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Class no.

# 18
Submitted to.
S i r S h a fi - u d - d i n

Lab No. 1
Lay out of the lab

Lab no. 2
Basic parts of IC Engine:
Working of the internal
combustion engine and its
main parts.
To get familiar with IC engine , its parts and working.

Combustion of different components that arrange in such a way
that it converts heat energy in mechanical energy.

Types of engine:
IC engine:
Combustion takes place internally
EC engine:
e.g Steam engine

Components of IC engine:

Cylinder block:

Cylinder is the main body of IC engine. All other parts are assembled
into it. it is made by high grade cast iron or by aluminum alloy.


Cylinder head

The top end of cylinder is closed by means of removable cylinder




Burning of fuel occurs into it. Piston lies here and moves up & down.
It is of cylindrical shape and is fitted in cylinder block.



It is the moving component of the engine. It compresses the fuel

mixture. And transfers the energy to crank shaft through
connecting rods.


Piston Ring:

1. Compression rings:
Forms a compact barrier against the fuel mixture not to leak it from
2. Oil control rings:
It lubricates the cylinder wall and provides lubrication between
piston and cylinder wall.


Connecting Rod:

Connecting rod connects the piston to crankshaft. Together with

crank shaft they form simple mechanism that converts
reciprocating motion into rotary motion


Crank shaft:

Basically it is a component attached with connecting rods , which

converts to & fro motion into rotary motion .


Cam shaft:

It is shaft in engine that contains series of cam for operating the

engine valves mechanism and is driven by gears/timing


Spark Plug:

Produces a spark upon high voltage, which burns up the air fuel

10. Dip Stick:

Measures the level of engine oil.

11. Water Pump:

It Circulates the water for cooling purpose. Generally it is of
centrifugal type.

12. Oil Pumps:

Circulates engine oil under high pressure, when engine is running.

13. Fly Wheel:

It is a rotary mechanical device which stores mechanical energy.
Also it is having significant moment of inertia which is provided
when continuous energy source is disconnected.

14. Manifold:
Means many folds, The main function of manifold is to supply the
air fuel mixture and collects the exhaust gases equally form all
cylinder. In an internal combustion engine two manifold are

used, one for intake and other for exhaust. They are usually
made by aluminum alloy.

15. Engine valve:

It is located in cylinder head. Its purpose is to take air fuel mixture in
and exhaust it upon burning.

16. Oil Pan:

Here all of engine oil stays when engine is in idle condition

17. Piston Pin:

It connects the connecting rod and piston.

Lab no. 3:
Demonstration of four stroke
A four-stroke engine (also known as four cycle) is an internal
combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four
separate strokes while turning a crankshaft. A stroke refers to
the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either
direction. The four separate strokes are termed:
1. Intake: This stroke of the piston begins at top dead center
(T.D.C.) and ends at bottom dead center (B.D.C.). In this
stroke the intake valve must be in the open position while
the piston pulls an air-fuel mixture into the cylinder by
producing vacuum pressure into the cylinder through its
downward motion.
2. Compression: This stroke begins at B.D.C, or just at the end
of the suction stroke, and ends at T.D.C. In this stroke the
piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for
ignition during the power stroke (below). Both the intake and
exhaust valves are closed during this stage.
3. Combustion: This is the start of the second revolution of the
four stroke cycle. At this point the crankshaft has completed
a full 360 degree revolution. While the piston is at T.D.C. (the
end of the compression stroke) the compressed air-fuel
mixture is ignited by a spark plug (in a gasoline engine) or
by heat generated by high compression (diesel engines),
forcefully returning the piston to B.D.C. This stroke produces
mechanical work from the engine to turn the crankshaft.


Exhaust: During the exhaust stroke, the piston once again

returns from B.D.C. to T.D.C. while the exhaust valve is open.
This action expels the spent air-fuel mixture through the
exhaust valve.

What Makes 4-Cycle Overhead Valve
Engines Different?
In overhead valve (OHV) engines, the valves are positioned above
the piston. The camshaft moves the valves through a tappet,
pushrods and rocker arms. 4-cycle OHV engines provide more
efficient combustion by allowing the air-fuel mixture to spread
more evenly throughout the combustion chamber.

The 4-Stroke System that Power Your Small Engine

In order to power your equipment, the overhead valve engine
completes a repeating 4-step process detailed below .

