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Society for Ethnomusicology

Bulgarian Folk Music Research


Author(s): Barbara Krader
Source: Ethnomusicology, Vol. 13, No. 2 (May, 1969), pp. 248-266
Published by: University of Illinois Press on behalf of Society for Ethnomusicology
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/850148
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BULGARIAN FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH


Barbara Krader

his survey is based primarilyon two recent writingsin Bulgarian,which


summarizevery well the work done almost to the present. These are listed first in the bibliography.The writer has filled in a few gaps, especially details of bibliography, and added some titles in Western languagesand some
1968 imprints. The bibliographyappended is selective, however.Whileseveral
early articles by Makhan'(Machaihin the original Czech) are included for historical perspective, most of the writings of Ivan Kamburov,for example, are
omitted, as he was primarilya popularizer.Also omitted are articles on such
subjects as how to redesignfolk instrumentsfor orchestraluse, articles on the
Kutev Professional Folk Ensemble, and so on. Extensive works on workers'
songs and urban songs are present, as these are current subjects of research
not only in Eastern Europe but also in the United States. Macedoniais not
discussed.
Throughout this article and the bibliography, the Library of Congress
transliterationsystem is used for titles of books and articles. In the bibliography, those entries which are not confirmed are followed by n.
The writer has visited the BulgarianAcademy's Institute of Music in
1960, met its Director, AcademicianPetko G. Stainov, and most of the leading folk music specialists there. Many have also attended conferences of the
InternationalFolk Music Council, and we also met at a meeting of the Yugoslav Folklore Society in 1965.
Bulgarianfolk music is highly attractiveto Westernears, as anyone who
has access to the excellent record issued by the ColumbiaWorldLibrary(Columbia KL 5378, deleted), and the Topic record 12 T 107, will readily agree.
Both these records were edited with notes by A. L. Lloyd. The music appeals
to ethnomusicologists because of its complicated rhythms, unusual modes,
numeroussongs with narrowambitus, and because of the special types of singing in seconds, sometimes called diaphony. The point of this survey is to demonstrate that these problems are being studied systematicallyand intelligently
today by Bulgarianspecialists.
As a very brief historical sketch, let it be said that the Bulgarswere a
Turkic tribe, a small band of which crossed the Danube into the present area
of Bulgariain 679 A.D. They conquered the far more numerous Slavs, who
had migrated to the region somewhat earlier, but the Bulgarssoon adopted
the Slavic tongue. The Bulgarianruler Boris I was converted to Christianityin
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249

865 A.D. An alphabet was adopted, called Cyrillic, after St. Cyril. There followed a period of independence, but with much strife with the Greeksof the
Byzantine Empire. In the fourteenth century Bulgariawas invaded by the
Turks, who conquered its final stronghold, Vidin, in 1396. After five hundred
years under Turkish rule Bulgariawas liberatedin 1878 by the Russianarmy.
Interest in the folksong begins to appear in Bulgariain the first half of
the nineteenth century. It finds its expression first in the collecting of folksong texts, which begins in the 1830s. Among the early Bulgariancollectors
were Neofit Rilski (1793?-1882), NaidenGerov (1821?-1900), Georgi Rakovski
(1821-1867), and Petko R. Slaveikov (1828-1895), who were famous national
leaders (educators, writers, and politicians) of their time. Some of the folksongs were published and some not, for books in Bulgarianhad to be published abroad, and few were interested or had money enough to issue anything
but school texts. Among the folksong enthusiasts was young N. D. Katranov,
who was Turgenev'smodel of the Bulgarianrevolutionaryin his novel On the
Eve (1860).
Publications of folksongs with text and melody appearedshortly after
the Liberationof Bulgariain 1878. In 1884 losif Kalomatipublished a supplement of thirty-five urban songs and songs of the national awakeningalong
with his textbook of singing. Kalomati, incidentally, was educated at Robert
College, which was founded outside Constantinopleby Americanmissionaries
in 1860. In 1886 Anastas Stoyanov from Shumen made the first successful
notations of folksongs in asymmetric meters (in 5/8 and 7/8). Three years
later, in the first volume of the great folklore serial Sbornik za Narodni
Umotvoreniia,which is still continuing, its editor, Ivan D. Shishmanov,published a lead article called "The Importanceand Aims of our Ethnography"
(Znachenieto i zadachite na nashata etnografiia, 1889, vol. 1, pp. 1-65). This
is important here because he emphasizedthe need and importance of notating
melodies as well as texts of folksongs. From 1890 on, that serial published
melodies with texts, and in its pages were publishedthe first correct notations
of songs in 9/8 meter, in 7/8 with the first beat extended (i.e., 3+2+2), and in
7/8 with the extended third beat (2+2+3).
As the music of folksongs became availableit became possible to study
its patterns. Karel Makhan'(1867-?), a Czech who lived in Bulgariafor many
years, was among the first to try to characterizethe melodic and metrorhythmic structure of Bulgarianfolksong, to describe folk dances, and to discuss the originality of Bulgariantraditional music, comparingit with Turkish
and other neighboringmusical styles.
A new higher level of analysis is achieved by Dobri Khristov
(1875-1941), an outstanding Bulgariancomposer and choral director as well as
musicologist. His study "The Rhythmic Bases of our Folk Music"(1913) was
an early landmark,followed by a book, The TechnicalStructureof Bulgarian

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Folk Music (1928). He worked out the basic rules of rhythm and meter in
Bulgarianfolksong, and touched upon several other problems, including comparisons with Turkish music. According to Nikolai Kaufman,these two works
serve as the basis for all the later studies of Bulgarianfolk music.
In 1926 a Section of Folk Music opened within the EthnographicMuseum in Sofia. Vasil Stoin (1880-1939) was the director, and other members
of the staff were Pavel Stefanov, Ivan Kamburov,and later, losif Cheshmedzhiev, Raina Katsarova,Konstantin Zagorov,and others. Under Stoin's direction and very active participationall of them began to collect and notate folksongs of all of Bulgaria.At that time the melodies were written down by ear,
without the help of sound recordingapparatus.The first great collections soon
began to be published, under Stoin's editorship, containingthousands of folksongs with text and melody: Folk Songs from the Timok River to the Vita
(1927), Folk Songs from North CentralBulgaria(1931), Rhodope Folk Songs
(1934), Folk Songs from Eastern and WesternThrace (1939). Stoin himself
wrote down the melodies of some 12,000 folksongs.
These collections still remainthe most important fund of Bulgarianfolksongs. They are the basis for all Bulgarianresearchin folk music, and Bulgarian composersuse them as well.
Stoin was the author of various theoretical studies: Bulgarian Folk
Music. Metrics and Rhythm (1927), "On BulgarianFolk Melodies" (1924),
and Hypothese sur l'origine bulgarede la diaphonie (1925). In the first two he
discussesthe metric peculiarityand variety of Bulgarianfolksongs. In the third
he surveys Bulgarian two-part folksongs and develops the hypothesis that
diaphony originated among the Bulgarians.The work of Vasil Stoin is distinguished in the fields of collection, publication and analysis, and his name has
an honored place among the outstanding Eastern European ethnomusicologists.
Several budding Bulgarian performers, musicologists, and composers
studied abroad in the 1920s and 1930s and produced dissertationsand monographs on Bulgarianfolk music. These included Stoyan Dzhudzhev,whose important study (dissertation) Rythme et mesure dans la musique populaire
bulgare (1931) was published in Paris. Others were Stoyan Brashovanov
(1888-1956), who studied in Leipzig, Khristo Obreshkov(1907-1944), the violinist, who studied in Berne, Lyubomir Romanski (1912- ), the conductor,
who studied in Berlin 1936-1938, Kosta Nikolov (1900- ), who studied in
Leipzigand Berlin 1935-1942, and Vasil Spasov, who studied at the University
of Vienna.
About 1930 the first articles appearedby Stoyan Dzhudzhev(1902- )
and RainaKatsarova (1901- ) concerning Bulgarianfolk music. Katsarova,
who is, with Dzhudzhev, the finest Bulgarianfolk music specialist of today,
studied chiefly in Bulgaria,but worked for a time with von Hornbostel and

