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Introduction.

A U value is a measure of heat loss in a building element such as a wall, floor or


roof. It can also be referred to as an overall heat transfer co-efficient and measures
how well parts of a building transfer heat. This means that the higher the U value the
worse the thermal performance of the building envelope. A low U value usually indicates
high levels of insulation. They are useful as it is a way of predicting the composite
behaviour of an entire building element rather than relying on the properties of individual
materials.
The resistance of a building material is derived by the following formula;
R = (L/k)
Where;
L is the thickness of the building material and d is the material thickness.
The formula for the calculation of a U value is;
U(element) = 1 / (Rso + Rsi + R1 + R2 ...)
Where;
Rso is the fixed external resistance
Rsi is the fixed internal resistance
R1 is the sum of all the resistances of the building materials
However the surface exposed to solar radiation also take into count with reference of
table and calculation.

The assignment

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The task is to calculate the U-value that commonly used in construction material in
Malaysia. Below are the materials use in a simple house construction;

1
2

Section
Type
Wall
Normal build up
wall with plaster
finish
Roof
Pitch roof and flat
roof

Floor

Concrete floor

Glass

Single and double


glazing

Door

Wooden door

Diffrence by material installed


Brick wall 100mm
Block 100mm
Tile 7mm
wood stud 50x100mm
gypsum board 5mm
Asbestos 3mm
Zink 1mm
Slab roof 150mm
Grounded 150mm thickness with tile
suspended floor both 150mm slab thickness with tile
Grounded 100mm thickness with tile
suspended floor both 100mm slab thickness with tile
Single 3mm glazing with aluminum frame
Double 3mm glazing air space of 6mm with aluminum
frame
Wooden door with thickness of 40mm

Table for R-value use in Malaysia


Material
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k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thickn
ess

R-value
m C/W

Refrence

1
2
3
4
5
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Brick burned 100mm


Brick-Block inner leaf 100mm
Tile roof 7mm
Wood stud-roof support
50x100mm
Plywood 3mm x 2
Asbestos 3mm
Fiber glass 50mm
Gypsum plasterboard 5mm
Zink 1mm
Glass 3mm
Glass 3mm with air space of
6mm
Floor slab 150mm
Suspended floor 150mm
Door leaf from catalog 40mm
Ceramic tile for flooring
Cement plaster 15mm
Wool carpet
Outside surface for wall
Inside surface for wall
External air space for pitch
roof
Internal air space for pitch
roof
Air space resistance for pitch
roof
External air space for flat roof
Internal air space for flat roof
Air space resistance for flat
roof
Single glazing center
Single glass frame
Single glass edge
Double glazing center 64mm
airspace
Double glass frame 64mm air
space
Double glass edge 64mm air
space
Air space between plywood
door

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0.75
0.62
0.84
0.17

1300
1700
1900
650

840
800
800
2120

(m)
0.1
0.1
0.007
0.1

0.12
0.36
0.04
0.16
113
0.048
0.048

540
700
10
800
7000
140
140

1210
1050
840
840
390
840
840

0.003
0.003
0.05
0.005
0.001
0.003
0.003

0.025
0.008
1.250
0.031
0.00001
0.063
0.063

0.66
0.66
0.769
1.2
0.72
0.06

1760
1760
700
2000
1760
200

840
840
1880
850
840
1360

0.15
0.15
0.04
0.003
0.015
0.004

0.227
0.227
0.052
0.003
0.021
0.067
0.12
0.044
0.04

0.133
0.161
0.008
0.588

Table 3.43
CIBSE

Table 1610 Cengel


Table 3.53
CIBSE

0.1
0.18
0.04
0.1
0.16
0.159
0.151
0.159
0.309

Table 1219 Cengel


Table 1219 Cengel

0.259
0.299
0.860

Table 1613 Cengel

1. U value for glass

Material

Transmit
W/m2

Absorb W/m2

Reflex

1 3mm glass

0.86

outward
0.04

inward
0.02

total
0.06

0.08

2 6mm glass

0.78

0.09

0.05

0.14

0.08

At

850

Figure 16-51
Cengel
Table 16-21
Cengel

W/m2

Material

1
2

Refrence

Transmit W/m2

3mm glass
6mm glass

731.00
663.00

Absorb W/m2
outward
34.00
76.50

inward
17.00
42.50

total
51.00
119.00

Reflex
W/m2

Total heat
gain W/m2

68.00
68.00

748.00
705.50

Single glazing
Material
1
2
3
4
5
6

Outside surface
Glass 3mm
Glass center
Glass frame
Glass edge
Inside surface

k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thickness
(m)