Element that Allow Internal Combustion Engines to

Step 1: Intake Stroke
Air and fuel enter the small engine through the carburetor. Its
the job of the carburetor to supply a mixture of air and fuel that
will allow for proper combustion. During the intake stroke, the
intake valve between the carburetor and combustion chamber

opens. This allows atmospheric pressure to force the air-fuel

mixture into the cylinder bore as the piston moves downward..
Step 2: Compression Stroke
Just after the piston moves to the bottom of its travel (bottom
dead center), the cylinder bore contains the maximum air-fuel
mixture possible. The intake valve closes and the piston returns
back up the cylinder bore. This is called the compression
stroke of the 4-cycle engine process. The air-fuel mixture is
compressed between the piston and cylinder head .

Step 3: Power Stroke

When the piston reaches the top of its travel (top dead center), it
will be at its optimum point to ignite the fuel to get maximize
power to your outdoor power equipment. A very high voltage is
created in the ignition coil. The spark plug enables this high
voltage to be discharged into the combustion chamber. The
heat created by the spark ignites the gases, creating rapidly
expanding, super-heated gases that force the piston back down
the cylinder bore. This is called the power stroke.

Step 4: Exhaust Stroke

When the piston reaches bottom dead center again, the exhaust
valve opens. As the piston travels back up the cylinder bore, it
forces the spent combustion gases through the exhaust valve
and out of the exhaust systems. As the piston returns to top
dead center, the exhaust valve closes and the intake valve
opens and the 4-cycle engine process repeat.
Ever repetition of the cycle requires two full rotations of the
crankshaft, while the engine only creates power during one of
the four strokes. To keep the machine running, it needs
the small engine flywheel. The power stroke creates
momentum that pushes the flywheels inertia keeps it and the
crankshaft turning during the exhaust, intake and compression

Lab no. 4:
Demonstration of two stroke
To know about working of 2 stroke engine.

To know about relationship of stroke.

Theoretical background:
the inlet and exhaust are timed, It means that the inlet and
exhaust strokes are timed. Hence the names given: two stroke
engines uses two strokes, therefore a four stroke engine would
use four distinct strokes. In a four stroke engine, the order of
operation is as follows: Intake, Compression, Ignition, and
Exhaust. In a two stroke engine however, the strokes are called
the Power Stroke and the Exchange Stroke. If we think in terms
of a four stroke engine, there are two parts to the intake stroke
In a four-stroke engine, each of the four essential steps of the
power-producing cycle is given its own piston stroke:
1) Compression
2) Power
3) Exhaust
4) Intake

A two-stroke performs all the same steps, but in just two piston
strokes. The simplest two-strokes do this by using the
crankcase and the underside of the moving piston as a fresh
charge pump. Such engines carry the official name
crankcase-scavenged two-strokes.

Upward stroke:
Piston moves upwards
Inlet valve opens and air fuel mixture is drawn into the
Exhaust and transfer valve remain closed.
At the end of this stroke compression and suction is

Downward Stroke:

Piston moves downwards .

First exhaust past opens, followed by transfer.
Combusted air fuel mixture exhausts through exhaust past
At the instant partially compressed air fuel mixture covers
through transfer post.
At the end power and exhaust stroke is completed

Advantages of two stroke:

1. Its fuel economy is better
2. Two-stroke engines do not have valves, simplifying their
3. - Two-stroke engines fire once every revolution (four-stroke
engines fire once every other revolution). This gives twostroke engines a significant power boost.
4. - Two-stroke engines are lighter, and cost less to
5. - Two-stroke engines have the potential for about twice the
power in the same size because there are twice as many
power strokes per revolution

Disadvantages of two stroke engine:

1. - Two-stroke engines don't live as long as four-stroke engines.
The lack of a dedicated lubrication system means that the
parts of a two-stroke engine wear-out faster. Two-stroke
engines require a mix of oil in with the gas to lubricate the
crankshaft, connecting rod and cylinder walls.
2. - Two-stroke oil can be expensive. Mixing ratio is about 4
ounces per gallon of gas: burning about a gallon of oil every
1,000 miles.
3. - Two-stroke engines do not use fuel efficiently, yielding
fewer miles per gallon.
4. - Two-stroke engines produce more pollution.
5. -- The combustion of the oil in the gas. The oil makes all twostroke engines smoky to some extent, and a badly worn twostroke engine can emit more oily smoke.
6. Each time a new mix of air/fuel is loaded into the
combustion chamber, part of it leaks out through the
exhaust port

Advantages of four stroke engines:

1. More torque
This is the most important reasons why people choose a 4stroke engine. The two-stroke boasts its speed and power,
but the four-stroke shows extra torque. It is more reliable and
2. Last longer
Four stroke engines last longer and use much, much less
oil. Compared to two-stroke engines, the four stroke engine
is durable for use. The more times an engine goes around,
the quicker it will wear out. As 2-strokes must rev to very
high RPM to make any power, most applications using them
are geared toward maintaining that RPM. Thus, they cant
live as long as four-stroke engine.

