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# Fort Street High School

## Higher School Certificate Course

Mathematics extension 2

Solutions

Question 1.

a)

12 marks

z1 + z2

i)
Solution

z1 +
=
z2

8 2i + 2 3i

6 5i

1
z2

ii)

Solution
2 3i
1

2 + 3i 2 3i

1
=
z2

2 3i
4+9

## 2 marks for correct solution.

1 mark for one arithmetic error.

2 3
i
13 13

iii)

z1 z2

Solution

(8 2i ) ( 2 3i )

z1 =
z2

=
16 24i + 4i 6

## 1 mark for correct response.

=
22 20i

-2-

b)

The diagram shows the locus of points z in the complex plane such that
arg

z 3
=
z +1 6

This locus is part of a circle. The angle between the lines from 1 to z and from 3 to z is , as shown.

i)

Explain why =

Solution

arg

z 3
=
z +1 6

arg ( z 3) arg ( z + 1) =
6
arg ( z 3) =

+ arg ( z + 1)

## also from the diagram

arg ( z 3) = + arg ( z + 1)

=
6

-3-

ii)

## Find the centre of the circle

Solution

tan

y=

2
y

2
1
3

2 units
3 marks for correct solution.

=2 3

Centre 1, 2 3

c)

## The quadratic equation x 2 + px + q =

0 has a complex root of
real.
i)

## 5 i and coefficients p and q which are

5 +i

Solution
Complex roots of equations with real coefficients occur in complex conjugates
1 mark for correct response.

-4-

ii)

## Find the coefficients p and q.

Solution
A monic quadratic equation can be formed using the roots

(x (

5 i

(x

)) ( x (
)(

5 +i

0
)) =

5 +i x 5 i =
0
x2 2 5x + 6 =
0

Question 2.

a)

p=
2 5

## 2 marks for correct solution.

1 mark for solution with one arithmetic error

q=
6

12 marks

## If z1 = 3 + i and z2= 6 where z2 is in the first quadrant, find the complex

number z2 when z1 + z2 takes its greatest value. Express your answer in the form x + iy.

Solution
Using the triangle inequality

z1 + z2 z1 + z2
z1 + z2

3 +i +6

z1 + z2 8
If z1 + z2 takes its greatest value then z1 + z2 = 8 and the points O, P1 (representing z1) and P2 (representing z2) are
collinear.

-5-

## The dotted line

represents z1 + z2

x = 6 cos

and

= 33

= 6 sin

6
3 marks for correct solution.

=3

## 2 marks for correct procedure with one arithmetic error

1 mark for finding z1 + z2 8 .

z2 = 33 + 3i

b)

Let zn=
i)

(1 + i )

Solution
mod (1 + i ) =

Now

zn=

(1 + i )

1+1 =

and

11
arg (1 +=
i ) tan =
1 4

= 2 cos + i sin
4
4

## 2 marks for correct solution.

1 mark for finding 1 correct argument or modulus or

n
n

= 2 cos
+ i sin

4
4

n
2

-6-

ii)

## For what values of n will zn be purely imaginary

Solution
For zn to be purely imaginary arg zn =
arg zn =

n
k
where k =1,3, 5, ...
=
4
2

n 3 5
= , , ...
4
2 2 2

## since n > 0 we can disregard negative solutions

2 marks for correct solution.

n = 2 , 6 ,10 ,...
n 2, 6,10,14,18
=

0 < n < 20

n
k
=
4
2

c)

## The diagram above shows a parallelogram OUVW in the complex plane.

Let u, v and w be the complex numbers represented by the points U, V and W respectively.
Suppose uw + uw =
0
i)

u
Show that Re ( uw ) = 0 and hence that Re = 0
w

Solution
Let

u= a + ib

and

uw + =
uw

( a + ib )( c id ) + ( a ib )( c + id )

w= c + id

ac adi + bci + bd

2ac + 2bd

ac + bd

=
0

ac + adi bci + bd

-7-

( a + ib )( c id )

uw
=
=

ac adi + bci + bd

ac + bd + ( bc ad ) i

Re ( uw
=
)

ac + bd
=

u
=
w

## from the property above

a + ib
c + id
a + ib c id

c + id c id

ac adi + bci + bd
c2 + d 2
ac + bd ( bc ad ) i
+ 2
c2 + d 2
c + d2

=
u
Re =
w

ac + bd
c2 + d 2
0
=
as we have shown ac + bd 0
c + d2
2

## 3 marks for correct solution.

2 marks for proving Re ( uw ) = 0
1 mark for finding ac + bd = 0.

