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The Origins of Had i th :


A Critical

Appraisal

Approach

of a Western

to the Subject

Sulaiman Muhammad

Department

of Arabic

AI-JarAllah

Islamic
and

Studies

University of Glasgow

thesis

submitted

for

the ' degree

of

Ph. D.

Faculty of Arts at the University of Glasgow


1412 / 1991

in

the

SULAIMAN MUHAMMAD AL-JARALLAH 1991

i
i
ij Pjjsui

add
I*

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Praise

be to Allah

first

and

I should

like

to take

the

Imam

University,

Riyadh,

which

University

of

to

gratitude

Din and the

former

of this

Dean

help

Dr.

al-Slih
present

Nasir

Saud

and for

of al-Sunnah

the

wa-cUlmh,

and Associate

Professor

head

department,

of this

The help of a

al-R mi;

Professor

Dr. Flih

Studies,

former

of

al-

the

Muhammad

al-Dumayni;

Dr. 'Abd

the

Associate

heads

Professor
Musfir

their

to be mentioned:

Ab d al-cAziz

Dean of Graduate

al-cUmar;

for

the cooperation

deserves

Associate

much

of Us01 al-

wa-cUlmha

all stages of my study.

a! -Sh a ykh

to the
is

support

to the faculty

my

Islamic

scholarship

and

scholarship

the assistant

department

Tuwayjiri.

during

Ibn
my

of al-Sunnah

Dean of the faculty,

Professor

the

Its

of persons in this institution

Sughayyir;

Adib

sponsored

department

suggestion

present

me to

to express

opportunity

Muhammad

Glasgow.

they have shown

The

this

I owe special gratitude

appreciated.

number

has enabled

who

this thesis.

complete

initial

last,

Allah

and
al-

2
I wish

to thank

the Secretary

encouragement

Muhammad

Dr.

Professor

associate

of the University,

General

for

al-Slim,

his

and assistance.

I am thankful

John Mattock,

to Professor

the head of the department


the help and assistance

of Arabic

he has offered

my supervisor,

me during

for

Studies,

and Islamic

the period

of

my study.
I wish
first

introduced

help is

Dr. cAbd al-Rahmn

also to thank

me to Professor

Mattock;

al-Matrdi,

who

his kindness

and

much appreciated.

I am grateful
and Ahmad

to my wife

for their

patience,

and children,
and support

Muhammad,
during

Rayy

the past six

years.
Finally,
- which
unfailing

support,

and

is far

most

too weak

encouragement

which

importantly,
a word
and

have sustained

their

I am greatly
to
my
most

me always.

parents
generous

indebted
for
care

their
and

CONTENTS

Abstract
Table of

transliteration

List of abbreviations

10

Introduction

12

Part
The evidence

for

the origins

1. Aw'11 reports

20

transmission

ofhadith

22

as evidence

The significance
A discussion

one

22

of the awiPil reports

of the aw'il

in Juynboll's

reports

24

argument
Aw'i1 reports
II. Juynboll's

hypothesis

and their

materials

Tabagt

Ibn Sacd

prophetic

juynboll's
prophetic

argument

of hadith

' al-rshidn

The

to Juynboll's

of the growth

al-Khu1af

The musnads
III.

unfavourable

47
in
47

of the four Caliphs in hadith

collections

of the

late

appearance

of

of the evidence

the
74

sunnah

An examination

57
74

sunnah

concept

28

of his chronology

77

The authority

of the prophetic

The

meaning

early

sunnah in early texts


term

the

of

al-sunnah

(pl. al-sunan)

92

cUmar b. cAbd al-cAziz


IV.

Early hadith

82

and the prophetic

96

sunnah

103

activities

The activities

of the Companions

108

The activities

of the Successors

118

Juynboll's

evaluation

in the transmission

of the status of three Successors


of hadith

133

V. Talab al-dilm

147

A discussion
the

of Juynboil's

second

al-dtlm

century

proposal

as a date

of the beginning
for

the

journeys

Chronology

of the (alab al-diim

between

journeys

154
161

provinces

Part
Aspects of hadith

167

two
179

1. The qusss and the fugah'


a1-Qusss in the first

talab
147

The hajj journey


Movement

first

of

century

180
180

al-Fugah' :A discuusssion of Juynboll's thesis that


their opinions are raised

to the level

of 'prophetic
185

sayings'
II. The isnd

210

Juynboll's

chronology

The isnd

and its association

A scrutiny

of Juynboll's

of the beginning
with

theory

of the isnd

the fitnah

concerning

210

the date

of the great fitna'

214

Isnds in the early


An

hypothesis
III.

of the growing

Characteristics
Hadith

and

246

sources

of Juynboll's

examination

examples

for

the

back of the isnd

256

of hadith

268
268

regionalism

Local remarks

268

Anas b. Malik's
Juynboll's

in Egypt

Iladith
with
IV. The

theory

between

material

two centres

of the 'age trick'


and Khursn

and its association


277

authenticity

Niyhah

270
273

Iraq

mutawtir

210

badiths

of hadith

:A

discussion

of two
288
289

The man kadhaba


V. Juynboll
Conclusion

calayya

and his predecessors

hadith

304
329
352

Appendix

359

Bibliography

395

ABSTRACT

A number

Western

of modern

or less detail the origins


Juynboll,

who

comes up with
is that

theory
later

hadith

products

of

transmission

of hadith.

new conclusions
the prophetic

ihadiths

are,

the

authorities.

of hadith

as late as toward

a development
beginning

It consists of two parts;

following

five

in

of the
of

the

to him, came into existence


century.

of Juynboll's

subject.

His main

are to be found

The

the end of the first

This thesis is an examination

and

approach

the subject.

which

mainly,

according
,

issues, which

a new

regarding

collections
early

One of them is G. H. A.

he adopts

that

claims

in more

have discussed

writters

the first

Juynboll

to the

approach

part investigates

the

to support

the

adduces

above chronology:
1. A w'il evidence;
2. The chronology
3. The origin

of the growth

of the concept 'prophetic

4. The earliest

development

5. A tentative

chronology

The
hadith,

second

of traditions;

part

as Juynboll

deals

sunna';

of the hadith

centres;

of talab al-'ilm.
with

visualizes

various
it, which

aspects
are

of the

discussed

early
in the

8
first

of his Muslim

chapter

articles.

In this
hadiths

mutawtir
even
Finally,

tawtur

part

a scrutiny

in which

is made

and

other

associated

is made of the study

juynboll

gives no guarantee

a comparison

subject with

tradition

attempts

to prove

of the authenticity
of Juynboll's

those of his predecessors.

of two

views

that

of hadith.
on the

9
TABLE OF TRANSLITERATION

th

n
h

h
kh

w
cs

t/h

dh

cs/

sh

s
CJ

aw

ay

z
C

e.

gh
f

t3

10
LIST

OF ABBREVIATIONS

AbU Dawd

Sunan.
=

Ab Zurcah

Trikh.
=
Sahib.

al-Bukhri

al-Drimi

Sunan.
=

Hilyah

Ab
Nucaym,
Hilyat
=

al-awliyiP...

Ibn Abi Shaybah = Musannaf.


Ibn

Mjah

Sunan.
=

Ibn

Sacd

Ibn
Sacd,
Kitb
=

al-dIlal

Ahmad
=

al-kabir.

al-Tabagt

b. Hanbal,

Kitb

al-dIlal

m acrifat al-rijal.
Khalifah

Khalifah
=

al-Macrifah

= al-Fasawi,

al-Muhaddith

= al-Rmahurmuzi,

b. Khayyt,
Kitb

Kitb

al-Tabagt.
wa-al-trikh.

al-macrifah

al-Muhadith

Muslim

Musnad

Ahmad
=

al-Musannaf

= cAbd al-Razzq, al-Musannaf.

al-Muwa((a'

Malik
=

al-fsil...

Sahib.
b. Hanbal,

Musnad.

b. Anas, al-Muwatta'.

Sunan.

al-Nas'i

Origins

Schacht,
=

The

jurisprudence.

Origins

of

Muhammadan

wa

11
al-Rihlah

al-Baghddi,

al-Khatib

al-Rihlah

fi

al-With.
Siyar

al-Taylisi

Musnad.
=

Tahdhib

Ibn
Tahdhib
Hajar,
=

al-Tirmidhi

= al-Jamic

al-$ahih.

Tradition

Juynboll,
=

Muslim

al-Dhahabi,

Siyar

alm a1-nubal'.

al-Tahdhib.

tradition.

talab

12

INTRODUCTION

One of the latest

Western

of the transmission

origins

important

most
Studies

in

hadith.

In the first

tentative

chronology,

believes
time

his
that

of the

generation

with

and

authorship

tradition:
of early

tradition",

he

hadith.

He

on the

in

of

origins

materials

may

the

in the

originated

general,

he thinks

hadith

from

come

In his summary

which

the early

Muslim

of Muslim

of the Successors.
questions

is his

"A

hadith,

Prophet,

His

is G. H. A. Juynboll.

is entitled

some

although

the

with

of this book, which

of the origins

hypothesis

he raises three
connection

provenance

chapter

chronology

formulates

of hadith

on hadith

work

himself

to concern

writters

of this chapter,
be asked in

should

and he gives his answers

to

them:

" 1. Where

did a specific

hadith

originate?

Probably in the region where the traditionist


Successor's

level

in its isnd

apply

to the majority

called

canonical

we encounter

of traditions

collections;
traditions

operated.

in later,

which

listed

mentioned at the
(This

answer

as 'sound'

not canonized,

may

in the socollections

identify
be
to
may not
so easy

13
as to region

since wholesale

of origin

enough to disguise

become sophisticated
more

that

hadith

a certain

originated

had

fabrication

a hadith's

) The chance

or less successfully.

conclude

isnd

that

provenance
to

are able

we

in the region

where

from

the Companion of its isnd resided - if that is different

the Successor's region - is remote in view of the fact that the


historicity

of

link

the

" 2. When did a specific


at the

earliest

hadiths;

cases with

have

time

evidence

originated

decades

from
the

the

gradually
sunna

had

just

concept

of a region

lifetime

the

p. 71)

sources.

in a few isolated
But the overall

...

(700s-720s),

sunnat

an-nabi

(group
a
or of

for

when

felt.

generally

into

come

being

to

of the last few

in the course

became

is likely

traditions

most ancient

of the

the case with

as was probably

other

century

the need for traditions

as institution

during

as can be proved

at the earliest

of the first

Successor

and

originate?

or later,

or earlier,

of allegedly

majority

hadith

sometime

Successor of the isnd


Egyptian

Companion

Tradition,
"(
to
of all
establish.

the most difficult

appeared

...

between

and

began

the first
The isnd

slowly

to eclipse

but
the

of) person(s). " ( Tradition,

p. 72-73)
" 3. Who may be held responsible
circulation?

for bringing

a tradition

into

14
have any historical

If isnds

in their

not fabricated

were

at all - and those that

value

have that, but how shall

entirety

single isnd that

we ever be able to prove in the case of every

Successor
in
is
the
it
most cases
again
-

it was not fabricated?


who

can be held

But

as the

responsible

investigation

have shown, the first


decades
time

when

pupils'

that

those

circulation.

"(Tradition,

In Juynboll's

and

the first
according

those

view,
century,
to him,

hadith.

is

always

a later

the

those

using

period,

simply

in order

lsnds

bring

to

sought

more

abundantly

persons

fictitious
they

even

the

to

into

p. 73)

of the fugah'

be prophetic

or from

'traditions'

into

made

al-Basri

dead,

already

there

or anonymous

several

in the isnds,

tier

more,

in otherwise

his name

support

during

pupils,

contemporaneous

names,

inserted

is

may

and later,

were

of Successors',

case of Hasan

as the

I think,

clear,

work,

What

occurred

century/750s

the following

makes

candidates.

possibility,

of hadith

Successors

the

candidate.

of traditions

growth

of the first

class of 'Successors

so-called
likely

which

the

major growth

of

most

something

into

the turn

after

likely

as the earliest

the

materials

especially
foreran
and the

Fabrication

that

were

circulated

those of the qusss whose


the

transmission

culam P, were

of hadith

of hadith,
developed

did start,

to

as he

15
says, immediately

The above mentioned


the

earliest

are considered, in Juynboll's

materials

In his own words,

lifetime

most of his followers


After

him.

do so in a way
standardized

demonstrated

perhaps
with

can be assumed

to have talked

with

the former

culam,
life should
latter

this

mainly

others.

formulating

The

...

into

developed

later

what

provided

fugah'

own ideas

how

of the new religion,

the

of this

sort

of fuq ah ' and


to

came

and also
about

their

in the light

activities

hadlths

we find

to formulations

pointing

as was

when,

were the qusss.

phenomenon

be approached

the

of, say, the

transmission

the earliest

isnds came into circulation,


Parallel

as foreshadowing

century/700s-720s,

above,

to

people who continued

hadith

last few decades of the first

of

the prophet's

may be construed

and regulated

as

he says: " During

his death the only


that

thesis,

transmission

the

preceded

which

hadith.

about

death, if not even before.

after the prophet's

be

at by

arrived

cul am > also


ha di th

called

transmission.
The first
probably

contained
The

elements.

disseminated
spread

stories

(qisas,
tarhib

contents

by the fugah'

by the 'ulam'

will

related

ahdith)
wa-targhib

of

the

qusss

and fad'il/mathlib

statements

and

opinions

extent

also those

have comprised

facts and

and to a certain
probably

by the

16
features,

as well

as enjoinments

the new religion,


nature
was

with

in other

a sometimes
directly

probably

preserved

memories

or derived

from

dicta,

of invented

to

almost

had said and done,


which

is the

Muhammad

deliberately

often

taking

cases, perfectly

authorities,

whose
texts'
after
during

falsely

the form

anti-Islamic,

or doctrinal,

socio-political,

on a small scale even already

which

God.

of distinctly

immediately

of a legal/ethical

or less successfully

more

(matns),

these

to

pertaining

flavouring,

the prophet

that

texts

to guarantee

probably

by

from

in
many
or,
revered

expected

religious

of the revelation

or slogans,

or purely

objectionable
tenor

strong

or forgery,

maxims

Islamic,

materials

of what

said that he had received

ascribing

words,

inspired

the spirit

Fabrication

and prohibitions,

of

or un-

or otherwise

unobjectionable
respectability

the prophet's
his lifetime.

was

had

acceptance,

begun

death,

if not

" ( Tradition,

p. 74)

Expressing his doubt over the hadiths which are contained


in the hadith
opinions
raf'

collections

as only a reflection

of the Companions

were

raised

to the

and Successors which


level

of prophetic

"We have seen that the need for traditions


back to Muhammad

of the sayings

by means of

sayings,

traced

only began to be emphasized

and

he

says:

all the way


under

'Umar

17
II (reigned
this

99-101/717-20)

emphasis

personal

opinions

to the level'
them

more

of Companions

may have

Companion

or a later

Companion

or, for that

In this
order

to prove

only

began

concentrating

an lsnd

else with
matter,

Juynboll

chapter,

any other

toward

origins
the

on the five following

the

a canonical
opinion

of a

this same
in that

ending

old authority

other

p. 72)

adduces

that the earliest

to exist

from

if we find

especially

himself. "( Tradition,

than the prophet

to dismiss

as the personal

authority

also somewhere

impossible
tradition

life

started

'raised
to lend

in order

no doubt

saying,

of
the

containing

or Successors became

'prophetic'

any

as a consequence

as reports

It is therefore

prestige.
that

collection

known

was

of a prophetic

assumption

tradition

what

and that only

various
of hadith
of the

end

arguments,

in

transmission
first

century,

matters:

1. A w'i1 evidence;
2. The chronology

of the growth

of traditions;

3. The origin of the concept 'prophetic sunna';


4. The earliest

development

5. A tentative

chronology

My thesis
associated

will

articles

of the ihadith centres;


of talab al-dllm.

be confined

to the first

plus an examination

chapter

of chapter

and other
three

of the

18
book in which

he attempts

no guarantee

of the authenticity

provides

how even

to prove

of hadith,

tawtur

gives

a chapter which

of his theory of the late origin

a practical application

of hadith.
I have divided
which

consists

order,

the five

hypothesis

of five

of the late origin

thesis

of hadith.

in the same
his

support

In the second part,


which

are discussed

I
in

of the
whose

qu$ss

and the fugah'

materials

consituted

the

as the two
developing

transmission;

the beginning

of isnd and its association

some focus on the idea of the 'growing

the two mutawtir


how

contends,

some aspects of hadith

catogories

hadith

juynboll

part,

work:

Juynboll's
main

which,

In the first

I have examined,

chapters,

issues

have dealt with


Juynboll's

my thesis into two parts.

even

tawtur

with

the fitnah,

backwards'

with

of the lsnd;

hadiths chosen by Juynboll to demonstrate


cannot

guarantee

the

authenticity

of

hadith;
A discussion

of juynboll's

hadith,

in particular

early

Finally

I have

evidence

for

local character

compared

juynboll's

some features

of the

and the 'age trick'.


findings

and views

with those of his predecessors, and then I give my conclusions.


At the end of the thesis

I list, in an appendinx,

the names and

19
of the hadith

origins

transmitters

in determining

used

origins of isnds.

A bibliography

and sources which

I have used and consulted

in alphabetical

arranged

He declares

he was influenced

the

influence

"Muslim

My

of having

formulated

new

although
in

and Schacht, he did not expose himself

to

of some modern

predecessors

origins

and western
to have

his

until

research

provided
between

primary

intention

authenticity
approach
which

of

hadlth,

me with

was

here
as such,

approaches

it with
it.

those

"As I see it, the


sufficient

is not

to

but

assess

to

respect

of

sources
to

evidence

the extremes". ( Tradition,

to it and to discuss
Juynboll

between

hadith

of

scholarship".

a position

maintain

from

the

regarding

appear

me to choose Juynboll's

The research, he says, led him to take a point of

complete.
view

are

Writers,

his

of

in this study

that, in doing his research,

by the work

Goldziher

particular

motivated

is his claim

to the subject

on it.

views

is given in which the works

order.

The main reason which


approach

the

p. 1)

establish

the

Juynboll's

to the direction

PART

ONE

THE EVIDENCE FOR THE ORIGINS OF


HADITH

TRANSMISSION

21

PREAMBLE TO PART

In the present
chapters,

which

I.

are discussed

part

have

been

which

Juynboll

hadith

and

towards

the end of the first

approaches
proposes

in the introduction,

in

of the

of

mentioned
the origins
date

the

of its

century.

issues, in five

the five

transmission

beginning

as late

These chapters

are:

as

I. Aw'il reports as evidence;


2. Juynboll's hypothesis of the growth of hadiths ;
3. The prophetic

sunnah ;

4. Early hadith activities;


5. Talab

al-dilm.

My examination

of these issues and Juynboll's

them has led me to a different

conclusion.

approach

to

22

ONE

CHAPTER

REPORTS AS EVIDENCE

A W'IL

THE SIGNIFICANCE

The first
that
the

OF THE AWAIL

that Juynboll

evidence

the transmission
aw'iJ

of hadith

material:

"... they

historical

data which

history

in

to show

more

in what

My

reports,
valuable

concerning

the

here

than

transmission

of

profound
Islamic

on early

which

to assess,

aw'il

history',

is almost

produces
literature

other

of hadith

no examples
differs

from

this should

be

they

works.

totally

is

any reasons why

why

data

as far as exaggeration

is not to dismiss

these

for

genre

historical
the
makes

the

but to inquire

reason

of

works

Juynboll

does he offer
nor
,
point

give

(i)

Islamic

consistent

type

other

so difficult

respects

on early

works

concerned

aw'il

them

feature,

in aw'i1 literature".

lacking

so.

known

a well

He says of this

ever

in

his view

at a late date is

began

only

a pretty

hardly

Exaggeration,

contained

'other

constitute

to support

adduces

on the subject.

reports

scepticism.

REPORTS

the

significance

should
The

of the

be considered
aw'il

are ascribed

reports

to later

23
scholars,

who

Juynboll

says, in appraisal

that it is difficult
be considered

taken

the

situation

scrutiny

historically

true, or that

However,
evidence

be defined

begining

treatment

However,

on a description

period

as pretty

of history

of

under
So in

(3)

reliable".

are not to be

does not

Juynboll

in each one

But I maitain

correct.

some of the aw'11 reports

aw'i1 reports,

discuss

the

or indicate

are for this.

that

supposing

is significant

does this

the

of individual

reliability

his criteria

what

far

may

the details

all converge

in

obtaining

accepted. (4)

historical

they

as a whole,

which

totally

are to

to accept that all those early reports

of this statment,

view

"... I realize

of the early reports,

of them should be taken as factually


that,

accounts. (2)

contradictory

present

sometimes

evidence

of its

we

accept

in determinig
support

transmission.

that

the origin

juynboll's
After

the

aw'll

of hadith,

view

how

of the

an examination

late

of his

of this issue, one is bound to conclude that these

reports do not disprove the early begining of the transmission


of hadith.
figure

view.