3. Run much cleaner than 2 strokes

A 2 stroke makes a lot of exhaust smoke because it burns oil
mixed with fuel. On the contrary, four-stroke engines have a
dedicated oiling system thats kept largely separate from the
combustion chamber, which help to ensure that the only
thing burning in the engine is gasoline.

Disadvantages of four stroke:

1. Complicated
Two-stroke engines do not have valves, simplifying their
construction. However, there are more parts to worry about
in a four-stroke engine which results in harder to
2. Half as powerful as two stroke engines
For equivalent engines, the four stroke ones fire once every
two revolutions, while two stroke engines are more powerful
because every revolution of the engine includes a power
3. More expensive than 2 stroke
A four-stroke engine is much more expensive and complex
than a two-stroke one. It has more complied with more parts
so they often require repairs more often and it is usually
more expensive.

Lab no. 5:
Demonstration of diesel and
petrol engine
To know about working of diesel and petrol engine.
To know about difference between

Basic differences:


Criteria of
Fuel used

Otto cycle

Diesel cycle


Fuel supply




Initial cost
Chances of
Field of
Power =


are used
Plug is used

Less but

Fuel injectors
are used
Heat of
is used
More but not

Light duty

Heavy duty

34.6 MJ/litre

38.6 MJ/litre

Runs at
higher RPM

Runs at
higher RPM

Lower than

More than
ol). Diesel
y 13% more
CO2 gas per
gallon of fuel
compared to
gas (petrol)



No change



due to its

increase at
Nonvolatile , so

Working of Petrol engine:

Four Stroke Petrol Engine:
The cycle of operation in a four stroke petrol engine is completed
in two revolutions of crank shaft or four strokes of piston. Stroke is
defined as the distance traveled by the piston from one of the
dead centers to the other dead centre. It is also equal to two
times the crank radius. Hence in a four stroke engine work is
obtained only during one stroke out of the four strokes of the
piston required to complete one cycle. This engine works on Otto
or constant volume cycle.
1. Suction stroke: To start with the piston is at or very near T.D.C.
and the inlet valve is open and exhaust valve is closed. As the
piston moves from T.D.C. to B.D.C. rarefaction is formed in the
cylinder which causes the charge to rush in and fill the space
vacated by the piston. The charge consists of a mixture of air and
petrol prepared by the carburetor. The admission of charge inside
the engine cylinder continues until the inlet valve closes at B.D.C.

2. Compression stroke: Both the valves are closed and the piston
moves from B.D.C. to T.D.C. The charge is compressed up to a
compression ratio of 5:1 to 9:1 and pressure and temperature at
the end of compression are about 6 to 12 bar and 250 C to 300
C respectively.
3. Working, Power or Expansion stroke: When the piston
reaches T.D.C. position, or just at the end of compression stroke,
the charge is ignited by causing an electric spark between the
electrodes of a spark plug, which is located some where in the
walls of cylinder head. During combustion the chemical energy of
fuel is released and there is rise in temperature and pressure of
gases. The temperature of gases increases to about 1800 C to
2000 C and the pressure reaches 30 to 40 bar. Up till now the
volume of gases formed however remains almost constant with
both valves closed. Now the combustion products expand and
push the piston down the cylinder. The reciprocating piston
motion is converted into rotary motion of crankshaft by a
connecting rod and crank. During expansion the pressure drops
due to increase in the volume of gases and absorption of heat by
cylinder walls.
3. Exhaust stroke: Theoretically exhaust valve opens at the end of
working stroke when the piston is at B.D.C. position. But actually
exhaust valve begins to open when about 85 % of the working
stroke is completed. A pressure of 4 to 5 bar at this instant forces
about 60 % of the burnt gases into the exhaust manifold at high
speed. The remaining burnt gases are cleared off the swept
volume when the piston moves from B.D.C. to T.D.C. During this
stroke the pressure in side the cylinder is slightly above the
atmospheric value. Some of the burnt gases are however left in
the clearance space. The exhaust valve closes shortly after the
piston reaches T.D.C. The inlet valve opens slightly before the end
of exhaust stroke and the cycle repeats