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Lachmannin Berlin, and has visited many European archives. She was a collaborator of Stoin's from 1928 and eventually succeeded him as director of
the Folk Music Section in the EthnographicMuseum.After the Second World
Warshe was head of the Folk MusicSection of the newly formed Institute of Music of the BulgarianAcademy from 1950-1966, when she was retired.Mme. Katsarova'scontacts abroadare vast. She was in correspondencewith Bartok,with
Klyment Kvitka in the USSR, and Brailoiu, and was consulted by a host of
foreign specialists after 1945 both in Bulgaria and at various conferences
abroad. Her finest work, in my opinion, has been her section of the Rhodope
folksong collection published in 1934, concerning the Pomaks, her study of
the state of the Bulgarianepic song tradition (1939), and a long study of
three generationsof women folk singers(grandmother,mother, and daughter),
published in 1952. After 1950 she was assigned the field of Bulgarianfolk
dance, and has several important publications on this subject. She has collected some 10,000 Bulgarianfolksongs and about 1,000 dances. All her writings
are based on field work, a knowledge of the folk tradition all over Bulgaria,
and a phenomenal memory for music, dance, customs, as well as for the place
where a song has been published.
Professor Stoyan Dzhudzhev has taught at the State Musical Academy
(now the Bulgarian State Conservatory)since 1931, as full professor since
1944. Since 1954 he has been chairmanof the musicology department,which
includes courses in ethnomusicology, the history of music, musical acoustics,
and musical pedagogy.
A man of outstanding cultivation, with many years of study at the
Sorbonne, Dzhudzhev is inclined to theoretical studies, in particularto the
links between Bulgarianfolk music and the music of ancient Greece. He pays
strict attention to texts and music, to problems of versification and verbal
stress. In his book of 1931, for example, the first long section, nearly one
third of the book, concerns the texts and versification. Dzhudzhev has also
contributed an impressivebook on Bulgarianfolk dance (1945), which is intended in part as a reference book on the dance in general,but also analyzes
some forty Bulgarianfolk dances. His major work is doubtless his Theory of
BulgarianFolk Music (1954-1961), in four volumes. A recent article (1961)
read at an international conference in Warsawshows his abiding interest in
ancient Greek metrics. He has been readingbooks on Indiantraditionalmusic
in recent years, and, like Katsarovaand other Balkan music specialists, looks
forward to the time when it will be possible to study the links between the
Balkans and the Middle East and India.
September 9, 1944 is the day now marked in Bulgariaas the beginning
of the postwar era. That day found Bulgarianfolk music researchat a halt.
Dobri Khristov and Vasil Stoin, the leading specialists,were dead. The collecting and publishing of folksongs had stopped. Graduallyactivity was resumed.

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In 1948 the Institute of Music was established in the BulgarianAcademy of


Sciences. From 1950 the old Folk Music Section of the EthnographicMuseum
was transferredto the Institute of Music to its MuzikalnofolklornaSektsiia.
Various staff memberswere transferredwith Katsarovaand some new younger
specialistswere appointed.
From 1948 to 1954 most of the songs collected were recorded on discs;
thereafter recordings were made on magnetic tape. In fact, sound recording
apparatus was obtained just before the War,in 1938. Katsarovahas written
that Bartok took great interest in trying to help Stoin and Katsarovaacquirea
recordingmachine, and even sent them a copy of a Southern Folklore Quarterly for 1937 so that they could read John Lomax' article on machine recording in the field. When they received the equipment, Bartok wrote a letter
with practical advice for field work based on his experience (Katsarova,R.
"Spomeni za Bela Bartok" (Recollections of Bartok),B(ilgarskaMuzika 1961,
No. 3, pp. 12-15), but I have found no indication of actual recording with
that equipment, nor any further details about it.
The Archive of the Institute of Musichas been acquiringmany old manuscript collections of folksongs, mainly from other institutes. The Folk Music
Section's staff has been travelingthrough the country systematically, collecting literally thousands of songs. Each member of the staff spends an average
of two months a year in the field. Expeditions are organized from time to
time in which several take part from varioussubsections: choreographers,folk
instrument specialists, folksong specialists, or those working on folk customs
associated with music. Advantage is being taken too of a newly organized
postwar custom of folk festivals in the various folksong regions. These are
very useful to field workersin search of the best carriersof the tradition.
Before the war collecting was concentrated in North Bulgaria,in the
Rhodope mountains,and among the refugees from Southern Thrace,either because the songs in those areas were about to disappearor because they were
of special interest.
Since 1950 intensive collecting and study of the Pirin region has been
made. It is hoped that this researchwill shed light on two-partsinging, as well
as on problems of rhythm and meter in the folksongs. The Rhodope region
has also been worked on systematically(now using recordingmachines),as has
part of the Shopi area in the northwest, and Srednogorie. In the east,
Dobrudjahas been studied, as well as many regions of Thrace and the plains
south of the Balkanmountain range.
By 1966 the Archive of the Institute had over 100,000 songs and instrumental melodies, counting those in manuscript form, collected by ear, and
also those on discs and tape. Elena Stoin and Kaufmanstate that it is already
feasible to work on a basic atlas of Bulgarianfolksong. One hopes this project
is already under way. They also report that the archive is in the process of

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classifying and indexing this vast material,but this is by no means completed.


