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Operation

Where necessary, refer to the drawings in the Equipment Diagrams section.

Operating the PC Software

Details about operating the optional software can be obtained by choosing the Help
tab in the top right hand corner of the screen as shown below:

Operating the Equipment

The following notes are provided to assist an operator who requires further details on
how to use the equipment. The individual laboratory teaching exercises provide the
necessary settings/sequences for operating the equipment as required to complete a
particular exercise
Refer to the Equipment Diagrams.

Although the air pump is show located on top of the air vessels it is most convenient
to locate the air pump alongside the electrical console on a suitable bench.

Note: Pressure P in the large vessel and Vacuum V in the small vessel are indicated
by positive values on the digital meter (16). A negative reading for P means that the
large vessel is below atmospheric (i.e. vacuum). A negative reading for V means that
the small vessel is above atmospheric (I.e. pressure).

Using the air pump to pressurise the large vessel

Before using the air pump check that the outlet of the pump is connected to the
tapping on top of the large vessel as show in Figure 1 using flexible tubing.

Set the selector switch (14) to position P to observe the pressure inside the large
vessel (3) on the digital meter (16).
Open ball valve V1 from the large vessel to atmosphere.

Close ball valve V2 that connects the large vessel to the small vessel (via a large
bore pipe).
Close isolating valve V6 that connects the large vessel to the small vessel (via
needle valve V5).
Open isolating valve V4 to allow the air pump to pressurise the large vessel.

Open isolating valve V7 to allow the air pump to draw air from the small vessel.

Switch on the air pump (9) using the switch (13) on the console then close ball valve
V1.
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Allow the pressure to rise until the required reading is indicated on the digital meter.
Note: Most demonstrations are performed with a maximum starting pressure of 30
kN/m2. The pressure can be taken above this value if required but readings in excess
of 35 kN/m2 cannot be monitored using a computer or chart recorder that has been
connected to the I/O Port (15). Pressures in excess of this will operate the pressure
relief valve (1) that protects the large vessel from damage.
When the required pressure is achieved close the isolating valve V4 and switch off
the air pump. The pressure reading will fall slightly after closing the isolating valve.
This is normal and due to temperature changes (This effect is explained in the
relevant teaching exercise).

Using the air pump to evacuate the small vessel

Before using the air pump check that the inlet of the pump is connected to the
tapping on top of the small vessel as show in Figure 1 using flexible tubing.

Set the selector switch (14) to position V to observe the Vacuum inside the small
vessel (6) on the digital meter (16).
Open ball valve V3 from the small vessel to atmosphere.

Close ball valve V2 that connects the large vessel to the small vessel (via a large
bore pipe).
Close isolating valve V6 that connects the large vessel to the small vessel (via
needle valve V5).
Open isolating valve V7 to allow the air pump to evacuate the small vessel.

Open isolating valve V4 to allow the air pump to deliver air to the large vessel.

Switch on the air pump (9) using the switch (13) on the console then open ball valve
V3.
Allow the vacuum to rise until the required reading is indicated on the digital meter.

Note: Most demonstrations are performed with a maximum starting vacuum of 30


kN/m2. The vacuum can be taken above this value if required but readings in excess
of 35 kN/m2 cannot be monitored using a computer or chart recorder that has been
connected to the I/O Port (15).

When the required vacuum is achieved close the isolating valve V7 and switch off the
air pump. The vacuum reading will fall slightly after closing the isolating valve. This is
normal and due to temperature changes (This effect is explained in the relevant
teaching exercise).
Note: If the small vessel accidentally becomes pressurised in excess of 35 kN/m2
then the pressure relief valve (7) will protect the small vessel from damage.

Creating a step change in the large vessel

Having created a pressure inside the vessel wait until the pressure reading stabilises
(temperature of the air inside the vessel achieves room temperature).
The required step change is a small but rapid change in the pressure inside the
vessel. This is achieved by opening then closing ball valve V1 rapidly with a snap
action.
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Operation
It may take a little practice but when performed correctly the air will be heard to rush
out of the vessel for a very short duration.
The effect of the step change is described in the relevant teaching exercise.

Creating a step change in the small vessel

Having created a vacuum inside the vessel wait until the vacuum reading stabilises
(temperature of the air inside the vessel achieves room temperature).
The required step change is a small but rapid change in the vacuum inside the
vessel. This is achieved by opening then closing ball valve V3 rapidly with a snap
action.

