did. I think we can all agree on that.
In addition, I was educated on the particulars of how many
high-speed CW contest operators are sending and receiving
code. Instead of paddles, a bug, or straight key, the keys they
might well be using are those found on a keyboard. One of
the things I enjoy about CW is the tactile aspect allowing
me to feel the characters and words Im sending. You dont
quite get that experience from a QWERTY keyboard.
Moreover, some of the software available reduces contacts
even further, to just a few mouse clicks. Thats highly efficient for banging out contacts, but it does reduce the experience to essentially that of a RTTY terminal. It certainly
accounts for some of the speeds youll hear in a CW contest, though.
The other overwhelming thread included those in support
of CW Ops CW Academy. Many who wrote were graduates
of at least one of their classes and sang the praises of this
organization with great enthusiasm. A couple of them were
even members of the class I was in. Overall, the responses
were positive and supportive, while making it obvious that I
had provoked some meaningful thought.
For now, I think Ill leave my attempts at contesting to voice
operation (maybe with some RTTY or PSK thrown in) and
my CW operation for more fun pursuits.

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

In last months and this months issue, I devoted my


Emergency Communications columns to a look back at this
years Dayton Hamvention. There are many things one can
experience there: New gear, a vast flea market, meeting manufacturers representatives, and rubbing elbows with some
famous hams. Its also an excellent opportunity to have some
in-depth conversations with other everyday hams, while
exchanging knowledge and perspective.
Many of us tend to look for isolated empty seats with more
empty seats around them, when sitting down near strangers.
I tend to find places to sit where Ill be close to others, especially at locations like the Hamvention. With an energy bar in
my bag and a cold bottle of water in hand, I was able to tune
the tables and find spots close to others, at non-peak times.
This resulted in some enjoyable conversations with other hams
from various walks of life. We had the opportunity to share
insights into concerns we had about amateur radio, our clubs,
and where wed like to see things go or continue to go.
In addition, I made sure to visit the booths sponsored by
amateur radio organizations that are outside the United
States, such as Germany, England, Qatar, Japan, and
Canada. Here too, you can find opportunities to talk at length
with hams from different parts of the globe, who operate
through a different set of parameters. It can help put certain
things in perspective, with a nice exchange of points of view.
There are also some edutaining sessions that may pique
your curiosity some more than others. The System Fusion
forum, for example, was packed with a standing room only
crowd that extended well into the rear and side hallways.
While theres usually time for specific questions following a
presentation, visits to manufacturers and special interest
organizations booths can also be time well spent with
one-on-one attention.

September 2016

CQ

71

BY ROB de SANTOS,* K8RKD

communications horizons

i"/ii
The Uncertain State of Audience Measurement
s you sit in front of your rig, do you ever wonder if anyone hears you? Of course, if you get
an answer to your CQ, you certainly know. But
what if you are a broadcaster, streamer, etc.? In that
case, the answer might determine whether you continue to broadcast and even more importantly, if you
generate any revenue as a result. The answer has
always been murky and in spite of great technology,
it might be getting even murkier.

The Gist of the Problem


When broadcasters send out signals, most have a goal
of reaching as many listeners or viewers as possible
in whatever medium and subject matter they have chosen. More is (usually) better. There are a variety of
potential roadblocks to this. Some are intrinsic to the
medium. You will reach different potential numbers
based on the characteristics of the medium. Shortwave is different from FM. FM is different from cable
TV. Cable TV is different from internet streams. This
seems fairly obvious. There are also characteristics
that might be imposed from outside. For example, the
FCC might grant you a license to broadcast on a particular radio frequency. It wont let you use as much
power as you want. No 500,000-watt torches allowed.
How do you measure your audience? More precisely, can you count the number of listeners at any
particular moment in time? What do you know about
them? Are they male or female? 23 or 57? Do they
speak English or French? Do they live in Colorado or
Mozambique? These questions might simply tell you
if you are reaching the right people. They might also
impact how much an advertiser will pay to reach your
audience.

What Hath Technology Wrought?


Some of the current disruption is the result of the pace
of technological change. Lets consider the measurement of radio audiences for local AM and FM stations. In the past, they had one signal or two, typically
sent out from one transmitter site to a reasonably welldefined geographic area determined by their antenna configuration and power. Consequently, a measurement service such as Nielsen or Arbitron (Nielsen
acquired Arbitron a few years ago) could send out log
sheets (called diaries in their terminology). A selected sample of listeners would fill these out as the week
went along and send them in. They did measurements every month or quarter and tallied everything
up for the listening area and voila! A number (the rating) was produced, telling the station and its advertisers how many people were listening at any quarter of an hour during the week.
Email: <commhorizons@gmail.com>
Twitter: @shuttleman58

72

CQ

September 2016

Of course, in reality, the system is fraught with problems. For starters, people are generally pretty poor at
logging such things on a continual basis all week. They
forget, get distracted, and some just make up the
answers. Another problem was sample size. As any
statistician will tell you, if your sample size is too small,
the answers have large margins of error. This often
meant that a rating number could shift from month to
month based only on the change in two or three diaries
in one city. Nevertheless, the system worked well
enough that stations and advertisers were happy to
make decisions based on the numbers.
Along came cars. Not a big disruption but it took some
adjustment and for a while, the traditional diary system continued. With home computers and the internet,
along came streaming. Not just another way to listen
but very hard to measure. Do you count each stream
as one listener? These days the stream may go to a
TV, a Sonos speaker, a smartphone, a car, etc. Do all
of the steams get counted the same way? Are streaming listeners equivalent to broadcast listeners? There
is little consensus some two decades after the first
streamed broadcasts. To further complicate matters,
there are services such as Pandora and Spotify and
non-music services such as podcasts. How do we
measure these in relation to broadcasters?
The industry answer thus far is the personal measurement device. You carry this around and it logs
what it hears for a week, then you turn it in. It functions based on detecting an inaudible signal added
to the broadcast that identifies the source. Much more
accurate than a diary and capable of taking measurements much more often than every 15 minutes.
Accuracy is debatable, though, for new reasons.
Background noise and interference are issues. Most
concepts depend on noting only if a listener hears a
source for at least some minimal interval, say a
minute, to avoid rapid channel switches. The inaudible signal might also be compromised if the signal is
transcoded in other words, changed from one format to another, e.g. AAC to MP3. When that happens,
the inaudible signal is destroyed, and the personal
device registers an unrecognizable signal and no
credit is given to the station broadcasting the signal.
You also have services such as the purely streamed,
which are not counted by Nielsen or its metering
device and therefore not included.
To combat some of these issues and to ensure the
signal was more detectable for broadcasters, one
company introduced a device to clarify and amplify
that subaudible signal and hopefully not disrupt the
listener. Enter the Voltair from Telos Alliance. Almost
immediately, early customers of Voltair reported
gains in their ratings. Nielsen was not happy and in
less than a year, modified its system in response and
threatened stations that used Voltair with the loss of
the license to use Nielsen equipment in their signal.
Visit Our Web Site

The battle rages on, but seems to be at a quiet truce. Stations


continue to use Voltair.

Television Noise
Like radio, television has seen disruption. Cable and satellite TV represented the first big disruption. Nielsen adapted,
as with radio, by adding other means to measure what channel the TV was tuned to and by adding live surveys and other
techniques. As a result, Nielsen now uses small boxes it
inserts into the video stream to the TV in major markets.
Smaller markets still use diaries. As cable and satellite have
evolved, providers quickly learned that they could monitor
and determine what channel their set top boxes were tuned
to at any moment. Not that they readily share this data with
Nielsen unless cash changes hands.
The biggest issue facing TV ratings is the sample size problem. In the U.S., there are about 110 million homes with televisions (give or take a few million and depending who is asking and when). There are at least 500 channels readily
available. If a station gets a rating of 1.0 for a program, it
means that 1 person in 100 in the sample was watching. The
average rating now for a primetime program on a traditional
network such as CBS or NBC averages from 0.5 to 1.5 and
occasionally up to 2.5. In the 1950s the ratings often were
as high as 50 or 60.
Lets say we sample 30,000 at any time. A rating of 0.1
implies 30 viewers and many cable networks have ratings of
0.1 at any moment. As few as five or 10 viewers changing
the channel at any moment could shift their ratings. Even
Nielsen, when pressed, will acknowledge that ratings down
in the tenths of a point have error margins larger than the rating. In other words, the ratings are statistically insignificant,
and no one really knows how many are tuned in. In smaller
TV markets the numbers are even more unreliable. You might
be able to cross validate against cable or satellite set box
numbers, but so far no one has publicly acknowledged that
this is being done.
The advent of the DVR has meant steady growth in
delayed viewing. If a program is viewed three days or a
week or a month later, is that the same? Are viewers fast forwarding through the commercials? While the artists or producers might want to know how many watched their program,
the advertisers only care how many watch the commercials.
At the moment, except for the overnight ratings, most television is rated based on live or live plus three days.
Nielsen has had a near monopoly on ratings for many years.
It remains the only ratings service that some large advertising agencies will accept. However, it now has competition
from such companies as comScore. Some cable companies
are also marketing their data.
Alternatives to traditional TV such as Roku and Apple TV
present another dilemma. At present, if you watch the CBS
Evening News or a network program via one of these devices,
you are probably not counted in the ratings. Yet, for many
programs, this may now represent a significant share of the
audience. In the past year, several series which would have
been expected not have been renewed for another season,
got a reprieve based on evidence of viewing via non-traditional means or high numbers for delayed viewing.

International Broadcasting
We are constantly reminded that we live in an instant, global planet. Its true that news has never traveled faster or farther than it does today. What hasnt expanded is international
broadcasting, at least not as it might have. Shortwave con-

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

tinues to shrink and has always been plagued by little ability to measure its audience at all. The big boys such as BBC
have done some surveys but at best these give you gross
measurements of people who heard something you distributed at some point in any given week or month. Without doubt,
a major reason for the decline has been the historical confluence of factors such as poor audience measurement, the
rise of the internet, and the ubiquity of television.
To the extent there is international television, it seems limited to a few news channels such as CNN, the BBC, and
smaller competitors such as France 24, Russia Today, etc.
Its not clear now they are measuring the audience and at
present seem to be satisfied with making revenue on a country by country basis with the hope that they can profit in the
big markets and not lose too much in the smaller ones.

Where Do We Go From Here?


If you are a broadcaster, these are uncertain times. Technology has introduced competition and changed distribution.
The market has become more fragmented. Regulatory uncertainty is not helping. More than all of this, you are still left with
the problem we began this column. Determining who is listening and when is crucial to your revenue stream. That is
probably harder than ever. Those who master the ability to
measure and maximize the audience will be the winners.

What Do You Think?


Id like to hear what you think. Dont hesitate to send me a
message and let me know how you feel about the future of
communications. Next time around, well return to more concrete trends in communications.

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September 2016

CQ

73

BY TONY EMANUELE,* WA8RJF

vhf plus

i 8,iV`{
VHF Plus Calendar
ARRL 10 GHz and Up Contest (Second Weekend)
144 MHz Fall Sprint
ARRL EME 2.3 GHz & Up
222 MHz Fall Sprint
432 MHz Fall Sprint
PNWVHFS Conference
Microwave Fall Sprint
Microwave Update 2016
ARRL EME 50 MHz to 1296 MHz
new U.S.-to-Canada 47 GHz (6-millimeter
band) DX record was established by two
teams of amateurs on June 30th 2016. The
U.S. team of Henry Ingwersen, KT1J; and Mike
Seguin, N1JEZ, worked the Canadian team of Ren
Barbeau, VE2UG, and Ray Perrin, VE3FN, over a
215 km (~134 mile) path. (See Photo A to D)
Henry and Mike operated from Whiteface
Mountain, New York (FN34bi), at approximately
1,370 meters (~4,500 ft.) elevation while Ren and
Ray operated from Mont Tremblant, Quebec
(FN26rf) at an elevation of 875 meters (~2,871 feet).
Access to Mont Tremblant is via gondola so all the
gear had to be packed in by the Canadians.
VE2UGs equipment included a Kuhne Electronicbased1 47-GHz second-generation transverter with
a 1-watt power amplifier. Interconnection of the various components requires the use of a waveguide
and a waveguide relay is a must for switching the
antenna between the receive and transmits paths.
A 30-centimeter (~12-inch) commercial cellular/
PCS parabolic dish and feed designed for use
between 37 GHz and 40 GHz was used as the antenna. Not optimum at 47 GHz, but in true amateur fashion, usable enough to make the QSO.
VE3FNs 47-GHz station is based on an earlier
version of DB6NTs design using the original DB6NT
mixer and local oscillator (LO), which Ray locked to
an external 10-MHz OCXO (oven-controlled crystal
oscillator). The output of the mixer drove a 150-milliwatt amplifier stage that, when switched, also functions as the receive preamp with a 5-dB noise figure. Similarly, KT1Js 47-GHz station also used the
original DB6NT mixer but with an I3OPW LO and
multiplier. The mixer drove a 35-mw amplifier stage
that, when switched into the receive path, also functioned as the preamp. The antenna was a 25-cm
(~10-in.) dish.
On the receive side, N1JEZs 47-GHz station utilized the original DB6NT mixer, I3OPW preamp, and
DB6NT image filter. Mike took a slightly different
approach to the LO/multiplier chain on the receive
side, using a 11,880-MHz oscillator2 that could also
be used by his 24-GHz station, which is mounted

c/o CQ magazine
e-mail: <wa8rjf@cq-amateur-radio.com>

74

CQ

September 2016

September 17th 18th


Monday September 19th
September 24th & 25th
Tuesday, September 27th
Wednesday, October 5th
October 7th & 8th; Bend, OR
Saturday October 8th
October 13th 15th St. Louis, MO
October 21st 23rd

next to the 47-GHz gear. Mounting a 10-GHz antenna side-by-side with a 24-GHz antenna, or in Mikes
case, the 24-GHz antenna side-by-side with a 47GHz antenna, is common practice (Photo E).
Generally speaking, stations attempting microwave QSOs start on the lower band because there
is less path loss, antenna alignment is not as critical, etc. Once stations have worked on the lower

Photo A. VE2UG on Mont Tremblant readying his


47-GHz station as he and VE3FN attempt to set a
US-Canada distance record on the band.
Visit Our Web Site

Photo B. N1JEZ on Whiteface Mountain in New York attempting to reach the Canadian team at Mont Tremblant in Quebec.
band, it is just a matter of tweaking the antenna, provided frequency stability, etc. is comparable to that of the lower band
when moving up to the next band.
On transmit, Mike used an Axtal3 LO into a DB6NT multiplier that fed a surplus times-4 multiplier, producing about 35
mw output to the 25-cm (~10-in.) Procomm dish antenna.
Ren transmitted first; Mike found him almost immediately.
Signals were not strong and had a lot of QSB, but after lin-

ing up, Rene worked Mike and then Henry. Ray then followed
suit. Following the successful 47-GHz contacts, Ray and
Mike worked easily on 24-GHz SSB.

Influence of Oxygen and Water Vapor


At 47 GHz, oxygen and water absorption contribute to path
loss. The loss due to oxygen is approximately 0.1 dB per kilometer (~0.15 dB per mile) and remains constant, except for

Photo C. KT1J is set up on the roadside, 4,499 feet above sea level on Whiteface Mountain waiting for a signal from the
Canadian team on Mont Tremblant in Quebec.

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

CQ

75

very high altitudes. The path loss due to water vapor is a function of the humidity and the dew point indicates the amount
moisture in the air. The lower the dew point, the lower the
moisture content of the air at a given temperature4. Mike noted
that the dew point at the time of the QSOs was 45F (air temperature at the time was 66F) and it is assumed that dew
point was about the same on the Canadian end of the path.
Since colder air holds less water than warm air, the coldest
and driest of winter days are generally best for operating the
millimeter-wave bands.
To put their efforts into historical perspective, the first mention of an amateur 47-GHz QSO took place in Europe in
December 1984 when HB9MIN worked HB9AMH at 1 kilometer (0.6 miles)5. By January 1985, the pair had achieved
a distance of 38 kilometers (~23 miles) with simple Gunn
oscillator-based equipment. The first North American QSO
that could be found in the literature took place in March 1987,
when Tom Hill, WA3RMX/7, worked the team of
WB7UNU/W7TYR over a 22.4-kilometer (~14-mile) line-ofsight (LOS) path. There was no mention of the equipment
used for this noteworthy accomplishment. WA3RMX/7 was
back in the field in 1988 and worked K7UAO (Tektronix
Employees ARC) over a 105-kilometer (65-mile) path
between Crater Lake, Oregon and Mt. Ashland, Oregon, with
linear transverters built by WA3RMX6. In 2002, Bernhard
Keiser, W4SW, and W4IY completed a 174-km (~108-mile)
contact, breaking the North American record that had been
established by Will Jensby, W0OEM/6, and Robert Johnson,
KF6KVG, in 19997. The current North American 47-GHz DX
record of 344.8 kilometers (214.3 miles) was established by
Gary Lauterbach, AD6FP/6, in DM07as and Steven Miller,
W6QIW/6, in DM04ms, on September 15th 20158.

Table 1 2016 Spring Sprints


Entries by band
50 MHz: 75
144 MHz: 86
222 MHz: 60
432 MHz: 79
Microwave: 44
Total entries: 344

Table 2. - Spring Sprint Results


50 MHz
Single Operator Fixed Class
1st K1TEO Jeff Klein
2nd WW2Y Pete Hutter
3rd N3RG Ray Golley
Rover Class
1st WW7D/R Darryl Holman
2nd K2EZ/R Andrea Slack
3rd K9JK/R John Kalenowsky

QSOs
60
60
39

Grids
22
17
20

Points
1,320
1,020
780

82
46
46

23
21
20

1,886
966
920

QSOs
97
104
83

Grids
35
28
35

Points
3,395
2,912
2,905

85
86
50

49
28
25

4,165
2,408
1,250

QSOs
55
48
37

Grids
23
24
22

Points
1,265
1,225
814

40
51
38

27
12
16

1,080
612
608

QSOs
76
59
53

Grids
27
27
28

Points
2,052
1,593
1,484

49
60
27

38
11
16

1,862
660
432

144 MHz
Single Operator Fixed Class
1st K1RZ Dave Petke
2nd K1TEO Jeff Klein
3rd W3IP Mike Cresap
Rover class
1st VA3ELE/R Peter Prabucki
2nd WW7D/R Darryl Holman
3rd K2EZ/R Andrea Slack

2016 Spring Sprints


The 2016 Spring Sprints, sponsored by the Central States VHF
Society, have been scored and summarized by Kent ODell,

2017-18
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January 2017 through March 2018

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76

CQ

September 2016

222 MHz
Single Operator Fixed Class
1st K1TEO Jeff Klein
2nd K1RZ Dave Petke
3rd W3IP Mike Cresap
Rover Class
1st VA3ELE/R Peter Prabucki
2nd WW7D/R Darryl Holman
3rd K2EZ/R Andrea Slack
432 MHz
Single Operator Fixed Class
1st K1TEO Jeff Klein
2nd K1RZ Dave Petke
3rd K2LNS Herb Krumich
Rover Class
1st VA3ELE/R Peter Prabucki
2nd WW7D/R Darryl Holman
3rd K9JK/R John Kalenowsky

Microwave
Single Operator Fixed Class
1st K1RZ Dave Petke 11,795 km
2nd K8TQK Bob Mathews 5,536 km
3rd WA8RJF Tony Emanuele 3,608
Rover Class
1st K9PW/R Pete Walker 3,357 km
2nd W9SNR/R Jim Mitzlaff 2,339 km
3rd VE3CRU/R Bill Burgess 1,925 km

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Photo D. VE3FN, part of the Canadian team, stationed atop Mont Tremblant in
Quebec is trying to reach the American team on 47 GHz.

LOOKING FOR

RC

HAM
IT UP!

EUR RADIO
AT
M

AT
IO

TECHNICIAN
CLASS?

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Study Materials by

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with

Eric P. Nichols, KL7AJ

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Photo E. N1JEZ mounts his 24- and 47-GHZ side by side, a standard practice.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

www.w5yi.org 800-669-9594
September 2016

CQ

77

Figure 1. This map from DXMaps.com shows the Sporadic-E openings on the 2-meter band on July 12, 2016.

Figure 2. This map depicts the Sporadic-E openings on the 2-meter band on July 16, 2016.

78

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

Figure 3. The DXMaps.com MUF map during a Sporadic-E opening that occurred on July 12, 2016.
KA2KQM, and Mike Metroka, WB8BZK. Log entries were up
34% over 2015 with 344 entries (see Table 1) submitted via
the 3830scores.com website <http://www.3830scores.com/>.
As is typically the case, there were many more participants
than those who submitted logs. A special thanks to Mel Graves,
WRI, for sponsoring the 1st Place 50-, 144-, 222-, and 432MHz Fixed Station plaques and to Tom Mayo, N1MU, for sponsoring the 1st Place Microwave Fixed Station plaque in memory of Tim Ertl, KE3HT (SK).

On the Bands
By most accounts, the summer Sporadic-E season was
below normal, but not without a surprise or two, as there were
reports of 144-MHz Sporadic E on July 12th and 16th (Figures
1 and 2). According to DXMaps, the MUF was estimated at
198 MHz at one point (Figure 3).
Dont forget the Fall Sprints sponsored by the Southeastern
VHF Society and Microwave Update in St. Louis <http://
svhfs.org/sprints/sprint-schedule>.
73 & CU on the bands.
Tony, WA8RJF
References
1. Commonly referred as DB6NT the callsign of Kuhne
Electronics owner Michael Kuhne.
2. 11,880 MHz X2 = 23,600 MHz when mixed with 432 MHz
= 24.192 GHz.
3. Axtal XTAL GmbH located in Germany. See: <http://
www.axtal.com/English/Home/>
4. Elements of Meteorology, Albert Miller & Jack C.
Thompson, Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co., Columbus, OH,
1970. Pages 36-38.
5. The New Frontier, QST, September 1985. ARRL,
Newington, CT.
6. ARRL UHF/Microwave Experimenters Manual, ARRL,
Newington, CT 1990, page 1-16.
7. QST, February 2002, ARRL, Newington, CT, page 97.
8. ARRL VHF/UHF/SHF Distance Records <http://www.
arrl.org/distance-records>
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

VISIT OUR STORE


FOR DAILY SPECIALS!
http://store.cq-amateur-radio.com
,OOKING!HEADIN
Here are some of the articles were working
on for upcoming issues of CQ:
%MERGENCY#OMMUNICATIONS3PECIALIN/CTOBER
Meet the HAMster A Multipurpose Communications
Trailer
A Utah Radio Club's Comprehensive EmComm Program

0LUSx
American Morse; Telegraph Key History, and Three
Keys You Can Build
Chasing NDBs (Non-Directional Beacons)

5PCOMING3PECIAL)SSUES
December: Technology
February: QRP
June: Take it to the Field

Do you have a hobby radio story to tell? Something for one


of our specials? CQ now covers the entire radio hobby.
See our writers guidelines on the CQ website at <http://
www.cqamateurradio.com/cq_writers_guide/cq_writers_
guide.html>.

September 2016

CQ

79

BY TED MELINOSKY,* K1BV

awards

,>>"vviii}>`

v>`
he Federatia Romana de Radioamatorism
(FRR) is the Romanian national amateur radio
association, which is very similar to the ARRL.
For many years, it has maintained an interesting
and colorful series of awards through its awards
manager, YO3JW, who separately manages a
series of nature awards.
General Rules: Unless otherwise stated, contacts
for these awards must have been made on or after
1 January 1950. The diplomas (certificates) can be
endorsed for a single mode or band, or use contacts all made within one year. The charge for each
award, unless otherwise stated is 5 lei for stations

*12 Wells Woods Rd., Columbia, CT 06237


e-mail: <k1bv12@charter.net

USA-CA Honor Roll


500
NN8L.......................3701
JH1OAI ...................3702
1000
DM3ZF....................1881
NN8L.......................1882

1500
NN8L.......................1573
2000
NN8L.......................1458
2500
NN8L.......................1375
WQ9L......................1376

The total number of counties for credit for the United States of America Counties
Award is 3077. The basic award fee for subscribers is $6.00. For nonsubscribers
it is $12.00. To qualify for the special subscriber rate, please send a recent CQ
mailing label with your application. Initial application may be submitted by a PCprinted computer listing which is in alphabetical order by state and county within the state. To be eligible for the USA-CA Award, applicants must comply with
the rules of the program as set forth in the revised USA-CA Rules and Program
dated June 1, 2000. A complete copy of the rules may be obtained by sending
an SASE to Ted Melinosky, K1BV, 12 Wells Woods Road, Columbia, CT 06237
USA. DX stations must include extra postage for airmail reply.

in Romania, or 7 IRC/US, or _5 for stations outside


Romania.
Email: <fenyo3jw@yahoo.com>
Internet: <http://bit.ly/1UkTUY9>
YO-DR Diploma Danube River
This diploma was created for those who show evidence that they made contacts with stations that are
in the countries through which the Danube River
passes. These are: DL, OE, OM, HA, 9A, YU, LZ,
YO, ER, and UR.
You must make at least 3 QSOs with each and
YO requires 5 QSOs. Of the total contacts, at least
three must be QSOs with cities located on the banks
of the Danube.
On VHF, you need three countries and one YO
station.
If you work enough countries that are on the banks
of the Danube River, this certificate is yours.

Diploma YO-LC Large Cities Award


This diploma was created for those who show evi-

This certificate
featuring photos of
the skylines of major
Romanian cities is
awarded in three
classes.

80

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

Just keep piling on the Romanian contacts to earn the


YO300 award.

Make contacts with countries that share the 45th parallel of


north latitude to earn this certificate.

CQ Zone 20 is the target for this award.


dence that they have made contacts in the major cities of
Romania. The diploma is issued in three classes, as follows:
1. Class I EU: 30 cities DX: 20 cities: VHF 10 cities.
2. Class II EU: 20 cities: DX 10 cities VHF 8 cities
3. Class III EU: 10 cities DX: 5 cities VHF 6 towns
Major Romanian cities are:
YO2: Arad, Deva, Hunedoara, Petrosani, Resita, Timisoara
YO3: Bucharest
YO4: Braila, Constanta, Focsani, Galati, Tecuci, Tulcea
YO5: Alba Iulia, Baia Mare, Bistrita, Cluj-Napoca, Dej
Oradea, Satu Mare, Sighet, Zalau
YO6: Brasov, Medias, Miercurea Ciuc, Odorhellen, Sibiu,
Sf Gheorghe, Targu Mures
YO7: Craiova, Pitesti, Ramnicu Valcea, Slatina, Tbrgu Jiu,
Drobeta Turnu-Severin
YO8: Bacau, Barlad, Botosani, Iasi, Onesti, Piatra Neamt,
Roman, Suceava
YO9: Alexandria, Buzau, Calarasi, Giurgiu, Ploiesti,
Slobozia, Targoviste, Turnu Magurele
Diploma YO-100, YO-200, YO-300
This diploma was created for those who show evidence that
they have made contacts with 100, 200, 300, or more different stations in Romania. There are usually a dozen or so
YO/YP/YQ/YR stations in every DX contest.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

Diploma YO-20Z Award Zone 20


This diploma was created for those who show evidence that
they made contacts with the required number of stations in
CQ Zone 20, including for all levels one station from YO. The
diploma is issued in three classes, as follows:
Stations
Home
Zone
Class I
Class II
Class III

Zones
15, 16, 20
10 QSOs
10 Countries
8 QSOs
8 Countries
6 QSOs
6 Countries

Zones
14, 17, 21
33, 34
8 QSOs
8 Countries
6 QSOs
6 Countries
4 QSOs
4 Countries

All other
Zones

VHF

6 QSOs
6 Countries
4 QSOs
4 Countries
2 QSOs
2 Countries

3 QSOs
3 Countries
2QSOs
2 Countries
1QSO
1 Country

The Zone 20 countries are: 4X, 5B, E4, JY, LZ, DO, SV,
SV5, SV9, SV/A, TA, YK, YO, ZC4
Diploma YO-45P Award 45 Parallel North
This diploma was created for those who show evidence that
they made contacts with stations in countries which cross the
45th parallel of north latitude, including at least one station
from YO. The diploma is issued in three classes, as follows:
Class I: 8 QSOs in 8 countries plus one YO
Class II: 6 QSOs in 6 countries plus one YO
Class III: 5 QSOs in 5 countries plus one YO
Countries on the 45th parallel are: YO, YU, E7, 9A, I, F, VE,
W, JA, UA, BY, JT, UN, UK, AU, UR
Let us know of any new certificates or awards programs
that might be used is future columns. A URL (internet
address) is all we need to start the process.
September 2016

CQ

81

BY BOB SCHENCK, N2OO

dx

8i``}
he subject of DXpedition funding comes up
from time to time, and recently there have
been some controversial related issues. I am
going to avoid direct comparisons, but I feel it is
important to look at this difficult, sometimes controversial, subject with an open mind.

Advance Contributions
DXpeditions are often put in the precarious position of balancing their fundraising with the desire
to give out a new DXCC entity to the deserving.
DXpeditions, especially ones to the southern
oceans in the sub-Antarctic, can be extremely
expensive propositions. Collecting contributions in
advance from foundations, clubs, and individuals
has become necessary to properly plan one of
these DXpeditions. Advance deposits for boat
charters, shipping of equipment, permits, etc.,
require large amounts of advance funding. Far
more advance funds are needed than the individual team members can normally afford to contribute themselves. Collecting advance contributions for the more expensive DXpeditions has often
become unavoidable.
The larger foundations and clubs have become important vehicles for providing such funding. I happen to be on the board of directors of the
International DX Association (INDEXA). So, I do
have an inside perspective on funding requests. I
have also been a part of several DXpeditions that
have asked for advance funding going back some
* <n2oo@comcast.net>

37 years, so I have also had a perspective of being


on the DXpedition fundraising side. And finally, I
have been an avid DX chaser for 51 years, ever
since getting my ham license back in 1965. So I
do understand the DX chasers point of view. And
since I started chasing DX when I was a teenager
and my only funds came from a newspaper route,
I also understand that there are many who simply
cannot afford to contribute.
Not all proposed DXpeditions warrant support
from foundations and clubs. Common reasons for
not getting approval might include: DXCC entity
not rare enough, DXpedition team members share
of projected expenses not considered reasonable,
details of DXpedition incomplete, details of DXpedition do not meet requirements for funding
(QSL policy, operating policy, etc.), DXpedition
appears to be more of a vacation than a serious
operation, questionable legal issues, etc.
Getting funding from any organization should
never be considered automatic. Any responsible
funding organization must balance its availability
of funds with the value and potential reliability of
the DXpedition requesting funds. These same
parameters could also be used by individual DXers
considering an advance contribution to a DXpedition. Sometimes a DXpedition will offer early
QSLing (card and/or LoTW) to advance donors.
Use your own judgement if you choose to donate
in advance. A good rule of thumb is to take notice
of the DXpedition team leaders experience, reputation, and background.

Donating Afterwards With Your QSL


Request
Most DXers opt to contribute when they request
their QSL. Often, advance donors will add more
funds when they request their card. There are two
ways to contribute this way.

Stew Woodward, K4SMX (SK), operating at


1S1DX Barque Canada Reef (Spratly) in April
1979. This was one of the earlier DXpeditions
supported by NCDXF.

82

CQ

September 2016

1) OQRS. Nearly all major DXpeditions now use


an Online QSL Request Service (OQRS). Many
are on Club Log <www.clublog.org>. Some are on
other forms of OQRS systems. Most use PayPal.
Although there are multiple ways these can be set
up, most require a minimum fee in order to request
a QSL card. It has been common to pad the fee
to cover the QSL card processing as well as a few
extra dollars for the DXpedition kitty. Fees currently
seem to range from $3 to $7. Again, the overall
expense of the DXpedition will determine what fee
that DXpedition needs to charge. OQRS is a service that saves the DXer from mailing a QSL card
to the QSL manager. Also, the QSL manager provides the QSL card, the postage, and the envelope. OQRS has become a viable method for a
DXpedition to collect funds.
2) Direct Mail. DXpeditions also provide a QSL
manager who will receive direct mail QSL requests
using standard minimum requirements. These

Visit Our Web Site

SSB
5347 .......................IZ7CDG

5348 .........................DL6JE

CW
816 ............................AG6V

EME
012 ........JH0BBE, 25 Zones

SINGLE BAND WAZ


6 Meter Updates
UT9FJ, 30 Zones

160 Meter
477 .........DU7ET, 32 Zones

160 Meter Updates


UT9FJ, 36 Zones

17 Meter CW
113 ...........................NW4N

15 Meter SSB
669 .........................N0ODK

20 Meter SSB
1233 .......................N0ODK
Rules and applications for the WAZ program may be obtained
by sending a large SAE with two units of postage or an address
label and $1.00 to: WAZ Award Manager, John Bergman,
KC5LK, P.O. Box 792, Brandon, MS 39043-0792. The processing fee for all CQ awards is $6.00 for subscribers (please
include your most recent CQ mailing label or a copy) and $12.00
for nonsubscribers. Please make all checks payable to John
Bergman. Applicants sending QSL cards to a CQ checkpoint or
the Award Manager must include return postage. KC5LK may
also be reached via e-mail: <kc5lk@cq-amateur-radio.com>.

Direct Donation to DXpedition

3746. . . . . . . . . . . . . . N6SN
3747. . . . . . . . . . . . . K3ORC
3748 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R5DT
3749 . . . . . . . . . . . . LU1ICX

3750 . . . . . . . . . . . . JH1APK
3751 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K3BR
3752 . . . . . . . . . . . . JA7BAL

SSB
3906 ............................W5WI
3907...........................K3ORC
3908 .............................R5DT
3909 .........................YC6JRT
3910 .........................KM4IYF

3911 ..............................K1RI
3912..............................KJ5T
3913 ...........................R1BCE
3914...........................IZ5FSA

Mixed
3260 ...........................W9GS
3261............................W5WI
3262 .........................JK1CYF
3263 .........................KF5ZBL
3264 ..........................K3ORC
3265 ........................YB6LAY

3266 ........................CT7ANG
3267 ..........................K4PDS
3268 ..........................KQ4LA
3269..............................K1RI
3270.............................KV8P
3271 .............................KJ5T

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Call Tim @906 370-5031
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Finally, most DXpeditions offer websites to keep you informed of their ongo-

The WPX Program


CW

VX-8DR
Quad Band
Submersible
Hand Held

1050 IZ5FSA. 1150 HB9EFK. 1250 TA1L. 1300 NZ3O, I2VGW. 1350
JR3UIC. 1550 R5DT
Digital: 400 J6/WF2S. 650 R5DT. 800 I2VGW. 850 KC1UX, HB9EFK.
900 NKS

LOOKING FOR

EXTRA
CLASS?

160 Meters: R5DT


80 Meters: R5DT, JR3UIC
40 Meters: R5DT, HB9EFK, IZ5FSA
30 Meters: NZ3O, R5DT
20 Meters: KF5ZBL, W9IFW, VE2GT, R5DT, VA3HP, K1RI, KJ5T,
IZ5FSA
17 Meters:
15 Meters: NZ3O, R5DT, VA3HP, KJ5T, IZ5FSA
12 Meters:
10 Meters: R5DT, HB9EFK
6 Meters: K6FG
Africa: R5DT, IZ5FSA
Asia: R5DT, VA3HP, HB9EFK, IZ5FSA
Europe: K3ORC, W9IFW, R5DT, K1RI, KJ5T, R1BCE, IZ5FSA
Oceania: R5DT
North America: KF5ZBL, K3ORC, KW1HF, R5DT, VA3HP, K4PDS,
J6/WF2S, K1RI, KV8P, HB9EFK, KJ5T, IZ5FSA
South America: R5DT

EUR RADIO
AT
M

Digital
535. . . . . . . . . . . . . . W5WI
536 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R5DT
537 . . . . . . . . . . . . . VA3HP

538. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K1RI
539. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KJ5T

CW: 350 N6SN. 600 IZ5FSA. 650 K3BR. 850 NZ3O. 1000 JH1APK.
1200 R5DT. 4450 W8IQ
SSB: 350 W5WI. 400 K3ORC. 550 YC6JRT, HB9EFK. 700 VE2GT. 750
VA3HP, I2VGW, IZ5FSA. 800 SV1XV, R5DT, KJ5T. 850 YB6LAY. 950
NZ3O. 1400 NKS. 2450 PT7ZT. 3100 I3ZSX. 3150 WA5VGI. 3450
SV3AQR.
Mixed: 550 W5WI, J6/WF2S, KQ4LA. 600 K3ORC, W9IFW, NK9O.
650 K1RI. 700 VE2GT. 950 VA3HP, KK5ID. 1000 YB6LAY, KC1UX.

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

Award of Excellence: OK8DD


Award of Excellence with 160 Bar: RA3SS
160M Bar: NZ3O
30M Bar: NZ3O
6M Bar: K6FG
Complete rules and application forms may be obtained by sending a
business-size, self-addressed, stamped envelope (foreign stations
send extra postage for airmail) to "CQ WPX Awards," P.O. Box 355,
New Carlisle, OH 45344 USA. Note: WPX will now accept
prefixes/calls which have been confirmed by eQSL.cc. and the ARRL
Logbook of The World (LoTW).
*Please Note: The price of the 160, 30, 17, 12, 6, and Digital bars for
the Award of Excellence are $6.50 each.

HAM
IT UP!

9315 .........................AG5X

" 
/"

RC

9313 .........................NS4F
9314 ......................AB8MA

Orders/Quotes 1-800-926-9HAM

>`>Vi`iV>ii

AT
IO

ALL BAND WAZ


Mixed

ADVANCED SPECIALTIES INC.

The WAZ Program

requirements usually include that you


provide a list of your QSOs, provide
appropriate funding to cover return
postage for a QSL card ($ or IRC), and
provide a self-addressed envelope
(SAE) or self-addressed stamped envelope (SASE). It is quite common (and
encouraged) to donate additional funds
with your direct mail request. But it is
usually not a requirement. Recently, I
have seen a couple of DXpeditions
doing something new by charging a
fee for direct mail QSL requests. I personally find this to be a bit offensive. Not
all DXers can afford to pay these fees.
It is my honest opinion that using direct
mail should be a way for any DXer to
request a DXpedition QSL in exchange
for providing minimum return postage
or funds, and they should not be penalized by forcing those who do not wish
(or cannot afford) to pay the fee, to use
the QSL bureau system (via OQRS
bureau or regular bureau) in order to
request their QSL card, which could
delay the card for years. Hopefully, this
trend will stop. It is my personal opinion
that a DXpedition will collect far more
funds in the long run by having a friendly positive QSL policy rather than one
that borders on extortion. My opinion.

NAL RE

SO

Study Materials by

Gordon West, WB6NOA


with

Eric P. Nichols, KL7AJ

Order today from...

The W5YI Group


www.w5yi.org 800-669-9594
September 2016

CQ

83


+ E

5NDERSTANDING
"UILDING 5SING
"ALUNS 5NUNS

ing planning. They also provide such


neat features as details about the DXCC
entity, a following the boat route to the
destination feature, online log search,
and of course, information on how to
donate. You can usually donate via
PayPal or by check using snail mail. You
can donate in advance, during or after

by Jerry Sevick, W2FMI


The successor to the
popular and authoritative
Baluns and Ununs. Great
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Shipping & Handling: U.S. add $7 for the first item,


$3.50 for the second and $2 for each addl item. FREE
shipping on orders over $100 to one U.S. address.
CN/MX-$15 for 1st item, $7 for 2nd and $3 for each
addl. All Other Countries-$25 for 1st item, $10 for 2nd
and $5 for each additional. Buy Both=single item!

CQ The Radio
Amateur's Journal
Phone 516-681-2922
FAX 516-681-2926
http://store.cq-amateur-radio.com

84

CQ

September 2016

5 Band WAZ
As of July 1, 2016
1936 stations have attained at least the 150 zone level, and
951 stations have attained the 200 Zone level.
As of June 1, 2015
The top contenders for 5 Band WAZ (zones needed on
80 or other if indicated):
CHANGES shown in BOLD
Callsign

Zones

EA7GF
HA5AGS
I5REA
IK1AOD
IK8BQE
IZ3ZNR
JA1CMD
JA5IU
JA7XBG
JH7CFX
JK1BSM
K1LI
K3JGJ
K7UR
K8PT
KZ4V
N3UN
N4NX
N4WW
N4XR
N8AA
RA6AX
RU3DX
RW0LT
RX4HZ
RZ3EC
S58Q
SM7BIP
VO1FB
W1FJ
W1FZ
W2LK
W3NO
W4DC
W4LI
W6DN

199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199

Zones
Needed
1
1
31
1
31
1
2
2
2
2
2
24
24
34
26
26
18
26
26
27
23
6 on 10M
6
2 on 40M
13
1 on 40M
31
31
19
24
26
23
26
24
26
17

Callsign

Zones

Zones
Needed
22
1, 16
17, 22
27, 39
19, 31
1, 12
1, 27
1, 31
2, 40
2 on 80 & 40
23, 24
23, 24
24, 26
24, 26
18, 24
17, 18
22, 23
24, 26
23, 24
18, 24
17, 24
17, 22
6, 31
6 & 2 on 10
2, 6
23, 24
18, 23
17, 18
37, 40
26, 19 on 40
23, 24
22, 26
34, 37
36, 37

W9XY
9A5I
AK8A
EA5BCX
F5NBU
G3KDG
G3KMQ
IK0FVC
JA1DM
JA3GN
K2EP
K2TK
K3JGJ
K4HB
K4JLD
K6FG
KB0EO
KZ2I
N2QT
N4GG
N8LJ
NS6C
OK1DWC
UA4LY
US7MM
VE2TZT
W4UM
W5CWQ
W6OUL
W9RN
WA2BCK
WC5N
WL7E
ZL2AL

199
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198
198

the DXpedition this way. But, if you opt


to donate after the DXpedition via PayPal, I suggest adding extra funds to your
OQRS QSL request.

Corporate and Other Club


Sponsors
It has also become quite common for
DXpeditions to solicit support from corporate sponsors. These companies
usually provide equipment on loan, or
at a discount for the DXpeditions use in
exchange for appropriate publicity. This
publicity might include logo placement
on the QSL card. The corporate logo
and acknowledgement will be placed on
the DXpedition website and in media
presentations. I encourage DXers to
consider corporate sponsors who support DXpeditions when thinking about
purchasing relevant equipment and
supplies for your ham shack.
Smaller club contributions are also
solicited. Club logos are also placed on
the website and in media presentations.
These are usually categorized according to the amount of the contribution.
Depending on the amount of the contribution, the club logo might also be
placed on the QSL card. Space limitations on the card will often require prioritization.

Summary
To summarize, in my opinion, all serious DXers should ask themselves if

The CQ DX Field Award Program


Endorsements CW

New recipients of 5 Band WAZ with all 200 Zones


confirmed:

NIC .........................186
WA5VGI ....................192

JN3SAC ....................208

Endorsements SSB

951 F8DHE
New updates to the 5BWAZ list of stations:
F8DHE, 200 Zones

DG7RO, 188 Zones

The following have qualified for the basic 5 Band


WAZ Award:

WA5VGI ....................185

JN3SAC ....................188

Endorsements Digital
WA5VGI ....................102

1934 W5GDX, 171 Zones


1935 RL3AA, 171 Zones

1936 HB9FMN, 180 Zones

*Please note: Cost of the 5 Band WAZ Plaque is $100


shipped within the U.S.; $120 all foreign (sent airmail).
Rules and applications for the WAZ program may be obtained by sending a large SAE with two units of postage
or an address label and $1.00 to: WAZ Award Manager,
John Bergman, KC5LK, P.O. Box 792, Brandon, MS
39043-0792. The processing fee for the 5BWAZ award is
$10.00 for subscribers (please include your most recent
CQ mailing label or a copy) and $15.00 for nonsubscribers.
An endorsement fee of $2.00 for subscribers and $5.00
for nonsubscribers is charged for each additional 10 zones
confirmed. Please make all checks payable to John
Bergman. Applicants sending QSL cards to a CQ checkpoint or the Award Manager must include return postage.
KC5LK may also be reached via e-mail: <kc5lk@cqamateur-radio.com>.

Endorsements Mixed
K7OVW .....................101
KA5RRU....................166
NIC .........................188

WA5VGI ....................209
JN3SAC ....................211
K8OOK ......................216

The basic award fee for subscribers to CQ is $6. For nonsubscribers, it is $12. In order to qualify for the reduced
subscriber rate, please enclose your latest CQ mailing
label with your application. Endorsement stickers are
$1.00 each plus SASE. Updates not involving the issuance of a sticker are free. All updates and correspondence must include an SASE. Rules and application forms
for the CQ DX Awards may be found on the <www.cqamateur-radio. com> website, or may be obtained by
sending a business-size, self-addressed, stamped envelope to CQ DX Awards Manager, Keith Gilbertson, KKG,
21688 Sandy Beach Lane, Rochert, MN 56578-9604 USA.
Please make all checks payable to the award manager.

Visit Our Web Site

they wish to contribute to a DXpedition, and if so, then consider which one(s). Obviously, some DXpeditions deserve
your serious consideration. Most deserve at least something extra. How much? That is up to you. I certainly would
never tell anyone who cant afford it to donate at all. I think
that most of you reading this will know who deserves help.
Some sub-Antarctic DXpeditions can cost a half million dollars or more, and can be calculated to be somewhere around
$5/per QSO made. It becomes obvious that we should all
help. Thankfully, with support from the foundations, clubs,

the DX community at large, and the team members themselves, the cost comes down, but doing simple math shows
the reality.
The FT5ZM DXpedition had a budget of approximately
$450,000. Dividing that by the 14 team members came to
over $32,000 each. It is obvious that finding a quality 14member team that could afford that cost would be impossible. Luckily, with the support received, each team members share ended up being around $14,000. Still high, but
more palatable.

The WPX Honor Roll


The WPX Honor Roll is based on the current confirmed prefixes which are submitted by separate application in strict conformance with the CQ Master Prefix list.
Scores are based on the current prefix total, regardless of an operators all-time count. Honor Roll must be updated annually by addition to, or confirmation of, present total. If no up-date, files will be made inactive.