Now that mechanicalrecordingis in generaluse (one does not know just
what proportion of the music collection is recorded), the Bulgariansare carrying out special studies of melodic ornamentationin the folksongs, hoping to
establish more precisely the rules of certain rhythms and meters. They also
plan to study the links between text and melody in closer detail, as well as
the way syllables are divided. The old problem of non-temperedmelodic intervals is another subject which can now be studied scientifically.
Collections
The prewar tradition of publishinglarge collections of folksongs is being
continued by the Institute. The first two bulky volumes to appearwere Folk
Songs of the WesternBorderlands (1959), collected by V. Stoin before the
war and edited for publication by R. Katsarova,and Folk Songs from Northeast Bulgaria, Vol. I (1963), compiled by R. Katsarova,Ivan Kachulev, and
Elena Stoin. Both collections have meticulously preparedscholarly indexes of
meter, tonal ambitus, structures of metric groups, and a subject index of the
song texts. None of the collections has an index of first lines of text, but the
subject index is better than the lack of any text index in the prewarvolumes.
Another large volume has just been published: Folk Songs from Southwest
Bulgaria. Vol. I, Pirin Region (1968), compiled by Nikolai Kaufman and
Todor Todorov. In preparationare Folk Songs from the Samokov District and
Folk Songs from Northeast Bulgaria,Vol. II.
In addition to the big collections the Institute has issued smaller ones on
specific themes, such as Folk Songs about Russia and the Soviet Union
(1953), compiled by Ivan Kachulev,and BulgarianContemporaryFolk Songs
(1958), compiled by Elena Stoin and Kachulev. These have been used quite
extensively by Bulgarianchoral groups and others.
Urban folksongs and those of the labor movement were neglected before
the war and are, of course, now being studied intensively, particularly by
Kaufmanin the Institute. He compiled a large collection, Songs of the Bulgarian Labor Movement 1891-1944 (1959), which is furnished with much information on sources, dates and occasions of first performances,and variantsin
other countries. I find it a very interesting contribution to social history.
Another collection made by him, BulgarianUrbanSongs, appearedin 1968.
InterdisciplinaryExpeditions
Within the BulgarianAcademy of Sciences, the Division for Fine Arts,
Music and Architecture has organized several expeditions to specific regions,
including specialists from the Academy's researchinstitutes in each of these

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fields. They worked in the Rhodopes in 1953, in Dobrudjain 1954, in Strandzha in 1955, in the northwesterncorner of Bulgariain 1956, and in 1957 and
1958 they studied western Bulgaria in the regions of Triin, Breznik, and
Kyustendil. Five volumes were published containing accounts of the present
state of music, architecture,and variousaspects of the fine arts in the various
regions. (These are listed in the bibliography, with the relevant articles described under each volume.)
Regional Studies
Among the regions best studied so far is the Rhodope mountain area,
which has its own characteristicfolk music for the area in spite of the religious division of the population. It is in this region that the so-called Pomaks
live, a group of Bulgarianswho were converted to Islam under the Turkish
rule. They were ostracizedby other Bulgariansuntil very recently; indeed prejudice still exists againstthem. They preservea very pure Bulgarianspeech, and
their folksongs appear to be very archaic due to their centuries of isolation.
The musical studies published so far do not exhaust the possibilities, but do
constitute a solid contribution to the task of defining the Rhodope folksong
style.
The studies include Kaufman'slengthy "Folk Songs from the Smolian
and Madan Areas" (1961), his "Songs of the BulgarianMoslems"(1962), as
well as his "Ritual Songs of the BulgarianMoslems"(1963). His major finding
is that in meter, rhythm, melody and ornamentation,structure,language,and
versification, the music of the Rhodope Bulgarians,Christians,and Moslems
has a common origin, the same esthetic goals, and the same use in everyday
life. Kaufman's most recent general study is "The Folk Music of the Pirin
Region" (1965), which includes eighty music examples, nearly all of folk
polyphony.
A study by Todor Todorov, "Some Melodic Features of the Rhodope
Folk Song" (1962), attempts to characterizethe Rhodope melodic style and
show how it differs from the songs of other parts of Bulgaria.Todorov has
also published an article entitled "The Song Variants in the Rhodopes"
(1962). Further, Khristov Vakarelskihas publisheda study, "The Languageof
the Rhodope Songs" (1962), based on work with materials collected by the
Institute. This is an investigation of the language used in the songs collected
1955-1960, at a time of rapid industrializationand change.
Concerning West CentralBulgaria, A. Ilieva has written "Folk Music Research in the Svogen Region" (1964), describingthe present state and characterizingthe folksong in that outlying section of the Sofia district.
On the Srednegorie (Central Mountain)area, we have one study of the
central part, Elena Stoin's "Folk Songs of Srednegorie (The True Central

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Mountains)"(1964). The area includes the towns of Koprivshtitsaand Zlatitsa.


It is bordered on the east by the river Stryama and on the west by the
Gillbets mountain peak. The southern edge is about five miles north of
Pazardzhik. In this article are general observations on rhythm and meter,
structure, melodic features and scales, as well as more detailed study of specific genres of Central Mountain songs, and the links between text and music
shown in variousrhythmic, metric, and structuralcombinations.
Studies of Specific Villages and Performers
In Raina Katsarova'sstudy, "Three Generationsof WomenFolk Singers
(1952), she traces the process of formation of folksongs, their oral transmission from one generationto the next, and their place in the life of the people.
Stoyan Dzhudzhev's article, "Elena V. Yankova and the Songs of the Bessarabian Bulgarians"(1952), is a study of a song collection made some forty
years earlierby Dobri Khristovand G. Yankov, publishedin 1913.
Especially interesting to the ethnomusicologistare two articles by Khristov Vakarelski (1896- ), of the BulgarianEthnographicMuseum. In "The
Music in the Life of my Native Village, MominaKlisura,PazardzhikDistrict"
(1952), he gives details of whistling to sheep or oxen or coaxing the dog to
come, and describes the children's homemade instruments as well as their
songs. In "Notes on the Musical Theory and Esthetics of the People" (1959),
Vakarelski quotes statements of peasants and references in folksongs to attitudes and value judgments concerningmusic.
ContemporaryFolk Music
A study of the new folksong by Elena Stoin, "The ContemporaryBulgarian Folk Song" (1952), investigates how it resembles the old traditional
song and how it differs. She also discussesthe definition of folksong, favoring
its extension to include urban songs and composed mass songs, and recalls the
fact that folk music is always in the process of development-so that a song
may be collected which is not very pleasingesthetically, but it may evolve and
improve afterwards.
Folk Polyphony
Reference was made earlier to Vasil Stoin's pamphlet on Bulgarian
diaphony, published in 1925. With recording machines work was quickly intensified in this area. The researchin the Pirin area and West CentralBulgaria,
where part singing, especially in seconds, is very common, have made possible
some extensive analyses. One is Nikolai Kaufman's"Folk Singingin Two Parts

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in Bulgaria"(1958). A longer study is his "Three-PartFolk Singingfrom the


