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RELAY SETTINGS AND COORDINATION

DESIGN GUIDE NO. TCE. M6-EL-PI-G-RC-6507


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97-04-14
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CONTENTS
ITEM

PAGE NO.

SCOPE
PART - I : RELAY CO-ORDINATION
1.0

RECOMMENDED PRACTICES

2.0

CALCULATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT LEVELS

PART - II : SETTING ON RELAYS ON TYPICAL


FEEDERS IN POWER DISTRIBUTION
NETWORKS
1.0

GENERAL

2.0

TRANSFORMER FEEDERS

3.0

MOTOR FEEDERS

4.0

TIE FEEDERS & BUS-COUPLERS/BUS-SECTIONS

5.0

MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTIVE RELAYS

6.0

APPENDIX / I / FIGS 1 TO 5

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RELAY SETTINGS AND COORDINATION

DATE
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DESCRIPTION
1.

Document retyped

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1.

RELAY SETTINGS AND COORDINATION

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SCOPE
This design guide presents preferred practices for relay settings and protection
co-ordination to achieve selective tripping in the electrical auxiliaries of
industrial and power plants. Part-I of this guide details relay co-ordination
procedures while Part-II indicates methods of setting different types of relays
for various protections.
PART-I : RELAY CO-ORDINATION

1.0

RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
The following points may be considered while co-ordinating operation of
different relays.

1.1

The co-ordination starts from the extreme downstream protection, which may
be a fuse.

1.2

The co-ordination interval for the relay immediately above the fuse is decided
by the fuse positive tolerance, relay negative tolerance, relay overshoot and a
safety margin. A minimum co-ordination interval of 0.2 sec. is to be
maintained between the relay and the fuse.

1.3

As far as possible, a co-ordination interval of 0.4 sec. is to be maintained


between two relays to ensure proper discrimination. This time includes the
breaker opening time, relay errors, relay overshoot and a safety margin.

1.4

For industrial plants, the operating time of the extreme upstream relay in the
plant, considered along with its breaker opening time, at the incoming power
supply fault level, is governed by the maximum time permitted by the
Electricity Board and equipment ratings at that fault level. The co-ordination
starting from the extreme downstream relays shall ensure that this requirement
is met.

1.5

For power plants the operating time of the extreme upstream relay is
determined by the switchgear rating. Since the switchgear normally has a 1.0
sec. rating, the maximum relay operating time should not exceed 0.9 sec. at the
rated fault level.

1.6

The following procedures can also be considered to simplify relay coordination


:

1.6.1

Use of very inverse and extremely inverse time relays on downstream feeders.

1.6.2

Reduction of the co-ordination interval to 0.35 sec although this reduces the
safety margin.

1.6.3

Elimination of the co-ordination interval between two relays which will not
cause power interruption to other loads. For example, in co-ordination of relays
on the primary and secondary of transformers and co-ordination of relays on the
breakers at the sending and receiving end of a tie/radial feeder.
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1.6.4

The co-ordination interval between relays provided on incoming feeders and the
bus coupler can be eliminated, in cases where the bus coupler is normally kept
open.

1.7

On any particular bus, amongst relays on various outgoing feeders, the relay
with the highest operating time is to be considered for co-ordination with the
relay on the incoming feeder. It shall also be ensured that the relay on the
incoming feeder does not operate for the starting condition of the largest motor
when feeding all other normal loads.

1.8

The instantaneous relays on the primary side of the transformer feeder shall be
set above the through fault level on the secondary side to prevent the relay from
operating for a secondary side fault. Generally, the setting adopted is 1.3 times
the through fault current in cases where relays with low transient over-reach are
used, if not a setting of 2.7 shall be adopted. This value covers the CT error,
the relay error as well as the over-reach of the instantaneous relay.

1.9

Where inverse time relays with high-set instantaneous units are provided on
outgoing transformer/motor feeders, the IDMT relay on the incoming feeder
shall be co-ordinated with the operating time of the instantaneous relay to bring
down the bus fault clearing time. However, with the IDMT relay characteristic
selected in this manner, for the incoming feeder, it should be ensured that
grading is obtained with the outgoing feeder IDMT characteristic as well. This
aspect has been further elaborated under item 2.1.3 of Part-II of this guide.

