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Assessment task 1, 2011

Mathematics extension 2

Solutions

Question 1.

a)

12 marks

z1 + z2

i)

Solution

z1 +

=

z2

8 2i + 2 3i

6 5i

1

z2

ii)

Solution

2 3i

1

2 + 3i 2 3i

1

=

z2

2 3i

4+9

1 mark for one arithmetic error.

2 3

i

13 13

iii)

z1 z2

Solution

(8 2i ) ( 2 3i )

z1 =

z2

=

16 24i + 4i 6

=

22 20i

-2-

b)

The diagram shows the locus of points z in the complex plane such that

arg

z 3

=

z +1 6

This locus is part of a circle. The angle between the lines from 1 to z and from 3 to z is , as shown.

i)

Explain why =

Solution

arg

z 3

=

z +1 6

arg ( z 3) arg ( z + 1) =

6

arg ( z 3) =

+ arg ( z + 1)

arg ( z 3) = + arg ( z + 1)

=

6

-3-

ii)

Solution

tan

y=

2

y

2

1

3

2 units

3 marks for correct solution.

=2 3

Centre 1, 2 3

c)

0 has a complex root of

real.

i)

5 +i

Solution

Complex roots of equations with real coefficients occur in complex conjugates

1 mark for correct response.

-4-

ii)

Solution

A monic quadratic equation can be formed using the roots

(x (

5 i

(x

)) ( x (

)(

5 +i

0

)) =

5 +i x 5 i =

0

x2 2 5x + 6 =

0

Question 2.

a)

p=

2 5

1 mark for solution with one arithmetic error

q=

6

12 marks

number z2 when z1 + z2 takes its greatest value. Express your answer in the form x + iy.

Solution

Using the triangle inequality

z1 + z2 z1 + z2

z1 + z2

3 +i +6

z1 + z2 8

If z1 + z2 takes its greatest value then z1 + z2 = 8 and the points O, P1 (representing z1) and P2 (representing z2) are

collinear.

-5-

represents z1 + z2

x = 6 cos

and

= 33

= 6 sin

6

3 marks for correct solution.

=3

1 mark for finding z1 + z2 8 .

z2 = 33 + 3i

b)

Let zn=

i)

(1 + i )

Solution

mod (1 + i ) =

Now

zn=

(1 + i )

1+1 =

and

11

arg (1 +=

i ) tan =

1 4

= 2 cos + i sin

4

4

1 mark for finding 1 correct argument or modulus or

n

n

= 2 cos

+ i sin

4

4

n

2

-6-

ii)

Solution

For zn to be purely imaginary arg zn =

arg zn =

n

k

where k =1,3, 5, ...

=

4

2

n 3 5

= , , ...

4

2 2 2

2 marks for correct solution.

n = 2 , 6 ,10 ,...

n 2, 6,10,14,18

=

0 < n < 20

n

k

=

4

2

c)

Let u, v and w be the complex numbers represented by the points U, V and W respectively.

Suppose uw + uw =

0

i)

u

Show that Re ( uw ) = 0 and hence that Re = 0

w

Solution

Let

u= a + ib

and

uw + =

uw

( a + ib )( c id ) + ( a ib )( c + id )

w= c + id

ac adi + bci + bd

2ac + 2bd

ac + bd

=

0

ac + adi bci + bd

-7-

( a + ib )( c id )

uw

=

=

ac adi + bci + bd

ac + bd + ( bc ad ) i

Re ( uw

=

)

ac + bd

=

u

=

w

a + ib

c + id

a + ib c id

c + id c id

ac adi + bci + bd

c2 + d 2

ac + bd ( bc ad ) i

+ 2

c2 + d 2

c + d2

=

u

Re =

w

ac + bd

c2 + d 2

0

=

as we have shown ac + bd 0

c + d2

2

2 marks for proving Re ( uw ) = 0

1 mark for finding ac + bd = 0.