MIXED
8239 ........9A2AA
7178 ..........K2VV
6814........9A2NA
6650.........W1CU
5935 .........EA2IA
5659 ..........KF2O
5360 .........N4NO
5180 ........VE1YX
5134 .....ON4CAS
5127 ........S53EO
5054.........I5RFD
4969.........W9OP
4895 .......KDEQ
4778 .....YU7BCD
4690........I2MQP
4687 .....WA5VGI
4559........N8BJQ
4481 ..........N6JV
4326........VE3XN
4323 ..........K1BV

4312......JH8BOE
4290 .........I2PJA
4201 .......YO9HP
4136 ....WB2YQH
4129.......S58MU
4076........IK2ILH
4022 ..........N9AF
3855 .....KC9ARR
3831 ........W9OO
3827......JN3SAC
3821 .........N6QQ
3809 ....SM6DHU
3660 .........N1RR
3655 .......K9UQN
3611 ........W2OO
3598 .........W3LL
3410 ..........W9IL
3276 ....WD9DZV
3265......OZ1ACB
3250 .......4L1MA

3132..........N3XX
3099 ..........N6FX
3073 ......IK2DZN
3050 ..........AB1J
3007........W2WC
2799.........AG4W
2673..........N3RC
2634 ........VE6BF
2598 ..........NXI
2575 ......W6OUL
2562.......DG7RO
2550..........K6ND
2476..........K5UR
2423..........AK7O
2355........AB1OC
2274 ..........AE5B
2133 .........KKG
2118 ...........NE6I
2082........W2FKF
2016.........N2WK

2005 ........V51YJ
2003.....VE6BMX
2003.........W7CB
1995.........HK3W
1906 .......HA8QC
1828 ..........K7LV
1821 ........PY5FB
1803 .........NKS
1717 .......K6UXO
1667..........SQ7B
1650..........K4HB
1643 ......SV1DPI
1617........YB1AR
1602 .......K3CWF
1585........N5KAE
1570........PY5VC
1487 .........N7QU
1484........FG4NO
1462.......DL4CW
1455........9A2GA

1446 ........DF3JO
1408..........NH6T
1400..........N7ZO
1394..........K4CN
1383 ....IWHOU
1368.......LU5OM
1329.....DK8MCT
1322 ........AA4FU
1314..........KKL
1301..........K1DX
1297 ..........TA1L
1286..........AD3Y
1276 .......XQ7UP
1272......KA5EYH
1269 .......K5WAF
1259......IZFUW
1255 .......AC7JM
1246......W9RPM
1219........K6HRT
1217........AB1QB

1211 ........VA3VF
1210 ........K4JKB
1201.......IT9ABN
1154 ....KB9OWD
1136..........KO9V
1116.......YU7FW
1107.......PY2MC
1100 ....WA3GOS
1075 .........N6OU
1074 ........WU9D
1069 ......IZ4MJP
1066 ........9A3ST
1066 ......JA1CKE
1049 ...NH6T/W4
1046 ........YB1TJ
1032 .....DG5LAC
1016.........W9QL
1012 .......NVVV
1010 ........VE3RZ
1007........AA4QE

1003 ........PT2AP
1002.......IK8YFU
976.........KM6HB
964 ..........K8ZEE
953........WA9PIE
924..........IW9HII
919..........KC1UX
912........SP8HKT
908 ............K4JC
867 ..........G3YFE
836 ..........N6MM
825...........KD4W
815 ........KL7FAP
808...........W6PN
761..........F1MQJ
759.........W1FNB
757...........WB3D
751 ........YB2TJV
741 .......K6KZM9
726 .............K5IC

725...........WK3N
723.........KDAN
716 .........NA1DX
712 ........ISEBO
711 ............AG1T
710 ...........WS5J
707 ....W1/E74OF
706 ........OE8TLK
700..........N4FNB
696 ........KG4JSZ
694 .......KG4HUF
682 .............AI8P
682...........N8HM
670 .......WW3QB
662........JA7OXR
662 .........KJ4BIX
661...........W4KK
653............KK3Q
650 ............N3YZ
649 .........RA9OO

647.......PAQRB
647............NY4G
644 ..........KWH
636 ..........ZS2DL
634 .....UA3LMR/
QRP
629 ......WB4SON
620 ........PI4DHV
616 ..........DL5JH
615 ........KBAM
605 ........IW2FLB
604..........K4ZGV
604 ........WH7DX
602.........K4MLD
601........W8LMG
601 ..........K9OHI

1371 ........VE6BF
1266 ...........NE6I
1262 ..........K7LV
1258..........N1KC
1222 ........YF1AR
1187 .......IZ1JLG
1171.........HK3W
1150.....VE6BMX
1146..........SQ7B
1145 ......EA3EQT
1112..........NH6T
1098..........K4CN
1089........IZ8FFA
1089.......IT9ABN
1083 ..........KX1A

1042 ......IZBNR
1032 .....DG5LAC
1031.......IK8OZP
1031..........K4CN
1022 ........NW3H
1017........N5KAE
1012........KU4BP
1009 .......K3CWF
1004..........K4HB
1004 ......WA5UA
978..........EA7HY
957...........W9QL
931..........YB1AR
919........KA5EYH
893........W9RPM

875.........K7SAM
854..........K6HRT
833.......DK8MCT
802 ...........N6OU
763 ..........K4JKB
758 .......IV3GOW
724 ...........W3TZ
717.........KDAN
717..........N3JON
714 ........YB2TJV
700..........N4FNB
694 .......KG4HUF
690...........W6PN
684............KO9V
681 ..........N6MM

675..........F1MQJ
640 ..........UA9YF
637 .........K5WAF
625 .........4L1MA
624 .........K6KZM
606 .........KJ4BIX
604 .........GBPK
600 ......WA3PZO
600 ..........VA3VF

1389 .......IT9ELD
1342.....VE6BMX
1295 ........VE1YX
1239.........AG4W
1223 ..........KX1A
1220 ........AA4FU
1210.......DL4CW
1125 .......IWOK
1098.......LU5OM
1049 .......K5WAF
1002 .....KN1CBR

962 ............K7LV
908............NH6T
905 ............AE5B
891.......DK8MCT
846..........AB1OC
821 .......HB9DAX
813 ..........VE9FX
794.......LA5MDA
783..........YB1AR
772 .........K3CWF
753 ..........F5PBL

752..........K6HRT
743........JA5NSR
732............SQ7B
720............K4CN
695 ..........S55SL
673...........HK3W
652 ........IK2DZN
629 .......IV3GOW
620 .........AF5DM
615 ......JH6JMM
608........W9RPM

605 .....NH6T/W4
600 ........IK2SGV
600............NY4G

900 ............W9IL
866............SQ7B
860 .........K9UQN
858 ..........WU9D
810...........HK3W

800 ......WA3GOS
798..........KC1UX
783..........YB1AR
724 ...........EA2IA
672..........K9AAN

670 .......IV3GOW
668........KA5EYH
636........W9RPM
611............KO9V

SSB
5845 ........OZ5EV
5499........9A2NA
5484 ..........K2VV
5297...........IZV
5064 ........VE1YX
4554 ..........KF2O
4357 .........EA2IA
4357........I2MQP
4208 .........I2PJA
3683 .........N4NO
3591 .......KDEQ
3387 .....SV3AQR
3323 .....CT1AHU
3322 ..........I8KCI
3274 .....YU7BCD

3172 .......YO9HP
3156 .........W3LL
3108.........I4CSP
3078 .....WA5VGI
2984.........KI7AO
2950........KF7RU
2936 .........N6QQ
2903 .......IN3QCI
2857........4X6DK
2855 ........W9OO
2850........N8BJQ
2794......DL8AAV
2711......LU8ESU
2711 .........N1RR
2652 .........I3ZSX

2650 ......IK2DZN
2623 ........W2OO
2595 ........EA1JG
2568 ....SM6DHU
2497.......S58MU
2491 ..........W9IL
2466 ........PT7ZT
2451......EA3GHZ
2335 ..........KG1E
2326 ........CX6BZ
2310.........AG4W
2209 ......IK2QPR
2201..........NQ3A
2200 ..........N6FX
2134......JN3SAC

2098..........K5UR
2094..........I8LEL
2093........W2WC
2082........W2FKF
2076 ..........K2XF
2063 .......K9UQN
2050 ..........AE5B
2002........AB1OC
1984..........N3RC
1955........EA3NP
1935......SV1EOS
1926 ..........NXI
1879.........K3IXD
1848 ..........AB5C
1825..........KQ8D

1812..........K6ND
1800 ......W6OUL
1646.....VE7SMP
1643 ....WD9DZV
1641........AE9DX
1623 ........VE9FX
1622 ..........K5CX
1611 ........W2ME
1587..........N3XX
1550.......IK2RPE
1463 .........I2EAY
1434.......DG7RO
1410 ........S55SL
1386 ......IK4HPU
1375 .........NKS

CW
7153........K9QVB
6579 ....WA2HZR
6362 ..........K2VV
5117........9A2NA
4906 .........N4NO
4634........YU7LS
4548 .........EA2IA
4481 ..........N6JV
4472 ..........KF2O
4311..........W8IQ
4091 .......KDEQ

4025 .....WA5VGI
3800........N8BJQ
3702.........I7PXV
3676.......S58MU
3504 .....YU7BCD
3245 .......K9UQN
3234 .......4L1MA
3317......JN3SAC
3214 ....SM6DHU
3093 ........INNY
3041 .......YO9HP

2970 .........N1RR
2956 ........W9OO
2948 ......IK3GER
2882 ..........KA7T
2811 .......OZ5UR
2685 ........W2OO
2638 ..........W9IL
2615 .........N6QQ
2490 ..........N6FX
2484 ....WD9DZV
2477 ........VE6BF

2431........I2MQP
2424........W2WC
2357 ........W9HR
2295.....EA7AAW
2291..........N3XX
2212 ..........AC5K
2029 ......W6OUL
2022 ........AF5CC
2010..........K5UR
1848 .........I2EAY
1842 ..........NXI

1820 .........W3LL
1762..........K6ND
1703 .......K6UXO
1680..........N3RC
1600.......DG7RO
1595 ........PY5FB
1568 ...........NE6I
1505...........R3IS
1480.........WO3Z
1447.......EA2CIN
1443 ....WA2VQV

DIGITAL
2365 .........W3LL
2361 .........N6QQ
2234 .......YO9HP
2075........N8BJQ
1939 ..........KF2O

1875 ....WD9DZV
1704 ......IK2DZN
1644.........AG4W
1326..........N3RC
1325 ........W2OO

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

1322 .......KDEQ
1240......JN3SAC
1112........AB1QB
1101 ............W2/
JR1AQN

1074........AB1OC
1072 .....WA5VGI
1047......RW4WZ
1009 ....GUSUP
959 .........K3CWF

957 ..........VA3VF
941 ...........NKS
931.......KH6SAT
917 ............K7LV
908 .........AC7JM

September 2016

CQ

85

So give what you can, if you can. Most of us can afford at


least an extra couple of dollars in the envelope with your QSL.
But if you cant, then please dont feel bad. The good
DXpeditions understand and will accommodate regardless.
QSL Bureau. Using the QSL bureau system for a major
expensive DXpedition should be avoided if possible. Adding
bureau expense is not really appropriate, although all

DXpeditions add bureau expense as a budget item in their


planning. Remember, a DXpedition must pay to receive cards
from their bureau, and must pay to ship cards out to the worldwide bureaus, either directly or via an outgoing QSL bureau
system of some sort. And yes, they also pay to print the QSL
cards. Too often, I have seen QSLs being requested via more
than one method. This creates multiple issues including
added expense to the DXpedition as well as added workload
for the QSL manager, who has to process every card
received. For example, I have received numerous cards via
direct mail, then later, I get the same cards in my incoming
bureau package. It makes me a little grumpy at times as it
creates extra work for me. I usually do NOT answer any
bureau cards if I see in my log that the QSO(s) have already
been confirmed.
The bottom line: Support major DXpeditions if you can.

QSL Routes
Looking for a QSL route? Here is a great list of sites for QSL
reference research. Special thanks to Bernie, W3UR, and
the Daily DX. <http://www.dailydx.com/QSLroutes.html>.

DX News
Here are a few resources for getting DX news (in addition to
CQ, of course):

Bob Allphin, K4UEE, holds the INDEXA flag on Amsterdam


Island (FT5ZM) in February 2014. INDEXA was one of the
many major sponsors of this DXpedition.

Tedd, KB8NW, provides a free weekly DX news email service. See <http://www.papays.com/opdx.html!
Carl, N4AA, provides a weekly DX news service (QRZDX) via email as well as the DX magazine, which is published
every other month (6 times a year), both for a fee. Visit <http://
www.dxpub.com/>.
Bernie, W3UR, provides daily and weekly DX news service for a fee. Go to <http://www.dailydx.com/>.
The ARRL sends out weekly DX and propagation bulletins

CQ DX Field Award Honor Roll


The CQ DX Field Award Honor Roll recognizes those DXers who have submitted proof of confirmation with 175 or more grid
fields. Honor Roll lisiting is automatic upon approval of an application for 175 or more grid fields. To remain on the CQ DX Field
Award Honor Roll, annual updates are required. Updates must be accompanied by an SASE if confirmation is desired. The
fee for endorsement stickers is $1.00 each plus SASE. Please make all checks payable to the Award Manager, Keith Gilbertson.
Mail all updates to Keith Gilbertson, KKG, 21688 Sandy Beach Lane, Rochert, MN 56578-9604.

N8PR ........................224
VE3ZZ.......................223
KDEQ .....................221
HA1AG......................218
WI8A .........................218
K8OOK......................216
JN3SAC ....................211
WA5VGI....................209
W4UM.......................208
HA5WA .....................206
F6HMJ ......................206
KF8UN ......................205
OK1AOV ...................205

W1CU........................236
W4ABW.....................202
VE7SMP....................201

KDEQ ......................198
W4UM .......................193
JN3SAC ....................188

N4MM .......................204
VE7SMP ...................204
RW4NH.....................203
K9YC ........................203
IV3GOW ...................201
N5KE ........................200
ON4CAS ...................194
N4NX ........................192
W3LL ........................191
HA9PP ......................190
HA1ZH ......................190
BA4DW .....................188
HB9DDZ ...................188

NIC.........................188
K1NU ........................187
K2AU ........................186
K8YTO ......................186
W3LL ........................185
K2SHZ ......................182
KJ6P .........................180
W5ODD ....................177
NFW .......................176
WA9PIE ....................176
HB9BOS ...................175

SSB
N4MM........................187
WA5VGI ....................185
W3LL .........................182

NFW ........................176
DL3DXX ....................175

CW
W1CU .......................243
DL6KVA ....................233
KDEQ .....................214
DL2DXA....................209

JN3SAC ....................208
DL3DXX....................203
W4UM.......................199
OK1AOV ...................196

WA5VGI....................192
HB9DZZ....................186
NIC.........................186
OK2PO .....................184

Digital

CW New Award
8RIA ......................1161

Mixed
K2TQC......................284
W1CU .......................257
HADU .....................253
VE7IG .......................248
IK1GPG ....................245
HA1RW.....................239
VE3XN ......................239
W6OAT .....................237
K8SIX........................236
OM3JW.....................235
NI6T ..........................230
HA5AGS ...................228
9A5CY ......................227

CQ DX Awards Program

N4MM .......................180
N4NX ........................177
N7WO .......................175

The basic award fee for subscribers to CQ is $6. For nonsubscribers, it is $12. In order to qualify for the reduced
subscriber rate, please enclose your latest CQ mailing
label with your application. Endorsement stickers are
$1.00 each plus SASE. Updates not involving the issuance of a sticker are free. All updates and correspondence must include an SASE. Rules and application
forms for the CQ DX Awards may be found on the
<www.cq-amateur-radio.com> website, or may be
obtained by sending a business-size, self-addressed,
stamped envelope to CQ DX Awards Manager, Please
make checks payable to the Award Manager, Keith
Gilbertson. Mail all updates to Keith Gilbertson, KKG,
21688 Sandy Beach Lane, Rochert, MN 56578-9604
USA. We recognize 341 active countries. Please make
all checks payable to the award manager. Photocopies
of documentation issued by recognized national Amateur
Radio associations that sponsor international awards
may be acceptable for CQ DX award credit in lieu of having QSL cards checked. Documentation must list (itemize) countries that have been credited to an applicant.
Screen printouts from eQSL.cc that list countries confirmed through their system are also acceptable. Screen
printouts listing countries credited to an applicant through
an electronic logging system offered by a national
Amateur Radio organization also may be acceptable.
Contact the CQ DX Award Manager for specific details.

W1CU .......................186

86

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

to members. Log on to your ARRL account, select edit your profile, and select the
bulletins that you would like to get via email.
425 DX News provides a free weekly email DX news service at
<http://www.425dxn.org/>.
Other resources include:
DX Coffee: <http://www.dxcoffee.com/eng/>
DX-World: <http://www.dx-world.net/>
A nice list of resources can also be found on the NCDXF website: <http://
www.ncdxf.org/pages/dxresources.html>
If you are aware of any other resources, please let me know.
73 de N2OO

The K1N Navassa team acknowledges corporate sponsor Elecraft, which


provided radios and amplifiers to the DXpedition.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

September 2016

CQ

87

BY DAVID SIDDALL,* K3ZJ

contesting

>`i>`iii]->
9->o
Fall contest season kicks off with All-Asian and Worked
All Europe Phone Plus CQ World Wide RTTY DX
uring September, we welcome the new contest season with a plethora of small contests
and three major ones: The All Asian Phone,
Worked All Europe Phone, and CQ World Wide
RTTY DX. If your station has been dormant since
last spring, now is a good time to check things out
and implement any planned improvements before
the CQ World Wide Phone contest at the end of
October.
As we slide from summer to autumn, propagation conditions are expected to slightly improve on
the upper bands. Expect 15-meter propagation to
improve slowly through September and October,
although it will be spotty and not as strong as in
past years. Ten meters likely will be usable mainly on southerly paths to South America (from the
U.S.), but with an African, Caribbean, or South
Pacific station occasionally workable. To make up
for the lack of worldwide propagation on 10 and 15,
however, 80 and 160 are expected to return to
being major DX bands in the northern latitudes during this years contests. Twenty and 40 meters will
be the bread-and-butter bands for DX contests,
with wall-to-wall signals. Sharpen those filters!

k3zj@cq-amateur-radio.com

Experienced contesters have a range of reactions to the role that QTCs (messages) uniquely
play in the Worked All Europe (WAEDC) contest.
Below we investigate the origins of the QTC in this
contest and find that it permitted a high degree of
log-checking when first formulated in the 1930s.
We also cover the first tests of WRTC (World
Radiosport Team Championship) sites in Germany
that will be used by competitors in 2018.
Accompanying pictures provide a good snapshot
of what a typical site will look like. Fundraising for
the event continues, with major ham sponsors
lending their support and clubs and individuals
working on tent sponsorships and individual contributions. Plus, the Minister of the Interior of the
German state of Sachsen-Anhalt is now the patron
of the WRTC.
Finally, following up on last months listing of
some excellent Contest University videos, we add
the latest videos from Contest University 2016 to
the list.

CQ World Wide RTTY DX Contest


The 30th annual CQ World Wide RTTY DX Contest
will be held the last weekend of September, beginning at 0000 UTC Sept. 26 and continuing through

Calendar of Events
All year
CQ DX Marathon
Sept. 3
AGCW Straight Key Party
Sept. 3-4
All Asian SSB Contest
Sept. 3-4
Colorado QSO Party
(Date still TBA at press time; check website for updates)
QRP ARCI Two Side Bands Sprint
Sept. 4
DARC 10 Meter Digital Contest
Sept. 4-5
Tennessee QSO Party
Sept. 5-6
MI QRP Labor Day CW Sprint
Sept. 10
FOC QSO Party
Sept. 10
OSPOTA Contest
Sept. 10
Arkansas QSO Party
Sept. 10-11
Worked All Europe SSB Contest
Sept. 10-12
ARRL September VHF QSO Party
Sept. 11
North American CW Sprint
Sept. 17-18
SARL VHF/UHF Analog/Digital Contest
Sept. 17-18
All Africa Int. DX Contest
Sept. 17-18
ARRL 10 GHz and UP Contest
Sept.17-18
New Jersey QSO Party
Sept. 17-18
Scandinavian CW Activity Contest
Sept. 17-18
Washington State Salmon Run
Sept. 18
BARTG Sprint 75
Sept. 18
North American RTTY Sprint
Sept. 24-25
CQWW RTTY DX Contest
Sept. 24-25
Texas QSO Party
Sept. 24-25
Maine QSO Party
Sept.24-25
ARRL EME Contest
Sept. 24
AGCW UHF/VHF Contest

http://bit.ly/1QCtHmu
http://bit.ly/1T5SC05
http://bit.ly/1pztt4H
http://ppraa.org/coqp
http://www.qrparci.org/contests
http://bit.ly/18gGDIM
https://tnqp.org/rules/
http://bit.ly/13fTkRo
http://www.g4foc.org/qsoparty
http://www.ospota.org/ospota/index.php
http://www.arkanhams.org/standrules.pdf
http://bit.ly/JUUR1n
http://www.arrl.org/september-vhf
http://ncjweb.com/Sprint-Rules.pdf
http://bit.ly/H0IqQf
http://bit.ly/H0IqQf
http://www.arrl.org/10-ghz-up
http://bit.ly/1nDlf8V
http://www.sactest.net/blog/rules/
http://bit.ly/292dvJg
http://www.bartg.org.uk/sprint75contest.asp
http://ncjweb.com/Sprint-Rules.pdf
http://www.cqwwrtty.com
http://txqp.net/
http://www.qsl.net/ws1sm/Maine_QSO_Party.html
http://www.arrl.org/eme-contest
http://bit.ly/292ubSX

This information also appears monthly on the CQ website.

88

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

DL3LAB, DL8OBH, DL4ST, and DK2OY pose at WRTC 2018 test station DK2O/DP9A during the 2016 IARU HF
Championship in July. (Photo courtesy DL6MHW & WRTC2018)
2359 UTC Sept. 27. If you havent checked out this contest
recently, you might consider doing so. It grew rapidly once it
passed the 1,000 log mark in 2004. Over the past five years,
the number of entries has averaged just shy of 3,400, with
well over 8,000 different calls reflected in the logs each year.
While many aspects of the rules for the RTTY running of
CQWW are identical to the rules of the CQWW Phone and
CW contests, there are unique important differences to be
aware of. Only 10-80 meters are utilized no 160-meter
contest action in this one. Also, if entering the Multi-Single
category, eight band changes per clock hour are permitted
instead of the 10-minute rule for phone and CW. Some entry
categories also are not available in this contest. See the rules,
referenced below.
The multiplier structure also differs from that of the phone
and CW contests. Stations in the United States and Canada
(only) send their state or province (QTH) in addition to their
CQ zone, i.e., 599 05 MA (not 599 05). Multipliers are zones,
countries, and states/provinces, except unlike other CQ
and ARRL contests in which states are multipliers, the District
of Columbia (DC) is counted the same as Maryland (MD).
(Nevertheless, there is an active RTTY contest contingent in
D.C. and several regularly participate in this contest. You just
may not be aware of their true location because in your log
their multiplier is MD.)
The point structure also differs. Contacts with your own
country count 1 point each. Contacts with a different country
on your continent count 2 points each. This applies to stations on all continents, not just those in North America.
Countries on other continents count 3 points, the same as
for the other two CQWW contests.

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

Note that although the original contest included other digital


modes, they were dropped in 2001. Only contacts using RTTY
45.45 Baud, 170-Hz shift Baudot mode count for points.
In addition to the rules published at <http://www.cqww
rtty.com>, there is a webinar that discusses this contest
that is accessible from the above link. The recommended
method of submitting your log is to upload it at <http://www.
cqww.com/logcheck/>. Logs also may be emailed to
<rtty@cqww.com>.

All-Asian DX Phone Contest


As discussed last month, the AA DX Phone contest leads off
the fall contest season September 3-4 (Labor Day weekend
in the U.S.). AA DX uses a world works Asia format and
often features interesting over-the-pole and long path propagation worth checking out at prime times. Contest rules are
at <http://bit.ly/1pztt4H>.

Worked All Europe DX Contest


Another long-standing contest is the Worked All Europe DX
Contest (WAEDC). The CW portion is held annually on the
second full weekend of August. The phone portion follows
on the second full weekend of September, and the RTTY
competition rounds out the triumvirate during the second full
weekend of November. For the 62nd annual competition this
year, still ahead are the phone weekend, 0000 UTC
September 10 through 2359 UTC September 11; and the
RTTY weekend November 12-13.
Single operators in the WAEDC are limited to 36 on-air
hours. The only multi-operator category is single transmitter,

September 2016

CQ

89

and this entails complying with a limit on band changes to


once every 10 minutes. Only 80-10 meters are used, and the
rules request compliance with the IARU suggested contestpreferred segments. On phone, this means one should avoid
3650-3700; 7050-7060 & 7100-7130; and 14100-14125 &
14300-14350.
To be noted is that the countries list for multipliers is the
WAE country list, not the DXCC list. This is the same list used
for the CQWW contests. For the record, the entities included in the WAE list that are not DXCC entities are Sicily (IT9),
European Turkey (TA1), Vienna International Center
(4U1VIC), GM/s (Shetland Islands), JW/b (Bear Island), and
Z6 (Kosovo). The contest sponsors software will assign multipliers to your log once submitted, so your correct multiplier
total always will be accurately reflected in your final score
without any checking on your part.
From the European side, up to 10 different call areas within select DXCC countries also count as multipliers: W, VE,
VK, ZL, ZS, JA, PY, RA8/RA9, and RA. The number in the
callsign determines the call area for this purpose, not the
geographic area. Hence VE1, VO1 and VY1 all count as the
same multiplier. W1, K1, KA1 and K3../1 also all count as
the same multiplier. But K1, KA3, and WR8 callsigns count
as three multipliers regardless of where they are located. The
score is the total number of QSOs plus number of QTCs (see
below) on all bands multiplied by the weighted sum of all multipliers. The weighted sum is calculated by multiplying 80meter multipliers by 4, 40-meter multipliers by 3, and 20-1510-meter multipliers by 2. If this seems a little complex, just
trust your logging software to get it right.

In this contest there is an interesting provision that awards


a special prize and recognizes as a WAEDC Hero any
operator who successfully activates a WAE country from
which no log has been received during the preceding three
years. Theres still time in 2016 to claim this title! The list
changes every year, of course. For 2016, the eligible entities for this prize are: 1A, 3A, 4U1V, C3, HV, JW/b, JX,
OJ, R1F, SV/A, T7, ZA & ZB.
Entries for the WAEDC contests should be uploaded at:
<http://bit.ly/29RatqR>. Complete rules are found at: <http://
bit.ly/2a32kTq>.

Focus on QTCs
The most defining characteristic of the WAEDC is the QTC.
QTCs are messages sent from a non-European station to a
European station consisting of a report of an earlier QSO
containing the time, callsign, and serial number of the reported QSO. For example, 1307 DA1AA 431 means that the
reporting station worked DA1AA at 1307 UTC and received
serial number 431.
Operators tend to have a love-hate relationship with QTCs,
but this unique aspect continues as a differentiator in this
contest. Operators outside Europe work only Europe and can
report to any European station a list of up to 10 of their previously logged QSOs. They can be sent in any smaller number and a new group to complete the 10 sent later in the contest. Its a little complex on the paperwork end, but logging
software greatly simplifies sending and tracking QTCs.
Points are accumulated by both the sending and the receiving station for each QTC.

Typical WRTC 2018 radiosport site showing tent and Spiderbeam hex beam erected for testing. Eighty- and 160-meter
dipoles, not visible in picture, are strung below the hex beam. (Photo courtesy DL6MHW & WRTC2018)

90

CQ

September 2016

Visit Our Web Site

QTCs are essential for serious competitors since they have the same value
as a non-multiplier QSO. They are
optional for casual operators, of course,
but European operators actively solicit
QTCs and really appreciate receiving
them. Serious European competitors
win by virtue of the QTCs that they
receive from non-European stations.
While non-European stations are limited to their number of QSOs for the number of QTCs that they can send and
obtain credit, European stations on the
receiving end have no limit. Top stations
routinely accumulate significantly more
QTCs than QSOs. Its the winning path
for European stations. So dont be perturbed when the uber-strong DL checks
in with you for the umpteenth time asking for QTCs. The operator will cease
calling you once the QTCs that you have
sent him total 10.
Even though the WAEDC competitions
began in 1955, the origins of the QTC
trace back to the 1930s and the preWorld War II German DJDC contest.
Roughly translated as German Jubilee
DX Contest, the DJDC was formulated
by the German national amateur radio
society in 1936 to celebrate the societys
10th anniversary. The actual inspiration
to start the contest was the Olympic
games, which were held in Berlin that
same year. In this regard, the origin of
the WAEDC is strikingly similar to the
origin of the World Radiosport Team
Championships (WRTCs). The first
WRTC in 1990 was inspired by (although
not officially connected to) the 1990
Goodwill Games, an international multisport event founded in 1986 by media
entrepreneur Ted Turner in the wake of
political tensions and boycotts that
engulfed the summer Olympic games in
1980 and 1984.
Like the ARRL Sweepstakes exchange in the U.S. domestic contest,
sending and receiving QTCs in the
WAEDC originated from concepts of
early traffic handling. One purpose of
the contest was to improve accurate
traffic handling. However, the QTC
exchange also was a clever device that
enabled accurate log checking before
the time of email and computers, even
for QSOs from casual stations that did
not mail in their logs.
The accompanying diagram illustrates
the original rule for QTCs in the 1930s.
Apparently, logs commonly were kept in
local time instead of UTC (GMT at the
time). Intra-European QSOs counted for
credit and QTCs were sent by all nonGerman stations solely to German stations. So in the example illustrated, after
W6CUH worked ON4AU, W6CUH later
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Many competitors will have a picturesque view. DL8UAT and DL7URH operate
at WRTC 2018 test site DK7C/DM5D during the 2016 IARU HF Championship
in July. (Photo courtesy DL6MHW & WRTC2018)

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92

CQ

September 2016

This diagram is from the 1938 rules for the DJDC contest, which was the predecessor to the modern-day WAEDC. The diagram illustrates the original rules for
sending QTCs (see text for details). An elegant solution to log checking in precomputer days! (Source: February, 1938, DJDC rules announcement reproduced
at: <http://bit.ly/2a374sh>)
Visit Our Web Site

would send that QSO information in a QTC to a German station. ON4AU similarly would report the QSO with W6KUH in
a QTC to a German station. Each QSO was reported twice,
once by each of the two stations party to the original QSO.
In this manner, the contest organizers had the means to
check many of the QSOs in logs not submitted. That only
German stations received QTCs would have facilitated log
checking by the German contest organizers. Today QTCs
survive, although times must be in UTC and QTCs are sent
only from non-European to European competitors.

WRTC Procedures and Sites Tested In 2016


IARU HF Championship
In preparation for the 2018 WRTC, in July the organizers
erected five test sites in the Jessen/Wittenberg area of
Germany for the IARU HF Championship. This is the same
geographic area that will be used for the 65 competing stations in 2018. Set-up procedures, camping and power equipment, and antennas all were tested with the goal being to
optimize procedures and to detect and resolve problems.
The five sites spanned the geographic area that will be used
in 2018, from Zossen in the north to Elber-Elster in the south.
Each of the five sites employed a dedicated CW station operating under a callsign used only for skimmer tests. These stations transmitted in accord with a pre-arranged plan to check
the relative strength of signals from the five sites at 10 or so
skimmer sites located both in and outside Europe that were
running special software for this purpose.
As was the case for WRTC2014, the test session brought
together volunteers who live hundreds of miles apart and may
have known each other only over the airwaves until meeting
in person for the testing. The event provided an important
opportunity for team building and socializing that in 2018 will
facilitate cooperation within and among teams.
Public relations also were initiated. Representatives of both
the print and television media were invited from throughout
the area to observe the event and to start conveying information about WRTC to the press and to local residents. In
addition, local landowners, farmers, politicians, and other residents were invited to the sites to learn about WRTC and ham
radio. This is an essential task to ensure that the needed sites
are available in 2018.
As the accompanying photos demonstrate, this area of
Germany is relatively flat compared to the rolling hills of New
England. The geography should make equalizing sites for
propagation easier, as was the case for WRTC2010 in
Russia. The open spaces also offer relaxing pastoral views
for the competitors, although Im sure that they will not be
totally relaxed during the event itself.

WRTC Fundraising Momentum


Efforts to raise funds through tent sponsorships continue and
tents are still available at this writing. If available, the sponsor can request that its tent be for competitors from a specific qualification area. Contact WRTC2018 if you, you and
your friends, or your club wish to honor a silent key or sponsor a tent in your own name. Contact Michael Hoeding,
DL6MHW, at <fundraising@wrtc2018.de>.
Major companies continue to add their names to the growing list of sponsors. ICOM joined as a Platinum Sponsor.
Yaesu became a Prime Sponsor. And Messi & Paoloni, the
Italian coax company, joined as a Gold Sponsor.

state of Sachsen-Anhalt, has become the patron of


WRTC2018. The region of Wittenberg/Jessen where the
WRTC2018 stations will be located is within Sachsen-Anhalt.
The minister has held his position since 2011. A special connection to radio exists as the Minister of Interior is in charge
of government communications and land mobile radio services within the state.

Videos From CTU 2016 Available Online


Videos from the 2016 Contest University were posted on the
web after the August column was finalized. In addition to the
2016 presentation slides mentioned last month (found at:
<http://bit.ly/28PDK9g>), videos on eight substantive topics
are now available thanks to CTU and ICOM. I strongly recommend perusing these, and those from earlier years, to
mine the valuable nuggets contained in them. They are available at no cost at: <http://bit.ly/28QbTlw>.
Fair Play How to Earn and Keep Respect (K4RO)
The Advantages of Waterfall Displays for Contesting and
DXing (N6TV)
Coax Connectors, A Deep Look at What Can Go Wrong
(W8WWV)
Improving Your Contest Scores Through Log Analysis
(NV9L)
How Contesting Contributes to Ham Radio (K3LR)
Contest Shack Design (K1DG)
Multi Operator Hints and Kinks (W3LPL)
Contest Radio Performance (NCB)
Until next month, 73, Dave, K3ZJ

Young Ladies Radio League, Inc.


Since 1939
For 75 years the Young Ladies
Radio League, Inc. (YLRL) has
helped women find their voice
in Amateur Radio with members
of all ages and interests.
The YLRL sponsors a number
of certificates for both YLs and OMs. Members
can earn special YL Certificates.
YL-Harmonics is our bi-monthly publication
highlighting what women are doing in
Amateur Radio.
YLRL gives out scholarships to YLs each year.
For more information on the YLRL, the current
dues amounts, weekly YL Net locations or how to
join please go to our website at www.ylrl.org or
contact the Publicity Chairwoman, Cheryl Muhr,
NWBV at n0wbv@earthlink.net. All Officer
information is also listed both on the
website and in each edition of the
magazine and you may contact any
Officer as well.
With thanks to the OMs who
encourage and support us.

WRTC2018 Patron
Holger Stahlknecht, Minister of the Interior of the German

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

Visit us at www.ylrl.org
September 2016

CQ

93

BY TOMAS HOOD,* NW7US

propagation

->
Vi{>`-ViVi
A Quick Look at Current Cycle 24 Conditions
(Data rounded to nearest whole number)

Sunspots:
Observed Monthly, June 2016: 13
Twelve-month smoothed, December 2015: 35
10.7 cm Flux (current):
Observed Monthly, June 2016: 82
Twelve-month smoothed, December 2015: 103
!P Index:
Observed Monthly, June 2016: 9
Twelve-month smoothed, December 2015: 13

/NE9EAR!GO A Quick Look at


Solar Cycle Conditions
(Data rounded to nearest whole number)

Sunspots:
Observed Monthly, June 2015: 41
Twelve-month smoothed, December 2014: 56
10.7 cm Flux:
Observed Monthly, June 2015: 123
Twelve-month smoothed, December 2014: 137
!P Index:
Observed Monthly, June 2015: 14
Twelve-month smoothed, December 2014: 11

t is clear that the current sunspot solar cycle goes


into our history books as one of the weakest
cycles in recent space weather history (for some
interesting facts, study the figures that accompany
this months column). While it has been a lackluster cycle, there have been moments of noteworthy
discovery. For instance, on May 17, 2012, a magnitude M5.1 X-ray flare erupted from the Suns
Western limb (when we view the Sun, the Suns
Western limb is on our right side).
The flare originated in NOAA Active Region 11476
(or, just 1476, as we typically drop the leading number). It peaked at 0147 UTC, just as it rotated over
the edge of the visible solar disc. An M-class flare
is considered a moderate flare, at least 10 times
less powerful than the largest X-class flares. This
flare produced Type-II radio bursts and triggered an
ongoing proton event. An associated coronal mass
ejection (CME) was also detected, but the CME was
not directed toward Earth, since the flare occurred
on the Western edge of the Sun.
This particular flare was not like any of the previous flares from Solar Cycle 24. During this particu-

* P.O. Box 27654


Omaha, NE 68127
<nw7us@nw7us.us>
@NW7US
@hfradiospacewx

94

CQ

September 2016

LAST-MINUTE FORECAST
Day-to-Day Conditions Expected for September 2016

Propagation Index
Above Normal:
3,6,9-11,15,17-26,30
High Normal:
2,4,7-8,12-14,16,29
Low Normal:
1,5,27-28
Below Normal:
n/a
Disturbed:
n/a

Expected Signal Quality


(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
A

C-D

C-B

C-D

D-E

C-D

D-E

C-D

7HEREEXPECTEDSIGNALQUALITYIS
A--Excellent opening, exceptionally strong, steady signals greater than S9
B--Good opening, moderately strong signals varying between S6 and S9,
with little fading or noise.
C--Fair opening, signals between moderately strong and weak, varying
between S3 and S6, with some fading and noise.
D--Poor opening, with weak signals varying between S1 and S3, with considerable fading and noise.
E--No opening expected.

HOW TO USE THIS FORECAST


1. Find the PROPAGATIONINDEX associated with the particular path opening from the Propagation Charts appearing in 4HE .EW 3HORTWAVE
0ROPAGATION (ANDBOOK by George Jacobs, W3ASK; Theodore J. Cohen,
N4XX; and Robert B. Rose, K6GKU.
2. With the propagation index, use the above table to find the expected
signal quality associated with the path opening for any given day of the
month. For example, an opening shown in the Propagation Charts with a
propagation index of 2 will be poor to fair on September 1, fair on September
2, and good on September 3, and so forth.
3. Alternatively, the Last Minute Forecast may be used as a general guide
to space weather and geomagnetic conditions through the month. When
conditions are Above Normal, for example, the geomagnetic field should be
quiet, and space weather should be mild. On the other hand, days marked
as "Disturbed" will be riddled with geomagnetic storms. Propagation of
radio signals in the HF spectrum will be affected by these conditions. In
general, when conditions are High Normal to Above Normal, signals will be
more reliable on a given path, when the path is supported ionospherically.

lar eruption, the proton blast was so fast (traveling


between 900 and 1,000 miles per second) and energetic that when the protons collided with atoms in
Earths atmosphere, they caused a shower of particles to cascade down towards Earths surface,
which created whats called a ground level
enhancement (GLE).
GLEs are quite rare; fewer than 100 have been
observed in the last 70 years, since instruments
were first able to detect them (visit <http://g.nw7us.
us/2adWa1J> for data and other resources). This
flare is unique in this sunspot cycle because it was
the first (and so far only) GLE of the current cycle.
Scientists are highly interested in this event
because the joint Russian/Italian mission PAMELA,
short for Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration
and Light-nuclei Astrophysics was able to take measurements of the particles from the Sun that caused
the GLE. PAMELA is highly sensitive to the veryhigh-energy particles that reach ground level on
Earth and the data obtained by PAMELA may help
scientists understand the details of GLEs, help them
model solar flares, and work out the details of why
a moderate flare like the one on May 17, 2012, was
capable of producing the high-speed particles needed to cause a GLE.
Visit Our Web Site

3-D Sunspot The subsurface


structure (sound speed) below a
sunspot as derived from Doppler
measurements by MDI (Michelson
Doppler Imager). Using the technique
of time-distance helioseismology,
three planes are shown. The surface
intensity shows the sunspot with the
dark central umbra surrounded by the
somewhat brighter, filamentary
penumbra. The second plane cuts
from the surface to 24,000-kilometers
deep showing areas of faster sound
speed as reddish colors and slower
sound speed as bluish colors. The
third plane (bottom) is a horizontal cut
at a depth of 22,000 kilometers
showing the horizontal variation of
sound speed. (Courtesy of
NASA/GSFC/SOHO)

Usually we would expect this kind of ground level enhancement from a giant coronal mass ejection or a big X-class
flare, says Georgia de Nolfo, a space scientist who studies
high speed solar particles at NASAs Goddard Space Flight
Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. So not only are we really
excited that we were able to observe these particularly highenergy particles from space, but we also have a scientific
puzzle to solve.
The stage was set for this observation on May 5, 2012,
when a large sunspot (about the size of 15 Earths) rotated
into view on the left side (Eastern side) of the Sun. This was
a fairly sizable active region that NOAA named Active Region
11476. The sunspots had already shown activity on the back
side of the sun as seen by a NASA mission called the Solar
Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) so scientists
were on alert for more.
Solar scientists who study high-energy particles are always
watching for activity that would result in GLEs. The last GLE
theyd observed occurred during December 2006. They are
always hoping for the chance to observe proton storms with
PAMELA, because the PAMELA mission, which focuses on
cosmic rays from outside our galaxy, could also be used to
observe solar particles. Such solar cosmic rays are the
most energetic particles that can be accelerated at or near
the Sun.
There was a hitch as scientists watched AR 1476 during
early May: The PAMELA instruments were not usable at the
time since they were in calibration mode. Scientists including de Nolfo and another Goddard researcher, Eric Christian,
let the PAMELA collaboration know that this might be the
chance they had been waiting for and they convinced the
Russian team in charge of the mission to turn the instruments
back on to science mode.
And then the active region pretty much did nothing for two
weeks, says Christian. But just before it disappeared over
the right side of the sun, it finally erupted with an M-class flare.
This was it! This was the moment these scientists hoped
for. Neutron monitors all over the world (see <http://
g.nw7us.us/KOzOTt>) detected the shower of neutrons that
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

represent a GLE. Most of the time these particle showers do


not contain the solar energetic particles themselves, but
rather contain the resultant debris of super-fast particles
slamming into atoms in Earths atmosphere. This time
around, these particles were the real deal and the elevated
levels of neutrons lasted for an hour.
Simultaneously, PAMELA recorded the incoming solar particles in space, providing one of the first in-situ measurements
of the stream of particles that initiated a GLE. Only the early
data have been seen so far, but scientists have high hopes
that as more observations are relayed to Earth, they will be
able to learn more about the May 17 onslaught of solar protons, and figure out why this event triggered a GLE when earlier bursts of solar protons in January and March 2012 didnt.
PAMELA is a space-borne experiment of the WiZard collaboration, which is an international collaboration between
Italian (I.N.F.N. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare),
Russian, German, and Swedish institutes, realized with the
main support of the Italian (ASI) and Russian (Roscosmos)
Space Agencies. Read more at <http://g.nw7us.us/KOzGn3>.
There are some good resources you can peruse regarding
GLEs, which are listed by this Google search: <http://
g.nw7us.us/2adWPR0>. Stay tuned, as we watch the Sun
each month for more space weather science, and report the
highlights in this column.

September Propagation
On some days during September, propagation on 10 through
20 meters will be much like conditions during the summer.
Other days (and more often), conditions will be more like
those experienced during the winter. With the 10.7-cm flux
levels on the low to moderate side (between 50 and 100) during September, openings on 10 through 20 meters will be
spotty, with the greater number occurring on the 20- and 17meter amateur radio bands. When paths open on the higher bands, conditions will change quickly, and vary greatly.
On the highest of these bands (10 through 15 meters), paths
from Europe and the South Pacific as well as from Asia, into
September 2016

CQ

95

the North American region, will occur on


days when the flux is higher than 80.
However, lower frequencies will produce more DX.
For shortwave radio enthusiasts,
watch 16 meters, used by a larger group
of broadcasters, as it will be the most
reliable higher band, especially when
the solar flux levels are higher during
the month. This band will usually supply day-path propagation even over the
polar paths. A considerable improvement is expected, with the band opening shortly after sunrise and remaining
open until after sundown.
However, 16 meters will not stay open
late into the night as it typically does during the spring. Openings should be possible from all areas of the world, with
conditions best from Europe and the
northeast before noon, and from the
rest of the world during the afternoon
hours. Openings from the South Pacific,
Australia, New Zealand, and the Far
East should be possible well into the
early evening, particularly when we
have low geomagnetic activity combined with higher flux readings.
Expect the same dynamics on 15
meters. There will be some surprises,
so do not discount this one during your
daytime DX hunting.

Conditions may be marginal during


the month, but these higher bands are
players. There will be less polar propagation as we move toward winter,
though, making some parts of the world
difficult to hear over these paths. To
catch the openings over high latitudes,
get on these bands shortly after sunrise,
or watch for polar signals as they close
for the evening.
The 17- and 20-meter bands compete
with 15 for the best daytime DX band this
month. Look for 17 and 20 to open for
DX at sunrise and remain open from all
directions for a few hours. It should be

possible to hear many areas of the world


throughout the daylight hours, with a
peak in the afternoon. Nighttime conditions will favor openings from the south
and tropical areas, but some openings
will also be possible from other areas,
especially during days when the sunspot
count is higher. Look for polar gray-line
propagation from Asia. Long-path is
common on 20 meters from southern
Asia, the Middle East, and northeastern
Africa as well as the Indian Ocean region
via the North Polar path.
The 30-meter band is an all-season
band. Expect an incredible amount of

/i 7->i
*>}>>`L
The single most comprehensive
source of information on HF
propagation is once again
available from CQ!

Detailed image of a complex sunspot group shows dark, highly magnetized


umbras and structured penumbras. (Courtesy of Southwest Research
Institute/Dr. Matt Penn)

s 0RINCIPLESOFIONOSPHERIC
PROPAGATION
s 3OLARCYCLEPREDICTIONS
s 3TUNNINGPHOTOGRAPHY
s)ONOSPHERICFORECASTING
s 3PECIFICPREDICTIONSFOR
#YCLE
s !NALYSISOF(&PROPAGATION
PREDICTIONSOFTWARE
s %XPANSIVEREFERENCESANDDATASOURCES
s 3CORESOFCHARTS TABLES ANDSUMMARY
INFORMATION
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additional.

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Phone 516-681-2922 FAX 516-681-2926

http://store.cq-amateur-radio.com

96

CQ

September 2016

Mobile jet streams in the Sun migrate from the poles toward the equator as the
solar cycle progresses. At left (solar minimum), the red jet streams are located
near the poles. At right (solar maximum), they have migrated close to the equator. The jet streams are associated with the locations where sunspots emerge
during the solar cycle, and are thought to play an important role in
generating the Suns magnetic field. (Courtesy of Southwest Research Institute)
Visit Our Web Site

Latitude-time plots of jet streams


under the Suns surface show the
surprising shutdown of the solar
cycle mechanism. New jet streams
typically form at about 50 degrees
latitude (as in 1999 on this plot) and
are associated with the following
solar cycle 11 years later. New jet
streams associated with a future
2018-2020 solar maximum were
expected to form by 2008 but are
not present even now, indicating a
delayed or missing C 25. (Courtesy
of Southwest Research Institute)

activity on this hot band, though you have to use digital or


Morse code modes. Shortwave radio listeners will enjoy 31
meters, as many broadcasters choose this for the same reason, targeting their audiences during prime times (morning and
early evenings). The conditions prevalent on 19 and 22 are
more pronounced, and last much longer, on these bands. Look
for exotic stations a few hours before sunrise through early
morning, then again in the early evening before sunset, until
around midnight.
Expect an improvement in nighttime DX conditions on 40,
60, 75, 80, and 160 meters during September and October.
This is due to the ever-increasing hours of darkness and a
seasonal decrease in the static level. The 40-meter band
should be best for worldwide DX from sunset to sunrise. And,
while we have limitations on 60 meters, you can always depend
on hearing signals from early evening (before sunset) to a few
hours after sunrise on this band. For exotic shortwave radio
regional signals, check 75 through 120 meters during the hours
of darkness, especially for an hour or so before local sunrise.