Working of Diesel engine:

Four Stroke Diesel Engine:

The cycle of operation in a four stroke diesel engine is completed

in two revolutions of crankshaft or four strokes of piston using
diesel oil as fuel. This engine works on diesel cycle.
1. Suction Stroke: Starting of engine is done by an electric motor
or manually. In both cases the energy is supplied to the engine. In
this stroke the inlet valve opens and the outlet valve remains
closed. Piston moves from T.D.C. to B.D.C. and in this way a
vacuum is created in the cylinder. This vacuum is filled by air
alone and piston reaches to B.D.C.
2. Compression Stroke: Both valves are closed. This time piston
moves from B.D.C. to T.D.C. Air is compressed in this stroke up to
a compression ratio of 15:1 to 22:1 and a very high temperature

is produced due to high pressure. The high temperature is the

only cause of combustion of the fuel. The piston takes the power
in this stroke from
the flywheel. During this stroke the pressure and temperature
attain a high value of 40 to 60 bar and 600 C to 700 C
Working Stroke: At the end of compression stroke or when
the piston reaches the T.D.C. position, a fine spray of diesel is
injected in the cylinder through injector. The fuel burns by the
heat of compressed air and due to its burning the power is
produced. This power pushes the piston downward i.e. from T.D.C.
to B.D.C. The excess energy of the piston is stored in the flywheel
of the engine, which is further used for the remaining three
strokes of the engine. The reciprocating motion of the piston is
converted into the rotary motion of the crankshaft by connecting
rod and crank. During expansion the pressure drops due to
increase in volume of gases and absorption of heat by cylinder
4. Exhaust Stroke: The exhaust valve begins to open when about
85% of the working stroke is completed. The force of piston

coming from B.D.C. to T.D.C. forces the burnt gases into the
exhaust manifold. Some of the gases are forced out due to higher
pressure in the cylinder and the remaining gases are forced out
by the piston. Some of the burnt gases are however left inside the
clearance space. The exhaust valve closes shortly after T.D.C. The
inlet valve opens slightly before the end of exhaust and in this
way the cycle repeats.

Lab no. 6:
Demonstration of ignition
system, of an engine.
To learn what is the ignition system and its components.
To learn how these components combine together to form a spark.

Theoretical Background:
The system which ignites the air fuel mixture to form a
spark, due to which power is produced and component of engine

Function of ignition system:

There are two functions of ignition system.
To control spark and to control its timings.
To increase voltage from 12V to 20KV.

Types of ignition system:

Contact point ignition system
Electronic ignition system

Components of contact point ignition

The battery is the source of electrical energy needed to operate
the ignition system. The battery stores and produces electricity
through chemical action. When it being charged, it converts
electricity into chemical energy. When it is discharged (producing
current), the battery converts chemical energy into electricity.

Ignition Switch.
The primary circuit starts at the battery and flows to the
ignition switch. It controls the flow of electricity across the

Ignition Coil.
The primary circuit leads from the ignition switch to the
ignition coil. An ignition coil is actually a step up transformer and
electromagnet having two types of windings .


Primary windings
Secondary windings
that is capable of increasing battery voltage to as much as
100,000 volts, although most coils produce about 50,000-60,000

Contact breaker:
A contact breaker (or "points") is a type of electrical switch, and
the term typically refers to the switching device found in the
distributor of the ignition systems of spark-ignition internal
combustion engines. The purpose of the contact breaker is to
interrupt the current flowing in the primary circuit of the ignition

The condenser, also known as a capacitor, is wired in parallel with
the contact points and grounded through the distributor
housing. The condenser prevents arcing or burning at the
distributor contact points when the points are first open. The
condenser provides a place where current can flow until the
contact points are fully open.

Spark plug:
It receives a high voltage spark from secondary coil through rotor
and outer terminal having two electrodes

Control electrodes
Ground electrodes

As name indicates, it distributes electric current. It has two parts.

Distributor CAM:
Distributor rotor:
They transfer voltage from central terminal to outer terminal.