CastoriaRegion" (1959). This concerns Slav-speakingemigrantsfrom the district of Castoria,in western Greek Macedonia,who now live in Bulgaria.According to Kaufmanthe three part singing of this region has the same origin
and development as Bulgarianfolk singing in two parts. We will add here an
article by Kaufman, "Polyphony in the Folk Song of the Balkan Peoples"
(1966), which is a most interestingattempt to locate the areasin which polyphony is found and to compare the musical styles.
Certain features of two-part singing in specific areas of the large twopart region are also discussedby Elena Stoin in her article on Srednogorieand
by Ilieva in her study of the Svogen region of West CentralBulgaria.There is
of course much data also in Kaufman'ssummarizingaccount of the Pirin region (1965).
Folksongsamong BulgariansAbroad
Various studies have been made of the songs of Bulgariansin Bessarabia,
of settlements in northeast Bulgariawhere there are Bulgarianemigrantsfrom
Northern Dobrudja (now in Rumania), of refugees from Aegean Thrace (in
Greece), and of Bulgarianswho have returned to Bulgariafrom Asia Minor
from a settlement there which lasted three hundredyears. All these show the
stability of the folk music tradition throughout a period of isolation, and its
importance to the people. Among these studies are Dzhudzhev's "Elena
Yankova and the Songs of the BessarabianBulgarians"(1952), and Kaufman's
"The Songs of the Bulgariansof Asia Minor" (1963). Another is Stoyan
Petrov's "The Folk Song of the Banat Bulgarians"(1965).
An interesting study of a minority in Bulgariais Kaufman's"The Folk
Musicof the Spanish(Sephardic)Jews in Bulgaria"(1967).
HistorialData on Folk Music
Withoutembarkingon a survey of the many writingsattempting to trace
the earliest known Bulgarianmusic, religious and secular, we will mention
only two articles touching folk music alone, and solely from the recent past.
These are "Folk MusicMaterialof the Plovdiv Exposition of 1892" (1955) by
Khristo Vakarelskiand A. Primovski,and A. Motsev'sstudy, "Meterswith Extended Beats in the Transcriptionsof BulgarianFolklorists"(1955).
Folk MusicalInstruments
A few brief articles were written before 1945 by Vasil Stoin and
Katsarova,but the major contribution in the field has been made since World

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War II by Ivan Kachulev (1905- ). As the folk instrument specialist in the


Institute of Music, he has written an article on tamburasin the Razlog district
(1957), a study of the Bulgariangadulkas (1958), part of which appearedin
English translation, a survey of folk instrumentsin Dobrudja(1956), and a survey of instrumentsin the districts of WesternBulgaria,Trin and Kyustendil
(1961). He has also published studies of bell making in the town of Gotse
Delchev (1956) and flute making in the village of Shipka. Quite recently he
published an article on folk instruments and instrumentalmusic of the Bulgarian Moslems in the Rhodope mountains (1962), and one on two-part wind
instruments: the bagpipesand the dvoyanka (1964). A useful survey article by
Kachulev on Bulgarianfolk instruments appears in the Encyclopedia of Bulgarian Music Culture on pages 4448, with many illustrations,and another survey by him, organized somewhat differently, appearedin Yugoslavia(but in
Bulgarian)in 1964.
Folk Dance
This is a fascinating field of researchas there is a wide variety of Bulgarian dances and numerous complex meters and rhythms. The serious study
of this subject can be said to have started with Professor Dzhudzhev'stheoretic work BulgarianFolk Choreography(1945). In fact he devoted three
chapters of his book of 1931 to the analysis of folk dance rhythms. Raina
Katsarova'sbook The BulgarianFolk Dance (1955) employs a different approach to the subject, stressing the customs associated with the dances and
viewing them as a social or community phenomenon. A small popular book
by Katsarovaon Bulgarianfolk dances was publishedin London in 1951, and
her book mentioned above has been publishedin Englishin Sofia, distributed
by the Committee for Friendshipand CulturalRelations with Foreign Countries. Several other studies of dances in specific regions have been written by
her.
In general, the folk dance subsection in the Institute of Music has
worked on folk dance practices in certain clusters of villages, e.g., the village
of Khlevene in Lovech district, and the village of Pudarevoin the Sliven district. The interdisciplinaryexpeditions enabled them to survey larger regions
too. They have also studied the distribution of certain individual dances all
over Bulgaria, noting the variants, the various names, and the parallels in
neighboringcountries.
Attention has also been paid to folk customs which are associated with
folk dances and song. Elena Stoin's article on the Lazaruscustoms (1956) is
in this field, as is Katsarova'sstudy of the carnivalkukeri rites and dances in
Puderevo (1963). Much material has been collected on wedding customs, St.
John's Day (En'ovden, 24 June), peperuda (songs and dances to bring rain),

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children'sgames with songs, and so forth.


The Bulgarianfolk puppet theater (kuklen teatir) is usually associated
with folk dance music, and this too has been investigated by the Folk Music
Section. One of Katsarova'sarticles on this subject was publishedin 1963, and
another in 1968.
Labanotationhas not been generally adopted in Bulgaria,and there are
various systems of dance transcriptionin use. These are described in the Encyclopedia of BulgarianMusical Culture,on pages 68-72.
There has, however, been some agreement on dance terminology, and a
book on terminology by K. Dzhenev and others, published in 1955, has received wide approval.The book includes a detailed descriptionof 30 Bulgarian
folk dances.
*

The Institute of Music has not only issued twelve volumes of the
Izvestiia, from 1952, but has also published three monographs.The first was
Aleksandir Motsev's Rhythm and Meter of Bulgarian Folk Music (1949),
which criticizes the previous Bulgarianwritings on the subject and offers a
new theory of Bulgarianasymmetric meters. The conclusions of this book
have not found general acceptance. In part, this is because so much recording
is now being done, and new rhythmic combinations are turningup which are
still being studied.
The second important work is A. Karastoianov'sThe Melodic and Harmonic Foundations of the BulgarianFolk Song (1950). This book has been
much more influential among the Bulgarianspecialists, many of whom have
adopted his terminology and a large number of his conclusions.
Another work by the late AleksandurMotsev (1900-1964) was published
the
Institute in 1961: Ornamentsin BulgarianFolk Music. In it he atby
tempts to show the evolution of melody and ornamentation over the centuries. This is a thorny subject, and one feels that Motsevis perhapstoo absolute in his assertions. Nevertheless the book is thought-provokingand well
worth readingeven if one finishes by disagreeingwith the author.
Dzhudzhev's impressive four volume Theory of BulgarianFolk Music
was not issued by the Institute but by the regularpublishing firm "Nauka i
Izkustvo." Obviously intended for students, it is neverthelessuseful to other
specialists. It contains frequent citations from foreign literature, some of it
Western.In the fourth volume the author cites the working definition of folk
music proposed by the International Folk Music Council in 1954, and disagrees with it vigorously. Apparently he was unaware that dissenting views
were advanced within the IFMC as well, notably by Charles Seeger. The
fourth volume by Dzhudzhev is probably the most interesting to us. Written

