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Sacramento State University/College of Education

Single Subject Credential Program


Daily Lesson Plan
Name: Daria Muller

School Site: Bella Vista High School

Lesson Title/Subject: Cell Structure and Function Cell Types Lab


Standards:
HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of
interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on functions at the organism system level such as nutrient
uptake, water delivery, and organism movement in response to neural stimuli. An example of an
interacting system could be an artery depending on the proper function of elastic tissue and
smooth muscle to regulate and deliver the proper amount of blood within the circulatory system.]
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include interactions and functions at the molecular
or chemical reaction level.]
Common Core State Standards Connections:
ELA/Literacy SL.11-12.5

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and
interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings,
reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-2)

Purpose/Rationale: In this lesson, students will learn how differences in cell structure are
related to differences in function. Students will analyze multiple examples of diverse eukaryotic
cells and explain the relationship between their structure and function. Students will also learn
how different cell structures support the characteristic activities of life (e.g. homeostasis,
reproduction, responding to environment).
Background Knowledge: Before beginning this lesson, students will need to understand the
difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as the difference between unicellular
versus multicellular organisms. Students should also have a basic understanding of functions of
organelles within animal cells. These concepts were previously taught in earlier lessons. Students
will also have completed a pre-reading homework assignment covering the levels of organization
in multicellular organisms and the cell structure and function of the digestive and circulatory
systems. The pre-reading assignment will be reviewed at the beginning of the lesson.
*Instructional Objectives:

Assessment (formal/informal) HOW you


will assess: WHAT you will be looking for:

Students will be able to correctly draw the


structure of three sperm cells, two red
blood cells, and one white blood cell, as
viewed under a microscope.
Students will be able to explain how
structure determines the function of the
above cell types by sharing at least one
example with their peers.

In groups of four, student will be able to


construct at least four examples of cells
that support the claim The structure of a
cell is related to its function, and present
their examples to the class using a poster.

Informal: Students will draw an illustration of


each specimen using a low and medium
microscope objective lenses and calculate total
magnification.
Informal: In small groups of two, students will
verbally share at least one example of how the
structure of the sperm cell contributes to its
function. Students will also provide at least one
verbal explanation for why it is beneficial for
red blood cells in our bodies to be circular
shaped.
Formal: In groups of four, students will
describe four examples that support the claim
The structure of a cell is related to its
function by creating a visual that they will
present to the class. Students will have access to
their biology books and classroom computers
for supplementary information. I will collect the
posters at the end of class.

*Language Objectives:

Assessment (formal/informal) HOW you


will assess: WHAT you will be looking for:

By completing a pre-reading homework


assignment, students will be able to
analyze multiple examples of the
relationship between structure and function
in living things and construct several
written explanations of how each dynamic
structure is vital to the function of the
whole organism.

Informal: Students will be asked to answer a


series of questions that pertain to their reading
assignment. I will review the questions prior to
starting the lab by deconstructing each question
and asking the students to offer their individual
explanations. I will annotate the text and refer
to the main body of the text in order to show
students the evidence in support of their
explanations. After reviewing the material, I
will collect the worksheets.
Informal: Students will be asked to write their
definitions in a Daily Log worksheet, and
later share their ideas with a lab partner and the
class.

Students will be able to accurately define


the terms structure, function, and
determines, and discuss their definitions
with a classmate.
Students will be able to construct three
written responses in their laboratory
worksheets by reviewing the observations
gathered from their microscope activity.
Students will be able to create a graphic
organizer to guide their thinking process as

Informal: I will be collecting their laboratory


worksheets at the end of the class period.
Informal: During this brainstorming activity, I
will show the class how to make a simple

they describe four examples of cells that


support the claim The structure of a cell is
related to its function.

graphic organizer that they can use to


summarize their ideas. I will collect the groups
graphic organizers at the end of class.

*Multicultural Objectives:

Assessment (formal/informal)- HOW you will


assess: WHAT you will be looking for:
I will frequently check for the students ability
to stay on task and follow direction by walking
around the classroom and checking on each
student. If students are struggling to perform in
certain social groups, I will rearrange their
classroom seating in order to ensure that their
peers are not affecting their learning process.
For the sickle cell anemia example, students
will write a brief response to two questions in
their daily logs during the next class period.

