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Chandrakanth Shet, Xiaomin Deng*

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA

Received 8 April 1999

Abstract

In this paper, the orthogonal metal cutting process is analyzed with the nite element method under plane strain conditions. Frictional

interaction along the toolchip interface is modeled with a modied Coulomb friction law, and chip separation is based on a critical stress

criterion and is simulated using a nodal release procedure. Finite element solutions of temperature, stress, strain, and strain rate elds have

been obtained for a range of tool rake angle and friction coefcient values. Results showing how the toolchip interfacial friction affects the

eld distributions are new and add to the existing knowledge base. This paper also reports the procedure and specic modeling techniques

for simulating the orthogonal metal cutting process using a general-purpose nite element computer code. The ndings of this paper

provide useful insights for understanding and for improving the orthogonal metal cutting process. # 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights

reserved.

Keywords: Finite element simulation; Orthogonal metal cutting; Thermomechanical elds

1. Introduction

In the metal cutting process unwanted material is removed

from a workpiece in the form of chips for producing nished

parts of required dimensions and accuracy. Metal cutting is a

highly non-linear and coupled thermomechanical process,

where the mechanical work is converted into heat through

the plastic deformation involved during chip formation and

also due to frictional work between the tool, chip and

workpiece. During such thermomechanical work conversion, a temperature rise of up to 10008C has been reported in

the literature [1,2].

A thorough understanding of the material removal process

in metal cutting is essential in selecting the tool material and

in design, and also in assuring consistent dimensional

accuracy and surface integrity of the nished product.

The earliest analytical models explaining the mechanics

of metal cutting were proposed by Merchant [3,4], Piispanen

[5], and Lee and Shaffer [6]. These models are known as

shear angle models; they relate the chip shear angle to the

tool rake angle. Kudo [7] introduced curved shearing to

account for the controlled contact between the curved chip

and the straight tool face. These models assumed rigid

perfectly plastic material behavior.

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: 1-803-777-7144; fax: 1-803-777-0106.

E-mail address: deng@engr.sc.edu (X. Deng).

and strain-rate effects were proposed by Palmer and Oxley

[8] and Oxley et al. [9]. Interfacial friction along the tool

chip interface was incorporated into these viscoplastic models by Doyle et al. [10]. The effect of heating in metal cutting

was included in an analytic model by Trigger and Chao [11].

Three-dimensional geometric conditions in metal cutting

were considered by Usui et al. [12] using an energy approach.

In recent years, the nite element method has become the

main tool for simulating metal cutting processes. Early nite

element studies included those by Usui and Shirakashi [13],

Iwata et al. [14], and Strenkowski and Carroll [15]. It seems

that Carroll and Strenkowski [16], Strenkowski and Moon

[17], and Tyan and Yang [18] were the rst to use Eulerian

formulations for steady-state metal cutting simulation. A

key component of Lagrangian metal cutting simulation

procedures is the use of a material separation criterion, such

as the ``distance tolerance'' criterion [19], the ``strain energy

density'' criterion [20], and a fracture-mechanics based

criterion [21]. The effectiveness of the various separation

criteria in orthogonal metal cutting simulation was evaluated

in Huang and Black [22]. They found that during steadystate cutting, the chip separation criterion does not greatly

affect the geometry of the chip and the distribution of stress

and strain. To deal with large element distortion in metal

cutting simulation, Shih and Yang [23] and Shih [24,25]

developed a mesh-rezoning technique to enhance computational efciency and accuracy.

0924-0136/00/$ see front matter # 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 9 2 4 - 0 1 3 6 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 5 9 5 - 1

96

Table 1

Temperature-dependent elastic properties

Young's

modulus E (GPa)

Poisson's

ratio v

Temperature

(8C)

207.0

200.0

190.0

105.0

70.0

50.0

30.0

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

20.0

100.0

150.0

200.0

250.0

300.0

350.0

graphical descriptions of the terms used in this study.

angle values.

temperature, stress, strain, and strain rate elds in orthogonal

metal cutting, with emphasis on the inuence of friction.

