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HowHow toto achieveachieve ethicalethical energyenergy andand environmentalenvironmental sustainabilitysustainability toto satisfysatisfy futurefuture energyenergy demandsdemands

TheThe UseUse OfOf AlgaeAlgae

AdamAdam AA MarshMarsh

04043040404304

MScMSc SustainableSustainable EnergyEnergy andand EnvironmentEnvironment

DifferentDifferent AlgaeAlgae

ProcessesProcesses

PossibilitiesPossibilities

LimitationsLimitations

ChlorellaChlorella sp.sp.

ChlorellaChlorella sorokiniana sorokiniana : : Chlorella sorokinianasorokiniana::

VeryVery fastfast growinggrowing -- (doubling(doubling timetime ofof 2.52.5 h)h) TolerantTolerant toto highhigh temperaturestemperatures -- ((optimumoptimum 4040 oo C)C) TolerantTolerant toto highhigh COCO 22 concentrationsconcentrations -- (5(5 -- 40%CO40%CO 22 )) FoundFound inin hothot springssprings

ChlorellaChlorella vulgaris: vulgaris: Chlorella vulgaris:vulgaris:

FastFast growinggrowing FoundFound allall overover thethe worldworld inin lakeslakes andand pondsponds HugeHuge amountamount ofof literatureliterature

BotryococcusBotryococcus brauniibraunii

HighHigh concentration concentration of of lipid lipid hydrocarbons hydrocarbons (<70%) (<70%) At At 50% 50% High concentrationconcentration ofof lipidlipid hydrocarbonshydrocarbons (<70%)(<70%) AtAt 50%50% concentrationconcentration (dry(dry weight),weight), HHVHHV ~~ 34MJ/kg34MJ/kg CanCan growgrow inin brackishbrackish waterwater SlowSlow growinggrowing (doubling(doubling timetime ofof aa fewfew days)days) CanCan formform biobio filmsfilms

ChlamydomonasChlamydomonas reinhardtiireinhardtii

CanCan produce produce pure pure Hydrogen Hydrogen gas gas when when deprived deprived of of Can produceproduce purepure HydrogenHydrogen gasgas whenwhen depriveddeprived ofof SS RapidRapid growinggrowing (doubling(doubling timetime ofof 6.46.4 hh achieved)achieved) LimitedLimited growthgrowth duringduring HH 22 productionproduction

of 6.4 6.4 h h achieved) achieved) Limited Limited growth growth during during H H 2
of 6.4 6.4 h h achieved) achieved) Limited Limited growth growth during during H H 2
of 6.4 6.4 h h achieved) achieved) Limited Limited growth growth during during H H 2
Concentration Concentration Retention Retention time time Flow Flow rate rate Temperature Temperature Nutrients
Concentration Concentration Retention Retention time time Flow Flow rate rate Temperature Temperature Nutrients

ConcentrationConcentration

RetentionRetention timetime

FlowFlow raterate

TemperatureTemperature

NutrientsNutrients

SalinitySalinity
SalinitySalinity
Temperature Temperature Nutrients Nutrients SalinitySalinity CO CO 2 2 + + H H 2 2 O

COCO 22 ++ HH 22 OO ++

SalinitySalinity CO CO 2 2 + + H H 2 2 O O + + light
SalinitySalinity CO CO 2 2 + + H H 2 2 O O + + light

lightlight

energyenergy

ChlorophyllChlorophyll

O O + + light light energy energy Chlorophyll Chlorophyll (CH (CH 2 2 O) O)

(CH(CH 22 O)O) ++ OO 22 ++

Chlorophyll (CH (CH 2 2 O) O) + + O O 2 2 + + Wavelength
Chlorophyll (CH (CH 2 2 O) O) + + O O 2 2 + + Wavelength

WavelengthWavelength

IntensityIntensity

+ + O O 2 2 + + Wavelength Wavelength Intensity Intensity Photoperiod Photoperiod chemical chemical

PhotoperiodPhotoperiod

chemicalchemical

energyenergy

LightLight

WavelengthWavelength

ChlorophyllChlorophyll mainlymainly absorbsabsorbs lightlight atat approximatelyapproximately 450450 andand 650650 nm,nm, perceivedperceived asas blueblue andand redred respectively.respectively.