1.10

The operating time of the relay on an incoming feeder at that respective


switchgear fault level shall be such that the operating time of the immediate
back up relay, considered together with its breaker opening time, shall not
exceed the short time rating of the switchgear, which is normally 1.0 second.
Whenever there is a substantial difference between the system fault level and
the switchgear rating, the incoming feeder relay and the immediate back up
relay operating times, at the system fault level, are permitted to increase, based
on "I2T" criterion as may be necessary for co-ordination with downstream
relays, for example, if the fault current at the switchgear bus is 'X' which is
much lower than the switchgear 1.0 sec, rating, 'Y', then the relay operating
time at the bus fault level 'X' can be increased to (Y)2 x 1.0 second.
x

1.11

Current settings on directional relays when used for duplicate incoming feeders
are to be set at 50% of the normal full load of the protected circuit and the time
multiplier set at 0.1, i.e., as low as possible. Care shall be taken to ensure that
the continuous thermal rating of the coil is not preceded during power flow in
the reverse, i.e., non-operating direction.

2.0

CALCULATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT LEVELS

2.1

An impedance diagram of the Plant System is to be prepared showing the per


unit impedance (considered with negative tolerances as per relevant standards)
of all the circuit elements. Using network reduction techniques, the short
circuit levels at various voltages of the system can be calculated. Design Guide
for Electrical Auxiliary System for Thermal Power Plants - TCE.M6-EL-Au-G710-6009 may also be referred in this regard.
Motor contribution to the fault is to be included as follows :
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(a)

For 415 V Motors (less than 175 kW rating)

(b)

Fault contribution = 6 x 1.2* x Motor rating in MVA


3
For 6.6 kV Motors
(i)

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For motors rated above 750 kW


with an rpm of 1500
OR
For motors rated above 175 kW
with an rpm of 3000 :
Fault contribution = 6 x 1.2* x Motor rating
1.5
in MVA

(ii)

For motors of exceptionally large


ratings such as BFP motors :
Fault contribution = 5 x 1.2* x Motor rating
1.5
in MVA

(iii)

For other motors :


Fault contribution = 6 x 1.2* x Motor rating
3
in MVA

* The factor 1.2 relates t the 20% negative tolerance on the impedance.
2.2

Whenever there is a change in circuit parameters such as addition of motors of


large ratings or changes in the transformer rating, etc., the fault calculations
have to be modified and co-ordination reviewed.

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PART - II : SETTING OF RELAYS ON TYPICAL FEEDERS


IN POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS______
1.0

GENERAL
The three main types of feeders normally encountered in power distribution
systems are :

1.1

Transformer Feeders : Which couple two switchboards at different voltage


levels with circuit breakers at both the sending (HV) and receiving (LV) ends.

1.2

Motors Feeders : Which are meant solely for the switching and protection of
motors - either HV or LV.

1.3

Tie Feeders : Which couple two switchboards at the same voltage level with
circuit breakers at both the sending and receiving ends or with a breaker at the
sending end and a switch at the receiving end. Power flow through these
feeders is normally uni-directional, though under certain circumstances, bidirectional power flow may be permitted.
The various criteria to be kept in view while setting the individual relays for
different protections have been detailed under each type of feeder protection.
Procedure for setting certain miscellaneous relays, common to a switchboard
(like neutral displacement and under voltage relays on Bus voltage transformer
modules) have also been indicated.

2.0

TRANSFORMER FEEDERS
Protections, as listed below are normally provided on transformer feeders
against abnormal conditions :
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

Overcurrent protection
Unrestricted earth fault protection
Restricted earth fault protection
Standby or back-up earth fault protection
Differential protection
Gas and Oil surge protection
Over temperature protection.

