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Experiment and Numeric Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall With Bracing Under Cyclic Loading

Experiment and Numeric Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall With Bracing Under Cyclic Loading

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)

with Bracing under Cyclic Loading

C. Remayanti1, L. Susanti2

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Brawijaya, Malang, East Java of Indonesia

Some of study of this model that have been done is

analysis of brick masonry under axial load [4] and brick

masonry analysis using numeric homogenized analysis

[5]. This homogenize modelling are know as macro

model. Experiment and numeric analysis is conducted to

brick masonry with bracing to improve the capability of

masonry [6]. In general bracing use steel as material, but

also can be used alternative material that is cheaper but

can provide good capacity such as bamboo [7].

The objectives to be achieved from this study is

modelling brick masonry wall in laboratory and in

numeric so it can be obtained displacement, stress and

strain from brick masonry under cyclic loading. From the

data obtained it can be used to compare the result

between experiment and numeric analysis, macro and

micro model. Furthermore it can be seen the influence of

using bracing at brick masonry and the differences

between using bamboo and steel as bracing material.

building which is its mechanical behaviour is influenced by

the mechanical behaviour of the constituent materials are

brick and mortar that can be obtained by conducting

research in the laboratory and then can be used to

determine the mechanical behaviour brick masonry wall in

computing. One way to determine the behaviour of brick

masonry is computationally using the numeric method.

Modelling techniques with numeric method consists of two

types of models of macro models and micro models. The

experiment in laboratory use 24 models of masonry walls

1,2 m x 1 m with columns and beams confinement in

dimension 7 cm x 7 cm. Models use steel and bamboo

bracing. All models were tested monotonic and cyclic

loading. The purpose of this study was to determine the

effect of the use of bamboo as an alternative to bracing

material and to know modelling of brick masonry using

numeric method (macro and micro model). This study

shows that the addition of either of steel bracing and

bamboo on brick masonry wall can increase the strength

and stiffness of the wall under cyclic loading.

II.

numeric methods

I.

Numeric Model

Two kind of basic approaches have been developed

with the purpose to make an appropriate approach for

masonry structures, the discrete model and continuous

model. Discrete model as well known as heterogenetic

model or micro model is a model which units and mortar

accounted separately [8]. As for continuous model or

homogeneous model or macro model is a model which

units, mortar and interface presented by an equivalent

continuum [9].

There is some homogenization procedures has been

conducted by researchers, one of them is the

homogenization procedure by PB Lourenco and A.

Zucchini. Initial step of this technique is to take the RVE

/ cell basic [10] which can be seen in Figure 1. By

following Lourencos homogenization, Rivieccio can

obtain the matrix properties / material homogeneous cell

as follows [11]:

INTRODUCTION

and anisotropic building material, which consists of

masonry units and mortar [1]. Mechanical behaviour of

brick masonry is influenced by the mechanical behaviour

of the constituent materials are brick and mortar [2].

Masonry compression strength is more influenced by the

mortar [3]. Some of many ways to understand brick

masonry behaviours are with experiment in the

laboratory and analysis using numeric method. By

performing the experiment we can obtained the

mechanical behaviour of brick and mortar and also brick

masonry behaviour under cyclic loading. After we obtain

the data of mechanical behaviours of brick and mortar

then we can use it to perform analyses using numeric

method on brick masonry wall. By using numeric method

we can obtain the data at points that do not we get at the

time of experiment in laboratory. To simplify the finite

element analysis, many researchers studied the

homogeneous between brick and mortar that can be used

as a material at numeric analysis.