IntensityIntensity

DifferentDifferent speciesspecies havehave individualindividual characteristics.characteristics. However,However, similarsimilar tritri--regionregion growthgrowth curvecurve fitsfits all.all.

1.1.

LightLight dependantdependant region;region; increasedincreased lightlight == increasedincreased growthgrowth rate.rate.

2.2.

LightLight independentindependent region;region; constantconstant growthgrowth raterate betweenbetween saturationsaturation (A)(A) andand photophoto inhibitioninhibition (B)(B) lightlight levels.levels.

3.3.

LightLight dependantdependant region;region; increasedincreased lightlight == reducedreduced growthgrowth rate.rate.

light light = = reduced reduced growth growth rate. rate. (A) (B) 6.3 W/m 2 47.3
(A) (B) 6.3 W/m 2 47.3 W/m 2
(A)
(B)
6.3 W/m 2
47.3 W/m 2

Botryococcus Braunii

W/m 2
W/m 2

LightLight

PhotoperiodPhotoperiod

Photoperiod is the ratio of light and dark, typically measured out of a maximum 24 hour period.

If NADPH and ATP compounds are available, the remaining processes of photosynthesis can take place without the necessity of light.

It can be seen above that algae does not utilise much more than 12 hours of light in a 24 hour period.

The maximum growth rate of a Chlorella sp. can be maintained in 9s of darkness if each cell has been exposed to 20 W.m -2 for 0.5s.

1 hour ~ 3.2 minutes

Botryococcus Braunii

in 9s of darkness if each cell has been exposed to 20 W.m - 2 for

LightLight

12h 30W/m 2
12h
30W/m 2

TemperatureTemperature

TemperatureTemperature affectsaffects thethe raterate ofof photosynthesisphotosynthesis byby changingchanging thethe ratesrates ofof enzymeenzyme reactionsreactions involvedinvolved inin systemssystems ofof thethe photosyntheticphotosynthetic complex.complex.

TheThe maximummaximum growthgrowth raterate willwill occuroccur atat thethe optimumoptimum temperature,temperature, withwith decliningdeclining ratesrates eithereither sideside ofof thethe optimum.optimum.

TheThe optimumoptimum temperaturetemperature willwill varyvary forfor individualindividual species.species.

TypicalTypical valuesvalues forfor algaealgae rangerange fromfrom 2020 -- 3535 oo CC

WhenWhen utilisingutilising speciesspecies forfor aa byby--product,product, thethe optimumoptimum temperaturetemperature forfor growthgrowth maymay notnot bebe thethe samesame asas thatthat forfor optimumoptimum production.production.

same same as as that that for for optimum optimum production. production. Botryococcus Braunii Botryococcus Braunii
same same as as that that for for optimum optimum production. production. Botryococcus Braunii Botryococcus Braunii
Botryococcus Braunii
Botryococcus Braunii
Botryococcus Braunii
Botryococcus Braunii

COCO 22 SupplySupply

ConcentrationConcentration

CurrentCurrent atmosphericatmospheric CO2CO2 concentrationsconcentrations ofof drydry airair areare inin thethe orderorder ofof 0.038%0.038%

TypicalTypical CO2CO2 concentrationsconcentrations emittedemitted fromfrom aa 1500MWe1500MWe coalcoal powerpower stationstation willwill bebe inin thethe orderorder ofof 13%13%

OptimumOptimum growthgrowth raterate ofof ChlorellaChlorella vulgarisvulgaris occursoccurs atat 2%2% COCO 22 concentrationconcentration

HighestHighest COCO 22 reductionreduction efficiencyefficiency alsoalso occursoccurs atat 2%2% COCO 22 concentrationconcentration atat 58%58%

HighestHighest COCO 22 reductionreduction occursoccurs atat optimumoptimum growthgrowth

rate.rate.

ChlorellaChlorella SorokinianaSorokiniana willwill growgrow wellwell atat concentrationsconcentrations ofof 13%13% COCO 22

AddingAdding furtherfurther volumesvolumes ofof bioreactorsbioreactors increasesincreases thethe volumevolume sequestrationsequestration linearlylinearly withwith similarsimilar efficiencies.efficiencies.