2.1

Whether all the above, or a few selected protections are applied, depends on the
transformer rating and the system earthing. Application of these protections
have been detailed in guide No. TCE.M6-PI-G-TF-6508, - "Protection of
Transformers".
Overcurrent Protection (50/51) :

2.1.1

Purpose :
The purpose of this relay is to provide instantaneous protection to the
transformer against internal short circuits and faults on the transformer primary
terminals as well as back up time delayed over current protection on external
downstream faults or excessive overloads.

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Type of Relay
An instantaneous over current relay (50) having a low transient over reach is
used to provide the instanta-neous protection whereas a definite minimum time
relay having inverse characteristics (51) is used to provide time delayed backup protection. Both the above relays may be mounted in a single unit or
supplied in different cases.
The instantaneous element is used on the primary side of the transformer only,
as use of this relay on the secondary side would make co-ordination ineffective.
Directional relays, both on the HV & LV sides, are used in case of Tie
transformers where bi-directional power flow occurs.

2.1.3

Setting Procedure
A - IDMT - O/C Relay (51) on Transformer Secondary :
Assuming that the transformer secondary feeds a distribution switchboard, as is
normally the case, this relay on the LV side of the transformer has to
necessarily be co-ordinated with the relay on the outgoing feeder having the
largest operating time. If, there are large motors among the outgoing feeders,
then the relay settings should also be so chosen as to avoid relay operation
during starting of the largest motor when all other feeders are supplying their
normal loads. Meeting the above requirements and in the absence of any other
constraint, the current setting of the relay should be as close as possible to the
full load rating of the feeder on the transformer secondary. The above would
hold good when grading with outgoing fuse-switch feeders or with outgoing
feeders having circuit breakers with IDMT relays.
The method of setting the relay would therefore be to chose a higher current
setting to avoid the motor starting inrush current and to choose a time multiplier
setting to grade with the instantaneous over current element of the downstream
transformer feeder. It may be noted that with this philosophy in setting,
overload protection is not afforded by this relay,but much faster fault clearing
times are achievable. Overload protection to the transformer is basically
provided by the over-temperature protection devices which sense the
transformer winding and oil temperatures. Relay characteristics illustrating the
above have been shown in Fig. 1.
B - IDMT-O/C Relay (51) on Transformer Primary :
While the current setting i.e., the plug setting multiplier (PSM) preferred on the
primary side would be just above the transformer full load current, it is usually
not practical to choose such a low setting, as both the current (PSM) as well as
time (TMS) settings have to be necessarily co-ordinated with the IDMT relay
(51) on the transformer secondary. For reasons detailed above, the current
setting may be quite high and as such this protection is considered as a back up
and is expected to operate on both transformer internal faults as well as through
(external) faults on the downstream side (Ref. Fig. 1).

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Instantaneous O/C Relay (50) on Transformer Primary :

It should be ensured, that in order to maintain co-ordination, this relay does not
operate for any fault on the secondary side of the transformer. The setting
should therefore be chosen so as to be above the secondary side short circuit
current (reflected on the primary side) but definitely well below the primary
side fault current. Also, in order to avoid spurious operation of this relay on
offset fault currents on the transformer secondary and magnetic inrush currents,
an instantaneous over current relay with a low transient over-reach (5% or less)
is recommended.
Generally, a setting of 1.3 times the through fault current is recommended to
cover the relay and CT errors as well as the relay overreach in case of low
transient over reach relays. If a low transient over-reach relay is not used, a
setting of 2.7 times shall be adopted.
2.2

Unrestricted Earth Fault Protection (50N/51N)

2.2.1

Purpose
This relay provides protection in case of external earth faults in effectively
earthed and low resistance earthed system.

2.2.2

Type of Relay
Sam as 2.1.2 except for the setting range which is lower.

2.2.3

Setting Procedure
Procedures defined in clause 2.1.3 for over current relays are generally
applicable to this protection as well. However, for setting IDMT earth fault
relays, in the absence of any other constraint, the lowest current setting
available may be generally chosen, keeping in view the co-ordination
requirements detailed in 2.1.3 above and in Part-I of this guide.