S1111 S1122

S S1122 S 2222

0

0

598

0

0

S1212

........ (1)

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)

Where:

x = 1, y = 2

h h 2.l 2.t 2.t 2.t

h.l h.l

t s . s s s

E E E E E

Eb E f

Ee

g

d

c

d

a

S1111 S 2222

2.h t s . l t s

S1122

S1212

2

2

h.t s . a h.l.b 2.t s . c 2.l t s .t s . d 2.t s . e h.l. f h.t s . g

Ea

Eb

Ec

Ed

Ee

Ef

Eg

2.h t s . l t s

4.Gb .Gd .h.t s .h t s Ed .l.l t s . Gd .h Gb .t s

ELEMENT RVE) FOR HOMOGENIZED

2.Gd .h t s . Ed .Gb .l 2 Ga .Ed .l.t s 4.Gb .h.l t s

Where:

E = modulus Young

= rasio Poisson

E

1 1 2

Ea Ec Ed Ee E g = mortar modulus Young

following formula:

c b

k BT E BdV BT E Bt dx dy

.............

c b

G a = Gd = mortar modulus Lam

Gb = brick modulus Lam

(5)

As for the search for homogeneous masonry element

stiffness matrix is a matrix material E replaced by the

matrix material S of equation (1) so that the stiffness

matrix becomes:

h = brick height

l = brick width

k B E BdV BT S Bt dx dy

b f

c b

c b

t s = brick thickness

Bd

................. (6)

To find the stiffness of bracing for the numeric method

is used bar element [12]. The stiffness matrix of the bar

element is defined by the following formula:

E .............. (3)

g1

g

3

[k ]

g1

g3

following formula:

..............................(2)

Note: the matrix B is the matrix of strain-displacement

with size 3 x 8.

Stress- strain relationship for plane stress conditions

can be seen in the following equation:

g3

g1

g2

g3

g3

g1

g2

g3

Where:

following formula:

AE

(cos ) 2

L

AE

g2

(sin ) 2

L

AE

g3

(cos . sin )

L

g1

1

0

E E 2 1 0

1

1

0 0

2 ............. (4)

599

g3

g 2

g3

g2

....... (7)

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)

A = surface area of bracing

E = modulus elasticity of bracing

L = length of bracing

= angle of bracing

displacement. Firstly, the model in laboratory will be test

under monotonic load and then under cyclic load.

Nodal number that will be the nodal load is two which

is located on the top right and left. Nodal loads will be

given alternately from the left end first and then the far

right. Given load consists of several stages. Ultimate load

by 20% (derived from research data) for stage 1, 40% for

stage 2 and so on unti it reaches the ultimate load. For

example: in stage 1, the initial load is 0 then given

from 20% ultimate load then the load up to 20% and then

the load back to half of 20% ultimate load and eventually

to 0. For the experiment, each stage consisted of 6 cycles.

Experiment model

Research brick masonry wall conducted in the

laboratory and computationally. The model masonry wall

has a length of 134 cm, 114 cm wide. While the bricks

used a length of 10 cm, width 7 cm and height 5 cm.

Mortar that are used with 1 cm thick. The research model

can be seen in Figure 2.

Experiment and analysis conducted by computing

consists of three types: model without bracing, model

with steel bracing and model with bamboo bracing.

and the material properties and other data which need to

perform the analysis are obtained from experimental

results.

III.

additional stiffness and strength of the wall. Load max.

for model with bamboo bracing reach 19.98 kN, for

model with steel bracing reach 18.36 kN and for model

without bracing reach 16.2 kN. It means that in the model

with steel bracing, wall strength increased 13.33% and

the displacement 93.34% less than model without

bracing. It happens to model with bamboo bracing. In the

model with bamboo bracing, wall strength increased

29.73% and the displacement 32.23% less than model

without bracing

Experiment Results

Material properties obtained from material research

can be seen at the Table 1. Firstly, monotonic testing is

performed on each model to obtain the maximum load, it

can be seen at Table 2.

Data monotonic test results that have been obtained

previously used as a reference in determining the

cyclic loading stage.

600

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)

TABLE 1

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Material

Brick

Steel

Bamboo

Concrete

Mortar

Modulus elasticity

386.3 Mpa

200000Mpa

30000Mpa

17647.6 Mpa

879.3 Mpa

Poisson ratio

0.2

A

35.27 mm2

64 mm2

0.16

0.2

TABLE 2

EXPERIMENT UNDER MONOTONIC LOAD

Model type

Model without bracing

Load max.

x direction displacement max.

Output

16.2 KN

11.272 mm

Load max.

x direction displacement max.