0.048

140

840

0.003

R total m
C/W
0.696
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U value
W/m
1.438

R-value m
C/W
0.12
0.063
0.159
0.151
0.159
0.044

Double glazing with 64mm air


space
Material
1
9
2
8
2
9
3
0
5

Outside surface
Glass 3mm
Double glazing center 64mm
airspace
Double glass frame 64mm air
space
Double glass edge 64mm air
space
Inside surface

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k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thickness
(m)

0.048

140

840

0.003

R-value m
C/W
0.12
0.063
0.309
0.259
0.299
0.044

R total m
C/W

U value
W/m

1.094

0.914

2. U value for door.

Material
1
1
3
3

Outside surface
Door leaf from catalog
40mm
Inside surface

k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thickne
ss (m)

0.769

700

1880

0.04

R-value
m C/W
0.12
0.052
0.044

Hard wood door single leaf

R total m
C/W
0.216

U value
W/m
4.629

Plywood door single leaf


Material
1 Outside surface
3 Plywood 3mm x 2
2 Air space between plywood
door
3 Plywood 3mm x 2
4 Inside surface

k
value

densit
y

Cp

Thicknes
s (m)

0.12

540

1210

0.003

0.12

540

1210

0.003

R total m
C/W
1.074

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U value
W/m
0.931

R-value m
C/W
0.12
0.025
0.860
0.025
0.044

Fiber glass 50mm door


single leaf
Material

k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thicknes
s (m)

0.04

10

840

0.05

1 Outside surface
3 Fiber glass 50mm
4 Inside surface

R total m
C/W
1.414

R-value
m C/W
0.12
1.250
0.044

U value
W/m
0.707

3. U value for floor.

Suspended floor
Material
1 Inside surface
2 Ceramic tile for flooring
3 Suspended floor
150mm
4 Inside surface

k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thickness
(m)

1.2
0.66

2000
1760

850
840

0.003
0.15

R-value m
C/W
0.044
0.003
0.227
0.044

R total m
C/W
0.317773

U value
W/m
3.147

On grade floor
Material
1 Inside surface
2 Ceramic tile for flooring
3 Floor slab 150mm

k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thickness
(m)

1.2
0.66

2000
1760

850
840

0.003
0.15

R total m
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U value

R-value m
C/W
0.044
0.003
0.227

C/W

W/m

0.273773

3.653

On grade floor
Material
1 Inside surface
2 Wool carpet
3 Floor slab 150mm

k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thickness
(m)

0.06
0.66

200
1760

1360
840

0.004
0.15

R total m
C/W
0.337939

R-value m
C/W
0.044
0.067
0.227

U value
W/m
2.959

Suspended floor
Material
1
2
3
4

Inside surface
Wool carpet
Floor slab 150mm
Inside surface

k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thickness
(m)

0.06
0.66

200
1760

1360
840

0.004
0.15

R total m
C/W
0.333046

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U value
W/m
3.00257

R-value m
C/W
0.044
0.067
0.227
0.044

4. U value for Wall.


Wall with brick burned (red
brick)
Material
1
2
3
4
5

Outside surface
Cement plaster 15mm
Brick burned 100mm
Cement plaster 15mm
Inside surface

k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thicknes
s (m)

0.72
0.75
0.72

1760
1300
1760

840
840
840

0.015
0.1
0.015

R total m
C/W
0.339

R-value m
C/W
0.12
0.021
0.133
0.021
0.044

U value W/m
2.950

Wall with Glass


Material
1 Outside surface
2 Glass 3mm
3 Inside surface

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k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thicknes
s (m)