In fact, some of the aw'il

in juynboll's

argument,

would

reports,

which

suggest the opposite

do not
of his

24

REPORTS IN JUYNBOLL'S

A DISCUSSION OF THE AWAIL


ARGUMENT

Juynboll

begins this section by adducing

the first

regarding

foreshadowed

qusss whose

the transmission

the activities
he believes,

later

developed

to be the two

considers

of hadith

into

part

Except for
be discussed

below,

deal

argument

various

the three

conquered

reports

he mentions

reports

the

century

second

collections
musnad

whether
collections

adduced

which

sahib

collections.

(5)

to

of the

For example,

organized

or a particular

will

hadlth

of

the development

to compile

a general

the

in Juynboll's

those who were the first,

or later,

and

4 of this
among

isnd,

of hadith material.

regarding

with

activities

introduction

regions, and with

and compilation

that were

In part two a full

concerning

the

with

organization

These he

be presented.

the aw'i1 reports

mostly

hadith.

of material

of hadith

and the Successors will

Companions

opinions,

literature.

investigation

an extensive

to

personal

to this, and in chapter

be devoted

discusssion will

prophetic

main categories

the predecessors of the hadith

He also alludes

whose

to him,

according

activities,

fugaha'

of the early

the aw41 reports

during
hadith

orientation:
This kind

of

25
has no relevance,

report

in my view,

or late beginning

of the transmission

here

or not

is whether

the

to the issue of the early

of hadith

; the question

in the first

material

structured

collections can be shown to exist before the time of the authors


The abundant

of these collections.

of the Companions

activities
written

transmission

amount

of material

hadith

had

may

suggests

begun

already
be taken

surely

lhadith

that

hadith

during

as evidence
feature

was a notable

the

Prophet's
the

that

of the first

transmission?
given
indeed

below,

other

that

activity

suggest

despite

no value

transmission

of hadith,

reports

concerned

for

of
then,

of its
will

hadith

the late beginning

it may be argued

that

be
did

report

to compile

reports

of the

some of them

here some examples

to an aw'il

as the first

(6)

many of the aw'il

be adduced on the subject of isnd

(d. 256)

lifetime,

which

with

those that will

Bukhri

of

beginning

Let us examine

refers

down

the first compilers of

are relevant.

Juynboll

reasonable

What,

century.

or

date.

the fact that

as evidence

aw'il

and/

transmission

to the early

Moreover,

take place at an early

However,

have

of hadith

collections

the

the writting

is the relevance of the reports regarding


organized

in oral

and
,

that

the

concerning

and Successors

the

of

material

other

than

later.

which

describes

al-

a sahib

collection;

he

26
says, " that

means

had elapsed

since the isnd

report

devoted

was the first

to compile

that

provided

to

their

(azhara)

Khursn. (9)

In fact,

sunnah

example,

for

the

the context
to

innovative

the Jahmiyyah.

numerous
hadith

Khursn

or spent some time there.

successors

there,

who went
who

were

as the first

to hadith

was wellthere,

appeared
is described

earlier

in the rijl

who

among

and

settled

in

to mentioning

Ibn Sacd gives

there,

for

in a report

transmitters

In addition

of

material.

Khursn

transmission

engaged

some Companions

that

is

reports

makes it clear

of this report
refer

in oral

and the whole

of sunnah. (11l Moreover,

scholars

of their

(d. 204)

in Marw

Al-Nadr

(io)

one encounter
in

ideas

isnd

of juynboll's

of bidah, "innovation".

as being an adherent
lexica,

by

hadith,

the

of

b. Shumayl

sunnah

it

who was the first,

authenticity

Another

here is not meant

It is the opposite
known

the

(8) In any
.

of sound hadith

descended

al-Nadr

to propagate

that

the

material

describes

that which

to be exclusively

or a1-Bukhri

transmission.

written

sound". (7)

considered

collection

a collection

differance

no

before

Others argue that Malik (d. 179)

it was Mlik

case, whether

and/or

first

the

concerns

centuries

had come into existence

to sound hadiths.

makes

one and a half

than

more

was made that was generally

compilation
This

that

whom

the names
are Ab

27
(d. between

Mijlaz

100 and109),

cAt, al-Khursni

Yahy b. Ya<mur (d. 129), and cAbd Allah


181). (12)

he resided

where
famous

and

Successor,

different

parts

cImrn

(d. 124-128),

Marw,

and finally

Another

Tahdhib
745

Khursn

Successor

(d.

for

years

died in Sarakhs.

al-Tahdhib:

is that

traditions

62-73),

been the first

in the source to which

JjIVLSj

L&L*-, *. )Ll
jc4

in Nisbr,

then

from

quotes

reputedly

was

nature". (17)
juynboll

refers

and

in

wa-harm

matters

Let us examine

this

us:

MlCpA
eWIA.

of the people of Egypt in his

intelligent,

Egypt

to

JU
:..
& ,l

AjJi

Ibn Sacd says: " He was the mufti

first

the

He is also credited

rIjjLIj J9-L I wi

prudent

Nasr b.

(15)
.

Juynboll

which

to discuss hahil

report

he was

in

(16)

of any sort into Egypt.

and issues of a more general

time;

was

"Yazid b. Abi Habib, who died in 128/

age of seventy-five,

having

some

the

months. (14)

ten

a Basran Successor, lived

example

at the

introduce
with

of

a Kufan

A1-Shacbi,

(13)

Khurasn

in

stayed

b. Qays,

cAlgamah

hadith.

related

(d.

b. al-Mubrak

(d. 105) went to Khursn,

b. Muzhim

al-Dahhk

(d. 135),

and

propagate

al-dilm

wa-al-harm

and legal questions. " (is)

and

he was

discussion

the

of

first

to

al-1? all

28
In this context

the word

here means &Wl

al-cilm

a!
.

Suyti cites this report when he describes Yazid as the first to


6
aWI f+. in Egypt. 09)

propagate

cilm in this

the word

than

rather

hadith.

that we accept Juynboll's


find

that the report,

hardly
Yazid

settled
known

for

his

among

Ibn

in the

activities

this Ibn Sacd mentions

these

pioneers,

divided

into

historical

even

assuming

of this statement,

we

in the Tabagt,

transmitters

is

concerning

who

in

were

Companions
the
who
of
some

cAbd Allah

them

sense. (20)

to

Sacd says there

the

first

After

period.

At any rate,

does not appear

Listing

Egypt, Ibn Sacd mentions


there,

in the wider

interpretation

what

Habib.

b. Abi

of any sort',

that it refers

(21)

which

with

consistent

to 'traditions

as "knowledge"

In fact, in one place he asserts


reports

here makes

passage refer

it elswhere

he translates

While Juynboll

b. cAmr,

various

tiers

is well

of hadith.

transmission

those who were

who

so engaged

according

Yazid b. Abi Habib comes at the beginning

(22)
after

to their

of the third

tier. (23)

AWAIL

REPORTS

UNFAVOURABLE

TO

JUYNBOLL'S

ARGUMENT
In the
various

same

aw'il

sources

reports

which

indicating

Juynboll
the early

consults,
origins

there

of hadith

are
or

29
Juynboll's

contradicting

view

some of these are mentioned,

but left

Juynboll,

mentioned

and

others

not

are

However,

this.

regarding

since

by

out of account,
all,

at

it

seems

to examine some of them here.

appropriate
There

is an aw'il

that

report

al-Shacbi

said:

tl-.w v,, 4-Ul


i
L..,,
Jtwj
iS
&.
4
tlj.
- (+. 4.*Jz 421 Lo - 421
Jkwa
`J,
cs6
" the first
Allah

who put lies in the mouth

b. Saba, (d. c. 40). (24)

ideas

held

probably

by

Juynboll

It would

after

was cAbd

be in contradiction

fabrication

that

began immediately

of the Prophet

to the

forgery

and

most

the death of the Prophet,

if

not before. (25)


In his argument
adduces a report

to show the late use of isnd,


to Ibn Sirin, which

attributed

IRAs Z" JI

Juynboll
is meant

the civil

Zubayr. (27)
revolt
fitna.

killing

Moreover

is "the first
"(28)

probably

several

of this kind

fitna

for

after

fitnah

that

generally

the civil

came into use only


decades

war

.L"9

and Ibn

al-

Ibn al-Zubayr's
referred

ensuing

at a relatively

110/728,

in this report

the Umayyads

he holds the view

event

" The term

of cUthman

between

strife

Irrt

I
J
I
I
J&
.,,.
,a!

.y.
-9='-''

that by the word

maintains

runs : (26)

Lii L YI

ta. J I i aic,,.! I JL;-j


,,

Juynboll

the year

from

to as
the

late date,
in which

30
Ibn Sirin died: (29)
Juynboll

adduces

Bukhri's

Sahib,

In his article
an

aw'il

report,

occurs

which

in

alThis

to Sacid b. al-Musayyab.

attributed

",

" The date of the great fitna

runs :(3o)

report

I'I
.;,
!
- 4,111I

J
l9
J4I
%
vr- a 1. w ir., re%' va
j

()'

jiA

btl
Juynboll
obvious

dismisses

factual

appear

content

an excursus

He says: "the

report.

Not only does Sacid (d. between

forgery.

718)

100/

this

in numerous

to his later

article

" Muslim's

Sahib",

he does again

discuss

version

of it appearing

in an earlier

Musannaf.

this

report.
source,

is an

report

93/ 712 and


but also the

"(31)

is unfounded.

of the remark

Lj.-L-Uj

isnds,

spurious

i
c,

However,

in

introduction

to his

He finds

another

cAbd al-Razzq's

This report runs : (32)

J9'YI aiaiJI C, U. Jl9


wI
-,
i
I
I
wI
0
:
i.
.
.
!
:
.

.
v
..
..
t....

..
.

tLl OvLJI wi.) &ij; (&JZJ Wl

The
version
from

explanatory
are not found

this report

remarks

which

in the earlier.

that, when

the first

appear
Juynboll

fitna

JU

in

the

later

understands

occurred,

there

was

31
of those

no one alive
The explanatory
thinks,

remark

was murdered,
still

Juynboll

Musannaf,

insertion.

a later

of the

believes
"And

words

fa-lam

actual

fact a quite

"when

tubqi

version

accurate

dating

remarks

are

idrj,

the

constitute

in

the

without

b Badrin

sl

min

thus,

cUthmdn

al-Razzq's

of cAbd

that the explanatory

taken

he

at Badr were

a few of those who fought

quite

of Badr.

contradicts,

version

to be the case, that

So in view

alive".

at the Battle

in al-Bukhri's

we know

what

had fought

who

ahadan

a1-15 ", which

of al-fitna

he takes to mean Ibn al-Zubayr's

fitnah,

because all those who

at Badr

before

the fitnah

had fought

were

Zubayr

occurred. (33)

report,

Juynboll

incorrect,
cUthmn,
of death

is safe, I think,

therefore

of the compilers,
version

Bukhri

that

is identified

cUthmn's

murder,

Razzaq's Mu$annaf,
Ibn az-Zubayr's

to the time

who died in 21 1/827

with

reports

reports

which

are

that

the

yarni

magta!

between

the years

b. Hammam

and, for the later

It is true that there

in which

the political

althis

regarding

is cAbd ar-Razzq

who died in 256/870.

of Ibn

to assume

idraj,

misleading,

are many unambiguous


Islam

his argument

can be dated roughly

for the older

version,

Concluding

says: "It

and

dead

the first

upheaval
also

fitna

resulting

listed

in

cAbd

in

from
ar-

but the mere fact that a report indicating

coup as the first

fitna

has survived

at all leads

32
me to believe
Muslims

first/seventh

the

of

fact

in actual

that

and

decades of the second/eighth


Below,

will

nor the analysis


longer

to the

attribution

was one of the two reasons which

to label

the later

discussion
Juynboll
lived

to

during

the first

are any
is still

other

are also

in his first

reports

unambiguous

which

to authorities

attributed

We may cite

century.

this
Juynboll

enabled

forgery

as an obvious

The

alludes

remark

Sacid b. al-Musayyab;

person,

version

of it.

of this

be that as it may, this report

attributed

same

it to be. "(34)

considered
the dating

the
few

first

made by Juynboll

of this report
However,

tenable.

at least
the

possibly

century

how neither

explain

is what

that

who

some of them

here

I
ij1I
L
.:
..
`
c
:
o,?

"... Until

the time

when

among

the Arabs

were

who

judge

Mucwiyah

al

and

- al-Zuhri

the first

plan

,'. jL

said:

...

fitnah

considered
for

and cAmr were

Jj_

lS'
a.
v
L
....
.

l
,.,t

then,

the
included

Arabs!

five

'

From

I-

persons

to be called

worthy

' those

Quraysh,

(35)
...

J j2I N11 l

the first

erupted,

}l9 s
,

fitnah

l4i

....

erupted

A)I

JU

and there

33
were

many

(s)

of Allah

of the Messenger

of the Companions

(36)
who had fought at Badr

....
l
-1. ae v. +

Iira v!

eallo

th'

vc

v. '

Lg.
' cr9 '-=.
. "<..
'
.
cr9 crw'
rt9'YI

's^^r r"' '

va

l Loa41j

aw

...

l
s
&-?
&"
.
16 t-

Ibn

Sacd narrated,

Mus

Ibn Talhah

could

not provoke

aailI

of Khlid

on the authority
described
him

This man is blaming


:

c.r^" '

Ls
a1

b. Samir,

Ibn cUmar : "... By Allah,

in its first

his father

that

Quraysh

I said to myself:

fitnah.

'

for his death'. '(37)

;3 L&

wi

p4jujjll
W-6.
Ahmad
-

that Habib b. Maslamah

narrated

Sacd b. cUbadah during

Lj-A

"

...

a horse... (38)

riding

JI
ff,;,.,
vl o c;r,

b. al-Yamn

it was the first

"Indeed,

fitnah,

AJIJ9 i1Li:

.
Hudhayfah
-

the first

came to Qays b.

4-U

the murder

Jp"ll
.*-

Z;.;,

I "

LL

:j6%.

A...

Allah

protected

fitnah

of Ibn

[taking

part

Turning
11-

said: "When the first

al-Tayyib
him

from

al-Zubayr

[ taking
occurred,

part

61i.,

flv,
jJ. '

...
Murrah
-

of cUthmdn:

of the fltan. "(39)

1
.4.

describes

fitnah

%a Cp&

.
L9
I .

occurred,

in] it, and when

he was

protected

the
from

in] it. "(4o)

back

to

Ibn

A-v
4-.
c>A

al-Musayyab's
I-

Ji0

'

report,
-i

the

words

j2I .:.
a. 1 icii

34
do not mean that when
fought

at Badr were

this

on

report,

was killed,

murdered

at that

the

fitnah

dispute

at the

killing

dating for the

no longer

tenable.

is earlier

i
A.

Z.: i
C.e

LJ

J'r

UJI

4iJ

JI

say that

time of the killing

4)Li

of

the fitnah
(4 t)

al-Ilarrah.

we shall see, is

remarks,

in

al-1 appears

version),

(42) a source which

of cAbd al-Razzq:
_:

_I::
X,
V-'

vr

i9'

it does not

on al-fitnah

of Mlik(Shaybni's
than the Musannaf

and Ibn

was no one alive

fitnat

the

explanatory

The remark

be rather

had died between

and

also

to consider

al-Qisl. illni

the

when

were

would

They

between

of cUthmdn

Juynboll's

al-Muwatta'

It

was killed.

but it means that thay

cUthmn,

it was wrong

time.

killed

mean that they were

at Badr

this because there

at that

a! -Badriyyin

that

meant

who fought

Therefore,

al-Iiusayn

Hajar al-cAsgalni
from

it

as the one of cUthmn;

in which

one

One of the commentators

thought

all those

time.

all those who had

occurred

dead.

already

al-Dwdi,

cUthmn

the first

the fitnah

14"x.

4
Iv..
+.\.

I
>A

V'

But the crucial

is whether

question

to conclude

that

insertions,

because

appears

in an earlier

remarks

that

he finds

it is justifiable

appear

in al-Bukhri

a version

source where

of the

there

for Juynboll
are later
report

is no mention

that

of

35
In fact, we find

these remarks.

Razzaq does appear


as it

appears

versions.

V.

of cAbd aljust

in a late source, later than al-Bukhri,


the

without

al-Musannaf,

(43) The report

remarks.

in

the version

that

in

appears

early

explanatory
in various

sources

e.g.:

.: j

:jU

r1V,

`A.... r,,

()G

-Xi-Z- ^' u-,

V_%j

cat

JUJ

JAI
Loill
.
>a
w (IJJ
Jxe
-,
(gi r) 1'1X/t' j 41

i \r

I
.
s
c.
v

I a '
9'-' I'

cr

'-"99

ff

.ic,.,

1'l

___

t;
fl1''

l'0t,9'

*-'i

WWI
(1 ". V) 1ai-1 or /V cl...
L
1' fk6
.
LpLJI vi'
J

l &.,

t.

Je w co

I" AQ :jUc

-CI

t9-:
/i eJ.:.t ILtI,

JL.

-WI
ZL;Li c, w- .:rWIZ;6:

Club ,, LJ L9 Lr t-

... -

i'

LJ I ,: s Vii'
.f

ICVL

Lj`W%'. JU
I VVL /L . a.L.JIa!
Finally,

the

Musayyab

explanatory

himself

remarks

but from

I :
derive

his pupil,

not

from

Sacid b. a! -

Yahy b. Sacid. (44)

36
Dealing

Juynboll

of ihadith,

the recording

with

those who made organized collections

aw'i! reports regarding

on

this

that

"it

elapsed

since

the

last

few

There

and the first

is a famous

probably

organized

to record

report

concerning

use of isnd
the

recording
juynboll

to Juynboll's

century,
being

we find

is an aware

in the Aw'il
have

first

hadith

and

two

reports

side

(d. 124)

a clear

his

to make
that

from

to make an organized

somewhere

alse: " ... Zuhri

systematic

collection

of

when

juynboll

of the

consistent
isnd

and

begining.

the

He cites it, but not

" is recorded

himself

ha di th and all other

mentions

about

the first

to

of all the

collection

he speaks

was allegedly

that lsnd

acceptance

indication

of the above report.

side

WU

conviction

go hand-in-hand

by

i,

JU

the first

'llm he could find. "(48) Furthermore,


the

there

al-Zuhri

section, and says that al-Zuhri

been the first

of

existence

Nevertheless,

i:
Js
IkWl V93vA

al-Zuhri

(47)
,

the

describes

(45)
.

existence"

a! -cilm. (46)

AOL

in the

late

between

which

So, if we add this report


began

into

came

had

time

first/seventh

of the

collections.

report

aw'il

first

as the

decades

to be no connection

seems

lsnd

isnd

the

when

century

a long

that

appears

He

and later.

who died in the middle of the second century


comments

adduces

al-Zuhri

to make
th r

while

37
making

between

56/676

he started

and 58/678,

his activities

and most probably


In addition
the aw'i1
writing

to this aw'il

the highly

down of the hadith

l=JI yr 'rte

JU
lSi

OL5i . ex., .

report,

ten - years later. "(49)


Juynboll

w hear

lifetime:

d,
l.}i
-4

Ll &UI J. . L
j

l
&U
cr
ic
of O

b. cAmr b. al-, As said :" oh Messenger

ahdith

from

the

the prophet's

l.4 J i

. 7
Allah
cAbd
-

in

also neglects

one regarding

significant

during

or

70/689

than

not earlier

- perhaps

1/671

assume that

we may therefore

absolutely

several

argument

i
JU
:
:;

Born in 50/670,5

use of isnds.

consistent

you, will

you

permit

of Allah,

me to write

them

down?

He said : Yes.

Thus, it was the first

to be written

down.

This can also be

first
it
the
read :
was

that he wrote

down. (50)
There
biography

are also reports


of the Prophet.

94) as the first


al-Zuhri
however,

regarding

to compile

as the first

One report
Maghzi. (51)

to compile

it is said that

the first

Ibn

to compile

describes
Another

Slyar. (52)

cUrwah
report

In other

Ishq was the first

the

author

gives
report,
in this

genre. (53)

In dealing

with

the aw. 11 pertaining

(d.

to the examination

38
of lsnd, Juynboll

and criticism

He adduces
credited

with

hadith.
infornmants

a report

the first

says:

"The

However,

Ibn Hibbn

the first.

Commenting

and to investigate
then followed

records

hadlth. (54)

of them interrogating

the

I I vt L: ' v, e J-01v l-Aj


v9 i?.

I1JI

as the first

-Hkim

enumerates

fabrication

of the reports;

those

as the first,

b. <Abbs then

41

4I

lb
I
1S
iw
- .. a.> aU
-J

other

people

source, Ab Bakr is

(56)
.
who

on the authority

Ab Bakr

L+:
1
try r" '-"""

to do this

L"J
11
t_ r&.
U.

the man in the narration

to examine

the transmission

tug L

them in this". (55) In another

then cAbd Allah

,...

b.