2.3

Restricted Earth fault Protection (64) :

2.3.1

Purpose :
This relay provides instantaneous earth fault protection to all internal faults on
the transformer winding to which it is applied. As it is a unit protection, the
setting of this relay does not require co-ordination with other protection
systems. In low resistance earthed system, this protection also supplements the
normal differential protection, since it offers protection to a larger percentage of
the transformer winding. This protection cannot be applied to high resistance
earthed (i.e., non-effectively earthed) systems.

2.3.2

Type of Relay
A high impedance, voltage operated relay is recommended for this application.

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Setting Procedure
This relay is normally set at the lowest current tap available, viz. 10%.
However, to ensure that the relay does not maloperate on through faults, an
additional stabilizing resistor is connected in series with the relay. The
resistance ensures that the current in the relay circuit does not reach the
operating value even when the maximum voltage VR appears across the relay
circuit under through fault conditions. The procedure for calculating the value
of the stabilizing resistor is as follows :
(i)

(ii)

The maximum voltage that is likely to appear across the relay i.e., VR
during external faults is first calculated assuming the worst condition of
imbalance, i.e., the CT on one side saturating
VR

= If (RCT + RL), where

If

= The secondary equivalent of the system fault current

RCT

= The CT secondary winding resistance

RL

= Maximum loop resistance of the CT secondary leads

Next, the total relay circuit impedance - RT is calculated at the relay tap
selected (IR).
RT = VR
IR

(iii)

The relay coil impedance RR at the chosen tap should be obtained from
the manufacturers' catalogues.

(iv)

The value of the additional stabilising resistor (RS) required would then
be the total circuit impedance (RT) minus the relay coil impedance at
the selected tap (RR)
RS = RT - RR

As the current transformers designed for this protection would have a knee
point voltage equal to at least 2 VR, they would develop an adequate voltage,
higher than VR, to operate the relay in case of internal faults.
2.4

Standby or Backup Earth fault Protection (51SN) :

2.4.1

Purpose :
This protection is usually provided on resistance earthed systems and is
normally set to protect the earthing resistor which is short time rated. This may
also be applied to effectively earthed systems where this relay acts as a backup
to the un-restricted E/F relay 51N in addition to providing protection for
transformer secondary winding faults.

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Type of Relay
An instantaneous overcurrent relay with timer is recommended for this
application. An IDMT relay with characteristics which offer adequate
protection to the resistor can also be considered.

2.4.3

Setting Procedure :
The current and time settings on this relay should protect the short-time rated
earthing resistor from damage. The current setting chosen should be less than
the resistor continuous withstand value. The operating time of the relay should
be less than the withstand time of the resistor at the maximum system E/F
current. In addition to matching the short-time rating of the resistor, the setting
should also co-ordinate with all downstream E/F relays. In effectively earthed
systems, the minimum current setting available on the relay may be chosen with
a time setting adequate to co-ordinate with all downstream earth fault relays.

2.5

Differential Protection (87) :

2.5.1

Purpose :
This unit type protection is provided against phase to phase as well as phase to
earth faults in both the transformer windings or at the transformer terminals.
However, earth faults on the LV winding in high resistance earthed systems
would not be detected by this protection.

2.5.2

Type of Relay :
A percentage biased Differentials relay is recommended for this application.
For transformers with ratings larger than 10 MVA, relay should in addition
have a 2nd harmonic restraint and 5th harmonic restraint or bypass feature as
detailed in the guide for transformer protection.

2.5.3

Setting Procedure :
These relays are normally provided with a fixed operating value. However, in
case relays with different settings of operating value are used, the lowest setting
available may be adopted. A biased relay is used to prevent operation under
through faults, as even under normal external fault conditions a certain
differential current can flow through the operating winding of the relay due to
the following reasons :
(a)

Transformer Tap Changing : If the transformer has a tap changer of


+X%, then the maximum mismatch due to this would be X%, since CT
ratios are designed considering the transformer nominal tap.

(b)

Mismatch between CT secondary currents and relay tap ratings.

