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Seed & Variety Selection

Key Check 1:

Used high quality seeds


of recommended
variety
Part 1: Understanding the PalayCheck
System

Seeds are the foundation of farming.

You reap what you sow!


SOW high quality seed (+ good production practices)
= REAP high quality harvest

What are
high quality
seeds?
Why use
high quality
seeds?

High Quality Seeds

High

Quality

relatively
pure

Poor
viable

fewer weed
seeds

full & uniform


in size
free from seedborne pests &
diseases

Which field used high quality seeds?

Classes of High Quality Seeds


BREEDER seeds are produced by PhilRice from
uniform panicles (nucleus seeds).
FOUNDATION seeds are grown by PhilRice & SeedNet
from breeder seeds.
REGISTERED seeds are grown by SeedNet & selected
seed growers from foundation seeds.
CERTIFIED seeds are grown by seed growers from
registered seeds. These are sold to farmers.

Philippine Laboratory Standards


for Seed Certification
Factor

BS

FS

RS

CS

Pure seed (%)

99

98

98

98

Other varieties (grains/500g)

20

Weeds/Other crops seeds (%)

0.05

0.1

Inert matter (%)

Red rice (grains/500g)

Germination (% min)

85

85

85

85

Moisture content (%)

14

14

14

14

Not 100% pure!

Farmers may
also produce
their own
high quality
seeds!

Importance of Key Check 1


When high quality seeds are used:
Less pest problems
More efficient crop
establishment
activities

Lower seed rate but


more vigorous & more
uniform crop germination

10-15% yield
increase

More efficient
harvesting
activities

Why use
recommended
varieties?
Recommended varieties are adapted to local conditions:

appropriate to the environment

resistant to pests & abiotic stresses (e.g. drought,


flood) in the locality

have produced relatively stable & high yield in


adaptability trials

acceptable to farmers & demanded by the local


market

TRIVIA on Varieties

1. PSB Rc means Philippine Seed Board Rice while NSIC means


National Seed Industry Council. The NSIC, which used to be the
PSB, approves the release of new varieties.
2. Odd-numbered varieties (PSB Rc1) are for the upland
environment while even-numbered varieties
(NSIC Rc216) are for the irrigated lowland
environment.
3. Glutinous varieties are also odd-numbered.

TRIVIA on Varieties

4. Until 2001, lowland rice varieties are named after rivers


(Pagsanjan, PSB Rc10) while upland rice varieties are named
after mountains (Apo, NSIC Rc9). Now, naming is as follows:
Inbred Tubigan
Hybrid Mestiso
Upland varieties
Katihan
Rainfed - Sahod-ulan
Cool-elevated - Cordillera

Saline-prone - Salinas
Glutinous - Malagkit
Aromatic- Mabango
Flood-prone Submarino
Tungro-resistant - Matatag

Assessment of Key Check 1


Seeds are certified by the National Seed Quality
Control Services (i.e. if certified seeds, a blue tag is
attached) or sourced from
reliable sources
(i.e. PhilRice, accredited
seed growers)

If seeds are old stocks; a


carry-over from previous
season; or farmer-produced,
then these should have
passed germination or
seed test.

Assessment of Key Check 1


The variety suits the environment (e.g. irrigated,
rainfed, saline-prone, etc); addresses a prevailing
local field problem (e.g. tungro-resistant); OR has
performed well in at least two seasons of adaptability
trial (ask PhilRice, local DA office).

Mestiso 20 (NSIC Rc 204H)


recommended for DS & WS in Nueva
Ecija, Isabela, Cagayan, Davao del
Sur & del Norte, General Santos,
Bukidnon, and similar areas

Recommendations to Achieve
Key Check 1
Farmers often prefer new varieties, believing that
they yield better. However, a variety may be released
based on reasons other than yield
(e.g. better grain quality & resistance to pests).
PSB Rc56 has 106 cav/ha average yield
while PSB Rc58, 98 cav/ha. However, PSB Rc58
is resistant to bacterial leaf blight.
Thus, choose a variety with high yield potential,
market demand, and tested in techno
demo/adaptability trials. Know the varietys
characteristics!

Recommendations to Achieve
Key Check 1
If there is NSQCS tag, check if
this is valid. Seed source must
preferably be from among the
list of SeedNet members.

If there are no accredited seed growers in the locality,


source seeds from reliable farmers in the area (i.e.
with farms that have uniform crop growth) or produce
own high quality seeds following proper procedure,
particularly in removing off-types. For a fee, request
NSQCS to conduct a seed test or conduct your own
germination test to ensure quality.

Recommendations to Achieve
Key Check 1
10 Steps to Produce
High Quality Seeds
1. Select a healthy part of the field &
keep this weed-free.
2. Use clean, good quality seed.
3. Plow, puddle, & level the
field well.