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by a scholar who has devoted his life to one very complex music, he discusses
here how one should approach the study of ethnomusicology and folk music
(clearly differentiatingthe two in terms of subject of study).
There is a detailed discussion of Motsev's book and the first volume of
Dzhduzhev'sbook (on rhythm and meter) in Katsarova'ssurvey of work since
1945 (1960).
Of the younger generation of Bulgarianfolk music specialists we may
single out Elena Stoin (1915- ) and Nikolai Kaufman(1925- ) for special
mention. Elena Stoin is the daughter of the great collector of the 1920s and
1930s. She has collected over 5000 melodies in the field since the Second
World War and has edited several folksong collections and a number of important studies. I consider her article on LazarusDay customs (1956), along
with her recent one on the folksongs of part of the Srednogorie region
(1964), an outstandingwork.
Nikolai Kaufman has recently become the head of the Folk Music Section in the Institute of Music. He is energetic and productive, as his list of
publications shows. The Pirin region has been the chief focus of his field
work, but he has also collected urban songs, new peasant songs, and revolutionary songs, and issued collections and studies on a wide variety of subjects.
I find most provocative his early analysis of two-part singing (1958) and the
recent article on polyphonic folk singing in the Balkans (1966). His training
has been wholly in Bulgaria,and he has had no contact with Westernethnomusicology whatsoever, so far as I know. His knowledge of Germanmay provide the bridge to wider contact in the future. (Many of his shorter articles
have been omitted from the bibliography.)
Stoyan Petrov (1915- ), whose interests lie chiefly in Bulgarian-Russian
musical relations, and who studied at the Moscow Conservatory1949-1953,
has published a history of Bulgarianmusic (1959) which was in fact the subject of his dissertationin Moscow. He has had various administrativeposts in
the Union of BulgarianComposers, and is now teaching the history of Bulgarian music and of Russian and Soviet music at the BulgarianState Conservatory. His study of the Bulgarian folk music in the Banat area (part of
Hungary1770-1920, now mostly within Rumania)was published in 1965.
Among the youngest folk music specialists in Bulgariais Todor Dzhidzhev. The author of an excellent study on the rhythmic structureof the verse
(or line) of Bulgarianfolksongs (1964), and of a short discussion of research
on the problem of interrelation between text and melody in Bulgarianfolk
songs (1967), he shows promise as a careful and logical thinker, working successfully upon a problem of exceptional complexity.

260

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
Abbreviations
IIM
INEM
SbNU

Izvestiia na Instituta za Muzika. Sofia, 1952Izvestiia na Narodniia Etnografski Muzei v Sofiia. Sofia, 1920-1943?
Sbornik za narodni umotvoreniia. Sofia, 1889-

Surveys Usedfor ThisArticle


Stoin, Elena and Nikolai Kaufman, "Novi prinosi v subiraneto i izsledvaneto na
bulgarskata narodna pesen" [New contributions in collecting of and research on
Bulgarian folksong], IIM 12:23-27, 1967.
"Bulgarska muzikalna nauka i kritika: muzikalna folkloristika" [Bulgarian musicology and
criticism, [part I]: Folk music research] in Entsiklopediia na bulgarskata muzikalna
kultura (Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Bulgarskata Akademiia na Naukite, 1967), pp.
116-18. By Nikolai Kaufman.

OtherBasic Surveysand Bibliographies


"BMlgarska narodna muzika" [Bulgarian folk music] in Entsiklopediia na bulgarskata
muzikalna kultura (Sofia, 1967), pp. 9-74. By various authors. Illustrations and
bibliographies.
"Folk music: Bulgaria," in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 5th ed. (London,
1954), vol. 3, pp. 201-11. By Raina Katsarova.
Katsarova-Kukudova, Raina, "L'Ethnomusicologie en Bulgarie de 1945 a nosjours," Acta
Musicologica (Basel) 32:77-89, 1960.
Katsarova, Raina, "Bulgaria," in Karel Vetterl, ed. A Select Bibliography of European Folk
Music, (Prague, 1966), pp. 23-29. Published in cooperation with the International
Folk Music Council.
Katsarova, Raina, "Bulgarie," in Folklore musical (Paris: Institut International de Cooperation Intellectuelle, 1939), pp. 28-34. Survey of collectors, collections, with
brief bibliography.

CurrentBibliography
Elschek, Oskar, E. Stockmann and Ivan Macak, eds. Annual Bibliography of European
Ethnomusicology, 1966- . Bratislava, 1967- . Published in cooperation with the
International Folk Music Council.

Chief Collectionsof BulgarianFolk Melodies


Stoin, Vasil, comp. Narodni pesni ot Timok do Vita [Folksongs from the Timok River to
the Vita]. Sofia, 1928. 1134 pp. 4076 melodies.
Stoin, Vasil, comp. Narodni pesni ot Sredna Sevema Builgariia [Folksongs from the Central Part of North Bulgaria]. Sofia, 1931. 893 pp. 2718 melodies.
Bukureshtliev, Angel, Vasil Stoin and Raina Katsarova, comps. "Rodopski narodni pesni"
[Rhodope folksongs], Sbornik za narodni umotvoreniia 39. Sofia, 1934. 582 pp.
1252 melodies.
Stoin, Vasil, comp. Narodni pesni ot Iztochna i Zapadna Trakiia [Folksongs from Eastern
and Western Thrace]. Sofia, 1939. 622 pp. 1684 melodies.
Kachulev, Ivan, comp. B?ulgarskinarodni pesni za Rusiia u Syuretskiia Sfuiuz [Bulgarian
folksongs about Russia and the Soviet Union] Sofia, 1953. 153 pp.
Stoin, Elena and Ivan Kachulev, comps. Biilgarski sfuvremenni narodni pesni [Bulgarian
contemporary folksongs]. Sofia, 1958. 237 pp. 44 melodies.
Stoin, Vasil, comp. Narodni pesni ot Zapadnite pokraTnini [Folksongs from the Western
border regions]. Sofia, 1959. xxii, 360 pp. 656 melodies. Edited by R. Katsarova.

