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www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

Salah Ben Mabrouk

a

a,*

INRST National Institute for Scientic Research and Technology, P.O. Box 95, 2050 Hammam-Life, Tunis, Tunisia

b

LESTE Laboratory of Energetic Systems and Thermal Studies, ENIM Ecole Nationale dIngenieurs,

Monastir Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia

Received 1 February 2006; accepted 10 April 2006

Available online 8 June 2006

Abstract

This work presents a numerical model for heat and mass transfer of granular products in a xed-bed tunnel dryer. The drying process

is simulated under real operating conditions based on a thin layer model and experimental drying kinetics. A simplied heat and mass

transfer numerical model is developed based on the governing equations and the drying rate of a thin layer bed of granular products.

The obtained system of non-linear partial dierential equations is numerically solved by a nite volume method. The turbulent airow

and granular bed convection coecient as well as the eective conductivity are estimated using the turbulent airow over at-plate correlations. Simulations are compared with experimental data from drying of grapes in a thin layer model.

In order to study the eects of the air inlet conditions on the relative moisture content and the drying time and therefore to optimise

the tunnel dryer operation, the inuences of dierent parameters essentially the air ow characteristics and the xed-bed dryer length are

examined. The numerical code allows establishing the drying front propagation for several operating conditions.

2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Drying kinetics; Moisture content; Tunnel dryer; Mathematical model; Numerical simulation

1. Introduction

The drying of granular product layers is very important

in the food-processing industry. In the past decades, considerable work has been done on the development of theory

and mathematical models for drying processes [15]. The

challenge for the engineering designer is now to dene optimal dryers, which provide a product of constant good

quality.

Some products with low initial moisture content (wheat,

corn, . . .) need a slow drying obtained by ventilation at the

ambient temperature. Other higher moisture content products, but less sensitive to the deterioration (hazelnuts,

grapes, pea) can be dried over long periods. It is necessary

to remove the moisture content of products to a certain

934.

E-mail address: Salah.Benmabrouk@inrst.rnrt.tn (S.B. Mabrouk).

1359-4311/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2006.04.007

level after harvest to prevent the growth of mould and bacterial action [68].

The optimisation of the cost of these operations and the

preservation of the quality require a study of heat and mass

transfer phenomenon during the drying process. Food

quality is another important factor to be considered simultaneously with energy saving.

Problems raised by the drying of the granular products are therefore based on the physics of transient heat

and mass transfers. The understanding of these transfer

mechanisms is very useful to the interpretation of drying

processes. Some authors like Spencer [4], Ratti and

Mujumdar [9], Giner et al. [10] and Kiranoudis et al. [11]

have employed rigorous models for designing convective

xed-bed dryers. In these models, the equations were

obtained from transient heat and mass balances for a dierential element of a xed-bed. The interfacial conditions

were assumed as steady and the mass transfer was controlled by diusion. It is evident that these models are valid

only for specic products and particle dimensions. Many

2111

Nomenclature

Cp

d

e

f(Ta)

Hr

has

hc

hr

L

DHvap

m

m_

T

t

V

X

x, y

Y

Nu

Re

product diameter (m)

xed bed height (m)

correction function

ambient relative humidity (kg kg1)

global heat exchange coecient (W m2 K1)

convective exchange coecient (W m2 K1)

radiative exchange coecient (W m2 K1)

specic length (m)

latent heat of evaporation (J kg1)

solid product mass (kg)

evaporation rate (kg m2 s1)

temperature (K or C)

time (s or hours)

air velocity (ms1)

moisture content (kg kg1 dry basis)

Cartesian coordinate

absolute humidity of air

Nusselt number (hasL/k)

Reynolds number (VaL/m)

Greek Symbols

b

mass exchange coecient

e

bed porosity

k

thermal conductivity (W m1 K1)

drying processes.

Herman et al. [12] and Garcia and Ragazzo [13] proposed a drying model similar to most common mass transfer operations. Nevertheless, their model is limited to

steady state conditions and compared with experimental

data from carrot slabs in deep xed-bed drying.