Contact points:
The contact points used on older vehicles were a simple
mechanical way of making and breaking the coil primary circuit.
It also distributes the high voltage surges to spark plug in correct
The two types are:

Fixed point:
The stationary piece is grounded through the distributor contact
point mounting plate. This section does not more other than for
an initial point adjustment.

Movable point:
The second piece is the movable contact point. It is pivoted on a
steel post. A fiber spring presses the movable contact arm against
the stationary unit, causing the two contact points to touch each

Lab no. 7:
Demonstration of cooling
system of an Engine:
1. To keep the engine running at its most efficient
2. To know about working of water cooling system.
3. To know about working of air cooling system.

Theoretical background:
During combustion process engine produces tremendous amount
of heat. That amount of heat is dissipated in different areas.
(20-25)% of heat is used in brake power
(30-35)% of heat is extracted by cooling system
Remaining amount of heat is dissipated in friction and exhaust

Types of cooling system:

1. Air cooling system:
2. Water cooling system:

Components of air water system:

The Radiator
The radiator core is usually made of flattened aluminum tubes

with aluminum strips that zigzag between the tubes. These

fins transfer the heat in the tubes into the air stream to be
carried away from the vehicle. On each end of the radiator
core is a tank, usually made of plastic that covers the ends of
the radiator
The tanks, whether plastic or brass, each have a large hose
connection, one mounted towards the top of the radiator to let
the coolant in, the other mounted at the bottom of the radiator
on the other tank to let the coolant back out. On the top of the
radiator is an additional opening that is capped off by the
radiator cap.

The thermostat regulates the flow of coolant into the engine
keeping it at its optimum operating temperature. The
thermostat is closed when the engine is cold. As the engine
heats up, the thermostat opens and allows coolant from the
radiator to circulate.
It is having wax pellet , which melts and valve opens.

Water Pump:
The water pump is considered the heart of the cooling system
and is usually located on the front of the cylinder block. A hose
carries cooled coolant from the radiator to the water pump. A
belt or chain turns the water pump shaft and coolant enters the
center of the pump. The water pump has fan-like blades on an
impeller that spins, creating centrifugal force, moving the liquid
outward. Coolant is routed through the engine, cylinder heads
and intake manifold by way of water jackets. The coolant then
absorbs heat from the engine components and, once hot,
leaves the engine and enters the radiator once again to begin
the next cooling cycle.

Radiator Cap:
It is having a spring valve loaded mechanism. The radiator cap
is responsible for maintaining the proper amount of cooling
system pressure. If the amount increases above the set
pressure point, a spring-loaded valve in the cap releases extra

Water Jacket:
These are passage inside engine which allows coolant to flow
inside engine, and further by coolant heat is extracted

Draws the air inside the engine by passing air through radiator
which cool down the temperature of coolant.

The coolant that courses through the engine and associated
plumbing must be able to withstand temperatures well below
zero without freezing. It must also be able to handle engine
temperatures in excess of 250 degrees without boiling. A tall
order for any fluid, but that is not all. The fluid must also
contain rust inhibiters and a lubricant.The coolant in today's
vehicles is a mixture of ethylene glycol (antifreeze) and water.
The recommended ratio is fifty-fifty. In other words, one part
antifreeze and one part water. This is the minimum
recommended for use in automobile engines. Less antifreeze
and the boiling point would be too low. In certain climates
where the temperatures can go well below zero, it is
permissible to have as much as 75% antifreeze and 25% water,
but no more than that. Pure antifreeze will not work properly
and can cause a boil over.

Lab no. 8:
Demonstration of lubrication
Explain the purpose of the lubrication system.
Describe oil ratings
Identify the main components of the lubrication

System Components
Oil pressure switch
Piston jets
Pickup tube
Oil pump
Oil filter

If the oil is too thin(has very low viscosity) it will be forcedout
from between the moving parts, resulting in rapid wear.

If the oil is too thick(has very high viscosity)it will flow veryslowly
to engine parts, especially when the engine and the oilare cold,
resulting in rapid wear.
Viscosity Indexis the measure of how much the viscosity ofan oil
changes with temperature. (20 W)Viscosity number is set by
SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers)

Single viscosity oilsSAE 5W, SAE 10W (Winter) andSAE 20,

SAE30 (Summer)

Multiple viscosity oilsSAE 10W-30. This means that the oil is

same as SAE 10W when coldand SAE30 when hot.
The higher the number the higher the viscosity(thickness)of oil
Parts of Oil Pumps Driven by camshaft, crankshaft
(Rarelyrebuild by an auto technician)
Rotor Pump(Two star shaped rotorspumps the oil)

Gear oil Pump

Oil Pan Stores the oil and helps in cooling the oilPan gasket splits
if over tightened.