18.36 KN

8.219 mm

Load max.

x direction displacement max.

19.98 KN

23.567 mm

TABLE 3

EXPERIMENT UNDER CYCLIC LOADING

Model type

Model without bracing

Load max. average

x direction displacement max.

average

Model with steel bracing

Load max. average

x direction displacement max.

average

Model with bamboo bracing

Load max. average

x direction displacement max.

Average

Output

9.72 KN

4.95 mm

14.69 KN

10.163 mm

16 KN

8.999 mm

601

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)

wall strength increased 13.33% and the displacement

93.34% less than model without bracing.

wall 29.73% and displacement 32.23% smaller than

model without bracing.

After the discretization on the model test is obtained the following data

TABLE 4

RESULTS OF MODEL DISCRETIZATION

1

2

3

Macro model

672

725

1450

Number of element

Number of nodes

Number of degree of freedom (d.o.f)

602

Micro model

1739

1824

3648

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)

Analytical results (output) are displacement generated

each nodal point. In the discussion will ony taken one

nodal point of observation alone as the representative of

the results of other analysis.

The results for macro model are shown in Table 5 and

Figure 6. Through Table 5 can be seen that the x

direction displacement model without bracing with

maximum load (Pmax) 16.2 kN reached 1.4731 mm

while the model with steel bracing with Pmax 18.36 kN

reached 1.0403 mm and model with bamboo bracing with

Pmax. 19.98 kN reached 1.5686 mm.

This means that with the addition of bracing with

different load conditions the x direction displacement of

model with steel bracing 29.38% smaller than model

without steel bracing and the x direction displacement of

model bamboo bracing 6.48% greater than model without

bracing. The results for micro model are shown in Table

6 and Figure 7. From Table 6 can be seen that the x

direction displacement model without bracing with

maximum load (Pmax) 16.2 kN reached 2.0711 mm

while the model with steel bracing with Pmax 18.36 kN

Pmax. 19.98 kN reached 2.0631 mm.

This means that with the addition of bracing with

different load conditions the x direction displacement of

model with steel bracing 19.07% smaller than model

without steel bracing and the x direction displacement of

model bamboo bracing 0.39% smaller than model

without bracing.

Differences in number of elements and assuming the

use of the material at the macro and micro model

influence the results of analysis. The greater number of

elements in numeric analysis can give more accurate

results. For example, it will be compared to the x

direction displacement of the macro and micro models

without bracing. This comparison is shown in Figure 8.

The x direction displacement macro model without

bracing with maximum load (Pmax) 16.2 kN reached

1.4731 mm while the micro model without bracing

reached 2.0711 mm. This means that the micro models

displacement has a difference 40.73% compared to the

macro models.

TABLE 5

MODEL MACRO ANALYTICAL OUTPUT WITH CYCLIC LOADING AT NODE NUMBER 64

Model type

Model without bracing

Load max.

x direction displacement max.

Model with steel bracing

Load max.

x direction displacement max.

Model with bamboo bracing

Load max.

x direction displacement max.

Output

16.2 KN

1.473 mm

18.36 KN

1.040 mm

19.98 KN

1.569 mm

603

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)

TABLE 6

MODEL MICRO ANALYTICAL OUTPUT WITH CYCLIC LOADING AT NODE NUMBER 1460

Type

Micro Model Without Bracing

Load max.

x direction displacement max.

Micro Model With Steel Bracing

Load max.

x direction displacement max.

Micro Model With Bamboo Bracing

Load max.

x direction displacement max.

Output

16.2 KN

2.0711 mm

18.36 KN

1.6763 mm

19.98 KN

2.0631 mm

FIG. 8 GRAPH RELATIONS BETWEEN LOAD-DISPLACEMENT MACRO AND MICRO MODEL UNDER CYCLIC LOADING

TABLE 7

COMPARISON OF THE DISPLACEMENT VALUE BY THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS

1

2

3

4

Number of elements

56

90

572

672

Number of nodes

72

110

621

725

604

Displacement (mm)

0.2489

0.4015

1.6731

1.7474

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)

analysis can be compatible with the solution equation

then it can be seen at convergence calculations.