Recently, Azharul Karim and Hawlader [14] proposed

a modelling study with both material and equipment models to solve the heat and mass transfer equations for

convective drying of tropical fruits. The material model

takes into account shrinkage material during drying and

shrinkage dependant eective diusivity. It is capable of

predicting the instantaneous temperature and moisture

distribution inside the product. Besides, the equipment

model describes the transfer process in the tunnel dryer

and predicts the instantaneous temperature and humidity

ratio of air at any location of the tunnel. Reviews of others mathematical models have been presented by Fortes

and Okos [15].

In this study, a reliable dryer model which can express

accurately the drying kinetics of the product as well as predict the drying behaviour of the air and the materials to be

dried is proposed. The purpose of the present work is to

extend our study on the drying process through a xed

granular bed [16,17]. The used method is adapted from

volume density (kg m3)

solidgas transfer area (surface area per unit

volume) (m2 m3)

U

equivalent physical quantity

Dt

time increment (s)

Dx, Dy spatial increment (m)

r

q

n

Subscripts

a

air

am

ambient

cr

critical

e

eective thermal characteristic

eq

equilibrium

en

input or external face wall

g

gas

i, j

spatial index

in

initial or internal wall

l

liquid

p

constant pressure

r

reduced

s

solid or product

sat

saturation

v, vap vapour

wb

wet bulb

The heat and mass transfer description in the granular

environment and the multiple air-product interactions are

studied by a mathematical model. The air-product mass

transfer is described with a kinetic equation based on

experimental data, which expresses the evaporation ow

rate in relation to the characteristics of air and the state

of the product during the drying process [2022]. Extensive

experiments were conducted using grapes as a sample to

compare the experimental results with simulation results

for validation purpose.

The developed numerical model, on the other hand, permits to study the eects of the drying air conditions on the

drying time and therefore to follow the propagation of the

drying front for dierent operating conditions and thus to

optimise the considered dryer.

2. Theoretical approach

The problem under investigation is based on forced convection of air over granular wet porous particles (grapes,

corn, hazelnuts and pea) in a tunnel dryer (Fig. 1). The

schematic conguration is a thin layer of spherical shaped

products placed in a xed-bed to allow heat transfer

through the whole product surface. This is well adapted,

in a rst approximation, to conventional tunnel dryers,

2112

in Mediterranean countries. The medium is discontinuous

and the macroscopic equations, which govern heat and

mass transfer, are generally obtained by the method of

scale changing from a one grain scale to a macroscopic

one which includes several grains. Several assumptions

are made in order to obtain the macroscopic scale governing equations [6,23]:

Air density is constant.

Air velocity distribution in the dryer is uniform.

Product is uniformly distributed in the drying chamber.

The changes in void fraction or bed porosity are negligible.

The thermal convective exchange between the two

phases is expressed with the help of a volumetric heat

transfer coecient that depends on the texture of the

porous medium and on the magnitude of the airow

velocity.

oT a

oT a

_ pv T s T a

Va

mC

qa C pa YC pv e

ot

ox

o

oT a

o

oT a

ekae

ekae

nhas T s T a

ox

oy

ox

oy

The thermal conduction in air and between grains is expressed in terms of the thermal conductivities of the solid

product and the uid (air) based on an equivalent conductivity. The thermal dispersion eect is treated as a diusive

term added to the air thermal conductivity.

2.1.3. Solid product enthalpy conservation equation

1 eqs C ps XC pl

oT s

_

mDH

vap nhas T a T s

ot

o

oT s

1 ekse

ox

ox

o

oT s

1 ekse

oy

oy

latent heat of vaporisation:

The granular porous medium characteristics are described by two macroscopic functions: (Ts, X) for the solid

phase and (Ta, Y) for the air uid phase which are the temperature and moisture content, respectively. The governing

equations are drawn from the general formulation

described in the literature [18]. The granular medium is

supposed homogeneous and isotropic and is studied in a

tow dimensional conguration. The resulting equations follow from mass and energy balances relating to an elementary control volume [16,24,25].

2.1.1. Gas mass conservation equation

oY

oY

o

oY

o

oY

qa e

Va

qa De

qa De

m_

ot

ox

ox

ox

oy

oy

1

where the air and vapour densities qa and qv are given by

the ideal gas equation.

DH vap DH 0vap C pv C pl T s

The heat transfer coecient between the solid and the

air is noted by has. While kae and kse are the eective thermal conductivity of the air and of the solid, respectively.