Oil Pressure Indicator

Light or a Gauge
The light turns on or gauge reads low when the pressure drops
below 10psi.
Common causes of low oil pressure are:
Low oil level
Worn out pump
Low oil pressure Safety systemwill shuts down the car by cutting
the ignition System(Spark).
Good oil pressure is 40-60 psi.

Oil Filter filters the oilSome particles are too small for the
Element(paperin the filter) to trap.

Lab no. 9:
The objective of this lab is to:
Understand the working principle of braking system.
Analyze how force is transmitted to the wheels.

Two type of braking systems are used:


When you push the brake pedal it depresses a piston in the
master cylinder, forcing fluid along the pipe. The fluid travels to
slave cylinders at each wheel and fills them, forcing pistons out
to apply the brakes. Fluid pressure distributes itself evenly
around the system. The combined surface 'pushing' area of all
the slave pistons is much greater than that of the piston in the
master cylinder. Consequently, the master piston has to travel
several inches to move the slave pistons the fraction of an inch
it takes to apply the brakes. This arrangement allows great
force to be exerted by the brakes, in the same way that a longhandled lever can easily lift a heavy object a short distance.
Most modern cars are fitted with twin hydraulic circuits, with
two master cylinders in tandem, in case one should fail.
Sometimes one circuit works the front brakes and one the rear
brakes; or each circuit works both front brakes and one of the
rear brakes; or one circuit works all four brakes and the other

the front ones only. Under heavy braking, so much weight may
come off the rear wheels that they lock, possibly causing a
dangerous skid. For this reason, the rear brakes are
deliberately made less powerful than the front. Most cars now
also have a load-sensitive pressure-limiting valve. It closes
when heavy braking raises hydraulic pressure to a level that
might cause the rear brakes to lock, and prevents any further
movement of fluid to them. Advanced cars may even have
complex anti-lock systems that sense in various ways how the
car is decelerating and whether any wheels are locking. Such
systems apply and release the brakes in rapid succession to
stop them locking.

Working principle of a hydraulic braking system is pascal law that
is applied pressure is transmitted into all directions uniformly.


brake pedal
master cylinder
hydraulic lines
disc brake
drum brake
power brake surface booster


A disc brake has a disc that turns with the wheel. The disc is
straddled by a caliper, in which there are small hydraulic
pistons worked by pressure from the master cylinder. The
pistons press on friction pads that clamp against the disc from
each side to slow or stop it. The pads are shaped to cover a
broad sector of the disc. There may be more than a single pair
of pistons, especially in dual-circuit brakes. The pistons move
only a tiny distance to apply the brakes, and the pads barely
clear the disc when the brakes are released. They have no
return springs. Rubber sealing rings round the pistons are
designed to let the pistons slip forward gradually as the pads
wear down, so that the tiny gap remains constant and the
brakes do not need adjustment. Many later cars have wear
sensors leads embedded in the pads. When the pads are nearly
worn out, the leads are exposed and short-circuited by the

metal disc, illuminating a warning light on the instrument


A drum brake has a hollow drum that turns with the wheel. Its
open back is covered by a stationary back plate on which there
are two curved shoes carrying friction linings. The shoes are
forced outwards by hydraulic pressure moving pistons in the
brake's wheel cylinders, so pressing the linings against the
inside of the drum to slow or stop it. With the brakes on, the
shoes are forced against the drums by their piston. Each brake
shoe has a pivot at one end and a piston at the other. A leading
shoe has the piston at the leading edge relative to the direction
in which the drum turns. The rotation of the drum tends to pull
the leading shoe firmly against it when it makes contact,
improving the braking effect. Some drums have twin leading
shoes, each with its own hydraulic cylinder; others have one
leading and one trailing shoe - with the pivot at the front. This
design allows the two shoes to be forced apart from each other
by a single cylinder with a piston in each end. It is simpler but
less powerful than the two-leading-shoe system, and is usually
restricted to rear brakes. In either type, return springs pull the
shoes back a short way when the brakes are released. Shoe
travel is kept as short as possible by an adjuster. Older systems
have manual adjusters that need to be turned from time to
time as the friction linings wear. Later brakes have automatic
adjustment by means of a ratchet. Drum brakes may fade if
they are applied repeatedly within a short time - they heat up
and lose their efficiency until they cool down again. Discs, with
their more open construction, are much less prone to fading.