Medium Wave
With the seasonal increase in geomagnetic activity during
the summer months, MW DX (for the ham, 160 meters, for
the shortwave listener, 120 meters) over the northern latitudes is severely attenuated. This can be a blessing for those
trying to DX tropical AM broadcast stations and mid-latitude
medium and low-power stations, since the interference from
strong over-the-pole stations is reduced. Signals below 120
meters will improve, with longer hours of darkness and the
decline of noise-producing weather. Seasonal static, which
makes it difficult to hear the weak DX signals, is decreasing
little-by-little as we move away from the Autumnal Equinox.
Stretch out those Beverage antennas and start looking for
signals along nighttime paths.

VHF Conditions
The Sporadic-E season is winding down this time of year.
There may be a few openings possible this month, but tropospheric ducting propagation is a real possibility. Look for
signals on paths crossing through stalled high-pressure
zones in the Midwest, or along cool, wet air masses.
Tropospheric conditions are generally very good for many of
the VHF bands during September with the appearance of different weather fronts. This will be the primary mode for working up to 300 miles.
www.cq-amateur-radio.com

Meteor shower activity will be slim. Toward the end of


September Trans-equatorial (TE) propagation will begin to
occur between southern North America and northern South
America. Openings will generally occur in the late afternoon
to early evening.

Current Solar Cycle Progress


The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory at Penticton,
BC, reports the observed radio flux for June 2016 is 81.9,
down from Mays 93.1. The 12-month smoothed 10.7-cm flux
centered on December 2015 is 102.5, down from
Novembers 105.3. The predicted smoothed 10.7-cm solar
flux for September 2016 is 91, give or take about 14 points.
The Royal Observatory of Belgium reports that the monthly mean observed sunspot number for June 2016 is 12.5,
considerably lower than Mays 31.3, and Aprils 22.8. We are
clearly in the declining phase of the current cycle, with the
continuing steady decline in sunspots. The 12-month running
smoothed sunspot number centered on December 2015 is
34.7, down from Novembers 36.8. A smoothed sunspot
count of 33, give or take about 10 points, is expected for
September 2016.
The observed monthly mean planetary A-Index (Ap) for
June 2016 is 9, but the geomagnetic activity level has averaged a constant level for months. The 12-month smoothed
Ap index centered on December 2015 is 12.5, the same as
during November and October. While the average remains
constant, the day-to-day still fluctuates, at times, widely.
Expect the overall geomagnetic activity to be varying greatly between quiet and disturbed at least once during
September (see the last-minute forecast for which days this
will likely occur).
I welcome your thoughts, questions, and experiences
regarding this fascinating science of propagation. Please
check out the space weather and radio propagation
self-study course that this columnist is offering at
<http://NW7US.us/swc>.
You may email me, write me a letter, or catch me on the
HF amateur bands. If you are on Facebook, check out
<http://www.facebook.com/spacewx.hfradio> and <http://
www.facebook.com/NW7US>. Speaking of Facebook
check out the CQ Amateur Radio Magazine fan page at
<http://www.facebook.com/CQMag>.
Ill be keeping my ears to the radio, hoping to hear you on
the air. Happy DX!
73, Tomas, NW7US
September 2016

CQ

97

(Continued from page 23)


Number groups after call letters
denote following: Band (A = all; an
additional A is All Band Assisted; A
after each band is Assisted for that
band), Final Score, Number of QSOs,
and Prefixes. An asterisk (*) before a
call indicates low power. Line scores
in italics indicate late log received
(past the deadline). Certificate winners are listed in boldface. (Note that
the country names and groupings
reflect the DXCC list at the time of the
contest.)

2016 WPX SSB RESULTS


SINGLE OPERATOR
NORTH AMERICA
United States
District 1
K1LZ
KQ2M/1
AC1U
AB1WR
W1GD
AA1SU
WA2HIP/1
K1IX
NF1L
KB1WXM
K1BV
KC1DAD
NR1I

A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14
3.7

*WC5T/1

*NB1N
*W1TO
*KQ1F

"
"
"

*N1DID
"
*KB1LRL
"
*W1CCE
"
*WA1N
"
*W1LUC
"
*KA3RLZ/1 "
*W1ZFG
"
*K1WCC
"
*W1CRK
"
*K1XS
"
*W1OHM
"
*K1LHO
"
*KB1FRK
"
*AB1XA
"
*K1HG
"
*W1GIV
"
*WC4E/1
"
*KB1WEZ
"
*NQ1C
"
*N1WRK
21
*K1VSJ
"
*NR1H
14
*W1AKI
"
*W1HFG
7
WU3A/1
AA
KR1CW
"
N2GZ/1
WR1ST
AK1W

"
"
"

WA1ZYX
N1KWF
W1KQ
AE1T
W8TOM/1
AA1O
WA1DRQ
K1SM
K1SD
K1TH
K1RX
NF1A
K1JB
W1PEF
KA1ZD
K1DBO
K1ZZ
WJ1B
WJ1R
WE2W/1
KB1ODO
KX1X
K1IG
W1ZQ
W1RM
KX1BK

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A

*N1API
*WA1BXY
*W1DYJ
*N1FTP
*KA1EKR
*KC1ACN
*K1GJY
*W1WRA
*KC1CRS
*W1PFZ
*K1DJ
*N1DBL
*KC1AXJ
*AB1YH
*N1EEK
*KG1E

AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A

15,981,756 4252 1281


15,481,923 4137 1259
13,223,180 3667 1187
(OP:N1UR)
362,160
383 360
210,066
265 223
175,890
352 246
98,040
236 172
95,200
220 160
37,206
152 117
17,712
88
82
3,842
34
34
57,260
140 140
416,172
540 316
(OP:W1NT)
4,206,122 1817 827
(OP:W1UE)
294,656
364 256
184,642
288 226
176,484
275 231
(OP:K1XM)
153,800
270 200
136,565
266 191
109,900
240 175
53,579
160 131
30,603
120 101
29,830
108
95
28,764
108 102
23,400
101
90
22,704
104
88
22,090
108
94
21,228
105
87
19,656
104
91
18,183
96
87
16,767
92
81
13,580
75
70
10,980
69
61
6,000
50
48
4,830
47
46
2,070
35
30
21,250
90
85
260
10
10
9,048
58
58
3,567
43
41
54
3
3
11,453,130 3239 1170
1,140,496
816 476
(OP:W1CTN)
593,318
526 362
484,807
645 367
(OP:KC1CWF)
391,392
394 302
(OP:K5ZD)
363,660
446 319
295,318
390 298
225,420
293 255
218,736
321 248
134,498
241 182
128,312
244 172
126,528
231 192
100,278
209 162
99,456
191 168
84,456
193 138
78,584
177 152
63,195
192 165
49,762
185 139
48,585
138 123
40,737
126 111
33,312
114
96
31,506
108
89
20,203
101
89
18,966
99
87
16,154
86
82
15,862
92
77
9,128
58
56
4,902
40
38
888
14
12
396
12
12
909,558
722 507
(OP:W1QK)
605,320
558 409
299,440
476 304
284,064
365 269
233,308
320 292
229,554
310 234
116,875
238 187
78,840
184 146
71,824
175 134
71,416
199 158
70,720
178 136
49,400
166 130
46,248
129 123
41,328
138 123
5,500
44
44
5,152
50
46
684,156
579 438

District 2
WS9M/2
K2QB
WB2NFL
K2JMY
AC2MT
N1IBM/2
KC2KZJ
NN2NN
K2XA
NF2RS

A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28

KU2M

21

98

CQ

775,836
715 414
191,700
288 225
158,974
270 202
77,184
249 192
70,356
162 143
49,657
129 127
26,361
94
87
21,576
92
87
259
7
7
15
3
3
(OP:WA2AOG)
4,223,389 1839 883

KM2L
WN2O

"
1.8

52,496
4,554

*WW2Y

8,047,572

*WA2JQK
*AD2KA
*N2BEG
*WA2FZB
*KD2FND
*N2MTG
*KD2JOE
*KR2Q
*WA1FXK/2
*NO2J

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

530,322
391,800
325,992
205,119
146,041
130,676
129,429
127,206
107,887
106,428

*KC2QJB
*NM2O
*N2IVN
*KC2OSR
*WA2QAU
*WA2ALY
*KB2SDF
*N2DD
*N2KOJ
*KC2MBV
*KX1W/2
*NW2K
*KD2GUD
*KD2GXL
*W2FUN
*KC2PDO
*NG2D
*AB2IO
*W2MRD
*W2DFC
*K2JF
*KB2KOL
*KC2NEO
*KD2DOE
*KD2DVW
*AA2TH
*KD2KCD
*W2GTR
*N2JJ
*W2KMK
*W3EH/2
*AD2TM
*AC2NW
*W2PIP
*AD2EE
*N9FXF/2
*K2AL
KM2O
NN2DX

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
"
"
21
14
"
"
"
"
"
AA
"

91,224
71,100
63,480
50,964
45,864
31,900
30,400
27,645
25,080
20,090
19,532
14,457
12,342
11,718
11,628
10,792
4,770
2,233
1,682
1,536
1,320
756
748
660
468
319
96
2,465
1,495
1,071
10,368
89,726
8,400
4,410
3,060
15
6
2,274,200
2,116,230

K2RET
N2MUN
W2LK
W2VQ
K2RB
W2CCW
N2VW
KC2LRC
KC2SYF
KC2LST
K2HAT
N2FF
WR2G
WB2AIV
*N2SQW
*WB2WPM
*KS2G
*K2DBK
*W2ZS
*KE2D
*W2JC
*AC2QY
*KA2BSK
*K2SI
*KB2WZT
*N2VM
*AC2EV
*KD2HFN
*KB2URI
*KB2GD
*KC2ASA
*N2NKX

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
14A
"
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14A

659,890
599,807
222,560
210,197
189,441
167,473
62,225
55,461
25,220
2,700
54
310
399,938
36
1,674,306
587,820
222,894
145,110
141,454
110,980
46,182
37,664
17,640
11,584
10,915
9,408
4,294
3,605
1,475
731
360
0

149 136
69
46
(OP:N2GC)
2925 1027
(OP:N2NT)
557 338
484 300
415 282
321 213
257 217
263 182
254 197
253 191
231 193
253 181
(OP:N2LID)
199 168
191 158
174 138
159 137
144 126
127 110
124 100
124
97
101
88
107
82
90
76
93
79
73
66
69
63
72
68
73
71
46
45
30
29
29
29
24
24
26
24
18
18
17
17
22
20
13
13
11
11
6
6
31
29
23
23
21
21
67
64
199 182
64
60
44
42
36
36
3
3
2
2
1164 664
1173 690
(OP:W4FS)
583 385
597 377
301 208
327 247
320 217
282 223
146 131
152 133
110
97
29
27
3
3
11
10
434 371
4
4
995 573
548 388
339 261
278 210
267 214
233 179
156 129
129 107
81
70
68
64
61
59
60
48
41
38
35
35
26
25
17
17
12
12
0
0

District 3
KU3K
K3ZO
K3CCR
N3XF
KW3A
N3TWM
KBAK/3
K3UA
K3ISH
AI3Q
N3XL
*KC3R
*KD3HN
*K3URT
*W3IUU
*K2LNS/3
*N3MWQ
*KB3VMR
*K3JAG
*KB3RCT
*W3AYT
*KC3DBG
*KB3RKM
*K3KU
*N3LT
*N3ACP
*N3JNX
*K3LAB
*KB3OZA
*K1GAH/3
*KC3BRA
*KK4FYV/3
*KC3ASH
*K3MZ
*N3VYZ
*AB3XJ
*KE3O
*K3DCX
*AA3II
*KB3GJT
*KB3QWC

September 2016

A
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
14
"
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

14,863,792 4118 1237


(OP:N3KS)
8,788,000 2831 1040
694,908
595 388
(OP:N3UM)
693,645
586 393
574,308
749 371
1,920
35
30
704
16
16
2,126,020 1233 629
16,948
82
76
105,185
202 193
9,620
67
65
6,881,056 2401 973
(OP:LZ4AX)
659,824
594 368
135,999
276 207
119,890
245 190
99,696
230 186
92,004
204 164
64,207
169 143
62,424
180 136
45,981
130 117
39,380
127 110
32,130
123 105
18,960
94
80
16,170
92
77
15,841
78
73
13,370
81
70
12,096
74
64
11,520
69
64
11,340
75
70
9,480
65
60
6,240
50
48
4,988
45
43
4,635
48
45
4,464
40
36
4,140
51
46
792
18
18
704
16
16
390
15
15
270
10
9
220
10
10
-2
2
2

*KB3JZB
28
9,633
62
57
*KA3MZR
"
192
8
8
*AB3YC
14
1,820
26
26
*KO3T
7
18,240
93
80
*WA1HEW/3 "
3,332
35
34
NZ3D
AA 10,032,715 3134 1133
(OP:K3ZU)
N3OC
"
2,794,495 1337 745
WB2ZAB/3 "
2,765,924 1359 692
K3RA
"
1,860,455 1044 613
K3WW
"
1,693,236
996 596
W3FV
"
1,040,415
807 499
NK3Y
"
1,031,416
763 458
WC3N
"
709,468
615 386
N3FJP
"
664,660
615 398
WA3AAN
"
298,656
405 272
N3RR
"
297,279
374 261
KB3KNX
"
249,363
352 269
4U1WB/3
"
174,840
317 235
(OP:AJ3M)
K3ND
"
152,872
252 194
KD3TB
"
141,372
237 198
NW3DC
"
117,900
232 180
(OP:W3DQ)
NA3M
"
86,019
185 159
AC3U
"
79,879
198 151
(OP:W3UL)
NB3R
"
26,481
103
97
W2DLT/3
"
16,236
95
82
AI3Z
"
12,064
60
58
K3OQ
"
11,656
66
62
N3HEE
1.8A
11,016
96
72
*KC3AZX AA
427,558
493 313
*W3VYK
"
300,027
387 273
*NW3Y
"
297,606
344 257
*K3NDM
"
157,527
299 207
*N3WMC
"
125,095
266 197
*K3MAW
"
109,630
219 190
*KU3N
"
103,558
236 182
*KB3OZC
"
83,804
186 164
*N3FM
"
67,750
163 125
*N3ALN
"
44,296
149 113
*KC3GEM
"
40,626
140 122
*N3VN
"
7,228
53
52
*K3JRZ
"
6,096
50
48
*W3ZX
"
5,632
38
32
*AG3Q
"
3,312
38
36
*KA3PCX
"
2,790
31
30
*N3YUG
"
203
7
7
*N3ZA
21A
131,634
235 206
*N3AFT
14A
84
8
7

District 4
WZ4F

NR3X/4

"

WQ6SL/4

"

K4BAI
K4PV
AD4TR

"
"
"

W4KW
N9DFD/4
NJ2F/4
WB4YDY
W1GKT/4
NA4K
WX4US
NO4AH

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

KA4HOT
K5KG/4
KT3V/4
W4UT
KM4EKZ
KY4OD
KY4D
KM4CPA
W7HJ/4
N4MM
KU4V
AI4IC
KM4IK
KG6MC/4
K1TO/4
N3JS/4
N4VAN
KR4Z

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21

N4EK
KA8Q/4
N4LZ
N4ZZ
KK9A/4
K4NV
W4WWQ
*AD4Z
*K4CGY
*KK4RV
*WN4AFP
*KV4KY
*KD9LA/4
*K3ORC/4
*N4CF
*KK4JW
*WA4JA
*W4DAS
*W4HCW
*KJ4KKD
*NT4Z
*WPV/4
*W4ADB
*AE4M
*K4FTO
*W4JUU
*NC8C/4

"
"
"
14
7
"
"
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*K4VBM
*WJ4HCP
*AC4YD
*KK4PUX
*KM4SEG
*NJ8J/4
*W5APO/4
*N4CW
*N4KHI
*NDIM/4
*K1KNQ/4
*N8YSZ/4
*AG4IM
*K4CGA
*KD4YDD

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

8,040,744 3211 1086


(OP:K4AB)
7,003,898 2827 1037
(OP:N4YDU)
5,880,216 2519 998
(OP:N4PN)
4,662,888 2226 888
4,262,160 2097 860
3,885,975 1997 855
(OP:N4UU)
757,600
646 400
734,155
729 409
457,640
515 340
456,399
494 323
266,288
412 272
217,224
314 252
196,443
313 219
184,800
270 220
(OP:NT4TS)
102,240
219 180
93,987
196 177
84,042
216 161
76,860
200 140
66,464
176 134
57,129
170 137
55,924
141 124
51,240
153 122
40,446
126 126
29,029
100
91
25,935
103
95
24,206
107
91
21,402
97
87
18,177
92
83
10,368
59
54
2,160
27
27
21
3
3
1,932,480 1187 671
(OP:N4OX)
254,898
344 289
99,297
192 177
36,540
126 116
24,698
129 106
3,761,604 1538 759
734,977
636 383
1,104
16
16
3,850,185 1945 835
731,300
666 412
354,918
441 298
241,650
374 270
217,906
322 221
211,564
327 233
192,855
312 215
175,030
305 230
118,440
239 188
112,054
246 179
98,980
196 196
92,560
213 178
83,144
214 152
81,640
203 157
64,107
153 153
60,060
169 140
59,250
185 150
55,440
161 132
54,808
169 136
53,333
164 133
(OP:K8MR)
46,238
162 122
41,515
140 115
40,579
142 119
31,350
125 114
26,500
107 100
25,730
97
83
25,100
106 100
22,610
95
95
20,828
102
82
20,608
97
92
20,559
100
89
20,496
98
84
19,314
96
87
19,278
88
81
19,264
90
86

*K3ORS/4
*KV4AC
*KJ4AOM
*WA2OMT/4
*W4PFM
*NKOE/4
*KT4FQ
*KK4HEG
*K4WQ
*AK4NZ
*KD4MZM
*K4BLL
*KM4HFB
*KN1FE/4
*KM4KPJ
*KK4UON
*N4JRG
*N4AED
*KD4QMY
*AE4WG
*N4KXO
*KJ4IWZ
*W4BFH
*KK4FEM
*KR4YO
*NB4F
*W4CAN
*KJ4CEG
*N4NTO
*WX4ET
*WKLV/4
*KM4OTB
*K4WLG
*KI4EEY
*KE4QCM
*NG4L
*N4SJJ
*N3FNE/4
*AK4CJ
*KK4ZVD
*AE4PN
*KI4CBN
*W4VG
*K4GOP
*W4TWR
*KM4HVD
*KM4MGG
*NQ4K
*AA4NP
*WW6OR/4

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
"
"
"
"
21
"

18,676
17,760
17,520
16,240
15,980
15,732
14,381
10,384
8,160
8,064
7,930
7,102
7,102
6,966
6,419
6,076
5,712
5,588
4,719
4,655
4,429
4,257
3,948
3,456
3,420
3,060
2,652
2,449
2,366
2,310
1,416
1,166
1,060
1,058
1,026
903
846
242
210
180
144
44
32
1,495
1,320
784
3
0
132,840
80,337

*N4VZ
"
*W1FOX/4
"
*W4IOP
14
*KW4SM
"
*AB4GR
7
*KJ4VTH
3.7
KU1CW/4 AA
N4RV
"
NF4A
"
K3IE/4
"
W4GE
"
W4EEY
"
N4WW
"
N6AR/4
"
NS4X
"
AD8J/4
"
KE4S
"
K4SBZ
"
WS4WW
"
K4GAA
"
W2YE/4
"
W9SN/4
"
AF4RK
"
N4RJ
"
K4RUM
"
KE4YOG
"
ND1Y/4
"
KK4LGC
"
N1GMV/4
"
WK4Y
"
WC3W/4
"
KS4X
"
KM4OIX
"
K1ZW/4
"
KM4HQE
"
K5AUP/4
"
KE4KMG
"
W4LT
21A
*KT4ZB
AA
*WJ4X
"

13,938
198
7,874
2,409
1,700
1,404
5,562,089
1,346,400
1,145,435
1,075,245
886,136
661,824
396,279
315,010
270,565
259,038
248,820
232,323
217,968
212,112
196,248
187,902
187,157
180,894
158,152
150,626
118,955
110,976
107,308
73,280
72,696
53,376
45,200
40,252
32,342
25,168
6,440
15,768
1,480,500
589,818

*W1MD/4
"
*WR1TR/4
"
*KT8TD/4
"
*N4KM
"
*KM4IPF
"
*KG4Y
"
*WD5DAX/4 "
*AJ4AA
"
*AI4QQ
"
*NN4RB
"
*KM4FRM
"
*KM4LLF
"
*KM4JA
"
*KE4KY
"
*WE3C/4
"
*N1OKL/4
"
*WB4MNK
"
*N9NB/4
"
*KK4WPR
"
*N3CKI/4
"
*W4CDO
"
*W4BTA
"
*W4JDS
"
*KM4GCI
"
*KT4LS
"
*AE4FH
"
*N4DTF
"
*AD4YQ
"
*NA4W
28A

220,816
198,450
94,822
93,330
91,698
73,005
51,604
44,132
43,491
43,010
41,472
34,236
33,216
24,024
21,728
21,409
15,840
13,065
9,856
4,600
2,635
2,346
768
759
455
300
272
152
59,264

*K3MDX/4 21A
*NSMX/4 14A
*N4KWR
"
*WUB/4 3.7A

101,115
7,571
0
81,879

104
92
85
80
82
73
84
80
71
68
88
76
78
73
66
59
53
51
58
56
66
61
57
53
59
53
58
54
53
49
50
49
49
48
47
44
47
39
49
49
43
43
47
43
43
42
37
36
39
38
37
34
34
34
33
31
30
26
32
30
25
24
22
22
21
20
25
23
21
19
21
21
18
18
11
11
10
10
9
9
8
8
4
4
4
4
25
23
22
22
17
16
1
1
1
1
242 216
222 183
(OP:K6JAT)
71
69
9
9
63
62
35
33
20
20
28
27
2100 949
887 495
932 535
816 485
754 431
646 383
435 351
364 289
395 265
330 246
306 290
336 259
304 228
292 216
296 222
320 234
293 211
306 219
275 212
265 203
268 185
226 192
229 193
162 160
165 156
152 139
129 100
121 116
115 103
91
88
40
40
77
73
1162 564
576 394
(OP:N4XL)
297 296
307 245
245 182
210 153
268 186
203 155
160 133
154 118
145 109
137 115
130 128
141 108
108
96
98
88
105
97
93
79
80
72
72
65
64
64
43
40
34
31
35
34
17
16
23
23
13
13
12
12
9
8
8
8
174 128
(OP:K4WI)
208 189
68
67
1
1
170 147

District 5
NR5M
KT5J

A
"

KM5VI
WD5K
WR5O

"
"
"

10,362,600 3433 1140


10,138,605 3619 1095
(OP:K5TR)
4,199,536 2422 856
2,210,046 1474 674
2,139,310 1959 670

W5HFF
K5QEA
K5RX
NM5WB
KD5UVV
AD5UQ
KD5J
WQ5R
W5KS

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

KZ5J
N5RZ
WD5R
AD5A
KF8PD/5
KZ5MM

21
"
"
"
7
3.7

*KN5A

*NN5T
"
*NW5Q
"
*W5WI
"
*AE5QU
"
*K5FUV
"
*K5XU
"
*W1JCW/5
"
*KC7QY/5
"
*KF5YUB
"
*KAZPP/5 "
*W5FBK
"
*N5AW
"
*KC5KBN
"
*KF5VDX
"
*KE5OG
"
*W5ETM
"
*KBWQ/5 "
*AD5VC
"
*N5CWA
"
*KF5SNL
"
*WD5DJW
"
*WB5K
"
*W5CBP
"
*K5NAP
"
*W5RAW
"
*W4NDF/5
"
*KC5DCT
"
*WW5OBA "
*NE5U
"
*WE6EZ/5 28
*KG5MEG
"
*N5DTT
21
*N5PV
"
*W5CSM
14
*NU5DE
"
*KG5GMN
*K5TXM
*N9WL/5
*KF5CYZ
WQ5MM

"
"
"
7
AA

K5LLA
W2GS/5
N5UI
AF5CC
AD5WB
W5WZ
N5VGK
K6RAH/5
WB2RIS/5
K5ZO
KB5R
*N5DO
*WB5EIN
*AE5XQ

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
7A
AA
"
"

*K5BKW
"
*AA5BE
"
*KE5LQ
"
*KF5GTX
"
*K5QW
"
*WD5GBS
"
*N5EKW
"
*NT5I
"
*KG5JBY
"
*K6YLG/5
"
*WN1B/5
"
*AF5OI
14A

259,313
373 257
250,008
377 264
195,360
285 222
163,767
292 237
163,170
291 210
145,665
264 195
136,316
276 212
79,092
195 156
5,184
60
54
(OP:KC5CYY)
221,306
374 283
85,320
203 180
79,200
190 165
56,000
221 160
6,251
49
47
372,096
619 323
(OP:W5PR)
3,140,613 1904 783
(OP:K5WA)
258,560
407 256
209,678
383 238
188,730
356 233
182,517
445 249
157,522
297 226
131,405
251 205
99,981
202 161
94,160
242 176
64,527
181 137
55,200
153 150
46,291
149 119
31,152
95
88
29,190
134 105
21,627
104
89
21,100
116 100
16,646
99
82
14,134
81
74
8,835
59
57
6,844
64
58
5,994
61
54
4,048
46
44
3,402
49
42
2,660
42
38
1,113
23
21
464
17
16
234
13
13
165
11
11
50
5
5
0
0
0
30,616
121
89
270
10
10
31,806
127 114
32
4
4
46,050
187 150
16,065
85
85
(OP:N5KF)
12,246
89
78
10,804
84
74
2,072
41
37
954
18
18
10,273,032 3378 1199
(OP:N8OO)
290,440
395 265
96,278
194 161
91,676
249 164
68,328
183 156
56,794
191 146
43,740
188 135
11,325
77
75
10,816
68
64
12
2
2
1,722,600 1170 638
64,950
201 150
1,709,512 1069 623
143,788
303 206
118,767
233 177
(OP:HK1A)
72,960
203 152
64,752
165 142
62,472
181 137
32,219
154 101
22,428
104
84
9,464
65
56
6,844
61
59
2,460
31
30
70
5
5
12
2
2
0
0
0
4,816
61
56

District 6
NR6Q
N6AA
N6NF
K6SCA
W6FB
AD6NR
KG6SVF
K6MMU
WA6MRK
WA6URY
K6UUW
NC6K
WB6HVW
K6ELE
KA6MLE
K1YTG/6
KM6G
AK6TR
KJ6MBW
*NF6A

A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
A

*WN6K
*AE6YB
*KK6NON
*WZ6ZZ
*KE6WC
*AB6CC
*K6PGH
*AI6DS
*NJ6G
*KA6MIB
*KJ6LBA
*K6UF
*KG6HJU
*N6PM
*K6MUG
*KK6ZIZ
*KJ6PTX
*NJ6W
*AF6GQ
*K6CSL
*NX6I

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*K6OAK

"

4,300,032 2207 768


808,780
809 436
482,040
708 390
387,368
687 328
152,852
327 212
94,062
257 183
78,888
223 173
33,440
128 110
25,404
106
87
22,784
103
89
20,748
97
91
15,563
86
79
11,550
79
70
9,702
82
63
7,370
58
55
6,552
59
56
2,890
36
34
660
16
15
247,848
422 276
3,289,755 1515 679
(OP:K6XX)
756,585
877 391
86,337
269 181
79,380
269 180
77,655
236 155
73,038
208 141
52,704
185 144
47,988
160 129
46,002
167 123
44,343
170 117
30,629
128 109
27,720
120
99
21,538
111
89
19,125
120
85
16,125
86
75
14,060
76
74
13,916
90
71
12,480
99
78
12,144
79
69
11,376
82
72
10,074
74
69
6,477
57
51
(OP:AA6EE)
6,450
62
50

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*W6IA
*KE6PLA
*KF6ZYD
*K6MCS
*N6PUC
*AI6IN
*KB6A
*WB6KDH
*NC6PT
*AD6GE
*KK6ANP
*K7XE/6
*N6RM
*N6ZE
*N6MUF
*W6BJB
*W6AFA
*N6ENO
*KK6ONL
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WA6KHK
W6TK
KI6QDH
N6YG
WC6H
KR6N
K6KNS
N6QQ
N6ETO
KJ6LJB
K6GT
AI6EG
NK6A
W6SX
NKQ/6
W6OAT
KI6QVI
AI6Z
WE6Z
W9TVX/6
AG1RL/6

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
"
"
14
7
"
"
1.8
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

K6JEB
"
W6GJB
"
W6HYI
"
AF6SA
"
NE6AA
"
N2NS/6
28A
KD6WKY 3.7A
*N6ORB
AA
*K6AAB
"
*KQ6P
"
*W6JBR
"
*AG6AY
"
*K6DSW
"
*W6DTJ
"
*NC6B
"
*N6DZR
"
*WW6G
"
*WB6CZG
"
*W6JWP
"
*KE6TIM
"
*W6AWW 21A
*KM6I
3.7A

6,288
52
48
5,665
67
55
5,512
60
52
4,042
47
43
3,885
39
35
3,654
52
42
2,436
30
28
666
19
18
462
15
14
189
9
9
54
6
6
85,746
212 186
71,732
198 158
28,614
137 114
2,850
40
38
1,275
25
25
528,775
662 325
2,736
40
38
100
5
5
40
5
5
1,794,384 1337 612
1,300,460
842 490
945,574
927 493
373,660
566 314
300,792
410 302
230,685
385 273
178,334
336 247
159,478
274 242
124,485
243 193
26,361
111 101
24,653
102
89
20,748
105
84
18,480
98
84
16,856
124
98
14,058
80
71
10,797
69
61
10,317
60
57
9,296
64
56
5,500
54
50
5,243
57
49
3,904
32
32
(OP:W1SRD)
3,135
38
33
1,584
23
22
1,248
24
24
1,218
22
21
858
24
22
6,255
50
45
780
13
13
116,813
284 199
65,351
212 143
64,107
173 153
58,374
219 138
50,570
171 130
45,625
174 125
30,591
126
99
29,664
118 103
12,096
74
72
6,912
70
54
2,975
36
35
1,334
31
29
170
10
10
100,035
253 195
4
1
1

District 7
NR7DX

WZ7ZR

"

K9JF/7
W7YAQ
W7XQ
W6AEA/7
KS7T
W7CAR
K7ABV
KZ7X

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

W7PV
KG7P
W7ON
KB7AZ
W8WOM/7
N7XCZ
K7YDL
K9QJS/7
NI7R
W7FD
W7TX
WG7X
NE7D
W7WOF
W7GDK
AF7LZ
WO7V
K7CHC
N7RQ
K7JQ
NR7ON
W7PU
AD7J
N7QS
W7WR
*AD7JP

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
14
"
7
3.7
1.8
A

*KD7RCJ
"
*N7MZW
"
*WX7JM
"
*WA7PRC
"
*AA7DK
"
*KB7HDX
"
*WAWWW/7"
*KG7JWD
"
*N6LB/7
"
*WM7X
"
*N7VZU
"
*W7QN
"
*WF7L
"
*W1DGL/7
"
*N7KN
"
*KB6UNC/7 "
*KE7ZAC
"
*N7INV
"
*W6US/7
"
*NKVN/7
"
*KB7JJG
"
*N7JI
"
*NG7O
"
*KA7T
"
*N7AME
"
*W4ES/7
"
*K7JKM
"

3,858,480 1768 828


(OP:N9RV)
1,956,544 1721 608
(OP:W7ZR)
1,708,476 1090 602
727,824
638 472
704,339
688 419
620,536
598 392
302,120
474 332
291,128
555 302
241,402
436 301
180,782
439 259
(OP:W7WW)
105,056
222 196
88,816
244 182
88,722
244 159
76,608
199 152
66,815
268 161
56,295
179 139
53,841
143 131
48,230
174 130
38,961
157 111
28,490
129 110
27,600
108
92
21,712
113
92
21,018
106
93
17,253
91
81
13,601
70
67
693
22
21
406
14
14
0
0
0
1,911,930 1504 631
1,080
32
24
343,343
616 343
55,944
224 168
68,354
156 143
403
13
13
4
1
1
1,640,820 1253 580
(OP:K2PO)
292,824
442 294
287,574
572 287
206,257
387 239
157,794
303 221
107,520
236 168
99,190
238 182
95,760
210 180
83,040
213 160
77,805
241 171
74,571
220 159
70,679
194 161
58,487
201 143
42,588
173 126
41,856
161 128
36,059
131 107
35,750
161 125
28,600
136 110
28,408
128 106
24,864
144
96
20,610
95
90
19,588
94
83
19,158
108
93
15,879
100
79
12,802
88
74
12,150
90
75
9,360
71
65
9,322
68
59

*W7/HB9FHV
*N7ZUF
*K7TR
*KA7PNH
*K7EPH
*N6TPT/7
*KBNHW/7
*NA7UT
*KB7N
*K1AUS/7
*KC7H
*AC7MX
*AJ4BB/7
*AC7UH
*N8PPF/7
*N7TEW
*K7DBN
*KM7N
*K7JSG
*NE4RD/7
*AF7MD
*KB7YS
*KC5EGZ/7
*AF7OK
*KF7WWP
*KR7RK
*WN7Y
*W7UPF
*AF7VC
*N7FLT
*KE7GKI
*NG7W
*K7SKE
*AD6ZR/7
*WA7NWL
*WN7RRX
KA6BIM/7
KD7PCE
KG7YUV
AJ7T
WR7Q
W7WHY
AE7NR
WS7L
K7VIT
KJ7NL
N7ZO
KM6CQ/7
AA7V
N9NA/7
W7CT
N7DXT
KT7G
W7SLS
KB7KYK
N6YMM/7
AF7QZ
K7IOA
K7MY
NA2U/7
KT7I

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

7,809
7,384
6,909
6,804
6,254
6,104
5,264
3,772

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
21
"
14
"
"
"
"
7
1.8
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
"
14A

KF7WRS
"
W7ZCU
7A
KD7DCR
"
*KG7GYI
AA
*AC7JM
"
*KE7II
"
*AE7DW
"
*K7JNA
"
*KI6AHH/7
"
*N7DJD
"
*WA7SHP
"
*AK7DB
"
*WA7DUH
"
*WA7YXY
"
*WA7RR
"
*WA7YAZ
"
*KC7V
"
*KK7L
"
*KV7J
"
*KK7A
"
*KG7TVX
"
*K7AHF
14A

3,634
3,608
2,640
2,604
2,214
2,135
1,938
1,890
1,035
924
828
594
234
216
165
96
32
16
3
78,581
3
162,816
2,590
580
96
3
48,870
1,392
3,738,080
827,640
413,224
221,260
164,603
133,926
125,664
121,800
105,660
99,960
92,800
51,986
46,374
40,112
30,797
30,090
18,711
10,676
10,164
4,520
2,449
2,072
18,018
7,920
1,210,221
75,445
25,088
24,056
268,800
53,480
41,040
33,496
22,154
19,552
17,112
11,594
11,189
5,764
4,940
4,080
2,849
2,788
986
962
560
100
6,160

65
57
65
52
61
49
91
63
55
53
62
56
51
47
52
46
(OP:K7DLX)
49
46
47
41
44
40
37
31
30
27
35
35
39
34
30
30
24
23
23
21
23
23
19
18
13
13
10
9
11
11
6
6
4
4
4
4
1
1
204 179
1
1
275 256
38
35
20
20
8
8
1
1
165 135
33
29
1835 766
669 456
601 329
396 260
355 241
385 221
320 204
246 200
256 180
248 196
205 160
189 139
149 118
116 109
109 103
123 102
86
81
77
68
78
66
41
40
36
31
42
37
94
91
61
60
1325 603
(OP:K7YK)
246 191
133
98
118
97
442 280
205 140
162 120
139 106
113 106
110
94
93
93
77
62
76
67
50
44
58
52
43
40
38
37
35
34
18
17
26
26
25
20
10
10
57
56

District 8
NA8V
WA8RCN
K8DIL
W8UF
K8DC
AB8AA
NS8O
N8IVE
K8IKW
K8EAW
W8TFI
KE8BII
N8BJQ
WB8O
WR8AA

A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
14

KD8SQ
"
W8GOC
"
ND8DX
3.7
*WB8TLI
A
*N8SBE
"
*N8MWK
"
*N8IL
"
*N8GLS
"
*AC8JF
"
*N8TFD
"
*N8YXR
"
*WB8SBI
"
*W8TM
"
*W8WDW
"
*KD8ORN
"
*KB8UUZ
"
*KACP/8
"
*W8TAH
"
*WT8E
"
*W8ASA
"
*W8DWC
"
*KE8DEM
"
*W4YPW/8 "
*AB8OU
"
*KJ8O
"
*W8FNT
"
*ND8D
"
*N8CDY
"
*WD8M
"
*KT8D
"

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

5,684,910 2374 966


432,900
487 325
117,180
245 186
92,575
227 175
74,448
195 144
28,120
102
95
23,460
102
92
11,718
66
62
8,748
61
54
8,723
71
61
3,876
39
38
455
14
13
1,041,755
773 517
6,608
59
56
1,135,464
852 561
(OP:K3ZJ)
69,552
170 161
66,720
176 160
914,300
831 446
1,305,285
914 519
501,972
571 354
483,298
512 334
420,849
489 327
239,956
355 251
181,846
314 217
131,300
269 202
127,853
264 197
83,314
194 154
81,048
185 132
80,454
200 159
79,968
204 147
76,890
196 165
75,831
215 161
65,685
170 145
65,052
179 156
48,708
154 132
46,968
137 114
41,082
140 123
39,120
149 120
38,880
152 120
23,896
103 103
21,472
103
88
18,634
92
77
17,958
85
82
16,058
92
74
12,028
68
62

*N4RA/8
"
*KD8UWF
"
*KC8PBS
"
*KD8OBW
"
*AD8Y
"
*AF8C
"
*W8KNO
"
*KB8SRQ
"
*N8BUS
"
*AC8RV
"
*NR8R
"
*NF8M
"
*KD8ZCH
"
*N8ZKT
"
*AC8UJ
"
*WV7TRT/8 "
*KC8NLP
14
*W8SIG
"
*W6LDS/8
"
W8MJ
AA
N8BI
"
AC8G
"
ND8L
"
N8DE
"
N8HP
"
W8GNM
"
WK2X/8
"
N8MZ
"
KC8YVP
"
N8GAS
"
*N8CWU
AA
*N8VV
"
*AA8OY
"
*AB3DC/8
"
*AC8RJ
"
*WS6K/8
"
*N8BV
"
*N8FYL
"
*KE8BWA
"
*K8KHZ
"
*WD8S
"
*N8YQX
"
*K8GT
"
*KE8XH
"
*N8DRG
"
*KC9LVT/8 "

11,466
68
9,976
69
8,964
60
7,125
64
6,370
56
6,201
59
6,084
55
4,048
48
3,468
37
2,871
33
2,754
37
2,624
33
798
23
714
17
527
17
40
5
9,295
69
5,250
50
10
2
4,677,711 1959
2,803,385 1539
739,925
657
600,325
540
536,187
500
259,940
325
254,535
321
174,825
323
110,685
202
109,392
237
1,800
31
428,577
506
271,635
367
202,665
318
71,136
201
54,663
164
51,156
162
46,746
126
33,912
129
27,468
116
22,264
96
19,197
86
6,324
54
3,120
32
1,702
25
1,407
21
319
11

63
58
54
57
49
53
52
44
34
33
34
32
21
17
17
5
65
50
2
941
731
425
407
367
317
239
225
141
172
30
373
273
229
144
137
126
106
108
109
92
79
51
30
23
21
11

District 9
KS9K
(OP:N4TZ)
W9OP
AC9KW
WX9U
W9KXQ
NJ9R
K9AMP
W9NJM
K9ZW
NA9US

3,265,640 1581

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

708,166
482,904
234,718
187,060
166,290
105,342
99,876
54,390
48,462

WS9H

"

47,616

WN9O

"

1,566

NJ9T
WT9U
KD9MS
W9ILY
KM9M
*WB9HFK
*W9KG
*W9RF
*KD9BNP
*KA9JCP
*W9SUN
*KD9GY
*W6NJB/9
*W9PA
*KC9ZTY
*N9TC
*WB9LRK
*WB9BWP
*W8NWG/9
*KC9VYX
*NX9Y
*WB8BZK/9
*KC9GHA
*KA9BBQ
*KK9U
*KB9FPY
*K9AIX
*N9BRZ
*W9MRL
*WU9D
*W9TTY
*K9SGB
*AC9EF
*KD9EEQ
*W3AXL/9
*WA9KIA
*W9GYK
*K9SF
*K9EGS
*W9QL
W9IU
K9NW
W9IIX
KC9WAV
NF9V
AJ9C
ND9Z
K9YX
W9MS
KC9EOQ
K9EN
W9SE
W9RN
W9DCA
W9UIH

"
"
21
"
7
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
14
"
"
7
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

1,378
1,239
238,329
38,976
3,706
269,079
149,853
139,092
83,160
73,160
70,380
40,248
39,648
32,472
30,747
26,936
20,817
15,604
15,040
13,926
12,672
12,282
8,437
6,916
6,480
4,644
2,730
2,244
1,664
989
820
602
290
20
0
3,663
12,768
12,150
2,528
136,746
1,587,897
637,290
412,456
372,735
359,328
292,292
270,816
144,992
73,353
70,432
65,965
58,438
53,300
47,652
47,328

AB9CD
N9GUN
NA9RB
WT2P/9
*N9UA
*K9PG
*N9TF
*KD9CLH
*K9JE
*N9LQ
*WA9LEY
*KC9YL
*N9JF

"
"
"
7A
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

33,456
11,050
1,241
160,529
492,356
451,470
300,960
70,880
68,544
64,628
40,698
39,600
39,270

749

629 401
526 342
321 227
317 235
303 230
219 181
233 164
163 147
161 123
(OP:N9GH)
142 124
(OP:W9TC)
30
27
(OP:W9IU)
26
26
23
21
337 273
124 116
36
34
416 257
280 209
259 201
205 168
205 155
197 153
132 117
155 112
101
88
117 111
124 104
97
81
83
83
90
80
71
66
77
72
77
69
60
59
55
52
55
54
62
54
35
35
39
33
34
32
25
23
20
20
14
14
10
10
5
5
1
1
37
37
79
76
80
75
32
32
330 214
1077 621
592 365
467 344
436 297
432 304
407 308
410 273
266 197
177 147
183 142
185 167
160 122
163 130
141 114
156 136
(OP:N9EAT)
117 102
66
65
20
17
375 229
544 332
522 303
397 285
172 160
164 136
191 151
147 119
145 120
115 105

*KC9IRQ
*K9DXR
*KC9ZTX
*NX9G
*KU9V
*W9VQ
*WX9E

"
"
"
"
"
"
"

21,845
20,111
19,800
13,148
7,308
5,934
1,650

*N9VPV
*NA9VY
*N9TGR
*WK9U
*K9AWM

"
"
21A
7A
"

1,344
48
558,672
590,058
1,449

WS7X/
KCMO

A
"

88
85
91
91
99
88
81
76
68
58
49
46
37
33
(OP:K9PG)
26
24
4
4
585 412
747 378
22
21

District

N7WY/
"
KRJW
"
ADH
"
WKIT
"
AFE
"
NFN
"
KHCV
"
KDJLE
"
KCTRK
"
KCUUT
"
NWRK
"
WPPF
"
WARKE
"
ABTO
14
KBDU
7
KARY
3.7
*ACW
A
*KVVX
"
*WETT
"
*WYJT
"
*KECRP
"
*ADJA
"
*AKBC
"
*WA7GVT/ "
*KKR
"
*ADRW
"
*NJMS
"
*ACMN
"
*WOJW
"
*NHDR
"
*KBJIT
"
*WCG
"
*NDSN
"
*NG9M/
"
*NAXZ
"
*KSCO
"
*KCMH
"
*WAVPJ
"
*NTTE
"
*K2HT/
"
*KAJDT
"
*KNJR
"
*KDCVZ
"
*KDFZT
"
*KTC
"
*NQQQ
"
*NZTO
"
*KDFPY
"
*WNFS
"
*KSTK
"
*KEARY
"
*KBVVK
"
*N2SRK/
"
*KTT
21
*KDLJ
14
*ADHJ
"
*NYT
7
NKE
AA
KEUI
"
NIRM
"
WMB
"
WB9KPT/ "
KAD
"
KMDX
"
KVXU
"
NAB
"
KMD
"
KBX
"
KJPL
"
NDOW
"
NGZ
"
ACB
"
KFG
"
KFIQ
"
NIAI
"
NUC
"
AFW
"
KVQ
14A
*KCDEB AA
*KUK
"
*WXZ
"
*AD1C/
"
*NEO
"
*KCJRW
*W1OOA/
*KOE
*KEHQZ
*NBAK
*ADTA
*AKMR
*ADSL

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

NL7V
AL1G
AL7LO
KL4AD
*AL4Y
*WL7CXM

A
"
"
"
A
"

*AL7U
*KL2ZZ

"
14

8P5A

1,720,373 1540 647


1,553,496 1285 588
(OP:KOU)
954,380
743 476
376,350
465 325
308,100
478 300
183,372
338 222
144,796
296 212
62,764
171 142
60,653
186 131
58,350
211 150
16,400
98
80
12,160
75
64
11,288
77
68
9,313
74
67
6,171
61
51
0
0
0
1,479
31
29
792
13
12
448,365
603 355
294,176
606 317
252,619
402 281
213,444
355 252
148,995
312 215
100,672
241 176
80,535
224 177
41,580
134 110
39,556
169 116
33,354
134 102
21,510
98
90
20,995
108
95
(OP:W6NF)
18,228
106
93
14,832
78
72
14,744
86
76
11,775
82
75
11,189
80
67
7,920
70
60
6,864
59
52
6,156
63
57
6,099
58
57
6,099
62
57
5,207
44
41
4,545
46
45
3,360
39
35
3,159
40
39
3,034
48
41
2,640
46
44
2,030
31
29
1,431
32
27
1,330
24
19
1,050
27
25
1,000
20
20
280
14
14
240
13
12
135
15
15
12
2
2
4,407
42
39
22,440
107 102
8,680
75
70
10,728
73
72
1,146,905
856 515
683,515
671 413
583,928
570 376
452,023
468 377
386,255
596 335
300,966
576 309
289,656
483 298
(OP:WTT)
247,940
320 253
226,185
357 255
137,016
263 198
117,135
234 171
54,600
148 120
35,226
124 114
11,312
64
56
9,936
59
54
2,760
32
30
1,260
21
21
525
15
15
500
12
10
299
13
13
3,122,574 1792 903
454,310
515 362
430,661
499 329
188,784
315 228
94,764
211 159
54,390
148 147
(OP:AAAW)
33,027
122 109
13,764
90
74
4,462
48
46
3,510
40
39
2,516
36
34
1,122
22
22
560
14
14
208
9
8