2.1.4. Solid product mass conservation equation:

the drying kinetic equation

The drying kinetic equation is given by

m_ 1 eqs

oX

1 eqs X_

ot

is the drying

where X is the moisture content and X_ oX

ot

rate.

_ is assumed to be a function of many parameters

X_ (or m)

such as the air temperature Ta, the air velocity Va, the relative humidity Hr and the moisture content [26].

from an experimental study on a thin product layer [16]:

oX

X_ in f X r

ot

with X r

X X eq

X in X eq

f X r X r X r 1 X r a1 X r a2

where the functional dependence f(Xr) is based on the following boundary conditions:

0 < f X r < 1

f X r 1

when X r 1

and

f X r 0

when X r 0:

7

laboratory at constant air conditions. It is assumed that

this equation remains valid when the temperature Ta and

the relative humidity Hr vary slowly [14]. The function

f(Xr) used in this study, has been deduced from an experimental analysis in a thin product layer. This experimental

study allowed determining the kinetic function of drying

and the characteristic parameters that represent the initial

velocity X_ in when the rst phase of drying is non-existent.

We propose the established following relation [17]:

n

X_ in bV a Y sat T sat Y a

obtained from the moist air chart based on Tsat, Ta and Ya.

In a rst step, parameters b and n have been analytically

determined with the help of the experimental data for a

thin layer product (Table 1). Furthermore, the parameter

b was correlated by a relation that takes into account the

temperature of the hot airow:

with 30 C 6 T a 6 70 C

they have experimental drying characteristic curves obtained during our previous laboratory works [16]. For the

materials undergoing shrinkage, like grapes, diusion coefcient varies with moisture content and product temperature. One way to solve the problem of the shrinkage

eect is to incorporate the volume change into the diusion

Table 1

Drying air and product characteristics for the simulated processes

Cpa = 1006 J kg1 K1

Cpv = 1840 J kg1 K1

d = 6.0 103 m ! 12.0 103 m

Ta = 40 C; 50 C; 60 C; 70 C; 80 C

Va = 1.0 ms1; 2.0; 3.0; 5.0; 7.0 ms1

Xin = 4.0 kg kg1 ! 5.0 kg kg1 (d.b.)

Cpl = 4180 J kg1 K1

Cps = 1463 J kg1 K1

Hr = 5.0% ! 50.0%

kse = 0.13 ! 0.15 W m1 K1

qa = 1.293[273.15/Ta + 273.15]

r = 60.0 kg m2 ! 70.0 kg m2

DH 0vap 2501:6 J kg1

an eective diusion coecient De may be introduced in

the product mass conservation equation. Again, the drying

material is considered as a thin slab of thickness equal to

the product diameter. If it is considered that the volume

contraction is assumed to be ideal, the shrinkage is shown

as a compression of the elements of the solid matrix, in

order to load only the water loss by dehydration. This

shrinkage phenomenon aects in particular the exchange

area and the diusion coecient of the material, which is

one of the main parameters governing equation (1). At

present, an assumption on the eective diusion coecient

of the material has to be made. Kinetic correlations were

included in the computational program as polynomial

equations (6)(9) to obtain good ts between simulated

and experimental results.

2.2. Determination of model transfer coecients

The above-developed model requires the knowledge of

an important number of parameters.

The average porosity e of the product layer is determined from the volume fraction qs occupied by the solid

product. The surface density of the product r is linked to

the average porosity e by the relation:

r

1 eqs

e

10

The parameter n which appears in the energy equation represents the specic surface area of the packed bed. It has

been given by Vafai and Sozen [27]:

n

2113

61 e

d

11

The average convective transfer coecient hc between

the solid product and the air depends on the airow regime.

Based on the position of a uniform product layer, we have

adopted the at-plate turbulent airow correlation to calculate the Reynolds number, Re, and the Nusselt number,

Nu, among other thermo-physical parameters [28].

The average radiant transfer coecient hr is given by the

StefanBoltzman theory in admitting that the temperature

of the tunnel walls is equal to that of the airow. The heat

transfer coecient has corresponds to (hc + hr).

3. Numerical approach

Eqs. (1)(5) describe the physical mechanisms of a xedbed dryer. This mathematical model can be used to determine the dominant internal and external phenomenon in

a drying process. However, the solution of this model has

some practical problems. The product layer is suciently

thin in the direction of the tunnel depth to allow no gradients of product temperature and moisture content within it.