(c)

A certain degree of mismatch between the CT magnetisation


characteristics of the CTs on the transformer primary and secondary.
This value can be computed from the CT magnetisation characteristics.

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(d)

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Transformer Magnetising inrush currents during switching.


Maloperation due to the transformer magnetising inrush currents is
avoided by features built into the relay design such as harmonic
restraint, time delays, etc. However, assuming that all the other three
unbalances are in the same direction, the total maximum possible
percentage unbalance is calculated by summating the individual
unbalance caused by items a, b & c listed above and adding a margin of
5% to this value. The next higher value of the percentage bias setting
available on the relay should then be chosen.

2.6

Gas and Oil Surge Protection

2.6.1

Purpose
This relay provides protection against low oil level and transformer internal
faults, including incipient faults.

2.6.2

Type of Relay
A gas/oil flow actuated relay, commonly referred as the "Buchholz Relay" is
normally provided by the transformer manufacturer and is connected in the
piping between the transformer main tank and the conservator.

2.6.3

Setting Procedure
No setting is required to be carried out at site. The oil/gas surge rate and the
accumulated gas volume setting required to actuate the trip and alarm circuits
respectively are preset at the factory depending on the capacity of the
transformer.

2.7

Over temperature Protection


The over temperature protection for both the windings and oil is to be set as per
the manufacturers' recommendation. This is normally preset at the factory.

3.0

MOTOR FEEDERS
The various protections provided on motor feeders of different ratings have
been summarized in Table - 1. The setting procedure for each type of relay is
detailed below :

3.1

Bimetallic Thermal Overload Protection (49)

3.1.1

Purpose
To provide protection against overloading and to a certain extent, single
phasing to all motors upto 125 kW.

3.1.2

Type of Relay
Three phase bimetallic, temperature compensated thermal relay, either
operating directly off the motor current or through CT's for large motors. The
relay shall be hand reset type.
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Setting Procedure
The operating value of this relay shall be set at the motor full load current.

3.2

Locked Rotor or Stalling Protection (50 LR)

3.2.1

Purpose
These relays, provided for all motors above 100 kW, offer back up protection to
motors under stalling conditions. Thermal overload relays may also provide
protection under stalling conditions. In cases where the thermal protection is
not effective under stall conditions (i.e., where the thermal withstand characteristic of the motor lies below the relay operating characteristic) in either the
cold or hot condition, this relay becomes the only protection under stalling
conditions.

3.2.2

Type of Relay
Instantaneous overcurrent relays having high drop off to pick up ratio (above
80%) in R & B phases with one common timer (on delay type) is used for this
protection.

3.2.3

Setting Procedure
(a)

The current setting chosen on each inst. O/C relay shall normally equal
twice the full load current of the motor. The common timer setting shall
be 1 to 2 secs. more than the starting time of the motor at the minimum
permissible voltage during starting, i.e., 80%.

(b)

If however, on carrying out the relay application check, the relay hot or
cold characteristic is found to cut the corresponding motor withstand
curve, at any point, which is say "X" times the full load current then the
current setting adopted shall be twice the full load current of the motor,
or, (X x IFL) x 0.9 whichever is lower. The time setting chosen shall be
as detailed under (a) above.

(c)

In cases, where the locked rotor withstand time at 110% of rated voltage
under hot conditions is less than or nearly equal to the starting time of
the motor, at 80%, of the rated voltage an arrangement shown in Fig. 2
with a speed switch on the motor and an additional on-delay timer is to
be utilised.

The normally closed contact of the speed switch provided shall open out at the
set speed during starting.
(i)

Timer TR2 shall be set as usual, i.e., more than the starting time of the
motor.

(ii)

Timer TR1 shall be set 1-2 secs. below the locked rotor withstand time
under hot condition.

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The speed switch on the motor shall be set to operate at a speed attained
by the motor under normal starting conditions in a time less than the
setting of timer TR1.