ChlorellaChlorella SorokinianaSorokiniana
ChlorellaChlorella
SorokinianaSorokiniana

COCO 22 SupplySupply

FlowFlow RateRate andand RetentionRetention TimeTime

InIn smallsmall reactors,reactors, thethe capacitycapacity ofof COCO 22 fixationfixation (and(and OO 22 evolution)evolution) decreasesdecreases withwith anan increasingincreasing gasgas flowflow raterate asas thethe retentionretention timetime isis dramaticallydramatically reduced.reduced.

Chlorella sp. Chlorella vulgaris
Chlorella sp.
Chlorella vulgaris

IncreasingIncreasing thethe retentionretention timetime enablesenables moremore sufficientsufficient contactcontact betweenbetween algaealgae andand COCO 22 resultingresulting inin betterbetter absorption.absorption.

However,However, largerlarger reactorsreactors willwill increaseincrease thethe retentionretention timetime byby increasingincreasing thethe distancedistance forfor whichwhich thethe gasgas mustmust passpass throughthrough thethe culture,culture, allowingallowing higherhigher gasgas flowflow ratesrates toto bebe used.used.

AA fasterfaster gasgas flowflow raterate willwill increaseincrease turbulence.turbulence. TurbulenceTurbulence willwill improveimprove thethe massmass transfertransfer

coefficientcoefficient andand willwill induceinduce mixingmixing ofof thethe cells,cells,

allowingallowing eacheach cellcell timetime inin thethe lightlight intenseintense areasareas ofof thethe reactor.reactor.

Lihai Fan et al., 2007. Optimization of Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Chlorella vulgaris Cultivated in a Membrane Photobioreactor, Chem. Eng. Technol.; Volume 30, Issue 8, pg. 1094-1099

COCO 22 ReductionReduction

ThisThis paperpaper claimedclaimed thethe optimumoptimum gasgas flowflow raterate waswas 1.251.25 L/min.L/min.

MembranesMembranes werewere usedused toto enhanceenhance thethe gasgas-- liquidliquid massmass transfertransfer rate.rate.

AtAt thethe ratherrather lowlow luminousluminous intensityintensity ofof 8W/m8W/m 22 ,, andand COCO 22 concentrationconcentration ofof 1%,1%, thethe COCO 22 fixationfixation raterate waswas approximatelyapproximately 0.14g/L.h0.14g/L.h

OriginalOriginal cellcell densitydensity waswas 5x105x10 77 cells/mlcells/ml

Lihai Fan et al., 2007. Optimization of Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Chlorella vulgaris Cultivated in a Membrane Photobioreactor, Chem. Eng. Technol.; Volume 30, Issue 8, pg. 1094-1099

Chlorella Vulgaris
Chlorella
Vulgaris

T = 25 o C; Density; 5x10 7 cells/mL; Irradiance ~ 8 W/m 2 ; CO 2 concentration; 1%

~8W/m 2
~8W/m 2

1500MWe1500MWe PowerPower StationStation

CoalCoal HHVHHV 30MJ/kg30MJ/kg

CoalCoal 143.3kg/s143.3kg/s

CC

80%80%

OO

13%13%

HH

6%6%

SS

1%1%

CC

114.6114.6 kg/skg/s

η=35% 4300MWth 1500MWe
η=35%
4300MWth
1500MWe
≈ ≈ 114.6 114.6 kg/s kg/s η=35% 4300MWth 1500MWe CO CO 2 2 ≈ ≈ 13%
≈ ≈ 114.6 114.6 kg/s kg/s η=35% 4300MWth 1500MWe CO CO 2 2 ≈ ≈ 13%

COCO 22 13%13% SOSO 22 0.005%0.005%

OO 22

NN 22

3.8%3.8%

82.9%82.9%

COCO 22 420420 kg/skg/s

CC ++ OO 22 == COCO 22

(12)(12) ++ 2(16)2(16) == (44)(44)

11 ::

2.672.67 :: 3.673.67

nn CO2CO2 9.69.6 kmol/skmol/s

VV CO2CO2 235235 mm 33 /s/s

V C O 2 C O 2 ≈ ≈ 235 235 m m 3 3 /s
V C O 2 C O 2 ≈ ≈ 235 235 m m 3 3 /s
V C O 2 C O 2 ≈ ≈ 235 235 m m 3 3 /s

(( @@ 2525 oo CC ))

VV TT 18151815 mm 33 /s/s

≈ ≈ 235 235 m m 3 3 /s /s ( ( @ @ 25 25
≈ ≈ 235 235 m m 3 3 /s /s ( ( @ @ 25 25

COCO 22 ReductionReduction

UsingUsing ChlorellaChlorella sorokinianasorokiniana;;

120mm 1m Φ 130mm CSA = 0.0133 m 2
120mm
1m
Φ 130mm
CSA = 0.0133 m 2
0.14g0.14g COCO 22 /L.hr/L.hr LengthLength ??
0.14g0.14g COCO 22 /L.hr/L.hr
LengthLength ??