Lab no 10:
The objective of this lab is to understand the fuel system of an ic
engine and to
know in what ratio air and fuel are

In a IC system fuel and air are mixed together and are combusted
to get the power but the question is in what ratio air and fuel
are mixed together. So usually the ratio is 14:1 where 14 part
of air mixed with 1 part of fuel.




All internal combustion engines need three things to run... Air,
Fuel and Spark. The fuel system is critical in storing and
delivering the gasoline or diesel fuel your engine needs to run.
Think of it as your vascular system, with a heart (fuel pump),
veins (fuel lines) and kidneys (filter). A failure in any of these
fuel system components has the same devastating effects as in
your body. Let's get a little more in depth with each part...

Fuel tank:
Basically a holding tank for your fuel. When you fill up at a gas
station the gas travels down the filler tube and into the tank. In
the tank there is a sending unit which tells the gas gauge how
much gas is in the tank. In recent years the gas tank has
become a little more complicated, as it now often houses the
fuel pump and has more emissions controls to prevent vapors
leaking into the air.

Fuel pump:
On newer cars the fuel pump is usually installed in the fuel
tank. Older cars have the fuel pump attached to the engine or
on the frame rail between the tank and the engine. If the pump
is in the tank or on the frame rail then it is electric and is run by
your cars battery. Fuel pumps mounted to the engine use the
motion of the engine to pump the fuel, most often being driven
by the camshaft, but sometimes the crankshaft.

Fuel filter:
Clean fuel is critical to engine life and performance. Fuel
injectors and carburetors have tiny openings which clog easily
so filtering the fuel is a necessity. Filters can be before or after
the fuel pump, sometimes both. They are most often made
from a paper element, but can be stainless steel or synthetic
material and are designed to be disposable in most cases.
Some performance fuel filters will have a washable mesh,
which eliminated the need for replacement.

Fuel injectors:
Most domestic cars after 1986 and earlier foreign cars came
from the factory with fuel injection. Instead of a carburetor to
mix the fuel and air, a computer controls when the fuel

injectors open to let fuel into the engine. This has resulted in
lower emissions and better fuel economy. The fuel injector is
basically a tiny electric valve which opens and closes with an
electric signal. In the picture below you can see the injectors
towards the outer part of the intake. By injecting the fuel close
to the cylinder head the fuel stays atomized ( in tiny particles )
so it will burn better when ignited by the spark plug.

A carburetor take the fuel and mixes it with air without
computer intervention. While simple in operation, they tend to
need frequent tuning and rebuilding. This is why most new cars
have done away with carburetors in favor of fuel injection.

Throttle Valve:
It is a butterfly type valve use to regulate the flow of fluid.


Lab no. 11:

Carburetor Circuit:
A carburetor (American and Canadian spelling), carburator,
carburettor, or carburetter (Commonwealth spelling) is a device
that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine.

Idle System
The carburetor idle system provides the air-fuel mixture at
speeds below approximately 800rpm or 20 mph(0-40) When
the engine is idling, the throttle is almost closed Air flow
through the air horn is restricted to produce enough vacuum in
the venture. Since venture vacuum is too low to pull fuel from
the main discharge tube, the high intake manifold vacuum
BELOW the throttle plate and the idle circuit are used to feed
fuel into the air horn. The fundamental parts of the carburetor
idle system include a section of the main discharge tube, a lowspeed jet, an idle air bleed, a bypass, a idle passage, an
economizer, an idle screw port, and an idle mixture screw.

Low speed circuit:

The low speed circuit controls all the flow of fuel going into the
engine during idle and light load speeds. It partially controls the
flow for light load speeds, between twenty and thirty miles per
hour. Above thirty miles per hour, it stops operating completely.
Low speed systems in general, consist of the low speed jet,
economizer, air bleed, idle passage, upper idle port and the
lower idle port, which contains idle adjusting screw or needle.