The numerical modelling is made by considering the following assumptions:

2114

layer remains constant.

The porosity of the medium is supposed to be constant

during the drying.

The shrinkage of the product leads to negligible modications of the transfer coecients.

The outow is considered to be unidirectional with constant velocity and without transfers in the transverse

directions. Besides, the walls of the tunnel dryer are supposed adiabatic.

Initially, the product sample is supposed isothermal and

in hydrostatic equilibrium. The moisture content throughout the product layer is assumed to be uniform at the

beginning of drying. The initial conditions are then given

by

X x; 0 X in ; T a x; 0 T a0

12

Y x; 0 Y in ; T s x; 0 T am

The conguration of the tunnel entry section (x = 0) leads

us to put the following boundary conditions:

(

X 0; t X 0 ; T a 0; t T a0 ; dTdta t0 0

13

Y 0; t Y 0 ; T s 0; t T am ; dY 0

dt t0

The above system of equations is numerically solved by

the nite volume method as described by Patankar [29].

The advantage of this method is that it ensures ux conservation, and thus avoids generation of parasitic sources. The

two-dimensional model consists of dening a grid of points

Pi,j within the calculated domain and then constructing

around each point a control volume (Fig. 2). The value

n1

any point Pi,j and at the time t + Dt is noted as Ui;j

. The

equations are integrated over this control volume and over

an interval of time [t, t + Dt].

In order to discretise the resulting integral equations, we

make the following assumptions:

The uxes are constant on the side of the control volume, which is perpendicular to them.

The accumulation terms and the source terms can be

approximated by averaging on the control volume constructed around Pi,j.

Based on these hypotheses, space rst derivatives for a

physical entity U are approached by a second order Taylor development around points (i 1) and (i + 1)

(Fig. 2):

n1

n1

n1

Ui1;j Ui1;j

oU

dDx2

14

ox i;j

Dx

The relative interpolation value at time step (n + 1) is

n1

n

Un1

oU

i;j Ui;j

dDt2

15

ot i;j

Dt

Under conditions generally occurring in practice, the characteristic time of the air temperature Ta and the absolute

humidity Y is much smaller than the one relative to the

product drying time. Considering these assumptions, the

rst temperature derivatives at the space step (i + 1/2, j)

and (i 1/2, j) are approximated, respectively, by

n1

n1

n1

T a i1;j T a i;j

oT a

16

ox i1=2;j

Dx

n1

n1

T a i;j

T a n1

oT a

i1;j

17

ox i1=2;j

Dx

To avoid numerical instabilities we adopted an implicit

scheme. The coupled and non-linear character of the equations is treated by an iterative nite dierence technique

based on a procedure of calculation of /n1

i1=2;j from a

n1

known /n1

and

an

estimated

value

/

.

The value of

i;j

i1;j

n1=2

/i;j

at the instant (n + 1/2) is determined by the interpolation value at instants (n) and (n + 1). The test of convergence imposes, for each variable, the following condition:

max jDUi;j j 105

18

two successive iterations.

When the supercial evaporation disappears, a drying

front appears at the level of the product layer. To better

follow its propagation, it is important to use a variable grid

size in space and in time. Besides, we have successively considered 201, 401 and 601 nodes in the space directions.

Fig. 2 shows the spatial mesh used in the numerical resolution. A computer program in FORTRAN was developed

to solve the set of nite dierence equations.

4. Experimental study

X eq

In a preliminary study, the drying kinetics and the product characteristics were studied in the laboratory by means

of a specic apparatus that is completely described in Ref.

[16]. We consider a thin product layer, with thickness

between 0.8 cm and 1.0 cm, put on the insulating at plate

(25 cm length 10 cm width) inside the vein of the specic

apparatus. Air velocity Va, temperature Ta and relative

humidity Hr are closely controlled. Air ow rate was varied

by controlling the speed controller of the blower fan. The

air temperature was varied using a temperature controller

attached to the auxiliary heater. Weight loss data allowed

the moisture content to be calculated as follows: X(t) =

m(t)/ms; where ms is the weight of dry mass obtained after

a long stay in a vacuum at 95 C and m(t) is the weight of

the evaporated moisture. The values of X_ t dX =dt were

obtained by derivation of a polynomial expression based

on ve experimental points. The evolution of the drying

kinetics according to the reduced and normalised moisture

content of the product, Xr = (X Xeq)/(Xin Xeq), has

been studied for dierent airow parameters [15]. Moreover, a numerical procedure has been applied to establish