With this arrangement, if the motor starts normally, the speed switch N/C
contact provided in series with timer TR1 would de-energise it before it could
operate. If however, the motor stalls, the speed switch remaining in the closed
condition, timer TR1 would operate and trip the motor before the locked rotor
hot withstand time is reached. Timers TR1 and TR2 may either be integral with
the stalling protection relay or mounted separately.
3.3

Thermal Overload Protection (49)

3.3.1

Purpose
This relay provides protection to the motor against overheating due to either
overloading or presence of negative sequence currents under both hot and cold
conditions.

3.3.2

Type of Relay
A thermal relay with inverse characteristics sensing and compensating for both
the positive and negative sequence components of the load current to simulate a
thermal image of the motor under hot and cold conditions is used. The relay
shall sense currents from at least two phases.
A choice of characteristics shall be available with a wide range of time
constants to match the varied motor withstand curves encountered. As an
alternative, a inverse relay sensing only the total load current can be used with a
separate instantaneous negative sequence relay.

3.3.3

Setting Procedure
A.

Current Setting
The current setting chosen, shall be calculated using the formula IRel = IFL x IS x R
Ip P
where IRel = Current setting on relay
IFL = Full load current of the Motor
Ip = Rated CT primary current
IS = Rated CT secondary current
R

= Overload factor of the Motor if any


(For a CMR motor this shall be 1.0)

= Pick up value of the relay in terms


of number of times the current
setting.
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In case the relay has current settings available in steps the next higher
setting (with respect to the calculated setting) shall be chosen. The
procedure indicated above is general in nature.
Manufacturers'
catalogues shall also be referred for particular recommendations, if any.
B.

Choice of Time Constant


The time constant of the relay chosen shall be less than the time
constant of the motor being protected. However, this shall be chosen
after carrying out the relay application check as described below.

C.

Choice of Relay Characteristics


Relay application checks are to be carried out on all motors rated above
125 kW. This check consists of plotting the motor withstand curves and
relay operating characteristics under both hot and cold conditions
together with the motor starting current Vs time characteristics on the
same graph.
Normal relays available in the market have a choice of various operating
characteristics under both hot and cold conditions. As far as possible,
the relay characteristics should be so chosen that both relay hot and cold
characteristics :
(i)

Lie completely below the corresponding motor withstand curves


- upto the locked rotor value.

(ii)

Follow the corresponding motor withstand characteristics as


closely as possible - with a safe time difference.

(iii)

The relay hot operating characteristic lies above the motor


starting current Vs time characteristic.
If the above conditions are met then the stall protection is backed
up by the thermal protection.

(a)

Case (i)
The various motor and relay characteristics when dispositioned
with respect to one another as described above, offer the best
possible protection, but is only one of the many possibilities.
This condition as described above is considered as case(i) and
the corresponding characteristics have been shown plotted in
Fig. 3.
However, as the withstand curves of motors vary widely with
both ratings and makes, the following additional possibilities can
be encountered, even after choosing the most optimum relay
characteristic available on a particular make.

(b)

Case (ii)
In this case either or both the relay characteristics, i.e., hot and
cold, intersect with the corresponding motor withstand curves
(Ref. Fig. 4).
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RELAY SETTINGS AND COORDINATION

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 13 OF 23

In this case the point of intersection - 'X' is determined after


plotting the curves. The thermal relay does not protect the motor
beyond this point of intersection and as such the locked rotor
relay, set as described under Clause 3.2.3 (b), would protect the
motor under stall conditions.
(c)

Case (iii)
Where the motor starting current Vs time characteristic intersects
or is very close to the relay operating characteristics (hot) (Ref.
Fig. 5).
In this case the DC supply to the relay shall be wired to the relay
thro' a 52A contact as shown in Fig. 5. With this arrangement,
which is applicable to static relays only, it would be ensured that
the relay cold characteristic would be applicable even in case of
a hot restart. In this case, it is preferable to have relay cold curve
below motor hot curve. Even if it is not so a certain degree of
overload protection will be offered and stall protection would
still be available in this condition, this is acceptable since this
condition lasts only for a short duration until the relay reaches
thermal equilibrium once again. However, acceptability of this
scheme shall be checked out for each make of relay.