Detailed results of the effects of friction on the distributions

of the eld quantities have been examined for a range of rake

angle and friction coefcient values. These results are new

and complement existing ndings in the literature. It is noted

that such parametric evaluations and understanding are

difcult to achieve experimentally. This paper also communicates techniques for simulating orthogonal metal cutting

using the general-purpose nite element code ABAQUS. For

example, a stress-based chip separation criterion is proposed

to model the chip separation from the workpiece. According

to this criterion, chip separation occurs when a critical stress

state is achieved at a specied distance ahead of the tip of the

cutting tool. The frictional interaction between the chip and

the cutting tool is modeled with a modied Coulomb friction

law. Adiabatic heating conditions are assumed to account for

local temperature rise due to conversion of plastic work and

frictional work into heat. Temperature-dependent material

properties are employed in the analysis. Strain-rate effects

and large strains are also included in the analysis. The nite

element simulations are carried out under plane strain

Because of the complex nature of metal cutting processes,

a complete nite element simulation procedure for metal

cutting simulation involves many component parts. In this

light, it is noted that while a user-developed custom nite

element code enables the user to modify the code according

to personal needs, its development often requires advanced

technical know-how in many areas, not to mention several

years of intensive programming and debugging. On the other

hand, many general-purpose commercial codes offer

advanced modeling and pre- and post-processing options

not available in custom nite element codes. Even though

commercial codes are not specialized for metal cutting

simulations, a careful integration of modeling options in

the codes and custom user subroutines will facilitate metal

cutting simulations using these codes. To this end, the

purpose of this section is to discuss a set of custom modeling

options in the commercial code ABAQUS that have been

successfully integrated by the authors to simulate the orthogonal metal cutting process. We begin the discussion of

these modeling options with a description of the geometry

and mesh of the model problem.

Fig. 2. The nite element mesh used in the orthogonal metal cutting simulations.

Table 2

Temperature-dependent elasticplastic properties

97

Table 3

Temperature-dependent thermal expansion coefcient

Flow stress

s (MPa)

Plastic strain

ep (mm/mm)

Temperature

(8C)

Thermal expansion

coefficient a (mm/m K)

Temperature

(8C)

414.0

517.0

759.0

1100.0

409.0

512.0

754.0

1005.0

309.0

412.0

654.0

905.0

259.0

362.0

604.0

885.0

209.0

312.0

554.0

835.0

159.0

262.0

504.0

785.0

0.00

0.01

0.09

0.90

0.00

0.01

0.09

0.90

0.00

0.01

0.09

0.90

0.00

0.01

0.09

0.90

0.00

0.01

0.09

0.90

0.00

0.01

0.09

0.90

20.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

150.0

150.0

150.0

150.0

200.0

200.0

200.0

200.0

250.0

250.0

250.0

250.0

300.0

300.0

300.0

300.0

12.3

12.7

13.7

14.5

20.0

200.0

400.0

600.0

A schematic diagram of the model problem for the

orthogonal metal cutting process is shown in Fig. 1, where

a rigid cutting tool moves forward to the left with a constant velocity and cuts through a softer workpiece. To

facilitate plane strain conditions, the size of the chip layer

is taken to be much smaller than the thickness of the

workpiece in the out-of-plane direction. Three surface contact pairs have been dened in Fig. 1 to simulate chip

separation: (1) between the chip and the tool, (2) between

the workpiece and the tool, and (3) along the prospective

chip separation line (which separates the chip layer from the

rest of the workpiece). The chip separation criterion is

discussed later.

Fig. 3. Variation of the cutting force with tool-tip displacement for four rake angles and four friction coefcient values.

98

problem is shown in Fig. 2. The initial orientation of the

chip layer elements is used to alleviate numerical problems

due to the distortion of the elements as they separate from

the workpiece and interact with the tool surface. The inclination angle of the elements with the cutting direction is

about 648. An initial chip separation is adopted in order to

achieve a smooth transition of the cutting process from the

initial stage to the steady state. The extra triangle of the chip

layer at the left end is used simply to make the mesh

generation simpler and will not affect the simulation result

before the cutting tool approaches the left end. This type of

mesh design has been used by several investigators [15,25].

The chip layer has a height (called the cut depth) of

254 mm and is divided into 10 sub-layers of elements. The

rest of the workpiece has a length of 2540 mm and a height of

889 mm and has been divided into 11 layers, each having 50

elements along the cutting path. (This study shows that 50

elements are sufcient for the simulation to reach the steady

state before the cutting tool reaches the left end.) The above

elements and 1308 nodes in the chipworkpiece system. It is

noted that all the top ve rows of elements just below the

cutting path have dimensions of 50.8 mm50.8 mm.

The cutting tool is considered much harder than the

workpiece and is taken to be made of a stiff elastic material

with an articially high Young's modulus (e.g.

E2.11015 MPa). As such, the size of the tool in the

cutting direction is not of signicance. The tool in this

study is of a parallelogram shape and has a base length

of 407 mm and a height of 762 mm. It is divided into 60

uniform, four-node plane strain elements.

