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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)

Experiment and Numeric Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall


with Bracing under Cyclic Loading
C. Remayanti1, L. Susanti2
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Brawijaya, Malang, East Java of Indonesia
Some of study of this model that have been done is
analysis of brick masonry under axial load [4] and brick
masonry analysis using numeric homogenized analysis
[5]. This homogenize modelling are know as macro
model. Experiment and numeric analysis is conducted to
brick masonry with bracing to improve the capability of
masonry [6]. In general bracing use steel as material, but
also can be used alternative material that is cheaper but
can provide good capacity such as bamboo [7].
The objectives to be achieved from this study is
modelling brick masonry wall in laboratory and in
numeric so it can be obtained displacement, stress and
strain from brick masonry under cyclic loading. From the
data obtained it can be used to compare the result
between experiment and numeric analysis, macro and
micro model. Furthermore it can be seen the influence of
using bracing at brick masonry and the differences
between using bamboo and steel as bracing material.

Abstract- Masonry wall is non-structural element of


building which is its mechanical behaviour is influenced by
the mechanical behaviour of the constituent materials are
brick and mortar that can be obtained by conducting
research in the laboratory and then can be used to
determine the mechanical behaviour brick masonry wall in
computing. One way to determine the behaviour of brick
masonry is computationally using the numeric method.
Modelling techniques with numeric method consists of two
types of models of macro models and micro models. The
experiment in laboratory use 24 models of masonry walls
1,2 m x 1 m with columns and beams confinement in
dimension 7 cm x 7 cm. Models use steel and bamboo
bracing. All models were tested monotonic and cyclic
loading. The purpose of this study was to determine the
effect of the use of bamboo as an alternative to bracing
material and to know modelling of brick masonry using
numeric method (macro and micro model). This study
shows that the addition of either of steel bracing and
bamboo on brick masonry wall can increase the strength
and stiffness of the wall under cyclic loading.

II.

Keywords- brick masonry, cyclic loading, bracing,


numeric methods

I.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Numeric Model
Two kind of basic approaches have been developed
with the purpose to make an appropriate approach for
masonry structures, the discrete model and continuous
model. Discrete model as well known as heterogenetic
model or micro model is a model which units and mortar
accounted separately [8]. As for continuous model or
homogeneous model or macro model is a model which
units, mortar and interface presented by an equivalent
continuum [9].
There is some homogenization procedures has been
conducted by researchers, one of them is the
homogenization procedure by PB Lourenco and A.
Zucchini. Initial step of this technique is to take the RVE
/ cell basic [10] which can be seen in Figure 1. By
following Lourencos homogenization, Rivieccio can
obtain the matrix properties / material homogeneous cell
as follows [11]:

INTRODUCTION

Brick masonry wall is a non-elastic, non-homogeneous


and anisotropic building material, which consists of
masonry units and mortar [1]. Mechanical behaviour of
brick masonry is influenced by the mechanical behaviour
of the constituent materials are brick and mortar [2].
Masonry compression strength is more influenced by the
mortar [3]. Some of many ways to understand brick
masonry behaviours are with experiment in the
laboratory and analysis using numeric method. By
performing the experiment we can obtained the
mechanical behaviour of brick and mortar and also brick
masonry behaviour under cyclic loading. After we obtain
the data of mechanical behaviours of brick and mortar
then we can use it to perform analyses using numeric
method on brick masonry wall. By using numeric method
we can obtain the data at points that do not we get at the
time of experiment in laboratory. To simplify the finite
element analysis, many researchers studied the
homogeneous between brick and mortar that can be used
as a material at numeric analysis.