23) and cAli (d. 40) as

'Umar(d.

on the practice

" These two were the first

prevent

in Kfa

ar-Rabic

a certain

Al

of

interrogated

consider

}1I
,

considered

examination

he says:

transmitters,

l
>
c JL.
.

of

to have occurred

regarding

is

103-10)

the transmitters

systematic

(d. 103-10/721-8)

reports.
(d.

al-Shacbi

is reported

as to his informant

Khuthaym

various

to examine

first

ever recorded

Shacbi

when

in which

being

He

disregards

showed

to

of the Prophet;

he

then

cAli,

then
cAbd Allah

is
l
cr

concern

<Umar,
b.

l
&U

cUmar ... .(57)

J - t9.aJl
lb
I
cri r ... - o.: aU : o - ..

39
LJ I L4,

I
I'
::.r.[

U
I
w a.

...

l)1.

...

Los

LL.
<

U
Ia.

l?JuA. 0

s
&ul
LAIJ
W

J.
JL'
Ji-j
3j
;
4
c

jx"!
.
Juynboll
of the death
respect

after

the battle

it is assumed

of Karbala,
to be historical,

makes

him

to be older

pretended

of especially

practice

a common

if

place prior

date of birth,

when

he

or seventy-nine

at

fact
the
of

that

so many

in reality

than they were

Kfan

to

as 20

given

or ninety

eighty-three

and in view

died

so the conversation,

makes him seventy-two

of his death,

traditionists

think

either

earlier'.

is said to have

must have taken

of Shacbi's alleged

died - or 3 1, which
the time

of 61/680,

the year

time

a short

he says: "Ar-Rabic

to this

that date. In view


- which

(d. 61) ' or only

of al-Rabic

With

incident:

a date for al-Shacbi's

proposes

(.

transmitters

. .)-I

that it is safe to say that it took place in the same year

or only a short time earlier.


Sha<bi's

Taking
departure,
between

which

alleged

is given

these two

dates, and assuming

in 40/660

a man in his early

twenties

later.

when

point

of

or sometime

he was in his sixties

he died, that

when

or a little

This is not an unreasonable

as the

110/728,
103/721
or
as

or, at most, in his seventies


he was born

of death

time

suggests

that

This would

make him

he interrogated

ar-Rabic.

proposition,

when

we read in his

40
tarjama

[was
b.
still
cAsim
cAdi

time when]
40/660

did not usually

traditionists

(.

age of twenty

by the information

traditions

with

Shacbi's

took

that

in

place either

or

Juynboll's

al-Shacbi

theory

might

support

his proposition

comes from

interrogation

is only

partially

saw cAli b. Abi Tlib


of transmitters

Companions

which

early

aw'll

reports,
of this

mentioned
practice

but if he

applied
above,
to them.

of al-Shacbi,

quoted

in

he

In fact,
Tahdhib,

At any rate,

in various

it to their
point

To

in the same passage

(d. 40). (6o)

is recorded

as he

in 31.

al-Tahdhib.

Ab Htim, who states clearly

al-Shacbi

initiation

have been born

in Tahdhib

al-

In part two I

of the 'age trick',

for the date of birth

quotation
which

statement,

later'.

have died in his seventies,

in the passage, he could

Ibn Ijajar's

that

assert

or 31, (59) juynboll

19,20

or a little

suggests

that

in 58/678

which

and reports

that it was in '40/660

dealt with

accepts

this

did not hear

died

who

the

case of Shacbi

the

he allegedly

that

b. Jundab,

all the sources

birth

contends

cites

in

before

hadith

in Basra or Kfa. "(58)

Despite

have

Samura

yudrik)

v, p. 49). And that

begin collecting

supported

[the

alive]. ' This <sim died in

is furthermore

. .)

lam

(Tahdhib,

Hajar

to Ibn

according

60/680

(in Arabic:

he 'did not reach

that

informants,

as the

out and attribute

The Successors

in

reports

the

followed

41
them

in this and we find

Successors

Marwn

their

about

Companions.

Sacid b. al-Musayyab

Rahmn

material,

For instance,

b. al-Hakam

al-Zubayr

Successors not only questioned

AbU

with

did,

as al-Shacbi

cAbidah

other

but

also

cAli b. Abi Ilib, (61)

with

with

Ysuf

with

Sacd b. Abi Wagqs, (63) cUrwah

b. cAbd Allah

Humayd

(64) and

al-Scidi,

b. <Abd Rabb al-Kasbah

b. Salam, (62)

cAbd Allah

with

cAbd

b.
al-

b. cAmr

b.

al-cAs. (65)

Juynboll
Hajjj

also

quotes

(d. 160) is given

as the first

says: "Since Shucba allegedly

traditions
assume

alludes

himself

130/747.

"(66)

rijl

He further

with

collecting

criticism

In fact, the report

to is not about collecting

hadiths

which

in Islam
Juynboll

but propagating

them:

IJ

(>

Shucbah

started

reported

that he heard hadith

(d. 113-115),

b. al-

years or so of his life, we can

date of systematic

the starting

Shucbah

of isnd .

critic

occupied

for the last thirty

to be about

in which

a report

collecting

hadith

in his early

from

al-Hakam

life.

It is

b. <Utaybah

ten years before Sufyn did so.(68) Qatdah (d.

117-118)

even used to ask Shucbah about his own hadith. (69)

However,

other

indeed,

aw'il

reports

give other

one puts Shucbah in third

place.

earlier

people,

and,

These also are known

42
to Juynboll. (7o) One of them describes
first

to criticise

the reliable

prior

anyone

hadith
Ibn

then

cAwn;

In conclusion,
reports

of the early
evidence

the isnd.

b. Sirin

that

Then there

Ibn

not know

scrutinized

the

Ayyb

and

b. Sad

and

were

Yahya

was Shu<bah, then

there

report,

[b. Mahdi]. (72)

cAbd al-Rahmn

aw'il

In another

to have said: " we do

to Muhammad

and examined

between

and to distinguish

ones and the others. "(71)


(d. 234) is recorded

al-Madini
of

the transmitters

Ibn Sirin (d. 1 10) as "the

from

the foregoing
by Juynboll

adduced
existence

at face

Ihadith had early

of hadlth.

value,
origins.

it

it becomes clear that the


do not affect

Indeed,

appears

the question

if we take the aw'11

rather

to indicate

that

43

NOTES

1. Tradition,
2. See

p. 11.

for example,
,

3. Tradition,

the reports

5. See Tradition,
6. See, for

of isnd.

critics

the discussion

Studies

Azami,

example,
Tarikh

al-turth

in early

reports

below.

al-Barabi

literature,

Hadith

in particular

See, also, chapter

1.

and the Successors

of the Companions

7. Tradition,

of some of the awa'il

p. 21-22.

Sezgin,

activities

the first

regarding

p. 6.

4. See for example,

28 ff.

below

in the transmission

three

pp.

for the

of hadith.

p. 21.

8. See al-Kattani,
9. Tahdhib

Tradition,

10, p. 437-438.

p. 23.

4, p. 611 no. 240.

10. al-Tirmidhi
11. Tahdhib

p. 4-5.

al-mustalrafah,

al-Risalah

10, p. 437.

12. See Ibn Sacd 7 2, pp. 99 ff.


13. Id. 6, p. 211(19).
14. Id. 6, p. 173 (4).
15. Tahdhib

8, p. 278.

and went

to Marw

10, p. 432.

16. Tahdhib
17. Tradition,
18. Tahdhib

p. 22-23.
11. p. 318-319.

19. al-Suyli,

al-Wasa'il

attributes

this

Dhahabi

mentions,

report
with

and ascribes

20. See Tradition,


Egypt

for two years

in Khwrazm

there for a while.

and stayed

in Tahdhib

He resided

ti

musmarat

to al-Dhahabi,
a brief
it to

Trikh.

addition,

p. 103 no. 752.

al-awa'il,

In Tarikh

a report

similar

al-Islam

al-Suyti
5, p. 185, at-

to the one that

appears

Ab Sacid b. Ynus.

p. 80 note (7).

He says: "... the first

p. 237. speaking

about Yazid, Juynboll

'knowledge'

in

first
the
"He
was
says:

to

to propagate

.....

21. See Tradition,

44
introduce
historical

into

dilm

Egypt

2, p. 188-99.

cAbd Allah

b. cAmr's

was written

or the first

23. See Ibn Sacd 7


24. al-Suyti,

26. al-Nawawi,

the awa il

the prophetic

hadith

report

below

as either

describing

the first

that

2, p. 199-202.
fi

musmarat

Sahib Muslim

bi-sharp

al-awa>il,

p. 101.

al-Nawawi

1, p. 84.

p. 17-19.

28. " The date of the great fitna",

p. 158.

p. 158-159.

30. al-Bukhri

7, p. 323,

(12).

maghzi

31. " The date of the great fitna",


32. al-Muannaf

11, p. 358-359

33. See "Muslim's


34. Ibidem,

but

p. 12, p. 74.

27. See Tradition,

29. Ibidem

not hadith

that he wrote.

al-Wasa'il

25. See Tradition,

See also

down

writing

context

"
...

reports of any purport

22. See Ibn Sacd 7

means in this

which
...

introduction

p. 150.
no. 20739.
to his $ahih",

p. 305.

p. 305-306.

35. al-MuFannaf

5, p. 463.

36. al-Mufannaf

10, p. 120-21

no. 18584. Also Sunan

Sacid 2, p. 368 no. 2953.

37. Ibn Sacd 5, p. 121 (1 1).


38.

Musnad

3, p. 422.

39. Ibn Abi Shaybah

14, p. 113 no. 17768. See also No. 17769.

al-Madinah

al-munawarah

40. Hilyah

4, p. 162.

41.

See IrshJd

al-sri

Ibn Shabbah,

Trikh

4, p. 1247.

6, p. 274.

Fath al-Bri

7, p. 325.

42. P. 343 no. 991.


43. al-Hkim,
44.

See Fach al-Bari

45. Tradition,
46. Ifilyah
728.

3, p. 363

See

48.

Id, P. 34.

Tradition

; al-SuyIi,

Juynboll

it in the awa'ii

47.

7, p. 325.

p. 21.

Although

adduce

4, p. 448.

al-Mustadrak

is aware
argument.

18-19.
p.
,

a1-Was'il

fi

of this report,

musilmarat
see Tradition

al-awa

il, p. 100 no.

p. 34, he does not

45
49. Id, p. 41.
50. al-Khatib,
activity

Taqyid

in writing

51. al-Dhahabi,
aw'il

al-ilm,

down

4, p. 31. al-Suyti,

al-Islam

his

concerning

reports

numerous

pp. 74-85.

the hadith,

Tarikh

see for

p. 81.

fi musmarat

al-Wasail

al-

p. 102 no. 744.

52. al-Kattni,

al-Risalah

53. al-Suyti,

al-Wasail

54. See Tradition

al-mustatrafh,

p. 80.

fl

musamarat

al-aw'il

p. 19-20.

He refers

102, no. 745.


p.
,

us to a report

that appears

in al-Muiaddith

al-fafil.

w-,.

'JI

I AAA-, W

tJ
I J,

tll Il JJ,:

L;, Y

J: s'& )e .. Uae

l JU

C,.
-c,
<slc _o",
JG

r! - w,

JU

.., w. c

ZI

"- rJ-j

L-

Y J v4
J!
Y!
AM
,
. ,.,;

x,,

JW c

lei

Ibn

Hibbn,

following

Tadhkirat

56. See al-Dhahabi,

Juynboll

in the same section.

one earlier

57. al-Hakim,

al-Madkhal

58. Tradition,

p. 20.

59. See, for example,


60. Ibn Abi Hatim,
61. Ibn Majajah

p. 28.

al-Majrhin,

dim

Trikh
a! jarh

See Tradition,

al-hadith,

Baghdad

this

Gj
z.
,.:

report

and

the

p. 17.

p. 46.

12, p. 227
Tadhib
.

5, p. 68-69.

6, p. 322.

wa-al-tacdil

1, p. 59 mugaddimah

adduces

JS

1, p. 2.

al-huffiz

fi

w6

1
L.
J,
li,
j4,

YAe t.
wll
55.

... -

ISS Ii S Ali

cI

- sui

. Irl

no. 167.

62. Ab Zurcah, p. 313 no. 585.


al Jamic

63. al-Khatib,
64. Muslim

3, p. 1465, Imrah

65. Ibn Abi Shaybah


66. Tradition,

(7) no. 29.

15, p. 5-6 no. 18956.

p. 20.

67. al-Muhaddith,
68. Tahdhib

1, p. 120 no. 109.

p. 356.

4, p. 344.

69. Ibidem.
70. See Tradition,

p. 18, note 24.

71. Ibn Rajab, Sharh

" r

dial

a]-Tirmidhi.

cr,:laJl

P. 63

JL>JJI
l
Jj1
i,
. - a.;- -Ul ,i. , -irr!
v, e
j

'" irlj

46
72. Ibidem.
Isa1
Js3
aaJ. JI

" . jl

irr v'-'

Z!
t:
-!
)LS,

AJ
S
C
rti
41
),

47

TWO

CHAPTER

JUYNBOLL'S

THE

OF

HYPOTHESIS

GROWTH OF HADI TH

In the second
the growth

of his first

section

Juynboll

of traditions",

the four

Rightly

compared

with

Guided
their

caliphs

transmitted

as a hadith;

considered

of

the material

in the Tabaqat

of

of Ibn Sacd as
hadith

there

is hardly

which

could

of these caliphs,
on their

authority

they relied

judgement

own personal

investigates

in some of the earliest

musnads

In Ibn Sa, d's tarjamahs


material

"The chronology

He reaches two main conclusions:

collections. (t)

any

chapter,

rather

almost entirely

than following

be

on their

the example

of

the Prophet.
A comparison
suggests

collections
developed

that

and significantly

AL-KHULAFA'
TABAQAT

in the earliest

musnads
it

in

was

increased

AL-RASHIDtN

Iraq

that

the

hadith
alhdith

in number.

AND THEIR MATERIAL

IN

IBN SACD

Juynboll
concerning

of their

details
the

first

his
three

findings
caliphs.

in

Ibn

Sacd's

These

findings

Ta baqt
are not

48
in agreement

entirely

with

mine.

On AbU Bakr Juynboll

of Ab Bakr and other

tarjama
hardly

find

which

found

are repetitions,

On -Umar
Ibn

classical

two hadiths
of

collections".

which

are

repetitions,

"Although

the

number

or other

his
on
authority
-

exception

of the famous

This is not the case;

others.

In addition

sixteen

tarjamahs

hadiths,

represent
and

in

twenty-

collections,

allegedly

in the

to the

six

he says:

transmitted

tradition
Tabagt

legal
the

with

Man gala calayya m lam aqul


there

is one legal one and some


I have found

four

However,
of which

the caliphs'

other

in traditions

six, one

Juynboll does not tell us about the

on cAli in Ibn Sacd.

My findings

who

to the one mentioned,

of which is a repetition. ()

authority

is listed

dictum

such as

On 'Uthman

(5)

him is large, not one prophetic

etc. "(6)

material

in the hadith

of people

from

(3)

In fact, I have found

(4)

etc

material

six of

source,

figures

we

as a Iiadith. "

can also be traced

which

could be traced

which

historical

cUmar hardly

sayings of the prophet


hadith

emerges

or abridgements.

he says: " In an early


that

in the Tabagt,

on his authority,

enlargements

Sa, d's, it appears

relating

hadiths

thirteen

Ibn Sacd's

through

occurrences

that eventually

any material

1 have

(2)

says : "Reading

sections

I have found
are repetitions,

hadiths
of the

only

on his
etc .(s)

in their

Tabagt

own

which

49
have

for other

consulted

Tabagt

to be examined,

were

be greater.

the number

This said, the question

the significance

of the occurrence

such

hadith

in the

bound

that

to reply

hadith

in the way

feel

it and such

is a historical

work,

knows,

and

deals with.

To it I would

envisages

Juynboll

The
it

juynboll
Tabagt

is not

be present

to the events

is.

of

in which

Sacd.

way

Tabagt

or non-occurrence

between

in Ibn

should

to

I see no connection

material

material

be found

might

may well be asked as to

what

material

of Ibn Sacd's

If the whole

purposes.

the growth

to be expected

there,

or the actual

biographies

as

ha di th

that

unless it is relevant

of

in some
Ibn

which

Sacd

This, in fact, is exactly the case with the hadiths

that do occur there.


From his findings,
caliphs
than

were

guided

Juynboll
by their

In all there

on

Umars

tarjamah

are just a few reports

a decision of the prophet


example".

(9)

own

following

scrupulously

Commenting

draws

On the other

personal
the

prophet

judgement

Prophet's

in which

rather

example.

hand, commenting

followed

on <Uthmn,

cUthman

to

his
he

seems to have

If he was inspired

this does not show in the Tabagt,


,

says:

cUmar referred

or where he explicitly

solely on his own judgement.

that these

in Ibn Sacd, Juynboll

says: "As far as Ibn Sacd is concerned,


relied

the conclusion

by the

a source in which

50
have expected

we would

to his having copied the prophet's


his custom. "(i o)
that

suggest
Even

if we

How many

the

space to accounts
the example

brought

problems

It is hardly

verse

to them

situation

they

or refer

decisive

role in their

assume

that

judgement

rather

Finally,
represents
they

they

the

that

almost

give

to accounts
decisions

took

There

are several

these two caliphs

should

recite

in every

Since we do not encounter


the Qur>n played

that

we might

making,

on their

exclusively

equally
own

well

personal

the Qur'n.
whether

of the caliphs
exclusively

accounts

as meticulous

on

those of the Prophet.

or not Juynboll

on thier

in

followers

fairly

in Ibn Sacd in claiming


own

judgement.

As far as Ab Bakr and cUmar, at least, are concerned,


not.

to

acted according

of the Prophet

indicating

we have to consider

relied

Ibn Sacd should

the caliphs

to an action

than following

the accounts

two

caliphs

contradicting

decision

relied

these

any more than

have to deal with.

in Ibn Sacd reports

between

that the caliphs

that

need to
example?

prophet's

arises as to why

to be expected

Qur'nic

either

the

contradiction

indicating

implying

or

does Juynboll

references

set by the Prophet,

indicating

that

the

the question

comments,

example, if that had been

followed

caliphs

pass over

at least a few references

to encounter

he does

Sacd which

depict

of the Prophet

rather

Ibn

51
than anything
In Ab

else.
Bakr's

just

speech

after

he

office,

assuming

says
" Oh people, I have been given authority
the best of you.

But the Qr>n was revealed

(s) established

me and if I deviate
none

the

after

; he taught

al-Sunnah

I am a follower

people

who

for which

problem

feared

there was none after

he could

find

and no suggestion

apply

my own judgement

( ra'y)

, Umar

as his successor,

Ab Bakr

guided

and his pious

Prophet
various

reports

legacy

where

actions. (i4)
AbU

caliphs

Bakr

Ab
Ahmad

said:

"I

Messenger

of Allah

something

that

Bakr

who

....

(12) After

he commanded,

in the book

having

a
of

appointed

the

Prophet's
of this

cease doing
I fear

of the

Sacd also mentions


about

a version

I shall

with

the guidance

(13) Ibn

the

the

for him to be among

followed

(s) used to do;

than

more

so he said; I will

prayed

followed

not

aid

Ab Bakr who feared

the controversy

mentions
shall

unknown

Sunnah

followers.

concerning

the

no principle

in the

Allah

the rightly

So if I do right

Ab Bakr was confronted

more than cUmar.

Oh
...

Ibn Sirin says: " There was

me". (i i)

correct

and the Prophet

us and we learned

not an innovator.

prophet

Ab Bakr, and
unknown

over you, but I am not

words
story

anything
that

prophet's

and
where

that

if I fail

go astray. "(15)

the
to do

All of

52
appear in Ibn Sacd but juynboll

these reports

does not mention

them.

We may also refer here to a significanat


source, illustrating
He would

prophetic

sunnah,

he would

ask the

sunnah

on that

consult

the

decision,

he would

if

anything

If he was still

topic.

prominent

any

prophetic
he would

unsuccessful,
if

men;

they

agreed

quotes

feels

that

some

passages

they

"...

from

describe

Ibn

despot

every

from

either

where

prohibitions

first

to condemn

the

fasting

misinterpets
of

and action

Tabagt,

Ramadan,

there

he set standards

of Ramadn

incumbent

part of this report.


but

with

to eighty

certain

obeyed
These

inference.

a few references

later

developed

For example,

and injunctions.
wine-drinkers

to Juynboll's

that

stripes

into

he was the
and to make

upon all Muslims". (ia)


It does not deal with
prayers

an

to me to be

appear

are only

as

law". (17)

become

however,

or irrelevant

says: "In his tarjama

to activities
legal

the

word

misinterpreted

Juynboll

Sacd on

<Umar

primus inter pares rather than a blindly

passages

upon

apply it. (16)

authoritarian
whose

there,

relevant

knew

they

with

and then in the

search in the Qur'an

community

also
He

<Umar.

first

If he did not find

most

Juynboll

of Ab Bakr in dealing

the practice

problem.

report, in another

that

ought

He

the fast
to

be

53
voluntarily

are not 'incumbent


say

that

Prophet's

Ramadan

, Umar

laid

himself.

prophet

of Ramadn

established

during

by cUmar. (21)

is merely

rites

the

consulted

on

a report

of

of the

he thought

the

present

of lashes

by the

for

specified

suggested
in the

qadhf

in the light

cUmar's
salt,

stressing,

Juynboll

most

the same reports

important".

of the numerous
of prophetic

cUmar

makes
cUmar

his statement,
was

stabbed

performed

It

(22)

in the

hadiths

on the
to think

enough,

the stabbing
that

his

verses

Interestingly

concerning

on

says: "Of all

there is no need to point out who was the first

when

that

the people on the question

that the salt was most important.

in which

On the punishment

number

salt

and of the sizeable number

learn from

in

himself

be applied.

seems to me that

subject,

the

practice

had been inflicted

the punishment

the importance

religious

the

by the prophet

of the punishments

Commenting
deathbed,

we learn that

was established

it

to

In other sources, for example, in the

'Umar

that the lighter


Qur'an should

was

of lashes, and one of the Companions

of the number

Qur'an

necessary

wine,
down;

but

It is hardly

place and revived

drinking

of Ramadn(19)

nights

Malik's Muwatta',

work,

the first

the

upon all Muslims'.

lifetime. (2o)

of giym

for

fast

the

earlier

during

performed

those

we

of cUmar,
who

their

were
prayer

54
immediately,
were

despite

that the time

afraid

course,

before

occurred

different

descriptions
followers.