Belize
*V31MA

28

VY2ZM

70,470

215

145

Canada
District 1
VE9CB
VE1JBC
VA1MM
VY2LI
*VE9AA
*VO1DJT
*VO1RCH
*VE1AOE
*VE1SQ
*VE9NF
VO2NS
VE9FX
VE9EX
*VE9ML
*VE1ZD
*VE9WH
*VO1JLB
*VE9OA

17,320,144 4167 1258


(OP:K1ZM)
" 13,723,754 3854 1199
"
727,260
589 372
"
12,155
69
65
21
87,482
213 166
A
4,525,484 1790 788
"
170,424
276 216
"
148,565
259 215
"
24,080
99
86
14
171,833
270 241
"
138,030
237 215
AA
550,867
612 367
"
148,925
224 185
14A
1,472
23
23
AA 1,535,490
859 495
"
582,505
559 385
"
124,989
197 183
"
36,084
120
93
"
15,871
63
59

District 2
VA2OBW
VE2JR
*VA2EW
*VA2ES

A
"
A
"

*VA2CO
*VE2ICU
VC2A

14
7
AA

VE2BWL
VA2QR
VA2AGW
VB2P

"
"
"
7A

*VE2CJR
*VE2PDT
*VE2SCA
*VE2ATS
*VA2EI

AA
"
"
"
21A

242,136
328 236
92,610
189 147
5,255,998 1866 814
31,671
95
81
(OP:VE2AXO)
97,495
202 185
550
11
11
10,772,584 2936 1096
(OP:VA2WA)
1,629,612
931 573
211,564
291 227
135,632
206 196
15,486
60
58
(OP:VE2GT)
229,578
299 249
222,610
335 226
161,690
260 185
216
9
9
10,647
65
63
(OP:VE2EVN)

District 3
XL3T

VE3TW
"
VE3MT
"
VA3TIC
"
VE3GNI
"
VE3NLS
"
VA3FP
21
*VE3DZ
A
*VA3SWG
"
*VE3VN
"
*VE3FH
"
*VA3UG
"
*VE3SD
"
*VA3GD
"
*VE3NNG
"
*VA3NW
"
*VA3DBT
"
*VE3RRH
"
*VA3OV
"
*VE3SXY
"
*VE3MEW
"
*VE3TU
"
*VE3WPV
"
*VA3EEB
"
*VA3HMP
"
*VE3ZDR
"
*VA3TPV
"
*VA3FN
"
*VE3RUV
"
*VE3NLE
21
*VE3OIL
7
*VE3EDY
1.8
VE3CX
AA
VE3EJ
"
VE3ZZ
"
*VA3PDG AA
*VE3MXJ
"
*VA3FS
"
*VE3XAT
"
*VA3MQS
"
*VE3MZD
"
*VE3BLU
"
*VE3IAE
14A
*VE3JSQ
"

15,006,000 3958 1220


(OP:VE3AT)
1,074,516
749 453
107,184
211 168
75,260
170 142
47,674
134 121
31,772
112
94
38,610
127 117
8,601,725 2606 1009
2,726,992 1293 656
845,686
624 389
768,888
658 354
685,574
619 373
333,750
403 267
193,404
297 213
171,900
256 191
94,287
200 159
62,520
144 120
34,400
112 100
19,505
96
83
17,250
86
75
12,852
70
63
11,408
74
62
10,788
70
62
9,747
59
57
6,144
53
48
5,593
54
47
1,254
23
22
832
17
16
28
4
4
660
15
15
2,575
25
25
36
3
3
6,880,104 2271 952
6,283,696 2037 907
448,668
441 309
172,062
281 198
53,196
147 124
48,108
119 114
12,600
64
60
7,685
54
53
2,240
29
28
406
14
14
160,537
261 233
10,416
62
62

District 4
*VE4VT

*VA4HZ

"

5,506,176 2320 832


(OP:VE4EAR)
54,860
157 130
(OP:VE4HAZ)
230
10
10

*VE4DPR

"

VE5WI
*VE5TLW
*VE5SDH
*VE5SKI
*VE5GC
VE5MX
*VA5LF
*VE5KS

14
A
"
"
3.7
AA
AA
14A

VE6BBP
VE6AMI
VE6IVN
VE6FT
*VE6EX
*VE6NS
*VE6CWG
*VE6QO
*VE6KY
VE6KD
VE6LB
*VA6NJK
*VE6CSX
*VE6SQ

A
"
"
"
A
"
"
"
21
AA
"
AA
"
"

District 5
44,450
270,629
63,294
14,472
1,368
22,525
4,515
102,366

135
380
170
82
20
85
48
199

127
277
137
72
19
85
43
198

1,133,496
899
431,508
455
129,600
246
43,798
143
1,234,268 1055
8,850
62
1,104
24
70
6
105
7
217,008
298
21,384
94
60,196
149
9,006
65
4,136
47

468
308
192
122
476
59
23
5
7
264
88
149
57
44

District 6
Alaska
2,457,844 1312 743
245,862
425 261
50,500
147 125
147
7
7
28,392
108
84
12,351
69
69
(OP:KL7DG)
330
11
11
34,210
119 110

Barbados
*8P1W
8P2K

A
AA

27,306,666 6322 1422


(OP:W2SC)
467,744
472 311
3,221,284 1420 716
(OP:8P8SH)

District 7
VE7NY
VE7BC

A
"

September 2016

1,177,886
123,210

826
233

99

CQ

446
185

VA7JW
*VC7G

21
A

151,710
977,462

*VA7CRZ
*VE7FCO
*VE7NA

"
"
"

*VA7XNL
*VA7HZ
VA7FC
VA7QD
VA7AAA

14
"
AA
"
21A

VE7SZ

14A

*VA7BEC

AA

*VE8GER
*VYERC

A
AA

379 195
814 454
(OP:VE7JH)
591,416
547 358
20,328
95
88
4,830
51
42
(OP:VE7BGP)
6,375
57
51
1,872
26
26
183,303
314 219
127,400
244 200
202,036
399 212
(OP:VE7SZ)
4,531,308 2201 898
(OP:VA7RR)
995,020
913 445

*EA8/DL2MRE "
*EA8BGO 14A

CO2GG
*T4A

21
A

*EA9CD
EA9KB

3.7
14A

"

*CO2VDD
*CO6LE
*CO8RRM
*CM8NRR

"
21
7
"

2,579,940 1478

A
7
AA
14A
7A

1,192,275
941 525
1,930,515 1219 537
(OP:CO8ZZ)
284,568
410 284
(OP:CO8DM)
127,908
241 171
3,515
44
37
18,460
69
65
840
15
15
1,845,972 1381
30,877
80
906,748
927
1,473,392 1137
161,395
181

*FG1PP

*TG9ANF

14

74
71
(OP:TA1HZ)

Madeira Islands
CR3W

21A

CT3KY
*CT3FW

"
AA

*5T4C

2,173,750 1168 625


(OP:DL8OBF)
26,481
97
97
127,504
214 208

121,550

152

143

Morocco
*CN8MAA
*CN2AY

28
14

*5D5D

AA

*CN8VO

4,662
507

"

42
37
13
13
(OP:DF8AN)
5,322,681 1725 873
(OP:HB9EOU)
1,542,198
925 511

Reunion Island
FR4QT

21

945,132

728

452

South Africa
ZS9Z

21

405,657

431 329
(OP:ZS1OIN)

Sudan
*ST2M

564
77
397
568
169

Guadeloupe
FG4KH

203
906

14,697

660

Dominican Republic
*HI3TT
*HI8LAM
*HI8K/6
*HI8JSG
*HI8KW

280,140
235
5,113,464 1928

Kenya
*5Z4/TA1HZ 14

Cuba

*T49A

226
156

Mauritania

63,118
156 151
513,555
509 365
(OP:VE3KTB)

Costa Rica
A

328
166

Ceuta & Melilla

District 8

TI2OY

216,056
70,200

28A

21,945

98

77

Togo
5V7D

*3V8SS

*EK6SI
*EK4JJ

A
"

920,628
741 428
(OP:DL5MEV)

Tunisia

5,244,244 2066 853


(OP:F1DUZ)
444
15
12

5,804,316 2065 868


(OP:KF5EYY)

ASIA

Armenia

Guatemala
1,397,276 1130

542

412,048
8,802

406
64

283
54

Honduras
*HR2WW

AA

Martinique
TO972M

FM5EB
FM5AN
*FM5FJ

3.7
AA
AA

3,108,933 1702 653


(OP:FM5BH)
23,943
75
69
18,088
84
76
1,586
28
26

Mexico
XE1MEX
*XE2B
*XE1AY
*XE2AA
*XE3WM
XE2S
XE2CQ
*4A1DX

14
A
"
"
"
7A
3.7A
AA

*XE1GZU

"

88,430
187 185
1,402,532 1154 521
300,776
481 262
177,236
338 236
4,900
38
35
854,712
574 324
71,068
162 109
577,082
684 374
(OP:XE2AU)
126,852
256 186

Puerto Rico
WP4PGY
WP3R
KP4RV
*WP3GW
*NP3OT
*WP4WV
*KP4LE
*NP4ET
*KP4PR
KP4JFR
*KP3Z
(OP:WP3A)

A
"
21
A
"
"
14
"
7
21A
AA

2,520,825
1,374,360
4,059,780
322,320
111,150
1,776
51,737
32,190
77,760
57,368
4,555,236

1706
1029
1906
387
250
27
146
141
130
164
1902

725
520
852
272
171
24
133
111
120
142
854

St. Kitts & Nevis


*V43Z

10,301,496 3331 1102


(OP:NP4Z)

St. Pierre & Miquelon


FP/KV1J

AA

1,004,344

853 452
(OP:KV1J)

U.S. Virgin Islands


*WP2Z

10,455,225 3490 1045


(OP:K9VV)
28
635,901
954 321
AA 5,162,430 2393 854
(OP:N2TTA)
"
11,700
64
60
21A 1,032,766
877 497
(OP:KP2BH)

*KP2XX
*NP2P
*WP2SC
*KP2DX

AFRICA
Algeria

*7U9C

964,617

*7R7W

"

634,910

704 411
(OP:7X2JV)
556 367

Canary Islands
*EB8AH

*EA8BQM
*EA8AQV
*EA8TX
*EA8CZK
*EC8AQQ
EA8DED

"
"
28
21
14
AA

EF8U

21A

ED8T

14A

EA8DEM
*EF8J

"
AA

*ED8B

21A

100

Asiatic Russia
District 9

1,267,002 1033 474


(OP:HR2DMR)

4,598,286 1802 807


(OP:EA8RM)
386,712
407 262
168,510
249 205
673,748
588 389
22,098
94
87
454,194
445 351
41,135
112
95
(OP:OH2BP)
6,030,291 2158 951
(OP:EA8AVJ)
1,414,227
834 577
(OP:EA8CZQ)
3
1
1
901,000
707 424
(OP:EA8CNR)
504,100
486 355
(OP:EA8CZT)

CQ

RC9O
UA9MA
UI8J
RW9QA
RA9AAA
R9AE
R8MD
RT8O
RA9SDT
RZ9UC
RL9I
RA9UAD
R9UA
UA8WAA
RV9MA
UA9CGL
RW9TA
RZ9JZ
RV9YK
UA9CUA
RX9CM
RZ9OQ
RW9QC
*R8CT
*RA9AEA
*RD9U
*RU9TN
*R9AM
*R9CZA
*RK9DC
*RV9MN
*UA9NP
*RZ9UF
*UA9MQN
*UA9JNT
*RD8O
*UA9MW
*R9SD
*RD9D
*UA9AGX
*RZ9OW
*RW9LL
*UB8CFR
*RK9AY
*R9RA
*RZ8U
*RT9YA
*RX9CCJ
*RA9CCK
*UA9OMT
*R9QQ
*RA9MX
*RU9SO
*R9TV
*R9VK
*RX9UKF
*RA9APG
*RW9MZ
RZ9U
UC8U
RK8I
UA9BA
RG9A
UA9LAO
R9LM
UA9CDC
RT8U
RO9A
RN9N
RZ9WU
RL9W
RX9WN
RU9AZ
UA9R
UI9I
R9VA
RU9AC

September 2016

A 15,827,724 3645 1188


" 11,166,148 2939 1057
"
3,777,768 1597 739
"
1,785,375 1020 575
"
1,162,005
782 505
"
833,123
612 431
"
593,320
517 326
"
503,607
538 349
"
484,169
388 287
"
383,910
493 335
"
157,992
254 227
"
144,673
254 199
"
106,272
204 164
"
36,464
120 106
"
31,899
101
93
"
12,958
63
62
"
6,324
53
51
21
120,840
279 212
"
45,486
153 133
14
704,608
554 454
"
392,600
454 325
"
8,058
54
51
"
4,715
41
41
A
6,664,758 2194 843
"
688,554
570 369
"
552,640
519 352
"
347,222
383 278
"
228,288
329 246
"
197,687
268 217
"
184,050
245 225
"
160,160
271 224
"
159,424
272 212
"
96,693
225 193
"
84,534
174 146
"
59,400
162 132
"
44,735
134 115
"
42,375
142 125
"
35,500
111 100
"
21,476
99
91
"
6,174
52
49
"
4,428
42
41
"
1,872
26
26
"
28
4
4
28
120
9
8
21
977,599
763 497
"
539,543
554 389
"
223,310
336 274
"
218,816
320 263
"
68,952
193 169
"
52,029
145 123
"
23,496
98
89
"
22,540
98
92
"
5,700
52
50
14
197,625
299 255
"
55,554
159 141
"
39,809
128 121
"
28,560
107 102
"
4,059
44
41
AA 2,912,880 1371 795
"
2,720,718 1275 693
"
1,819,179 1024 607
"
1,669,248
872 648
"
1,001,675
721 515
"
719,390
607 430
"
642,537
483 329
"
635,208
560 398
"
621,220
487 349
(OP:RZ9UN)
"
455,400
434 360
"
454,660
503 358
"
46,090
122 110
"
45,125
144 125
"
21,844
93
86
"
4,968
48
46
21A
911,985
723 489
"
329,840
432 304
(OP:RU9I)
"
283,434
390 291
"
187,224
297 232

R8LA
RW9USA
RK9AX
RW8T
RK9QWM

"
14A
"
"
"

RK9DM
RL9Y
R8UT
UA9AU
RA9Y
RZ9HW
*RA9V
*RV9UP
*RU9CC
*RZ9UO
*UA9UDX
*RM9RZ
*RT9YT
*UF8T
*RU9YF
*R9RT
*R8TT

"
"
"
"
7A
"
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
3.7A

RAAM
RACGY
RAA
RTF
UASR
RAUBI
RTR
UAW
*UAUK
*RAEE
*RCW
*RTO
*RCAF
*RALMO
*RTR
*UIA
*RAUJ
*RAFF
*UAA
*RAWHE
UASE
RAJBL
RTQ
RULL
RWAR
RNCT
RKUT
UDW
RYA
UCW
*UIL
*RAAY
*RAANO

A
"
21
14
"
"
7
3.7
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
"
14
"
AA
"
"
"
28A
21A
"
"
14A
7A
AA
21A
14A

66,411
172 141
7,380,184 2404 1124
3,025,140 1398 794
1,725,549
959 647
1,076,361
764 507
(OP:RW9QU)
608,736
546 408
229,040
315 280
175,910
265 245
31,916
110 101
4,231,838 1184 689
79,750
133 125
3,345,748 1352 722
2,828,358 1336 702
357,240
437 312
337,032
407 302
266,090
363 295
139,920
255 220
46,440
150 120
22,410
98
90
4,160
41
40
70
7
7
195,008
201 176

District
418,984
475 332
76,540
206 172
661,874
611 398
5,784,986 2191 1021
53,190
146 135
13,736
71
68
49,100
100 100
4,650
30
30
441,048
606 376
368,960
443 320
28,820
124 110
13,396
71
68
10,855
75
65
3,978
41
34
2,106
27
26
28,119
108 103
19,082
102
94
2,970
34
33
16,880
82
80
5,831
51
49
483,346
504 383
93,396
198 172
93,186
204 186
23,901
113
93
4,662
61
42
1,635,183 1075 597
980,908
992 502
21,056
96
94
785,680
616 460
21,284
72
68
2,716
35
28
26,300
105 100
1,872
26
24

Asiatic Turkey
TC4A

1,554,266

TA2DX
TA3GO
TA3EJ
TA7JE
*TA4MA
*TA2LP
*TA7EB
*TA3IWS
*TA7I
*TA4OSK
*TA2ANB
*TC5A

"
"
21
14
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

703,800
4,200
1,078
6,321
255,969
125,613
113,970
103,454
68,774
59,540
49,147
43,600

*TA3ABM
*TA7ASN
*TA2ANL
*TA3EP
*YM2KY
*TA2AET
*TA3IUY
*TA2ABC
*TA4A
*TA4OSM
*YM7KK
*TA4IFG
*TA2AKG
*TA2TR
*YM4KT
*TA3LSD
*TA4PR
*TC7G
*TA4ALQ
*TA4APR
*TA4BU
*TA2NCH
*TB4YM
*TA2ATG
*TA4HM
*TA2IHU
*TA4AJY
TA3OO
TA2AKX
TA5FA
*TA4AKS
*TA3EL
*TA4SO
*TA2ACW
*TA7AOF
*TA4ED
*TA3MA

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
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21
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14
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"
"
"
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"
"
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8,880
6,468
4,879
3,220
2,850
2,304
1,617
884
816
119
18
8
2,592
300
18,320
306
28,714
220
48
27
27
43,877
14,000
5,425
378
36
378
138,746
1,003
3
458,874
58,194
10,400
5,890
6
198,543
7,884

793 469
(OP:TA4CS)
531 340
40
35
24
22
49
49
324 239
211 153
196 174
194 173
161 137
154 130
138 119
111 100
(OP:TA5ISJ)
52
48
49
49
41
41
36
35
30
30
33
32
22
21
17
17
17
17
7
7
2
2
2
2
34
32
12
12
95
80
18
18
104
98
10
10
4
4
3
3
3
3
102
89
50
50
35
35
10
9
3
3
9
9
207 173
18
17
1
1
451 318
131 122
78
65
42
38
2
2
328 229
60
54

Azerbaijan
*4K6FO

12,958

71

62

Bahrain
A93JA

AA

A96A

14A

4,739,484 2048 811


(OP:KE5JA)
217,327
316 253

China
BD3CB
BA5CJ
BA7NQ
BG2VIA
BD3QW
BD7BM
BG4FRZ
*BA8CY
*BA3MM
*BD4AKC
*BG4WOM

A
"
"
"
"
21
7
A
"
"
"

998,925
885
454,463
636
72,414
347
54,944
178
2,700
46
1,915,156 1225
16,698
80
1,335,368 1005
357,018
661
343,040
477
268,250
486

475
331
162
136
36
668
66
568
314
335
290

*BH1LX
*BH8CSO
*BH1KVZ
*BA9BF
*BD9ATY
*BD3QT
*BY2WL

"
"
"
"
"
"
"

26,200
22,618
19,110
15,936
11,390
9,702
8,700

*BG7BUM
*BH4UTT
*BG8DMY
*BH4WPN
*BD2CO
*BD2RWS
*BH4UMN
*BH3OYV
*BH1BOQ
*BG6AFT
*BG8HFK
*BH4OUF
*BA1SN
*BD6AHP
*BD5BMC
*BG4UQX
*BG6AHD
*BH1NGG
*BH1MCB
*BH4RNX
BA7QT
BY7KTO

"
"
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"
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28
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21
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BH7PFH
BD5FFK
BG3OJZ
BA5DX
BA7JA
BD7LMD
BDAAI
BD4QA
*BY9CA

"
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21A
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*BG8GAM
*BG3IAY
*BH4AYG
*BH4TQX
*BG9FQP
*BG4VRG
*BG8FUL
*BA1PK
*BD5BPA
*BA4SD
*BG9DOL
*BH3PTL
*BD9CJH
*BH8ASZ
*BD4HZX
*BI4RLR
*BG7BOT
*BG3SSA
*BH1AQA
*BH4BKF
*BI4RYH
*BD7MTJ
*BG3IYX
*BI4QZW
*BH7JUO
*BG7DOD
*BD4QK
*BI4SHV
*BD3RK
*BI3NAW
*BD4RDU

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
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"
"
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"
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"
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114 100
129
86
100
91
109
83
71
67
74
66
70
60
(OP:BH2RJX)
4,968
54
46
4,945
49
43
4,732
64
52
612
18
17
126
11
9
32
4
4
8
2
2
6
3
3
1
1
1
133
8
7
15
3
3
70,785
207 165
48,688
160 136
16,154
93
82
11,937
86
69
1,764
28
28
180
10
10
40
6
5
50,624
140 112
3,720
32
31
850,020
834 465
515,865
656 357
(OP:BD7PZL)
103,488
223 168
60,236
194 148
40,590
199 123
33,630
181 118
2,485
41
35
2,296,248 1427 723
4,326
55
42
34,621
93
89
780
24
20
305,228
548 308
(OP:BGGE)
157,832
299 218
99,360
309 180
55,752
197 138
53,820
197 117
15,010
98
79
12,462
90
67
11,421
96
81
9,088
64
64
6,804
62
54
5,198
56
46
2,520
39
36
2,275
40
35
2,052
40
36
1,566
32
27
1,012
24
22
756
21
21
594
18
18
266
15
14
210
11
10
136
8
8
102
7
6
60
6
5
24
4
4
16
6
4
353,408
524 352
7,800
76
60
3,864
50
42
1,078
27
22
680
18
17
364
13
13
1,104
28
23

Cyprus
P3F

4LA

4L8A
4L2M

14
3.7

VR2CO
*VR2XAN
*VR2WOA
*VR2ZQZ
*VR2EH
*VR2ZRE
VR2XMT

A
A
"
28
21
14
AA

VU2RCT
VU2TO
VU2CVS
VU2JOS
*VU3WDN

A
"
28
21
A

17,078,796 4044 1197


(OP:5B4AGN)

Georgia
19,525,195 4427 1223
(OP:RW7K)
6,340,740 2298 974
1,573,464
662 424

Hong Kong
66,424
233
3,125,970 1820
198
9
182,596
496
17,574
111
640
20
1,453,752 1550

152
739
9
239
87
16
488

India

*VU2DED
"
*VU2KWJ
"
*VU2DCC
"
*VU2SMS
"
*VU3KPL
"
*VU2HOT
"
*VU2IVV
"
*VU3CML
"
*VU2MXE
"
*VU2MCW
"
*VU3ETT
"
*VU2CMI
"
*VU3TNI
"
*VU3BUN
"
*VU3LMS
"
*VU3ONE
28
*VU2NFG
21
*VU2BL
"
*VU2TKO
"
*VU3NXI
14
*VU2NSL
"
*VU2JXL
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VU2YVK
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VU2CPL
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VU2IBI
14A
VU2WJ
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*VU2ABS
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1,514,765 1010 565


7,332
63
52
11,532
71
62
2,442
38
33
306,348
417 294
(OP:EA4ATI)
170,084
307 202
151,316
293 209
37,968
140 113
34,946
141 101
26,299
106
91
17,940
90
78
10,521
73
63
9,747
69
57
3,159
43
39
1,375
28
25
1,222
28
26
945
23
21
490
18
14
434
14
14
297
12
11
30
6
5
108,864
232 192
11,050
74
65
1
1
1
4,756
41
41
3,008
36
32
720
17
16
5
5
1
829,710
735 439
78,029
193 157
29,295
119 105
1,575
25
25
3,536
26
26
59,340
180 129
40,356
133 114
3,276
44
39
768
16
16

Israel
4Z5LY
4X1IM
4Z5PJ
4XA

A
"
"
28

976,549
131,950
20,230
16,750

*4Z5FW
4Z7T

14
21A

*4Z5OZ

AA

JE1REU
JH1HIC
JA1DCO
JF1LMB
JA1TMG
JE1CWQ
JH1CTV
JA1RKI
JR1JCB
7L4VYK
JJ1VFE
JA1GVM
JI1NIK
JA1ISJ
JO1SIM
JE1HRC
JA1NQU
JA1CTB
JA1UOA
JA1CCN
JI1JPJ
JG1TUC
JA1EPJ
*JH1OLB
*JA1SCE
*JF1WNT
*JA1DDZ
*JR1QBA
*JR1EMT
*JJ1ENZ
*JE1GZB
*JA1GFB
*JA1CRJ
*JG1XFM
*JA1CHY
*JR1MRG
*JF1DWJ
*JA1GQC
*JN1DNV
*JH1JNJ
*JG1LPL
*JA1OHP
*JA1GZK
*JG1XAJ
*JH1OIB
*JF1KWG
*JO1KVS
*JI1NZA
*7L3DGP
*7N4JXR
*JJ1KZZ
*JJ1HHJ
*7N2UQC
*JH1GLJ
*JR1MEG/1
*JA1PCM
*JE1RRK
*JA1PLT
*JA1PJS
*JH1GTY
*JK1BII
*JE1LRT
*JA1RYC
*JR1AKD/1
*7K1VKU
*JA1KEV
*JG6XYS/1
*JA1DBG
*JK1NSR
*JH1EJB
*JI1LAI
*JH1VOR
*JE1HTV
*JI1QDK
*JH1HHP
*7L1AFS
*JG1GCO
*JA1RRA
*JR1USU
*JA1LPQ
*JF1TEU
*JK1NJH
*7K2DOD
*JH1RDU
*JH1SUU
*JI1NKT
*JE1SPY
JI1ICF
JH1RFM
JH1APK
JH1QDB
JA1LNZ
JH1UBK
JA1IXY
JH1CML
*8N1F

A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
"
"
"
"
"
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
"
21
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
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14
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"
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"
"
"
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AA

*JH1EAQ
*7K4VPV
*JF1ROR
*JA1FWS
*JA1UII
*7K1SLY
*JK1UVL
*JF1OPO
*JI1ALP
*JL1EEI
*JA1JLP
*JP1LRT
*JI1HSV
*7N4GIB
*JO1JKH
*JA1LKY

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

JR2GRX
JA2AXB
JA2BNN
JA2VHO

A
"
"
"

691 427
223 182
79
70
92
67
(OP:4X1VF)
54,008
181 157
8,016,255 2728 1065
(OP:4X6TT)
3
1
1

Japan
District 1
155,287
129,889
125,976
120,537
106,248
74,576
73,984
57,938
57,720
50,694
31,577
24,166
12,376
6,419
6,118
108
198,656
41,724
19,747
8,378
2,214
656
75
116,427
105,357
77,106
69,156
55,031
46,376
44,577
40,293
39,897
30,456
30,179
25,020
22,752
10,920
9,765
9,486
8,400
7,344
4,332
4,228
3,838
3,456
2,754
1,900
1,518
840
544
495
6
3,968
350
207,230
171,810
94,061
48,511
31,930
17,138
17,094
13,904
13,764
13,490
9,120
6,804
4,223
4,018
3,663
2,850
1,600
1,450
420
322
260
242
153
55
21
12
1
21,004
12
14,560
9,718
-24
2,430
638,860
159,080
117,018
70,200
36,000
33,660
11,948
403,214
882,899

282 209
250 193
252 181
251 177
213 152
193 158
211 136
170 118
196 120
150 142
123
91
104
86
93
68
54
49
60
46
6
6
301 256
145 122
96
91
59
59
29
27
18
16
5
5
249 197
245 173
177 142
185 153
185 113
149 124
144 127
156 111
157
99
111
94
130 103
106
90
113
79
70
52
76
63
72
62
69
60
68
48
49
38
34
28
47
38
42
36
35
34
25
25
24
22
22
21
20
16
12
11
2
2
50
32
13
10
325 265
279 249
216 187
154 139
115 103
94
82
87
77
83
79
85
74
80
71
65
60
64
54
43
41
46
41
37
37
41
38
26
25
30
25
15
14
15
14
13
13
13
11
9
9
5
5
3
3
2
2
1
1
97
89
2
2
64
56
48
43
2
2
34
27
539 340
274 205
221 197
157 130
104
96
119 102
62
58
489 347
748 443
(OP:JQ1BVI)
839,382
657 398
126,222
248 193
58,080
201 110
51,101
168 137
7,104
49
48
5,166
46
41
3,298
44
34
969
20
17
149,856
244 224
95,496
201 184
43,788
146 123
33,292
136 116
8,845
69
61
3,648
39
38
1,456
30
26
165
13
11

District 2
5,219,700 1888
537,240
563
138,193
267
71,357
176

822
363
187
143

Visit Our Web Site

JA2KPW
"
JR2PMT
"
JA2HYD
"
JA2BQX
"
JR2BCF
21
JH2BTM
"
JA2XLV
14
JA2HNP
7
JE2BOM
"
*JA2ODB
A
*JR2MIO
"
*JA2GHP
"
*JF2FMU
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"
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"
*JH2KKW 28
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"
*JK2AQT
21
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"
*JG2NLN
"
*JR2TTS
"
*JO2XYK
"
*JR2AAN/2 "
*JI2GZC
14
JA2XCR
AA
JA2HOL
"
JG2REJ
"
JH2FXK
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JF2IWL
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JE2WLD
21A
JR2WLQ
14A
*JH2MYN 28A
*7K1MAG/2 21A
*JF2KWM
"
*JH9DRL/2 3.7A

69,012
49,044
6,006
476
20,619
11,163
44,376
24,156
3,584
107,085
85,840
32,775
3,366
1,890
1,296
24
10,725
280
14,770
13,394
2,356
192
160
48
15
508,428
152,040
30,345
18,480
10,034
6,811
6,273
4,142
35,960
1,690
55

181
148
53
14
95
65
142
71
30
214
242
147
38
33
20
3
80
12
76
77
32
9
8
4
3
510
273
99
90
59
55
62
50
122
27
5

142
122
42
14
87
61
129
66
28
177
148
95
33
27
18
3
55
10
70
74
31
8
8
4
3
348
210
85
77
58
49
51
38
116
26
5

A
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151,164
303
87,363
240
62,514
177
30,121
127
15,776
77
4,719
45
4,182
42
1,026
19
210
11
618,828
560
52,374
173
44,660
145
37,145
155
30,528
136
9,702
70
8,732
67
8,008
61
5,060
55
3,914
51
2,190
33
1,827
34
1,512
25
12,154
90
9,150
68
4,680
46
1,610
24
1,575
26
1,007
21
240
10
11,390
77
0
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560,938
543
155,043
277
9,741
53
1,618,452 1003
96
6
29,403
108
377,245
434
52,540
160

204
153
138
91
58
39
41
18
7
417
129
110
95
96
63
59
56
46
38
30
29
24
59
61
45
23
25
19
10
67
0
389
207
51
603
6
99
361
148

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7,708,184 2383
325,872
419
129,786
240
20,640
116
1,239
27
3,360
44
243
9
132,673
258
90,654
212
82,600
195
23,220
101
1,943
31
121,716
215
91,091
227
28,608
118
24,650
104
12,556
79
17,612
90
2,133
28

968
279
194
86
21
32
9
181
174
175
90
29
189
143
96
85
73
74
27

District 5
JA5FBZ
JA5NSR
*JJ5HUD
*JA5AEA
*JA5XPD
JH5MXB
*JA5FNX

21
7
A
"
14
21A
AA

8
19,932
58,797
0
190
748,834
7,568

2
70
174
1
10
627
67

2
66
139
1
10
446
43

A
21
A
"
"
"
21
"
"
"
"
AA
"
AA
21A
14A

JA7GFN
JA7NX
JA7CNS
JA7ADV
JA7QVI
JG7EHM
*JH7IQQ

A
"
"
"
21
"
A

148,122
97,920
118,746
64,533
36,180
3,708
2,960
1,750
171
44
3
43,549
15,368
28,676
15,408
2,958

283
206
299
184
128
37
42
32
10
5
1
146
72
107
80
42

211
180
162
147
108
36
40
25
9
4
1
107
68
107
72
34

129
94
80
21
714
80
239

108
80
63
20
409
76
165

District 7
42,768
21,760
10,773
540
809,411
15,960
102,630

54,627
370,573
40,005
4,095
2,139
1,071
43,053
814,660
431,880

148
479
132
41
31
21
137
640
454

139
317
105
39
31
21
127
460
354

JA9CCG
*JA9TQY
*JA9LX
*JA9EJG
*JA9GEW
*JH9CEN
*JH9URT
JF9JTS

21
A
"
"
21
"
7
AA

98,454
190,638
35,653
12,608
56,434
18,387
612,695
806,418

206
298
125
75
159
97
430
669

183
238
101
64
139
81
283
426

A
21

14,807
75
67
1,071
21
21
(OP:JAGCY)
16,790
83
73
6,566
50
49
54
6
6
8,771
72
49
45
5
5
115,221
228 199
689,715
636 405
966
25
23
25
5
5

*JABJY
A
*JALNS
"
*JAMMS
"
*JHJDV
28
*JRJOW 21
*JHEPI
14
JJJML
AA
JAGCI
14A
*JRBUL 14A

Kazakhstan
UPL

14,724,702 3592 1126


(OP:UN9LW)
UN7QF
28
10,168
72
62
UN3M
21
1,568,754 1090 513
UN5GM
7
2,044,120
743 520
*UN7JID
21
207
9
9
*UN6LN
14
1,807,002 1006 654
UN2G
AA
5,814
54
51
*UN7MMM AA 1,112,697
808 513
*UN7LAN
"
5,358
54
47
*UN8PT
21A
200,143
312 263
*UN4PG
"
172,000
303 250
A

9K2K

AA

5,372,540 1992 785


(OP:9K2RR)
6,810,285 2300 867
(OP:9K2OD)

Kyrgyzstan
EX8MAT
*EX7ML
*EX8AY

A
A
14

XW1IC

605,846
146,957
6,708

563
266
57

346
223
52

Laos
6,191,780 2536 940
(OP:E21EIC)

Lebanon
*OD5PY

AA

449,298

491

327

74
42

55
36

Macao
*XX9ET
*XX9LQ

21
AA

8,250
2,196

14

1,560

36

A71SS
*A71AE
*A75GA

A
A
"

4,440

42

37

7,815,885 2415 1005


2,882,032 1253 688
91,260
214 169

Republic of Korea
A
21
A
"
"

DS5DNO
DS5TOS

AA
7A

HZ1HZ
HZ1BW
*7Z1SJ
*HZ1DG
*HZ1TL

A
3.7
A
21
AA

*4S7AB
*4S7JL

A
21

118,755
250 195
7,500
57
50
53,100
153 118
26,883
122
87
2,720
35
34
(OP:DS2GOO)
79,002
197 154
5,644
35
34
1,501,360
820
1,027,299
487
4,715,200 1628
326,326
391
2,216,180 1191

490
371
842
286
580

Sri Lanka
720,261
68,820

698
177

419
155

Taiwan
BX6AD
BVTW

A
21

4,662
34,920

*BV4WN
A
*BV4VQ
21
BW/JL3RDCAA
BU2AU
"
BW/JG1WBB21A

1,276
540
201,152
1,736
12,580

A 11,749,350 3288 1073


"
223,110
239 201
"
92,750
203 175
14
188,705
295 235
7
9,417
45
43
AA
3,060
37
34
(OP:RV6AJJ)
21A
356,850
460 325

Uzbekistan
*UK/JE1RZR A
*XV9NPS

21

HS1JZT

3,080

48
42
189 120
(OP:BU2AU)
28
22
19
15
508 224
36
31
163
74

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

46,389

257

208

168

141

West Malaysia
9M4DX
*9M4SG

7
A

*9M2PUL
*9M2TSM
*9M2ZAK
9M2RDX
*9M2GET
*9M4CPD

"
"
7
21A
AA
"

*9M4CRX

7A

*9W2DCW

"

1,091,328
712 406
289,130
460 290
(OP:9M2MDX)
167,915
337 215
13,760
98
64
40,128
114
76
7,552
81
59
1,198,596 1097 532
36,400
127
91
(OP:9M2RHQ)
3,510
36
26
(OP:9W2XIO)
2
2
1

EUROPE
Aland Islands
OHX

11,967,168 3949 1256


(OP:OH6KZP)

Albania
*ZA/IW2JOPAA

71,724

196

172

Austria
OE1TKW
OE6Z
*OE1HHB
*OE3DMA
*OE1CIW
*OE6SWG
*OE2E
*OE6FTE
*OE6HLF
*OE3MCS
*OE5PEN
*OE6PID
*OE1VMC
OE2S
OE3DXA
OE1SSS
OE5MON

11,552,694 3353 1154


(OP:OM3BH)
334,530
426 315
322,272
374 288
651,160
671 446
611,089
631 449
294,272
426 304
115,997
290 227
39,804
142 124
(OP:OE2GEN)
"
23,408
122 112
"
10,143
76
69
"
8,850
60
59
"
2,450
36
35
21
27
3
3
14
1,890
36
35
AA 8,698,041 2783 1133
(OP:OE2VEL)
"
486,684
540 396
"
261,834
385 289
"
18,348
74
66
(OP:OE9MON)
7A
105,270
193 174
"
"
A
"
"
"
"

Balearic Islands
*EA6ALH
*EA6SK

A
"

4,559
3,264

EW2W
EW8DX
EW8BQ
EW6W
EU5C

A
"
"
14
7

EW3A
*EU6DX
*EU4AX
*EW8AX
*EU3A
*EV6M
*EU8BB
*EW8G
*EW2O
*EW6AF
*EW7DK
*EW4W
*EW8RR
*EW8R
EW5Z

"
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
21
"
7
3.7
1.8
AA

EV1R
EW8OM
EW7M
EW8GL
EW6GF
EU2EU
*EW2A
*EW1IP
*EW4GL
*EW4FG
*EU4T
*EW1E
*EW4DX
*EW8K

"
"
"
21A
14A
1.8A
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
7A

OR1Z
ON7HLU
OQ4Q

A
"
21

48
36

47
32

2,515,176 1581 724


122,640
250 210
86,907
238 177
4,427,764 2303 977
1,540,628
943 599
(OP:EW1I)
492,672
548 384
627,370
692 430
513,135
544 405
503,395
688 415
383,474
504 343
93,000
200 200
56,088
208 171
17,487
99
87
954
22
18
119,566
240 191
108
6
6
67,308
169 158
56,323
169 151
94,122
246 189
8,556,240 3021 1155
(OP:EU1A)
4,192,320 1926 960
248,589
391 279
6,360
47
40
1,742
27
26
59,334
221 186
192,270
347 255
2,549,936 1567 776
465,033
556 379
237,360
377 276
130,872
281 228
24,064
96
94
2,204
29
29
65
5
5
22,140
85
82

Belgium
36

35

322

237

Thailand
183,438

119,808

21

Tajikistan
*EY7BL

638
141
129
103
90
73
47
31
28
11
227
36
127
114
3
281
183
144
93
77
343

Belarus

Qatar

HL4RBR
HL5ZEE
*DS2CYI
*HL2VXK
*D9HE

A61SM

30

Ogasawara
*JD1BIA

A65BP
A61EK
A65EE
A61HA
*A61SA
A65CA

OE5JSL

Nepal
*9N3DX

2,003,958 1293
51,042
176
43,344
194
26,162
132
16,650
126
11,096
99
6,110
64
3,007
44
1,400
34
308
12
140,740
300
3,564
41
47,498
151
38,304
152
30
5
316,406
472
102,663
228
58,464
182
20,274
98
16,478
93
389,305
452

United Arab Emirates

OE3K

Kuwait
*9K9K

*HSZHC
A
*HS3PIK
"
*HS8GLR
"
*HS8LVC
"
*HS4DDQ
"
*E2AH
"
*HS5ZLD
"
*HS8JCV
"
*E21FYK
"
*HSZLS
"
*HS3LSE
21
*HS7WMU
"
*HS5SRH
14
*HS3ANP
"
*HS3PJF
7
HSZCW AA
HSZLE
"
*HS8JWH AA
*E2QVD 21A
*HS8JYX
"
*E21YDP 14A

Vietnam

District

Saudi Arabia

District 6
JA6EML
JE6CMG
*JA6CVR
*7J6AAO
*JH6FTJ
*JE6JRI
*JS6SRY
*JE6PJP
*JE6ETZ
*JE6PVG
*JE6PVF
JA6BWH
JA6BZI
*JA6LCJ
*JH6QIL
*JF6RIM

89
53
364
265
32
0
808
289
178
169
179
93
52

District 9

District 4
JH4UYB
JG4AKL
JA4DPL
JA4EVN
JA4NQD
JA4BEV
JR4CTF
*JE4MHL
*JI4WHS
*JA4MMO
*JH4FUF
*JR4GPA
JH4ADK
JO4CFV
JR4VEV
JA4CSJ
JM4WUZ
*JA4RWN
*JA4AQR

23,407
107
7,897
65
401,856
442
213,325
320
2,848
33
0
0
3,822,648 1600
313,854
354
121,040
253
105,963
210
92,006
188
35,619
119
10,400
64

District 8
JA8TGD
*JE8KGH
*JE8KKX
*JA8JTZ
*JM8GJB
*JK8NIP
JH8CXW
*JA8COE
*JH8XVH

JAEVI
8NA

District 3
JA3IBU
JA3AER
JS3LSQ
JA3FRI
JA3LEZ
JF3VAX
JA3ENN
JG3LGD
JA3EGE
JR3RIY
*JA3EBT
*JN3TSY
*JJ3TBB/3
*JO3QVT
*JA3KDJ
*JR3NDM
*JR3JRI
*JA3PFY
*JH3GMI
*JA3JM
*JS3CTQ
*JA3DAY
*JL3MCM
*JA3PIU
*JP3KPJ
*JP3IBB
*JA3BBG
*JA3PYH
*JE3FOR
*JS3CGH
*JE3CUY
JG3RPL
JR3BOT
JA3AOP
JO3DDD
JK3NSD
*JA4XHF/3
*JL3VUL
*JI3CWI

*JA7KED
*JP7GRU
*JH7RTQ
*JA7BEW
*JA7HYS
*JH8CLC/7
JA7NVF
JP7DKQ
JA7EPO
JO7KMB
JA7GYP
*JA7ZP
*JF7PHE

1,187,310
332,990
276,632

994 570
441 355
373 302
(OP:ON4PO)

ON5GQ
OT8T

14
7

207,192
1,398,071

*ON4APU
*ON3VS
*ON6LO
*ON3JMV
*ON3RPL
*ON3ND
OO7P
ON6NL
OR3A

A
"
"
"
"
21
AA
"
"

ON4VDV
*ON3AR
*OP4A
*ON6FC
*ON3DI

"
AA
"
21A
14A

375 291
915 577
(OP:ON8KW)
1,022,568
802 548
141,141
292 231
14,400
97
90
4,230
51
47
21
7
7
49,632
148 132
4,587,778 2016 962
3,687,750 1790 894
1,542,240 1008 648
(OP:ON6CC)
856,208
691 472
442,738
517 382
210,483
328 273
5,203
45
43
51,275
212 175

Bosnia-Herzegovina
E74X
*E78T
*E7EA
*E74KM
E7DX
E7TT
*E74R

A
81,789
232 199
A
1,094,528
960 544
"
6,171
53
51
7
16,200
84
81
AA 18,419,245 4514 1343
(OP:E77DX)
21A
174,966
309 241
(OP:E73RO)
1.8A
156,860
317 230

Bulgaria
LZ1GE
LZ11C

A
"

LZ5EO
LZ1RF
LZ5K

"
21
7

*LZ1DM
*LZ1VVD
*LZ3SD
*LZ5PX
*LZ1IKY
*LZ2JOW
*LZ3TL
*LZ5IL
*LZ1COM
*LZ7V

A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*LZ2JA
*LZ9V
*LZ2WNW
*LZ2FQ
*LZ1FJ
*LZ6Z
*LZ5U

21
"
14
"
"
7
"

LZ4T

AA

LZ7AA
LZ3ZZ
LZ3FN
LZ6K

"
"
"
"

LZ1QZ
LZ1ST
LZ1BJ
LZ2FL
*LZ1ZM
*LZ7D

"
"
"
7A
AA
"

*LZM

"

*LZ1VDR
*LZ7J

28A
"

*LZ2HA
*LZ3DJ
*LZ1DNY

21A
"
14A

*SV9/SV1OAN

AA

107,316
71,360

243 198
186 160
(OP:LZ2DB)
43,368
160 139
25,149
106 101
3,959,200 1476 800
(OP:LZ1RAY)
379,335
538 363
236,022
382 283
209,304
387 306
116,708
230 179
83,600
226 190
65,934
197 162
29,070
134 114
16,020
96
89
1,593
28
27
1,104
25
24
(OP:LZ3GH)
426,162
490 363
250,120
363 296
151,524
329 276
9,717
83
79
5,963
70
67
66,272
169 152
816
17
17
(OP:LZ1MC)
1,996,208 1292 697
(OP:LZ2DF)
1,308,750 1017 625
1,236,129 1015 631
483,524
511 436
146,985
276 239
(OP:LZ2PL)
138,635
301 233
60,960
184 160
96
8
8
41,376
100
96
480,330
638 405
66,990
169 145
(OP:LZ3RN)
26,724
112 102
(OP:LZ2SX)
15,312
80
66
5,187
46
39
(OP:LZ1CL)
352,359
442 329
9,280
67
58
223,862
475 346

Crete
4,560

48

48

Croatia
9A77A
9A2JK
9A4W
9A1CFR
9A9RR
9A73B

A
"
"
21
14
3.7

*9A5CBM A
*9AW
*9A2BD
*9A6RT
*9A1AA
*9A1SZ
*9A8FCC
*9A3DOS
*9A1EA
*9A6TAQ
*9A1MM
*9A3CJW
*9A2VX
*9A3TY
*9A6RMI
*9A5DO
*9A2XW
*9A5IP
9A75Y

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
21
14
"
7
"
AA

9A78DX

"

9A2EU
9A7JCY
9A6ZZ
9A6A
9A1CC
9A2G
*9A72GA

"
28A
14A
7A
"
1.8A
AA

*9A5RPZ
*9A6DJX
*9A1RAB

"
"
"

*9A3KS
*9A6CC
*9A5YY
*9A5KIR
*9A1IW

"
"
"
14A
1.8A

16,496,286 4260 1277


(OP:9A1UN)
25,470
99
90
2,146
30
29
37,962
120 114
189,931
402 301
1,522,091 1129 587
(OP:9A2VR)
1,413,104
998 592
(OP:9A5ST)
941,688
793 522
458,443
578 359
293,859
404 309
109,616
234 208
58,320
177 135
51,408
167 153
31,552
132 116
31,320
130 120
23,999
110 103
16,984
99
88
1,350
25
25
60
7
6
34,428
114 114
38,467
159 143
13,158
95
86
40,064
136 128
2,730
39
35
11,829,888 3366 1296
(OP:9A7DX)
867,009
754 517
(OP:9A8DX)
73,872
164 152
31,581
126
87
275,884
465 334
1,780,658 1035 638
61,050
165 150
67,980
201 165
754,536
713 447
(OP:9A2GA)
441,000
537 392
334,620
491 338
120,768
250 192
(OP:9A4KJ)
73,660
171 145
3,255
36
35
300
10
10
9,804
79
76
103,400
250 200