S1111 S1122
S S1122 S 2222
0
0
598

0
0
S1212

........ (1)

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
Where:
x = 1, y = 2
h h 2.l 2.t 2.t 2.t
h.l h.l
t s . s s s
E E E E E
Eb E f
Ee
g
d
c
d
a
S1111 S 2222
2.h t s . l t s

S1122

S1212

2
2
h.t s . a h.l.b 2.t s . c 2.l t s .t s . d 2.t s . e h.l. f h.t s . g

Ea
Eb
Ec
Ed
Ee
Ef
Eg

2.h t s . l t s
4.Gb .Gd .h.t s .h t s Ed .l.l t s . Gd .h Gb .t s

2.G xy 2.Gd .h t s . Ed .Gb .l 2 Ga Ed .l.t s 4.Gb .h.l t s

FIG. 1 BASIC CELL (REPRESENTATIVE VOLUME


ELEMENT RVE) FOR HOMOGENIZED

4.Ga .h. Gb .t s .l t s Gd . h.l t s


2.Gd .h t s . Ed .Gb .l 2 Ga .Ed .l.t s 4.Gb .h.l t s

Where:

E = modulus Young
= rasio Poisson

E
1 1 2
Ea Ec Ed Ee E g = mortar modulus Young

The stiffness matrix of the numeric is defined by the


following formula:

c b

k BT E BdV BT E Bt dx dy

.............

c b

a c d e g = mortar ratio Poisson


G a = Gd = mortar modulus Lam
Gb = brick modulus Lam

(5)
As for the search for homogeneous masonry element
stiffness matrix is a matrix material E replaced by the
matrix material S of equation (1) so that the stiffness
matrix becomes:

h = brick height
l = brick width

k B E BdV BT S Bt dx dy

b f

= brick Poisson ratio

c b

c b

t s = brick thickness

Bd

................. (6)
To find the stiffness of bracing for the numeric method
is used bar element [12]. The stiffness matrix of the bar
element is defined by the following formula:

E .............. (3)

g1
g
3
[k ]
g1

g3

Strain- displacement relationship can be written by the


following formula:
..............................(2)
Note: the matrix B is the matrix of strain-displacement
with size 3 x 8.
Stress- strain relationship for plane stress conditions
can be seen in the following equation:

g3

g1

g2

g3

g3

g1

g2

g3

Where:

Where materials matrix [E] can be written by the


following formula:

AE
(cos ) 2
L
AE
g2
(sin ) 2
L
AE
g3
(cos . sin )
L
g1

1
0
E E 2 1 0
1
1
0 0

2 ............. (4)

599

g3
g 2
g3

g2
....... (7)

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
A = surface area of bracing
E = modulus elasticity of bracing
L = length of bracing
= angle of bracing

Analysis were performed to obtain stress, strain and


displacement. Firstly, the model in laboratory will be test
under monotonic load and then under cyclic load.
Nodal number that will be the nodal load is two which
is located on the top right and left. Nodal loads will be
given alternately from the left end first and then the far
right. Given load consists of several stages. Ultimate load
by 20% (derived from research data) for stage 1, 40% for
stage 2 and so on unti it reaches the ultimate load. For
example: in stage 1, the initial load is 0 then given
from 20% ultimate load then the load up to 20% and then
the load back to half of 20% ultimate load and eventually
to 0. For the experiment, each stage consisted of 6 cycles.

Experiment model
Research brick masonry wall conducted in the
laboratory and computationally. The model masonry wall
has a length of 134 cm, 114 cm wide. While the bricks
used a length of 10 cm, width 7 cm and height 5 cm.
Mortar that are used with 1 cm thick. The research model
can be seen in Figure 2.
Experiment and analysis conducted by computing
consists of three types: model without bracing, model
with steel bracing and model with bamboo bracing.

FIG 2. THE MODEL OF BRICK MASONRY WALL WITH BRACING

For numeric analysis, the model has to discretization


and the material properties and other data which need to
perform the analysis are obtained from experimental
results.
III.