"(23)

It is difficult

Juynboll
, Umar

uses the word


behaviour

normative
the

word". (25)

demonistrate

that

next

the word

Juynboll

deals

in
regard
cUmar
of this

to two reports

in favour

of the

'Umar

He badly

concerning

refers

prayers. (24)

he takes

to mean

in the widest
I give

"the

sense of

evidence

which

used by the Companions

sunnah

with

sunnah.

discusion

of this remark,

sunnah.

prophetic

detailed

by his

in Ibn Sa<d in which

appears

section,

place as

imitated

zealously

which

certain

in the first

meant

of a good Muslim

means the prophetic


Next

sunnah

In the

and in many

are all to ordinary

that

a report

mentions

instances

performed

to see the force

he gives

since the references

indicating

numerous

to have

behaviour

of exemplary

This, of

pass.

circumstances

being

these reports

salts, without

indeed

are

he is alleged

situations,

they

that the Muslims placed on salt.

of different

when, under a variety

would

cUmar made his statement,

says: "There

also

because

assault,

of the prayer

quite clearly the importance


Juynboll

of this

the shock

to this

and the

misinterprets
matter.

in the following

in Ibn Sacd to prove

prophetic

hadith

being

of the

concept
one
There

section.

will

report
be a

Juynboll

that cUmar was not


spread

or written

55
down.

In fact, these reports

show cUmar's caution

Qur'an and the hadith. (26) Other reports


the historical

sources

Messenger

Mucwiyah,

matters. (27)
have

said,

Messenger
during
this

(s) other

of Allah

a hadith

to transmit

about the Messenger


memory
heard

than

I was not prevented

of Allh

by not having
for what

have

"If

reported

to

transmits

it as he heard it, he will

said:

In his discussion,

source

that

Juynboll

the prophet's
In fact there

he does

not

mentioned

I said

turn

the

telling

however,

I did not say

what

cUmar himself
a hadith

is
and

be safe. (3o)
to reports

refers
example,

Ibn

to in order

in Ibn Sacd of

but he says, "there

are some other

mention, t3 i) but

one may

during
from

he said;

hears

someone

for

the most retentive

in his place in Hell'. "(29)

settled

just a few. "

is reported

ha di th s of the

all

he did not hear

him say: 'He who claims that

<Umar following

of

caliph,

those that were

that

among the Companions

has already

that

Umayyad

practical

cUthmdn once said: "It is not permissible

of Ab Bakr or cUmar.

time

to some

taking

of the

authority

relates

beware

after

he used to make the people fear God [in

cUmar's reign;

anyone

on the

it

the first

" Oh people

matter]". (28)

little

(s), unless

of Allah

throughout

strewn

For example,

this.

cUmar said: "Tell

command

to

reflect

the

about

reports

are

in Ibn Sacd

Sacd is not the only


to trace

such reports.

56
Numerous

reports

anxious
(32)

possible.
irrelevant,

to follow

the

However,

the

in my opinion.

to declare

Prophet

in every

to Ab

Ms,

that

for

to do

prohibited

them from

doing what

from. (33)

In another

report,

Iraqi

judge,

found

nothing

relevant

if he found

prophetic

sunnah;

according

to the judgement

precedent

by which

according

to his own opinion

latter

should be

Qur'an

or the

the

in either

they could judge, he should


or refrain

and
them

Qur'n;

from

if he

with

the

of these, then

if there

of the upright;

he

the famous

in accordance

nothing

that

prohibited

Shurayh,

with

a letter

commanded,

the Prophet

then

him

telling

said

was no

either

proceed

deciding.

The

course was preferable-04)


Another

feature

of 'Umar,

one, is that he acquired


other

Kufah,

he advised

there,

of

Umar once wrote

in accordance

to decide

teachings

as I have

the

the Qur'n

what

is

behaviour

the caliphs,

take.
in

reports

these

of

are following

they

whenever

example

exemplary

governor

them

commanded

who was

It is one of the essential

action they
his

as an caliph

number

It is not necessary

above,

in many

Prophet's

the Qur>n that the Prophet's


imitated.

occur

to these

are similar

in these cUmar is represented

sources;

very

which

people's

opinions,

associated

the reputation
in particular

with

the

previous

of being one who sought


those of the Companions,

57
on both

legal

issues when

and administrative

there

precedents in either the Qurn or the sunnah.


instances

occur frequently

as this

including

Ibn Sacd's Tabagt.

disagree

on a matter,
decided

never
decided

that

on, without

consultation".

had

sources,

says: "If the people

how cUmar decided

on a matter

no

Reports of such

in the various

One report

consider

were

not

been

on it, for he
previously

Ibn Sacd has a number

(35)

of other reports of <Umar's consultations. (36)

THE MUSNADS OF THE FOUR CALIPHS IN


HADITH

Juynboll

makes

the hadiths
hadith
Musnad

of

collections,

Ahmad
He finds
through

a detailed

of the four

collections.

COLLECTIONS

rightly

which

and the Musnad

which

caliphs

is small

the other

hand, the hadiths

two Iraqi

collections

are

of al-Taylisi,

are considered

that the number


the caliphs

guided

These are a1-Muwatxa'

al-Humaydi,

b. Iianbal,

of the number

comparison

of prophetic

of Mlik

considered

is relatively

large.

early

and the
as Hijzi

and the Musnad

as Iraqi
hadiths

in the two Hijzi


transmitted

in selected

of

collections.
transmitted

collections.

through

of

them

He accordingly

On
in the
comes

58
that it was in Iraq that hadith

to the conclusion

increased.

gradually

However,
representing

these

collections

the whole

of their

of the

whole

book, saying

that it contained

to show

evidence

that

part of the authors'


Malik
100,000

in al-Muwatta';

He first

(39)
.

drafts

that he had obtained

(42)
.

which

and that
Bakr

in the

Malik

material

are available

and
himself
not

A1-MuwaUxa'

100 hadiths

former

only

small

my own hand

gradually

Ahmad

he did

in the number

of al-Shaybni

with

that number

that

the Muwa(ta'

is

9000 or 10,000 of them

included

books

of the caliphs'

to his

(38)

reports,

A comparison

authors'

In fact, there

comprise

collections

Mlik's

AbU Mus<ab's, has about

of Ab

all that he had.

scholar,

versions

their

an introduction

wrote

hadiths. (4i)

to various

in its different

in

current

as

let alone the

material,

One famous
of

12000

approximately

Yahya

was

he later reduced

original

hadiths

authors'

to have said: "I wrote

number. (4o)

according

their

material.

is reported
hadiths

present

that

material

be considered

cannot

None of the compilers

time. (37)

the

and

originated

it contains;

to the

b. Slih, saw
found

there

states clearly,
relate
itself

all the
differs

one version,

more than the others. (43)


in the two versions

to us now, that of Yahy

is instructive.
version

The only

does not

appear

of
b.

hadith
in the

59
latter,
authority

in Yahy's

of 'Uthmftn

al-Shaybni's

b. Hanbal

in

a1-Humaydi

describes
many

him

in hadith;

Al-Shfici,

hadiths.

Al-Ijumaydi

hadi

(47)

Musnad

that

considerations,
considered

(48)
.

who

aquired

is

cUyaynah

by al-

10,000
a! -

in

the

recorded

are not included

from

these

Musnad
collection

with

but seems to

included

which

al-Humaydi's

as a comprehensive

a great

alone,

on his authority

apparent,

Sacd

book entitled,

not

are

hadiths

Ibn

a! -Humaydi

not survived,

in their collections
It

(44)

another

th s that

We also find

by some of his pupils


in his

compiled

with

to have said

hadith.

credited

of Ibn

this has, unfortunately,

contained

Musnad.

in

pupils,

was accompanied

who

to Egypt,

he went

on the authority

have

in

field

of his

one

authority

memorizing,
(46)

in the sunnah

he is reported

Imam

the

was

(45)

when

Nawadir;

on the

one is found

only

AI-Bukhri,

Iraq.

as a reliable

hadiths.

Humaydi

version,

in Hijz is compared

praises his knowledge


that

Ihadiths

prophetic

version.

Al-Humaydi
Ahmad

are three

there

and, while

of

various

cannot

be

al-Humaydi's

hadiths.
To indicate
makes

the proliferation

a comparison

and Ahmad's

Musnad

between
(d. 241).

of hadiths
al-Taylisi's
In fact,

in Iraq,

juynboll

Musnad

(d. 203)

there

is evidence

to

60
suggest

that

Iaylisi

but a later

the

one of al-Taylisi's

from

him. (49)

pupils,

According

in rljl

tarjamah
only

a very

small

hadiths. (51)

his ability

down

(52)

memory.

He boasted
and that

the authority

of cUthman

interested

in hearing

there. (53)

He tells

masters. (54)
Taylisli,
dictated

Ynus

informs
from

Although

material

the Musnad

hadiths

30,000

by

hadiths

hadiths

12,000

to spread

the transmitter

on

al-Taylisi

them

of 1000

of Musnad

was in Isfahn,

alhe

hadlths. (55)
contains

a large

hadith, (56) being one of the largest

possessed.

are said

transmitted

on the authority

of Ahmad

it does not, as pointed


Ahmad

relate

to Isfahn

he wrote

100,000

of

since no one in Basrah was

al-Barri;

b. Habib,

represents

a huge number

40,000

that he could

his

through

He

on his authority,

us that, when

memory

of the prophetic
hadith,

to memorize

them, he went
us that

However,

he possessed.

that

he had memorized

consecutively,

Ab Massd al-

that his Musnad

When he was in Isfahn,

to have beeen written

transmitted

in reading

of the material

part

for

was renowned

we find

works,

b. Habib,

of the Musnad .(5o)

was the real author,

only

who compiled

Ab Nucaym,

to

Razi (d. 258) was the compilor


even if al-Taylisi

Ynus

is not al-

Musnad

Khursn

from

scholar

what

former

of the

author

amount

collection

out above, (57) represent


A

comparison

between

of

all the
the

61
Musnad

of Ahmad

period,

including

musnad

as will

be shown

material,

is not

of this

kind

growth

of hadith.

Juynboll
MuwaUUa'
various

and other

legal

authenticity

Companion

separately,

authenticity.

hadith

dispute

do not mention

of iiadith,

collections,
The outcome
no use.

the

of their

regardless

in particular,
work

reference

The

particularly

on

with

the

of the

mu sn ad

hadlth

of each
matter

subject

or

to make his

tries

(59)

If Malik

this does not indicate

a hadith

to

according

that may be referred

a hadith.

concerning

purposes.

or

that the

did not exist or they did not know it.

To test the
growth

is to list

hand,

the

concerned

The purpose

(58) Ahmad,

an authoritative

to in case of
Muslim

other

in their

gauging

are arranged

greatly

are

a comparison

for

concentrating

ha di th.

the

of

on the

Musnad

Malik

they

and

collections,

their

of Muslim

with

that

less

far

contain

method

books that differ

and the Sahih

matters,

which

indicates

below,

of the same

collections

collections

an appropriate

compares

subjects,

hadith

method

applied

I have

by Juynboll

applied

of the same period


of this application

for

it to some

as those to which
indicates

the

charting
other

hadith

he applies

that the method

it.

is of

62
Before

giving

the following

I shall

my findings,

Juynboll's,

summarize

in

table.

Hijzi

Collections

the Musnad of

the Musnad of

Collections

the Muwatta'
of

Iraqi

the Musnad

Malik

al-Tayi1si

of al-

(d. 179)

(d. 203)

(d.

Humaydi

the Sahih of

Ahmad

Muslim

(d. 241)

(d. 261)

218)

Ab Bakr

79

, Umar

18 (15)

25

62

304

'Uthman

15 (14)

Ali

21

92

The figures
repetition
' The

invariably

made

correct;

because

through
whereas

the

(123)

131 (57)

17 (16)

(450)

819

hadiths

of prophetic

the number

without

or enlargements.

by Juynboll

of the

for

those

example

etc. and Ab Bakr's

repetition

indicate

bracket

abridgements

count

Thus,

between

(38)

a gradually

related

own sayings,

the number
Caliphs'

prophetic

in

hadiths

by Ahamad

actually

of prophetic
the

increasing

two

Ijijazi

number

amount

in the
via

sources

Ab

Bakr,

is not
without

to 28, not 38.

hadiths
collections
is found

traced

back

is small,
in the two

63
Iraqi
hadith

originated

As I have
taken

is convinced

juynboll

collections,

its first

and underwent

as a true

of their

representation

let alone of all the

that

material

works

hadith

if they

not survived;
the

situation

time. (6o) Ibn

Wahb,

who associated
thirty

years

his

Malik

with

later, (61) was

Ahmad

pupil,

Zurcah, a famous

critic,

well

Wahb's

without

finding

more than
in

hadithS. (62) According

to

his

100,000

hadlths.

hadiths

30,000

into

Egypt,

activity

he related

looked

for

known

and Egyptian

b. $lih,

material,

148 till his death,

from

of

at that

from

originally

scholar,

have

picture

of hadith

compilation

a famous

the Hijzi

preserving

the

concerning

numerous

a better

have

had, we should

In

time.

unfortunately

which

be

material,

in their

circulated

produced,

cannot

total

authors'

of the second half of the second century


were

in Iraq.

major growth

the course
on

prophetic

these collections

out above,

pointed

the

that

from

one which

a single

Abet
Ibn

had no

b asis. (63)

AI-Muwatxa'
few

earliest

we should
their
hadiths

time.

hadith

and Humaydi's
collections

not judge from


As we have

in Muslim

traced

them
seen,
back

Musnad are anly two of the

which

have

come down
body

the entire
the number
through

the

to us;

of hadith

of

of the prophetic
two

caliphs

for

64
juynboll

whom

and for <Uthman seventeen


the repetitions

back

traced
other

shrinks
from

certainly

through

that
from

To support

my view

collections

to judge the

that

is not

time

detailed

investigation

through

the caliphs

al-Athr

of the
in other

back through

that

the number

why

in Muslim

and

to nine in Muslim.

Any

to five

to Malik.

prophetic

hadlth

particular

I have

method,

early

The

(65)

body of the prophetic

an appropriate

hadiths

hadith

lhadith

at

made

back

traced

collections

at the

collections.

with

of Abu Ysuf

189 ), we find

himself.

to use a few

that

material

as regards

not only

Muslim

in Ahmad

entire

same time of Juynboll's


If we compare

time,

in Ahmad

to apply equally

out to be only

all of the

be asked here is rather

thirty-one

is likely

in fact without

turns

represent

at that

seventy-nine

one hundred

explanation

for cUthman

also as regards

should

Ab Bakr five

for

small:

one repetition;

cannot

them

but

authors

question

with

the number

This

nine. (64)

is very

gives figures

a! -Muwatta>

works

similar

(d. 182) and al-Athr

the number

the caliphs

from

Iraq,

of al-Shaybni

of prophetic

is less in the latter

(d.

hadiths

traced

two than

in the

former.
In Ab Ysuf there
only

three

for

is nothing

cUmar, (66) and

for Ab Bakr and cUthman,

also three

for

cAli with

one

65
further

(67) In al-Shaybni

repetition.

is nothing

for

cUmar(68)

and cAli. (69)

the amount

Bakr

Ab

with

Ab Ysuf
further

one

The material

with

in al-Kharj

In al-Yaman,
to Medinese

for

repetition

(72) and five

cUthmn

scholar

gives

one further

al-Sancni

Musannaf

and a1-Jmic. The former

However,

different

from

most

it is highly

through
hypothesis.

probable

or

the eleven

enlargements,

hadiths

in it. The outcome

are five

liadiths

twenty-five

(77) thirteen

Ab

but not the


material
it as a

cUthmdn,

volumes

in

of al-

traced

back

corroborates

my

Bakr, (76) sixty-four

are repetitions,
for

al-

in it is to be found

Caliphs'

for cUmar, of which

are

describes

al-Kattni

for

great

in hadith

that it contained

in search of the prophetic

There

cAli. (73)

works

has survived

and most of the material

the four

engaged

his

of

the ' six books'. (75) I have examined

Musannaf

for

believes, (74) the

important

that in al-Musannal;

large collection,

one for

that in a1-thr.

from

(d. 211),

The

latter.

repetition

as juynboll

activities.

two

Bakr, (70) six,

like Egypt, 'owed a great deal

a centre which,

cAbd al-Razzaq

Ab

for

cUmar, (71) only

is different

successors',

in his other work al-

Ihadlths

three

either

or the material

time

For instance,

of the authors themselves.


Kharj,

do not represent

at that

available

one each for

and only

and cUthman
These works

of material

There

the case is worse.

abridgements

of which

six are

66
repetitions,

etc, (78) and ninety-two

repetitions,

etc. (79) This,

entire

that

material

however,

works,

additional

Ahmad,

heard

material.

found
in

hadiths

directly

from

he

For instance,
Bakr

contained

which

has in

which

he

cannot

be

two hadiths

mentions
not

are

which

the

As indicated

of the caliphs
but

are

represent

al-Razzq

of -Abd

a pupil

forty

certainly

almost

al-Razzq,

cAbd

of Ab

musnad

which

not

possessed.

on the authority

in al-Musannaf.
the

does

cAbd al-Razzdq

above, he had other

his Musnad

for cAli, of which

in

found

al-

Mucannaf. (so)
In two
Ahmad's,

Musnad
the

number

through

the caliphs

Ahmad's

Musnad.

Ahmad's

of the
is very

contemporary,

hadiths

for Ab Bakr, (gi) sixty-six

Muntakhab,

(83)

specifically

one

from

hundred

a Musnad

compiled

one decade after

Ahmad),

comparison

that in Alimad's

with

for some of the caliphs,


collections,

al-Taylisi

(d. 235),

nineteen

for cUmar, (82) thirty-five


for

seventy

CAli. (84)

by cAbd b. Humayd

the number

in comparison

with

and cAbd al-Razzaq.

but
that

for
In al-

(died

is not only very

Musnad,

by

is not

who

we find

Kufah,

in

compiled

ahabah,

Abi Shaybah

Iraqi

cUthmn,

Al-.

that

with

as

back

traced

in comparison

small

merely

but

hadiths

prophetic

In Musnad
Ibn

at the same time

compiled

collections

249,

in
small

it is also small,
in the earlier

He gives seven for

67
Ab

Bakr, (85)

thirty-

be

in

seen

CUmar, (86)

for cAli. (88)


different

between

of such variatious
may

seven

and thirty-four

cUthmn(s7)

for

two

eighteen

A definitive

example

of the same author

works

later

the

of

works

for

al-Draqutni

(d. 385). (89)

Finally,

I compared

Musannaf
Musnad
found

with
for

the

two

could

cAbd al-Razzq,

the repetitions,
cUthmn

the eleven

there

in cAbd

Humaydl.

Ab

caliphs

Al-

However

all

Bakr

are seven

all of them

who

died

one decade
Excluding

one of them

appears

in Ahmad.

of hadiths

in Ahmad's Musnad,

small number

in the two Hijzi collections

the particular

purposes

that their

of
in

All of

This
one.
seems to
except

suggest that Iraq has nothing to do with the explanation


sizeable number

cUthman. (9o)

on the authority

are found

isnids

Ahmad's

of Ab Bakr in cAbd

hadiths

Only

al-Razzq's

and

Abmad.
in
are
one

except

Ihadiths have Ijijzi

and

hadiths

in Humaydi,

Razzq.

cAbd

Musnad

in IHumaydi's

be traced

in

material

none of the five

that while

al-Razzq
after

that

the

compilers

of the

and that the

is to be attributed
had in mind.

to

68

NOTES

1. See Tradition,
2. Tradition,
3.2

p. 23ff.

p. 24.
(15) (18), p. 84-85.3

p. 86 (3) (9) (19) (25), p. 71(4)

2, p. 85 (19),

1,p. 123

(6), p. 155 (13), p. 298 (19).


4. Tradition,

p. 25.