The boundary conditions for the chipworkpiecetool

system are given as follows. The upper boundary of the

tool moves incrementally towards the left with a constant

speed of v2.54 m/s (152.4 m/min) while it is restrained

vertically. Assuming that the workpiece is very long in the

cutting direction (ignoring any transient effects at the start

and end of cutting), the left end and right end of the

workpiece are restrained in the cutting direction but not

Fig. 4. Contour plots of the temperature rise for the case of rake angle a208 and for four values of the friction coefcient m.

Table 4

Schedule of the metal cutting simulations

Rake

angle (a)

Friction

coefficient ( m)

Cutting speed

(m/s)

Cut depth

(mm)

158

208

258

308

0.0,

0.0,

0.0,

0.0,

2.54

2.54

2.54

2.54

0.254

0.254

0.254

0.254

0.2,

0.2,

0.2,

0.2,

0.3,

0.4,

0.4,

0.4,

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.6

99

is highly suitable for high strain rate applications (such as

high-speed metal cutting). Tables 1 and 2 list the temperature-dependent elastic and elasticplastic properties for the

material. Table 3 gives the temperature-dependent thermal

expansion coefcient. Standard constant values are used for

other properties: specic heat c502.0 J/kg K and the mass

density r7800 kg/m3.

2.3. Chip separation criterion and simulation

expected to undergo very little deformation during cutting, it

is assigned zero displacements in both directions.

2.2. Material model and temperature-dependent properties

The workpiece material considered is AISI 4340 steel and

is modeled with a viscoplastic relationship of the over-stress

power law type

p

s

1

for s s0

(1)

e_ p D

s0

where e_ p is the effective plastic strain rate, s the current yield

stress, s0 the initial yield stress, and D and p are material

parameters (following Komvopoulos and Erpenbeck [19],

release procedure in ABAQUS. This is done by dening a

bonded interface (see contact pair 1 in Fig. 1) along the

cutting path and by applying a critical stress separation

criterion available in ABAQUS to the stress state at a xed

distance ahead of the tool tip. When the stress state at the

specied distance reaches a critical combination, the pair of

bonded nodes just ahead of the tool tip will be released,

resulting in chip separation from the workpiece. Specically,

the critical stress criterion refers to the attainment of a

critical value of 1.0 by the stress index:

s

2 2

sn

t

f

sf

tf

Fig. 5. Contour plots of the normal stress s11 for the case of rake angle a208 and for four values of the friction coefcient m.

(2)

100

and is set to zero when it is compressive (i.e. snmax (s2, 0),

t the shear stress, and sf and tf are the material failure

stress under pure tensile and shear loading conditions,

respectively.

In general, a number of process simulation parameters

must be quantied by comparing and matching suitable

quantities with cutting test results. Due to the lack of actual

cutting data, the values of the process parameters must be

assumed in the simulations conducted in this study (which

has been a common practice in the literature so far). In

particular, the specied distance in the critical stress criterion is set to equal to one element length, or approximately

50.8 mm. The failure stress in tension is assumed to be

sf948 MPa

p and the failure stress in shear is taken to be

tf sf = 3 (following the von Mises equivalent stress

concept), which is about 548 MPa.

Friction along the toolchip interface plays a very important role in the metal cutting process. To this end, the

modied Coulomb friction law option in ABAQUS can

be applied to the contact pair 2 in Fig. 1. Let t be the chip

shear stress at a contact point along the toolchip interface

and p the normal pressure at the same point. This law states

that relative motion (slip) occurs at the contact point when t

is equal to or greater than the critical friction stress tc. When

t is smaller than tc there is no relative motion and the contact

point is in a state of stick. The critical friction stress is

determined by

tc minmp; tth

(3)

value related to material failure. Note that the conventional

Fig. 6. Contour plots of the normal stress s22 for the case of rake angle a208 and for four values of the friction coefcient m.

101

the equation reduces to the conventional Coulomb frictional

law. For the AISI 4340 steel, tth is chosen to be 549 MPa,

which is slightly higher than the shear failure stress tf.

obtained as:

(a dot over a quantity denotes the time rate of the quantity), J

the equivalent heat conversion factor, c the specic heat, r

the mass density, and Zp is the percentage of plastic work

transformed into heat (usually, 85%Zp95%). A value of

Zp90% is used in this study.