The experiment results showed that bracing provides


additional stiffness and strength of the wall. Load max.
for model with bamboo bracing reach 19.98 kN, for
model with steel bracing reach 18.36 kN and for model
without bracing reach 16.2 kN. It means that in the model
with steel bracing, wall strength increased 13.33% and
the displacement 93.34% less than model without
bracing. It happens to model with bamboo bracing. In the
model with bamboo bracing, wall strength increased
29.73% and the displacement 32.23% less than model
without bracing

RESULTS AND D ISCUSSION

Experiment Results
Material properties obtained from material research
can be seen at the Table 1. Firstly, monotonic testing is
performed on each model to obtain the maximum load, it
can be seen at Table 2.
Data monotonic test results that have been obtained
previously used as a reference in determining the
cyclic loading stage.

600

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
TABLE 1
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Material
Brick
Steel
Bamboo
Concrete
Mortar

Modulus elasticity
386.3 Mpa
200000Mpa
30000Mpa
17647.6 Mpa
879.3 Mpa

Poisson ratio
0.2

A
35.27 mm2
64 mm2

0.16
0.2

TABLE 2
EXPERIMENT UNDER MONOTONIC LOAD
Model type
Model without bracing
Load max.
x direction displacement max.

Output
16.2 KN
11.272 mm

Model with steel bracing


Load max.
x direction displacement max.

18.36 KN
8.219 mm

Model with bamboo bracing


Load max.
x direction displacement max.

19.98 KN
23.567 mm

TABLE 3
EXPERIMENT UNDER CYCLIC LOADING
Model type
Model without bracing
Load max. average
x direction displacement max.
average
Model with steel bracing
Load max. average
x direction displacement max.
average
Model with bamboo bracing
Load max. average
x direction displacement max.
Average

Output
9.72 KN
4.95 mm

14.69 KN
10.163 mm

16 KN
8.999 mm

FIG. 3. GRAPH RELATION LOAD-DISPLACEMENT MODEL WITHOUT BRACING

601

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FIG. 4 GRAPH RELATION LOAD-DISPLACEMENT MODEL WITH STEEL BRACING

FIG. 5 GRAPH RELATION LOAD-DISPLACEMENT MODEL WITH BAMBOO BRACING

In the model of the steel bracing with cyclic loading,


wall strength increased 13.33% and the displacement
93.34% less than model without bracing.

The addition of bamboo bracing adds strength to the


wall 29.73% and displacement 32.23% smaller than
model without bracing.

Numeric Analysis Results


After the discretization on the model test is obtained the following data
TABLE 4
RESULTS OF MODEL DISCRETIZATION
1
2
3

Macro model
672
725
1450

Number of element
Number of nodes
Number of degree of freedom (d.o.f)

602

Micro model
1739
1824
3648

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
Analytical results (output) are displacement generated
each nodal point. In the discussion will ony taken one
nodal point of observation alone as the representative of
the results of other analysis.
The results for macro model are shown in Table 5 and
Figure 6. Through Table 5 can be seen that the x
direction displacement model without bracing with
maximum load (Pmax) 16.2 kN reached 1.4731 mm
while the model with steel bracing with Pmax 18.36 kN
reached 1.0403 mm and model with bamboo bracing with
Pmax. 19.98 kN reached 1.5686 mm.
This means that with the addition of bracing with
different load conditions the x direction displacement of
model with steel bracing 29.38% smaller than model
without steel bracing and the x direction displacement of
model bamboo bracing 6.48% greater than model without
bracing. The results for micro model are shown in Table
6 and Figure 7. From Table 6 can be seen that the x
direction displacement model without bracing with
maximum load (Pmax) 16.2 kN reached 2.0711 mm
while the model with steel bracing with Pmax 18.36 kN

reached 1.6763 mm and model with bamboo bracing with


Pmax. 19.98 kN reached 2.0631 mm.
This means that with the addition of bracing with
different load conditions the x direction displacement of
model with steel bracing 19.07% smaller than model
without steel bracing and the x direction displacement of
model bamboo bracing 0.39% smaller than model
without bracing.
Differences in number of elements and assuming the
use of the material at the macro and micro model
influence the results of analysis. The greater number of
elements in numeric analysis can give more accurate
results. For example, it will be compared to the x
direction displacement of the macro and micro models
without bracing. This comparison is shown in Figure 8.
The x direction displacement macro model without
bracing with maximum load (Pmax) 16.2 kN reached
1.4731 mm while the micro model without bracing
reached 2.0711 mm. This means that the micro models
displacement has a difference 40.73% compared to the
macro models.