Czech Republic
OK1BLU
OK1DXW
OK7W

A
"
21

OK1XC
OL3R

"
14

OK1HFP
OK7K

7
3.7

OK5D

"

OK7GU
*OK7Z

"
A

*OK1DPU
*OK2BUT
*OK2MBP
*OK1HEH
*OK1MKU
*OK2BZE
*OK1BA
*OK2SGY
*OK2TS
*OK1BJ
*OK1DVA
*OK2MRJ
*OL2T

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*OK2SAR
*OK1VHV
*OK1TVL
*OK5SWL

"
"
"
"

*OK2BND
*OK1BPN
*OK1TD
*OK4NN
*OK2BJK
*OK2PBG
*OK1MMN
*OK5OK
*OK2SSJ
*OK2BRS
*OK2BRQ
*OK2HBR
*OK9PET
*OK1JOK
OK3C

"
"
21
"
"
"
14
"
"
7
"
3.7
"
1.8
AA

OL5W
OK4K

14A
7A

OLW

3.7A

OK1KZ
"
*OK1WCF AA
*OK2BFN
"
*OK1PMA
"
*OK4GP
"
*OK4DZ
"
*OK6AB
"
*OK7MT
"
*OK2UHP 14A
*OK1AY
3.7A
*OK1DWQ
"

214,124
347 269
70,004
198 172
4,129,624 1935 778
(OP:OK1CID)
96,111
207 181
130,800
296 240
(OP:OK1VWK)
608,020
623 430
2,916,576 1476 741
(OP:OK1BN)
1,485,036 1042 581
(OP:OK1DTP)
1,420
20
20
5,811,484 2248 986
(OP:OK2ZI)
711,650
725 430
418,680
516 360
286,974
424 298
274,211
432 301
232,704
330 256
191,646
293 273
174,635
321 265
144,570
296 237
65,928
185 164
62,800
187 157
58,560
180 160
33,245
126 109
30,744
129 122
(OP:OK2TC)
28,356
117 102
11,932
81
76
1,664
27
26
1,372
30
28
(OP:OK2SWD)
1,078
22
22
168
8
8
160,888
266 221
34,561
117 107
23,852
96
89
19,837
94
83
68,915
196 179
53,820
176 156
22,002
128 114
97,792
206 191
52,767
153 143
248,270
389 305
2,240
35
32
61,932
204 156
17,787
87
77
(OP:OK2ZC)
132,468
299 249
2,808,720 1209 720
(OP:OK1BOA)
593,040
623 420
(OP:OK1DSZ)
5,088
51
48
3,269,222 1652 821
409,220
467 370
293,986
431 322
144,288
264 216
105,264
221 172
48,430
151 145
22,944
99
96
5,734
62
61
500,871
601 391
51,744
163 147

Denmark
OZ1OP
OZ7EA
OV3T
OZ3BJ
OZ8RH
*OZ1ACB
*OU7A
*OZ1NLD
*OZ4NA
*OZ1KKH
*OZ5AGJ
*OZ1D
*OZ1RD
*OU8A

A
"
"
28
21
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*OZ7DK
*OZ9V
OU2V

14
7
AA

OZ2AR

124,544
65,886
61,918
168
79,261
414,789
398,240
327,565
241,336
82,280
66,259
36,777
15,224
5,100

273 224
181 158
191 166
8
7
191 169
525 361
491 380
507 343
387 311
196 187
196 173
128 123
95
88
52
51
(OP:5PO)
1,040
26
26
85,644
209 183
606,697
591 413
(OP:OZ1FJB)
116,850
228 190
(OP:OZ7DK)
453,750
553 375
47,880
133 120
24,648
119 104
12,160
81
80
9,028
64
61
4,165
50
49

"

*OZ1KVM
*5P4VW
*OZ1IVA
*OZ8ZS
*OZ5D
*OZ4RT

AA
"
"
"
"
"

MGHQ
G3TDH
GAZH
GHVQ
G4HBI
G6MC
M3C

A
"
"
21
"
14
"

GMCV
MMCV
G3PXT
G3VGZ
G2Z
G4DBW
*2EPLA
*2E1AYS
*G4DDX
*G4SHF
*2EKDT
*G4IDF
*MPKZ
*G1PCR
*GC

"
7
"
"
"
"
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*MWWA
*MGKC
*MWAN
*G4OTU
*MNPT
*MSSK
*M6ETL
*G3R
*MSDY
*G8ZRE
*G6GLP
*GPBE

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

England

September 2016

485,144
125,451
119,214
227,815
19,090
198,625
33,480

561 407
296 263
275 222
336 283
90
83
353 227
148 135
(OP:GVQR)
3,901
48
47
1,013,022
866 501
283,556
512 287
159,565
263 235
20,884
99
92
20,296
104
86
235,770
380 290
196,350
341 275
179,826
335 258
172,176
354 272
145,092
266 214
121,800
265 210
119,629
295 227
117,900
292 225
115,940
273 220
(OP:GCER)
104,500
276 209
104,463
259 219
95,256
259 189
93,240
252 210
85,698
243 207
77,350
222 182
75,048
219 177
65,508
187 159
62,640
201 174
53,955
211 165
31,860
125 118
16,274
111 103

CQ

101

*MPAM
*MTQM
*G4FFN
*MTQR
*M5Z

"
"
"
"
"

*2ETTK
*G7SYW
*G7RTI
*G8GHD
*G6A

"
"
"
21
"

*MSME
*2EPWL
*G3YRZ
*MOSA
*2ESNS
*MDZB
*GFPU
*GSFJ
MWUT
G1XOW
G4IIY
MRNR
MOSH
G3UHU
G4RRM
MINN
G8AJM
M1U

"
"
14
"
"
7
3.7
1.8
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A

MPLX
GK3MPD

"
14A

G3RXQ
*M4M
*MDCD
*2EIFC
*G9F

7A
AA
"
"
"

*MMCX
*G7VTU
*MMXX
*MTBS
*G4JFS
*MTRJ
*G8X

"
"
"
"
"
"
21A

*MWYH
*M6HKD
*2ESDV

14A
"
7A

9,432
76
72
6,834
72
67
5,376
50
48
4,988
48
43
4,575
61
61
(OP:JK3GAD)
2,652
42
39
1,728
33
32
1,421
29
29
27,072
106
96
13,213
77
73
(OP:G4NXG)
3,306
39
38
280
10
10
105,702
269 237
19,071
122 117
9,790
92
89
11,400
59
57
264
12
11
70
7
7
3,222,180 1711 884
2,913,792 1515 813
1,331,605
989 605
311,091
438 363
254,925
440 309
132,000
271 240
87,300
213 180
31,414
121 113
26,786
134 118
517,581
550 393
(OP:MUTD)
112,918
239 202
444,291
600 411
(OP:GMDBW)
1,162,048
845 536
446,121
575 403
214,176
355 291
195,244
342 266
103,870
258 221
(OP:G4BVY)
63,961
198 167
45,122
167 154
28,634
156 139
3,648
49
48
645
16
15
645
15
15
380,016
459 348
(OP:G4FJK)
3,976
58
56
896
28
28
216,975
333 275

Estonia
ES5TV
ES5MG
ES2IPA
ES6RW

A
"
"
21

ES4RD
"
ES2MC
14
*ES6RMR
A
*ES4RLH
21
*ES1LS
14
*ES5RIM
"
*ES8SX
7
ES7GM
AA
ES1BH
"
ES5RY
1.8A
*ES6PA
AA
*ES1CN
21A
*ES2TT
"
*ES4NY
1.8A

15,145,625 4444 1375


656,632
650 422
104,951
257 203
2,198,984 1342 629
(OP:ES5RW)
12,352
71
64
144,001
331 247
44,541
160 147
21
3
3
173,677
394 301
66,504
235 204
109,238
222 193
6,944,160 2745 1110
440,273
588 397
217,061
367 283
275,220
421 330
123,012
236 201
27,249
99
93
54,872
182 152

European Russia
District 1
UA1CEI
RA1AL
RU1AB
U1BD
RD1AH
RV1CB
RU1AT
UA1ORK
RW1CW
UA1ANA
*UA1CUR
*RZ1AU
*RV1AE
*RX1CV
*RA1AGU
*RA1APV
*RA1ALH
*RD1D
*UA1TGQ
R1FZ
RV1CC
UD1A
RX1CQ
RU1M
RD1T
*RT1Q
*RZ1O
*R1BCE
*RA1AIZ

A
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
1.8
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
3.7
"
AA
"
"
"
14A
"
AA
"
"
7A

1,951,856 1477
1,472,175 1258
459,420
606
248,620
424
158,916
302
2,975
37
2,387
34
551,249
736
301,098
395
19,855
108
615,478
731
319,592
509
115,316
283
64,602
221
38,360
160
21,115
112
1,421
30
158,821
303
72,162
197
551,930
786
431,032
506
426,008
534
2,720
33
716,302
871
47,275
170
55,608
194
2,146
30
972
19
56,625
166

688
675
403
310
246
35
31
431
321
95
439
364
227
194
137
103
29
247
171
485
358
412
32
557
155
168
29
18
151

District 3
RV3FF
UA3VFS
R3OM
RA3NC
R3GZ
RC3U
RD5A

A
"
"
"
"
"
"

R2GB
RJ3AA
RO5I
R2ZA
RA3THN
R3KM
RW2B
RA5AO
*RA3Y
*UA3BL
*RA3DAD
*R2AD
*UA3ABF
*RN3Z
*RK3DYB

"
"
"
"
"
21
7
1.8
A
"
"
"
"
"
"

*RL3BZ
*RD2D

102

"
"

5,517,840 2561 996


1,457,280 1034 640
982,125
959 485
574,857
666 453
496,488
578 411
392,010
511 365
220,704
373 304
(OP:UAKCX/3)
193,110
364 246
93,617
198 179
54,520
165 145
29,028
134 123
3,564
37
33
429,756
522 354
235,410
334 266
10,710
79
70
3,089,198 1983 839
1,621,800 1334 636
1,330,245 1089 615
1,035,980
996 554
449,491
539 409
361,212
480 372
350,875
576 401
(OP:R2DAW)
318,922
542 362
317,160
474 360

CQ

*RZ5D
*RA3YDA
*RA3RLJ
*RM3V
*R2AHS
*R3DCB
*R3OA
*RA3DQP
*RA3Z
*RO5K
*UA3DVB
*RN3ZJJ
*R2DGD
*R2OFF
*UA3UBT
*RX3VF
*R2ZBT
*RU3UB
*UA3YAA
*RN3FY
*R3WW
*R3RF
*RU3YAA
*RD3DS
*R2DX
*RX3AU
*R3RK
*RM3O
*RL3DI
*RK3E
*UAXAK/3
*RM2T
*R2SA
*RW3WX
*UA3MIF
*RZ3Z
*R3LC
*UA5F
*RA3DGH
*RT3N
*RT3W
*RN3P
*RA3SS
*R3EE
*RK3Y
*R2EL
RM3DA
UA5C
RG5R
UI3A
R3ZV
UA3AGW
UA3RN
RN3TT
RA3TT
RO3G
RL5A
UG3G
R2CA
RZ2D

"
"
"
"

284,085
270,816
205,720
201,068

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
7
"
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

RA3EA
RW3DU
R5FU
RW3XZ
RV3YM
RA3OA
R3LA
*R3DCX
*RJ3F
*RK2M
*UA3PI
*RX3AEX
*RZ3F
*RA3R
*UF5D

"
21A
"
14A
"
7A
1.8A
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*R5DF
*R3QX
*RW3ZA
*RG5A
*RY3D
*RU5TT

"
"
"
21A
"
14A

*UA3YCX

3.7A

RU4AA
RQ4C
UA4PAN
UA4NC
RN4NF
RG4A
RN4W
UA4S

A
"
"
"
"
"
"
21

R4IN
*R4WAB
*R4IB
*RA4ACX
*UA4SJO
*RN4SC
*RA4W
*RA4PTI
*RK4PA
*RA4L
*UA4FDR
*RW4HZ
*RU4LM
*R4AAR
*UB4WAW
*RN4ACX
*UA4NCI
*UA4AVN
*R4AC
*R4HDC

"
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
"
"
14
"

*UA4PLC
*RK4NAB
RK4FD
RJ4P
RL4A
RL4F
UD4FD
UF4M

7
1.8
AA
"
"
"
"
"

UA4RF
RY4AEE
RZ4HC
RA4LO
*RW4WA
*RK4FM

"
"
14A
"
AA
"

422 295
375 372
391 296
348 301
(OP:RW3VA)
166,355
325 245
165,971
312 221
163,152
348 264
155,610
346 266
106,488
250 204
98,532
254 207
92,833
236 193
58,598
191 166
49,728
164 148
45,158
148 134
41,654
148 118
29,870
148 145
29,618
130 118
14,287
94
91
9,792
72
68
7,820
77
68
7,261
56
53
4,920
44
41
3,150
36
35
1,020
19
17
640
22
20
494
14
13
164,952
309 261
121,260
263 215
88,164
210 186
70,512
191 156
56,457
182 153
18,321
106
93
13,345
97
85
8,260
64
59
4,784
46
46
502,097
699 487
225,450
424 334
157,320
363 285
83,356
274 229
41,964
172 156
27,429
138 123
14,229
98
93
3,920
57
56
2,584
39
38
220,584
321 273
15,522
83
78
1,574,965 1246 595
1,391,368 1140 652
1,217,760 1030 590
1,203,696 1013 624
937,279
909 521
353,584
511 328
237,850
484 335
180,121
377 281
179,935
330 265
149,094
311 251
122,229
352 243
41,385
198 155
28,623
107
87
26,287
101
97
(OP:UA3BZ)
18,204
98
82
393,680
504 380
33,210
137 123
384,800
668 400
220,088
410 328
509,166
520 378
980
21
20
482,496
648 448
237,897
376 267
220,222
409 298
127,440
278 216
62,972
197 173
43,700
129 115
25,724
123 109
24,924
142 124
(OP:RC3F)
14,490
70
63
8,151
61
57
3,290
40
35
247,760
394 304
115,417
247 211
698,982
764 582
(OP:R3TE)
504
15
14

District 4

September 2016

1,434,664 1166 616


580,139
707 463
277,536
419 294
147,224
317 239
137,900
241 197
76,788
197 162
10,710
73
63
1,480,824 1295 628
(OP:UA4HTT)
1,325
26
25
440,146
640 422
268,578
442 347
161,670
330 255
142,428
329 249
126,762
289 222
84,420
255 210
78,011
226 181
26,558
103
98
18,837
130 117
16,110
100
90
6,364
52
37
280
10
10
120
8
8
213,204
581 326
44,536
178 152
18,130
105
98
8,520
64
60
35,770
162 146
11,684
98
92
(OP:XX9XX)
15,708
85
77
30,956
126 109
13,216,034 4151 1322
7,843,887 3409 1179
1,470,960 1102 648
690,030
608 451
581,825
622 425
308,115
597 369
(OP:UA4LL)
131,405
276 205
98,175
239 175
196,472
389 328
15,372
90
84
1,093,950
982 550
679,760
699 464

*R4FAN
*RA4AAT
*RA4CB
*UC4I
*RU4SO
*UA4SN
*R4FA
*RC4R
*UA4NDX

"
"
"
"
21A
"
14A
"
7A

508,464
231,546
170,430
62,264
146,280
540
221,190
59,279
83,952

584
382
341
196
390
20
435
198
178

432
259
285
172
276
18
365
187
159

District 6
RT73GP

361,030

RK7T
UA6MA
R7AW
*RW6AEW
*R7MP
*RT7Y

"
28
21
A
"
"

765
1,220
303,506
398,620
240,714
148,830

632 395
(OP:RD3TT)
19
17
21
20
534 326
580 380
417 311
319 246
(OP:R6YAF)
270 207
236 178
141 122
113 112
125 107
82
75
23
21
3
3
33
33
3
3
454 321
363 296
289 238
108
94
963 586
11
11
1391 743
846 556
726 488
552 410
191 178
49
47
50
48
14
12
15
15
1
1
713 458
159 146
479 371
97
92
1537 811

*UA6HLN
*R7RIB
*RX7R
*UC6A
*RA6LIS
*RW7M
*RQ7M
*R6AW
*R7NP
*UA4ASE/6
*RM7C
*RU6YZ
*RJ7A
*UA6ABE
*RC7KY
*UA6JQ
RX7K
RQ6M
R6FDD
RG6G
R7NK
RU6K
R7LV
RU6B
R6KA
RV6ASU
UA6LCN
RU6YJ
RC7A
R7FF
RM6C
(OP:R7DA)
*RL6M
*R7MM
*RZ6L
*RC6AE

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
14
"
"
"
7
1.8
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
"
14A
"
7A

105,984
91,314
43,432
28,000
23,433
16,050
1,239
36
2,409
27
190,032
176,416
103,292
18,894
1,466,172
297
1,980,838
961,324
779,336
383,760
81,702
7,802
6,912
612
330
3
633,414
63,072
243,747
21,620
3,473,513

AA
"
"
"

*RT73CW
*RA7M
*RA6DT
*R7KMA
*UB7K
*RG7K
*UA7K
*RL6K
*R7CA
*UA6LUQ
*UA6GF

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
14A
"
"

2,282,760 1662 765


1,055,779
881 571
670,259
746 443
170,544
348 272
(OP:RU6BL)
68,629
220 187
24,360
109 105
22,161
97
83
19,339
100
83
4,536
43
36
4,452
43
42
870
19
15
225,458
362 278
819,681
922 597
657,078
803 582
184,464
397 336

UA9XL
RT9X
R9XT
R9XV
R9XM
RU9F
*UA9FKH

AA
"
"
"
"
"
AA

District 9
1,335,961 1192
121,756
300
55,545
188
50,112
199
28,815
112
360
9
1,344
28

671
244
161
174
85
9
28

European Turkey
TC11GLB 28
*TA1BX
*TA1ADC
*TA1CH
*TA1AJJ
*TA1AAE
*TA1CM
TA1API
TC11E

A
"
"
"
7
1.8
AA
28A

TC11GP

14A

*TA1ED
AA
*TA1L
"
*TC11KT 28A
*TA1CQ
21A
*TA1O
14A
*TC11SO "
*TC11GS

"

432
12
12
(OP:TA3AHJ)
27,270
160 135
989
26
23
666
20
18
20
5
4
6
1
1
32
4
4
75,168
217 174
48
4
4
(OP:TA3APR)
12
4
4
(OP:TA3CY)
269,952
428 304
54,720
170 144
48
4
4
(OP:TA3OSD)
39,552
151 128
73,776
277 212
15,096
109 102
(OP:TA3AER)
35
5
5
(OP:TA3EC)

Fed. Rep. of Germany


DC4A

DLNM

"

DLJBB

"

DL5DTG
DK6BT
DJ2YE
DK8EY
DF2RG
DL6DVU
DL1TPY
DK1FT
DKSU

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

DC9ZP
DC7DX
DL5XAT
DM2MA
DF3TE
DH1PAL
DL1VJL
DL5ZK
DK4VF
DB1WT
DKLK

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

DL2MM

"

6,903,232 2637 1064


(OP:DL4NAC)
1,064,582
943 487
(OP:DB2RR)
494,912
579 418
(OP:DL6YAO)
334,180
439 310
318,753
432 321
266,987
434 301
197,118
322 233
190,750
297 250
157,368
305 237
152,496
274 216
136,344
278 228
123,892
256 188
(OP:DF7SA)
121,476
256 191
118,482
221 186
77,550
171 150
46,170
148 135
42,780
148 138
42,112
139 128
24,462
97
81
10,430
73
70
9,982
64
62
9,664
74
64
5,508
54
51
(OP:DO2MWE)
4,715
42
41

DL1BRL
DJ5IW
DM2GM
DMY

"
"
"
21

DL1DTL
DL9LM
*DFBV

"
14
A

*DL4ZA
*DL1ATZ
*DK2WU
*DF5BM
*DK1KC
*DL6ON
*DM3HZN
*DL6CT
*DK8NC
*DG5MLA
*DL5LB
*DL2DQL
*DL3PW
*DDVE
*DG1IU
*DK7CH
*DB8AH
*DO8CW
*DL5AWE
*DL1AS
*DO4OD
*DD4BY
*DO9SR
*DL6RBH
*DL8XDA
*DL3RAR
*DO1CS
*DJ4WM
*DH9DX

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*DL9LF
*DC1LEX
*DL1KRT
*DL5ALW
*DL3DRN
*DL4EBA
*DL1FMG
*DF6RI
*DD1OP
*DL6RG
*DK8HE
*DL1EHG
*DJ3GE
*DD5MA
*DL4FNM
*DL1CC
*DL8AX
*DL9ZWG
*DK4EF
*DL8ULO
*DF7GG
*DJ3HW
*DO1OH
*DL4DRW
*DH4PSG
*DO5LW
*DK2TS
*DO1UKR
*DL5MHR
*DL1DF
*DL7UHD
*DL7VRG
*DO2HEY
*DL1GO
*DG2JA
*DO1KUB
*DB2MJ
*DO2MS
*DL4SZB
*DD7BW
*DL9FB
*DL6FBK
*DK6QW
*DL3TVI
*DO1HGS
*DL9HB
*DO6NI
*DO4JM
*DO1NFO
*DF7OA
*DK3GI
*DM9JM
*DJ1OJ
*DL1PF
*DG6DAF
*DL1IF
*DL1ARJ
*DK6EA
*DL4JWU
*DO4FLO
*DL7LZ
*DL1TLA
*DG5TF
*DK1LRS
*DL9TR
*DL3AMI
*DO2JX
*DG2YCB
*DL9EAH
*DO1RTO
*DL5JS
*DJ6TK
*DO4TP
*DO6SI
*DO6FC
*DO6XJ
*DL9NEI
*DK6TM
*DL9ZP
*DLGEO

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14
"

*DL7FB
*DL1GBQ
*DL2QT
*DL5RU
*DL8A

"
"
"
7
"

*DM4DX
*DL1FW
*DG1HXJ
*DG6TOM
*DC6RI
*DL8AKA
*DO7KMH

"
"
"
"
"
3.7
"

1,815
38
33
90
6
6
8
2
2
1,571,830 1042 565
(OP:DL3BQA)
23,140
97
89
116,367
293 237
1,562,835 1069 645
(OP:DL1MAJ)
1,096,548
911 548
619,960
649 440
604,665
643 405
517,504
569 416
516,497
557 397
506,484
658 396
504,504
585 396
481,431
560 383
428,884
499 358
365,103
482 359
313,614
447 342
271,040
392 308
203,721
341 267
191,797
378 269
191,542
374 278
182,688
361 264
179,968
316 256
170,942
403 254
168,315
309 245
158,079
291 237
154,584
267 228
139,263
251 183
116,127
244 207
113,078
238 197
111,110
239 205
107,858
231 199
97,745
212 173
95,238
237 198
89,280
224 192
(OP:DH9DX/P)
83,402
200 187
83,398
199 161
78,880
211 170
74,400
172 160
73,372
193 166
72,864
202 176
72,141
219 173
71,340
195 164
67,936
178 176
66,360
194 158
65,664
199 171
64,584
189 156
61,336
194 164
59,241
176 147
57,868
184 148
57,442
178 154
46,306
155 137
46,200
164 140
45,537
150 129
31,302
126 111
29,624
122
92
29,106
103
98
29,040
120 110
28,350
110 105
25,553
116 101
23,876
99
94
22,500
111 100
21,504
107
96
20,430
101
90
20,370
114 105
19,749
97
87
19,536
99
88
17,724
95
84
17,100
98
90
16,640
86
65
14,350
90
82
14,200
72
71
14,058
75
71
13,690
81
74
10,877
79
73
10,850
73
70
9,821
64
61
9,130
62
55
9,016
61
56
8,024
64
59
8,003
60
53
5,559
54
51
5,324
47
44
4,480
43
40
3,920
40
40
3,672
39
36
3,267
33
33
2,808
39
39
2,730
44
42
2,295
29
27
2,059
30
29
1,288
23
23
1,008
19
18
735
21
21
680
20
20
615
15
15
608
17
16
432
16
16
168
12
12
112
8
8
75
5
5
36
4
4
12
3
3
2
2
1
58,088
152 137
34,556
114 106
30,100
111 100
12,025
66
65
4,428
43
41
4,370
42
38
3,267
35
33
560
14
14
420
14
14
96,348
260 222
34,661
162 137
(OP:DL2YAK)
9,072
81
81
5,238
56
54
1,472
32
32
229,633
313 277
139,020
235 210
(OP:DL1DN)
58,000
205 145
7,425
57
55
1,624
32
29
338
13
13
72
6
6
30,972
129 116
2,849
38
37

DL6NDW
DD2ML
DH8BQA
DK1QH
DKRX

AA
"
"
"
"

DHGHU
DL7URH
DL7ON
DL2RMC
DG8AM
DD8SM
DM7C

"
"
"
"
"
"
"

DK9HN
DH9SB
DK5A

"
"
"

DK2AT
DLLK

"
"

DL6MHW
DH6DAO
DL9DYL
DL7UXG
DL7BC
DL5AXX
DJ5LA
DAC

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

DL4RDJ
DK2CX
DP6T

"
"
"

DF9VJ
DL1WTE
DL1NEO
DL5YM
DKWRTC

"
"
"
"
"

DK1AX
DJ1AA
DK6AH
DL1DBR
DG9SEH
DL4ALI
DL7YS
DK9TN
DL1MGB
DK2LO
DL5ST
DF7AT
DL8RB
DF4PD
DN3CX
DJ4MZ
DG3MR
DJ9MH
DL8UAT
DL2ARD
DKEE

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
"

DL1TC
DL6AG
DD2CW
DL4VAI
DL8DYL
DF8KY
DJ6QT
DF2LH
DL7CX
*DF2F

"
"
14A
"
"
"
7A
"
1.8A
AA

*DK8ZZ
*DJ4MH
*DK1IP
*DF1MM
*DL8NBJ
*DL1GME
*DF7EF
*DG5YHK
*DM5Z
*DO2MRC
*DG8OBN
*DL9BBE
*DO7EE
*DJ6HR
*DL1JNA
*DL6RAI
*DJ2SN
*DL4SKF
*DL6DH
*DJ4PK
*DB1VQ
*DL4LT
*DG2FDE
*DL1OJ
*DQA

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*DL1TS
*DQ2T

"
"

*DM6DX
"
*DG2BHB
"
*DO9TM
"
*DJ6DO
"
*DL5ANS
"
*DL8ZU
"
*DD8IL
"
*DC2CT
"
*DO6NIK
"
*DL2GMI
"
*DF1HF
"
*DL2GW
"
*DF1LX
"
*DG1UAE
"
*DG8HJ
"
*DL1DWR 21A
*DL8ZAJ
"
*DO5NJH
"
*DB9WY
"
*DF3AK
14A
*DG9KB
"
*DL5GAC
"
*DL1SWT 7A
*DD9WG 3.7A
*DO9ST
"
*DJ8OG
1.8A

3,472,326 1760 858


2,179,307 1205 689
1,992,474 1322 694
1,686,312 1119 666
1,415,616 1081 584
(OP:DL1GWS)
1,086,939
830 567
1,043,048
871 482
1,028,313
791 561
966,132
753 571
691,300
658 446
617,344
660 424
532,980
557 420
(OP:DL7CX)
530,145
501 385
529,200
549 392
508,820
571 380
(OP:DK5KMA)
473,396
524 371
417,573
494 387
(OP:DL8HCO)
400,281
444 343
384,249
497 367
361,305
421 315
317,069
392 313
307,584
391 288
306,278
435 262
289,849
394 329
256,750
462 325
(OP:DK8WG)
228,452
359 287
198,276
298 246
188,652
299 237
(OP:DL3FCG)
173,240
299 244
168,017
278 239
165,158
271 251
148,302
269 231
115,818
257 199
(OP:DL1MGB)
108,160
257 208
103,230
219 186
76,858
193 166
68,960
197 160
38,480
147 130
34,572
148 129
31,460
123 110
21,749
98
91
21,250
93
85
15,246
79
77
15,130
90
85
12,749
65
61
9,350
61
55
4,060
28
28
3,159
39
39
2,478
22
21
2,139
25
23
976
17
16
175
7
7
6,838,155 2572 999
492,558
492 374
(OP:DL4MDO)
30,603
102 101
7,840
56
49
410,256
628 407
292,560
418 345
22,188
97
86
3,174
48
46
2,245,437 1081 719
8,036
49
49
149,624
330 236
3,986,925 1785 901
(OP:DF2SD)
3,170,412 1629 828
2,405,600 1407 800
1,133,128
860 556
606,300
634 430
490,854
550 403
489,335
538 385
438,592
451 352
390,888
513 366
234,036
381 297
220,769
370 277
217,107
353 297
170,522
316 253
164,750
296 250
163,314
326 258
133,950
269 235
100,036
217 178
97,610
246 215
88,352
212 176
86,673
211 173
78,120
204 168
55,772
172 146
43,194
171 138
38,190
156 134
37,665
151 135
36,057
136 119
(OP:DK2DQ)
32,880
126 120
25,410
123 110
(OP:DK4LL)
22,736
98
98
22,356
119 108
19,620
94
90
19,364
104
94
9,800
58
56
9,114
65
62
8,601
68
61
5,805
48
43
5,750
50
50
5,616
55
52
4,224
44
44
2,970
34
33
1,122
23
22
667
24
23
420
13
12
43,500
131 116
4,033
38
37
3,760
42
40
840
20
20
84,666
227 206
41,448
174 157
714
21
21
10,962
64
63
13,858
89
82
12,921
75
73
21,879
112
99

Finland
OH6LI
OH8NW
OH2LZC

A
"
"

2,528,858 1484
2,177,529 1580
524,623
739

739
717
407

Visit Our Web Site

OH2BBM
OH2BAH
OH9GIT
*OH6ECM
*OH9GGY
*OH3KQ
*OH1XFE
*OH6EPM
*OH6EHZ
*OH5EP
*OH5TS
*OH1TD
*OH2DD
*OH7MFO
*OH1LAR
OG6N

"
21
14
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
14
"
"
7
3.7
AA

OG73X

"

OG3MS
OH3Z
OH6RE
OH2KW
OG7A

"
"
"
"
"

OH7KBF
OH2FNR
OH2XX
OH3EX
OG3OJ
OH1AF
OG2K
*OH3JP
*OH6GDX
*OH8FAL
*OH2KM
*OH2LNH
*OH7HM
*OH2ECG
*OH7EBA
*OH9A
*OH8F

"
"
"
21A
14A
"
"
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28A
14A

*OH6EOG

"

TM6M

TMT
F6DZU
TM5A

"
"
"

F4EPP
F5OQL
F6FET
F4CRE
F2FZ
F6GOX
F4HJO
F6API
TM1W

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21

F5MMF
TM8A

"
14

F1MKC
F5SDD
*TM22TSF
*F5LIW
*F4CDR
*F6BAT
*F6DRP
*F4DLL
*F6EWX
*F4ASK
*F4DXP
*F4DSE
*F5PAL
*F4FTA
*F5JU
*F1MQJ
*F4HPX
*F5JQQ
*F4FLF
*F1IWH
*F4FBP
*TM9K
*F5PBG
*F4GYI
*F1PNJ
*F4GVP
*F5MA
*F6BQG
*F4FLO
*F4HOT
*F4GFT
*F1VEV
*F5BTH
*F4GLQ
*F8DYD
TM7F

"
7
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14
"
AA

5,175
48
45
34,965
117 111
66
12
11
1,049,070
976 561
679,252
699 476
174,414
335 246
159,095
309 235
29,052
133 108
18,785
103
85
13,651
74
73
675,311
881 533
103,812
281 246
2,173
41
41
1,400
25
25
49,284
162 148
5,280,208 2408 1046
(OP:OH6NIO)
5,040,432 2237 986
(OP:OH8LQ)
2,806,860 1749 820
855,096
707 474
614,790
792 506
544,824
661 423
432,408
616 419
(OP:OH6MW)
363,444
505 372
264,320
395 295
26,163
111
81
481,572
519 364
1,980,672 1646 768
(OP:OH3OJ)
469,571
608 401
(OP:OH1TM)
102,366
292 242
1,196,430
917 570
1,022,557
860 529
169,800
417 300
49,552
194 163
21,408
113
96
11,310
94
87
6,480
50
45
5,796
53
46
297
11
11
(OP:OH1NOA)
67,240
246 205
(OP:OH8KVY)
12
2
2

France

F8CRH
F4DSK
F6BLZ
F8VNU
F1RHS
F4BDG
F5NBX
F1TRE
F4CPF
F8DFP
F4FEP
F5DRD
F1ADG
F6IRA
*F4FFZ
*F4GWY
*F4GVE
*F4FZR
*F8AEE
*F1EOY
*F5TRO
*F5BSB

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
14A
"
3.7A
AA
"
"
"
"
"
21A
14A

SV8CRI
SV8DTD
SV1PMR
SV8RMA

A
21
"
7

17,114,076 4322 1202


(OP:F4DXW)
14,351,456 3837 1106
3,285,327 1718 829
1,228,656
937 572
(OP:F5VHJ)
192,984
334 264
69,732
188 156
29,160
124 108
22,116
107
97
8,802
57
54
3,745
35
35
2,444
27
26
555
15
15
5,310,375 2312 875
(OP:F1HAR)
9,519
59
57
933,900
923 566
(OP:F8DVD)
10,956
85
83
36,406
140 109
1,316,502
974 549
877,920
753 496
465,375
557 365
228,520
377 290
226,632
364 284
205,975
348 275
194,670
341 270
174,848
322 256
120,980
278 230
89,425
248 175
81,720
214 180
80,850
197 175
73,871
196 173
57,600
179 160
55,417
169 151
41,648
168 137
36,594
126 114
31,860
138 118
26,973
130 111
21,330
100
90
10,295
80
71
8,990
64
62
8,308
72
67
8,046
58
54
5,670
54
45
5,292
43
42
3,818
51
46
1,587
23
23
1,312
33
32
663
13
13
78
6
6
34,661
150 137
1,036
28
28
7,649,838 2707 1114
(OP:F6GLH)
5,785,480 2237 1060
380,387
488 343
318,753
419 331
278,276
390 292
96,624
211 176
94,122
222 166
42,570
145 129
22,176
98
84
18,880
82
80
1,643
31
31
15,960
76
76
89,063
259 221
60,726
199 174
53,328
142 132
1,078,446
833 582
22,428
96
84
22,161
98
89
18,414
106
93
2,336
33
32
988
20
19
72,177
169 147
123,752
276 248

Greece
1,515,024 1256
334,152
546
100,548
246
45,784
136

668
306
196
118

SV2GJV
*SV1PMH
*J42P

1.8
A
"

*SV7CUD
*SV6NNZ
*SV3GKW
*SV2HXV
*SV1MNF
*SV1CEI
*SV7JJZ
*SV1JRS
*SV1EML
*SV7QNV
*SV1IYY
*SV7NIN
*SV1EJD
*SV1GRD
SV6JHA
*SV1PIZ
*SV1KYC
*SV1ONV
*SV2OJJ
*SV2DFK
*SV1DOO
*SV7OOL
*SV1NZX
*SZ1A

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
1.8
AA
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
28A
14A

*SV2NRU
"
*SY1BFI
7A
*SV1PMQ 3.7A

25,500
124 100
834,209
777 491
107,930
244 215
(OP:SV2BXA)
49,192
165 143
32,116
142 124
29,606
139 113
21,696
118 113
20,790
113
99
15,663
82
69
13,175
96
85
7,488
65
64
880
19
16
714
16
14
280
10
10
3
1
1
128,545
299 235
378
14
14
294,921
362 331
179,994
348 262
167,076
302 234
69,216
176 168
49,136
162 148
30,976
119
88
8,580
72
66
176
12
11
108
6
6
10,962
109
87
(OP:SV1CIB)
9,234
84
81
40,766
117 109
15,504
81
76

Guernsey
2UWGE
*MUGSY
*MUFAL

A
21
14

HG8R

HA5UA
*HG44FY

"
A

60,225
132,466
31,122

195
265
137

165
214
133

Hungary

*HA3FHH
*HG1VN
*HAHW
*HA5YG
*HA7MS
*HA1TI
HA3DX

"
"
"
"
3.7
1.8
AA

HA9T
HA3OU
*HA5PP
*HA6NL
*HA6PJ
*HG8C

"
"
AA
"
"
"

*HA8CQ
*HA1WD

"
"

TF2LL
*TF2MSN
*TF8KY
*TF3EK
*TF3DT
*TF3JB
TF3CY
TF3AO

A
A
"
"
"
14
AA
14A

7,276,000 2129 1000


(OP:HA8JV)
22,080
97
92
58,604
201 161
(OP:HA8FY)
45,150
148 129
41,021
144 127
36,273
122 107
7,866
66
57
616
14
14
66,132
203 167
5,618,704 2416 952
(OP:HA4XH)
5,229,568 2093 1024
804,915
681 465
841,312
752 488
789,914
805 487
404,600
512 340
364,008
450 348
(OP:HA8EK)
43,358
163 133
3,515
38
37

Iceland
572,760
358,798
98,648
6,372
45
47,759
603,216
53,010

578
503
282
69
9
211
760
205

387
347
209
59
9
163
472
190

Ireland
EI3JE
EI7M
*EI1A
*EI4GNB
*EI9KC
*EI7JZ
EI6JK
EI5KF
*EI3CTB
*EI2FS
*EI8JX

A
14
A
"
14
3.7
AA
"
AA
14A
"

1,828,007 1314 631


8,803,848 3312 1167
2,209,262 1419 733
(OP:ON4EI)
830,336
815 499
8,833
74
73
42,471
134 121
3,537,216 1639 828
3,065,404 1720 838
136,144
320 254
23,562
124 119
4,823
56
53

Isle of Man
*MD4K

*GD5F

14

IO2X

IK3UNA/1
IK6GPZ
IK7NXU
IO1X
IZ5RKC
IU5BLZ
IK3SSW
IW1RGP
IZ4GAH
I3JKI
IKBZE
IZGUS
IK2QIN
IBYR
IZOTV
IN3MSD
IWSAF
IZ1DLY
IZ8YBS
II2S
III

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
14
"

IZ8GUQ
IZ4VSD
IW1BBQ
IZ1DGG
IK2SND
IZ4TOA
IW2ETR
IV3CNZ
IK2AQZ
IR2F
*IV3UHL
*IN3EIS
*I1DXD
*II3I

"
"
"
7
"
"
"
"
"
"
A
"
"
"

*IU4FJI
*IZ3XNJ

"
"

3,103,184 1673 824


(OP:G4XUM)
119,260
321 268

Italy

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

11,115,720 3281 1155


(OP:IK2NCJ)
2,224,586 1498 719
1,505,480 1070 610
922,049
705 523
215,424
355 264
181,632
342 264
171,000
320 250
137,122
268 218
103,972
233 187
51,408
162 136
48,372
152 139
46,426
147 139
33,288
130 114
25,123
99
97
11,352
66
66
10,521
64
63
9,900
77
75
2,418
33
31
30
5
5
4,797
41
41
916,288
899 556
475,592
685 442
(OP:IZPAU)
411,350
638 433
21,984
96
96
27
3
3
597,312
655 408
306,957
385 311
234,030
340 269
165,430
257 233
164,640
318 245
80,304
210 168
22,356
85
81
1,265,055
983 615
582,417
673 407
379,431
504 351
372,624
493 336
(OP:I3QKO)
296,916
451 327
243,243
385 297

*IZ2GTS
*IQ2DN

"
"

*IK7RVY
*IW2MWC
*IZ8YAA
*IZ2OOS
*IN3UFW
*IK3XTT
*IZ2LQD
*IU5FFM
*IU5BKR
*IC8AJU
*IW2NEF
*IK6SBW
*IN3JRZ
*IZ2JNN
*IK2YSJ
*IZ2BKA
*IK4LZH
*IU2BHI
*IK3MLF
*IW1GPT
*IZ8IBC
*IZ2NZQ
*IZ8QNS
*IZ6YLM
*IK2AUK
*IZ4IRX
*IK2MXM
*IU8GNY
*IW2EVH
*IN3EOM
*IKUXO
*IZ1HBC
*IZ1YTK
*IU3BPW
*I7PXV
*IK2GPQ
*IW1QEA
*IZ7EUB
*IZ2YWI
*IW8ENL
*IB2P

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*IWEZW
*IZ3XAC
*IK7LVE
*IK2CMI
*IU8DFD
*IK2UJF
*IU1FQQ
*IZ1USO
*IN3ANF
*IZ2SXZ
*IU4FNQ
*IK4XQT
*IK1BPL
*IZKBA
*IZTWS
*IK4VFB
*IU2CKD
*IZ4XAI
*IK8VVU
*IZ4AIF
*IW2BZY
*IZ5CMI
*IK2EBP
*IZ5WNW
*IKOKY
*IK3XTV
*IW2OEV
*IW1RFB
*IK4NZD
*IZ7ZKV
*IW5ECP
*IK5BSC
*IZ2NXF
*IV3FNX
*IK1HZZ
*IZ1JKH
*IK4OMO
*IU7GUW
*IZ8GEX
*IN3EME
IW2HAJ
IR8P

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
21
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14
"
"
"
"
7
"
"
"
"
3.7
AA
"

IZ3SQW
IK4DCX
IK8UND
I1JTQ
I2WIJ
IKXBX
IZ3XEF
IX1CLD
IU4CHE
IO4W

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

IKTIX
IKUTM
IK2IKW
IU4AZC
IZ2BVC
IZ4COW
IKPHY
IZ1ZHG
IB1B

"
"
"
"
"
28A
14A
"
"

IB4X
IR2R

"
7A

IY1A

3.7A

I4AVG
*IZ3NYG
*IZ2SMQ
*IW2FUT
*IK4RVG
*IU4DTV
*IR1E

"
AA
"
"
"
"
"

*IW3HKW
*IU2DXF
*IZ3EIN
*IK5PWS
*IU4FLO
*IIIMJ

"
"
"
"
"
"

*IW3HWT
*IKBAL
*IWGPW
*IZ8GBT

"
"
"
"

237,475
209,752

384 295
406 314
(OP:IZ2JQP)
191,673
314 279
150,528
326 256
147,600
291 225
134,325
280 225
102,564
257 222
101,436
246 214
91,211
225 197
82,720
194 176
81,738
206 171
66,138
177 146
60,760
177 155
44,756
148 134
44,225
167 145
35,624
148 122
32,258
129 127
29,892
120 106
28,830
104
93
26,970
106
87
26,928
112
99
23,836
105 101
22,568
99
91
21,840
95
91
21,736
117 104
21,384
95
88
20,394
107 103
17,640
90
84
17,296
106
92
17,296
110
94
17,160
89
88
12,972
99
92
12,545
70
65
12,403
83
79
10,716
89
76
10,296
74
66
7,579
55
53
6,837
59
53
6,440
60
56
6,439
49
47
6,405
63
61
5,664
55
48
5,346
56
54
(OP:IK2PZC)
5,278
61
58
5,252
53
52
5,170
48
47
4,836
57
52
4,429
48
43
4,400
50
50
3,431
48
47
3,239
44
41
2,695
36
35
2,494
30
29
2,340
36
36
1,656
37
36
1,625
25
25
1,254
20
19
1,248
32
32
1,040
20
20
224
14
14
99
9
9
90
5
5
8,823
62
51
178,250
288 250
7,548
54
51
7,473
54
53
4,494
42
42
2,688
35
32
1,334
24
23
1,020
20
20
960
20
20
546
14
14
162,060
419 292
116,160
275 242
115,885
259 245
21,218
109 103
660
22
22
602,504
589 424
462,375
521 375
51,620
167 145
16,044
90
84
2,322
27
27
1,269
27
27
10,976,094 3240 1247
9,455,616 3148 1152
(OP:IZ8EPX)
3,168,110 1768 830
1,931,559 1174 721
924,072
878 554
702,180
631 470
618,616
639 424
519,170
534 386
304,508
365 283
181,608
294 276
170,723
290 203
156,244
271 212
(OP:IZ4AFW)
15,390
82
81
1,775
25
25
1,342
23
22
630
19
18
3
1
1
8,007
55
51
2,534,159 1579 887
709,500
754 516
380,545
547 407
(OP:IW1QN)
133,732
292 268
4,329,671 1727 863
(OP:IZ2EWR)
2,281,735 1315 685
(OP:IZ1LBG)
768,690
645 438
941,714
711 479
392,625
451 349
139,638
295 222
118,800
265 216
93,480
236 205
65,648
187 176
(OP:IZ1PLH)
62,376
186 184
36,894
138 129
36,478
130 122
29,810
122 110
23,622
102
93
16,789
115 103
(OP:IZUIN)
10,800
75
72
9,198
68
63
7,150
51
50
4,838
42
41

*IR1X

"

4,242

*IZ4XHG
*IZ1RFL
*IUZF
*IZ3ALW
*IZ1ESM
*IZ5HPQ
*IK5YJK
*IR8W

"
"
28A
"
21A
"
"
14A

*IZ5OQX

3.7A

45
42
(OP:IZ1GLX)
39
37
35
35
216 139
5
5
370 297
203 187
35
33
102 100
(OP:IK8YFU)
59,364
168 153

3,256
3,080
81,593
50
274,428
90,695
3,234
13,500

Kaliningrad
UA2F
RA2F
*RN2FQ
*RA2FX
*RN2FA

11,639,440 3479 1160


(OP:UA2FB)
81,092
237 194
190,149
320 241
6,768
50
48
8,932
63
58

"
A
21
AA

Kosovo
Z6A

1,031,800

Z68BH

"

943,628

977 550
(OP:OH2BH)
858 503
(OP:OH2BH)
531,294
677 438
108,576
335 234

Z61DX
Z62FB

"
"

YL2SM
YL3FT
YL6W

A
"
"

YL2PP
YL3CW
*YL5W
*YL3AD
YL9T
YL5T

21
14
21
3.7
AA
"

Latvia

YL5X
YL2KO
YL2BJ
YL2CI
*YL3GV

"
21A
"
14A
AA

8,711,010 3064 1155


4,483,213 1942 917
44,147
151 131
(OP:YL2GD)
19,256
87
83
86,724
377 219
202,554
323 242
187,355
319 265
2,444,890 1675 742
171,745
292 245
(OP:YL3DQ)
136,955
307 245
(OP:YL2TB)
1,389,243
949 571
244,800
362 272
1,386,962 1181 722
137,196
271 222

Liechtenstein
*HB/PC5A
*HBY/PD5AX

AA
"