the characteristic drying curves as X_ =X_ in f X r ; T a where

Xeq is the equilibrium moisture content determined by the

adsorption curves. Statistical treatment of a large number

of points gave also reliable results for X(t), X_ t and

X_ X . Fig. 3 presents the experimental variation of drying

rate as a function of the reduced moisture content at dierent air velocity and temperature values. It can be seen that

the drying rate is not constant throughout the drying period. It constantly drops until the equivalent moisture content of the product is reached. In the case of grapes and for

an air temperature of less than 100 C, we can deduce the

following relationship between the drying rate and the

reduced moisture content:

f X r X r X r 1 X r 1:1697X r 0:8415

19

: 47 C, 1.30 m/s,

: 66 C, 2.15 m/s,

: 66 C, 4.65 m/s,

: 46 C, 2.10 m/s,

Simulation

0.8

25%

20%

20%

25%

0.6

X

X in 0.4

0.2

0:0362Hr

fT a

1 0:625Hr1 0:808Hr

20

function.

5. Results and interpretations

5.1. Validation of the numerical model

The presented model has been validated by previous

numerical and experimental work achieved on Tunisian

grape samples [30]. Nevertheless, to appreciate the capacity

of the model to describe the dierent proles of drying, it

seemed useful to compare our numerical solutions to experimental results realised recently in the laboratory. Fig. 4

shows experimental and simulated evolution of the average

moisture content during thin layer product drying with a

slab thickness of 0.8 cm and an air velocity between

0.5 ms1 and 7 ms1. The airow regime is thus turbulent.

It can be seen that the surface directly exposed to the drying air approached the equilibrium moisture content faster

and the changes in the layers of materials are slow. The

predicted and experimental results show reasonably close

agreement, which validates the presented model. Best

reproduction of the experimental data was obtained with

air velocity from 1.0 ms1 to 5.0 ms1 and air inlet temperature between 40 C and 70 C.

The tunnel has variable length, L = 6 m and 10 m. It is

crossed by an air ow which has constant inlet physical

characteristic temperature, velocity and humidity. The

physical characteristics of the drying air and the product

layer are illustrated in Table 1.

5.2. Numerical simulation results

The results of the numerical simulation are presented as

curves giving the spatial distribution of the variables

X(x, t), Ts(x, t) and Ta(x, t) at dierent times.

by the following expression:

2115

4.5

Va = 0.5 ms-1

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

Va = 1 ms-1

2.0

1.5

1.0

Va = 2 ms-1

Va = 3 ms-1

Va = 5 ms-1

Va = 7 ms-1

0.5

0.0

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Time (h)

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Xr

1.2

for xed-bed of grapes employing a sample thickness of 0.8 cm and inlet

air temperature of 60 C.

2116

and the product temperature, respectively at dierent times

for a xed-bed tunnel with 6 m length only. The product

layer thickness is 1.0 cm and the air inlet conditions are

3 ms1 and 60 C. In the experiment, the dryer temperature

at the inlet and outlet were recorded throughout the drying

period. However, from the simulation program, the temperature variation at dierent locations of the dryer with

time was computed. In this way, the predicted outlet temperatures are compared with measured temperatures for

dierent drying conditions.

After a transient phase during which the sample cools to

the humid temperature Twb, a short phase of constant drying rate (PCDR) velocity begins. During this phase, the

transport is only that of liquid water toward the surface.

The vapour ow inside the product layer is nearly equal

to zero. This thermal balance between the energy brought

by the drying air and the energy used for the evaporation,

has permitted to express the velocity of drying during the

5 mn

1h

2h

10 mn

3h

15 mn

4h

30 mn

5h

1

6h

7h

0

0

Fig. 5. Evolution of the moisture content proles of grapes through the

6 m tunnel dryer. Simulation conditions: Ta = 60 C; Tam = 25 C;

Va = 3.0 ms1; Hr = 25%; Xin = 4 kg kg1 (d.b.); Xeq = 0.05 kg kg1

(d.b.).

is evident that air temperature and air velocity have great

eect on drying rates. The drying appears by the propagation of the drying front from the upstream toward the

downstream position. The beginning of the second phase

with decreasing drying rate (PDDR) is characterised by a

slight distortion of the moisture content proles (Fig. 5).