3.4

Short Circuit Protection (50)

3.4.1

Purpose
This relay provides protection against interphase winding short circuits and
terminal/cable faults.

3.4.2

Type of Relay
Instantaneous overcurrent relays, one on each phase having low transient overreach (less than 5%) to prevent pick up during transient inrush currents when
starting the motor.

3.4.3

Setting Procedure
The relay shall be set at 1.5 times the starting current. The additional factor for
0.5 takes care of the CT & relay errors, transient over-reach of the relay and
tolerance on the starting current.

3.5

Earth fault Protection (50 N)

3.5.1

Purpose
This relay provides protection to the motor against leakage current to ground.

3.5.2

Type of Relay
(a)

On effectively earthed systems or low resistance earthed systems a


single pole instantaneous over-current relay immune to starting
transients shall be used.
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TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE. M6-EL-PIG-RC-6507

RELAY SETTINGS AND COORDINATION

(b)

3.5.3

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 14 OF 23

On high resistance earthed systems, an instantaneous overcurrent relay


having a sufficiently low pick up value depending on the system earth
fault current and having a timer with setting of 1.0 sec. shall be used
with a core balance CT having a ratio depending on the total maximum
fault current.

Setting Procedure
(a)

Effectively earthed/Low Resistance earthed systems


The relay shall be set at 20% of the rated value in case of solidly earthed
systems and at 10% in case of system grounded through a low
resistance.

(b)

High Resistance Earthed Systems


The maximum Earth fault current likely to flow due to the system
capacitance is calculated. The relay is set at a value lower than 50% of
the secondary equivalent of the fault current. The setting shall however,
be higher than the fault current contributed by the capacitance of the
largest motor on the bus to prevent the core balance relay on that
particular feeder from operating. The CBCT manufacture shall be
informed of the relay setting and total circuit burden. The performance
of the CBCT shall be guaranteed by the CBCT manufacturer at the
minimum operating current.

3.6

Differential Protection (87)

3.6.1

Purpose
This relay, used for motors having a rating above 1500 kW provides fast acting,
unitised protection to the motor against internal phase faults and ground faults
for motors connected to solid by earthed or low resistance earthed systems. For
high resistance earthed system this protection will not sense earth faults.

3.6.2

Type of Relay
Three single pole, high impedance voltage operated, instantaneous over current
relays are used with a stabilising resistor in series with each relay.

3.6.3

Setting Procedure
The relay shall normally be set at 20% of the full load current. The stabilising
resistor shall be set in a manner identical to that detailed under Clause 2.3.3.
However, in this case the maximum starting current should be considered
instead of the system fault current.

3.7

Overload Alarm Relay (50-OLA)

3.7.1

Purpose
To provide an audio-visual alarm in case the motor is overloaded continuously
to enable the operator to take suitable measures, if possible, to avoid ultimate
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TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE. M6-EL-PIG-RC-6507

RELAY SETTINGS AND COORDINATION

tripping of the motor on operation of thermal protection.


provided on motors above 175 kW.
3.7.2

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 15 OF 23

This feature is

Type of Relay
Single pole instantaneous overcurrent relay with a high drop off to pick up ratio
(of the order of 9% or more) together with a on-delay timer. This relay shall
have a range of 70-130%, preferably continuously adjustable or adjustable in
steps of 5%.

3.7.3

Setting Procedure
The current setting adopted should lie in the region of 110 to 120% of the motor
full load current. The timer should be set to operate at a value larger than the
starting time at the minimum permissible voltage (80%).