1, p. 74 (4). 2

5.2

2, p. 37 (12),

p. 85 (22). 3

1, p. 126 (22), p. 128 (17), p. 148

(19), P. 195 (22), p. 199 (1), p. 201 (14), p. 21 1 (8), p. 215 (18), p. 241 (27), p. 242
(23), p. 251 (15),
111-112,

(5),
(5),
(7),
102
100
75
(16),
(19).
(7)
65
p.
6,
p.
263
p.
p.
p.
p.

p. 113 (2) (5).

6. Tradition,

p. 28.

7.2

2, p. 85 (24), p. 100 (15). 3

8.1

2, p. 175 (26).

(21). 3

1, p. 51.2

1, p. 46 (14) (21), P. 47 (9), p. 48 (4), p. 177-78.


2, p. 36-37,

(10)
(25),
(13)
(21)
101(5)
100
p.
p.

1, p. 13 (20), p. 19 (14), p. 22, p. 73 (24), p. 100 (10), p. 130 (2).

6, p. 170

(9).
9. Tradition,

p. 26.

10. Tradition,

p. 28.

11. Ibn Sacd 3

1, p. 129 (19).

4-4-

v-j

vIJ c?

1Jtl Jr

vV

Lt 4.1 v,, LJI 1r1... l.

Jj
t,.,.
Lt :,....>, vU
c .:..

lJI LI,t s. l. 1
C,,,
.

41
14r41 ':

l.4l

JI - -'
. .
aj
jAt+e
`:
"v

12. Ibn Sacd 3


wiacr.

:..A

1, p. 126 (2).
iJlsWr_-wwa''

aiir'rLcr1vAtvYLE,,,

jj

Y.) S.oi .. UI
b
,,,

vie

u ,

+1tL

JU , I1.1

OL
13. Id. 3 1, p. 142 (26).
Ij
4! L%L14.2

2, p. 86 (3,9,19,25).

lf
1I
i...
A&
CkaLJJ
J s,
v,,:, ,SaA '

L+
I.
I>J
LS
I,
:
'cr; aM,

lj...
AL.>

69
15. Musnad

ul

1, p. 166-67

no. 25.

4. r
J"
III
%:

A*1 w! j

J.

rL+

AllI

Atl&

AMI

LS UA. 4,

LS

:.

J%"J

&j1 u1. y, 1;,. 1:.IL

16. al-Darimi

1, p. 53-54

1j 4 4'a-i

(20) no. 163.

muqaddimah

ll-. l, Sw't;:

i'-H-wle_,;.!

tLrSIS

'Iaal&aJIII

s1I
v
:
tl
J"
JLi,
Ui
Iis
Iss,
y
al
JrJ
J+i
t,
:
,
ch-L
l lk"
.
w;
4.ul JrMJ

, ul
I.

.
Jry.
JAI

)A

, -?J,,.,
j a

1.
al
lct,
I
44
JI
J1a,
J---J
AJI
a. &:
,
N1S
.
41l, ., -,
vA
Vi

Z: w ,w

A
1,
p
1..
S
,
,s

r. JlJ

r6

Late

&z-%l

ICU

, lx&JU:

u"'11a 11aJV.

l:
s

Wl

GJ~ iJ

jam 1 A a. -4I : 15,,y. SJr


,.
:

-.

"_1L 4. (JI

4. UI

, ..d;
17. Tradition,

p. 26.

18. Tradition,

p. 25.

19. Ibn Sacd 3 1, p. 202 (9).

JillaitsL.

wJL"l--L:

Lij

)L+
J1.

LL

SJIJ4:v LL G!"

Ut

'-'"

I
- C-A.--il .-i
20. The date of the introduction

of the practice

was 18 months

the hijrah.

after

.
See

Ibn Sacd 2 2, p. 8 (19).


21. See for various

reports

a1-salt fi Ramadan

(1).

22. Tradition,

p. 25.

23. Tradition,

p. 25-26.

24. These citations

on this, Mlik's

1, pp. 113-15

Muwatra'

no. 1,2,3,4,

are :

3 1, p. 205(22)

ZL.. 11
J. 11a,S
wi
w;..,

Wf l "j
,,.
a.,.lc -,. L

p. 216 (9)

: yStl

u.. Jl : Y.

Iw..
lS
molto

Ju
w
:
.
4L

, r, rl
,i

p. 217(12)

y,. 3lI

p. 225 (18)

....

LLJI

V JU; c'j. 11A;.r 4:, l al


26 101 ) ulcYI Jl o-:..r C
,.;.
,
...

iiI

; LJI

LJI

4.,

l:Jl

x,& U

...
...

All
JK

...
W1.
I

."e ,,,raj,

70
25. Tradition,

p. 26.

26. The first


he spent
finally

a month

to God for guidance.

praying

made, and he said :"I

longer

version

matter

and they

to have

of this

him

advise

said "... By Allah,

my being

apprehensive

relate
in which

report

27. a1-Mu. Fannaf

in

Companions

the
'Umar

is reported

of Allah

is a

There

with

the

finally
anything

no. 20484).
some matter

1,p. 210(4).

Sacd 3

companion

it, I

from

is an abridgement

This

of a

( See Musnad

this hadith.

to relate

"But for

and replies:

or detracting

to the hadith

adding

cUmar asks another

they devoted

a book;

1, p. 206(4).

the book

cUmar is asked about

1, p. 246 no. 210. ) ( Shkir's

was

the sunnah.

confuse

never

2, p. 257-58

( Ibn

Then, one day, the decision

consults

cUmar

down

to write

of either

it to you.

but

of a people who wrote

in which

I will

In the second report,

the sunnah,

down

to write

the book of Allah. "( 3

report

else". (See cAbd al-Razzaq

should

thought

to it and abandoned

themselves

was intending

says that 'Umar

report

edition).

2, p. 262 no. 20496.

28. Ab Zurcah 1, p. 545 no. 1478.


29. Ibn Sa'd 2

2, p. 100.

30. Ab Zurcah, p. 546 no. 1481.


31. See for example,
32. In Ahmad's
transmitted
91,100,1

1, p. 20 1(14), 207 (19), 215 (12), 248 (1).

Musnad,

by 'Umar,

a source

there

on which

Juynboll

reports

are numerous

cAbd al-Razzq's

or returned

to, the prophet's

legal decision
p. 58-59

no. 17764.10,

this picture.

badiths

e. g. no. 82,

more instances,

cUmar is reported

in which

source,

for

heavily

for
also
see
...

Mu$annaf,

385 no. 17706, p. 397-98

relies

giving

12,117,131,183,189,207,227,238,253

in another
sought

on various

to have

legal issues e. g. 9, p.

no. 18343, p. 61no.

18353, p. 327

no. 19261.

33. al-Mu$annaf 2, p. 213 no. 20356.


34. al-Nasa'i

8, p. 231, adab

35. Ibn Sacd 22p.

100 (6).

36. See for that, 3


Adam,

al-Khrj,

37. A complaint
muhaddith
from

him

al-qucit

1, p. 457.

See also al-Macrifah

1, p. 212 (6), p. 216 (15). p. 217 (17) p. 221 (20) (27).

p. 42 no. 103, p. 43 no. 105.


was

made

to al-Layth

who was contemporary


which

11.

with

was not in his books;

Ab Ysuf, al-Kharj,

b. Sacd (d.
Malik,

175),

that a hadith

he replied

that:

"If

Yahy b.

p. 130,135.

the famous

Egyptian

was sometimes

heard

I were

down

to write

71
that I remember, this markab would not be large enough [ to carry it). See

evrything

8, p. 463.

Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib


38. According

to Ibn Hajar,

al-Diraqulni's
a large

See Ta'jil

Tartib

Similarly,

which

al-Zuhd

in

there

is

are not in his Musnad.

p. 8.

al-manfa'ah,

39. al-Suyti,

in Ibn Hanbal's

of hadiths

number

by Malik

related

in al-Muwatta'.

are not found

which

al-Gharib,

of hadiths

is a large number

there

See also al-Suyati,

1, p. 133.

al-madrik

Tanwir

al-2awlik

1, p. 6.
40. al-Suyli,

Tartib

Another

says it was 4000 ]adiths

report

41. al-Suyti,

Tartib

on the authority

43. See al-Suyli,

Tartib

Tabgt

45. Tahdhib

5, p. 215-16.

46. al-Subki,

Tabagat al-ShfNyyah

master,

al-Humaydi,

is included

al-Shfi'iyyah

al-kubra

2, p. 141.

al-kubrl

2, p. 140.

cAbd al-Barr,

mentions

Musnad.

in al-Humaydi's

See Fath

al-Nawadir.

of cAli, on the authority

a 2adith

does not appear

which

in his book

confirming

see Ibn

1, p. 9.

al-madrik

al-Bukhri

this

reports

2, p. 109 no. 1323.

al-Jmic

44. al-Subki,

47. For example,

For various

1, p. 186.

al-madrik

of his pupils

1, p. 67. al-Khatib,

al-Tamhid

1, p. 6.

or more.

Tartib

al-Suyli,

of various

al-hawlik

1, p. 133.

al-madarik

42. See for example,

Tanwir

2, p. 73. al-Suyli,

al-madarik

al-Bari

of his

However,

6, p. 213 no. 3 112 and p.

215.
48. For example,

Yacqb b. Sufyin

49. See al-Kattani,


50. Siyar

al-Risdlah

wa-al-trikh.

p. 46.

al-mustalrafah,

9, p. 382.

51. See, for example,


52. Siyar

al-Magrifah

al-Fasawi,

Tahdhib

9, p. 382.

in

his biography

4, p. 182-186.

Tahdhib

4, p. 183.

53. Siyar 9, P. 383.


54. al-Dhahabi,
55. Tahdhib

Tadhkirat
4, p. 186.

56. It contains

between

30,000

and 40,000

57. See note 38 See also Shakir's


.
58. See al-Kattni,
59. See al-Musnad
60. Among

1, p. 321.

al-huffaz

al-Risilah
editad

these collections

edition

al-mustafrafah
by Shakir

See Shkir's

edition

1, p. 23.

1, p. 2 1-22.
46.
p.
,

1, p. 30-3 1.

are Mu$annaf

Hammd

it

b. Salamah

(d. 167) Mu$annaf

72
Wakic

(d197) Jamie

(d. 21 1 ), in addition

al-Razzaq
al-Risalah

(d. 161 ) Jamie

al-Thawri

'Uyaynah

(d. 198 ) Jamie

of the last-named.

to the Musannaf

<Abd

See al-Kattni,

p. 30-31.

al-mustatrafah

61. Tahdhib

Ibn

6, p. 74.

62. Id. 6, p. 72.


63. Ibidem.
64. Juynboll

relies

a separate

number

in al-Jam'

bayn

Hubayrah,

al-Ifch

on the numeration
to each version

al-$ahihayn

65. It is said that he compiled


al-Rislah

no . 70,535

67. Ibidem

no. 4,5,67,958.

al-fihh

on

the various

Fu'Ad cAbd al-Bgi


ablution.
versions

a large Musnad.

See Tahdhib

1052

68. No. 8.
69. No. 278.
70. pp. 6,10,151.
71. pp. 51,55,89,115,115-116,125,129.
72. P. 15.
73. p. 20,77,129,130,165,190.
74. See Tradition,

p. 43.

75. See al-Kattani,

al-Rislah

However,

who

gives

al-Humaydi

as one hadith.

See, Ibn

1, p. 227-29.

p. 46.

al-mustatrafah,

66. al-Athr

of the hadith

considers

an ma'ni

of the editor,

al-mustatrafah,

p. 31.

76. No. 6534,9774,14569,20554,19832.


77.142,763,765,988,987,1074,1077,2309,3967,4275,4278,5292,5293,
5294,5636,6038,6675,6680,6692,7207.7595,7874,7879,8693,8945,9033,
9034,9035,9152,9758,9772,9985,10022,10046,10354,10399,10400,10401,
12526,13329,13364,14541,14854,14883,15922,15923,15924,15925,16572,
16573,17237,17781,17782,17783,18040,18718,19365,20045,20369,20524,
20674,20710,20944,20063.
78. No. 34,124,125,139,140,141,643,2008,2009,5636,5995,10381,18702,
20401.
79.57,120,121,122,123,153,218,219,602,603,604,623,788,789,1102,
1371,2027,2192,2193,2539,2567,2822,2832,2833.2834.2836,2876.2904,
2903,2993,4229,4569.4626,4772,4806,4807,4823,4904,5636,6238,6267,
6311,6312,6314,7487,6795,6879,6880,7077,7703,7757,7987,7890,9936.

10, p. 127. al-Kattani,

73
9975,9994,10791,10792,11450,12450,12542,13601,13437,13543,13545.
14032,14006,13946,13987,13354,14383,15352,15589,18007,17107,18508,
18650,18652,18653,18657,18677,19oo3,19373,19393,19476,19480,19828,
19939,19964,20051,20074.
80. See Ahhmad's Musnad

no. (66), (74) ( Shkir's

edition).

81. p. 14 B.
82. p. 27 B.
83. p. 31 A.
84. p. 56 B.
85.1,

p. 17.

86.1,

p. 38.

87.1,

p. 99.

88.1,

p. 117.

89. For instance,


al-Diraqutni
a! -Ilal,

there

only

seven hadiths

(see 1, p. 19,34.2,
are eighty-one

Ab Bakr's own sayings,

turns

p. 32,89,113.3,
hadiths.

of Ab Bakr appear

on the authority

p. 106.4,

The number,

out to be forty-four

p. 219).

without

(see the first

90.1 chose these two because their material is easy to handle.

in Sunan

However,

the repetitions
volume)

in
and

74

THREE

CHAPTER

THE PROPHETIC

SUNNAH

JUYNBOLL'S CONCEPT OF THE LATE APPEARANCE OF THE


PROPHETIC SUNNAH

The

of the origin

chronology

is another

issue which

his theory.

date

the

of

comprising

He holds

the

think

idea

that

exclusively

the

that

term

he calls "the

the sunna,

or exemplary

as his
of the

when

identified

with

the

concept

is a later
He says: "I

century.

sunnat an-nabi

began

on this
existence

century

of the Hijra". (2)

issue, he says: "... traditions


together

with,

and

to be

is to be set in a

time some six or seven decades later, that is toward


the first

only". (i )

prophet

sunna

of the

devoted

most

al-nabi

sunnat

as the end of the first


time

to support

down

behaviour

the

sunnah'

narrowing

as well

prophet

to the exemplary

as late

of the

of origin

followers,

concept,

adduces in his study

Juynboll

formerly

sunna,

behaviour,

'prophetic

In this section, he discusses what

approximate
concept

of the concept

the end of

At the end of his argument


came relatively

probably

also because

late into
of, the

75

late

as toward

Before

the

I go through

Juynboll's

for the dating

of the hadith

an extensive

to the concept

chapter

spiritual

background

contends

" that the concept

that

it

of early

is a very

of the prophet"

how

early

devotes

in his book,

In

Islam.

this

is

al-nabi

sunnat

sunnah

chapter,

The
he

Rasll-11h " the sunnah

sunhat

Islamic

and genuine
as based

be considered

cannot

be asked here, i. e.

M. M Bravmann

material.

"(3)

century.

this

of the term

date of the origin

the

significant

should

only as

in supporting

considerations

that

an-nabi

first/seventh

the

of

end

is a question

there

view,

down to sunnat

sunna being narrowed

concept

on

idea and

later

doctrinal

considerations... "(4)
Juynboll
follows:
been

is aware

he
comments
and

of this study,

"For an account of the sunnat


during

established

Bravmann,

The spiritual

98, especially
originally,
instituted,

meaning
secondary
agreement

of early

into

practice

by
a group
-

' custom

(by

of definite

of the community

(p. 155). 1 do not dispute


the view

that

Islam,

M. M.

pp. 123-

holds the view that,


decreed,

a certain

person

persons),

and that its

' must
this". (5)

sunnah

see

ordained,
...

procedure

allegedly

lifetime,

prophet's

background

meant:

introduced

with

an-nabi

pp. 168ff. M. M. Bravmann

sunna

less frequently

the

having

on it as

be considered
So if juynboll

is a practice

or -

as
is in

established

76
by individuals,

of the Companions

the example
himself

was described

century,

and whether

from
hadith.

But Juynboll

existence

of the term

gleaned

Apart
from

well

obedience

al-nabi

the other

behaviour,

the legislative

is already

direction

established

to the Prophet's

of the prophetic
which

into
of its

may be readily

that

the early

authority
it is

of the prophet',

Qur'an.
the
of

authority

to him in his commands

from

of

Although

does not appear in the Qur'an, it is

My aim here is to approach


existence

existence

but also the lateness

evidence

concepts

aL-nabi

to adhere

early

sources, (6) indicating

or exemplary

that

his example
enjoined

sunnat

most essential

known

of the

existed

already

al-nabi

sunnat

the late first

does not mean only the late coming

from

the term sunnat

until

sunnah

to that

make

various

of the 'sunna,
one of the

the term

of whether

Prophet
the
that
of
as

as well

by the term

date,

an early

authority.

do the questions

difference

what

Juynboil

sunnah

of the prophet

in the Qur'n.
example

People

and to pay

or his interdictions.

the question
only

approaches

with
it.

and
are
full

()

of the early

resepect

to the

77

AN

EXAMINATION

THE

OF

EVIDENCE

HIS

OF

CHRONOLOGY

Now

let

us scrutinize
of this

chronology

concept

"prophetic

al-Khal.

tb,

foregoing,

which

sunna

mentioned,

the first
prophet
absent

the desert

was
Where

enumeration.

namely
the

followers".

(8)

two

"In

the

traced

back

on

his

cUmar,
community

should

time
himself

we

It was pointed

would

immediately
major

to which

in

the

which

followers,
cUmar

it

be

to

find

prophet's

he refers

a concept

the
this

Qur>n, we

us to, he

emphasized

b. cAbd a! cAziz rather

or his immediate

a report

of

contingents

that

from

expected
the

the ah!

out

absent

have
after

of the prophet,

by cUmar

and finally

dwellers

conspicuously

In the passage

"The sunna

in

b.

cUmar

material

the muslim

to

of the

existence

Sacd. He says:

in which

(cf. p. 26 above).

adh-dhimma

writes:

where

the ansr,

instead

he adduces

concerning

the hadith

his

Qurn,
the
its
the
to
solution
problems, namely

look for the

concept

Ibn

a report

enumerated

m uhjirn,

in

with

to cUmar, I mentioned
deathbed,

is a report

appears

dealing

while

into

of the late coming


sunnah"

for

considerations

The main evidence

issue.

his argument

support

Juynboll's

than

for

by the

is conspicuously

b. al-Khaflb

on his

78
deathbed

made certain

his followers

should

the

ansr,

people

in case of dfficulties

recommendations:
to the, Qur'an,

resort

desert

of the

and,

the

the m uhjirn,
finally,

the

ahl

had

already

al-

dhimma". (9)
Juynboll

argues

been exclusively
23/644,

that

when

"if the concept

identified
cUmar

is, as perhaps

which

concept.

Differently

use the term

sunnat

into this limited


statement
difficult

"(io)
.

fact, the report


Muslim
problems.

However,

should

if one has recourse


reaches

resort

his interpretation.

or look for

"-"I

the community

The two versions

L. I)La

did not

to Ibn Sacd, it is
In

as to where

the

solutions

to its

as is quite

clear

and from anthor version

also in Ibn Sacd, is to remind

i'

wider

a much

he
by
time
the
made this
already

The sense of the recommendation,

those mentioned.

and ansr,

that cUmar

is not about recommendations

community

he

statement,

sunna had developed

if the term

Juynboll

both from this version

above,

put, it is significant

specification

to see how

this

and not m uhjlrn

demonstrated

an-nabi,

by the year

an-nabi

made

allegedily

have used this expression

would

sunnat

with

sunna

that appears

to take care of

runs as follows:

4i1
4,
U
>J

41

:JU.3

lg.t L
l:JI l3
cr'i''

79

J1

eslal ft+gu : A.';

JI
LI

Jl
,.

rU

rSlol

`1.. .: a.:
JL
1.11..
+JI .j

IJ:+

r4..u
I1". ' de&4.
"cric

IJJ1J
cJ

"I commend to you the book of Allh, for you will not go astray
as long as you follow
because

people

resorted

Bedouins)

because

because they

And

to.

they

origin

brethren

the

and

commend

to you

Prophet's

compact

ahl

enemy

ad-Dhlmma

and the livelihood

and your

constituent

constituent

of your

enemy.

because

they

of your

(the

Acrb

element [in a variant version] they are your origin,


element,

And

the sanctuary

were
to you

I commend

are your

to you the Muhjirin

or underestimate.

may overestimate

to you the Ansr

commend
Islam

it. And I commend

And

are

children.

your
Leave

me !".o 1)
In the other

version,

from

sense of the recommendation

yls
r
rye...
,..J'JI J.
-.01
'_uI

l I

is absent,

the Qur'an

which

the

is clearer.

Jul

l.,, , i.&JI Li
.

,..IJ.c`L ti..o '

rL. YI

'--' cri ; -,

80

Jl
'>

lb
1,6j
'1Is
'1j rye

4.4'
j
trap s'' , "Jy. ' j

'I Ali rub

M
Jj
"

"I commend
that

to the caliph

he maintain

the rights

their

acknowledge
commend

to him

provinces?