-8-

ii)

Solution
Method 1

## Show that the length of the diagonals are equal.

v= w + WV

=
since u =
w+u
WV as opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal
= c + id + a + ib
= a + c + (b + d ) i

( a + c ) + (b + d )

v =
2

a 2 + 2ac + c 2 + b 2 + 2bd + d 2

a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2 + 2 ( ac + bd )

a 2 + b2 + c2 + d 2

WU=

since ac + bd= 0

uw
=

a + ib ( c + id )

= a c + (b d ) i
2
2
2
WU = ( a c ) + ( b d )
2 marks for correct solution.

= a 2 2ac + c 2 + b 2 2bd + d 2

## 1 mark for correct procedure with error.

= a + b + c + d 2 ( ac + bd )
2

= a 2 + b2 + c2 + d 2

since ac + bd = 0

-9-

Method 2.

## Using the previous question.

u
As =
Re 0
w

and

u
= ki
w

u
0
w

where k is an integer

u
Im = k
w

u
arg =
2
w

arg u arg w =
2
2 marks for correct solution.

u arg w
=
arg

## 1 mark for correct use of arguments.

u w
so OUVW is a rectangle.

- 10 -

Question 3.

a)

12 marks

arg z

and 1 Im ( z ) 2

Solution

b)

## Let z1 and z2 be complex numbers.

Prove that z1 = z1 z1
2

(i)
Solution

Let z1= x + iy

LHS = z1
=

RHS =+
( x iy )( x iy )

x2 + y 2

= x2 + y 2

= x2 + y 2

- 11 -

(ii)

Solution

=
LHS

(z z )
1

= z1 z2

## 1 mark for correct response.

= z z2

c)

i)

If

z1 z2
= 2i show that the points A, B and C, representing z1 , z2 , z3
z3 z2

## form a right angled triangle.

Solution
From the diagram z1 z2 and z3 z2 are the sides of the triangle.
Now

z1 z2
= 2i
z3 z 2
z1 z=
2i ( z3 z2 )
2

## This is interpreted to mean the side z1 z2 is equal

to the side z3 z2 rotated by 90 and multiplied by a
factor of 2 in length.
Hence, z1 , z2 , z3 form a right angle triangle.

2 marks for correct solution including reference to z1 z2 and z3 z2 as the sides of the triangle
1 mark for stating z1 z2 is z3 z2 rotated by 90.

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ii)

## 12, find the area of triangle ABC

If z1 z2 =

z1 z2 = 2 z3 z2 = 12
z3 z2 =
6

A=

1
6 12
2

= 36 units 2

d)

(i)

## By expanding z5 and using De Moivres theorem, obtain an expression for cos5

and sin5 in terms of cos and sin.

Solution
(i)

## Let z = cos + i sin

z5

z5 = cos5 + i sin5

## [De Moivres theorem]

= (cos + i sin)5
=5C0 cos5 + 5C1cos4 i sin + 5C2 cos3 i2 sin2 + 5C3 cos2 i3sin3 + 5C4 cos1 i4 sin4 + 5C5 i5sin5
=

cos5 =

sin5

## 2 marks for correct solution.

1 mark for one arithmetic error.

- 13 -

(ii)

## 5 tan 10 tan 3 + tan 5

Hence, show that tan5 =
1 10 tan 2 + 5 tan 4

Solution
sin 5
cos 5

(iii)

tan5

## 5 cos 4 sin 10 cos 2 sin 3 + sin 5

cos 5 10 cos 3 sin 2 + 5 cos sin 4

## 5 cos 4 sin 10 cos 2 sin 3 sin 5

+
cos 5
cos 5
cos 5
5
3
2
cos 10 cos sin 5 cos sin 4

+
cos 5
cos 5
cos 5

## 5 sin 10 sin 3 sin 5

+
cos
cos 3
cos 5
cos 5 10 sin 2 5 sin 4

+
cos 5
cos 2
cos 4

## 5 tan 10 tan 3 + tan 5

1 10 tan 2 + 5 tan 4

## 1 mark for correct response.

Hence, show that the roots of the equation x4 10x2 + 5 = 0 are given by
tan

and tan

2
5

Solution
If

tan5

Let x = tan

## 5 tan 10 tan 3 + tan 5

1 10 tan 2 + 5 tan 4

= 0

5 x 10 x 3 + x 5
1 10 x 2 + 5 x 4

= 0

5x 10x3 + x5 = 0
x(5 10x2 + x4)

=0

## solving tan5 = 0 and excluding x = 0 will also solve 5 10x2 + x4

- 14 -

tan5 = 0
5

= 0, , 2

= k

When k = 0

x1

where k = 0, 1, 2, 3

k
5

k=1

= 0

x2 = tan

Note:

tan

k=2

k=3

x2 = tan

= tan
5
5

2
5

&

x2 = tan

tan

and tan

k=4

3
5

x2 = tan

3
2
= -tan
5
5

2
5

## 2 marks for correct solution.

1 mark for finding = =

- 15 -

2k
5

4
5