1.251.25 L/minL/min

 

13%13%

COCO 22

0.140.14

g/L.hrg/L.hr ::

== 2.32.3 g/mg/m 33 .s.s

1.251.25 L/minL/min @@ 13%13% COCO 22 ::

0%0% COCO 22

PowerPower plantplant actuallyactually producesproduces 18151815 mm 33 /s/s @@ 13%13% COCO 22

== 87.3x1087.3x10 66 timestimes moremore massivemassive

==

== 4.8x104.8x10 --33

AssumingAssuming constantconstant reductionreduction rate,rate, reactorreactor volumevolume requiredrequired ::

4.8x104.8x10 --33 // 2.32.3 == 1.77x101.77x10 --33 mm 33

2.7x102.7x10 --66

mm 33 /s/s COCO 22 g/sg/s COCO 22

87.3x1087.3x10 66 xx 0.1330.133 == 11.61x1011.61x10 66 mm

11,61011,610 kmkm ofof pipelinepipeline areare needed.needed.

44 pipespipes inin eacheach metremetre widthwidth

ReactorReactor lengthlength requiredrequired ::

2.9x102.9x10 66 mm 22 horizontalhorizontal areaarea

CellCell GrowthGrowth

OriginalOriginal cellcell densitydensity == 5x105x10 77 cells/mlcells/ml

== 0.7kg/m0.7kg/m 33

OriginalOriginal TotalTotal MassMass == 0.70.7 xx 154.5x10154.5x10 33

== 108x10108x10 33 kgkg

DoublingDoubling timetime ofof 2.52.5 hourshours == 9.69.6 doublingsdoublings aa dayday

MassMass growngrown == 9.69.6 xx 108x10108x10 33

== 1.04x101.04x10 66 kg/daykg/day

== 1212 kg/skg/s

(dry(dry weight)weight)

ChlorellaChlorella SorokinianaSorokiniana hashas aa HHVHHV ofof 15.6MJ/kg15.6MJ/kg ThisThis isis tootoo lowlow forfor combustion.combustion.

However,However, wouldwould provideprovide 187MWth187MWth ThisThis isis aboutabout 4%4% ofof powerpower stationstation

AnaerobicAnaerobic DigestionDigestion

AnaerobicAnaerobic digestiondigestion isis aa processprocess carriedcarried outout byby micromicro organismsorganisms thatthat cancan degradedegrade carboncarbon basedbased mattermatter withoutwithout thethe presencepresence ofof oxygen.oxygen.

TheThe mainmain productsproducts areare CarbonCarbon DioxideDioxide andand Methane.Methane.

(60%(60% CHCH 44 andand 40%40% COCO 22 ))

BiomassBiomass isis aa suitablesuitable sourcesource forfor anaerobicanaerobic digestion.digestion.

source for for anaerobic anaerobic digestion. digestion. Feedstock Feedstock 1.7 1.7 kg kg VS/m VS/m 3

FeedstockFeedstock

anaerobic digestion. digestion. Feedstock Feedstock 1.7 1.7 kg kg VS/m VS/m 3 3 .day .day Reactor

1.71.7 kgkg VS/mVS/m 33 .day.day

Reactor 35 o C 20-30days
Reactor
35
o C
20-30days
COCO 22 CHCH 44
COCO 22
CHCH 44
3 .day .day Reactor 35 o C 20-30days COCO 22 CHCH 44 0.68 0.68 kg kg
3 .day .day Reactor 35 o C 20-30days COCO 22 CHCH 44 0.68 0.68 kg kg
3 .day .day Reactor 35 o C 20-30days COCO 22 CHCH 44 0.68 0.68 kg kg