3.8

Other Protective Devices for Motors


Motors above 175 kW are also provided with the following protective devices :
(a)

Water flow monitor (only for CA CW motors)

(b)

Lube Oil pressure monitor (when forced lubrication is provided)

(c)

Bearing temperature alarm/trip

(d)

Winding temperature alarm/trip

As items (a), (b) and (c) above do not require any setting as such, these are not
discussed in this guide.
In case where RTD's for winding temperature monitoring are used with remote
sensing/monitoring devices which require to be set, th trip temperature setting
shall be bout 10C less than the withstand temperature of the class of insulation
used in the motor.
4.0

TIE FEEDERS AND BUS COUPLERS/BUS SECTION


A tie feeder is a connection between two individual switchboards with circuit
breakers or circuit breakers and switches at the sending and receiving ends,
whereas a bus coupler or a bus sectionalising breaker couples the two sections
of the same switchboard.
The protections normally provided on these feeders are:
(a)

Inverse definite minimum time overcurrent relay with normal


characteristic or very inverse characteristic*
*(Only in cases where there is a large variation in fault current at the
sending and receiving end switchboards due to the large impedance of
the connecting cable).

(b)

Inverse definite minimum time earth fault relay (only in case of


effectively earthed or low resistance earthed systems).
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TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE. M6-EL-PIG-RC-6507

RELAY SETTINGS AND COORDINATION

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 16 OF 23

The type and procedure for setting these relays are identical to that detailed
under the corresponding protections for transformers under Clause 2.0.
5.0

MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTIVE RELAYS

5.1

Neutral Displacement Relay

5.1.1

Purpose
This relay is used to sense earth faults in systems earthed through a high
resistance. As this protection may be sensitive to earth faults throughout the
system, it cannot be used for tripping any feeder in particular but is connected
to give an alarm only.

5.2.3

Setting Procedure
Recommended voltage settings :
(a)

U/V relay for motors

- 80% (nominal voltage)

(b)

For initiating auto


changeover

- 20% (nominal voltage)

(c)

For monitoring the bus


onto which the load gets
transferred during auto
changeover
- 80% (nominal voltage)
Recommended time setting : 1 second.

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TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE. M6-EL-PIG-RC-6507

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 17 OF 23

RELAY SETTINGS AND COORDINATION

TABLE - 1 : SUMMARY OF PROTECTIONS PROVIDED FOR MOTORS


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sl. Motor Motor Type of ___________________Type of Protection Provided_______________________
No Rating Vol- Switch- HRC Bimet- Locked Thermal Short Earth Under Differ- Over(kW) tage
ing
Fuses allic
Rotor Over- Circuit Fault Voltage ential load
(V)
Device
Thermal Relays load
Protec- Relays Protec- Relays Alarm
Relays
Relays tion
tion
Relay
Relays
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.

0-99

415

Contactor 3 Nos. 1 No.


(3 Phase)

2. 100-125 415

Contactor 3 Nos. 1 No.


(3 Phase)

2 Nos.

3. 126-175 415
(Alt-1)

Circuit
Breaker

3 Nos.
(1 per
Phase,
inbuit
with
breaker)

2 Nos.

4. 126-175 415
(Alt-2)

Circuit
Breaker

2 Nos.

3 Nos.
(1 per
Phase,
inbuilt
with
breaker)

1 No.* 3 Nos.
(1 per
Phase)

5. 176-1500 6600/ Circuit


11000 Breaker

2 Nos. 1 No.*

6. Above 6600/ Circuit


1500 11000 Breaker

2 Nos. 1 No.*

3 Nos. 1 No. Provided (1 per


(from bus
Phase)
u/v relay)

1 No.

3 Nos. 1 No. Provided 3 Nos. 1 No.


(1 per
(from bus (1 per
Phase)
u/v relay) Phase)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTES :

(TABLE - 1)

1.

For further particulars refer Design Guide No. TCE.M6-EL-PI-G-M-6504 'Control and Protection of Medium Voltage, Squirrel Cage Motors' and
Standard Document TCE.M2-EL-CW-D-2500 for 415 V motors.

2.

For details of Control and Protection of 6.6 kV motors refer Design


Guide No. TCE.M6-PI-20412 "HV Squirrel Cage Induction Motor Protection".
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FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE. M6-EL-PIG-RC-6507

RELAY SETTINGS AND COORDINATION

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 18 OF 23

*3.

One relay sensing currents from at least 2 phases.

4.

Two numbers Locked Rotor and Thermal Relays indicated shall be connected
to the R & B phases.

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