3,520
96

46
8

44
8

460,312
567
560,203
539
9,984
69
502,712
617
62,310
188
4,539,612 2213
3,100,671 1848
144,188
281
57,078
189
46,368
164
40,479
155
9,792
65
7,791
55
12,931
75
22,914
133
5,022
64
469,836
567
334,620
435
464
17
518,700
603
228,336
356
26,199
123
114,211
239
59,643
148
764,561
736
1,821,504 1221
212,954
388
197,690
362
128,740
262
6,625
58
600
16
322,725
398

353
419
64
376
155
924
801
226
151
138
131
64
49
67
114
62
372
338
16
390
268
123
181
141
457
636
287
265
205
53
15
331

Lithuania
LY5O
LY2BUU
LY2AE
LY7M
LY4T
*LY9A
*LY4L
*LY2TS
*LY1K
*LY2OM
*LY1YZ
*LY2N
*LY2HS
*LY2ND
*LY2EW
*LY2NZ
*LY5Q
*LY5I
*LY3RQ
LY2SA
LY4OO
LY3CY
LY1R
LY2FN
LY4Q
*LY5W
*LY3AB
*LY2RJ
*LY2NY
*LY2J
*LY7Z
*LY2OU

A
7
3.7
1.8
"
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
14
"
3.7
"
1.8
AA
"
"
21A
7A
3.7A
AA
"
"
"
"
"
7A

Luxembourg
LX1FC
LX4A

A
21

161,802
19,035

*LX1DKE
LX1HD
LXRL

A
AA
7A

135
359,424
326,496

*LX1ER

AA

1,396,060

327 267
108
81
(OP:LX1NO)
15
15
480 351
498 304
(OP:LX1KQ)
1046 580

Macedonia
Z35W
Z33C
Z3A
*Z33RW
*Z36N
Z35T
Z39A
*Z36W
*Z34MSP

A
7
3.7
21
1.8
21A
14A
AA
21A

*ER5DX
*ER3CT

A
AA

1,064,115 1003
1,742,866 1056
585,396
607
1,848
30
34,200
136
916,500
722
18,404
120
787,908
780
408
12

535
634
414
28
120
500
107
508
12

Moldova
31,930
790,612

117
808

103
478

Montenegro
4O/AA7XT
4O3A

21
AA

PC2T
PB7Z
PA3J
PA4GDR
PE1LUB
PA9DD
PA9M
*PA3AAV
*PA9IGB
*PAMIR
*PD1RO
*PDMHZ
*PACT
*PF9A
*PA2W
*PG1R

A
"
"
"
14
7
3.7
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

26,505
103
93
9,941,680 2905 1148
(OP:9A3A/E73A)

Netherlands
1,203,040 1011
761,100
737
76,846
203
18,312
99
3,312
46
9,024
47
1,758,225 1173
1,447,680 1038
667,492
624
604,068
634
348,610
486
271,040
440
246,974
397
219,184
390
191,488
333
135,880
288

584
516
154
84
46
47
595
580
434
426
355
320
299
304
256
215

*PA4HM
*PA2CVD
*PD2DVB
*PC5D
*PA1TO
*PA7AM
*PA3DBS
*PA3MET
*PA3GDG
*PBACU
*PALIE
*PA3DTR
*PD5S
*PA2DK
*PA5SKY
*PA1VC
*PD1B
*PA2CHM
*PC3H
*PD8ARP
*PAVLY
*PE1RNU
*PA9MD
*PE1FRE
*PD1JAP
*PH2LB
*PA3DVA
*PD9Z
*PD7DX
*PD2WS
PA4O
PH9B
PA1T
PA5KT
PF9W
PH7A
PI4COM

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
14
"
"
AA
"
"
"
"
"
21A

PA3GVI
PA1BX
PE1GWX
*PA3T
*PA3EVY
*PA8KW
*PA3FYG
*PA3BUD
*PA3DDP
*PE1FTV
*PB2A
*PD3ALX
*PDME
*PA7JWC
*PD4RD
*PE1RMO
*PA2C
*PE2W
*PA3GDD
*PDJMH
*PA4GB
*PA2GRU
*PDWR
*PD1TV
*PE1EWR
*PA1DI
*PA1VD
*PD2GSP
*PD1RZ
*PD2TW
*PG2AA
*PD3OES
*PA5AD
*PA2RG

"
14A
"
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14A
"
"
"
"

131,080
296 232
107,474
266 218
77,044
225 187
73,632
214 177
58,843
207 163
56,430
194 171
47,560
168 145
44,902
169 143
41,005
161 139
38,148
148 132
31,488
141 128
30,360
131 115
24,486
113 106
14,250
103
95
14,141
87
79
12,580
77
74
10,224
75
71
9,216
75
72
5,252
59
52
5,073
58
57
2,548
29
26
1,740
29
29
1,440
30
30
1,062
18
18
432
16
16
99
9
9
9,280
60
58
1,395,351 1132 591
955,947
959 541
211,118
414 283
522,828
590 423
441,056
535 358
157,855
298 241
55,544
152 131
14,480
89
80
13,600
72
68
3,956,580 1879 765
(OP:PD9DX)
720
16
15
17,296
100
92
9,514
72
71
863,236
784 506
627,270
613 435
547,463
584 397
384,465
491 361
319,788
394 378
269,546
395 307
244,200
402 296
160,395
285 255
122,304
250 208
70,200
209 180
69,628
193 169
66,300
202 170
61,759
178 151
54,579
202 161
50,320
165 148
47,596
162 146
46,860
175 165
38,086
157 139
37,800
152 140
18,400
98
92
13,973
101
89
12,709
76
71
6,499
74
67
4,680
50
45
4,140
47
46
578
18
17
203,049
398 293
197,640
370 305
57,456
190 168
12,384
96
86
4,992
54
52

Northern Ireland
*MIRRE
*MIOBC
*MIVAX
GI5I

A
"
"
AA

282,200
429 340
266,560
423 320
570
15
15
414
18
18
(OP:GI4DOH)
3,015
49
45

*GI4VHO

AA

LA8OM
LA6UL
LB9RE
*LA2HFA
*LA1DSA
*LB5BG
*LA2ONA
*LA8OKA
*LA1HL
*LA4NL
*LB1DH
*LA7USA
*LB1LG
*LA8JKA
*LA7DOA
*LA6VQ
*LB3RE
*LA2USA
*LA6BNA
LA9TY
LA1K

A
"
3.7
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
14
"
7
AA
14A

*LA2XNA
*LA8CJ
*LB1LE
*LA3BPA

AA
"
"
21A

SP7VC
SP2KPD

A
"

3Z6O
SP6RLK
SP9IKN
SP8BQL
*SQ2WHH
*SP8FB
*SQ9NIU
*SP1V

"
"
"
21
A
"
"
"

*SP7B
*SP1FRC
*SP4AWE
*SP4AAZ
*SP8P
*SQ9FQY
*SP9RTL
*SQ5AM
*SQ9LOM
*SP9MA
*HF1A

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

Norway
235,521
390 297
218,595
384 285
78,200
197 170
462,644
579 364
384,129
542 369
225,722
410 322
102,912
255 201
102,483
253 193
95,841
246 207
59,472
205 168
56,772
205 171
24,062
127 106
22,624
126 112
12,972
98
92
2,070
31
30
1,188
22
22
18,720
138 120
378
19
18
72
6
6
165,969
302 243
2,112
47
44
(OP:LA6XTA)
353,537
523 349
11,163
69
61
3,666
40
39
74,889
175 157

Poland

September 2016

9,436,812 2786 1078


368,781
510 357
(OP:SP2IJ)
96,200
244 200
9,434
53
53
1,120
28
28
44,165
136 121
1,120,188
883 554
463,320
543 360
438,003
532 369
432,718
518 374
(OP:SP1QXK)
253,552
379 299
244,524
391 287
241,920
375 270
183,264
326 249
170,820
329 260
159,160
310 230
132,880
291 220
81,600
218 170
60,372
192 156
58,546
167 146
56,445
184 159
(OP:SQ1KSA)

CQ

103

*SP3BBS
*SP4TBF
*SP8BOZ
*SQ7OVZ
*SN1J

"
"
"
"
"

*SQ1PTO
*SP5GDY
*SP8AB
*SP9IHP
*SP5ETS
*SP9FMP
*SP1DMD
*SP7QPG
*SO5T
*SQ5HUE
*SQ2TOM
*SP2AYC
*SQ9OUM
*SQ5SAA
*SQ3WW
*SP8DIP
*SP9EML
*SP8H
*SP9EMI
*SQ9BDB
*SQ7BTY
*SQ5SUL
*SP1II
*SP5DRE
*SP3DRM
*SQ8AL
*SQ3PMX
*SP7SEW
*SP9HZF
*SQ8SET
*SP6TRH
*SP2GOW
*SQ6PHT
*SQ5CQ
*SP1FPG
SN7D

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
21
"
"
"
"
"
14
"
"
"
7
"
"
"
"
"
3.7
1.8
AA

SP9M
SP4W
SP4Z
SQ4HRN
SP3A
SP3P
SP8K
*SP1DSZ
*SP3NYC
*SQ6RGG
*SP7WJ
*SQ8ERS
*SP6AO
*SP7JB
*SP2MKI
*SQ1WO
*SP9RM
*SPP
*SQ5PMB
*SQ3RX
*SQ8N
*SP7TEX
*SP2DKI
*SQ9IAU
*SQ8GUM
*SP9UOP
*SQ6H
*SP8N
*SO2E

"
"
"
"
21A
14A
3.7A
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
14A
"
7A

*HF6T

"

54,250
179 155
50,250
156 134
49,068
170 141
45,717
166 147
28,518
108
98
(OP:SP1MWF)
27,160
111
97
22,572
97
76
22,295
104
91
21,462
94
73
20,038
97
86
15,052
80
71
6,210
50
45
6,120
46
45
6,076
65
62
6,063
56
47
5,130
43
38
4,788
47
42
4,056
57
52
3,838
41
38
799
17
17
147
7
7
752
18
16
117,312
241 192
49,000
138 125
7,450
58
50
5,670
45
45
1,007
19
19
240
10
10
75,411
216 189
67,500
215 180
36,920
158 142
25,197
114 111
556,095
586 393
206,712
296 264
144,144
272 234
96,096
200 182
1,972
32
29
230
12
10
95,742
227 197
101,094
248 203
5,253,816 2210 978
(OP:SQ7D)
180,930
297 222
124,938
249 198
72,063
172 153
864
19
18
22,032
96
81
471,312
597 432
344,072
442 328
1,017,456
805 517
540,918
524 378
341,971
452 343
207,025
313 245
185,942
310 239
155,262
293 226
57,904
182 154
48,750
164 130
47,117
151 127
42,976
156 136
40,440
140 120
23,533
109 101
15,810
91
85
12,160
72
64
9,536
69
64
7,520
49
40
782
18
17
3
1
1
41,400
128 115
330,582
503 357
287,028
498 357
14,560
72
70
(OP:SQ2KLZ)
435
15
15

Portugal
CR6K

CT1EDJ
CR6T

"
21

CT1EVE
*CT2JBD
*CT7ABE
*CT5GOJ
*CT7AIX
CR5A

"
A
"
28
14
AA

CT1ENV
CT1AGS
CT1DSV
CT1GVN
*CT1BXT
*CS7AJM
*CT2GSN
*CT2HPM
*CT7ABG
*CT1EBM
*CT2IXQ
*CT1EXR
*CT1FSC

"
"
"
21A
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
28A
7A

8,758,139 2929 937


(OP:CT1CJJ)
34,428
131 114
3,794,803 2014 751
(OP:CT1ESV)
756,470
783 529
57,918
185 147
2,117
29
29
5,805
46
45
40,920
169 155
2,650,347 1639 777
(OP:CT1FFU)
206,682
318 259
127,000
240 200
36,828
132
99
804,600
731 540
1,692,044 1228 668
302,727
495 339
244,464
326 264
160,080
305 230
109,004
286 238
24,104
103
92
19,680
99
82
3,264
34
32
3,944
34
34

Romania
YPC

YO3GNF
YO7CJB
YO9XC
YO8CIY
YO8SGQ
YO2LEL
YQ6A

"
"
"
"
"
21
14

YO8CRU
YO8BGE
*YO9IAB
*YO8PS
*YO7CVL
*YO4RST
*YO9BXE
*YO6DBL
*YO8PN
*YO4AAC
*YO8THG
*YO9IOE
*YO4BEX
*YO7LDT
*YO6KNZ

"
3.7
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*YO5PQJ
*YO7DBR
*YO8SAO
*YO9HRB

"
"
"
"

104

5,650,344 2617 999


(OP:YO3CZW)
369,411
507 343
279,048
452 302
245,154
391 273
66,185
193 155
39,204
135 132
25,470
101
90
162,208
399 274
(OP:YO6BHN)
23,000
143 125
69,764
188 163
160,952
329 248
148,030
300 226
137,826
293 234
130,050
286 225
123,800
263 200
120,904
265 238
92,862
240 201
82,355
227 181
80,750
196 170
71,640
213 180
58,255
234 191
47,716
169 151
39,040
154 122
(OP:YO6OEJ)
38,556
134 126
29,044
127 106
21,285
112
99
20,774
100
94

CQ

*YO2BPZ
*YO7LYM
*YO7BEM
*YO6HSU
*YO2MTG
*YO5TP
*YO8/LZ4UU

"
"
"
"
"
"
"

19,176
17,407
8,184
6,776
6,068
4,440
4,080

*YO4FZX
*YO7BPC
*YO5AXF
*YO4DI
*YO9CWY
*YO4BXX
*YO9IJP
*YR6V
*YO2LCP
*YO7MPI
*YO2MOY
*YO5NI
*YO6XK
*YO2CMI
*YO5OHY
*YO9CNU
*YO8RZJ
*YO8BSE
*YO7FEY
*YO6FUG
YP7P

28
21
"
"
"
"
14
"
"
"
"
7
"
"
3.7
"
1.8
"
"
"
AA

YO3APJ
YO2DFA
YO6PVK
YP3A

"
"
"
21A

YO9HP
14A
YO3HOT 3.7A
*YO2LXW AA
*YO2MLS
"
*YO4GPC
"
*YO3FRI
"
*YO9SW
"
*YO8ST
"
*YO9GDN
"
*YO3IPR
"
*YO4NF
21A
*YO5OHO 14A
*YO6LA
"
*YO9FYP
"
*YO5PUG
"
*YR5N
7A

112 102
113 103
66
62
60
56
43
41
43
40
53
51
(OP:LZ4UU)
1,584
25
22
19,440
100
81
16,650
89
74
14,134
84
74
12,155
74
65
2,656
36
32
118,828
291 244
5,096
61
56
4,984
57
56
819
21
21
714
21
21
248,724
345 282
44,160
148 138
15,132
82
78
156,894
302 237
48,848
156 142
65,852
202 163
21,582
111
99
4,800
53
48
1,682
32
29
5,130,576 2191 984
(OP:YO7LFV)
957,570
811 541
193,764
344 241
153,600
310 240
1,140,990
885 521
(OP:YO3GOD)
2,726,222 1828 886
131,453
233 211
57,918
184 147
50,179
157 139
22,140
119 108
20,790
97
90
16,344
77
72
13,800
74
69
7,500
51
50
672
16
16
53,376
173 139
537,474
760 469
88,880
274 220
47,544
192 168
585
15
15
866,985
702 483
(OP:YO5PBF)

Sardinia
ISBSR
*IWUWE
*ISDFC
*ISFFD

A
21
14
7

942,420 1050
19,053
95
2,655
48
144
6

565
87
45
6

Scotland
GM5X

GZ5Y

"

MM8Z

21

GM7R

"

*MMGHM
*MM8T

A
7

GMOQV
MM1E

AA
14A

*MMINS
*GM2Y

AA
"

*GM4UYZ

14A

YT2DDK
YT7Z

A
21

YT2AZD
YT1A
YT2ISM
YU5EQP
*YU8A
*YT1RK
*YU5T
*YT6W
*YU4ZZ
*YU1NIM
YU5A
YT3H
YTW

"
14
"
7
A
14
"
7
"
"
AA
"
14A

12,685,788 4015 1242


(OP:GM4YXI)
466,906
602 418
(OP:GM4SSA)
146,084
282 236
(OP:GM7VSB)
5,676
46
44
(OP:GMNAI)
13,590
90
90
17,936
78
76
(OP:MMCWJ)
181,032
309 228
767,290
787 554
(OP:MMGOR)
291,916
427 334
185,890
370 290
(OP:MMDXH)
6,745
75
71

Serbia

YU2A
YT3J
*YT8A

7A
3.7A
AA

*YU1DX
*YU5C
*YT7E
*YT4B

"
21A
"
14A

*YT3EE
*YU2FG
*YU7YZ

7A
"
3.7A

128,469
318 229
2,119,787 1264 641
(OP:YU7SK)
76,096
177 164
3,726,800 2102 968
179,609
470 293
30,284
118 113
35,332
133 121
32,625
163 145
390
16
15
1,561,485
953 615
529,834
569 382
52,128
159 144
3,732,624 1865 882
560
14
14
3,714,265 2131 961
(OP:YU1JW)
809,347
728 457
160,448
252 218
3,017,044 1612 839
(OP:YU1EA)
276,544
361 298
49,149
139 127
31,415
119 103
71,659
235 203
(OP:YT2NOD)
77,616
200 168
63,232
162 152
388,396
504 356

Sicily
II9P
IT9OPR
IT9SSI
*IT9NAN
*IT9PZM
*IT9AZE
*IT9ACJ
*IT9FRZ
*IT9AZK
*IT9BTI
*IT9DVZ
*IO9P
*IR9Z
IR9W
IT9STX
IT9WNU
IQ9UI

September 2016

10,438,428 3202 1106


(OP:IZ8JAI)
"
44,370
164 145
14
502,650
752 450
A
187,072
366 296
"
162,162
294 231
"
86,464
249 193
"
83,803
230 181
"
13,612
93
83
"
12,610
67
65
21
226,596
403 276
14
46,191
203 173
7
236,288
327 256
(OP:IT9SPB)
3.7
125,042
254 206
(OP:IT9VCE)
28A
216,153
367 219
(OP:IWHBY)
14A 2,526,624 1789 849
"
344,448
630 414
"
1,400
32
28
(OP:IT9AUG)

*IT9EWR
*IB9P

AA
"

*IT9AUH
*IT9DGG
*IT9DSZ
*IT9RBW

21A
14A
7A
3.7A

OM5ZW
OM7RU
OM4M

A
"
"

983,412
773 531
908,960 1145 598
(OP:IT9FRX)
3,404
37
37
83,930
241 218
5,796
46
46
78,792
178 168

Slovakia

OM3IAG
OM6AL
OM8KD
OM4CI
OMWR
*OM7AB
*OM6AT
*OM2DT
*OM4MM
*OM4MO
*OM1TD
*OM8ADU
*OM8JP
*OM8AHJ
*OM4WW
OM5XX
OM8DD
*OM1II
*OMA

"
"
"
"
14
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
14
3.7
1.8
AA
14A
AA
14A

*OM7LW
"
*OM6ADN 3.7A
*OM6TX
"
*OM8ADM
"

15,353,604 3725 1242


3,389,832 1757 828
1,514,570 1122 622
(OP:OM4KK)
653,940
658 420
207,828
383 276
17,978
104
89
17,139
94
87
298,701
546 351
769,629
774 469
335,610
493 330
320,330
437 311
269,379
374 297
186,750
354 250
3,120
42
39
702
27
27
51,982
203 158
71,649
212 171
39,440
169 145
4,017,360 1824 912
2,790,064 1683 824
125
8
5
115,500
297 231
(OP:OMAAO)
50,868
192 157
303,052
461 317
191,464
337 263
11,792
74
67

Slovenia
S56C

S57K
S53U
S53T
S51F
S53O
*S5A
*S51AC
*S56WYB
*S5BH
*S51DD
*S52ON
*S54ZO
*S57YX
*S55N
*S51FO
*S57PKT
*S57YK
*S54G
*S55TB
*S56AX
S55T

"
"
14
7
1.8
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14
"
"
"
7
AA

S53F
S54O
S51Z
S57S
S58Q
S54KM
S59A
S56X
S51CK
S54ZZ
S56P
S57O
*S55X
*S52BT
*S52W
*S55KM
*S57KM
*S56KHL
*S52WW

"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
7A
"
3.7A
1.8A
"
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"

10,836,747 3351 1137


(OP:S55OO)
5,127,606 2188 957
40,920
136 120
3,002,285 1707 845
5,225,040 1781 885
184,875
351 255
4,125,920 1785 856
853,674
828 474
352,704
468 352
308,476
448 322
172,658
327 262
85,540
225 188
83,600
245 200
57,558
176 159
30,528
124 106
3,724
40
38
677,040
811 520
38,442
168 149
15,229
99
97
6,018
59
59
271,081
357 307
10,385,150 3004 1145
(OP:S57AL)
434,962
507 374
336,996
437 333
191,456
322 248
64,874
196 163
30,910
110 110
7,303
75
67
1,618,980 1033 605
5,518,512 1796 912
2,807,244 1428 748
2,271,564 1293 684
435,727
548 361
204,351
373 263
899,190
840 485
557,826
604 389
234,400
387 293
193,536
345 252
63,798
196 147
30,654
138 131
12,629
79
73

Spain
ED1R
EF2A

A
"

EA5DFV
EA3HJO
EA7HGX
EF2H

"
"
"
28

EA3CX
EA5IDQ
EA3FCQ
EA2KV
EA5DIT
EA3PT
EA3CI
*EC2DX
*EE7L

21
"
"
14
7
3.7
"
A
"

*EA3QP
*EB1DJ
*EC5EA
*EA1JO
*EA4EJR
*EA4GPZ
*EA1QS
*EE2A

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*EA5LH
*EA3GXD
*EA3DJL
*EA4IE
*EA4CFT
*EA3FUJ
*EA1HHT
*EA4CU
*EA4DXP
*EA4YC
*EA4CUN
*EA1HTF
*EA4FVT
*EA1IIP
*EA5UJ
*EA4GSL
*EA7JXV
*EA1YD
*EA3GCT
*EA2CE
*EA3EAN

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

9,775,917 3351 1107


(OP:EC1KR)
9,486,107 3131 1049
(OP:EA2OT)
4,301,976 2158 883
597,506
677 469
1,040
27
26
2,790
33
30
(OP:EA2RH)
3,487,770 1685 813
567,732
607 391
172,773
303 243
251,100
483 372
3,520
32
32
1,878,720 1048 608
948,676
768 487
5,486,475 2403 955
971,880
952 534
(OP:EA7HLU)
736,965
825 515
675,432
660 424
440,960
614 416
370,026
502 366
207,504
339 262
188,474
401 286
179,172
341 252
151,748
296 236
(OP:EA2SN)
140,934
297 249
112,860
258 209
103,834
234 193
94,300
237 205
63,114
183 157
49,504
158 136
43,646
151 139
34,194
134 123
28,809
110
97
21,930
95
86
21,240
133 118
17,640
123 105
13,416
83
78
12,782
93
83
11,712
68
61
4,800
51
50
4,505
55
53
4,186
49
46
3,366
37
33
3,298
36
34
1,428
35
34

*EA3EYO
*EA3HWC
*EA2EGZ
*EA5IMM
*EA3FZY
*EE1B

"
"
"
"
28
21

*EA3KT
*EA7FRX
*EB5BBM
*ED4T

"
"
"
"

*EA4GEO
*EA7JWT
*EA4YK
*EA1ASG
*EB3TR
*EA2VE
*EA7IHT
*EA1IRT
*EA1DFP
*EE4EA

"
"
14
"
"
7
"
"
"
3.7

*EA2QU
EF1W

1.8
AA

918
779
713
40
24,940
201,096

EF7D

"

EA1XT
ED4D

"
"

EA1BP
EF2O

"
"

EB2RA
EA1BNF
ED4A

"
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EA1AF
EA3XL
EA5TS
EA5DM
EF5R

"
"
28A
"
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EA7ZY
EA5HT
EA7ATX
EB3CW
EC1AE
EA3BOX
EA1DR
*EC5NJ
*EC1DD
*ED3T
*EA1FA
*EA4TA
*EA5FWW
*EA5IJG
*EA1CS
*EC4TR
*EA2WD
*EA7MT
*EA3NA
*EA5ERA
*EB5KT
*EA5FCW
*EA2HW
*EA5YJ
*EA5YT
*ED4AA

"
21A
14A
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3.7A
1.8A
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*EC7DDZ
*EA1BFZ
*EA7ZT
*EB1ADD
*EA1EHW
*EA7KI
*EC7WR
*EA3FF

21A
"
"
14A
"
"
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SM7DQV
SG5G

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"

SI3A

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SJ2W

14

SB3W
SLW

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19
18
20
19
23
23
4
4
103
86
307 266
(OP:EA1YB)
95,000
228 200
69,874
176 161
61,568
166 148
23,085
102
95
(OP:EA4CWN)
12,354
72
71
858
22
22
32,900
166 140
29,591
130 127
16,432
110 104
175,720
267 230
16,660
92
85
320
11
10
6
1
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23,782
102
94
(OP:EA4GHB)
29,746
121 107
4,568,704 2081 896
(OP:EA1WS)
1,361,504
858 628
(OP:EA7JXZ)
987,904
877 544
718,340
767 490
(OP:EA4GLJ)
691,254
709 459
606,552
555 398
(OP:EA2AOO)
582,768
586 426
264,862
377 334
75,295
211 185
(OP:EA4TV)
9,454
63
58
4,680
42
39
34,216
131
91
25,994
115
82
14,112
78
63
(OP:EA5BWR)
6,255
48
45
21,930
104
85
1,747,410 1529 785
539,028
756 483
87,508
208 167
6,084
53
52
39,520
149 130
1,806,990 1228 670
1,435,031 1162 661
464,215
636 409
313,476
486 346
289,440
422 288
267,008
428 298
201,600
376 280
194,186
385 302
138,672
270 214
130,072
277 229
77,064
192 169
56,406
177 158
50,862
169 147
25,724
130 118
13,176
79
72
3,154
39
38
1,625
25
25
936
18
18
34,200
131
90
(OP:EA4AA)
45,016
136 136
26,500
109 106
27
3
3
35,607
148 143
10,680
90
89
4,080
52
51
641,556
503 426
6,450
50
50

Sweden

*SK3W

*SM2T

"

*SM2S
*SE3E

"
"

*SM5NQB
*SE5Z

"
"

*SM7RZJ
*SF3A

"
"

*SM5KQS
*SM3XAX
*SD3A

"
"
"

*SM3HBV
*SM4DDY
*SA6SKA
*SA2KNG
*SC6M

"
"
"
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*SA7J

14

*SMLYC
*SM6IQD
*SM6FJY
8SC

"
3.7
1.8
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SM5EPO
SC3A

"
"

SM7E

"

SI2E

"

SA3D
*SE4E
*SM6MVE

"
AA
"

297,176
170,752

413 307
333 256
(OP:SM5ILE)
218 180
(OP:SM3LIV)
10,553,158 3850 1309
(OP:SM2WMV)
336
14
14
291,444
374 298
(OP:SMAJU)
2,268,766 1385 713
(OP:SM5AJV)
914,406
733 514
(OP:SM2EZT)
619,674
672 451
266,072
461 316
(OP:SA3AZK)
154,155
313 239
127,094
281 218
(OP:SA5BCG)
45,264
167 138
30,444
138 118
(OP:SM3CER)
24,849
111
99
24,274
115 106
7,373
75
73
(OP:SM3FJF)
4,459
50
49
2,967
46
43
2,706
42
41
1,025
25
25
41,040
131 114
(OP:SM6FKF)
2,112
49
48
(OP:SM7XGG)
4
4
4
4,998
51
49
24,888
121 102
2,771,160 1442 840
(OP:SMMPV)
146,894
265 242
28,968
120 102
(OP:SM3WMU)
27,540
117 102
(OP:SM7BHM)
25,466
122 107
(OP:SM2EKA)
1,656
25
24
1,039,902
975 526
(OP:SM4DQE)
368,220
518 340
67,860

*SE3X

"

*SE5L

"

*SM2OWW
*SI6I

"
"

*SA4A

355,710
519 334
(OP:SA3BYC)
331,782
525 363
(OP:SM5ALJ)
220,305
360 285
175,016
344 262
(OP:SA6CMO)
20,700
110 100
(OP:SM5PBT)
16,340
100
95
5,232
50
48

"

*SM3EAE
*SM3XRJ

"
21A

HB9OAU
*HB9IQY
*HB9WDY
*HB9FLX
*HB9FUH
*HB9CXK
*HB9FZX
*HB3YKU
*HB9AYZ
*HB3YGD
*HB9HSLU

A
A
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"
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"
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"
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*HB3YRU
HB9EYP
HB9DQL
HB9DVH
HB9ODK
*HB9CIC
*HB9FBP
*HB9AT

21
AA
"
"
3.7A
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"
"

*HB9DHG

21A

Switzerland
120,560
288 220
267,435
420 283
266,412
401 298
60,672
188 158
10,800
79
72
9,060
62
60
5,529
62
57
4,092
45
44
2,277
34
33
1,800
25
25
1,392
25
24
(OP:HB9ARK)
720
16
16
586,092
601 442
560,564
606 397
46,492
147 118
145,092
288 226
253,150
362 305
155,672
291 232
66,566
207 166
(OP:HB9FLK ROLAND)
111,034
223 206

Ukraine
UW2M
UR5AS
UV5U
UW1G
US7IA
UX3HA
UY2UR
US5UO
UX3IT
UR4EI
UT3UV
UT4IXZ
UW5ZM
USUX
UR3HC
UT8UZ
US5D
UT7QL
UZU
UX5IS
UYZG
*EM14Y
*UZ9E
*USHZ
*UY2UQ
*UT8IM
*US3EW
*UY1IP
*UW2Q
*UT3UZ
*UX7IN
*UY6U
*US1GFW
*UX7QG
*UY5TE
*UT3UFH
*UY5QJ
*UV5EEO
*UT4MW
*UR1MN
*UR5WFP
*UX1MH
*UX7MR
*URCB
*UR5VAA
*UV7MA
*UTCK
*UR3ABM
*UT4QV
*UX7QV
*UT3UFI
*UT8IK
*US8IEV
*US7WW
*UX5TQ
*UR5ZDZ
*UT3IA
*UY2ZZ
*US3IZ
*UR5ANO
*UX1LW
*UTFC
*UT5HX
*UR6QV
*UR3IEX
*UR5CN
*UR5QW
*UW5U
*UY5AR
*UR5EAF
*UTNB
*US4IQS
*UX2HH
*UR1YDD
*UY2IF
*US5ZE
*US5UCC
*UR3QTN
*UTMF
*UZ5U
*UT3EV
*UR3RAA
*UX7U
*UR8QR
*UX1CL
*UT1XX

13,231,402 4162 1318


(OP:URMC)
4,326,534 2096 918
1,702,287 1214 657
665,390
789 526
(OP:UY5HF)
"
570,625
643 415
"
484,428
638 438
"
98,072
212 184
"
94,165
231 185
"
60,788
221 167
"
31,784
138 116
"
27,963
125 117
"
17,005
109
95
21
972,800
855 475
"
46,116
152 126
"
42,418
156 127
"
16,848
84
78
14
1,643,688 1280 666
(OP:UT7DX)
"
716,420
859 565
"
401,023
649 413
1.8
41,472
155 128
"
34,456
140 118
A
4,813,369 2224 937
(OP:US2YW)
"
2,606,520 1860 812
(OP:UT5EO)
"
2,260,566 1432 699
"
1,148,153 1012 547
"
944,764
914 502
"
511,200
624 426
"
498,330
701 441
"
433,538
591 358
(OP:UR6QS)
"
421,250
490 337
"
362,285
411 385
"
307,745
489 305
(OP:UX7UU)
"
258,962
382 298
"
194,586
385 287
"
181,917
358 261
"
174,876
299 247
"
171,250
358 274
"
155,008
343 224
"
151,470
324 255
"
148,125
321 237
"
130,416
303 208
"
125,520
305 240
"
107,627
283 221
"
100,270
237 185
"
97,712
238 197
"
96,782
238 217
"
86,742
234 183
"
79,275
226 175
"
75,684
215 159
"
70,688
205 188
"
65,120
195 160
"
63,832
191 158
"
51,060
178 148
"
45,847
149 127
"
38,086
151 139
"
28,340
134 109
"
21,730
115 106
"
21,462
112
98
"
14,774
100
89
"
9,966
70
66
"
7,040
42
40
"
2,520
46
45
"
2,072
30
28
"
1,512
25
24
"
1,188
22
22
"
690
15
15
"
16
2
2
28
5,700
52
38
(OP:UY2UA)
21
51,324
158 141
"
47,905
165 143
"
20,240
104
88
"
19,665
119
95
"
16,992
79
72
"
12,078
77
66
"
10,431
65
57
"
6,732
55
51
"
5,625
46
45
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1,440
29
24
"
162
9
9
14
1,184,976 1247 633
(OP:UT4UO)
"
760,050
987 563
"
229,440
501 320
"
190,834
436 301
(OP:UX7UA)
"
133,962
327 269
"
115,460
295 251
"
98,345
281 221
"
"
"

Visit Our Web Site

*UR5EFL
*UYCA
*UY8IO
*UT9UZ
*UT8AS
*UY3CC
*UT4EK
*UX7UN
*US5IIM
*UX2HR
*USMS
EN4U
UW1M
UZ2I

"
"
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3.7
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UXRR
UR7R

"
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UTU

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UT5RB
UX2QA
UR5E

"
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US6IKF
UT4XU
UTRM
UR8IF
UR4LBL
UT7HA
UZ4I

"
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21A
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UR3GU
UT7CR
UR5EPG
UT2PX
US1I

"
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14A
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UT5C

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UTEA
UT3WX
*UR6EA
*UV7V

"
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1.8A
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*UT8EL
*UV3QF
*EM25A

"
"
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*US5QUB
*UT8IT
*UX1UX
*UT4UB
*UT2HC
*UW3HM
*UR5IFB
*UT6HX
*UR6IJ
*UT3RS
*UX4CR
*UV5EVZ
*UZ5ZV
*UR2Y

"
"
"
"
"
"
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"
21A
"
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14A

*UT5RQ

1.8A

39,187
180 149
29,568
146 132
11,970
95
95
3,139
44
43
322,706
400 317
290,470
373 310
209,100
302 255
76,368
188 172
6
1
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12,638
85
71
25,338
114 103
6,887,355 2452 1065
3,610,911 1935 947
2,334,663 1543 703
(OP:UT2II)
1,753,050 1232 650
1,139,341 1016 581
(OP:UX1RX)
942,670
911 535
(OP:UT5UDX)
688,401
704 441
202,488
322 312
198,816
293 218
(OP:UR5EDX)
175,770
317 270
59,356
171 142
5,160
44
43
2,574
32
26
1,350
27
25
1,859,220 1249 594
1,835,976 1266 681
(OP:UX6IZ)
1,352,344 1003 574
42,483
145 119
36,138
133 114
357,280
605 385
5,540,766 1696 938
(OP:UX2IO)
941,564
678 494
(OP:UX7CQ)
111,639
214 187
11,232
52
52
25,480
121 104
3,664,122 1980 847
1,950,132 1408 652
(OP:UX1VT)
753,940
824 506
447,858
542 358
405,189
515 349
(OP:UT7AT)
369,920
530 340
266,794
388 362
220,160
469 320
63,750
188 150
59,682
195 174
14,535
98
95
2,560
42
40
1,403
25
23
208,026
345 273
61,239
168 137
53,055
159 135
13,912
78
74
5,568
50
48
1,041,381 1063 603
(OP:USYW)
48,363
174 147

Wales
GW4BLE
GW4BVE
GW4EVX
*MW1MDH
*MWTBI
GW9X
*MWURC

A
21
14
A
"
14A
AA

1,368,387 1004
774,654
751
95,108
286
177,120
356
41,952
161
123,984
321
1,836
29

531
402
236
270
138
246
27

OCEANIA
Australia

VK4NM
A
VK2CZ
"
VK3AVV
"
VK3IO
"
VK8RD
"
VK3JA
"
VK2RT
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VK3LM
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VK7GM
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VK4VI
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VK6DW
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VK6SMK
21
VK2AXX
14
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*VK4ATH
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*VK4FAAS
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*VK3GA
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*VK6TKR
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*VK2FAIB
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*VK3VTH
14
VK4ZD
AA
VK3GK
21A
*VK1NS
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*VK2PWR
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2,815,412 1599
826,014
636
253,872
362
159,612
232
118,342
316
110,952
234
77,850
194
67,130
155
55,215
154
29,326
95
20,000
109
26,412
128
23,205
93
120,727
266
105,190
233
67,425
161
50,485
134
33,750
124
20,216
118
2,356
41
1,408
22
60
4
35
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22,176
92
1,224,371
817
221,154
333
11,178
63
1,380
26
31,408
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569
426
258
188
158
184
150
137
135
86
80
93
91
181
157
145
115
90
76
31
22
4
5
88
439
246
54
23
104

Brunei Darussalem
*V85AVE

14

224,421

343

239

East Malaysia
9M6/NR1J
*9M6LZY
*9W8DEN
*9W6AJA
*9W6EZ

21
A
28
7
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35,583
28,980
21,888
1,300
127,008

144
138
108
24
248

87
84
76
20
147

1,421,238 1123

399

Eastern Kiribati
T32AZ

YB6ODD
YB7SKM
YE3AA

"
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YB3BAN
YB8HI
YB6IXJ
*YB2DX
*YB5BOY
*YB8IBD
*YB9WIC
*YB1HDR
*YC1HLT
*YC2MDU
*YBBAJ
*YB7MRK
*YBCOX
*YC3BFX
*YB1BGI
*YBVB
*YB9GV
*YC9FAR
*YB2CPO
*YE4IJ
*YB2BOB
*YC8FLE
*YB8XM
*YCPDZ
*YF9CDL
*YBKTT
*YC2TDA
*YB3VPP
*YC1NOE
*YC1GI
*YE2BEM
*YB1IM
*YC1DYY
*YC1CT
*YBJS
*YC1CZZ
*YB8TK
*YB6LAY
*YBPUL
*YF3BPL
*YB8HZ
*YD1DMK
*YD1PRF
*YB6UAK
*YB9WZJ
*YG9CLT
*YD1SDL
*YC8XOB
*YD8GAR
*YG3CNU
*YBNDN
*YC6BTI
*YC8VRA
*YB1LUE
*YD3GOQ
*YCOSX
*YC5KIK
*YD1ELP
*YD2PRX
*YD8VHS
*YG3DCU
*YG3DQD
*YC1FEO
*YB3LZ
*YC8HU/1
*YC1BIQ

21
14
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YB6HAI
YB3HJM
YB3BX
YC1IVW
YB3RVE
YBNDT
YC8QT
YC8RBI
YB3MM
YB3CC
YB8ROP
YC8SPD
YF3CYU
YB3ZBD

AA
"
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"
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21A
"
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"
14A
7A
"
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*YC1BET 28A
*YBMWM 21A
*YB1JYL
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*YC9GWR
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3.7A
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*YC1COZ
"

102,754
4,270
352

211 166
47
35
13
11
(OP:N1IP)
3,920
44
40
203,433
302 249
72,039
126 111
2,393,107 1270 589
585,237
579 373
293,364
395 261
64,530
193 135
30,603
111 101
29,876
115
97
27,946
109
89
26,132
108
94
25,753
112
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21,016
124
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6,880
60
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8,215
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1,200
20
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448,864
493 332
267,800
385 260
97,410
216 170
64,815
157 145
61,021
170 139
34,117
139 109
30,923
122 107
25,575
108
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20,825
104
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12,960
87
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7,696
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4,070
42
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3,838
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2,686
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723,194
622 419
32,130
119 102
15,862
86
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12,852
76
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3,800
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79,016
163 119
43,416
133
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27,306
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24,589
79
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13,338
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9,944
45
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7,755
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7,175
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5,811
47
39
4,884
36
33
3,483
30
27
2,645
27
23
2,408
32
28
1,785
25
21
1,116
23
18
1,071
28
21
1,036
16
14
690
21
15
638
12
11
234
11
9
180
10
9
112
10
8
96
6
6
1
1
1
112
9
8
36
10
9
(OP:YC1CT)
534,612
471 299
19,944
88
72
9,048
64
58
825
15
15
95
5
5
1,691,068 1085 569
197,100
322 219
163,800
298 200
40,365
132 117
48
4
4
13,056
96
68
17,340
78
60
9,600
47
40
2,124
22
18
(OP:YB3OIR)
1,071,450
772 450
223,551
376 177
87,087
208 143
85,050
215 150
33,354
131 109
29,876
113
97
26,163
135
81
12,127
73
67
378
15
14
768
16
16
882,180
727 435
273,710
374 271
212,298
320 246
153,725
285 215
120,414
246 183
17,739
89
81
14,405
77
67
9,462
62
57
4,838
51
41
3,780
41
36
2,380
29
28
87,423
211 161
48,112
166 124
28,200
94
75
21,080
118
62
11,968
51
44
8,816
45
38
3,008
36
32
2,912
37
28
2,112
27
24
1,775
35
25
1,411
22
17
36
5
4
30
6
5
4
2
2
1
1
1

Hawaii
WH7W
NH7AA
KH6TU
*KH6XL
NH7U

A
21
"
A
AA

79,560
183 136
2,327,006 1415 586
73,308
201 123
(OP:AD6E)
10,285
62
55
12,238
77
58

Indonesia
YB3EDD
YC9DEB

A
"

454,682
223,630

518
345

311
214

New Caledonia
*FK4QX

1,975

41

25

New Zealand
ZM4T
*ZL2GQ
*ZL4YL
*ZL/F1TUJ
ZL2UO

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

A
A
14
"
AA

4,207,455 1989 665


(OP:ZL3IO)
48
4
4
10,416
68
56
4,256
38
38
35,880
103
92

ZL1T

"

ZL4AS
*ZL2MM
*ZM3T

21A
AA
7A

*ZL1TM

"

9,408
60
56
(OP:ZL1ANH)
368,856
484 282
18,772
103
76
19,431
110
51
(OP:W3SE)
64
4
4

Philippines
DU1AV
DU1RB
DU1UGZ
DU1JI
DW3TRZ
*DU1JM
*DU7DUG
*DU4JT
*DU7JGU
*4F7DD
4H1T

A
21
14
"
7
A
21
14
"
7
AA

680,317
605,097
59,595
49,098
11,662
561,200
125,751
4,687
1,700
7,955
1,125,350

DU1EV
*DU3BC
*4F3FSK
*DV4DXT

28A
AA
"
21A

765 253
701 307
171 145
186
98
54
49
588 244
323 167
49
43
28
25
48
43
889 355
(OP:DU1IVT)
11,169
82
51
355,716
518 241
181,308
382 174
4,687
51
43

South Cook Islands


E51AND

21

207,672

364

204

Tonga
*A31MM

28

115,197
290 141
(OP:JA6WFM)

SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina

LU7MT
LU8DY
LU1MPK
LU3HS
LTH

A
"
28
"
21

LW3DN
LU8FAI
LU9MDH
LU6UO
LU2DVI
*LW4EF
*LW1EUD
*LU6DC
*LU4JEA
*LU6FHO
*LU2FGL
*LW7DJ
*LU1ICX
*LU4JHF
*LU6FLZ
*LU2VCR
*LU5MT
*LU6DU
*LU8VCC
*LW5DPG
*LU3ARE
*LU5EVK
*LU7DUE
*LW6EEA
*LU4DPL
*LU1EXR
*LU5MTZ
*LU7FCL
*LU7MZQ
*LU9VD
*LU3DK
*LW9ETQ
LU5FF
LU1DZ
LR1E

"
"
"
"
3.7
A
"
"
"
"
28
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
"
AA
"
28A

*LT7F

AA

*LU4DJB
*LU7ADN

28A
21A

2,445,195 1371 645


54,964
171 151
597,632
637 368
370,260
478 306
1,975,974 1146 611
(OP:LU3HY)
199,796
315 251
22,561
102
77
8,216
61
52
6,254
54
53
13,160
59
56
468,165
562 345
203,175
350 215
190,961
313 239
5,537
56
49
1,311
24
23
402,548
521 314
131,235
278 195
86,424
206 156
78,888
210 152
78,720
201 164
76,636
208 161
75,469
203 163
71,272
196 151
70,240
204 160
57,129
185 137
32,769
132
99
25,853
123 103
9,782
81
67
8,772
87
68
7,168
65
56
6,944
59
56
3,045
36
35
1,430
34
26
630
18
15
260,896
380 263
51,816
150 136
3,705
48
39
106,296
224 172
38,236
148 121
2,304,180 1377 612
(OP:LW6DG)
981,600
772 480
(OP:LU6FOV)
262,542
388 266
39,406
145 122

Aruba
P49Y

P45A
*P43E

21
A

*CP6CL

21,149,649 4925 1233


(OP:AE6Y)
11,302,080 3328 1158
1,336,986
905 486

Bolivia
2,079

27

27

Bonaire
PJ4DX

AA 17,032,845 4022 1245

Brazil
ZW5T

PY2SBY
PY4CK
PP5JY
PY1VOY
PY2KP
PX2F

"
"
"
"
"
28

ZY2B
PY2TMV
ZX2V
PX2B

"
"
21
14

PV7M

"

PW2F

*PY1NX
*PY1PDF
*PY4WWW
*PY2LPM
*PY2OX
*PY5MM
*PY2AB
*PY3ZZR
*PT2AP
*PY2RF
*PY1NS
*PY2EVR
*PU2OSZ
*PY3GE
*PY3KV
*ZW2F

A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*PY9GC
*PV8DX
*PU2WDX

"
"
28

2,034,019 1196 611


(OP:PY5ZD)
177,475
330 229
60,208
179 142
50,407
155 133
656
17
16
264
12
12
2,401,560 1396 630
(OP:PY2PT)
1,859,760 1172 574
80,951
216 169
777,030
649 439
5,624,280 2110 919
(OP:PY2LED)
125,636
224 196
(OP:PT7ZT)
4,290
30
30
(OP:PY2NA)
4,602,780 1922 819
175,332
318 228
22,654
121
94
18,060
90
84
17,120
92
80
15,662
100
82
12,075
88
75
8,910
65
55
6,860
53
49
6,486
54
46
3,800
41
40
3,478
38
37
3,403
45
41
1,768
55
34
1,541
25
23
1,032
25
24
(OP:PY2LCD)
608
17
16
150
10
10
371,355
466 285

*PU2PSP
*PU2RAY
*PU8MRS
*PY2QT
*PY1PL
*PY1MK
*PU2XBT
*PU7EEM
*PY1MX
*PU2TES
*PU5IKE
*PU2TNA
*PU1PHC
*PU2VCP
*PY2SEI
*PU2NAX
*PY1CML

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*PU8WMM
*PU5VVI
*PT7APM

"
"
"

*PU7MCV
*PU7WAT
*ZV2C

"
"
21

*PY4RP
*PR7AYE
*PP5ASF
*PY1TJ
*PY1TR
*PU7IRR
PX5E

"
"
"
"
14
3.7
AA

ZZ2T

"

PP5XX
PR7AE
PP1CZ
PV2P

"
"
"
"

PY3PA
PY41WPX

"
"