0.680.68 kgkg /m/m 33 .day.day

COCO 22 CHCH 44 0.68 0.68 kg kg /m /m 3 3 .day .day 60% 60%
COCO 22 CHCH 44 0.68 0.68 kg kg /m /m 3 3 .day .day 60% 60%
COCO 22 CHCH 44 0.68 0.68 kg kg /m /m 3 3 .day .day 60% 60%
COCO 22 CHCH 44 0.68 0.68 kg kg /m /m 3 3 .day .day 60% 60%

60%60% reductionreduction inin organicorganic mattermatter

AnaerobicAnaerobic DigestionDigestion

Anaerobic Anaerobic Digestion Digestion Kelp Kelp can can produce produce biogas biogas at at a a

KelpKelp cancan produceproduce biogasbiogas atat aa raterate ofof ::

0.40.4 mm 33 /kg/kg VSVS

WeWe areare producingproducing ::

1.04x101.04x10 66 kg/daykg/day

1212 kg/skg/s

(dry(dry weight)weight)

ThisThis equatesequates toto ::

416x10416x10 33 mm 33 /day/day

4.84.8 mm 33 /s/s

MethaneMethane hashas aa HHVHHV ofof 55.555.5 MJ/kgMJ/kg

ThereforeTherefore ::

266.4266.4 MWthMWth couldcould bebe produced.produced. (~6%(~6% ofof powerpower plant)plant)

BioreactorBioreactor cancan taketake 1.71.7 kg/mkg/m 33 .day.day ThereforeTherefore ::

245x10245x10 33 mm 33 reactorsreactors wouldwould bebe neededneeded == 311,311, 10m10m high,high, 10m10m diameterdiameter reactorsreactors

3.23.2 mm 33 /s/s COCO 22

(~1.3%(~1.3% ofof plant)plant)

ConclusionsConclusions

AlgaeAlgae cancan serveserve toto bebe aa naturalnatural wayway forfor removingremoving COCO 22 emissions.emissions.

98%98% isis aa realisticrealistic reductionreduction value.value.

HugeHuge cropscrops ofof algaealgae willwill bebe producedproduced daily.daily.

UsingUsing asas aa fuelfuel forfor thethe powerpower plplantant isis notnot aa realisticrealistic possibilipossibility.ty.

UsingUsing asas aa transporttransport fuelfuel willwill simplysimply rere--releaserelease thethe COCO 22

AlternativeAlternative usesuses mustmust bebe found.found.

ResearchResearch isis beingbeing carriedcarried outout inin thisthis area.area.

-- BioBio--fuelsfuels -- BioBio--PlasticsPlastics -- FoodsFoods -- FertiliserFertiliser

QUESTIONSQUESTIONS

??

1500MWe, η=35%

1500 / 0.35 = 4286

4300MWth

C + O 2 = CO 2

(12) + 2(16) = (44)

1

:

2.67

:

3.67

CO 2 13%

SO 2 0.005%

O 2

N 2

3.8%

82.9%

Coal HHV 30MJ/kg

4300 / 30 = 143.3

Coal 143.3kg/s

C

80%

O

13%

H

6%

S

1%

143.3 x 0.8 = 114.6

C 114.6 kg/s

114.6 x 3.67 = 420.6

CO 2 420 kg/s

420 / 44 = 9.55 kmol/s

CO 2 9.6 kmol/s

9.6x10 3 x 24.5x10 -3 = 236

V CO2 236 m 3 /s

( @ 25 o C )

V T = 236 / 0.13 = 1815.4

V T 1815 m 3 /s

PhotoPhoto--limitationlimitation

I ln

 

I

o

k C

d

Where;Where; II == LightLight intensityintensity atat depthdepth ofof penetrationpenetration dd IoIo == IncidentIncident lightlight intensityintensity

CC

== AlgaeAlgae concentrationconcentration (kg.m(kg.m--33 oror g.lg.l--1)1)

dd

== DepthDepth (m)(m)

kk == LightLight extinctionextinction coefficientcoefficient (m2.kg(m2.kg--1)1)

extinction coefficient coefficient (m2.kg (m2.kg - - 1) 1) To To make make enough enough fuel

ToTo makemake enoughenough fuelfuel fromfrom algaealgae toto runrun entireentire plantplant ::

StartingStarting densitydensity ofof 11.6kg/m11.6kg/m 33 isis neededneeded