-8-

ii)

Solution

Method 1

v= w + WV

=

since u =

w+u

WV as opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal

= c + id + a + ib

= a + c + (b + d ) i

( a + c ) + (b + d )

v =

2

a 2 + 2ac + c 2 + b 2 + 2bd + d 2

a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2 + 2 ( ac + bd )

a 2 + b2 + c2 + d 2

WU=

since ac + bd= 0

uw

=

a + ib ( c + id )

= a c + (b d ) i

2

2

2

WU = ( a c ) + ( b d )

2 marks for correct solution.

= a 2 2ac + c 2 + b 2 2bd + d 2

= a + b + c + d 2 ( ac + bd )

2

= a 2 + b2 + c2 + d 2

since ac + bd = 0

-9-

Method 2.

u

As =

Re 0

w

and

u

= ki

w

u

0

w

where k is an integer

u

Im = k

w

u

arg =

2

w

arg u arg w =

2

2 marks for correct solution.

u arg w

=

arg

u w

so OUVW is a rectangle.

- 10 -

Question 3.

a)

12 marks

arg z

and 1 Im ( z ) 2

Solution

b)

Prove that z1 = z1 z1

2

(i)

Solution

Let z1= x + iy

LHS = z1

=

RHS =+

( x iy )( x iy )

x2 + y 2

= x2 + y 2

= x2 + y 2

- 11 -

(ii)

Solution

=

LHS

(z z )

1

= z1 z2

= z z2

c)

i)

If

z1 z2

= 2i show that the points A, B and C, representing z1 , z2 , z3

z3 z2

Solution

From the diagram z1 z2 and z3 z2 are the sides of the triangle.

Now

z1 z2

= 2i

z3 z 2

z1 z=

2i ( z3 z2 )

2

to the side z3 z2 rotated by 90 and multiplied by a

factor of 2 in length.

Hence, z1 , z2 , z3 form a right angle triangle.

2 marks for correct solution including reference to z1 z2 and z3 z2 as the sides of the triangle

1 mark for stating z1 z2 is z3 z2 rotated by 90.

- 12 -

ii)

If z1 z2 =

z1 z2 = 2 z3 z2 = 12

z3 z2 =

6

A=

1

6 12

2

= 36 units 2

d)

(i)

and sin5 in terms of cos and sin.

Solution

(i)

z5

z5 = cos5 + i sin5

= (cos + i sin)5

=5C0 cos5 + 5C1cos4 i sin + 5C2 cos3 i2 sin2 + 5C3 cos2 i3sin3 + 5C4 cos1 i4 sin4 + 5C5 i5sin5

=

cos5 =

sin5

1 mark for one arithmetic error.

- 13 -

(ii)

Hence, show that tan5 =

1 10 tan 2 + 5 tan 4

Solution

sin 5

cos 5

(iii)

tan5

cos 5 10 cos 3 sin 2 + 5 cos sin 4

+

cos 5

cos 5

cos 5

5

3

2

cos 10 cos sin 5 cos sin 4

+

cos 5

cos 5

cos 5

+

cos

cos 3

cos 5

cos 5 10 sin 2 5 sin 4

+

cos 5

cos 2

cos 4

1 10 tan 2 + 5 tan 4

Hence, show that the roots of the equation x4 10x2 + 5 = 0 are given by

tan

and tan

2

5

Solution

If

tan5

Let x = tan

1 10 tan 2 + 5 tan 4

= 0

5 x 10 x 3 + x 5

1 10 x 2 + 5 x 4

= 0

5x 10x3 + x5 = 0

x(5 10x2 + x4)

=0

- 14 -

tan5 = 0

5

= 0, , 2

= k

When k = 0

x1

where k = 0, 1, 2, 3

k

5

k=1

= 0

x2 = tan

Note:

tan

k=2

k=3

x2 = tan

= tan

5

5

2

5

&

x2 = tan

tan

and tan

k=4

3

5

x2 = tan

3

2

= -tan

5

5

2

5

1 mark for finding = =

- 15 -

2k

5

4

5

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