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Kaufman, Nikolai, comp. Pesni na bulgarskoto rabotnichesko dvizhenie 1891-1944 [Songs


of the Bulgarian workers' movement 1891-1944]. Sofia, 1959. 593 pp. 456 melodies.
Katsarova, Raina, Ivan Kachulev and Elena Stoin, eds. Narodni pesni ot Severoiztochna
Bulgariia [Folksongs from Northeast Bulgaria]. Tom I. Sofia, 1963. 724 pp. 1288
melodies. Compiled in 1928-1930 by Vasil Stoin and others.
Bvulgarsko narodno tvorchestvo [Bulgarian folk creation]. Vol. 13. Narodni pesni s
melodii [Folksongs with melodies]. Edited by R. Katsarova, E. Stoin, N. Kaufman,
et al. Sofia, 1965. 658 pp. 731 melodies. Introductory survey by R. Katsarova in
Bulgarian, Russian, and English (pp. 45-62). Loose inserted errata sheet must be
consulted for the many misprints in this article.
Kaufman, Nikolai and Todor Todorov, comps. Narodni pesni ot IUgozapadna Bulgariia.
Tom 1. Pirinski krai [Folksongs from southwest Bulgaria. I. Pirin region]. Sofia,
1968. 956 pp.
Kaufman, Nikolai, comp. Bulgarski gradski pesni [Bulgarian urban songs]. Sofia, 1968.
575 pp.

InterdisciplinaryExpeditions
Kompleksna nauchna rodopska ekspeditsiia prez 1953 godina; dokladi i materiali [The
Rhodope Complex Scientific Expedition in 1953; reports and materials]. Sofia:
Izdanie na Bilgarska Akademiia na Naukite, 1955.
Ivan Kachulev, "Sustoianie na narodnata muzika v Rodopite" [The state of
folk music in the Rhodopes], pp. 199-220.
Kompleksna nauchna dobrudzhanska ekspeditsiia prez 1954 godina; dokladi i materiali
[The Dobrudja Complex Scientific Expedition in 1954; reports and materials].
Sofia: Izdanie na BAN, 1956.
R. Katsarova, "Dneshnoto sustoianie na narodnata pesen i tantsoviia folklor v
Dobrudzha" [The present state of the folksong and dance folklore in
Dobrudja], pp. 139-62.
Ivan Kachulev, "Narodni instrumenti v Dobrudzha" [Folk instruments in
Dobrudja], pp. 163-75.
Kompleksna nauchna Strandzhanska ekspeditsiia prez 1955 godina; dokladi i materiali
[The Strandzha Complex Scientific Expedition in 1955; reports and materials].
Sofia: Izdanie na BAN, 1957.
Elena Stoin, "Narodnite pesni na Strandzhanskiia krai" [Folksongs of the
Strandzha Region], pp. 425-41.
R. Katsarova, "Narodni khorai i igri v Strandzha" [Folk dances and theatrical
customs with dances in Strandzha], pp. 359-423.
Kompleksna nauchna ekspeditsiia v Severozapadna Bulgariia prez 1956 godina; dokladi i
materiali [The Complex Scientific Expedition to Northwest Bulgaria in 1956; reports and materials]. Sofia: Izdanie na BAN, 1958.
Elena Stoin, "Dneshnoto sustoianie na narodnata muzika v Severozapadna
Bulgariia" [The present state of the folk music in Northwest Bulgaria], pp.
365-85.
R. Katsarova, "Khora i igri ot Severozapadna Bulgariia" [Dances and theatrical
customs with dances from Northwest Bulgaria], pp. 293-364.
Kompleksni nauchni ekspeditsii v Zapadna Bulgariia Trinsko-Breznishko-Kiustendilsko
prez 1957 i 1958 godina; dokladi i materiali [Complex Scientific Expeditions to Western Bulgaria (Trun, Breznik and Kiustendil Regions) in 1957 and 1958; reports and
materials]. Sofia: Izdatelstvo na BAN, 1961.
Ivan Kachulev, "Narodni muzikalni instrumenti v Zapadna Bulgariia-Trunsko i
Kiustendil" [Folk musical instruments in Western Bulgaria, in the Trun Region and Kiustendil], pp. 419-46.
Elena Stoin, "Narodnata pesen v Trunsko i Kiustendilsko" [The folksong in the
Trun and Kiustendil Regions], pp. 447-82.
T. Kiuchukov, "Trinskite narodni tantsi" [Trun folk dances], pp. 483-509.

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Books and Articles


Brashovanov, Stoian
1923 Uber die Rhytmik und Metrik des bulgarischen Volksliedes. Leipzig. Ph.D.
dissertation. (n)
1955 "Vasil Stoin," IIM 2/3:351-56.
Dinev, Petur
1959 "Narodnopesenni
elementi v bfulgarskiia tsfurkoven napev" [Folksong
elements in the Bulgarian Church chant], IIM 6:39-59.
Dzhenev, K.
1955 Terminologiia na narodnite khora [Terminology of the folk dances]. Sofia.
With T. Kiuchukov, K. Kharalampiev, N. Zakhariev. (n)
Dzhidzhev, Todor
narodni pesni"
1964 "Kfum vYuprosaza stikhovo-ritmichniia stroezh na b%ulgarskite
[On the question of the poetic-rhythmic structure of the Bulgarian
folksongs], IIM 10:217-75.
1967 "Problemfut za vzaimovr'uzkata mezhdu tekst i melodiia pri narodnite pesni v
nashata muzikalnofolklorna nauka" [The problem of the interinfluence
between text and melody in folksongs in our folk music research], IIM
12:35-38.
Dzhudzhev (Djoudjeff), Stoian
1931 Rythme et mesure dans la musique populaire bulgare. Paris. ii, 364 pp.
1945 Builgarska narodna khoreografiia [Bulgarian folk choreography]. Sofia. 461
PP.
1952 "Elena lAnkova i pesnite na besarabskite bfulgari" [Elena Yankova and the
songs of the Bessarabian Bulgarians], IIM 1:149-66.
1954-1961 Teoriia na bfulgarskatanarodna muzika [Theory of Bulgarian folk music],
vol. I: Ritmika i metrika [rhythm and metrics]. Sofia, 1954. 400 pp.; vol.
II: Melodika [Melody]. Sofia, 1955. 359 pp.; vol. III: Morfologiia i prozodiia
[Morphology and prosody]. Sofia, 1956. 378 pp. (n); vol. IV: Obshti vYuprosi
na muzikalnata etnografiia [General problems of musical ethnography]. Sofia
1961. 431 pp.
1961 "Vestiges de la metrique ancienne dans le folklore bulgare" in Poetics
(Warsaw: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut BadaniLiterackich), pp. 537-58.
1963 "Narodnata muzika kato obshtestveno iavlenie" [Folk music as a social
phenomenon], Rad IX. Kongresa Saveza Folklorista Jugoslavije u Mostaru i
Trebinju 1962. Sarajevo. Pp. 489-98.
1967 "Esquisse d'une mdthode musicologique pour l'etude des vers populaires," in
To honor Roman Jakobson (The Hague), vol. I, pp. 52340. (Janua
Linguarum, Seria Major, vol. 31.)
Ilieva-Shturbanova, A.
1964 "Muzikalno-folklorni prouchvaniia v Svogensko" [Folk music investigations
in the district of Svogen], IIM 10:165-216.
Kachulev, Ivan
1952 "Bfulgarski narodni
muzikalni instrumenti. Tamburite v Razlozhko"
[Bulgarian folk music instruments. The tamburas in the district of Razlog],
IIM 1:97-124.
1955 "Svirkarstvoto v selo Shipka" [Folk instrument makers in the village of
Shipka], IIM 2/3:21548.
1955 "Zviuncharstvoto v grad Gotse Delchev" [Bell making in the town of Gotse
Delchev], IIM 2/3:249-68.
1959 "Gludulkite v B?ulgariia"[Gadulkas in Bulgaria], IIM 5:131-93.