Under the same conditions, simulation results showed

that moisture and temperature of the solid through the

product layer developed gradients during the rst two

hours of drying. These gradients were concomitantly

reduced until constant values and were reached after seven

hours of drying as it is shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 7 shows the drying kinetics of a sample of grapes

spread out in a 10 m tunnel length with a sample thickness

of 0.8 cm and inlet air conditions of 5 ms1 and 70 C. This

Fig. 7 shows a front of evaporation that moves with time

and divides the bed in two regions: dried region and wet

region. Evaporation is essentially localised in the zone in

which the gradient of moisture content is high (front of

evaporation). When time increases the front of evaporation

approaches the outlet of the medium and the humid region

contracts.

We can notice that when the air velocity and the inlet

temperature increase, the evaporation front moves faster

and consequently the necessary time for drying decreases

(Figs. 5 and 7).

Fig. 8 shows the time space evolution of the relative

dierence temperature, DT* = [Ta Ts]/(DTref), between

solid product and air temperatures calculated for drying

in a 10 m tunnel length. For this study, DTref is an interval

between reference temperatures and is equal to 27 C. At

the beginning, the relative dierence temperature DT* is

only important at the inlet of the bed, because the inlet

temperature is higher than the initial solid medium temperature. After that, there is a dierence only in the region

where the evaporation front is localised. This fact is due

to the dierence between the thermal characteristics of

the solid and the hot air. As it has been reported previously

60

7h

55

6h

4h

50

5h

3h

2h

45

1h

40

35

0

30 mn

15 mn

10 mn

5 mn

6

Fig. 6. Numerical evolution of the solid temperature at dierent time

versus the 6 m tunnel length. Simulation conditions are identical to Fig. 5.

10 m tunnel dryer. Simulation conditions: Ta = 70 C; Tam = 28 C;

Va = 5.0 ms1; Hr = 25%; Xin = 4 kg kg1 (d.b.); Xeq = 0.05 kg kg1

(d.b.).

2117

layers.

References

between the solid product and air temperatures. DT* = [Ta Ts]/(DTref).

Using the conditions of Fig. 7, the numerical solutions are predicted for

Ta = 60 C.

[3], the relative dierence temperature DT* depends essentially on the ratio kse/kae and decreases when this ratio

tends to unity.

We have observed that the relative values of the temperature dierence DT* are less than those found in the whole

medium. After a long time, this relative dierence temperature appears at the outlet of the bed dryer (Fig. 8).

Moreover, the numerical simulation shows that the

product bed overheats at the inlet and near the drying front

interface. When time increases, the overheating propagates

inside the medium. The product temperature and the moisture content tend to their nal values in the entire medium,

and the evaporation ceases (Figs. 6 and 7).

In summary, the mathematical model proposed in this

work is able to predict dierent transport mechanisms in

thin product layers with dierent geometric characteristics.

Similar conclusions were reported by Herman et al. [13].

The mathematical model structure is such that can be

applied to other drying processes, for example, Eqs. (1)

(5) can represent a batch tray dryer, if medium proprieties

and physical thermal parameters are conveniently evaluated. The comparison with other recent studies is satisfying

[12,14,31].

6. Conclusion

A mathematical model for a transient drying process is

presented on the basis of heat and mass transfer properties

in both air and product. Although the model developed is

mathematically simple, it is able to provide reliable predictions of the drying rate and the temperature distribution in

the product sample, and temperature and moisture distributions in the drying air along the tunnel dryer. Thermodynamic relationships for water equilibrium between the air

and the product, the physical proprieties of the material

and the geometrical proprieties of the product layer were

considered. This study permitted to appreciate the capacity

of the developed model to describe the dierent drying

periods. The results showed the ability of the model to

Grains, The Avi Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, CT, 1974.

[2] W.E. Ranz, W.R. Marshall, Evaporation from drops, Chem. Eng.

Progr. 58 (3) (1952) 141144.

[3] A. Mhimid, J.P. Fohr, S. Ben Nasrallah, Heat and mass transfer

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