10 Steps to Produce
High Quality Seeds
4. If transplanting, plant young (21-25 d) seedlings from a
healthy, weed-free nursery at 1-3 per hill at 20cm x 20cm
spacing if WS & 20cm x 15cm if DS. Replant within 7 DAT.
5. Apply balanced nutrients (N, P, K, S, Zn) as per crop demand.
6. Keep the crop free of weeds, insect pests, & diseases.
7. At maximum tillering and flowering, rogue off-types (by plant
height, appearance, flowering time, etc.) & poor, diseased or
insect damaged plants or plants with discolored panicles.

Roguing (pull/discard) Off-types


Plant height: Rogue plants
that are unusually taller or
shorter than most of the
plants.
Panicle: Rogue plants with
partially exserted panicles
because at heading time, these
off-types will have earlier or later
panicle emergence.
Seed or Grain: If most of the plants have grains
that have awns, then rogue those without awns
(& vice-versa).

Roguing Off-types
FLAG LEAF

Flag leaf angle: Rogue


plants with flag leaf that is
upright (A) or bent (B) unlike
the rest of the plants.

Leaf color, sheath, stem:


Rogue plants that have
discolored or differentl;ycolored leaves, sheath,
stems.

10 Steps to Produce
High Quality Seeds
8. Harvest at full maturity (80-85% of the grains are strawcolored).
9. Thresh, clean, dry (12-14% moisture content), grade & label the
harvested seed.
10. Store the labeled seed in sealed clean containers in a cool, dry
& clean area.

Recommendations to Achieve
Key Check 1
If a variety has not yet been tested in the area, then
conduct an adaptability trial for at least two seasons.
Factors to consider in selecting a variety to test:

Planting season- wet or dry


Field history- disease & soil problems
Maturity - early, medium, or late
Type - regular inbred, hybrid, specialty rice
Yield potential min/max potential
Resistance to major pests in the area
Grain quality market/millers preference

Recommendations to Achieve
Key Check 1
In wet season, pay attention to prevalent pests in the
area & consider also the shattering & lodging
characteristics of a variety. In dry season, most of
the hybrid varieties perform better.
In rainfed areas, it is recommended to first choose
varieties intended for rainfed environment. Consider
also traditional or regionally
preferred varieties for
rainfed environment as
these have been most
likely adapted in the locality.

Input-Output-Outcome
bought certified seeds from
reliable source or produced own
high quality seeds; followed
results of adaptability trials
used certified seeds of
recommended variety
high yield
good grain quality
high profit
minimal damage to environment

Seeds are the foundation of farming.

You reap what you sow!


SOW high quality seed (+ good production practices)
= REAP high quality harvest

Remember
KEY CHECK 1!

Used high quality


seeds of
recommended
variety

CREDITS
Instructional presentation designer:
Dr. Karen Eloisa Barroga
Sources of technical content/reviewers of presentation:
Ms. Thelma Padolina; Dr. Gerald Ravelo; Ms. Emily Arocena;
Ms. Susan Brena; Mr. Manny Alejar, IRRI;
Ms. Eleanor Ayos, BPI; Ms. Joventina Elep, BPI;
Mr. Alvaro Pamplona, IRRI
Note:
Adapted from powerpoint presentations developed by:
Mrs. Thelma Padolina; Ms. Susan Brena
You may use, remix, tweak,
For more information, visit:
& build upon this presentation
non-commercially. However, always
use with acknowledgment.
Unless otherwise stated, the names
listed are PhilRice staffers.
Produced in 2011
Text: 0920-911-1398

Rice Environments

The four major rice environments are the irrigated

Source: IRRI

environment; the rainfed lowland environment; the


flood-prone environment; & the upland environment.

Rice Environments

Examples of varieties for each environment:


Upland:
PSB Rc7, NSIC Rc9

Irrigated:
NSIC Rc160, Rc210H

medlibrary.org

Rainfed lowland:
PSB Rc12, Rc14

Flood-prone:
NSIC Rc194

How to Conduct a Seed Germination Test


1) Spread 100 seeds on paper towel (or old plain white shirt
cut in half) that has been soaked in water.
2) Cover the seeds with another paper towel (or the other
half of the shirt).
3) Roll up the paper with the seeds inside & store them in
the shade for 7-10 days. Keep the rolled sacks moist for
the entire period. Do not let them dry out. (Shirt: roll it
around a stick.)

Spread 100 seeds evenly.


Source: IRRI (some modifications made)

Cover the seeds. Store rolled seeds in


shade for 1wk.

How to Conduct a Seed Germination Test

Make four sets of 100 seeds.

All 4 sets of germinated seeds


should have a germination rate
of at least 85% or 85 seedlings
for each set.

4) Make 4 sets of 100 seeds.


5) At the end of 7-10 days, count the normal seedlings that
have developed (i.e. with well-developed roots & shoots).

How to Conduct a Seed Germination Test


Germination rate should be at least 85%.
Calculating the germination rate
Germination (%) = Number of seeds germinated x
Number of seeds on tray
For example: if 86 seeds germinated in a tray of 100
seeds after 10 days, then
10-day germination (%) =

85 x 100
100

85%

100