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1962 "Narodnite instrumenti i instrumentalnata muzika na builgarite mokhamedani


v Rodopite" [Folk instruments and instrumental music of the Bulgarian
Moslems in the Rhodopes], IIM 8:197-234.
1963 "Gadulkas in Bulgaria," The Galpin Society Journal 16:95-107. Partial
translation of 1959 article.
instrumenti"
narodni muzikalni
1964 "Bulgarski
[Bulgarian folk music
instruments], in Rad VII-og Kongresa Saveza Folklorista Jugoslavije u Ohridu
1960. godine. Ohrid. Pp. 319-35.
1965 "B'ulgarski dukhovi dvuglasni narodni muzikalni instrumenti. Gaidi i
dvoianki"
[Bulgarian two-voice folk wind instruments. Bagpipes and
dvoyankas], IIM 11:23-78.
1967 "Nauchni
prinosi v oblastta na narodnite instrumenti i narodnata
instrumentalna muzika" [Survey of scholarly works in the field of folk
instruments and folk instrumental music], IIM 12:27-34.
Kamburov, Ivan
1925 "Slishtnost', znachenie i zapisvane na nashiia muzikalen folklor" [The
essence, the significance and the collection of our folk music], INEM, pp.
96-107.
1929 "Nashite narodni napevi i teoriiata na Riman" [Our folk melodies and the
theories of Riemann], Uchilishten Pregled 38:184-98. (n)
Karastoianov, Asen
1950 Melodichni i harmonichni osnovi na blulgarskatanarodna pesen [The melodic
and harmonic bases of the Bulgarian folksong]. (Part I). Sofia. 150 pp.
Katsarova-Kukudova, Raina D.
1936 "Gaidite na edin shumenski maistor" [The bagpipes made by a craftsman in
Shumen], INEM 12:89-110.
1936 "KopriKki gajdi i gajdari" [Koprivshtitsa bagpipes and bagpipe players],
Vjesnik Etnografskog Muzeja u Zagrebu, bk. 3, pp. 14-21.
1939 "Dneshnoto syustoianie na epichniia rechitativ v Bulgariia" [The present state
of the epic recitatif in Bulgaria], INEM 13:189-99.
1943 "UgYurchinska pentatonika" [The pentatonic scale of the village of
Ugurchin], INEM 14:78-93.
1951 Dances of Bulgaria. London: Max Parrish. 40 pp.
1952 "Tri pokoleniia narodni pevitsi" [Three generations of women folk singers],
IIM 1:43-96.
1955 Bilgarski tantsov folklor [Bulgarian dance folklore]. Sofia. 116 pp. (n)
1955 "Narodni khora v selo Khlevene" [Folk dances in the village of Khlevene],
IIM 2/3:3-188.
1956 "Verbreitung und Varianten eines bulgarischen Volkstanzes" in Studia
Memoriae Belae Bartok Sacra (Budapest), pp. 69-87.
1957 "Razprostranenie i varianti na edin bulgarski tants" [Distribution and
variants of one Bulgarian dance], IIM 4:89-122. Fuller version of 1956
entry.
1958 Bulgarian folk dances. Sofia. 167 pp. With K. Dzhenev.
1963 "Naroden kuklen teatYur:kukli ot k"urpi" [Folk puppet theater: Puppets
made from cloths], Izvestiia na Etnografskiia Institut i MuzeT 6:409-24,
illus., music.
1963 "Phenomenes polyphoniques dans la musique populaire bulgare," in (Zoltano
Kodaly Octogenario Sacra.) Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum
Hungaricae, III (Budapest), pp. 161-72.
1963 "Pudarevski kukeri" [The kukeri from Pudarevo], in Rad IX. Kongresa
Saveza Folklorista Jugoslavije u Mostaru i Trebinju 1962. Sarajevo, pp.
499-508. The kukeri ritual carnival dances in the village of Pudarevo, Sliven
district.

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1965 "La classification des melodies populaires en Bulgarie," Journal of the
International Folk Music Council 18(2):293-99. Also Studia Musicologica,
VII (Budapest).
1967 "Nauchni
prinosi v narodnata ni khoreografiia i obichai" [Scholarly
contributions to the study of our folk choreography and customs], IIM
12:15-22.
1968 "Naroden kuklen teatfur: kukli ot rasteniia" [Folk puppet theater: Puppets
made from plants], in Rad XII. Kongresa Saveza Folklorista Jugoslavije.
Celje 1965. Ljubljana. Pp. 395-410, illus., music.

Kaufman, Nikolai
1958 "Dvuglasnoto narodno peene v Builgariia" [Folk singing in two parts in
Bulgaria], Spisanie na Bulgarskata Akademiia na Naukite 1958, no. 4, pp.
45-58.
1959 "Triglasnite narodni pesni ot Kostursko" [Three part folksongs from the
Castoria region], IIM 6:65-158.
1961 "Narodnite pesni ot Smoliansko i Madansko," IIM 7:79-158.
1961 "Evreiskiiat muzikalen instrument 'shofar' v bogosluzhebnata praktika na
bYulgarskiteevrei" [The Hebrew musical instrument "shofar" in the religious
service of the Bulgarian Jews], IIM 7:253-59.
1962 "Pesnite na blulgarite mokhamedani" [Songs of the Bulgarian Moslems], IIM
8:13-112.
1963 "Obrednite pesni na bulgarite mokhamedani" [The ritual songs of the
Bulgarian Moslems], IIM 9:5-72.
1963 "Pesni na balramsko khoro, izpulniavani ot bfulgarite mokhamedani" [Songs
with the Bairam dance performed by the Bulgarian Moslems], Izvestiia na
Etnografskiia Institut i MuzeY, 6:393-407.
1963 "Pesnite na maloaziiskite b[ulgari" [The Songs of the Bulgarians of Asia
Minor], IIM 9:73-110.
1964 "Mehrstimmigkeit in der bulgarischen Musik," Beitrage zur Musikwissenschaft
(Leipzig), no. 2, pp. 101-28. No original source given.
1965 "Narodnata muzika v Pirinskiia krai" [The folk music of the Pirin region],
IIM 11:149-220.
1966 "Mnogoglasieto v pesenniia folklor na balkanskite narodi" [Polyphony in the
folksong of the Balkan peoples], Builgarska Muzika 1966, no. 2, pp. 3040.
1967 "Die Mehrstimmigkeit in der Liedfolklore der Balkanvolker" Beitrage zur
Musikwissenschaft (Leipzig), vol. 9, heft 1, pp. 3-21. Translation of 1966
entry, although source not indicated.
1967 "Muzikalniiat folklor na shpan'olskite (sefaradskite) evrei v B?ulgariia"[The
folk music of the Spanish (Sephardic) Jews in Bulgaria], IIM 12:231-68.
1968 "Obredni svatbeni pesni" [Ritual wedding songs], in Rad XII. Kongresa
Saveza Folklorista Jugoslavije. Celje 1965. Ljubljana. Pp. 201-05.
Khristov, Dobri
1913 "Ritmichnite osnovi na narodnata ni muzika" [The rhythmic bases of our
folk music], SbNU 27. 48 pp.
1928 Tekhnicheskiiat stroezh na biulgarskata narodna muzika. Sofia. (n) Reprinted
Sofia, 1956. 56 pp.
1967 Muzikalno-teoretichesko i publitsistichesko nasledstvo [Music theory and
publicistic legacy]. I. Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Bulgarskata Akademiia na
Naukite. 351 pp. Edited by Venelin KYirstev,and issued by the Institute of
Music. Contains previously unpublished writings. Pages 33-259 concern
Bulgarian folk music. Of special importance in his revised version of "Metric
and Rhythmic Bases ...," written about 1929, never before published.
Kremenliev, Boris
1952 Bulgarian-Macedonian folk music. Berkeley and Los Angeles. xii, 165 pp.

