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So how much alcohol can the average teenager drink before he or she is considered unlawfully

driving under the influence? Two drinks? Three? Try less than one alcoholic drink! While a
standard DUI is given when your blood alcohol content is 0.08% or over, there are special laws
for minors under the age of twenty-one. These laws are called zero-tolerance laws, and every
state has them. This means that if you have anything to drink before you get behind the wheel,
your license will automatically be suspended, and you will be charged with an underage DUI.
Think that law enforcement will go easy on you, because youre a minor? Think again! Criminal
penalties are harsher for minors who are charged with a DUI, than they are for adults. This
means that a first time offender can receive:

jail time, years of probation,

years in license suspension,

months of DUI education classes, and

up to thousands of dollars in fines.

These penalties cannot be avoided by refusing the breathalyzer, either. Because of your states
implied consent laws, refusal to take a blood alcohol test is often seen as an admission of guilt,
and you can face an even longer license suspension than you would for the DUI alone.
Remember that the police can always use other evidence to show that you were drinking too
like your erratic driving, or that smell on your breath.
A DUI will stay on your record into your adulthood, and because college and workplace
applications require that you inform them of any criminal offenses, you may face roadblocks to
your educational path, as well as your career.
Parents! If you think you are helping your teenager by providing a safe place for them to drink in
your home, think again! If a drunk driving accident happens after a party at your home, you can
be held criminally and civilly responsible for the consequences of this accident.
If you are under the age of 21, you should never step behind the wheel of a vehicle after
drinking. If you have been charged with an underage DUI, you should contact an experienced
DUI attorney for assistance.
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Libel and slander are both types of defamation falsely conveying a very negative impression of
another person or business.

For example, if Lindsay says Joe is a convicted criminal, or is dishonest, or deals in stolen and
defective merchandise, or spreads syphilis, that certainly could create a negative impression
about Joe. But unless Lindsays statement was false, its not defamatory, no matter how much it
may hurt Joes feelings, or harm Joes reputation or business. True statements are protected by
the First Amendments right to freedom of speech.
Even if Lindsay had cast her statement as her opinion rather than fact: I think Joe spreads
syphilis, that wouldnt shield Lindsay. When statements of opinion may be reasonably
interpreted as stating actual facts, they are treated just like any other defamatory statement.
So whats the difference between slander and libel? If the defamatory statement is spoken such
as in a conversation with friends, in a speech before an audience, or on radio or TV, it is called
slander. Libel refers to defamatory statements made in writing, whether in a letter, newspaper, or
book - or in an email or on a website.
Just because somebody made a false statement that created a negative impression about you does
not mean you are likely going to become rich suing for slander or libel. In most circumstances
youd have to be able to prove that you or your business suffered actual financial harm as a result
of the libel or slander.
To collect punitive damages, you also will likely have to prove the defamatory statement was
made with actual malice in other words the person making the knew it was false, or showed
reckless disregard for the truth. Those things can be very difficult to prove. And some
defamatory statements, such as those made during legislative debate, or in court papers are
absolutely privileged. Political figures and those involved in public debate have an especially
high hurdle so that the threat of defamation suits does not have a chilling effect on free speech
As libel and slander cases are usually difficult and expensive to handle, very few lawyers take
them on, and fewer still would think of doing so on a contingency fee basis.
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ompensation for Victims of Ovarian Cancer

Caused by Talcum Powder or Baby Powder
by FreeAdvice staff
Injured by a Defective Product? - Get a FREE case evaluation!
According to a comprehensive report from the World Health Organization International Agency
for Research on Cancer (IARC), about 40% of women in the United States use a body powder.

Most women who use talcum powder or baby powder do so daily. Women who powder their
bodies usually start doing so before the age of 25.
Cancer concerns arise when talcum powder or body powders containing talc come into contact
with a womans pubic area. That usually happens when powders are applied directly to that area
or when the powder is sprinkled into underwear. More than 1,000 women with ovarian cancer
have taken legal action against Johnson & Johnson after learning that the company knew about
the risks posed by talcum powder but failed to warn consumers that they should avoid genital use
of the product.