The students in my class come from


diverse cultural backgrounds with varying
educational and emotional needs. By
taking this into consideration, I will ensure
that all of my students are participating
and having hands on experience in the lab
procedures while feeling safe and at ease
in their classroom environment.
Additionally, I will expand upon the topic
of blood cell disorders by discussing with
the class the disease sickle cell anemia.
The prevalence of this disease is especially
high among certain ethnic groups.

Materials and Safety Precautions (if applicable): Explanation: Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types Lab and Levels of Organization worksheets, microscopes, prepared specimen
slides, coloring pencils and markers, poster paper, blank paper, biology textbook, student chrome
books, overhead projector. Because students are working with commercially prepared slides,
there are no safety precautions in this lesson.
Accommodations for special needs, advanced and English language learners: For SN and
EL students: My biology class contains one EL student and two students with special needs. I
will allow my EL and special needs students to take their lab worksheets home for homework in
order to have some extended time in answering their written responses. I will also help my
students with generating examples of cell structure and function by working individually with
them on their graphic organizers.
Procedures:
Focus Lesson (Teacher does): Daily Log: In your own words describe the words structure,
function, and determines? (5-10 min)
Teacher Will: Welcome the students to class and direct their attention to the daily log question
written on the board.
Students Will: Take out their daily log worksheets and quietly take a few minutes to answer the
question on the board.
Teacher Will: Ask the students to turn to their neighbor and share their definitions of the words
structure, function, and determines.

Students Will: Turn to their lab partners and share their daily log answers. As the students listen
to their partners definitions, they are encouraged to add on to their own answers in their daily
log worksheets.
Teacher Will: Following the group activity, I will ask for volunteers to share their responses with
the class. After the students complete their explanations, I will show the students a table with my
own definitions of the three words, and if needed, encourage the students to add on to their
definitions. I will also use an analogy of a hammer in order to reinforce the concept that the way
something is arranged enables it to play its role or fulfill a job. In order for a hammer to perform
its function of pounding in or pulling out nails, it must have a structure that enables it to perform
such tasks. Parts of the hammer that enable it to perform its job include the length and width of
the handle, as well as the shape of the head or the claw.
Modeling: Modeling analysis skills in examining differences in cell structure and their
relation to cell function. (10-15 min)
Teacher Will: Ask the students to take out their pre-reading homework assignment. I will
review the questions from the reading assignment by asking the students to offer their
individual explanations to each question. With each answer I will refer to the main text
and annotate the main body of the text in order to show students the evidence in support
of their explanations. I will also underline and define tier 2 and tier 3 words within the
reading such as function, absorption, excretion, enzymes, molecules, and
particles. I will also direct the students to look at some of the images imbedded within
the worksheet in order to assist them in understanding the main concepts within the text.
After reviewing the material, I will collect the worksheets as a formative assessment.
Teacher Will: I will direct the students to the first page of their Cell Structure and
Function worksheet. I will briefly inform the students that they will be submitting this
worksheet at the end of class and will be working with their peers on a group poster. On
the front page the students will see a labeled diagram of a blood capillary. The same
image will be projected on a screen via an overhead projector. I will explain to the
students that oxygen and nutrients diffuse from the blood to the cells near the capillary.
Alternatively, carbon dioxide and other waste molecules produced by the cells near the
capillary diffuse into the blood. I will inform the class that the capillary endothelial cell
wall is only one cell thick. I will ask the class to explain why it is useful for the walls of
capillaries to consist of a single layer of thin, flattened cells. After listening to a few
responses, I will offer a formal explanation that describes the structure of endothelial
cells as being flat, and forming pavement-like patterns. The structure of the endothelial
cells allows for the passing of materials, fluid, across the cells of the blood stream to the
underlying tissues. Gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can simply diffuse through
the endothelial cells in a back and forth manner (blood -> cells or cells-> blood). I will
correlate this example to the information about the digestive and circulatory systems from
the students homework assignment.

Guided Instruction (Teacher and Students do together): Microscope specimen observation.