The larger dimension of the element will decrease the

number of elements and with the smaller dimensions of

the element then the number of element will increase.

Comparison of the results with different number elements

can be seen at Table 7 and Figure 9. The greater number

elements then the results will be more accurate.

IV.

Recommendation

Research can be developed with the change in value of

the modulus elasticity of material due to cylic loading to

make the numeric model condition close to the

experiment model.

Acknowledgments

This paper is part of thesis in Department of Civil

Engineering Brawijaya University. We give appreciation

to Prof. Dr. Ir. Sri Murni Dewi, MS., Ir. Siti Nurlina, MT

and Dr. Eng. Alwafi Pujiraharjo, ST., MT as our advisor.

CONCLUSION

improve the strength and stiffness under cyclic loading.

This occurs because steel bracing or bamboo bracing

provides additional strength to supress the tensile causes

by cyclic loading. Brick masonry has the same properties

as the concrete is strong to hold stress but weak to hold

tensile and with the addition of bracing it can overcome

these weaknesses.

Bamboo is effective enough to be used as an

alternative material. Bracing bamboo can contribute a

good deal of strength to brick masonry despite the

differences in the stress-strain behavior which in this case

the steel bracing is better than bamboo.

The difference between micro and macro model occurs

in the use of the building blocks where the micro model

used modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio of brick and

mortar, while the macro model is used the model

equations that represent the two materials. Another

difference occurs in the accuracy of the results which the

resuslts given micro model more accurate than the results

given macro model. It can be concluded that using micro

model has advantages compared to using macro model

which is the results are more precise and reserchers can

find a style that occurs at the interface. However, micro

model also have disadvantage which is the number of

elements that will require time and more memory so it

can not be used for model with a large dimension.

REFFERENCES

[1 ] Tomazevic, M. 2000. Some Aspect of Experimental Testing of

SeismicBehaviour of Masonry Walls and Earthquake Technology

404 Vol 57: 101-117. Models of Masonry Buildings. ISET

Journal of Earhquake Technology 404 Vol. 57: 101-117.

[2 ] Milani, G. 2007. A Simple Equilibrated Homogenization Model

for The Limit Analysis of Masonry Structures. WSEAS

TRANSACTIONS on APPLIED and THEORETICAL

MECHANICS. Issue 5 Volume 2: 119-125.

[3 ] Wisnumurti et al. 2007. Optimalisasi Penggunaan Komposisi

Campuran Mortar Terhadap Kuat Tekan Dinding Pasangan Bata

Merah. Jurnal Rekayasa Sipil Volume 1 No.1 hal: 25-32.

[4 ] Bakhteri J., Makhtar, A. M., Sambasivam S. 2007. Numeric

Modelling of Structural Clay Brick Masonry Subjected to Axial

Compression. Jurnal Teknologi. 41(B). 57-68.

[5 ] Kuczma, M. ,

Wybranowska,

K.

2005. Numeric

Homogenization

of

Elastic Brick Masonry. Civil and

Environmental Engineering Reports. 1. 136-152.

[6 ] Asteris, P.G. 2008. Numeric Micro-Modeling on Infilled Frames.

Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering (8):1-11.

[7 ] Ghavarni, Khosrow. 2005. Bamboo As Reinforcement In

Structural Concrete Element. Cement and Concrete Composites

Vol. 27(6):637-649.

[8 ] Lourenco,P. B. et al. 1995. Two Approaches for The Analysis of

Masonry Structures: Micro and Macro Modeling. HEROV Vol.

40 No.4.

[9 ] Lourenco, P. B. 1996. Computational Strategies for Masonry

Structures. Delf University Press. Netherlands.

[10 ] Lourenco, P. B., Alberto Z., Gabriele M. and Antonio T. 2006.

Homogenisation Approaches for Structural Analysis of Masonry

Buildings. Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions.

605

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)

[11 ] Rivieccio, P. G. Homogenization Strategies and Computational

Analysis for Masonry Structures Via Micro-Mechanical

Approach. Tesis. University of Napoli Federico II.

Publisher. Boston.

606

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