TABLE 5
MODEL MACRO ANALYTICAL OUTPUT WITH CYCLIC LOADING AT NODE NUMBER 64
Model type
Model without bracing
Load max.
x direction displacement max.
Model with steel bracing
Load max.
x direction displacement max.
Model with bamboo bracing
Load max.
x direction displacement max.

Output
16.2 KN
1.473 mm
18.36 KN
1.040 mm
19.98 KN
1.569 mm

FIG. 6 GRAPH RELATION LOAD-DISPLACEMENT MACRO MODEL UNDER CYCLIC LOADING

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TABLE 6
MODEL MICRO ANALYTICAL OUTPUT WITH CYCLIC LOADING AT NODE NUMBER 1460
Type
Micro Model Without Bracing
Load max.
x direction displacement max.
Micro Model With Steel Bracing
Load max.
x direction displacement max.
Micro Model With Bamboo Bracing
Load max.
x direction displacement max.

Output
16.2 KN
2.0711 mm
18.36 KN
1.6763 mm
19.98 KN
2.0631 mm

FIG. 7 GRAPH RELATION LOAD-DISPLACEMENT MICRO UNDER CYCLIC LOADING

FIG. 8 GRAPH RELATIONS BETWEEN LOAD-DISPLACEMENT MACRO AND MICRO MODEL UNDER CYCLIC LOADING
TABLE 7
COMPARISON OF THE DISPLACEMENT VALUE BY THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS
1
2
3
4

Number of elements
56
90
572
672

Number of nodes
72
110
621
725

604

Displacement (mm)
0.2489
0.4015
1.6731
1.7474

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FIG. 9 GRAPH CONVERGENCE CALCULATIONS

To find out whether the results given by the numeric


analysis can be compatible with the solution equation
then it can be seen at convergence calculations.
The larger dimension of the element will decrease the
number of elements and with the smaller dimensions of
the element then the number of element will increase.
Comparison of the results with different number elements
can be seen at Table 7 and Figure 9. The greater number
elements then the results will be more accurate.
IV.

Recommendation
Research can be developed with the change in value of
the modulus elasticity of material due to cylic loading to
make the numeric model condition close to the
experiment model.
Acknowledgments
This paper is part of thesis in Department of Civil
Engineering Brawijaya University. We give appreciation
to Prof. Dr. Ir. Sri Murni Dewi, MS., Ir. Siti Nurlina, MT
and Dr. Eng. Alwafi Pujiraharjo, ST., MT as our advisor.

CONCLUSION

The addition of bracing on the brick masonry can


improve the strength and stiffness under cyclic loading.
This occurs because steel bracing or bamboo bracing
provides additional strength to supress the tensile causes
by cyclic loading. Brick masonry has the same properties
as the concrete is strong to hold stress but weak to hold
tensile and with the addition of bracing it can overcome
these weaknesses.
Bamboo is effective enough to be used as an
alternative material. Bracing bamboo can contribute a
good deal of strength to brick masonry despite the
differences in the stress-strain behavior which in this case
the steel bracing is better than bamboo.
The difference between micro and macro model occurs
in the use of the building blocks where the micro model
used modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio of brick and
mortar, while the macro model is used the model
equations that represent the two materials. Another
difference occurs in the accuracy of the results which the
resuslts given micro model more accurate than the results
given macro model. It can be concluded that using micro
model has advantages compared to using macro model
which is the results are more precise and reserchers can
find a style that occurs at the interface. However, micro
model also have disadvantage which is the number of
elements that will require time and more memory so it
can not be used for model with a large dimension.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
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