High speed Circuit:

Having two high speed systems operating together in a dual
carburetor, means proper balance must be maintained
between them, for all high sped engine operation. To insure this
proper balance and operation, main metering jets should be
installed in matched sets (also metering rods on Carter) and
main nozzles should be carefully examined for wear or damage.
On Carter Dual carburetors, the mechanism that operates the
metering rods and anti-percolating valves should be thoroughly
checked for correct operation. Any changes in the high speed
system must be the same for each half of the carburetor. One
half cannot be changed without the other and still have correct
carburetor and engine operation.

Accelerating circuit:
The purpose of the accelerator pump system is to provide
the momentary additional fuel needed to sustain
smooth engine operation under a rapid acceleration
This extra fuel is instantly needed due to the fact that
as the throttle is suddenly opened wide, the air fl ow
and manifold vacuum being light change almost
instantaneously while the heavier fuel tends to lag
behind. Without this added fuel from the pump circuit
forced into
at the
instant of
opening, a
lag or
would most

Lab no. 12:

The objective of this lab is to understand the concept of
transmission and change of gears.

Transmission system in a car helps to transmit mechanical
power from the car engine to give kinetic energy to the wheels.
It is an interconnected system of gears, shafts, and other
electrical gadgets that form a bridge to transfer power and
energy from the engine to the wheels. The complete set up of
the system helps to maintain the cruising speed of the car
without any disturbance to the cars performance. The oldest
variant of the transmission system in India is the manual
transmission that has undergone various modifications and
alterations to form the present day automatic transmission.
A transmission or gearbox provides speed and torque
conversions from a rotating power source to another device
using gear ratios. The transmission reduces the higher engine
speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the
process. A transmission will have multiple gear ratios (or
simply "gears"), with the ability to switch between them as
speed varies. This switching may be done manually (by the
operator), or automatically. Directional (forward and reverse)
control may also be provided.

In motor vehicle applications, the transmission will generally be

connected to the crankshaft of the engine. The output of the
transmission is transmitted via driveshaft to one or more
differentials, which in turn drive the wheels.


Universal Joints:

Universal joint is also known as cardan joint and U joint. This joint
is the point of connection in a stiff rod which enables the rod to
turn in any desired direction in auto transmission system. In
other words universal joint is a joining link between two shafts
that are in a changing position. These automotive transmission
parts are one of the earliest form of flexible couplings that have
two shaft yokes located at 90 degrees angle to each other and
a four point cross that fasten the yokes.

Transmission Axles:

Transmission axles are the shafts usually rods or bars, which are
used for providing support to differential shafts and wheels in
order to actuate a vehicle. These transmission parts consists of
spline at one end and flange at the other end. Both of these
components are used for holding tightly the wheel studs. More
precisely, transmission axle is the metal based shaft to which
wheels, brakes and other automotive suspension parts are

Output Shaft:

Output shaft is a rotatable cylindrical bar that is used in

automotive transmission systems for transmitting torque from
a device. The basic parts of an output shaft are plug-in, spline
and tapered tool fittings. These automotive transmission parts
also called as drive shaft or slow speed shaft are the essential
elements of speed reducer, which is affixed to driven


Differential is a device or an equipment that comprises of gears

which are attached to the drive shaft and allows the wheels to
rotate at varied speeds. The main purpose of creating this
mechanism is for driving wheels with alike force thereby
allowing them to turn at different speeds. More specifically,
differential balances the power between the left and right drive
wheels at the time of cornering i.e. when inside wheels move
more slowly than the outside wheels.

Gear Shifters:

An essential part of automotive transmission or auto transmission

system, gear shifter is basically the mechanical component
that is used for controlling and operating the gearing
mechanism and choosing the suitable gear ratio. These are the
critical parts of the gearbox that usually comprises of shift
forks, shift knobs and shift lever. Shifter forks used in
automobile transmission systems are affixed to a cam and
shaft assembly. While the shift levers are attached either to a
control on the steering column or a shift stick placed on the


Clutch is basically a lever or pedal that is used for changing gears

in an automobile. The clutch used in automobile is a device
which helps in making the vehicle move smoothly from a
standstill position, accelerate it with different gears and bring it
back to its original standstill position. The key use of the clutch
is to manage the smooth start, acceleration and control the
mileage of an automobile. Usually judder and heat resistant
materials are used for making automotive clutches. Stainless
steel, carbon, iron, copper, bronze, brass etc are widely used
for manufacturing automobile clutch.

The Gear Ratio is defined as the input speed relative to the output
speed. It is typically written as: Gear Ratio = win : wout.
IST GEAR 2.5:1