PY2YRC
PY5DC
PY2LW
PV2C
PY2XC
ZW5B

"
"
"
"
28A
21A

PX2A

"

PP5JN
PY5JQ
PX2E
PY2DZ
PY2NZ
PY3APY
PW2W

"
"
"
"
"
"
"

PY1ZV
ZV2K

7A
"

PY5BH
*PR9M

"
AA

*PY2ZR
*PW2A

"
"

*PY1SX
*PY1FI
*PW2D

"
"
"

*PT2AW
*PY7VI
*PY2TKB
*PU5AGM
*PY4RR
*PY2SAA
*PU5SSR
*PR7RBA
*PU9ATH
*PY2XIZ
*PY2COY
*PY8ZE
*PY2MSR
*PY2TTE
*PY2KG
*PP5DZ
*PY2DR
*PY3KN
*PU1MIL
*PY1JR
*PY1FOX
*ZW5V
*PY2VZ
*PR7ARA
*PY1RY
*PP5BB
*PY2XJ
*PY3RLC
*PU2POP
*PY1FC
*PY3DJB
*PR7AP
*PY1LOF
*PY4ZO
*PU2UAF
*PU8WHJ
*PP5KC
*PU7DEF
*PU8WTJ
*PU8TAS
*PU4JKB
*PU8YPL
*PU1RSN
*PY2VOA
*PU5LOB
*PU8PSF
*ZV2WDX

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*PY9MT
*PU1TMU
*PU1LBL
*PU2MMP
*PU7CRL
*PY3PC
*PU1SSH
*PU7EDR
*PU4HUD
*PY1JG
*PU2LHA
*PY2HT
*PY4TJ

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
"

146,278
100,777
27,456
24,274
16,906
16,617
16,517
14,320
5,117
4,324
3,780
3,024
2,993
2,016
1,792
1,457
780

296 218
229 179
144 104
124 106
93
79
104
87
99
83
109
80
47
43
47
46
56
45
49
42
47
41
33
32
30
28
39
31
23
20
(OP:PY1IO)
234
16
13
169
13
13
1
1
1
(OP:PU7MCV)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1,783,744 1059 593
(OP:PY2CX)
6,076
50
49
2,790
32
31
1,590
31
30
1
1
1
8
2
2
1,125
15
15
18,111,120 4345 1380
(OP:PP5JR)
8,881,128 2839 1038
(OP:PY2MNL)
2,019,828 1291 562
509,580
515 342
186,186
302 231
163,836
276 222
(OP:PY2DY)
38,448
138 108
34,684
137 116
(OP:PS7AB)
15,130
85
85
13,750
61
55
96
8
8
70
7
7
388,926
508 306
5,625,200 2005 980
(OP:PY5ALP)
5,521,761 2062 931
(OP:PY2CDR)
1,418,792
948 536
778,680
653 420
94,864
217 154
80,360
199 164
70,416
179 144
29,700
116 108
16,080
84
80
(OP:PY2ZA)
843,557
446 347
778,160
422 355
(OP:PY2SHF)
104,390
153 143
2,391,678 1169 654
(OP:PY9MM)
486,864
545 336
251,280
399 240
(OP:PY2DV)
242,004
336 268
188,265
349 231
184,800
295 231
(OP:PY2LSM)
156,816
293 216
150,773
292 181
121,824
242 188
105,560
237 182
99,372
228 169
91,517
234 173
69,916
193 154
68,175
202 135
58,890
184 151
57,669
186 141
44,100
148 105
23,912
153
98
18,564
91
84
18,232
91
86
16,554
108
89
16,212
95
84
13,778
93
83
13,176
81
72
13,148
92
76
9,100
71
65
6,804
75
54
6,600
55
50
5,520
50
46
5,508
96
51
5,016
50
44
2,592
33
32
1,539
30
27
738
27
18
528
26
24
390
13
13
360
12
12
120
5
5
70
8
7
12
2
2
405,657
506 329
131,890
300 218
84,320
197 160
49,368
194 136
45,288
211 136
41,472
148 128
34,122
148 121
25,190
142 110
22,900
128 100
21,024
112
96
17,136
91
84
7,434
106
63
6,785
66
59
(OP:PU2UJG)
6,489
84
63
3,476
48
44
2,664
39
37
1,540
33
28
1,326
40
34
880
22
20
725
27
25
660
35
22
153
9
9
81
9
9
48
6
6
611,073
586 387
583,737
523 399

*PY8WW
*PY5AP
*PY4XX
*PY2ALC
*PY1GQ
*PY4LH
*PY2MR
*PY3EAM
*PY3BEG
*PY2VM
*PY2SPW
*PY2WOT
*PT2LA

"
"
"
"
14A
"
"
"
"
"
7A
"
"

XQ6OA
CE3NR
CE6DFY
CE1UGE
*XQ1TUW
*CE7PGO
*CE2MT
*CE4CBJ
*CA7CAQ
CE6SAX
3G3PR

A
28
"
21
A
"
"
"
28
28A
14A

*XR3P

AA

*CE3WYZ
*CE3CBM

"
21A

HK3C
HK3JJH
*HK4CMB
*HK4KM
*HK3TK
*HK6F
*HJ4ZJS

A
21
A
"
28
21
7A

PJ2T

14

257,796
23,850
860
210
260,586
57,960
5,980
1,593
200
105
54,108
96
60

366
105
21
10
333
160
49
28
10
7
116
6
5

279
90
20
10
279
140
46
27
10
7
108
6
5

Chile
75,544
162 133
136,026
285 198
98,560
244 176
298,962
376 306
171,384
331 222
151,200
305 224
65,637
194 143
11,396
92
77
746,544
708 412
432,288
545 316
8,848
58
56
(OP:CE3LQH)
98,826
229 181
(OP:CE3PG)
17,004
100
78
49,657
148 127

Colombia
3,080,916 1599
1,240,272
931
398,445
414
1,472
28
554,700
680
1,640,483 1030
95,436
140

666
464
263
23
300
571
132

Curacao
1,351,912
955 487
(OP:VA7AM)
1,942,870 1130 590

*PJ2/DD5ZZ A

Ecuador
*HC7AE

21

341,343

417

291

French Guiana
FY5FY

*ZP6DYA
*ZP6AKY
*ZP5WBM
*ZP5RPO

28
"
21
"

20,120,620 4701 1235

OA4SS

Paraguay
152,510
14,536
1,549,008
1,357

285
90
994
23

202
79
558
23

2,576,917 1636

547

Peru
Suriname
PZ5RA

28

608,642

691

326

Trinidad & Tobago


*9Z4A
9Y4D

A
14A

630
22
21
8,086,400 2609 1064

Uruguay
CX1DZ
CX2DK
CV7S
*CW5W

A
28
"
A

*CX9AU
CX4SS
*CX2CC

"
AA
21A

540,855
571 357
3,158,342 1676 682
2,107,728 1362 574
1,755,811 1108 577
(OP:CX6VM)
287,296
387 268
3,440
41
40
96,560
222 170

Venezuela
YW4D

16,932,114 3950 1194


(OP:YV1DIG)
122,094
297 171
28,458
113 102
408,720
304 240
714,926
588 358
327,418
345 257
161,368
238 184
157,320
238 184
31,066
111
98
946
22
22
194,820
312 255
884,268
455 348
255,780
348 245
101,990
188 155
1,062,432
777 496
79,857
176 171
46,284
151 114
(OP:YV4YC)
"
2,415
35
35
7A
1,403,424
635 396
"
285,621
271 201

YV5GPA
28
YV6BXN
21
YV6CR
3.7
*YV5LAY
A
*YV4ET/5
"
*YV8AD
"
*YV6CAM
"
*YV5NWG
"
*YV5IZE
"
*YY4KCV
21
*YV2CAR
7
*YY6SEW AA
*YY4HMR
"
*YV6YV
21A
*YV4AW
14A
*4M4C
"
*YV4GLY
*YV8ER
*YY4TSS

9A7JZC
DL8LR
DK3WE
UX2MF
RW3AI
OZ6OM
RN4HAB
AB3WS
ON4MW
YB9KA
NDC
EC5CR
UA3OQ
UT5EOX
UX8IX
IZ5JLF
LZ73TRC

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

W6QU

"

UR5IPW
KA8SMA
SY1AQG
G3PRI
LZ5T
KH6KG
KT8K
IK1BBC
SP9PGE

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

September 2016

QRP

724,015
595,940
507,450
403,782
356,487
353,958
313,286
311,934
307,530
288,951
286,261
278,445
270,198
255,125
220,248
209,013
192,696

691 445
608 415
591 398
492 389
550 359
466 346
514 326
429 294
409 306
399 239
382 293
406 285
453 306
407 325
383 276
334 259
421 296
(OP:LZ1YE)
178,176
304 232
(OP:W8QZA)
175,491
350 279
161,602
295 238
111,628
282 236
111,492
290 228
100,776
268 204
100,107
229 147
79,756
201 157
62,205
196 165
60,236
165 148
(OP:SP9RQH)

CQ

105

SV4LQW
NNQ
LZ1D

"
"
"

F4FSV
K2YGM
SP2UUU
US8IEU
N4ZAK
RA3DJA
KA5PVB
ES5TF
IK3XTY
VE3LJQ
WDT
DL2BIS
TA2IB
VU2UR
HB9ZAG
DL5GSM
PY2BN
K3HX
KK7VL
PDHF
OE6MBG
KA6SGT/8
AC2RJ
OE3ERR
HA2MM
W1CEK
SP4CUF
R6FAA
G7PVZ
G8NVX
AF9J
SP7SMF
WP4DT
AB3RW
HB/DL1NX
DK9JC
XV5HS
K9XB
YBANN
EA3GYE
M1K

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

DJMY
W1MJ
N1JEO
4F9AM
SP3BES
RA7R
WB3LGC
UR3QOD
9V1OE

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

IZ1MHY
UTUN
DF7MZ
3E1FD
W5GAI
WA6FGV
PU2TRX
PP5XA
I5KAP
JA1NEZ
WB8JUI
JA4DQX
UA6AK
HP1RIS
5W1SA
YT1CS
OT6M

"
"
"
28
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"

4F4IX
JR2EKD
7N4WPY
OK1LV
JQ1NGT
K2GMY/6
JR1NKN
SN5V

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

SP4LVK
LA7WRA
WO9S
JF8LPB
9A8MM
DO6SR
DL5EC
YB2BBY
K6VHF
OM8AIK
PP5BSD
BA3QZ
JG1GPY
M6NNC
SY1AEA
VR2UNG
DO5TMM
A22LL
JJSFV
CX7RT
JO7FGZ/1
UN7EG
YO5PCB
RZ4WZ
SQ6PNP
S52GO
IN3HUU
9A2EY
SQ3OGP
G3ZNR
UR3PHG
HB9ENI
9A5HZ
VA3SB
5P1B

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

SY1BSR
IZ2QKG
M3GWO
DJ6TB
KF5TXU
EA3FHP
N5EIT
LA1XUA
AC5O
E21IZC
CT1ERW
YU3VIP
LA9VKA
VE7CBZ

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

106

CQ

52,592
195 173
45,696
174 136
45,080
184 161
(OP:LZ1VMM)
38,780
160 140
35,409
125 111
34,239
134 113
29,868
137 114
29,160
131 108
28,884
137 116
28,462
139 107
28,363
129 113
27,132
132 114
23,925
108
87
20,970
132
90
14,022
93
82
9,900
60
55
9,735
75
59
9,728
67
64
7,119
69
63
6,966
58
54
6,579
60
51
5,830
62
53
5,400
59
54
5,130
55
54
4,032
42
42
4,018
43
41
3,864
48
46
3,822
44
39
3,737
40
37
3,534
41
38
3,432
36
33
2,997
39
37
2,300
51
46
2,146
40
37
1,798
29
29
1,742
26
26
1,624
28
28
1,508
28
26
1,350
27
27
1,040
24
20
779
19
19
646
20
17
624
16
16
500
21
20
(OP:M1KTA)
408
14
12
390
15
15
338
13
13
297
13
11
288
13
12
252
14
14
165
12
11
115
6
5
65
5
5
(OP:OE1WWL)
45
5
5
32
4
4
25
5
5
51,408
169 119
17,182
86
71
15,052
85
71
10,854
92
67
5,777
60
53
5,070
44
39
1,848
32
24
1,560
24
24
1,159
22
19
300
10
10
147
7
7
1
1
1
115,977
241 201
75,831
183 161
(OP:ON9CC)
58,050
168 129
57,794
156 142
51,060
159 138
49,250
151 125
34,336
139 116
33,880
138 121
30,674
131
98
25,947
102
93
(OP:SQ5EBM)
22,525
94
85
18,509
96
83
14,896
81
76
11,926
74
67
6,164
46
46
3,920
41
40
2,610
32
29
1,218
22
21
1,152
26
24
931
19
19
836
19
19
561
17
17
372
13
12
324
12
12
225
9
9
96
8
8
55
5
5
28
4
4
18
3
3
15
3
3
-1
2
1
82,478
179 163
43,056
162 144
37,820
166 155
34,453
155 131
32,294
154 134
24,846
135 123
21,771
138 123
19,800
107 100
18,683
132 119
11,560
90
85
8,214
79
74
7,575
81
75
5,170
50
47
3,634
46
46
(OP:OZ1JUX)
3,432
52
52
1,950
43
39
1,794
40
39
1,760
33
32
1,344
32
32
486
19
18
448
16
16
400
21
20
363
11
11
216
12
9
143
11
11
63
7
7
24
4
4
18
3
3

HK4QWC
JM2RUV
SP4GFG
RT4W
UT5UUV
S51UN
IT9GAK
LA5FBA
KF7TLL
OK6OK
YT2SMS
S52CQ
JA2MWV
9W2AHU
OK1CJN
K9JWV/7
SAMAR
KC9BKS
OM7KW
SQ8MFB
SQ2HNA
EA1TI
PAAWH
W1TW
E7A
HA5NB
SQ6PHP
ON9CC
S57C
R7NA
S59GS
NW3R

"
"
7
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
3.7
"
"
"
"
"
"
1.8
"
"
"
"
"
"

1
1
103,878
89,908
81,054
63,395
61,759
46,992
44,416
41,785
36,855
14,536
7,942
5,568
1,625
624
18
1
39,936
38,682
30,392
9,699
3,864
2,684
780
22,116
10,074
6,171
2,800
1,590
276
170

IZ8JFL/1
OK2FD
IZ3NVR
AK8H
S51DX
G7KXZ
PE4BAS
PE2K
R7FO
YU1UO
OK1DMP
UT3XA
TA3IW
HA5BA
9M2FUL
CE4KCA
BI4OJF
LZ14HB

AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

JK1TCV
PY4WJ
UR5XMM
BA3QU
PW5G

"
"
"
"
28A

JR3RWB
PY1CMT
BY1SK
YP8A

"
"
"
21A

J43N
DO7PRM
OM6AS
PY2BI
YO9WF
YTI
YO8TND
YO8TRU
7L1AVS
YU7ZZ
IZ1ANK
MI1M

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14A
"
"

WB4OMM
YP8W

"
"

ES7AM
N9NBC
LZ8U

"
"
"

K3TW/4
IK4OMU
YP9W

"
"
"

ZP9MCE
"
UA1CEC
"
VA7IR
"
KB2HSH
"
EA8/OH1LEG"
EE3X
7A
DF8AE
MWLY
YD1CW
YC2FAJ
YQ9W

"
"
"
"
"

VE7CMT
E74O
DJ7MH
HG6C

"
3.7A
"
"

UT3EK
YT4T
ES7RIX
9A4AA
9A5BWW
YU1XX
NA1DX/3
HA7JQK

"
"
"
"
"
1.8A
"
"

1
1
1
1
220 199
197 182
191 171
178 155
166 151
148 132
177 128
147 137
128 117
80
79
44
38
42
32
25
25
16
16
3
3
1
1
146 128
144 126
130 116
64
61
43
42
22
22
21
20
115
97
77
69
61
51
40
35
30
30
12
12
11
10
(OP:NH7C)
856,854
838 543
530,244
531 396
380,380
493 364
231,012
376 276
212,319
388 279
181,158
351 277
155,750
309 250
110,112
286 222
70,884
221 198
40,004
140 137
37,169
130 109
36,108
131 118
24,854
91
86
18,430
114
97
15,323
99
77
9,849
74
67
8,442
79
63
4,223
42
41
(OP:LZ2TU)
2,201
33
31
486
24
18
341
13
11
324
13
12
9,900
80
66
(OP:PP5WG)
6,150
60
41
2,176
34
32
280
12
10
43,920
140 120
(OP:YO8WW)
35,340
137 124
27,354
107
97
7,436
53
52
3,652
45
44
3,325
37
35
1,944
27
27
882
19
18
748
18
17
702
18
18
251,836
485 334
126,252
311 252
108,112
268 233
(OP:MILLG)
106,680
225 210
85,238
264 218
(OP:YO8SEP)
80,625
253 215
33,880
130 121
26,474
140 122
(OP:LZ2TU)
22,134
105 102
12,825
102
95
7,200
78
72
(OP:YO9WF)
6,120
53
45
5,100
62
60
1,593
27
27
1,298
22
22
66
6
6
197,138
267 241
(OP:EA3KX)
43,030
145 130
41,674
140 134
2,912
31
28
363
13
11
224
8
8
(OP:YO9WF)
44
6
4
117,390
258 210
115,670
269 215
77,064
198 169
(OP:HA6IAM)
55,800
170 150
29,160
120 108
27,606
117 107
7,980
63
60
3,738
44
42
25,376
118 104
2,856
57
42
1,485
29
27

MULTI-OPERATOR
SINGLE-TRANSMITTER
HIGH POWER
NORTH AMERICA
UNITED STATES
United States
District 1
W1CU
N1RR
W1YK
W1AF
K1BG

2,390,169 1234
1,974,700
984
59,770
177
15,111
75
2,187
28

691
650
139
73
27

District 3
KE3X
K3MD

District 4
NY4I

September 2016

4,250,128 1998
190,820
244

872
235

22,550

128

110

3,831,044 2158

854

District 5
NM5O

European Russia
District 1
RU1A
RZ1AWT

3,634,814 1880
715,156
795
497,620
622
357,296
460

779
442
358
326

District 7
KE2VB/7
AA7CR

3,129,910 2162
1,599,955 1337

733
595

District 9
W9VW
W9BGX

243,620
10,465

353
67

260
65

3,283,523 1767
44,764
139

817
124

District
NMA
KPPY

1,109,983 1048
224,190
362
5,824
58

3,276,130 1491

754

District 2
VA2EN

2,828,896 1338

VC6R
VE6AO

District 7
10,919

61

61

3,366,552 1718
1,572,471 1115

696
461

Mexico
XE1CRG

91,728

211

OH6K
OH8GET
OH3AC

RC9J
RK9LWA
RK9CYA

716
622
580
834

China
5,521,824
2,426,740
1,920,140
1,561,875
1,406,251
857,212
267,840
263,520
236,328
97,272
4,830

2096
1365
1269
1239
1035
859
470
527
338
259
52

924
670
589
595
539
446
270
288
258
168
46

39,377,940 6798 1590

Isreal
4X7R

16,171,386 4029 1207

Japan
District 1
JA1ZGO

73,920

179

160

JI2ZEY

2,530,791 1263

603

District 5
JR5YCE

4,459,146 1791

18,337,947 4162 1189

PI4DX
PI4AMF
PA6V

833,850

747

SN1D
3Z1K

264

192

414

312

4,444,566 2164

903

297,024

95,370

EC5AN
EE1G
EA2RCP

6,393,450 2516 1050


4,947,866 2077 979
831,720
892 478

799

4,837,276 2160
1,219,263
953

947
547

UR4PWC

984
431

922
472

538
343

218

187

4294 1393
2825 1059
2432 1003
2266 921
1036 565
318 261
62
55

554
116

879
424

*TIDX
*HI3K

101

*XE2N

155,396

11,969,685 3641 1295


2,254,567 1336 721
1,487,787 1077 609
982,300
829 517

*PJ6E

2,357,758 1680

767

42,959

*VQ5E

147

1,419,180 1093

119
420

AFRICA
Ethiopia
*ET7L

13,573

54

49

5,119,032 1679

789

Madeira Islands
*CQ9T
*TS7P

1,159,521

712

451

850
38

485
38

1,608,262 1044

554

ASIA
Asiatic Russia
District 9
*RD8D
*RK9MWO

1,260,030
3,116

Asiatic Turkey
China
*BG3ITB
*BH4BUI
*BH2RO
*BY2HIT
*BH3CWA
*BY1DFZ

839,807
209,067
16,517
11,385
8,184
4,000

901
373
103
83
77
58

439
227
83
69
62
50

268

143

1,718,409 1138

519

Japan
District 2
*JJ2YKZ

97,955

Thailand
*HS4UEL
*HS3LUY

530,640
24,444

273
15

199
15

3,707,944 1730
582,296
703

632
286

*9M2SI
*9M4CKB
*9M4CHS
*9M4CPM

662
125

402
97

971
111
98
84

505
78
59
70

525
177

338
150

1,498,785 1119

613

1,119,080
20,358
17,287
14,700

EUROPE
Belarus
*EW4WE
*EW8ZO

371,800
42,750

Belgium
*OT5X

10,983,696 3311 1104


4,231,458 1893 774
213,607
332 227

Bosnia-Herzegovina
*E73EKK

369,902

Chile

*9A6V
*9A71CRJ
*9A5G

10,322,055 3146 1035


4,513,890 1943 758
402,570
456 315

*G3MDG

12,379,320 3700 1096

1,917,993 1172

495

347

870
270
167

537
204
133

63

61

104

91

Croatia
1,185,696
133,824
41,097

England
5,734

Estonia

Uruguay
CV3D

212

Turks & Caicos Islands

Brazil

CE3CT
CE3AA
3G5EC

116

277

West Malaysia
266

Argentina
LT1F
LO7H
LU8YE

146

Saba & St, Eustatius

Philippines
4D1R
4HGAR

879

40,020

*NP3A

*E44YL
695
468

554

203,776
540

6,210,135 2691

8,329,880 2660 1079

408

Indonesia
YB3VO
YB3ZCD

122

Palestine

3,732,845 1635
1,461,564
904

383,572

146

52,826

Costa Rica

*TC2G

3,637,302 1787
528,728
621

23,432

135

Tunisia

7,598,290 2868 1102


2,084,490 1219 690
1,093,680 1039 560

491,232

157

Puerto Rico

OCEANIA
VK2AU
VK5ARG

Estonia
ES1O

276

Ukraine

PQ5B

England
G2F
M4U
GB2GP
G7Y

*VE3LS

SOUTH AMERICA
528

Czech Republic
OK2KJU
OK1KQH

17,989,202
7,206,495
5,866,547
4,888,668
1,565,615
162,081
6,985

330

58,455

Switzerland
HB9CA

Bosnia-Herzegovina
863,280

375

Sweden

Belgium

E73ESP

*VE2CEV

Slovenia
S5G
S53EA
S59ACP
S57ZRS
S53GO
S59DKR
S59T

552

482,460

Mexico

Serbia
YT5L

60

Canada
District 2

East Malaysia

Azores

OP4K
OT5A
ON4MCL

*WL7CXP

Scotland

9M6SDX

Austria

CU2ARA

118

12,842,606 3337 1358


3,214,080 1633 837
247,390
383 286

964,634
300,125

64

7,980

Australia

EUROPE
OE9R

154

7,885,125 2872 1125


4,039,560 2085 882
459,008
502 352

GM3D
GM9N

136
220

District 9

Romania
YP8T
YR8D
YR8E

170
280

166,540

Dominican Republic

5,529,096 2286
711,581
703

450

West Malaysia
114,048

47,328

District 8

Poland

Thailand

9M2A

673
682

Netherlands

Kuwait

E2X

482

Liechtenstein

SK7K
SC9SSA

27,226,238 5379 1417


4,091,460 1744 703

9K2HN

748

2,021,692 1541
1,891,868 1375

187,680

524
114

District 7
*K7JAN

Latvia

34,102

1,007,128 1012
35,454
148

District 3

Kaliningrad

YL1ZT
YL1ZX

396
100

Alaska

20,487,495 4652 1435


15,766,528 4110 1384
794,818

699
117

District 5

Italy
IR4M
IO5O

831

Kazakhstan
UP2L
UP9L

774,180
27,400

*NE5LL
*KG5SAA

*W9JWC

Spain

District 2

District 4

991
788

13,853,280 3642 1302

Cyprus
P33W

4,916,351 2375
2,370,304 1793

37

10,457,546 3200 1094


596,772
586 396

*N3ZV/4
*W4QYV

*W8AJT

Hungary

9H6A

3,210,544 1502
2,380,394 1119
1,880,360
991

*KB3WD
*AI1W/3

861

Malta

6,606,948 2166

BY5CD
BY2AA
B4T
B7P
BA4TB
BY5HB
BI4UCN
BH1CXR
BG3UPA
BY4AA
BY1CQ

788
276
205

40

District 3

Greece
J43TR
SZ3P

Asiatic Turkey
TC2MK

2,577,548 1756
215,832
321
82,820
246

4,255

483

4204 1331
3054 1180
1406 764
1333 743
1082 632
363 279

3,193,449 1643

HBA

Asiatic Russia
District 9

United States
District 2

France

156

ASIA

602

Finland

UC2K

Cuba
T42A
T42CT

16,371,300
9,254,740
2,568,568
2,259,463
1,611,600
268,119

MULTI-OPERATOR
SINGLE-TRANSMITTER
LOW POWER
NORTH AMERICA
*AC2RK

Fed. Rep. of Germany


DQ2C
DP7D
DJA
DR7B
DLUM
DM9EE

HG1S

10,907,520 3396 1140


863,247
877 407

VA7XB

649,152

692

District 6

617
265
56

District 4
UC4C

F4KIR

Canada
District 1
VO1HZ

18,470,100 5226 1450


101,150
326 238

District 3
RU3C
RK5D
R3RA

District 6
KX7M/6
KE1B/6
N6MI
NW6P

District 2
NQ2F
WA3AFS/2

16,714,324 4138 1276


3,280,515 1625 785

627

*ES1N

18,564

Visit Our Web Site

European Russia
District 3
*RZ3DZI
*RC3P

56
35

55
33

975,579

914

84,221,766 11404 1842


61,290,260 9097 1726

2,435,303 1438

ASIA

517
793

TC3P

LY7A

5,158,482 1854

B1W

Finland
5,936

56

53

873
297

545
233

1,141,775
140,965

79

75

550

359

2,495,558 1516

13,050

Hungary
*HGR

521,986

*MTGLK

3,650,886 1655

A73A
58

54

148
132

130
120

214
99

187
92

197

155

258
185

215
158

Italy
*IU1GHC
*IN3FOX/3

37,570
34,320

Poland
*HF31ROT
*SP5PMF

81,158
18,584
58,590
95,890
56,722

HSAC

634
445

580

388

3,341,992 1710
999,799
939

404,296

886
521

2,917,470 1509
1,051,704
910
161,702
307

790
541
233

OZ5E

1,282,600 1114
1,116,720 1001
361,722
508
270
10

583
540
334
10

118,556

300

292,125

RK4W

229,172
1,503,970
363,488
64,052
30,702
6,222

DP6A
DLLN

415

188

982
445
179
132
57

503
296
134
102
51

LY26A

942
263

21,667,212 5677 1491

1,618,505 1164

655

Portugal
CR6P

12,917,136 4534 1317

Scotland
348,194

507

374

419
164
33

12,894,921 3867 1077

Guam
4,459,092 2054

726

Hawaii
24,405,261 5654 1203

Indonesia
YB1C

2,047,160 1178

610

SOUTH AMERICA
Brazil

282
140
31

PS2T
ZV5O
PS5A

28,445,298 6045 1491


18,585,515 4554 1313
6,108,713 2263 949

CB1H
3G1B

10,022,496 3331 1056


447,603
553 299

Chile

14,432,220 3533 1182

United States
District 2

MULTI-OPERATOR
MULTI-TRANSMITTER
NORTH AMERICA

3,657,278 2065

818

4,981,566 2718

922

22,411,200 5914 1450


16,554,396 5479 1292
9,709,975 3237 1139
47,085
153 129

Alaska
KL7RA

17,627,575 4940 1315

District 6
WK6KW

664,832

793

448

7,306,358 3106
745,596
708

998
447

AFRICA

District 7
KI7Y
NK7U

Cape Verde
D41CV

District 9
NV9L

ASIA

9,292,988 3061 1114

Japan

Canada
District 3
VE3MIS

4,692,780 1871

841

JA3YBK
JE1ZWT
JA2YGP

487

BWPX

District 6
VE6FI

1,476,097

77,122,771 11583 1837

945

16,288,728 3843 1268


6,820,300 2236 964
2,294
43
31

Taiwan
2,839,325 1923

685

District 7
VE7GL

10,561,010 3271 1090

EUROPE
Bulgaria

Cuba
T46T

351,728

458

304

LZ9W

WP3E

782,696

34,927,605 7731 1691

Crete

Puerto Rico
764

431

SX9C

www.cq-amateur-radio.com

14,549,090 5476 1361

9,442,725 2920
543,998
606

919
343

ROOKIE
United States
K8DC
KM4CPA
KE8BII
KC1DAD
*AD2KA
*AB3WS
*WX7JM
*KECRP
*KD2JOE
*KK4JW
*KD9BNP
*KG7JWD
*AKBC
*W8WDW
*KK6NON
*K3JAG
*W4ADB
*W8DWC
*AI6DS
*KE8DEM
*KC3DBG
*KC9ZTY
*NDIM/4
*KB7JJG
*N8CDY
*AB1XA
*KK6ZIZ
*KD2GUD
*KD2GXL
*W1GIV
*KN1FE/4
*KA9BBQ
*N5CWA
*KM4KPJ
*KC3BRA
*KK4UON
*KC3ASH
*W4BFH
*K1AUS/7
*KNJR
*N9BRZ
*W9MRL
*AB3RW
*NQQQ
*KM4OTB
*KD8ZCH
*AB3XJ
*K9SGB
*AC8UJ
*KEARY
*W4NDF/5
*KK4ZVD
*WW5OBA
*WV7TRT/8
*KD9EEQ
*NE5U
*W3AXL/9
*W2GTR
*W4TWR
*KM4HVD
*KG5MEG
*KDLJ
*KG5GMN
*W1AKI
*W6BJB
*N5EIT
*KK6ONL
NN2DX
WR1ST

United States
WX3B
NR6O
NE1C
W8DGN

District 5
KN5TX

4,974,702 2173
180,155
359

Netherlands

MULTI-OPERATOR
TWO-TRANSMITTER
NORTH AMERICA
WA2CP

497

27,034,852 6260 1612

KH6J

Venezuela
*YV1KK

701

Lithuania

KH2KY

Brazil
297,228
57,120
1,488

899

Hungary
HG7T

205

SOUTH AMERICA
*ZY5A
*PS5D
*PY2MIG

3,514,191 1739

Australia
511

Indonesia
*YE1ZAT
*YE1R
*YE1ZAL
*YB3ZY
*YC1ZAU

457

518,868

VK4KW

East Malaysia
*9M6CDX

902

OCEANIA

OCEANIA
*V84O

760,448

214

Brunei Darussalam

Ecuador
HCE
HC5ZY

319
259

11,350,872 3773 1206

GM7A

Wales
*2WWOD

867
659

European Russia
District 4

PD9X

Ukraine
*UW6M
*EN7P
*UR4RWW
*UR4WZA

443,410
269,878

Denmark

Switzerland
*HB2T
*HB2AA
*HB2C

298
132
178

8,947,440 2885 1032

365

Fed. Rep. of Germany

Sweden
*SEX
*SJ3A

629

Austria
OE5T

Spain
*EA4DE

582,905

EUROPE

1,981,250 1206
699,540
650

913
447
386

Brazil

Thailand

Slovenia
*S5D
*S57L

800,726
201,960
174,084

SOUTH AMERICA

Taiwan
BPP
BVWPX

Serbia
*YT2T
*YTB

Philippines

ZY2A

13,879,140 3712 1122

Romania
*YO4KAK

OCEANIA
DX9M
DX7HQ
DX1DBT

738

Japan
District 1
Qatar

4,320

964

India
AT5R

JA1ZGP

Isle of Man

4,612,740 2344

11,013,665 3960 1219

689

35,162,043 6534 1499

Guernsey
*GU3HFN

460

789

Cyprus
C4A

France
*TM2PL
*F6KOH

DX
714

Finland
OH5C

China
*OH1F

770,500

Lithuania

Asiatic Turkey

Fed. Rep. of Germany


*DQ5M

MXSNB

Morocco

CN2AA
5E5E

District 4
*RY4F

England

AFRICA

5,665
2,178

A
"
"
14
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
"
"
"
14
"
"
"
"
7
AA
"

KM4OIX
"
K1DBO
"
AI6EG
"
AF7QZ
"
*KC3AZX AA
*KG7GYI
"
*KM4IPF
"
*K5BKW
"
*AC8RJ
"
*AJ4AA
"
*KM4FRM
"
*KC1AXJ
"
*KC3GEM
"
*AC2QY
"
*KM4LLF
"
*KE8BWA
"
*KC9ZTX
"
*N7DJD
"
*W1OOA/ "
*KB2WZT
"
*K3JRZ
"
*W3ZX
"
*AG3Q
"
*W4BTA
"
*KM4GCI
"
*AE4FH
"
*KG7TVX
"
*KG5JBY
"
*AF5OI
14A
*N4KWR
"
*WK9U
7A
*K9AWM
"

74,448
195 144
51,240
153 122
455
14
13
57,260
140 140
391,800
484 300
311,934
429 294
206,257
387 239
148,995
312 215
129,429
254 197
118,440
239 188
83,160
205 168
83,040
213 160
80,535
224 177
80,454
200 159
79,380
269 180
62,424
180 136
60,060
169 140
46,968
137 114
46,002
167 123
41,082
140 123
32,130
123 105
30,747
117 111
20,608
97
92
19,588
94
83
17,958
85
82
16,767
92
81
13,916
90
71
12,342
73
66
11,718
69
63
10,980
69
61
6,966
58
54
6,916
55
52
6,844
64
58
6,419
53
49
6,240
50
48
6,076
50
49
4,635
48
45
3,948
43
42
3,608
47
41
3,159
40
39
2,244
39
33
1,664
34
32
1,624
28
28
1,431
32
27
1,166
22
22
798
23
21
792
18
18
602
14
14
527
17
17
240
13
12
234
13
13
180
9
9
50
5
5
40
5
5
20
5
5
0
0
0
0
1
1
2,465
31
29
1,320
22
22
784
17
16
270
10
10
22,440
107 102
12,246
89
78
3,567
43
41
1,275
25
25
448
16
16
100
5
5
2,116,230 1173 690
(OP:W4FS)
484,807
645 367
(OP:KC1CWF)
45,200
129 100
33,312
114
96
20,748
105
84
2,449
36
31
427,558
493 313
268,800
442 280
91,698
268 186
72,960
203 152
54,663
164 137
44,132
154 118
41,472
130 128
41,328
138 123
40,626
140 122
37,664
129 107
34,236
141 108
27,468
116 109
19,800
99
88
17,112
93
93
13,764
90
74
10,915
61
59
6,096
50
48
5,632
38
32
3,312
38
36
2,346
35
34
759
23
23
300
12
12
100
10
10
70
5
5
4,816
61
56
-7
1
1
590,058
747 378
1,449
22
21

WP4PGY
HZ1HZ
A61EK
IU5BLZ
OV3T
FR4QT
HL5ZEE
PA9DD
*YV5LAY
*PA9IGB
*DL5LB
*IU4FJI
*US1GFW
*LB5BG
*EA4GPZ
*R2AHS
*OH1XFE
*RT7Y

A
"
"
"
"
21
"
7
A
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*VO1RCH
*2EKDT
*OE6SWG
*SY1AQG
*TA3IWS
*IU5FFM
*IU5BKR
*M6ETL
*VE5SDH
*LB1DH
*F4HPX
*SP3BBS
*R2DGD
*SQ7OVZ
*R2ZBT
*DO1OH
*AL4Y
*IU2BHI
*VE3LJQ
*DO5LW
*IW1GPT
*OE6FTE
*LB1LG
*DO2HEY
*EA1HTF
*DB2MJ
*HB9FUH
*IU3BPW
*VU3CML
*DO4JM
*PD8ARP
*BH4UTT
*TA2ANL
*EA4GSL
*IU1FQQ
*PU2OSZ
*RU3YAA
*HS8JCV
*SA6SKA
*UTFC
*IU4FNQ
*TA3IUY
*LZ1COM
*JI1NZA
*PA9MD
*VK3GA
*E21FYK
*9A3CJW
*DK9JC
*BV4WN
*SA2KNG
*SV1EML
*OM8ADU
*PD1JAP
*VE4DPR
*IU2CKD
*LX1DKE
*DL9TR
*PH2LB
*EA5IMM
*LU2VCR
*PU2XBT
*PU7EEM
*LU5MTZ
*PU2NAX
*LU7MZQ
*PU8WMM
*PU5VVI
*PU7WAT
*UB4WAW
*VU2NFG
*BH4OUF
*YC8FLE
*UTNB
*DO6SI
*DO6FC
*DO6XJ
*RAFF
*Z33RW
*JP3IBB
*UR3QTN
*JI1QDK
*JE6PVG
*JE6PVF
*UR3RAA
*IZ7ZKV
*VE9NF
*NP4ET
*MOSA
*R4HDC

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14
"
"
"
"
"

*ZL4YL
*2ESNS
*VA7XNL
*RA3SS
*OH2DD
*OE1VMC
*9N3DX
*LA1XUA
*YU3VIP
*TA4ALQ
*TA4APR
*5T4C
*IT9GAK
*IU7GUW
*YD1SDL
*YD8GAR
*YG3CNU
*YC8VRA
*YD1ELP
*YD8VHS
*YG3DCU
*ISFFD

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
7
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

2,520,825 1706 725


1,501,360
820 490
223,110
239 201
171,000
320 250
61,918
191 166
945,132
728 452
7,500
57
50
9,024
47
47
714,926
588 358
667,492
624 434
313,614
447 342
296,916
451 327
258,962
382 298
225,722
410 322
188,474
401 286
166,355
325 245
159,095
309 235
148,830
319 246
(OP:R6YAF)
148,565
259 215
145,092
266 214
115,997
290 227
111,628
282 236
103,454
194 173
82,720
194 176
81,738
206 171
75,048
219 177
63,294
170 137
56,772
205 171
55,417
169 151
54,250
179 155
49,728
164 148
45,717
166 147
29,618
130 118
29,040
120 110
28,392
108
84
26,970
106
87
23,925
108
87
23,876
99
94
23,836
105 101
23,408
122 112
22,624
126 112
17,724
95
84
17,640
123 105
14,200
72
71
10,800
79
72
10,296
74
66
9,747
69
57
5,324
47
44
5,073
58
57
4,945
49
43
4,879
41
41
4,800
51
50
3,431
48
47
3,403
45
41
3,150
36
35
3,007
44
31
2,706
42
41
2,520
46
45
2,340
36
36
1,617
22
21
1,593
28
27
1,518
24
22
1,440
30
30
1,408
22
22
1,400
34
28
1,350
25
25
1,350
27
27
1,276
28
22
1,025
25
25
880
19
16
702
27
27
432
16
16
230
10
10
224
14
14
135
15
15
112
8
8
99
9
9
40
4
4
76,636
208 161
16,517
99
83
14,320
109
80
3,045
36
35
1,457
39
31
630
18
15
234
16
13
169
13
13
1
1
1
213,204
581 326
108,864
232 192
70,785
207 165
34,117
139 109
20,240
104
88
4,428
43
41
4,370
42
38
3,267
35
33
2,970
34
33
1,848
30
28
1,610
24
23
1,440
29
24
322
15
14
44
5
4
3
1
1
229,440
501 320
162,060
419 292
138,030
237 215
32,190
141 111
19,071
122 117
11,684
98
92
(OP:XX9XX)
10,416
68
56
9,790
92
89
6,375
57
51
3,920
57
56
2,173
41
41
1,890
36
35
1,560
36
30
400
21
20
63
7
7
48
4
4
27
3
3
121,550
152 143
61,759
166 151
16,044
90
84
7,482
60
43
5,811
47
39
4,884
36
33
2,408
32
28
690
21
15
234
11
9
180
10
9
144
6
6

*HS3PJF
*SAMAR
*DO7KMH
EF7D

"
"
3.7
AA

IU4CHE
A96A
YF3CYU
*IT9EWR
*IB9P

"
14A
7A
AA
"

*ED3T
*9A5RPZ
*DO2MRC
*EA5IJG
*2EIFC
*SI6I

"
"
"
"
"
"

*VA3PDG
*RA4CB
*DO7EE
*SP6AO
*EW4FG
*IU4DTV
*PD4RD
*PY2XIZ
*DL4LT
*IU2DXF
*DO9TM
*YO8ST
*BI4OJF
*VA3MQS
*JA1UII
*PA1DI
*9A6CC
*VE3MZD
*MTRJ
*PD1RZ
*PU8WHJ
*PU8TAS
*PU4JKB
*PU1LBL
*IZ5HPQ
*JI1HSV
*DO5NJH
*BI4SHV
*MI1M

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28A
"
"
"
21A
"
"
"
14A

*YP8W

30
18
2,849
1,361,504

5
3
3
3
38
37
858 628
(OP:EA7JXZ)
170,723
290 203
217,327
316 253
9,600
47
40
983,412
773 531
908,960 1145 598
(OP:IT9FRX)
464,215
636 409
441,000
537 392
220,769
370 277
201,600
376 280
195,244
342 266
175,016
344 262
(OP:SA6CMO)
172,062
281 198
170,430
341 285
164,750
296 250
155,262
293 226
130,872
281 228
93,480
236 205
66,300
202 170
57,669
186 141
43,194
171 138
36,894
138 129
19,620
94
90
13,800
74
69
8,442
79
63
7,685
54
53
7,104
49
48
6,499
74
67
3,255
36
35
2,240
29
28
645
15
15
578
18
17
131,890
300 218
41,472
148 128
34,122
148 121
2,664
39
37
90,695
203 187
8,845
69
61
3,760
42
40
1,078
27
22
108,112
268 233
(OP:MILLG)
85,238
264 218
(OP:YO8SEP)
896
28
28
585
15
15
216,975
333 275
40,766
117 109
21,080
118
62
11,968
51
44
8,816
45
38
11,792
74
67

"

*M6HKD
"
*YO5PUG
"
*2ESDV
7A
*SY1BFI
"
*YD9SBP
"
*YG3CYT
"
*YG3CYS
"
*OM8ADM 3.7A

TRIBANDER/SINGLE
ELEMENT
United States
WQ6SL/4

K4BAI
KM5VI
WD5K
WR5O
K3CCR

"
"
"
"
"

N3XF
KW3A
AC9KW
NJ2F/4
ADH
W7CAR
NA4K
NJ9R
NM5WB
WB2NFL
W6FB
AD5UQ
K1IX
W7ON
W4UT
KB7AZ
N7XCZ
WG7X
K6ELE
WPPF
AD5A
W9ILY
WB8O
KD8SQ
W8GOC
ND8DX
WN2O

5,880,216 2519 998


(OP:N4PN)
4,662,888 2226 888
4,199,536 2422 856
2,210,046 1474 674
2,139,310 1959 670
694,908
595 388
(OP:N3UM)
693,645
586 393
574,308
749 371
482,904
526 342
457,640
515 340
308,100
478 300
291,128
555 302
217,224
314 252
166,290
303 230
163,767
292 237
158,974
270 202
152,852
327 212
145,665
264 195
95,200
220 160
88,722
244 159
76,860
200 140
76,608
199 152
56,295
179 139
21,712
113
92
9,702
82
63
9,313
74
67
56,000
221 160
38,976
124 116
6,608
59
56
69,552
170 161
66,720
176 160
914,300
831 446
4,554
69
46
(OP:N2GC)
4
1
1
1,305,285
914 519
501,972
571 354
483,298
512 334
294,176
606 317
292,824
442 294
287,574
572 287
286,261
382 293
258,560
407 256
241,650
374 270
239,956
355 251
211,564
327 233
209,678
383 238
205,119
321 213
192,855
312 215
184,642
288 226
157,794
303 221
157,522
297 226
139,092
259 201
109,900
240 175
100,672
241 176
99,696
230 186
99,190
238 182
92,004
204 164
86,337
269 181
83,144
214 152
77,655
236 155
75,831
215 161
64,107
153 153
53,333
164 133
(OP:K8MR)
40,248
132 117
39,556
169 116

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21
"
"
14
"
3.7
1.8

W7WR
*WB8TLI
*N8SBE
*N8MWK
*KVVX
*KD7RCJ
*N7MZW
*NDC
*NN5T
*WN4AFP
*N8GLS
*KD9LA/4
*NW5Q
*WA2FZB
*K3ORC/4
*W1TO
*WA7PRC
*K5FUV
*W9RF
*W1CCE
*ADJA
*K2LNS/3
*KB7HDX
*N3MWQ
*AE6YB
*KJ4KKD
*WZ6ZZ
*KACP/8
*WPV/4
*NC8C/4

"
A
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"
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"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
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"
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"
"

*KD9GY
*KKR

"
"

September 2016

CQ

107

}
*Vi>i

+-i
,EW-C#OYON!NTENNAS
by Lew McCoy, W1ICP
Unlike many technical
publications, Lew presents
his invaluable antenna info
in a casual, non-intimidating
way for anyone!

8.5 X 11 Paperback $19.95


CD Version $14.95
"UYBOTHFORONLY

4HE.%73HORTWAVE
0ROPAGATION(ANDBOOK
by W3ASK, N4XX & K6GKU
A shortwave propagation
book with information on
sunspot activity, propagation
predictions, unusual
propagation effects and do-ityourself forecasting tips.

8.5 X 11 Paperback $19.95


CD Version $14.95
"UYBOTHFORONLY

3LOPER!NTENNAS
By Juergen A. Weigl, OE5CWL
Single- and Multi-Element
Directive Antennas
for the Low Bands

With calculations and


practical experience, this
book shows which basi
concepts have to be
considered for sloper
antennas for the low bands.

6 X 9 Paperback $24.95
CD Version $18.95
"UYBOTHFORONLY
Shipping & Handling: U.S. add $7 for the first item,
$3.50 for the second and $2 for each addl item. FREE
shipping on orders over $100 to one U.S. address.
CN/FN add $25 for 1st item, $10 for 2nd and $5 for each
additional. Buy Both=single item!