Similarly, local temperature rise DTf in a time interval Dt

caused by friction along the toolchip interface can be

determined using the equation below:

t_sDt

(5)

DTf Zf

Jcr

in the primary and secondary shear zones and also due to

sliding friction work along the toolchip interface. During

high-speed machining, heat generated due to local energy

dissipation does not have sufcient time to diffuse away and

local heating will occur in the active plastic zones and along

the sliding frictional interface. Thus temperature rise in the

chip can be approximated with the adiabatic heating condition. Mathematically, during a time interval of Dt, the local

DTp Zp

se e_ p Dt

Jcr

Fig. 7. Contour plots of the shear stress s12 for the case of rake angle a208 and for four values of the friction coefcient m.

(4)

102

slip velocity, and J, c, and r have the same meaning as in

Eq. (4). The coefcient Zf stands for the portion of frictional

work being converted into heat, which is taken as 1.0 in this

study. Of the total heat generated along the toolchip interface, some goes into the chip and the rest into the tool. In this

study, it is assumed that 50% of the frictional heat will go

into the chip.

2.6. Simulation schedule

A total of 16 simulation cases have been performed,

which cover four rake angles and four friction coefcient

values for each rake angle. This allows for a parametric

evaluation of the effect of friction and rake angle on the

temperature, stress, strain, and strain rate elds. The details

of the simulation schedule are listed in Table 4.

3. Finite element results and discussion

Finite element simulations of the orthogonal metal cutting

process have been carried out for all 16 cases. In each case,

the cutting tool is made to advance incrementally until a

steady state is reached. On an average 150230 displacement increments are required to reach the steady state

condition, corresponding to about 47 h of CPU time on

a PC with a 400 MHz Pentium chip and running Windows

on NT4.0 operating system.

Fig. 3 shows the variation of the horizontal cutting force

with the tool tip displacement for four rake angles and four

friction coefcient values. For each value of the friction

coefcient m, the cutting force is seen to approach a constant

value as the cutting tool advances, indicating the achievement of a stead-state condition. For each rake angle, the

cutting force is seen to increase as the value of the friction

coefcient increases, as a result of increased resistance due

to friction along the toolchip interface.

Finite element simulation results presented below are taken

after the cutting tool has moved more than 1.5 mm thus they

represent typical steady-state solutions. Because of space

limitations, only results for the case of rake angle a208 are

given. Solutions for other rake angles bear similar features.

3.1. Temperature distribution

The distribution of temperature rise induced by energy

dissipation and local heating is shown in Fig. 4. It is

Fig. 8. Contour plots of the von Mises effective stress se for the case of rake angle a208 and for four values of the friction coefcient m.

region, with maximum values localized along the toolchip

interface. There is very little temperature rise in the workpiece and ahead of the tool tip. The magnitude of temperature is very much affected by the friction along the toolchip

interface. This is evidenced by the fact that the maximum

temperature values along the toolchip interface increase as

the friction coefcient value increases. However, the overall

temperature distribution in the chip is determined by plastic

work dissipation in the chip rather by friction along the tool

chip interface, as can be seen from the case of zero friction.

3.2. Stress distribution

The distributions of stress components s11, s22 and s12,

the von Mises effective stress se, and the mean stress sm are

103

stresses is MPa. In particular, Fig. 5 shows that the normal

stress s11 (S11 in the gure) is compressive in the chip and in

the workpiece head of the tool tip while it is tensile in the

workpiece at and behind the tool tip, which is consistent

with intuition. The normal stress s22 (S22 in the gure) is

given in Fig. 6. This stress is tensile in a sizable region ahead

of the tool tip, which is necessary in order for chip separation

to occur. It is observed that the magnitude of this tensile

stress decreases as the value of the friction coefcient

increases, making chip separation harder. Fig. 7 shows that

the shear stress s12 (S12 in the gure) maintains a constant

sign in a large region ahead of the tool tip. It is worth

noting that, according to the critical stress criterion for chip

separation, s22 and s12 are the two driving forces for chip

separation.

Fig. 9. Contour plots of the mean stress sm for the case of rake angle a208 and for four values of the friction coefcient m.

104

Mises effective stress distribution in Fig. 8. It is seen that the

stress contours in the chip ahead of the tool tip are parallel

and aligned in a left forward direction. The peak contour is

seen to connect the tool tip and the turning point on the

chip's free boundary, forming the ``shear'' angle. The mean

stress distribution in Fig. 9 provides insight into possible

``constraint'' effects in the material separation process ahead

of the tool tip. The gure shows that the mean stress is

positive just ahead of the tool tip and is compressive farther

away.