), for they

is taken,

surplus
Ansr,
from

"who
those

of them

and the constituent


be made on their
poor:

and

protection

have

Juynboll
argument,

for they

are the origin

of Islam, and that

modest
to

and

properity

him

(people

the

of God and that of his Prophet,

combat

made with

on them
those

misinterpret

beyond

this report,

but he also overlooks

eye to

of the Arabs
a levy

should
to their

given

guaranteed)
to

that they may not

can bear, and that he

they
them.

a blind

that he may fulfil

them, and

more than

to receive

to him to be good to

and I commend

element

I comnmend

imposed

should

and the faith",

do good and to turn

their

to him the

in the territory

more

them the compact

if only

consent,

that do ill;

(the

the (cause of the)

and I commend

that

and I

of the amsr

of funds,

and the reservoir

(the Bedouins),

the Acrb

position

are the aid of Islam,

by their

settled

those of them

(hurmatahum);

to be good to the people

of the enemy

anger

and

al-Awwaln

of al-Muhjlydn

privileged

of God, and

me the fear

after

" (12)

in enlisting
a highly

Not

only

its support

significant

does

for his

report

in

81
to the concept

"prophetic

This

which

cUmar refers

occurs

in Ibn Sacd, on the same page as the recommendation

just

discussed.
in

people

appointment
Allah,

In this
final

the

in which

report,

to bear witness

provinces;

for

I sent

people their

religion

them

to have said: "Oh


of the

the governors
might

teach

Prophet

(14)
...

they

that

and the sunnah

the

reign, (i 3) regarding

upon

only

his

cUmar addresses

he is reported

of his successors,

I ask you

his

of

year

sunnah".

of their

the

Vp
La

Jfle4l-,

1.

e+6L

4".

J-V-ej

Another

significant

<Umar is recorded
from

report

to have

in

Ibn

Sacd is one in which

said [to someone

him

who visited

Iraq] :

Ji IAS. 1I rr.
JL

LXVJ

j4-ta.. A Poj
V-4

fg-ux

L
4J11-41
1t-t--'I
L's

eL.
rsr,. J r., rasrp-Ij--j
j
r0.
;. "r-W41..
W-s
Jl

c:r r
4iw

aa:

1,
le"'r
Jl,
'L1b.
U
L.
4.
A.
ALL .4.1b
"A .r c
c.* ' 6:
.

i I a: iiG
JW
I

)LS

VL. Q -

I .+ I VIA .

riw

I.
I
Jld
0.

J . i. + IJij

+ IJ1
41.

UJ I

I1L'

":

A.Gjl

'I

I.
W)

JL"

w'

"I have not appointed


skins

or to abuse

your

my governors
dignity

or take

..i

over you to beat your


your

money.

I have

82
to teach you the book

them

appointed

sunnah of your Prophet

THE AUTHORITY

Lord

of your

and the

" (15)
...

IN EARLY

OF THE PROPHETIC SUNNAH

TEXTS

It hardly

ground

when

already

been

exclusively

23/644,

when

he would

have

used this

wider

which

sunna

had

an-nabi

by

made this statement,


muhjirn

and not

expression

are numerous

four

demonstrated

caliphs,

the

appropriate
demonestrate

authority

in which

reports

and

some

those who were

especially
stress

sunnat

with

cUmar allegedly

is, as perhaps

concept

on safe

above,

and

a much

concept. " (16)

There
first

the

identified

the year

ansr,

if

that,

concluding

cUmar's

"one is undoubtedly

the statement:

recommendation,

from

can justify,

seems that Juynboll

of

considered

of the

"prophetic

here to give a selection


how early

his

the authority

the

devoted

Prophet,

the

Companions,

among the legal experts,


sunnah.

of these reports

" It

may

be

in order

to

of the prophetic

sunnah

was :

L I

Sr
vJ rro r-9 :

I-I
411
Lo
al
?
4*6
j
W. -

4W

J},

IL..

JU j

83
The Prophet

said "I

as long

astray

left with

to them:

as you adhere

of his Prophet

the sunnah

you two things;

L,
64UI,
pa.
-,

L,,

never go

you will

the book of Allah

and

(17)
.

j "ivli /,

J.6..j
,

-all

>&yL9
.:
... .:+.:+

The people of al-Yaman


said: " 0' Mesenger
order

Mesenger
to
the
came

of Allah,

us Mudh

send with

to teach us the book of our Lord

of Allh

(s) and

b. Jabal in

and the sunnah

of our

Prphet... "(t 8)

...
The Prophet

lI

c
5..,
.

I
LL
.
!
I1.
I
[
"
s.
..,.
1t

said " You must have my sunnah

of the rightly

guided

it
"
to
(19)
and adhere
...

caliphs

"He who

turn

following

me)". (20)

0r

... (.
" There

will

guidance

or

from

away

be govenors
comply

with

and the sunnah

my

cr--i

----

is not of me (is not

sunnah

Yi
after

6"41. j

Au

(S- r)
me who

my sunnah ."(21)

will

.IJAI ... -

not follow

my

84
jll*l

... ____
"... But the Qur'an

LJG

and the Prophet

was revealed

and he taught

al-sunan,

W
L.
4. 4.

established

us and we learned ......(22)

19 jU C)I.,
V-4 ''-6j I-

LLV I

l9
U
..
v

La &,.i

Vi

&U1

OL-AlOP ca.,

6 Jo.9 4119JI.;&

1J
- 4LU j-, J,, 1

La
,

-41J

l
i
Jt.
LAJL-.

J 1J

j+J
r

-a.

-9
cltl.

riJ

14
U
L,
s
ice?.
J
Li*.
Lam.:.
4
%-,
e
z
e
oLi )U c
.
4:
jJ
UI
J
UI
a.
a.
0lo
ctaWI crV9j1
j*WJ
11
l9
I
14
Lw:
U
a
L.
t$'
'.
c
'.
r+.
J
J
ck
.

If someone

brought

in the book of Allah


something
decision
knew

that

a sunnah

[for a solution

(verdict)].

he would

If there

was nothing

in the book, but he

on the authority

Messenger
the
of

he would

decide accordingly.

find

he would

go out

have been faced with


the Messenger

in it

the dispute,

on the matter,
a solution

If he found

solve

would

accordingly.

to Ab Bakr, he used to look

a dispute

of Allah

of Allah

(s)

If he still could not

and ask the Muslims

such and such [a matter].


gave any decision

make his

"I
saying:

Do you know if

on this? " Sometimes

85
the

of the

whole

decision

would

of the Messenger

say: " Praise

belong

to Allah

together

them,

and if they

who

agreeing

of Allah

on a

Then Ab Bakr would

put

us those

among

practice. " If he could

of the Messenger

gather

to him

come

of Allah on it.

our Prophet's

remember
sunnah

group

still

who

not find

(s) on the matter,

he would

the chiefs and nobles of the people and consult


agreed

upon

a decision

he would

to apply

it. (23)

1,
La
M
L4
l$J
j
J
1,
'
9
d-U
x.
:
<.
j4 ri
...:
Ue

4.11

iJ
- alt

i
41 ***-%,M LoC.,m>
>.
mk

Z^

l C.
C,.,
li

A
l:;!
I
Jt.,
... w
Ab

Bakr

said

demanding

to her

[a

her share of an

for you in the book of Allah


you in the sunnah

grandmother,
inheritance]

who

There

:"

and I do not know

of the Mesenger

of Allah

came

(s).

to him

is nothing

of anything

for

Go back, until

I ask the people


(24)
......

j l4 j,.
c-i V.
-.

,6
i.
s

4'

lo,

al

ula

u
I
JrWj
- ..

US
Lo
J,,
l>
I
La
i
L"J
1
i'10,,,
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L*.
4,-6 &,;
,
vU cd-,
c., cam!
i.
:
L J. L
I
JJ
U
I
. , rJs - r'-l r' a .lam
4t! l. o - ..
1' Q

86

, Umar

wrote

to his famous

how to apply
the

sunnah
judgement.

Shurayh

which

Prophet,

, Umar describes

he

when

then the
personal

Jlb
. -.
Vile C,+ crl -' cr'

JU-

fk".

the

ijmc,

sui

OLD

,Ali "... indeed,

to rule them according

then

L&., &Ul U,
,
,1

I* tJ vU:

.4

cUmar said " if we take what


is in the sunnah

II!

1!
I

.
-rl. , . ,
,.

-:
)'

0' people!
...

i.

('J)

JU

$f

41

&L

J"'

of the Mesenger

iL...
LJ I Le.

I JrwJ

f""

is in the book of Allah,

and if we

of Allah... "(27)

l.
f
.JU..

S
1.
J
I
L";
L
9
a.
.. ,,. a a.
,w'
-f''`'9

one

(s)
"(26)
sunnah
.....

Prophet's

to their

he is the most appropriate

kJ

"

to

(25)

... -

take what

he enumerates

go

should

of

his

then

Lall
4.r)
...

l,
- &U ji-

him

advising

These are the book of Allah,

any matter.
of the

Shurayh

In this report,

his judgement.

authorities

encounters

judge

Ie
4
fl
4.

Stoning is a hadd

of Allh,

4W

Y9 lJ

J'`r

so do not

turn

87
away from

Prophet

your

It is in the book of Allah

it.

(s).

The Mesenger

and in the sunnah

of

(s) stoned, Ab Bakr

of Allh

stoned and I have stoned ... ".(28)

sue L

Lj..

d
I,
,...
...

who

41
'j 44c-

CA&

U"

(s) died

without

of Allah

z;
vio,
`j,

this is a

a successor,

The Messenger
But when

else as equal to the sunnah

(s). " (30)

ir-aL.

_j

t..:

Al
ISJ
dt&;;.,.
.

a successor. " cAli said: "I knew

I'_,. tvcvL

j'-4tC)

I-

as, w(

a successor.

appointing

died he did appoint

of the Mesenger

VI

and if I do not, this is also a sunnah.

Bakr

of

Js-mj
Ul
ULO
-W
94 frl a.

that he would not treat anything

41

to the sunnah

C
cr'9='

said on his deathbed: " if I appoint

of Allah
Ab

1''a

V'

J,.
- 4-UI

,,.-

sunnah,

and

l 4; a1
i &9: Wllr-

AA
4W
4J

, Umar

W
Aj

". (29)

jujuv

tli

the hajj

performed

" You have been guided

togother,

Prophet

your

a :J,..

b. Macbid,

said to al-Sabi

the cumrah

.ew (I tJIccL!

rLa
aI-::.,

J.
.- ,,,
, Umar

I ,
t'

... .U

.I&

lM9
l
a.
.
ill
,
.
Flo

LZI

aagI1JI.

LA . & >i
;

W
J,.
- a.

ate

Jji

ZQo
j ,:! old a.9l .0

88

JlAz,,

In

lam
a,
ft-L9 4-.
4Xo -,
LJ 1 ...L LL as l.i o.a.,
fk
... ,
, rL

vl

this

UI
j 4-.

I ,r,, J..& Lt!j-

report,

cAbd

he was elected

<Affn

to swear,

would

act by the book of Allah

and the practice

b. cAwf

al-Rahmn

after

as

cUthman

"... he

that

caliph,

of his Prophet

and the sunnah

after him ..." (31)

of the two caliphs

L., c,a! 6.4


1
c:r '-'

made

b.

rJ

L6

L JUcrr c'r _,

l
4-U
U1.0

al

LiI
... um
, Ali

justified

prohibition
I would

himself

not desert

the word

during

of al-mut'ah

to obey

he refused

when

of the Mesenger

i
l1a
caul "LZL
... :1

4 lb

1rLil

--

women

said,

adultry,:

cImran

the

"I flogged

and I stoned her as in the sunnah

J.
Jr
JI
4-11
P.
W.) ctwi I .
.,:;

he applied

after

who committed

of Allah

zi-

ci

b. Husayn

, -u

of Allh(s)

9,9 '.

J6 v}
....
Ls

:;

said: "The

:J

L9

on

was

J1
r-

vj

L1..
:+,.,
j
+
M.
to a

punishment

her as in the book


of the Prophet.

w. vI r

j&:; < <;

Qur'n

iw
,,

UIW-W

Lj aslte41
.-r.
,-4.
Tlib

"..

". (32)

of anyone...

cAli b. Abi

by saying:

the pilgrimage,

the sunnah

cUthmn's

1-J,,,,

(33)

iy'
&& ..* t.
4.4

revealed

"-u

and the

89
Mesenger
"Follow

L; :,

of Allah

(s) established

us; by Allah, if do not, you will

l.k I
.M,

Then he said:

al-sunan.

go astray. "(34)

iLo
>
eI y
(,a

7! aJyi vWI .w
.

airLo
4.-6
-

... -e,

b. al -cAs said: "Do not spoil for us the sunnah

cAmr
Prophet

of our

(s)... "(35)

Lo

(.o t. -" >&

a1j
U
1
..alt
4.
ru -

1
JU
J}
jj..
4JL,
o
va
w
JJ
u,
=cam'
....

L.
U
L
alt: - c,! - ..

ti gar rSLia

j
v.o

Lc Li 4i U i 4 LiIbn

Massd

said

"Provided

that

almighty

Allah

you

to someone

ask us about

that

in a sunnah

something

know

we

from

him

asked

about

we

the Prophet

a matter:

in the

something

about

r'-M,i

shall
of Allah

tell

book
you,

of
or

(s) we shall

"(36)
tell you
...

l
13.
_i
ra
;-Al.

S eLj,
L.

vi

-*'t

Massd said "


If you
...

stay-behind
Prophet,
you would

does, you

JU
wl
-

PIJ ....

"
iii I-r hi

...,"
Ibn

All

would

and if you abandoned


go astray... "(37)

prayed
abandon

vi

in your houses as this


the

the sunnah

sunnah

of your

of your

Prophet

90
v

us

-vI

44

Vii, ei-

J9

IJl:

4.

J9J

? ' G?9 G"'

i5.0 J

U
14.
eLL*,
Aaj 44A

l
Lo
L--.
a.
&U
4-x-L
w. - .

LI-j
:
(JJ! lj-

JU

4e

z. ps'i
Ibn

cAbbas, in his argument

me, if I read to you from

said: " Tell

al-Harriyyah,

with

book of Allah

the infallible

and relate

to you from the sunnah of His Prophet (s) what you can't deny,
will

you come back ?" They said :" Yes ..." (38)

v, 0

l.e ,IJU+

i i.

llSl1,
i'
' cp.
a.

J
lj
la
I
IIA.:,.
L
J
&U
-d-UI
ask
. _U ,.
eJ.,
t. 'J
o y'
j
xL j'e r'1 -

J---j
- in

Ibn cAbbs said :" He who produces an opinion that is not


the book
Messenger

of Allah

and does not occur


(s) does not know

of Allah

he meets almighty

in the

he will

what

of the

sunnah

get when

Allh. (39)

JU
wI
-

-cAL,,j vi
Ibn cAbbds said :"

There

sunnah

of his Messenger

anything

thereafter,

whether

he will

evil deeds. (4o)

JU

W
sjA
,A

find

from

is only

(s).

As for

his own

it counted

the book of Allah

anyone

judgment,

among

and the

who

says

I do not know

his good deeds or his

91
LA

l9
lu
:j
.`i
cw

Iri,

,I

4.11

1La

"jUL.
r!

i ,.,.i.,.. Q11
Ste;;
Vi

l:
411 %-,LS

"j
e.
...
AbU Sacid

al-Khudri

fatw

your

in the book of Allah,

Allah

(41)
...?

v fir'

i lil

Loi

Ibn

report,
"...

<Umar

wrote

L t"

a letter

according

to the

sunnah

Messenger,

in so far, as I am able. (42)

to you

al U-Lo-

and the

al

Umayyad

to the

I will

that

of Allh

hear

and obey,

sunnah

: .-&'j-,Jj

Ibn cUmar said: " Is it the sunnah

, Umar

is more
?...

worthy

y.(
,,,

r9-.,

to be

____

of the Messenger

followed

of his

C-Pall
-

...

(s) that

of

k
L6J
IL. *i 4J'.,.,, .: ' 4.UI .:.,
II
Z&
w
j

I affirm

(), - e-Li

have

aUI
v,
}JI
v.
1lI
.".

And

caliph:

you

U
I
. v, + a. .fie -

U
Ivi1:
v a.

..
this

seen

the Mesenger

from

I
U
I
I---i
J
S!
a.
.JIY
.
..
A.

In

I have

Is it something

or a sunnah

I..
5
;
e

:
.

UI ,.zJ

and said:

cAbbs

on " sarf " (exchange).

found

cr

Ibn

met

...

or

the

____

of Alldh

sunnah

of

"(43)

In the light

of the large

come across in the sources,

number
a selection

of reports
of which

which

I have

have already

92
been

that

Juynboll

sunnat

an-nabi

given, (44) it seems to me to be strange


say: "In

should

occasionally

sum,

in

emerges

of cases we find

majority
definite

article,

and/or

to what

while

the

us no information

drawing

this general

vast

the

is ascribed". (45)

in question
sources

he relies

frquency

on in
is

however,

is certain,

What

of the comparative

regardless

the

do not make clear to whom

as to what

conclusion.

in

sources,

sunna, with or without

merely

the sunna

region

concept

earlist

the contexts

He gives

that,

the

although

of occurrence,

the concept sunnat al-nabi emerges in numerous reports in the


sources, and not just "occasionally".

THE EARLY MEANING

OF THE TERM AL-SUNNAH

(p1. AL-

S UNA N)
In addition
suggest
century,

that

to sunnat

al-sunnah

to the prophetic

al-nabs,

there

(pl. al-sunan)
sunnah,

is ample

refers,

especially

in the early
when

to

evidence

first

used by the

Companions.
It is used by the prophet
Companion

who

went

says: " The Qur'an

(s) established

himself.

to Basrah

was revealed

al-sunan.

(46) cImrn

to teach

the

b. Husayn,
people

and the Messenger

there,

of Allh

Then he said: Follow us; by Allah, if

you do not you will go astray". (47)

93
to the practice

cUmar b. a1-Khan.. b refers

in the punishment
determining

fara'id

of

as the

in the same context

of adultery
the

of the Prophet

and

the

the

establishing

of

that

show clearly

that

sunan. (48)
There

is used to refer

sunnah

Companions
particular

When

Ibn

during

those

had raised

who

Again,

he once preached

feared

that

they

me what

practice

of the Prophet

further

example
making

is ?"

the sunnah
as authority

pilgrimage

with

that

Ibn cAbbs

confirmed

said: " Are


to a

the notorious

governor
Ibn

the Companion

of

Umar

in al-Madinah.

in
do
the mawglf
Ibn
should
one
asked
<Umar what

on the day at 'Arafah.


sunnah,

prayer.

He then refered

fugah'
his
Salim,
the
greatest
and
one of
son,
al-Hajjj

the people

for his own conduct. (5o) A

is that of al-Hajjj,

the

appeared

of the maghrib

of this,

reminded

repeatedly

you telling

miss the time

sunnah. "(49)

prophet's
length

about

that it was al-

the question

at such great

might

asked

He replied

the prayer.

al-

by both

sunnah

cAbbas was

Ibn cAbbas said: " It is your

unsatisfied,

On being

to the prophetic

and Successors.
gesture

sunnah.

Iraq,

of reports

are a number

pray

at midday

Salim

said: "If you want

on the day at 'Arafah.

this: " He is right,

they

used to combine

of al-zuhr and al-casr in the sunnah. " Asked

to know
"

the

His father
the prayers

if the Messenger

94
of Allah

replied: " Would

Salim

did that,

follow

they

anything

but his sunnah in that? "(5 i)


Musannaf

In cAbd al-Razzq's

of Ibn al-Musayyab,

the authority

performing
him

prayer

the salt ?" Ibn


you for acting
Ibn

The man asked:

to have seen someone

al-Musayyab

punish

me for

No, but he will

punish

to the sunnah. "

In the second report,

to the effect

the Prophet

quotes

Allah

"Will

replied:

al-Musayyab

contrary

on

have
told
dawn,
to
the
and
after

repeatedly

not to do so.

reports

Successor in

the prominent

In the first, he is reported

al-Madinah.

are two

there

that:

there

is no prayer after the nid' except the two rak, ahs of Fajr. (52)
The implication
sunnah

cUrwah
the prayer
Zuhri

using the term

when

b. al-Zubayr

performed

told

cUrwah

precept

al-sunan.

quoted

(54)

his

sunnah

al-Zubayr,

clearly

to material

as mentioning

by the Prophet

we look

it

Ibn

Al-

way. cUrwah's reply was:

in one report

established
When

of the Prophet.

brother,

to

pertaining

the sunnah. "(53)

is quoted

by Juynboll,

the term

how

this prayer in a different

AbU al-Zind

a hadith

on the authority

"Because he has mistaken

known

al-sunnah.

once reported

of the eclipse

then

meant the prophetic

is that Ibn al-Musayyab

closely

into

emerges
from

a well

as an example

the report

of al-Zuhri

that the application

the Companions

of

of

is a later

95
practice.