CQ The Radio
Amateur's Journal
Phone 516-681-2922
FAX 516-681-2926
http://store.cq-amateur-radio.com

108

CQ

September 2016

*W4YPW/8
*ADRW
*KA5PVB
*N2DD
*KM4SEG
*NJ8J/4
*W1CRK
*W8FNT
*W1OHM
*ACMN

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

39,120
33,354
28,462
27,645
26,500
25,730
22,704
21,472
21,228
20,995

*AG4IM
"
*K4CGA
"
*N6PM
"
*NKOE/4
"
*NHDR
"
*NW2K
"
*KC9VYX
"
*KT8D
"
*W2FUN
"
*KB3OZA
"
*NG9M/
"
*KK9U
"
*K6OAK
"
*WC4E/1
"
*KF5SNL
"
*NTTE
"
*KB8SRQ
"
*KAJDT
"
*KDCVZ
"
*NR8R
"
*AC7MX
"
*KB6A
"
*KTC
"
*N8PPF/7
"
*NG4L
"
*AF7MD
"
*KBVVK
"
*WE6EZ/5 28
*W2KMK
"
*WW6OR/4 21

19,314
19,278
16,125
15,732
14,832
14,457
13,926
12,028
11,628
11,340
7,920
6,480
6,450
6,000
5,994
5,207
4,048
3,360
3,034
2,754
2,604
2,436
2,030
1,938
903
234
135
30,616
1,071
80,337

*W7UPF
*N4VZ
*K1VSJ
*W8SIG
*K7SKE
*K2AL
*WA7NWL
*KO3T
*NYT
*N6ENO
*KF5CYZ
*K9JWV/7
*W1TW
*WN7RRX
*NW3R

"
"
"
14
"
"
7
"
"
"
"
"
3.7
1.8
"

78,581
13,938
260
5,250
96
6
48,870
18,240
10,728
2,736
954
624
2,684
1,392
170

*W6RKC
WQ5MM

"
40
AA 10,273,032

NF4A
KEUI
W4EEY
N2MUN
N2GZ/1
WB9KPT/
N6YG
NF9V
WA3AAN
NS4X
W8GNM
KE4S
K4SBZ
NAB
AJ7T
W2YE/4
AF4RK
4U1WB/3

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

1,145,435
683,515
661,824
599,807
593,318
386,255
373,660
359,328
298,656
270,565
254,535
248,820
232,323
226,185
221,260
196,248
187,157
174,840

KD3TB
W8TOM/1
NW3DC

"
"
"

141,372
134,498
117,900

K1TH
AF5CC
K9EN
W9UIH

"
"
"
"

84,456
68,328
65,965
47,328

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
21A
"
"
7A
AA
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
14A
1.8A

46,374
26,481
20,203
18,966
16,856
16,154
9,296
5,500
2,072
299
18,018
15,768
7,920
24,056
492,356
454,310
300,960
297,606
229,554
222,894
220,816
202,665
110,980
49,400
44,296
43,010
39,600
33,912
21,845
20,111
13,148
6,324
4,462
2,790
2,788
560
106,680
2,856

AA7V
NB3R
WJ1B
WJ1R
W6SX
WE2W/1
AI6Z
WE6Z
K7IOA
AFW
K7MY
W4LT
NA2U/7
KD7DCR
*N9UA
*KCDEB
*N9TF
*NW3Y
*KA1EKR
*KS2G
*W1MD/4
*AA8OY
*KE2D
*K1DJ
*N3ALN
*NN4RB
*KC9YL
*N8FYL
*KC9IRQ
*K9DXR
*NX9G
*N8YQX
*KOE
*KA3PCX
*KC7V
*KK7A
*WB4OMM
*NA1DX/3

149 120
134 102
139 107
124
97
107 100
97
83
104
88
103
88
105
87
108
95
(OP:W6NF)
96
87
88
81
86
75
88
76
78
72
93
79
71
66
68
62
72
68
75
70
70
60
55
54
62
50
50
48
61
54
44
41
48
44
39
35
48
41
37
34
37
31
30
28
31
29
39
34
21
21
13
13
15
15
121
89
21
21
222 183
(OP:K6JAT)
204 179
71
69
10
10
50
50
8
8
2
2
165 135
93
80
73
72
40
38
18
18
16
16
22
22
33
29
11
10
(OP:NH7C)
5
5
3378 1199
(OP:N8OO)
932 535
671 413
646 383
597 377
526 362
596 335
566 314
432 304
405 272
395 265
321 239
306 290
336 259
357 255
396 260
296 222
293 211
317 235
(OP:AJ3M)
237 198
241 182
232 180
(OP:W3DQ)
193 138
183 156
185 167
156 136
(OP:N9EAT)
149 118
103
97
101
89
99
87
124
98
86
82
64
56
54
50
42
37
13
13
94
91
77
73
61
60
118
97
544 332
515 362
397 285
344 257
310 234
339 261
297 296
318 229
233 179
166 130
149 113
137 115
145 120
129 108
88
85
91
91
81
76
54
51
48
46
31
30
35
34
25
20
225 210
57
42

DX
VE9CB
FG4KH

A
"

13,723,754 3854 1199


5,244,244 2066 853
(OP:F1DUZ)

OM7RU
HK3C
TI2OY
OA4SS
LU7MT
IK3UNA/1
OH8NW
SV8CRI
RA1AL
RU4AA
VE3TW
4Z5LY
IK7NXU
US7IA
OH2LZC
MGHQ
LY5O
RAAM
RC3U
DL5DTG
LA8OM
VK3IO
JE1REU
JH1HIC
VE7BC
HB9OAU
GAZH
DC7DX
VK8RD
VE3MT
R9UA
ES2IPA
UY2UR
WH7W
VA3TIC
JH1CTV
VK3LM
IKBZE
VE6FT
IZGUS
UR4EI
9A2JK
IK2QIN
VK6DW
OM8KD
JA7CNS
IZOTV
SP6RLK
RA3THN
RK7T
JE1HRC
IZ1DLY
4XA

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
28

UA6MA
NH7AA
UN3M
ZX2V
SV8DTD
MM8Z

"
21
"
"
"
"

VY2LI
RV9YK
VK6SMK
LU8FAI
LU9MDH
IT9SSI
III

"
"
"
"
"
14
"

EA2KV
IZ4VSD
RAUBI
IW1BBQ
EU5C

"
"
"
"
7

MMCV
IZ1DGG
EW3A
G3VGZ
G2Z
G4DBW
JA5NSR
JE2BOM
9A73B

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
3.7

HZ1BW
EA3CI
Z3A
LY2AE
UAW
LY4T
UX5IS
UA1ANA
*VE3DZ
*3V8SS

"
"
"
"
"
1.8
"
"
A
"

*7Z1SJ
*HSZHC
*PJ2/DD5ZZ
*HI3TT
*DFBV

"
"
"
"
"

*9A5CBM

"

*P43E
*OH6ECM
*R2AD
*VC7G

"
"
"
"

*EE7L

"

*SV1PMH
*EA3QP
*EB1DJ
*SM2S
*UA1CUR
*PAMIR
*VA7CRZ
*DF5BM
*DK1KC
*EU4AX
*DK3WE
*DL6CT
*LW4EF
*F4CDR
*LA2HFA
*9A2BD
*UAUK
*DK8NC
*OK2BUT
*HK4CMB
*OU7A
*EU3A

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

3,389,832
3,080,916
2,579,940
2,576,917
2,445,195
2,224,586
2,177,529
1,515,024
1,472,175
1,434,664
1,074,516
976,549
922,049
570,625
524,623
485,144
460,312
418,984
392,010
334,180
235,521
159,612
155,287
129,889
123,210
120,560
119,214
118,482
118,342
107,184
106,272
104,951
98,072
79,560
75,260
73,984
67,130
46,426
43,798
33,288
31,784
25,470
25,123
20,000
17,978
10,773
10,521
9,434
3,564
765
108
30
16,750

1757 828
1599 666
1478 660
1636 547
1371 645
1498 719
1580 717
1256 668
1258 675
1166 616
749 453
691 427
705 523
643 415
739 407
561 407
567 353
475 332
511 365
439 310
390 297
232 188
282 209
250 193
233 185
288 220
275 222
221 186
316 158
211 168
204 164
257 203
212 184
183 136
170 142
211 136
155 137
147 139
143 122
130 114
138 116
99
90
99
97
109
80
104
89
80
63
64
63
53
53
37
33
19
17
6
6
5
5
92
67
(OP:4X1VF)
1,220
21
20
2,327,006 1415 586
1,568,754 1090 513
777,030
649 439
334,152
546 306
146,084
282 236
(OP:GM7VSB)
87,482
213 166
45,486
153 133
26,412
128
93
22,561
102
77
8,216
61
52
502,650
752 450
475,592
685 442
(OP:IZPAU)
251,100
483 372
21,984
96
96
13,736
71
68
27
3
3
1,540,628
943 599
(OP:EW1I)
1,013,022
866 501
597,312
655 408
492,672
548 384
159,565
263 235
20,884
99
92
20,296
104
86
19,932
70
66
3,584
30
28
1,522,091 1129 587
(OP:9A2VR)
1,027,299
487 371
948,676
768 487
585,396
607 414
9,984
69
64
4,650
30
30
62,310
188 155
41,472
155 128
19,855
108
95
8,601,725 2606 1009
5,804,316 2065 868
(OP:KF5EYY)
4,715,200 1628 842
2,003,958 1293 638
1,942,870 1130 590
1,845,972 1381 564
1,562,835 1069 645
(OP:DL1MAJ)
1,413,104
998 592
(OP:9A5ST)
1,336,986
905 486
1,049,070
976 561
1,035,980
996 554
977,462
814 454
(OP:VE7JH)
971,880
952 534
(OP:EA7HLU)
834,209
777 491
736,965
825 515
675,432
660 424
619,674
672 451
615,478
731 439
604,068
634 426
591,416
547 358
517,504
569 416
516,497
557 397
513,135
544 405
507,450
591 398
481,431
560 383
468,165
562 345
465,375
557 365
462,644
579 364
458,443
578 359
441,048
606 376
428,884
499 358
418,680
516 360
398,445
414 263
398,240
491 380
383,474
504 343

*I1DXD
*II3I

"
"

*OZ6OM
*WP3GW
*VU3WDN

"
"
"

*RZ5D
*DL2DQL
*BG4WOM
*HB9WDY
*SE3E

"
"
"
"
"

*SP7B
*IZ3XNJ
*OZ4NA
*IZ2GTS
*2EPLA
*UX8IX
*IZ5JLF
*RM3V

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*2E1AYS
*F6EWX
*UX7QG
*OK2BZE
*LU6DC
*IT9NAN
*OM4MO
*UR5IPW
*F4ASK
*VE3NNG
*XQ1TUW
*SP8P
*VU2DED
*R3OA
*RV9MN
*RA3DQP
*DO4OD
*SM5NQB
*VU2KWJ
*CE7PGO
*IW2MWC
*YO8PS
*LY2TS
*PG1R
*JE4MHL
*PA4HM
*YO4RST
*SE5Z

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*YO6DBL
*VK6VAX
*MPKZ
*JA6CVR
*G3PRI
*9A1AA
*EA3DJL
*IN3UFW
*IK3XTT
*TF8KY
*RZ9UF
*LA1HL
*EA4IE
*EV6M
*IT9AZE
*RA4W
*IT9ACJ
*UR3ABM
*DL1KRT
*MSSK
*JF1WNT
*F5JU
*DL4EBA
*DF6RI
*UX7QV
*IC8AJU
*CE2MT
*7J6AAO
*VA3DBT
*IK1BBC
*DD5MA
*F1MQJ
*S57YX
*JA3EBT
*9A8FCC
*SV7CUD
*SP8BOZ
*PA3DBS
*JN3TSY
*JE1GZB
*JA1GFB
*VU2DCC
*JJ3TBB/3
*JH6FTJ
*JA9LX
*SP2UUU
*EA4CU
*IK2YSJ
*OL2T

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

*JA1CRJ
*SF3A

"
"

*DJ3HW
*YO7DBR
*RA3DJA
*EA4DXP
*YC2MDU
*IK3XTY
*SM5KQS
*VE1AOE
*JR1MRG
*PY4WWW
*SP5GDY
*IZ8IBC
*EA4YC
*UY2ZZ
*IZ6YLM
*YO9HRB
*VE7FCO
*RA4L
*VU2HOT
*IZ4IRX
*DG2JA
*LZ5IL
*OH5EP
*LA8JKA
*JA9EJG
*IKUXO
*VE3TU
*E2AH
*OE6HLF

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

379,431
372,624

504 351
493 336
(OP:I3QKO)
353,958
466 346
322,320
387 272
306,348
417 294
(OP:EA4ATI)
284,085
422 295
271,040
392 308
268,250
486 290
266,412
401 298
266,072
461 316
(OP:SA3AZK)
253,552
379 299
243,243
385 297
241,336
387 311
237,475
384 295
235,770
380 290
220,248
383 276
209,013
334 259
201,068
348 301
(OP:RW3VA)
196,350
341 275
194,670
341 270
194,586
385 287
191,646
293 273
190,961
313 239
187,072
366 296
186,750
354 250
175,491
350 279
174,848
322 256
171,900
256 191
171,384
331 222
170,820
329 260
170,084
307 202
163,152
348 264
160,160
271 224
155,610
346 266
154,584
267 228
154,155
313 239
151,316
293 209
151,200
305 224
150,528
326 256
148,030
300 226
144,188
281 226
135,880
288 215
132,673
258 181
131,080
296 232
130,050
286 225
127,094
281 218
(OP:SA5BCG)
120,904
265 238
120,727
266 181
119,629
295 227
118,746
299 162
111,492
290 228
109,616
234 208
103,834
234 193
102,564
257 222
101,436
246 214
98,648
282 209
96,693
225 193
95,841
246 207
94,300
237 205
93,000
200 200
86,464
249 193
84,420
255 210
83,803
230 181
79,275
226 175
78,880
211 170
77,350
222 182
77,106
177 142
73,871
196 173
72,864
202 176
71,340
195 164
70,688
205 188
66,138
177 146
65,637
194 143
64,533
184 147
62,520
144 120
62,205
196 165
59,241
176 147
57,600
179 160
57,558
176 159
52,374
173 129
51,408
167 153
49,192
165 143
49,068
170 141
47,560
168 145
44,660
145 110
40,293
156 111
39,897
157
99
37,968
140 113
37,145
155
95
36,180
128 108
35,653
125 101
34,239
134 113
34,194
134 123
32,258
129 127
30,744
129 122
(OP:OK2TC)
30,456
111
94
30,444
138 118
(OP:SM3CER)
29,106
103
98
29,044
127 106
28,884
137 116
28,809
110
97
27,946
109
89
27,132
132 114
24,849
111
99
24,080
99
86
22,752
113
79
22,654
121
94
22,572
97
76
22,568
99
91
21,930
95
86
21,462
112
98
21,384
95
88
20,774
100
94
20,328
95
88
18,837
130 117
17,940
90
78
17,640
90
84
16,640
86
65
16,020
96
89
13,651
74
73
12,972
98
92
12,608
75
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12,545
70
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11,408
74
62
11,096
99
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10,143
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9,900
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60
55
65
64
75
59
69
60
55
53
58
54
63
61
69
59
50
45
46
45
50
48
43
38
52
51
(OP:5PO)
4,830
51
42
(OP:VE7BGP)
4,575
61
61
(OP:JK3GAD)
4,459
50
49
4,228
34
28
3,818
51
46
3,220
36
35
2,356
41
31
1,820
26
26
1,664
27
26
1,625
25
25
1,512
25
24
1,508
28
26
1,428
35
34
1,296
20
18
1,040
20
20
1,032
25
24
(OP:PY2LCD)
918
19
18
630
22
21
495
12
11
494
14
13
150
10
10
90
5
5
32
4
4
635,901
954 321
146,278
296 218
57,129
185 137
27,456
144 104
21,888
108
76
12,154
90
59
8,823
62
51
8,772
87
68
3,968
50
32
752
18
16
15
3
3
1
1
1
1,783,744 1059 593
(OP:PY2CX)
326,326
391 286
201,096
307 266
(OP:EA1YB)
48,688
160 136
44,536
178 152
41,040
131 114
(OP:SM6FKF)
34,561
117 107
25,947
102
93
(OP:SQ5EBM)
23,220
101
90
23,085
102
95
(OP:EA4CWN)
22,098
94
87
19,082
102
94
18,387
97
81
16,650
89
74
7,548
54
51
2,850
41
38
2,848
33
32
1,590
31
30
1,218
22
21
1,188
22
22
1,078
23
22
640
20
20
546
14
14
450
15
15
162
9
9
105
7
7
28
4
4
21
3
3
1
1
1
1,395,351 1132 591
225,450
424 334
211,118
414 283
190,032
454 321
171,833
270 241
116,160
275 242
96,348
260 222
51,982
203 158
38,442
168 149
29,606
121 113
21,218
109 103
18,894
108
94
18,720
138 120
12,852
76
68
4,256
38
38
3,008
36
32
1,950
43
39
1,943
31
29
1,700
28
25
819
21
21
507
13
13
(OP:DF8AN)
378
19
18
602,504
589 424
556,095
586 393
462,375
521 375
96,096
200 182
67,308
169 158
51,620
167 145
41,785
147 137
14,560
64
56
2,645
27
23
1,785
25
21
1,071
28
21
230
12
10
5
5
1
-24
2
2
125,042
254 206
(OP:IT9VCE)
72,162
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42,471
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23,782
102
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(OP:EA4GHB)
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94,122
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25,338
114 103
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22,116
115
97
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2,800
40
35
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378
14
14
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297
11
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AA 17,032,845 4022 1245
" 10,772,584 2936 1096
(OP:VA2WA)
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8,881,128 2839 1038
(OP:PY2MNL)
"
8,556,240 3021 1155
(OP:EU1A)
"
7,843,887 3409 1179
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4,739,484 2048 811
(OP:KE5JA)
"
3,687,750 1790 894
"
3,472,326 1760 858
"
3,222,180 1711 884
"
3,221,284 1420 716
(OP:8P8SH)
"
3,168,110 1768 830
"
2,913,792 1515 813
"
2,912,880 1371 795
"
2,806,860 1749 820
"
2,771,160 1442 840
(OP:SMMPV)
"
2,444,890 1675 742
"
1,996,208 1292 697
(OP:LZ2DF)
"
1,753,050 1232 650
"
1,574,965 1246 595
"
1,331,605
989 605
"
1,308,750 1017 625
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1,224,371
817 439
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1,217,760 1030 590
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1,203,696 1013 624
"
1,139,341 1016 581
(OP:UX1RX)
"
1,043,048
871 482
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961,324
846 556
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937,279
909 521
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924,072
878 554
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856,208
691 472
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829,710
735 439
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806,418
669 426
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804,915
681 465
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719,390
607 430
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718,340
767 490
(OP:EA4GLJ)
"
691,300
658 446
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691,254
709 459
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689,715
636 405
"
688,401
704 441
"
618,616
639 424
"
606,697
591 413
(OP:OZ1FJB)
"
606,552
555 398
(OP:EA2AOO)
"
560,938
543 389
"
560,564
606 397
"
529,200
549 392
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519,170
534 386
"
509,580
515 342
"
431,032
506 358
"
417,573
494 387
(OP:DL8HCO)
"
359,424
480 351
"
311,091
438 363
"
304,508
365 283
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256,750
462 325
(OP:DK8WG)
"
228,336
356 268
"
193,764
344 241
"
188,652
299 237
(OP:DL3FCG)
"
183,303
314 219
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181,608
294 276
"
179,935
330 265
"
175,770
317 270
"
168,017
278 239
"
165,158
271 251
"
156,244
271 212
(OP:IZ4AFW)
"
155,043
277 207
"
148,302
269 231
"
117,018
221 197
"
106,296
224 172
"
105,963
210 169
"
75,295
211 185
(OP:EA4TV)
"
70,200
157 130
"
36,108
121 102
"
31,414
121 113
"
30,910
110 110
"
26,786
134 118
"
26,287
101
97
(OP:UA3BZ)
"
22,176
98
84
"
21,384
94
88
"
14,480
89
80
"
10,034
59
58
"
3,060
37
34
(OP:RV6AJJ)
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825
15
15
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175
7
7
28A
25,994
115
82
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14,112
78
63
(OP:EA5BWR)
21A
911,985
723 489
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393,680
504 380
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163,800
298 200
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80,360
199 164
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57,368
164 142
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30,603
102 101
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29,700
116 108
"
29,295
119 105
"
16,080
84
80
(OP:PY2ZA)
"
1,742
27
26
"
96
6
6
14A 1,725,549
959 647
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716,302
871 557
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380,545
547 407
(OP:IW1QN)
"
132,468
299 249
"
123,984
321 246
"
18,404
120 107
"
13,056
96
68
"
8,848
58
56
(OP:CE3LQH)
"
1,575
25
25
"
3
1
1
7A
2,807,244 1428 748

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14A

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809,347
105,270
21,284
17,340
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728 457
193 174
72
68
78
60
60
58
(OP:VE2GT)
67,980
201 165
5,162,430 2393 854
(OP:N2TTA)
3,170,412 1629 828
2,549,936 1567 776
2,405,600 1407 800
2,216,180 1191 580
1,435,031 1162 661
1,267,002 1033 474
(OP:HR2DMR)
1,196,430
917 570
1,133,128
860 556
1,093,950
982 550
1,055,779
881 571
1,039,902
975 526
(OP:SM4DQE)
1,017,456
805 517
981,600
772 480
(OP:LU6FOV)
906,748
927 397
901,000
707 424
(OP:EA8CNR)
856,854
838 543
841,312
752 488
790,612
808 478
679,760
699 464
606,300
634 430
557,826
604 389
540,918
524 378
486,864
545 336
480,330
638 405
465,033
556 379
438,592
451 352
405,189
515 349
(OP:UT7AT)
384,465
491 361
368,220
518 340
355,716
518 241
355,710
519 334
(OP:SA3BYC)
313,476
486 346
305,228
548 308
(OP:BGGE)
293,986
431 322
289,440
422 288
253,150
362 305
234,400
387 293
220,305
360 285
210,483
328 273
207,025
313 245
185,890
370 290
(OP:MMDXH)
181,158
351 277
169,800
417 300
167,076
302 234
163,314
326 258
161,690
260 185
156,816
293 216
150,773
292 181
144,288
264 216
136,144
320 254
130,072
277 229
126,222
248 193
122,304
250 208
118,800
265 216
101,990
188 155
100,036
217 178
98,826
229 181
(OP:CE3PG)
86,673
211 173
78,120
204 168
69,628
193 169
66,990
169 145
(OP:LZ3RN)
65,648
187 176
(OP:IZ1PLH)
63,798
196 147
58,890
184 151
58,194
131 122
58,080
201 110
50,320
165 148
47,117
151 127
43,358
163 133
42,976
156 136
40,440
140 120
40,356
133 114
24,104
103
92
23,912
153
98
22,944
99
96
18,400
98
92
17,004
100
78
15,810
91
85
12,629
79
73
12,127
73
67
9,849
74
67
9,198
68
63
5,520
50
46
3,515
38
37
3,015
49
45
2,716
35
28
2,592
33
32
2,204
29
29
672
16
16
645
16
15
341
13
11
17,136
91
84
108
6
6
50
5
5
504,100
486 355
(OP:EA8CZT)
274,428
370 297
257,796
366 279
216,056
328 226
172,000
303 250
115,417
247 211
61,239
168 137
53,376
173 139
26,500
109 106
2,380
29
28
2,133
28
27
860
21
20
1,041,381 1063 603
(OP:USYW)
698,982
764 582
(OP:R3TE)
197,640
370 305
160,537
261 233

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"
"

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7A
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*VE7CMT
*IZ5OQX
*DD9WG
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"
"
3.7A
"
"
1.8A

126,252
311 252
79,857
176 171
67,240
246 205
(OP:OH8KVY)
57,960
160 140
52,540
160 148
41,448
174 157
12,825
102
95
10,680
90
89
1,593
27
27
1,104
28
23
768
16
16
714
21
21
105
7
7
63,232
162 152
28,200
94
75
19,431
110
51
(OP:W3SE)
2,112
27
24
44
6
4
59,364
168 153
13,858
89
82
30
6
5
103,400
250 200

CHECK LOGS

4Z5UN, 5C5W, 7M4CLF, 9A71AA,


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BD6AHU, BG9HKP, BH4QBV, BY8SKM,
C4Z, C5FUD, CE3DNP, CS7AFP, DH1GW,
DH2PL, DH3SR, DJ6OK, DK2CF, DK6SP,
DL1EAL, DL3LSM, DL8BJ, DM1AR,
DM5DX, DU7HF, E72U, E78CB, EA1AY,
EA1IT, EA2AAE, EA3FP, EA3GCV,
EA3HXD, EA4CRP, EA5IIK, EA5NB,
EA5XS, EA7AHA, EB7HQE, EC4DX, ED1B,
EG1PEA, EI4DJB, EO3Q, ES8AS, EU1FQ,
EU1KY, EW4R, F/OM2ZA, G3VDB, G4AYU,
GU8ITE, GWBBO, HA1SU, HA3HX,

HA3UU, HA4A, HA5BI, HB9DHZ, HB9RB,


HK1X, HL1ZIX, IB1K, II3W, IK2FDV,
IK2LTR, IK2ULV, IZ1HDR, IZ1UJE,
IZ3WXR, IZ8STO, JA5TNF, JG3WCZ,
JH1AJT, JJ2QXI, JP3MFV, JY9FC, KSPN,
K1MC, K2CDX, K6KDS, K7BX, K8YC,
KC9WIX, KD4LEM, KL7KK, LA6NNA,
LU2BPM, LY2BVB, LY2X, LY2XW, LY9Y,
LZ65HSC, MLYQ, M6EAM, N1FZO,
N5AFY, NK4K, NV2K, OE3HXA, OE5FZO,
OG55W, OH1ESQ, OH6E, OH8WW,
OK1FMX, OK1TA, OK1TAM, OK1VKC,
OK2BZ, OK2RN, OK2SG, OK2VX, OK4PA,
OK6DJ, OL1X, OM3RM, OM4ANO, OM4J,
OM5CD, OO9O, OZ1GNN, PDWVB,
PE4KH, PP2RON, PR7AB, PY2MP,
R1566O, R2AB, R2EA, R2LAC, R9SA,
RA1CE, RA3FD, RA3ICK, RA3WDK,
RA3XDX, RA7E, RA9AU, RA9CMO,
RA9DZ, RD4F, RF9C, RG61PP, RG8U,
RK4FU, RK8O, RK9DR, RM6AA, RNC,
RN3FS, RN6L, RT4F, RT4H, RT9T, RU6LV,
RU6YK, RV4CC, RW3DKK, RW3DY,
RW4C, RZ3LC, S56DX, S57DX, S59D,
SF7WT, SMQ, SN4F, SO5N, SP2MKT,
SP3J, SP3UIW, SP5EAQ, SP5XSD,
SP6JOE, SP6MLX, SP7CVW, SP7ICE,
SP9EWM, SP9XCN, SQ1KW, SQ3MVC,
SQ5CW, SQ9ZBC, SV1BJW, SV1ONK,
SV3QUP, SV5FRD, SV9FBP, TA1AMO,
TF3SG, UALBF, UA1CBM, UA3EUW,
UA3GBV, UA4AAC, UA6FF, UA9AB,
UA9LEW, UB3DAO, URHQ, UR7HDP,
US4IRT, UT1IM, UT3UCP, UT4UFZ,
UT6EE, UX1IL, UX2IB, UY3AW, VE3VSM,
VU2KWM, VU2MUD, W1WBB, W4BZM,
W6EUH, W7PSK, WB2JAL, WN8U, WR3O,
WR9D,
YLY,
YL3GAZ,
YO4CSL,
YO5CRQ, YO5CUQ, YO6ODP, YO9CB,
YT2AAA, YT5N, YV4BCD
Disqualified: HG3M

Real Hams Do Code


Learn code with hypnosis today.
Download Now!

www.success-is-easy.com
561-302-7731
Success Easy
568 SE Maple Terrace, Port St. Lucie, FL 34983

September 2016

CQ

109

ham shop
Advertising Rates: Non-commercial ads are 20 cents per word including abbreviations and addresses.
Commercial and organization ads are $1.00 per word. Boldface words are $1.50 each (specify which words).
Minimum charge $2.00. No ad will be printed unless accompanied by full remittance. All ads must be typewritten double-spaced.
Closing Date: The 10th day in the third month preceding date of publication (example: Jan. 10th for the
March issue). Because the advertisers and equipment contained in Ham Shop have not been investigated,
the Publisher of CQ cannot vouch for the merchandise listed therein. The publisher reserves the right to
reject any advertisement. Direct all correspondence and ad copy to: CQ Ham Shop, 25 Newbridge Road,
Hicksville, NY 11801 (fax: 516-681-2926; e-mail: <hamshop@cq-amateur-radio.com>.
LAND FOR SALE: Build Ham retreat or bug-out location. 5
Mountain acres. RF quiet, no antenna restrictions. Minutes
from downtown Chattanooga. $37,000 MLS#: 1243808.

ARMS Amateur Radio Missionary Net. Christian Fellowship


Net, Everyone Welcome. 14.3075 Daily except Sunday
15001700Z, 1 Hr DST. Website: www.qsl.net/arms

QRP J-36: 1/2-Scale Microkey. Full-Functional BUG Made


in the USA by KA6IRL. <QRPJ36.com>

www.oldqslcards.com

Premium RF Connectors, Antennas, Coax, Parts, and


Accessories. W5SWLs Ham Store www.DavesHobby
Shop.com
WANTED: IBM Model M, Space Saving Keyboard, Call KKG,
(218) 850-1500 or email: <k0kg@arrl.net>.
AMATEUR RADIO ELECTRONICS: Home Study Software,
Apps, and eBooks $2.99. <www.eptsoft.com/HomeStudy
BUSINESS FOR SALE: ROSS DISTRIBUTING: Go to
<www.rossdist.com>. WB7BYZ (208) 852-0880
POLYESTER ROPE: excellent for antenna support and
guying. Go to <www.audiotronics.us>.
QRZ DXsince 1979: Available as an Adobe PDF file each
Wednesday or by regular mail. Your best source for weekly
DX information. Send #10 SASE for sample/rates. The DX
Magazinesince 1989: Bi-monthly Full of DXpedition
reports, QSL Information, Awards, DX news, technical articles,
and more. Send $3.00 for sample/rates. DX Publishing, Inc.,
P.O. Box DX, Leicester, NC 28748-0249. Phone/Fax: 828-6830709; e-mail: <DX@dxpub. com>; <http://www.dxpub.com>.
At www.HamRadioExpress.com we know you cant afford to
waste time looking for Ham Radio Antennas & Accessories.
With over 3,000 products in our four warehouses, you can
rely on Ham Radio Express to have the parts you need, in
stock, especially those special, hard-to-find parts, fixed station
antennas, baluns, mobile antennas, mobile antenna mounts,
accessories, and RF connectors. Custom Built Cable
Assemblies for your Packet TNC/KPC to radio interface
devices. We stock interface cables for all amateur radio makes
and models: AEA, Kantronics, MFJ, PacComm, and more
Packet Controllers. All cables are in stock or can be built in
one day. All cable assemblies are double-checked before they
are shipped. Toll-Free Order Lines: MF 9 AM to 4 PM: 1-800726-2919 or 1-866-300-1969; Fax 1-434-525-4919. Help and
Tech Support: Not sure what model you need? At
www.HamRadioExpress.com our Technical Support staff (1434-632-7028, 9 AM to 4 PM weekdays) can help you decide
what you need, and all available for same-day shipment. Online visit: www.HamRadioExpress.com
REAL HAMS DO CODE: Move up to CW with CW Mental
Block Buster III. Succeed with hypnosis and NLP. Includes
two (2) CDs and Manual. Only $29.95 plus $7.00 s/h US. FL
add $2.14 tax. Success Easy, 568 SE Maple Terrace, Port St.
Lucie, FL 34983, phone 561-302-7731, <www.success-iseasy.com>.

HAM TRAVELERS Discount travel, tours, cruises, more.


www.GreatExpectationTravel.com

WWW.KM5KG.COM

PROMOTIONAL VIDEO: 15-minute DVD describes amateur


radios fun and public service. Details: <www.neoham.org>.

HAM RADIO PARADISE in the Pacific (NA-072) for sale. See


www.qsl.net/hp1vxh and e-mail to contadora@gmx.de
VORTEX ANTENNA SYSTEMS specialist in HF and VHF high
performance antennas. Yagis and Delta Loops. Linear Loaded
30 and 40m Arrays. OWA Arrays, bespoke individual design
solutions. Antenna related hardware. We ship worldwide
including North America. <www.vortexantennas.co.uk/>. or by
e-mail to <enquiries@vortexantennas.co.uk>.
WANTED: HAM EQUIPMENT AND RELATED ITEMS. Donate
your excess gearnew, old, in any conditionto the Radio Club
of Junior High School 22, the Nations only full time non-profit
organization working to get Ham Radio into schools around the
country as a teaching tool using our EDUCOMEducation Thru
Communicationprogram. Send your radio to school. Your
donated material will be picked up ANYWHERE or shipping
arranged, and this means a tax deduction to the full extent of
the law for you as we are an IRS 501(c)(3) charity in our 33rd
year of service. It is always easier to donate and usually more
financially rewarding, BUT MOST IMPORTANT your gift will
mean a whole new world of educational opportunity for children
nationwide. Radios you can write off; kids you cant. Make 2014
the year to help a child and yourself. Write, phone, or FAX the
WB2JKJ 22 Crew today: The RC of JHS 22, P.O. Box 1052,
New York, NY 10002. Twenty-four hours call 516-674-4072; fax
516-674-9600; or e-mail <crew@wb2jkj.org>. Join us on the
WB2JKJ Classroom Net, 7.238 MHz, 12001330 UTC daily and
21.395 MHz from 1400 to 2000 UTC.
World of Keys Keys III book features highly detailed views
and photos of keys, bugs, and paddles like few people have
ever seen ($18)!. Also still available, Keys II ($16) and QRP
Romps! ($18), plus Your Guide to HF Fun ($16). Available
from dealers nationwide.
PACKET RADIO AND MORE! Join TAPR, connect with the
largest amateur radio digital group in the U.S. Creators of the
TNC-2 standard, working on Software Defined Radio technology. Benefits: newsletter, software, discounts on kits and publications. For membership prices see the TAPR website:
<http://www.tapr.org>).
www.isotronantennas.com FOR HF. CHECK IT OUT! Call:
719-687-0650; <wd0eja@isotronantennas. com>

HONDURAS DX VACATION: K3, Alpha 86, SteppIR, Meals,


Private Facilities. HR2J, (206) 259-9688.

Free download . . . www.wa0h.com


OVERSEAS AIRMAIL POSTAGE plus complete line of airmail
envelopes. Order directly from our website. James E. Mackey,
proprietor. website: <www.airmailpostage. com>
TOWER ACCESSORIES Gin Pole Kits stand off brackets
antenna mounts vehicle radio mounts for 30 years. IIX
Equipment Ltd., 708-337-8172, <http://www.w9iix.com/>.
HOMEBREW! Recollections of a Radio Receiver a 565 page
book on HBR homebrew receivers. $10 delivered (eBook on
CD-ROM). Details <www.w6hht.com>
WANTED: VACUUM TUBES Commercial, industrial, amateur. Radio Daze, LLC, 7620 Omnitech Place, Victor, NY 14506
USA (phone 585-742-2020; fax 800-456-6494; e-mail:
<info@radiodaze.com>).
<http://www.vintagehamshack.com>

110

CQ

September 2016

www.peidxlodge.com

DXPEDITION DVD VIDEOS: For full description and how to


order . . . <www.k4uee.com/dvd/>.

QSLing SUPPLIES. e-mail: <plumdx@msn.com>.

MicroLog by WAH

FUTURE TIMES: Dreams and visions of Disasters. Great


guide book for Hams. www.xlibris.com/futuretimes.html

HAWAII DX VACATION: SteppIR antennas, amplifiers, private. KH6RC, <www.leilanibedandbreakfast.com>.

SMART BATTERY CHARGERS: 5A model for larger deep


cycle down to 1/4A model for smaller QRP lead acid batteries.
<www.a-aengineering.com>

www.SecondHandRadio.com

ROTATING MONOPOLE TOWERS: SuperBertha . . .


BudgetBertha . . . No guy wires, Entire pole rotates, Ground
level rotor. Stack and rotate all your antennas at optimum heights
on one monopole. The Ultimate antenna system! Learn more
and request free PDF catalog at www.SuperBertha.com or call
814-881-9258.

NEAT STUFF! DWM Communications: <http://qth.com/dwm>

TWO NEW NOVELS involving ham radio: Full Circle, and


Frozen in Time, by N4XX. Visit <http://www.theodore-cohennovels.com/>.

CASH FOR COLLINS, HALLICRAFTERS SX-88, & DRAKE


TR-6. Buy any Collins equipment. Leo, KJ6HI, phone/fax 310670-6969, e-mail: <radioleo@earthlink.net>.

NEED ROPE? All kinds,types, including: antenna rope,


hauling, gin. FREE, free consultation, Go to <http://www.
davisropeandcable.com/>. Veteran owned, K1PEK, 978369-1738.

HY POWER ANTENNA COMPANY <http://www. freewebs.


com/hypower> Multiband dipoles, delta loops, half squares
and QRP antennas.
NEW AMATEUR RADIO MAP with DXCC list updates. Full
color 22 x 34" $10. Free shipping on club orders.
http://www.hamradiomap.qth.com/
COLLINS . . . Owners of Collins 30S-1 amplifiers. Very rare.
K201, K202, and K203 relays now available. Newly manufactured not NOS. We ship overseas. More info on
www.collinsradioactive.com
YAGIS DESIGNED BY WA3FET/K3LR: Bust pileups using
these proven DX and Contest winning Ultimate OWA Yagis!
Learn more and request free PDF catalog at www.
SuperBertha.com or call 814-881-9258.
FREE 2-meter Repeater Frequencies for Travelers by Western
Trucker: USREPEATERS.ORG
QRP KITS: <www.breadboardradio.com>
FMTV ARTICLES: Comprehensive transmitter and receiver
deviation calibration, standards, intermodulation, power amplifier calculations. WB9OQM, http://mathison.freeshell.org

WANTED: OLD QSL CARD COLLECTIONS. Collector seeks


US & DX cards. W2VRK, 9 Laird Terrace, Somerset, NJ 08873;
e-mail: <tpllrs@comcast.net>.
TELEGRAPH KEY INFORMATION AND HISTORY MUSEUM: <http://w1tp.com>
HAM RADIO GIFTS: <www.mainestore.com>
FT243 AND HC6U CRYSTALS: www.af4k.com
ROTATING GUYED TOWERS AND ORBITAL RING
ROTORS: Rotating bases, Rotating guy rings, Orbital ring
rotors. For 45G, 55G, or Custom. Learn more and request free
PDF catalog at www.SuperBertha.com or call 814-8819258.CHECK SPOTS; log contacts; manage QSLs, LoTW with
DXtreme Station Log: <http://www.dxtreme.com/>.
OLD QSLs Available. 50s and 60s, DX and USA. Specify
call, send SASE. W5SQA@arrl.net
RFI Filters <www.RFchoke.com>
SOTA BEAMS: <http://www.sotabeams.co.uk>. G3CW
CRANK-A-WATT Power & More via KE5NYS. Visit <www.
FactorReady.com>
HAM RADIO CLUB WEBSITES & NEWSLETTERS: Domain
names, websites, email, newsletters, logos and club marketing aids. Newsletters customized for your club. So affordable
any size club can now have a professional newsletter.
http://www.HamRadioWebsites.Net (503-717-3484)
Wanna ham in the CAYMAN ISLANDS? Go to <www.
martykaiser.com/24a.htm>.
HF Mobile or Fixed Virtual X Antenna Patent: For Sale or
License. Request Free Power Point Presentation file. Shows
design details, pictures, prototype tests. Design applies to a
broad frequency range for mant antenna arrays/beams/verticals. <lgslay@sbcglobal.net>. Larry Slay, K5WUL
WANTED: Good 8236 Pentode Electron Tubes for my transmitter. What price each do you need and how many can I order?
Dave at 281-781-5955 or <fullerphone7150@yahoo.com>.
FOR SALE: Samlex Power Supply Model SEC 1223, 13.8V
@ 25 amps. Not working. Includes operating manual and
schematic. Price $50 or best offer. Contact Harry, W9HRQ, at
<harrygraziano@gmail.com> or phone 1-773-334-4492.
4 land electronics dealership for sale. serious enquiries only
<electronicsdealer73@gmail.com>
YAESU FT-840, has FM-747 FM unit, YF-112A 6 kHz AM filter and manual. Problem with main tuning, otherwise good
$150. FC-800 1.8-30 MHz 150W remote ATU for FT-840 or
FT-890. wotking with cables and manual, $125. Shipping
additinal. KB2DMD, (215) 541-1099.
Lee Shaklee W6BH (Shaklee products) passed away in 2013.
His 20 acre RADIO RANCH mountain top remote operation
located in southern California is for sale. Contact Ted Halter
at (951) 316-6777 for further information.
ANTENNA & TOWER HARDWARE: Aluminum plates:Boom
to elements, boom to mast, GP/ Vertical antennaground plates,
Rohn 25/45 to cross arms plates, Hexabeam / spiderbeam
Hubs, Moxon hubs, U bolts with sadles. All info at: e78WW@
yahoo.com or at e-bay store:: stores.ebay.com/yz4iz
GET THE F.C.C. COMMERCIAL RADIOTELEPHONE
LICENSE! Fast, inexpensive home study course. Command
Productions. www.LicenseTraining.com. Free info: (800)
932-4268.

Visit Our Web Site

advertisers index
including website addresses

BATTERIES AMERICA
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Advanced Specialties Inc................83
Air Boss Innovative Tech. ..........91
Alinco .........................................27,41
Aloha-Radio.com ............................91
Amateur Radio Roundtable ............49
Arlan Communications....................91
BATTERIES AMERICA/Mr. Nicd. .111
Buddipole Antennas........................53
CQ Amateur Radio Calendar ..........30
CQ Merchandise ..............18,56,71,84
CW Easy/Success Easy ...............109
Communications Concepts, Inc. .....49
Cutting Edge Enterprises ................87
EZ Hang..........................................57
Elecraft............................................37
Electric Radio Magazine .................77
Electronic Products Design.............63
Expert Linears America, LLC ..........19
Flex Radio Systems ..........................9
Global TSCM Group Inc. ..............109
HamTestOnline ...............................57
ICOM .................................112,Cov III
KJI Electronics ................................77
Kenwood U.S.A. Corp... ...........Cov. II
Mayberry Sales & Service, Inc........87
NW Digital Radio ............................31
Paradan Radio ................................57
PowerPort .......................................87
QCWA.............................................42
RF Parts..........................................23
RT Systems ....................................39
REACT Intl .....................................69
ROHN Products LLC ......................91
Skilman ...........................................91
SteppIR Antenna Systems................1
SwapMyRig...................................109
TG Electronics ................................83
W2IHY Technologies ......................49
W5YI Group .....................29,63,77,83
Wifiantennnaswitch.com .................63
YLRL ...............................................93
Yaesu............................6,7,21,Cov IV

www.aorusa.com
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aloha-radio.com
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www.arlancommunications.com
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www.ezhang.com
www.elecraft.com
www.ermag.com
www.epd-inc.com
www.expertlinears.com
www.flexradio.com/maestro
www.kn2c.us
www.hamtestonline.com
www.icomamerica.com
www.kjielectronics.com
www.kenwoodusa.com
www.mayberrys.com
www.NWDigitalRadio.com/cq
www.paradanradio.com
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www.rfparts.com
www.rtsystems.com
www.REACTintl.org
www.rohnnet.com
www.skilman.com
www.steppir.com
www.swapmyrigs.com
www.tgelectronics.org
www.w2ihy.com
www.w5yi.org
www.wifiantennaswitch.com
www.ylrl.org
www.yaesu.com

Let #Q help you get the most for your advertising dollar!
Contact CQs advertising department at 516-681-2922 ext 106
or via email at ads@cq-amateur-radio.com

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3%[ 1L0+EDWWHU\ YP$K 


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(%3[K :1L0+EDWW YP$K 




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For ADI AT-600; REALISTIC HTX-204 (Wall Charger is $12.95):

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For 67$1'$5' C228,C528,C558; ADI HT-201, HT-401 etc:

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&%3 FHOO $$%DWWHU\&DVH +L:$77 


BQ-CC17 Smart Charger &


4xAA $19.95 / or w/4xAAA $16.95 pkg

NEW -

(1) Quick Charger for AA & AAA Ni-MH; Smart


Charges 1, 2, 3, or 4 cells at a time !
(2) Plugs right into wall outlet. Choose Charger
with 4 x AA (2000mAh) or 4 x AAA (800mAh).
(3) Safe, quick 4 - 5 hr chg with auto shut-off.
(4) Easy-to-read LED charge status indicators.

%$2)(1*895P'XDO%DQG+7   SNJ


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BATTERIES AMERICA- 8845 S. Greenview #2, Middleton, WI 53562

   
 1-800-308-4805
)D[(PDLO

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AIR. LAND. SEA.

i7300

Choose
Icom Radio
Solutions

HF + 6M TRANSCEIVER

Emergency Comms
for Air, Land and Sea

100 Watt Output (30W AM)


RX: 0.03060.000MHz*
IP+ Improved Signaling
RF Direct Sampling Receiver
4.3" LED Touch Screen Color Display
Real-Time FFT Waterfall Scope

Contact dispatch and coordinate


backup with Icom two-way radio
systems. Icom radios are used in the air,
on the road and on the water to manage
EmComm efforts. Features include loud audio,
easy-to-use interface and rugged
military-tested construction.

VE-PG3
RoIP Gateway Interoperability Solution

Information & Downloads


AMATEUR TOOL KIT

COMIC BOOKS

VIDEOS

WWW.ICOMAMERICA.COM

Electronic advertisements feature active links.


2016 Icom America Inc. The Icom logo is a registered trademark of Icom Inc. All other trademarks remain the property of their respective owners.
(SSZWLJPJH[PVUZHYLZ\IQLJ[[VJOHUNL^P[OV\[UV[PJLVYVISPNH[PVU

ID-5100A
Analog/D-STAR 2m + 70cm
Mobile Touchscreen and GPS

ID-51A PLUS
Analog/D-STAR 2m + 70cm
Dual Band Portable

i2730A
Analog VHF/UHF Dual Band Mobile

iT70A HD
Analog Dual Band Portable

i7100
Analog/D-STAR
HF + 6m + 2m +70cm Transceiver

#IcomEverywhere

New
C4FM/FM 144/430 MHz Dual Band 5 W
Digital Transceiver

FT2DR

Improved 66 ch GPS receiver included

C4FM/FM 144/430 MHz Dual Band 5 W


Digital Transceiver

FT1XDR

Improved 66 ch GPS receiver included

New

C4FM/FM 144/430 MHz Dual Band 50 W


Digital Transceiver

New

C4FM/FM 144/430 MHz Dual Band 50 W


Digital Transceiver

C4FM/FM 144 MHz 65 W


Digital Transceiver

FTM-100DR

FTM-400XDR

FTM-3200DR

Improved 66 ch GPS receiver included

Improved 66 ch GPS receiver included

Genuine 65 Watts High Power

The best solution for the Future


It provides total integration and compatibility of
both digital and conventional FM communications

C4FM/FM 144/430 MHz Dual Band Digital Repeater

DR-1X

60thAnniversary

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