0.048

140

840

0.003

R-value m
C/W
0.12
0.063
0.044

R total m C/W

U value
W/m
4.415

0.2265

Wall with block brick


Material
1 Outside surface
2 Cement plaster 15mm
2 Brick-Block inner leaf
100mm
4 Cement plaster 15mm
5 Inside surface

k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thicknes
s (m)

0.72
0.62

1760
1700

840
800

0.015
0.1

0.72

1760

840

0.015

0.021
0.044

R-value m
C/W
0.12
0.003
0.021
0.133
0.021
0.003
0.044

R total m C/W

R-value m
C/W
0.12
0.021
0.161

U value
W/m
2.725

0.366957

Wall with brick burned, plaster


and tile
Material
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Outside surface
Ceramic tile for wall
Cement plaster 15mm
Brick burned 100mm
Cement plaster 15mm
Ceramic tile for wall
Inside surface

k
value

densi
ty

Cp

Thicknes
s (m)

1.2
0.72
0.75
0.72
1.2

2000
1760
1300
1760
2000

850
840
840
840
850

0.003
0.015
0.1
0.015
0.003

R total m
C/W
0.344

U value
W/m
2.907

Wall with brick block inner leaf, plaster


and tile
Material
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densi

Cp

Thicknes

R-value m

valu
e
1
2
3
2

Outside surface
Ceramic tile for wall
Cement plaster 15mm
Brick-Block inner leaf
100mm
5 Cement plaster 15mm
6 Ceramic tile for wall
7 Inside surface

ty

s (m)

C/W
0.12
0.003
0.021
0.161

1.2
0.72
0.62

2000
1760
1700

850
840
800

0.003
0.015
0.1

0.72
1.2

1760
2000

840
850

0.015
0.003

R total m
C/W
0.371957

0.021
0.003
0.044

U value W/m
2.688

5. U value for roof.


Pitch roof with zink, asbestos and fiber
glass
Material
1 External air space for pitch roof
2 Zink 1mm
3 Wood stud-roof support
50x100mm
4 Fiber glass 50mm
5 Air space resistance for pitch
roof
6 Asbestos 3mm
7 Internal air space for pitch roof

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k
valu
e

dens
ity

113
0.17

7000
650

0.04

10

0.36

700

Cp

Thickne
ss (m)

R-value m
C/W

390
212
0
840

0.001
0.1

0.04
0.00001
0.588

0.05

1.250
0.18

105
0

0.003

0.008
0.1

R total m
C/W
2.127

U value
W/m
0.470

Pitch roof with tile, asbestos and fiber


glass
Material

k
valu
e

1 External air space for pitch roof


2 Tile roof 7mm
3 Wood stud-roof support
50x100mm
4 Fiber glass 50mm
5 Air space resistance for pitch
roof
6 Asbestos 3mm

dens
ity

0.84
0.17

1900
650

0.04

10

0.36

700

Cp

Thickne
ss (m)

R-value m
C/W

800
212
0
840

0.007
0.1

0.04
0.008
0.588

0.05

1.250
0.18

105
0

0.003

0.008

7 Internal air space for pitch roof

0.1

R total m C/W
2.135

U value W/m
0.468

Flat roof
Material
1 External air space for flat roof
2 Floor slab 150mm
7 Internal air space for flat roof

k
value

dens
ity

Cp

Thickne
ss (m)

0.66

1760

840

0.15

R total m
C/W
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U value W/m

R-value m
C/W
0.04
0.227
0.1

0.327

3.056

APPENDIX

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cement
concrete roof

Wall with block


brick

Double glazing

Plywood door
single leaf

Building prototype from A. Kumar, B.M. Suman / Building and Environment 59 (2013)
635e643

red brick

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double glazing

tile

Fiber insulation

plywood flooring

gypsum plasterboard ceiling

asbestos

Zink

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Pitch roof with tile

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Table for Glazing

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