"A significant

140/758

or later)

Shihb

heard

we can find

and recorded

Then Zuhri

". Zuhri,

this also. ' Added

If such an application
would

not

have

is recorded

dilm and we agreed

down

But I said:

insisted

traditionist,

whereas

in the way

it was

that

'I did not record

had been general

as describing

we

everything

said: " Let us write

Slih ruefully:

argued

'Ibn

it:

about

down

however,

(d.

b. Kaysn

to his Companions".

it, so Zuhri became a successful

himself

went
for

looking

were

attributed

" No, that is not sunna

Slih

Zuhri

how

the sunna. (55) Thus we wrote

about the prophet.

"(56)

to $alih

attributed

describes

and I', said Slih,

to record

what

report

I did not. '

at that

he did.

the practices

time,

AI-Zuhri

of the prophet

as a1-sunnah. (57)
The foregoing
was applied
and that

in the early

first

it was probably

that it first

indicate

evidence

that

to the prophetic

century

during

al-sunnah/al-sunan

of the Successors

the period

came to be used of material

sunnah,

from

the Companions

as well.
But whether
behaviour

al-sunnah/a!

of the Companions

-sunan

of the term

Prophet's

own lifetime.

sunnat

to the exemplary

as that of the Prophet

as well

not, it does not affect, in my opinion,


authority

refers

either

al-nabi

the existence

as early

or

or the

as during

the

96

CUMAR B. CABD AL-CAZiZ AND THE PROPHETIC SUNNAH

In

light

the

to claim

strange

rather

than

by

"

juynboll

followers.

first

the
the

himself

prophet
dismisses

to the concept
to other

ascribed
Juynboll's

adduced

, Umar

b. cAbd al-cAziz

equally

with

principle

in importance

sunna

fact,

not

do

important
question
concerned

dispute

in the
is the
with

it.

second

theoretician
that

history
view

before
prophet

only

to be the first

cUmar

of the

that

Juynboll's

immediate

his

of the Prophet's

to sunnas

Interestingly

enough,

demonstrate
the other

with

argument

that
sunan
that

stresses

him, was determined


a position
to the
of the
b. cAbd

prophetic

he was

above, he

man to apply

sunnah. (59) Juynboll

of the

considered

al-cAziz

more than

as arguments

II, more than any ruler


the

b. cAbd

to be "the first

was concerned

the prophetic

granting

concept

the concern

or localities. "

the

me

is "a

or

an-nabi

to

seems

As
(58)
quoted
sunnah.

sunnat

persons

findings

cUmar

himself

cUmar b. cAbd al-cAziz

considers

"'Umar

by

time

the prophetic

successors with

it

pages,

of the prophet

that the sunnah

for

emphasized

foregowing

of the

as guiding

Qur, n.

He is

sunna. "(bo)

person

In
was

al-cAziz

sunnah;
first

on

what

to be

seems to rest on very

97
slender

premises

contrary

In claiming

evidence.

be the

first

to disregard

and

theoretician

al-Baghddi

opposite

of bidah, rather
In

m utakallimj

any
ahl

that cUmar II "is considered

to

he refers

sunna",

Usl

al-Baghddi's

is using

passage,

here.

of

of the

in <Abd a! -Qhir

passage

quantity

a considerable

a! -sunnah

discussion

in the sense under

II

case, 'Umar

is specified

min

In this

al-din.

in its sense as the

al- sunnah

than

us to a

al-Tiibicin.

as awwal

only

To clarify

this,

shall quote the passage: (61)

tiJbl: -J L6

I9
iJ
cL

_t,

JI

JI "LilL,e c C! 9JIJL.
wOi
1
lb
t
1!
fie
:;
j-U
&A93
.
.
j>

1.,
4_ w
.j1

vAs r

L 11 >a 4x. 11
r...
jLai

iw

.A.Z. 4'

zaiJj
,

Jl
r. c.* v' '. t"' " 4...
c. w cak w c1!^^'

.:.IIM, L0
lI a
:e' u-' rL <..

cS,
L,.
a., LeleI
c.
a.. ro vc L.cl9

Ii

to

,'

ui tL

.j

, L

aJl.,

Ls AJj

L6

1J1

LsJ c.a . .5 c ..ll "I


rJI
&49
p1

r1sJ

i
L"J
J
I
I
I

,
.
J
;.
vlS ,,,r.,
s:aJ era, raJ t .
c". ,
14.
rx11 le-%,vl j w
j.

Apart
which

the

from

the evidence

authority

of

the

of the Qur'an
Prophet

and

and the hadith


his

sunnah

in
is

98
we have seen how his followers,

emphasized,
the

four

first

to that

cAbd al-cAziz
not

because

himself

with

had been

are

the authority

emphasizing
only

caliphs,

he was

with

sunnah"

as

reports

as second
cUmar

b.

to the "prophetic

sunnah"

is

the first

person

to concern

the Umayyad

caliphs

before

regard

absolutely

less concerned.

being called the fifth

various

The reputation

it, but because

rather

in

of the "prophetic

of the Qur'an.
gained

recorded

and in particular

of al-Khulaf'

This

which

is the

reason

a1-Rshidin. (62)

for

him
his

99
NOTES

1. Tradition,

p. 30.

2. Ibidem.
3. Id, p. 39.
4. The spiritual

background

of early

5. Id, p. 30 footnote

(95).

6. See, for example,

the reports

Islam,

p. 168.

below

given

and also Bravmann's

study

alluded

to

above.
7. See, for example,
8. Tradition,

the Qur'an

21,59: 7,4: 65.

7: 157,3: 32,33:

p. 30-31.

9. Id, p. 26.
10. Id,

p. 32.

11. Ibn Sacd 3 1, p. 243 (23).


12. Ibn Sa'd 3

1, p. 245-46.

13. We learn from


this happened

the following

a week before

report,

is that of the recommendation,

which

that

on his life . See 3 1, p. 243 (13).

the attempt

14. Ibn Sa'd 3 1, p. 243 (10).


15. Ibn sa'd 3 1, p. 201 (12).
16. Tradition,

p. 32.

17. al-Muwalta'

2, p. 899 gadr

(1) no. 3

Ibn cAbd al-Barr,

and

Jami,

bayin

al-

,ilm 2, p. 24.
18. al-Tayalisi,

p. 272.

19. Ab Dawd

4, p. 201 sunnah

2676. al-Drimi

1, p. 44 Mugaddimah

20. al-Bukhri

(6) no. 4607.

5, p. 44 'ilm

(16)

no.

(16) no. (96).

9, p. 104, nikah (1) no. 5063.

21. al-Mufannaf

al-Tirmidhi

Muslim 2, p. 1020, nikab

(1) no. 5.

11, p. 345 -46 no. 20719.

22. Ibn Sacd 31, p. 129 (19).


23. al-Darimi
24. al-MuwaUla'
2894.

1, p. 53-54

muqaddimah

2, p. 513 fara'icl

(20) no. 163.

(8) no. 4.

Ab Dawd

3, p. 121 far4cl

(5) no.

100
25. al-Drimi

(20)

1, p. 55 muqaddimah

no. 169. al-Nasi

8, p. 231

adab

a! -

(11).

quoat

26. a! -Mu$annaf

5, p. 448.

27. al-Taylisi

p. 13 no. 58.

28. al-Tayalisi

p. 6 no. 16.

29. al-Tayalisi

p. 12 no. 49,50

30. Ibn sacd 3

5, p. 477-78.

2, p. 263-64

1929. al-Bukhri

34. Musnad

4, p. 445.

a! -2ajj

(78)

no.

edition).

talq (33) no. 2083.

1, p. 673
1, p. 44-45

37. al-Mu$annaf

mandsik

(34) no. 1563, al-Nasi, i 5. P. 148.

lajj

no. 716, p. 150 no. 839 ( Shakir's

2, p. 94

36. al-Darimi

1, p. 395

no. 1139. al-Drimi

3, p. 421-22

33. Musnad

35. Ibn Mjah

1, p. 189 no. 83. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 100.

also Musnad

1, p. 248 (1).

31. a! -Mufannaf
32. Musnad

1, p. 23.

Musnad

mugaddimah

(17) no. 102.

1, p. 061 no. 1979, Musnad

1, p. 415, Muslim

1, p. 453 al-masjid

(44) no. 257.


38. Musnad

10, p. 158 no. 18678 also al-Bayhaqi,

39. al-Darimi

Jmic

bayn

al-'ilm

2, p. 26.

41. al-Mu$annaf

8, p. 117-18

42. al-Muwaita',

2, p. 983 bayah (1) no. 3. See also al-Mu$annaf

al-Bukhi
43.

ri 13, p. 193 , ahkm

Musnad

2506.5,

no. 14546.

(43) nos. 7203,7205.

p. 124.1,

in which

the concept

sunnat

45. Tradition,

p. 32.

46.

1...JL,. + JLU

p. 321

al-nabi

P. 121.

p. 280, p. 351, p. 247-48,

p. 34 nos. 8898,8899.1,

....

6, p. 6 no. 9823.

2, p. 95.

44. See for more reports


p. 3, p. 56-57,

8, p. 179.

al-Kubrii

(20) no. 160.

1, p. 53 muqaddimah

40. Ibn cAbd al-Barr,

al-sunan

emerges:

Musnad

2,

2, p. 65 no.

al-Musannaf

no. 1233.

:ic

1IJ
f)iJI
J
a11I.,
ny
u1
rta'

al-Mu4; annaf 2, p. 389 no. 3809.


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al-Mu$annaf

11, p. 157 no. 20194.

13, p. 249 Ptisam

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no. 7276.

aI-Bukhri

11, p. 333, rag'iq

(35) no. 6497;

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47. Musnad 4, p. 445.


48. Ibn Sa'd 3 1, p. 242 (3).

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102
55. Juynboll
source

wrongly

he quotes

and in other

Sacd 2, p. 135 (19).

56. Tradition,

58. Tradition,

1, p. 379-80

sources.

See Ibn

cAbd al-Barr,

412.
1, p. 637. Ab Zurcah
p.
,

no. 1485.11,

p. 15.

p. 32.

59. See Tradition,


60. Tradition,

p. 34.

p. 35.

al-Din,

62. See Ibn

a! -MaTifah

It is, in fact, plural

as singular.

p. 34-35

57. al-Mu$annaf

61. Ufl

the word

quotes

p. 307.

al-Jawzi,

Sirat

Umar

b. cAbd al-cAziz,

p. 59-60.

Jamic

both

in the

1, p. 76. Ibn

103

CHAPTER FOUR

EARLY HADIrH

At the begining

of the section on "the earliest

the haditlh centres", Juynboll


like

to concentrate

transmission

and

on the earliest
collection

decades of the first

A. D. the interest
administrative

It is on purpose
'separate'.
earliest
else.

especially

of isnds,
concerned,

second

the last two or

these

700s-720s

empire.
centres

are referred

of hadith

there was little

evolution
before

to as
in its

anything

between

or no contact

the

if they were far apart. "


this

investigation

into

this

early

I have come to recognize that the vast majority


as far

as their

can be considered

At a somewhat

the

slowly

various

in the separate

increased

to be emphasized

He goes on to say: "In

development

I should

the

of the Hijra/the

characteristic

deserves

In the begining

centres

that

One overall
stages

that during

of the Islamic

centres

in

out

of

of hadith

development

as carried

century

for hadlth

development

says: In the following

It is hoped to demonstrate

centres.
three

ACTIVITIES

later

three

transmitters

as being particular

stage, say, during

century/the720s-750s

oldest

the first

are

to one centre.
few

A. D., contacts

decades

of

do seem to

104
have been established
of isnds

emergence
to more

than

into
IIijzi,

provinces:

four

the

names

decades

three

or

Hijra/the700s-720s
increased,
regional
thing

does

character

investigation,

Companions

for

intrest

make

mentioned

here

that, he appears

he does
regarding
believing
transmision
supposed

the

consider

the activities
that

it

for

the

his

regarding

the abundant

to neglect

the activities

activities.

One

of

these

of hadith

On the other

information

in

and
hand,

sources

of the qusss during

the first

century,

their

foreshadow

(2)

works
However,

to have foreshadowed

is, in my opinion,

slowly

the

sparse

is

of hadith.

the

case

first

and Successors in the transmission


in hadith

of

in these centres.

Companions

part

the

ihadith

a convincing

in the sources concerning

their

and

during

century

information

dismisses

"that

first

the

of

isnds

namely

to their

In each one he

his claim

of the hadith

be

should

he

hadith

oldest

active in these centres.

A. D. the

" nor

particular

according

various

He does not seem to establish


two

the

and Iraqi.

of

Successors who were, "allegedly",

last

as being

categories

Syrian

the

and we witness

He classifies

main

Egyptian,

mentions

centres

that can be labeled

one centre". (i)

transmitters

simply

between

logically

that

if anything

the transmision

the work

the

should

be

of hadith,

it

of those who are recorded

105
as having
the

qu$2$.

the

oldest

to

accept,

fugah',

term

collecting
then

century

same

Juynboll's

as great

fugah'

Juynboll's
ignore

their

hadith

claiming

In fact,

person". (5)

work

the

activities

during

that

is

the first

combined

all those

in one
in

mentioned

described

are

It

material.

also

as

(6)

This
concerning
considering

to see juynboll

who

in the same sources as

illustrating

propagating

those

can hardly

we

reports

judgement

argument,

of

refers

of the Prophet. (4)

" fiqh and 'Jim were only occasionally

the

culamfi'.

and

to him,

to

refers

the same figures

and the numerous

both

upon

sake

among

in
them
the
of
some

the example

the

of

juynboll

centres,

individual

culam-,

that

figures

according

which,

including
for

important

various

advice

than

rather

describing

term

describing

surprising

and

the

of the

information

the

(3) a term

precedents

definition

'ulama'

in

based their

we

the

information

whereas

consulted

activities

enumerating

as fugah',

If

hadith

transmitters

those who

(ra'y),

in

While

also the

considers
sources

in

engaged

disparity

between

ha di th
all

other

activities
information

the

neglecting
in

the

first

concerning

information
century

other

and

activities

seems to me anomalous.
After

extensive

reading

in the same historical

works

that

106
Juynboll

on, I have

relies

at face

take

during

activities

shall rehearse
hadith

the first
from

predominating

those mentioned

It is well

the first

that,

after

spread

Some of them were


instruct

to

activities
this

view

to

pertaining

in it, concentrating

on

work.

Prophet

of the

of

and the involvement

century

and the Successors

established

centres

To support

half.

kinds

see hadith

we

if we

that

the

relating

of the information

in Juynboll's

world.

various

the first

during

of the Companions

Islamic

century,

a cross section

activities

Companions

information

the

value

come to the conclusion

the

death,

the Prophet's
into

out

the

in the

in the

there

people

expanding

appointed

officially

the

new

religion.
the

cUmar,

second

caliph,

23, sent the three

Companions,

and Ab

al-Darda,

for

remained

until

b. Ghunm

to

b. Mughaffal

reigned

between

Muc dh, 'UbAdah

purpose

deaths. ()

al-Ashcari

Allah

cAbd

their

this

who

to al-Sham,

13 and

b. al-Smit,
they

where

He also sent cAbd al-Rahmdn

al-Shm, (8) , Imrn

b. Husayn

to Basrah, (9) and

cAbd

and

Allah

b.

Massd to Kufah, for the same purpose. (io)


After
sought

the Prophet's
for

theircilm.

death,
Ibn

the Companions
cAbbs

(d.

68),

were

widely

the

young

107
Companion,

Companions

other
The

son

during

of

as having

Shm, (12) for

approached

from

When

Silah

al-cAdawi

in order

the Companions

them. (14)

Madinah

from

Basrah

during

in

search

(d. 62), a prominent

Kufan

Companions

found

them

Madinah
travel

to vary

for that

from

that

Kufah
the

chance

Zirr

of

of

b. Hubaysh

thing

that

meeting

the

induced

al-Qaysi

had

done

in order

and

[to learn

from
(i7)

he sat with
them]

and

He went

to al-

from

cUmar b. a! -

) came with

Uthman's

Companions

Masrq

of Ibn Massd would

to learn

him

"I went

"(16)

us that

tells

in

to learn

said:

sharaf.

he

came to al-

who

reign(15)

(d. 81-83

during

while

as he himself

knowledge.

to al-Madinah

al-

him,

cUmar's

Prophet

from

from

(d. after80)

'ilm

cUbadah,

them

al-Salil

of

to learn

Successor,

in their

to al-Madinah

only

Ab (i

reason. (18) The pupils

Kufah

Khal. l.ab. (i9)


from

of the

from

'ilm

born

was

the reign

probably

of the Prophet

Qays b cIbad

to al-Madinah

the

of seeking

behaving

who

during

come to the Ansr,

alive. (13)

he was

death. (t t)

and his grandson,

still

that

approaching

and died
86),

the purpose

were

him

lifetime,

b. Marwn(d.

the Prophet's
al-Walid,

from

hadith

prophetic

after

b. al-Smit,

Prophet's

the

are reported

told

immediately

cUbddah

cAbd al-Malik

they

to collect

was concerned

reign,

to go there
of

the

a group
swearing
was

Prophet.

the
He

108
frequented

Ubayy

AbU al-cAliyah

b. Ka'b

the Messenger

following

hadith

and learning

will

and

appear from

activities,

that features

largely

asked for his opinion


of the
relating

The Companion

in

the

transmission

of

was

various

on whose

is transmitted,

in the various

sources.

in the transmission

about
Prophet

Ab

authority

is something

Ibn Abi Layla


of hadith,

(d.

when

replied:

"I found

(s) would

sit with

one another,

what

to sit with
Sacid

of the Messenger

in

centres,

the gasa$,

to the other

not allow any Khatib

Companions

the

of hadith

83) ( Kufah) who engaged

would

of those

especially

quantity

each of them

that

role

follows.

of the Companions,

considerable

Companions

in

or in the

below

OF THE COMPANIONS

The involvment
hadith

mouths". (21)

either

the

played

what

their

of

without

not satisfied

it from

important

Successors

THE ACTIVITIES

of the Companions

be given

will

How

section.

Companions

90) said: "We used to hear

(s) but we were

more examples

b. cAwf. (2o)

al-Rahmn

on the authority

of Allah

going to al-Madinah
Many

(d. after

al-Riyhi

in Basrah

a1-riwyah

Abd

and

he had heard.

They

them. (22)

al-Khudri

of Allh

that

said: " When

(s) sat down talking

the
to

109
each other,

their

they

someone

asked

Sacid himself

Ibn

hadith

one another. (25)

cAbbas,

one of the

for his expertise


After

activities.

made a considerable
devoted

pupils

Mujhid,

Tws,

cIkrimah,

who were

m ul tn. (27) Among


his lhadith

were

cAbbas's

to Ibn cAbbs's

attention
it. (31)

Once,

pilgrimage,

IbncAbbs

where

the

known

and

(d. 98),

went

Mucwiyah

Ibn cAbbs had one consisting

Successors,
b. Zayd

m uhaddithn

had

and

to have recorded
cAmr

had

b. Dinr. (29)

a great

He did his utmost


with

and

deal

of

(d. 150 ) paid great

Ibn Jurayj
hadith.

He

The most

them. (26)

Jbir
cAtd,,

to the

hadiths.

prophetic

well

Sacid b. Jubayr(28)

him. (3o)

he went

death,

as being both

Kurayb

to study

in

those who are reported

mawl,

from

material

his pupils

is one of the key figures

Sacid b. Jubayr,
recorded

to Ab Sacid

is

the

were

cAbbs

who

to collect

effort
his

of

about

Ab

Companions,

the Prophet's

them

asking

"(23)

Ibn

to go

youngest

in fiqh,

but

activity.

'Ikrimah

with

Companions

Ibn

this

his hadith. (24) Ab Sacid advised

the hadith

reputed

in

al-fiqh

of Qur'an

a srah

his son and his mawhi

enjoined
to hear

to read
involved

was

be about

would

conversation

Mucwiyah
his

own

to collect

(d.

60)

entourage,

of those who sought

for
and

ci1m.(32)

110
Jbir

b. cAbd

main Hijzi
in

the

centres

I from

Makkah,
transmitters;

held

Makkan
Zubayr.

hadith.

Successors,

beloved

the

a large number

number

The two

Caliphs,

al-sunan.

(36)

these

down
in

scholars

and

they

would

study

were

the

Rabh

and

hadith

<Umar and cUthmdn,


When

the

famous
Ab

al-

find

transmitted

were

they

that

through

sunnah

prominent

Companions

referred

nephew

cA ishah,

(i. e.

of

inheritance),
to
felt,

on

years

in

for her

which

her. (38) cUrwah


four

had

ask cA, ishah,

ilm. (37) She was also praised

far'id

about

Prophet

of the
would

and

she possessed.

used to ask her

Companions

something,

would

Prophet,

the

of the prophetic

of

of

hadiths

of prophetic

of the Prophet's

concerning
they

wife

knowledge

Zubayr,

for

Abi

for her knowledge

the large

whom

b.