It may take a little practice but when performed correctly the air will be heard to rush
into the vessel for a very short duration.
The effect of the step change is described in the relevant teaching exercise.

Creating a step change between the small and large vessels

Having created a vacuum inside the small vessel and/or a pressure inside the large
vessel wait until the vacuum and pressure readings stabilise (temperature of the air
inside the vessels achieves room temperature).

The required step change is a small but rapid change in the vacuum/pressure inside
the vessels. This is achieved by opening then closing ball valve V2 rapidly with a
snap action.
It may take a little practice but when performed correctly the air will be heard to rush
from the large vessel to the small vessel for a very short duration.
The effect of the step change is described in the relevant teaching exercise.

Creating a gradual change between the small and large vessels

Having created a vacuum inside the small vessel and/or a pressure inside the large
vessel wait until the vacuum and pressure readings stabilise (temperature of the air
inside the vessels achieves room temperature).

The required change is a very gradual change in the vacuum/pressure inside the
vessels, in effect a slow leak that does not affect the temperature of the air inside the
vessels.

This is achieved by closing needle valve V5, opening isolating valve V6 then opening
needle valve V5 very slightly until the pressure/vacuum readings start to change. If
the movement of air is audible then the needle valve V5 has been opened too far and
must be closed slightly. Similarly if readings of T1 or T2 are observed to change then
needle valve V5 has been opened too far and must be closed. As the pressure
difference between the two vessels reduces valve V5 can be opened further to
reduce the time of the exercise provided that it is not opened sufficiently to affect T1
and T2
The effect of the gradual change is described in the relevant teaching exercise.

Converting resistance values to temperature

Readings of T(R)1 and T(R)2 from the console are resistance values for the
thermistor inside each vessel. These resistance readings can be converted to
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Armfield Instruction Manual


corresponding temperature values T1 and T2 using the chart provided in
Relationship between Resistance and Temperature for Thermistors used on TH5
(Nominal values) in Laboratory Teaching Exercises. The thermistors are supplied as
a matched pair which means that readings from the sensors will be closely matched.
However, the thermistor has a wide tolerance band which means that some
temperature offset will be inevitable in the readings.

The measured values of resistance and the corresponding calculated values of


temperature are not used in any calculations; they are simply used to demonstrate
the changes in temperature in the system so an offset is not important. However, if
the user wishes to correct the offset for the specific thermistors supplied with the TH5
then the resistance / temperature equation can be corrected to give actual
temperature readings, corrected for manufacturing tolerance as follows:
Determine the resistance measurement with the thermistor at 25C (E.g. 1800
Ohms).
For this thermistor with nominal characteristics (R = 2000 Ohms at 25C) the
equation that best describes the temperature/resistance relationship is:
Temperature (C) = -0.021 R3 + 2.976 R2 177.1 R + 4894

If the actual resistance reading is 1800 Ohms at 25C (200 Ohms lower that the
nominal) then the equation becomes:
Actual Temperature (C) = -0.021 R3 + 2.976 R2 177.1 R + 4894 - 200)
Actual Temperature (C) = --0.021 R3 + 2.976 R2 177.1 R + 4694

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Equipment Specifications

The following information may be of use when using this apparatus:


Nominal height of large and small vessels:

0.590 m

Nominal cross-sectional area of large vessel:

0.038 m2

Nominal cross-sectional area of small vessel:

0.0154 m

Approximate volume of large vessel:

0.0224 m3

Approximate volume of small vessel:

0.0091 m3

USB Channel Numbers

The channel numbers for the USB port are listed below for information:
Pin No

Channel No

Signal Function

Analog Outputs (0-5 V dc exported from socket)


1

Ch 0 Signal

Ch 0 Return

Ch 1 Signal

Ch 1 Return

Ch 2 Signal

Ch 2 Return

Ch 3 Signal

Ch 3 Return

Ch 4 Signal

10

Ch 4 Return

11

Ch 5 Signal

12

Ch 5 Return

13

Ch 6 Signal

Not used on TH5

Not used on TH5

P Pressure (0V = 0 kN/m2, 5V = 34.48 kN/m2)

T(R)1 Thermistor (0V = 0 , 5V = 5102

T(R)2 Thermistor (0V = 0 , 5V = 5102

V Vacuum (0V = 0 kN/m2, 5V = 34.48 kN/m2)

Not used on TH5

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