(15-20 min)
Teacher Will: Ask the students to form groups of two and pick up a microscope. One of the
students in the pair will be asked to grab prepared slides of sperm cells, red blood cells, and
white blood cells at the front of the class. As a group we will read through the introductory
sentences of the lab write up and review the organization behind each section of the worksheet. I
will ask for volunteers to read the directions for each section of the lab, as the rest of the class
listens and annotates important concepts in the text. I will display the worksheet on an overhead
projector and ask the students to share their annotations with the class. I will update the projected
worksheet with the students annotation marks. Prior to starting the lab, I will ask for questions
and clarify any misunderstandings. After completing this activity, students will be directed to use
their microscopes and look at each slide under low objective and medium objective lenses.
Students have previously used microscopes for another lab and are familiar with the mechanics
of the lenses. I will show an image of one of the slides on an overhead projector and draw an
illustration of the cell on the white board. At the same time, I will ask the students to look at their
own slides and draw an illustration of three sperm cells, two red blood cells, and one white blood
cell in their Cell Structure and Function worksheet. During the microscope activity, I will walk
around the class checking for students ability to focus their microscopes on the slide specimens
and follow directions. After drawing their illustrations, I will ask the students to explain how
structure determines the function of the above cell types by asking the students to answer three
questions written in their worksheet. I will expand upon the topic of red blood cells by discussing
the disease sickle cell anemia. Healthy blood cells are round and flexible, so they can move
easily through the smallest blood vessels. In sickle cells anemia the production of hemoglobin is
abnormal, this ultimately affects the shape of the red blood cells by making them shaped like a
C. This structure leads to many complications within the body due to sickle cells blocking the
blood flow to specific organs. Sickle cell trait is an inherited blood disorder that is particularly
common among Black or African-American babies (1 in 13 births born with sickle cell trait, 1 in
365 born with the disease). Students will learn how genetics can influence the quality of a
persons life, on a physical level (infections, pain, fatigue) as well as at the level of the society
(loss of employment, increased insurance premiums, adoption problems etc.).
Students Will: Students will construct three written responses in their laboratory worksheets
addressing the questions: How does the structure of a sperm cell contributes to its function? Why
is it beneficial for red blood cells in our bodies to be circular shaped? Why do white blood cells
need to be able to change shape in order to accomplish their function?
Collaborative Learning (Students do it together): Peer-to-peer interaction. (5min)
Teacher Will: After the students write their individual written responses, I will ask the students to
share their answers with their lab partner. During this activity, I will be walking around the
classroom listening for group responses and checking for participation.
Students Will: Students share their written responses to the questions: How does the structure of
a sperm cell contributes to its function? Why is it beneficial for red blood cells in our bodies to

be circular shaped? Why do white blood cells need to be able to change shape in order to
accomplish their function?
Independent Learning (Students do it alone): Constructing examples to support a claim.
Group Work. (20min to be continued next class period)
Teacher Will: After sharing their written responses, I will ask the students to form groups of four.
As a group, I will ask the students to think of four examples of cells that support the claim The
structure of a cell is related to its function. Specifically, I will ask the students to think about the
question: How does the structural adaptation(s) enable the cell to carry out its function? Students
will have access to their biology books and classroom computers for supplementary information.
Once the students determine their four examples, they will further be instructed to create a visual
of their ideas on poster paper. In order to assist my students in organizing their thoughts for the
poster, I will draw a simple graphic organizer on an overhead projector. Using this template, I
will present one example from their homework assignment that will support the claim above. I
will ask the students to draw and complete the same table on a blank piece of paper but
integrating their examples. Blank paper is available for the entire class at the front of the room. I
will instruct the students to submit their organizers with the posters at the end of the class period.
I will inform the class that they will have more time to work on their posters during the next
class period, if needed.
Students Will: Students will work in teams of four to brainstorm examples of cells that support
the claim The structure of a cell is related to its function. Students will use a graphic organizer
to arrange their ideas into an orderly form. Students will also determine how to present their
examples to the class by making a visual poster that examines how the structure of a particular
cell type is central to its function in the organism.
Closure: (5min)
Teacher Will: After collecting the students worksheets and graphic organizers, I
will inform the class that they will be given more time to work on their posters during the
next class period. We will also begin our group presentations during the next class period.
I will distribute another worksheet for the students to complete as their homework
assignment. The students will be given another challenge question that will test their
understanding of cell structure and function but this time looking at a single cell
organism. I will inform the class that a paramecium is a single cell organism with several
differences in structure and function from the animal cells they have previously
encountered in their lab work. For their homework assignment, students can use their
textbook and other available resources to learn about the structure and function of a
single cell paramecium. In their worksheet, I will ask the students to write a short
explanation of how these structures support the characteristic activities of life (e.g.
homeostasis, responding to environment).