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1966 "Extension and its effect in Bulgarian folk song," Selected reports (Institute
of Ethnomusicology at UCLA) 1(1):1-27.
Kuba, Ludvik
1897 "Tonalnostite v b'ulgarskite napevi" [The scales in the Bulgarian melodies],
SbNU 14:641-64. Influential in its time. Reprinted in Czech, revised by
Kuba, in his Cesty za slovanskou pisni' 1885-1929, 2nd ed. (Prague, 1953),
pp. 670-89.
Makhan' (Machai), Karel
1894 "Nashite napevi" [Our melodies], SbNU 10:221-35.
1895 "Perso-arabski motivi v bulgarskite napevi" [Perso-Arabic motifs in Bulgarian
melodies], B'ulgarskipregled 2(8):90-96.
1901 "Nashata
narodna muzika samostoiatelna li e?" [Is our folk music
independent?], Kaval, vol. 2, br. 1-5. (n)
Motsev, Aleksandur
1949 Ritum i takt v byulgarskatanarodna muzika [Rhythm and meter in Bulgarian
folk music]. Sofia. 367 pp. (Trudove na Instituta za Muzika, I.)
1955 "Taktovete
s khemiolno ud?ulzheni vremena v zapisite na bYulgarskite
folkloristi" [Measures with extended beats (by hemiola) in the transcriptions
of Bulgarian folklorists], IIM 2/3:319-50.
1957 ""Teoriia na bfulgarskata narodna muzika' ot d-r S Dzhudzhev" [The theory
of Bulgarian folk music by Dr. S. Dzhudzhev], IIM 4:241-60. Long review.
1961 Ornamenti v bulgarskata narodna muzika. [Ornaments in Bulgarian folk
music]. Sofia. 287 pp.
Nikolov, Kosta
1942?Beitrag zum Studium des bulgarischen Volksliedes. Berlin. Ph.D. dissertation.
(n)
Obreshkov (Obreschkoff), Khristo
1937 Das bulgarische Volkslied. Berne-Leipzig. 106 pp. Ph.D. dissertation, Bere.
Petrov, Stoian
1965 "Narodnata pesenna kultura na banatskite bYulgari"[The folksong of the
Banat Bulgarians], IIM 11:79-148.
Primovski, Anastas
1963 "Mominski
Trakiia (Dedeagachko,
pevcheski
grupi v Belomorska
Giumiurdzhinsko i Ksantiisko)" [Girls' singing groups in Aegean Thrace
of Dedeagach, Giumiurdzha (?) and Xanthe)], Izvestiia na
(Regions
Etnografskiia Institut i Muzel 6:383-91.
Romanski, Liubomir
1942 "Die einfachen Koledo-Refrains der bulgarischen Weihnachtslieder," Sbornik
na Bulgarskata Akademiia na Naukite 36:293-654. Ph.D. dissertation, Berlin.
Spasov, Vasil
1931 Volksmusik, Volksinstrumente
dissertation, Vienna. (n)

und Tanze der Bulgaren. Vienna. Ph.D.

Stoin, Elena
1952 "Suvremennata b'ulgarska narodna pesen" [The contemporary Bulgarian
folksong], IIM 1:125-48.
1955 "Lazaruvane v selo Negushevo" [Lazarus Day customs and songs in the
village of Negushevo], IIM 2/3:189-214.
1964 "Narodnite pesni v Srednogorieto (Sushtinska Sredna Gora)" [The Folk
Songs in the Srednegorie (in the Section called "Sushtinska Sredna
Gora"-The True Central Mountain)], IIM 10:97-164.

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Stoin, Vasil
1924 "Kum bulgarskite narodni napevi" [On Bulgarian folk melodies], INEM
4:71-88.
1925 Hypothese sur l'origine de la diaphonie. Sofia. 44 pp.
1927 Biulgarskata narodna muzika; metrika i ritmika [Bulgarian folk music; metrics
and rhythm]. Sofia. 84 pp. German resume.
1936 "BuYlgarskite narodni muzikalni instrumenti" [Bulgarian folk music
instruments], INEM 12:86-88. Treats only the dvoyanka.
1956 B'ulgarskatanarodna muzika. Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo. 100 pp. Edited by S.
Dzhudzhev. Reprint of all above entries, in Bulgarian.
Todorov, Todor
1962 "Niakoi melodicheski osobenosti na rodopskata narodna pesen" [Some
melodic features of the Rhodope folksong], IIM 8:163-96.
1962 "Pesennite varianti v Rodopite" [Song variants in the Rhodopes], IIM
8:113-62.
Vakarelski, Khristo
1952 "Muzikata v zhivota na rodnoto mi selo Momina Klisura, Pazardzhishko"
[Music in the life of my native village of Momina Klisura, district of
Pazardzhik], IIM 1:167-202.
1955 "Muzikalno-folklomi proiavi na Plovdivskoto izlozhenie prez 1892 g." [Folk
music exhibits at the Plovdiv Exposition of 1892], IIM 2/3:267-318. With
Anastas Primovski.
1957 "Belezhki po muzikalnata teoriia i estetika na naroda" [Notes on the musical
theory and esthetics of the folk], IIM 4:123-58.
1962 "Ezikut na rodopskite pesni, subrani v Instituta za Muzika pri BAN" [The
language of the Rhodope songs collected in the Institute of Music of the
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences], IIM 8:235-56.

New York, N.Y.