Talcum Powder, Baby Powder, and Body Powder

Talcum powder is made from talc, a mineral found in soapstone and other rocks that are mined in
many parts of the world. Among its other uses, talc is the primary ingredient in talcum powder.
Because talcum powder absorbs moisture, it is often used to keep skin dry and to prevent rashes.
A number of personal care products contain talc, including deodorants, beauty creams,
cosmetics, bath powder, and feminine hygiene products. Products that are marketed as talcum
powder tend to consist of 99% talc, while products marketed as body powder tend to consist of
65% to 70% talc.
Baby powders are used to prevent diaper rash. Baby powders are usually made of talc or
cornstarch. Pediatricians warn that inhaling baby powder can cause acute or chronic lung
disease. While many pediatricians caution parents not to use baby powder, the American
Academy of Pediatrics advises parents who do use baby powder to pour a small amount into
their hands and apply it carefully, keeping it away from the babys face.
When it is mined, talc is often contaminated with asbestos, a known carcinogen. In 1976,
consumer product manufacturers began removing asbestos from the talc that they used in their
hygiene and cosmetic products. Studies show that even uncontaminated talc can cause ovarian
cancer when talcum powder, baby powder, or any powder that contains talc is used in the pubic

Talcum Powder and Ovarian Cancer

Research has not produced uniform agreement as to whether talc is carcinogenic. The American
Cancer Society, noting mixed study results, advocates further research. Since several studies
have found an association between products containing talc and ovarian cancer, the IARC has
classified talc as possibly carcinogenic when applied to genitals.
Scientists rely on both cohort studies and case-control studies when they evaluate the safety of a
potentially toxic substance. A cohort study follows a group of people over time. Researchers
determine whether study participants who had contact with a particular substance had different
health outcomes than participants who did not have contact with the substance. A cohort study of
the relationship between talcum powder and ovarian cancer would ask whether participants who
used talcum powder developed ovarian cancer at a significantly higher rate than participants who
did not use talcum powder.

A case-control study compares one group of people with a defined characteristic to a control
group of people who are similar in all respects other than the defined characteristic. For example,
a case-control study might compare a group of women with ovarian cancer to a similar group of
women who did not have ovarian cancer. The study would then determine the percentage of
women in both groups who used talcum powder in their pubic region. A case-control study might
also select a group of women who used talcum powder and a similar group who did not use
talcum powder, and compare the incidence of ovarian cancer in both groups.
The most important cohort study involving talcum powder was published in the Journal of the
National Cancer Institute in 2000. The study examined a cohort of 78,630 women. The study
tracked their use of talcum powder between 1982 and 1996. During that time, 307 of the women
developed ovarian cancer. The study found that the use of talcum powder in the genital area was
associated with an increased risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer.
Several case-control studies have reported a link between the genital use of talcum powder and
ovarian cancer. The first study compared 215 women who had ovarian cancer to 215 similar
women who were cancer-free. The study found that woman who dusted their public regions or
sanitary napkins with talcum powder had an elevated risk of ovarian cancer.
While several subsequent studies produced mixed results, they generally suffered from a lack of
substantial data. The next significant case control study compared 235 women with ovarian
cancer to 239 cancer-free women. The researchers findings supported the conclusion that the
genital use of talcum powder over a lifetime increased the risk of ovarian cancer. The association
between talcum powder and ovarian cancer was also supported by studies in 1997 conducted in
Canada and in the State of Washington.
A 1999 study in New England concluded that there is a significant association between the use
of talc in genital hygiene and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The researchers concluded that
all of the studies, taken as a whole, warranted formal public health warnings about the risk of
using talcum powder in the public region.
The results of several pooled case-control studies were published in 2013. The analysis involved
8,525 women who had ovarian cancer and 9,859 who did not. Data was drawn from the Ovarian
Cancer Association Consortium, a group of case-control studies that began in 2005. The analysis
of the pooled studies showed a 20% to 30% increased risk of ovarian cancer with genital-powder

Compensation for Victims

Johnson & Johnson insists that its talcum powder, baby powder, and other products containing
talc are safe for consumers to use. Yet two juries that evaluated the evidence have disagreed. In
May 2016, a jury in St. Louis awarded $55 million in damages to a woman who used Johnson &
Johnson's talcum powder for more than 35 years before being diagnosed with ovarian cancer.
The womans lawyers produced internal documents showing that Johnson & Johnson knew of
studies connecting talc use and ovarian cancer but failed to warn consumers about the potential

In February 2016, another jury awarded $72 million to an Alabama woman after finding that
talcum powder was the likely cause of her ovarian cancer. The verdict included $62 million for
punitive damages based on the jurys finding that Johnson & Johnson fraudulently concealed the
cancer risk from consumers in order to avoid damaging the sale of its products.
Hundreds of additional lawsuits are pending. If you have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer
and have a history of using talcum powder or baby powder, you may be entitled to substantial
compensation. If you are the family member of a loved one who died of ovarian cancer after a
lifetime of using talcum or baby powder, your family may be entitled to wrongful death
compensation. Contact a personal injury law firm that handles toxic product cases for an
evaluation of your right to receive compensation.
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