3.3. Strain distribution

The distribution of strain components e11, e22, and e12 are

shown in Figs. 1012, respectively. In particular, Fig. 10

gives the contour plots of e11 (E11 in the gure) for four

when m is zero and 0.2, e11 in the chip is compressive on the

side of the toolchip interface and is tensile on the side of the

free boundary. As m increases, a zone of positive e11 develops

at the toolchip interface near the tool tip. Interestingly, just

the opposite observations can be made about the corresponding contour plots for e22 (E22 in the gure), as shown in

Fig. 11. It is seen that when m is zero and 0.2, e22 is tensile on

the side of the toolchip interface and is compressive on the

side of the free boundary. As m increases, a zone of negative

e22 develops at the toolchip interface near the tool tip,

which is caused by sticking contact of the chip with the

tool's rake face near the tool tip.

The opposite behavior of e11 and e22 can be explained by

the fact that the chip's deformation is mostly plastic and thus

is incompressible, which leads to e11e22e330. Under

plane strain conditions, e330, thus e11e22 (i.e. e11 and e22

Fig. 10. Contour plots of the normal strain e11 for the case of rake angle a208 and four values of the friction coefcient m.

105

Fig. 11. Contour plots of the normal strain e22 for the case of rake angle a208 and four values of the friction coefcient m.

curvature of the chip decreases, which can be explained by

the differences in the strain contours along the chip's free

boundary.

Fig. 12 shows the distribution of the shear strain e12 (E12

in the gure). It is seen that most of the shear deformation

occurs in the chip and relatively small shear strains are

present in the workpiece. A large shear strain gradient is

seen to exist along the line connecting the tool tip and the

turning point on the chip's free boundary. This region of high

strain gradient is known as the primary shear zone. It is clear

that the strain gradient becomes larger as the friction coefcient increases.

3.4. Strain rate distribution

Distributions of the rate of change of strain components

e11, e22, and e12 are given, respectively, in Figs. 1315 (the

unit of the strain rates is m/m s1). In all cases, the contours

of the strain rates are localized in the primary shear zone,

with peak strain rates found at the tool tip and near the

turning point of the chip's free boundary. Strain rate contours are also found to exist in the chip along the toolchip

interface, which is often called the secondary shear zone.

However, the distribution of the contours in this zone is

strongly dependent on the friction coefcient m. For the four

friction values shown, the number of contours increases as m

increases from 0.0 to 0.2, and it decreases as m increases

further. The reason for this behavior is the frictional sliding

and sticking along the toolchip interface near the tool tip. It

seems that strain rates are enhanced in the contact region

when m equals 0.2 because of an optimized combination of

deformation and sliding motion, and strain rates are inhibited when m equals 0.6 because of sticking.

4. Summary and conclusions

Successful nite element simulations of the orthogonal

metal cutting process have been carried out using the

106

Fig. 12. Contour plots of the shear strain e12 for the case of rake angle a208 and four values of the friction coefcient m.

plane strain conditions. This was achieved with a judicious combination of a set of advanced modeling options

in the code. In particular, chip separation was simulated

with a critical stress separation criterion and a nodal

release technique. Dry friction was assumed along the

toolchip interface and was modeled with a modied

Coulomb friction law. Local heating and temperature rise

were calculated based on plastic work in the chip and

frictional work along the toolchip interface and using

the adiabatic heating condition. An over-stress, rate-dependent, elasticviscoplastic constitutive law was employed,

along with temperature dependent material properties.

Large deformation was handled by an updated Lagrangian

formulation.

A total of 16 simulations have been performed, which

cover a range of tool rake angle and friction coefcient

values. Steady-state nite element solutions for the temperature rise, stress, strain, and strain rate elds have been

obtained and representative contour plots for these eld

quantities have been presented. Several conclusions can

be drawn from this study and from the nite element

solutions. First, this study demonstrates that it is possible

to carry out sophisticated nite element simulations of

metal cutting processes using advanced general-purpose

commercial codes. Second, the nite element simulations

were able to re-produce experimentally observed phenomena in orthogonal metal cutting, such as the existence of the

primary and secondary shear zones. Third, the nite element

solutions obtained in this study show that friction along

the toolchip interface strongly affects the distribution of

the thermomechanical elds. It is believed that details

afforded by nite element simulations will greatly benet

the engineer in gaining a better understanding of metal

107

Fig. 13. Contour plots of the rate of change of the normal strain e11 for the case of rake angle a208 and four values of the friction coefcient m.

Fig. 14. Contour plots of the rate of change of the normal strain e22 for the case of rake angle a208 and four values of the friction coefcient m.

108

Fig. 15. Contour plots of the rate of change of the shear strain e12 for the case of rake angle a208 and four values of the friction coefcient m.

such processes.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the

Mechanics and Materials Program of the National Science

Foundation (NSF Grant No.: CMS-9700405).

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