CAta,

cAbd

he spent

that

the session,
Among

and

used to write

time

the

his

on

(35)

famed
was
,

doubts

114-118)

sessions

left

his

cA, ishah,
whom

hadith
they

hadith

(d. after140)

During

when

memorize

al-Bgir

b. Agil

him. (34)

he

learned
(d.

in the two

He had a circle

and al-Madinah.

people

Ja<far

b. Muhammad

[hadith

and

where
Ab

(33)

his hadith

promulgated

Makkah

mosque

authority.
Allah

Allah

the
b. al-

before

111
<A,ishah's

death,

if she died,

that

there

was

When

she was in Makkah,

anything

two Makkan

Successors

cAbd Allah
having
him

about

to write

gives this episode

he heard

b.

knowledge.
writing.

An aw'il

prophetic

hadlths;

-Umar,

Companions
transmission

mentioned

down of

issues. (43)

for

to have preserved
to Marwn

in replying,

above,

and said that he used

well-known

asked

who

Prophet

he cited

his

wide

the far'id

b. al-Hakam,
him

the

about

a prophetic

in

some
hadith

the spreading of the Prophet's hadith. (46)

recommending

Ibn

was

al-Madinah,

the

and

report,

his 'ilm

Once he went

of

him,

for his

to permit

occasion of the writting

(44) He is reputed

governer

by the

regularly

well known

about halal and harm

Thabit

(45)

is

from

hadith. (42) Ibn cAbbas praised

Zayd

her. (39)

asked

He asked the prophet

as the first

to ask the Prophet

that

regret

cAta, and cUbayd b. cUmayr. (4o)

him to do so. (40

permitted

she was visited

hadlth.

what

not

he had not

which

b. CAmr b. al-c
down

written

he would

who

the son of the second caliph,


gave legal

of hadith

advice

from

and who

the death

was one of the


engaged

in the

He
(47)
of cUthman.

112
was very

the Prophet,
keen

very

for

fear

himself

with

to speak

to the

to Makkah,

visitor

Ibn

he held

where

He was also asked for fatwas

Makkah

for

he would

thecumrah

hear

hadith

during

Ibn

us that
he came

a frequent

in the mosque. (51)

the

and on

pilgrimage

used to go twice

and the hajj, (53) on which


from

sayings

tells

cUmar was

a circle

occasions. (52) Sacid b. Jubayr

other

the Prophet's

at his notes before

people. (5o)

of

He was

(48)

Nafic, his mawl,

In one report,

Ibn cUmar used to look carefully


out

on the authority

or diminution.

of addition

to familiarize

and actions. (49)

a fiadith

in relating

meticulous

Ibn
and
cUmar

a year

to

occasions
and

cAbbs

it down. (54)

write

The

famous

greatest

for

his

not know
prophetic
his exalted

what

on whose

with

the

he heard

from

status

During

who

than he. (56) His fellow

the

Islamic

memorized

Companions

as far as the knowledge

throughout

his three

him. (55) He said that he did

was concerned. (57) He was most influential


the hadith

well

he enthusiastically

Prophet

any one of the Companions


hadith

the

authority

is extremely

were transmitted,
in transmission.

activities

companionship

memorized

Hurayrah,

of hadith

number

known
years

Ab

world.

of prophetic

more

conceded
hadith

in the diffusion

of

He used to hold

113
hadith

sessions

cUmar

was

Hurayrah
"

Ab

remembered

he

Hurayrah

have

they

it

hadith

Ka, b

one

after

he was about

and when

as you

another

he heard

to leave

read his notes to Ab Hurayrah

anything

that

do. (60)

from

hadith

relating

who

congregated

in order

was in

tells

Thursday.

In al-Sham
were

involved

the governor

us that

b.

to make sure that he


spent

place

to hear

him

a whole
for those
while

Damascus. (62) Ibn Sirin, one of the best pupils

Hurayrah
every

Bashir

Ab Hurayrah,

of the Prophet

on the authority

in a particular

did not

for Gasrah again, he would

had not made any mistakes. (61) Ab Hurayrah


night

A, ishah's

of Allah

"The Messenger

down what

used to write

not contradict

in

with

that he said;

present

I have

fault

anything

but remarked:

if

to

and he once asked her if she had found

he had said,

Ab

The place

"(59)
close

was

did

that

and we are

quarters,

she

Ibn

fault

my

forgotten?

hadith

When

anything

he is brave

"Is

said:

to relate

sat

fault

could

he said: "No. but

and

he

which

if

asked

related,

cowardly.

the Jum ucah prayer. (58)

before

held

AbU Hurayrah

a hadith

he

of Ab
session

(63)

there
in hadith

were

a number

activities.

of Egypt (64) from

of Companions

cAbd al-cAziz

60 until

who

b. Marwn,

his death, between

82

114
and 86, sent a letter

to Kathir

80), who had found


in

part

the battle

Prophet

from

were

Syrian

Shaddd

Companions

of the

Ab

of,

Successor,

b. Aws,

but

Idris

Ab

Mu, Adh

and

in al-

al-Khawlni
material

b. al-$amit

cUbadah

Mucdh

that

to the

as instructors

officially

al-Darda,

had all of

above

alluded

he was able to meet, and obtain

us that

authority

for him

b. al-$mit

cUbadah

appointed

down

since he already

We have

(65)

al-Darda',

A famous

80) tells

Abu Hurayra's,

Ab

b. Jabal, who

the

he had

material.

Companions

Shm.

him to write

heard

70 and

of those who had taken

of Badr, asking

except for

latter's

the

in Hims seventy

that

onlyhadlths

(d. between

b. Murrah

b. Jabal

had

(d.
on
and

already

died. (66)

Wthilah

b.

Kadi th s had

whose

collections.

He went

is

to

thought

(d.

Asqac

al-

to Syria

have

been

after

them

down

Successor Makhl
him

to

Prophet.

relate
(69)

in

the Prophet's
last

the

hadi

th

Wthilah

with
to

hadiths

did

not

on

ha di th

death

and he

to

die

in

to people, who would

Ab al-Azhar
them

the

Companion

in his presence. (68) The well


went

a Companion

was

circulation

a modest

Damscus. (67) He used to dictate


write

83-85)

the

concern

known

Syrian

to Wthilah

asking

authority
himself

of
with

the
the

115
text

verbatim

of

if he related

sufficient

Allah

cAbd

of his pupils

but

it would

be

in Hims,

also

that

said

the gist of the hadIth. (7o)

b. Busr

in the

engaged

hadith,

the

(d 88-96),

who

settled

It is reported

of hadith.

transmission

that he used to relate

hadlth

by one

just before

until

the

time of prayer. (71)

One more hadith


here is Ab
lifetime.

activist

Ummah,

who

(72) Slim b. cAmir

said: " We would

Allah

(s). "

heard

and then transmit

In

Then he

Basrah,

there

engaged

in hadith

Rahmn

b. Jawshan

Companions
was

Anas

sought
remained

activities.

the
hadith

until

servant
from

his death.

older

he found

At the head

of the

to
of

you have

"(73)

Successor,

said that

Mosque. (74)

what

of Companions

The Basran

al-Ghal. afni

b. Malik,

there

a number

relate

Messenger

of the

authority

Prophet's

transmitter,

and he would

it on our authority.

were

the

Syrian

the

say: "Understand

would

in the Basrah

prophetic

(d. 130),

on the

during

born

Ab Ummah

sit with

lhadiths

us numerous

was

to be mentioned

deserves

who

prophet,
Companions.

His devoted

pupil,

who

'Abd

al-

eighteen
of them
who
(75)

also
He

Thabit,

116
he accompaniod

says that

of Anas complained
them

father

to their

hadith

as much

Anas for forty


that

years. (76) The sons


he did not relate

as he did to the outsiders.

(77)

once asked if a hadith

that

Prophet.

This annoyed

him, and he said: " By Allah,

not heard

all of what we have related

Prophet,

but we (the Companions)

b. Husayn,

cImrn
instruct
by

he had just related

trust

Hilal

b. Ysuf,
hadith

relating

a Kufan

who

that some Successors neglected

hear hadith

cI mrn and other

despite

the activities

of hadith,

he seems to have

the writing

Ab

Musa

discovered

Hishm

b.

him to go to

Companions. (so) However,

b. Husayn

in the

transmission

been one of those who

opposed

down of the hadith. ta 1)

Basrah, where
that

al-Ashcari

he taught

was a governor

the Qur'an

his son wrote

he had the writings


[hadiths

of cImrdn

the

to Basrah,

went

<Amir complained
from

from

He was seen,

One Companion,

to a circle. (79)

we have

by cUmar to

there.

activist

Successor

the

one another. (78)

who was sent to Basrah

its people, was a Ihadlth

He was

was from

to you directly

to

destroyed

I in the traditional

down

and al-Din. (82) when


hadith

and advised

manner

of cUmar in
he

on his authority,
him

[to memorize

to receive

theml. (83) In

117
interest

a report

reflecting

the keen

iiadith,

a Basran

transmitter

Companions

One of

says:

came to us, and people would

if there were very


of house and

[hadiths

Kufah,

I from

from

many Companions

Prophet's
him;

around

there. (84)

or settled

in.

cAbd al-Rahmn

(d. 82), the Kufan Successor, was able to meet

Companions

from

whom,

asked to relate

when

in the Kufah

Ansr

mosque,

claim that any of the others was more competent

120

each of

or to give a fatw

a hadith

to

was a centre

b. Abi Layla

the

of

go up into the roof

its establishment,

went

the

gather

many of them, he would

relate

Of course,
which

in the transmission

would

to do so than

himself. (85)

Ibn
we

Massd,

have

mentioned

Thursday,

=I

which

teaching

above,

he would

s-t-LJj 4L

"... Le:U--,.:. (86)


4.

as an instructor,

who was sent to Kufah

the people

to hold

the Qur'an.

discuss the chapters

.iarm.

(87)

Ll
-,

every
i

L-

aided

would

a session

the words:.

open with

411

He was

used

as

by

his

After

pupil
they

of al-mansik

cAlgamah

had finished,
and a1-halal

in
they
wa-al-

118
Al-Bar'
Madinah,
"Not

b.

Messenger
we

do not

organized

lie. (89)
class, as

(s); we heard

it from

His hadith

in 72, (88) said:


the

our Companions,

but

and we

pupils

used to write

Baras

from

learn

class, (9o)

another

his material

down

that

report
with

al-

reed pens

A group of people used to come to Salmn


(d. 33-37)

with

in

the other

hands. (9 i)

on their

When

to hear his hadith. (92)


buy

would

Iraqi

known

Successor, tells us that they used to sit one behind


this

an

apparently

a well

al-Sabici,

al-

from

was

session

Ishq

Ab

from

originally

did we heard

to you

we related

of Allah

was

in Kufah and died there

then settled

all of what

who

cAzib,

meat with

it and invite

al-Frisi

he obtained

money,

the m uh add! th n to eat

him. (93)

THE ACTIVITIES

The
century

lively
may

mentioned

hadith

the pligrimage

of

the

by an entourage

he performed

second is a report

already

activities

be represented

above

accompanied

OF THE SUCCESSORS

by

two

Companion

during

reports.
Ibn

the

first

First,

that

cAbbas's

of those who sought

being

dim during

with Mucwiyah (d. 60). (94) The

of Ibn Sirin's

being

recorded

as saying:

"I

119
came to Kufah

[ the battle

Jamjim

before

in 821 and I saw

4,000 people who were in search of hadith. "(95)

there

Some of the Successors


and discuss

exchange
Layl

(d. 82

during

the

because

his fellow

hadith

the

survive. (96) Ibn

it would

in which

(d.

b. cUkaym

to study

to

b. Abi

al-Rahmn

Allah

cAbd

(d 81-

b. al-Had

b. Shaddd

once, met cAbd Allah

Successor who used to come to Kufah, who was

82), a Madinan

Kufan

discussed

(97) then they

al-hadith,

famous

Abd

to come

of al-Hajjj)

in order

meet regularly

material.

that was the way

Abi Layl,

kathir

their

) asked
rule

would

Successors,

Ibrahim

Duh (d. 100) and al-Shacbi

The

the hadith. (9g)


(d. 96), Ab

a1-Nakhaci

al-

(d. 103-1 10) used to meet in the

mosque in order to discuss hadith. (99) Shutayr b. Shakal once


(d. 62-63);

met Masrq
them,
hear

and Shutayr
something;

and I should
should
cUthmn

b. Muhriz
someone
they

corrobarate

you or I should

(d. 95 or later),

used to study
suggested

thought

this

relate

some and you

Successors,

Ab

Ab Nadrah(d

108 or 109),

100 and 109) and Khlid

b. cAbd Allah

the hadith

the reading
was

some hadith

relate

The Basran

a! -Nahdi

(d. between

should

you

me. '-(ioo)

came to

"these people have come to

said to Masruq:

corrobarate

Ab Mijlaz

of pupils

a group

now, either

of hadith

no

and the sunnah

of a srah

better

than

from
what

and when
the Qur'n,
they

were

120
doing. (ioi)

When

and his fellows

namely

Rahmn,
Allah

Ibrahim

b. al-Zubayr,

b. cAbd

al-Rahmn

during

mosque

the

the Companion
cAbd

would
fellow

their

Qabisah

b.

settled

in

caliphate
Madinan

Ab Bakr b. cAbd alb. cAwf,

gather

and

hold

was

Ab

with

her room(103)
The

in a better

transmission

through

of

of
hadith

than

position

in

wife,

Successors

of

number

have

I found

record

all the information

field.

Thus,

Juynboll's

been

already

I have
who

view,

are

it an immense

dealing

confined
called

constitute

with

myself
the

a group

in

the

mentioned,

in

However,

those of the Companions.

with

the sources,

Successors,

b.

[she was his aunt].

activities

connection

sit with

Hurayrah;

because he had access to cA, ishah, the Prophet's

they,

in the

and then he and Ab Bakr


sessions

cUrwah

cUbayd

in a circle

Qabisah said that he would

night.

Zayd b. Thbit,

al-Rahmn

however,

b. <Utbah, would

Rabh
b. cAbd

some prominent

cUrwah

b. cAbd Allah

(102)

end of Mucwiyah's
them

among

Jbir

Successor who later

the

until

(d. 60), he and othors,


Successors,

his hadith.

the Madinan

that,

reported

CA ., b. Abi

the Companion

discussed

they

Dhuwayb (d 86-89),
Syria

Successor

came out from

(d. 73-78)

Allah

the Makkan

in working

task to trace and

the Successors

in this

to

of the

fugaha':

a number
Those

who formulated

who,

their

in

own

121
ideas which

in the course of time

either

through

their

pupils

or other

anonymous

are also described

in

of their

in Juynboll's

mentioned

a term

those

interpretation,

and examples

work

(104)
,

as ulam'

sources

Juynboll's

to precedents

referred

or at the hands

persons.

in the

indicates,

hadith

own endeavours

First of all, all the fugah'

which

became the prophetic

including

those

who
of the

Prophet.
Dealing
the

Madinan

with

transmitters

major

fiqh,

accepts their

he dismisses

hadith.

demonstrating
well.

AbU al-Zind

prominent
be among

Madinan

Successors

the fugah'

Madinan
While

in matters

of

to the transmission
ample

in one report
who were

of the Madinans

of

material

in this field

and activities

enumerates

some of

in the sources.

contain

sources

knowledge

their

the

as an experts

contribution

the

mentions

among

as fugah'

reputation
their

However,

hadith

of

Successors who are described


Juynboll

juynboll

isnds,

as

some of the

considered

both

to

and among

those who

had knowledge

of al- sunan : Sacid b. al-Musayyab,

al-Qasim

b. Muhammad,

cUrwah

Rahmn,
Sulayman

Khrijah

b. al-Zubayr,

b. Zayd,

b. Yasr. (105)

cUbayd

Ab
Allh

Bakr

b. cAbd

al-

b. cAbd

Allh

and

122
Sacid

One of
was

from

asked

knowledge.

b.

He said: "From Zayd b. Thbit,

of the Prophet

Salamah,

and he heard

hadith

Suhayb,

and Muhammad

daughter

he was married.

Companions

from

cUmar

He further

of cUmar

himself

cUthman

said that

there

knowledgeable
Bakr

and

was anxious

to discover

in fact,

taken

Companions,

was

the decisions

praised

knowledgeable

by <Umar. (io9)
Sacd b. Abi

by

one

of people

his

al-Musayyab
who was

more

of the Prophet,

Ab

alive

in

connected

an authority

that

him concerning

and

pupils

concerning

cUmar's
He

of cUmar. (iog)

Sacid frequented

Wagqs

of

Ibn

material

and collect

that

said

of all the decisions

the transmitter

used to consult

from

hadith

He specialized

such

to whose

It was

he. (106)

he. (1o7)

'Ali,

b. cAffn,

received

was no one still

he became

son, cAbd Allah,


actions

than

So he was called

material.

'Umar;

than

He

and Umm

Hurayrah,

and cUthman.

concerning

cUmar

also

Most of his prophetic

of Ab

authority

and

and he would

cUthmn

there was no one who had more knowledge


of

his

(s), cA,ishah

b. Maslamah.

are on the

the

acquired

Ibn cAbbas, and Ibn cUmar.

had access to the wives

hadiths

al-Zuhri,

pupils,

Sacid b. al-Musayyab

where

Sa<d b. Abi Wagqs,

sit with

best

al-Musayyab's

Ab

as

cUmar's

some of the
known

the well
Hurayrah.

being

a1-thr,

with

(l to)

the

He

most

having
as
and

123
great

insight

travel

for days and nights

in his opinions. (i i i)

Although
favour

In

one

hadith

report,

Sacid dictated

the answer

asked him his own opinion,

There
cUrwah

b.

the man

Sacid told him this also, which

the

hadith

from

hadiths
four

then he would
he

did

of al-Harrah,

to al-Zuhri

not regret
not

her

authority

death

that

that she might

with

asking him

him

the diffusion

great

efforts
the

of cA, ishah,

he

to die

possess a hadith
burnt

on the day

sadness. (i is)

of the hadith.

to meet him, in order

night

Describing

if she were

still

have. (i i7) His books were


caused

the

considerable

the Companions. (116)

before

years

during

a circle

he had on the

which

concerned

mentioned
held

in which

a report

material. (i 15) He made

their

extensive

been

Successors

and other

in collecting

claimed

al-Zubayr

has already

exchanging

very

When

to him.

about

paper. (t t4)

cUrwah

that

him

asked

and

When Sacid was told of this, he tore up

down.

man also wrote

one of

had a bad memory. (ti3)

to him

came

not in

who were

down, he permitted

being written

a man

hadith. (i 12)

of one

to do so, because the latter

something;

the

search

would

al-Musayyab

he was one of the Successors

of the

his pupils

in

Ibn

He was

Once he sent

to relate to him a

124
hadith
him

which

hadith,

about
that

material

they

he had written

he studied

(120) and

had. (121) cUrwah

down

hadith

and

him

source;

when

he said that he had not, 'Urwah

Companions
hear

for

namely,

b.
whom

Muhammad

hadith

on their

activities

cA ishah,

Ibn

was

his material

enumerates

he frequented

their

cUmar. (123)
who

if he had compared

with

his

said: "Then you

it down. "(122)

and learn

known

if

When he said he had,

material.

asked

Al-Qsim

the

compared

asked his son Hishm

cUrwah

have not written

his sons to ask

sunnah. (i 19) -He urged

contained

most

a report

authority.

These were

Hurayrah,

and

well

Ibn

Successors

one of the three

knowledgeable

to

of hadith,

transmission
Ab

cAbbas,

the

in order

and sat with

in the

He was considered

in

cA ishah's

concerning

hadith. (124)

Ab
from

Salamah

the kuttb

would

dictate

cIkrimah
and the

sunan

b. cAbd

al-Raiiman

to accompany

to him hadiths

Maw1a
by his

Ibn

him

to write

would

to his home,

Ibn

where

he

down for him. (125)

cAbbs was taught

master,

select a boy

cAbbds. (126)

the Qur>n
He tells of

125
himself

that he searched

known

well

for

he

world;

for cilmn for forty

his extensive

disseminated

travelling

his

in

the

Islamic

the

around

hadiths

He was

years. (127)

he

provinces

visited. (128)

Nafic,

The

Mawla

of

Ibn

(d.

cUmar

117-120/735-

738).
His
widely

transmission

it from

Nfic. (129) His material

of Ibn cUmar was preserved


hadith
down
that

sessions
the

they

at which

hadiths.

(131)

down

wrote

to him for correction.

in writting.
his pupils

When,

Ibn

cUmar

was

did not care to hear

Malik,

of Ibn <Umar from

on the authority

he had heard

of

authority

His best pupil,

recognized.

a hadith

the

on

on the authority

(130)

read

any one else if

He would

to him

on one occasion,

his dilm, he requested

hold

and wrote
he was told

them

to bring

it

(132) cUmar b. <Abd al-<Aziz sent him to

Eygpt to teach its people the sunnah. (133)

cAt

b. Abi

Rabh

stand out

as experts in

the hadith

activists

the

important

most

cA, ishah,
<Abd Allh

Ab

also one of those

matters of filth.

in Makkah.

Hurayrah

came

(d. 1 14) was

to Makkah,

He was also one of

He met 200 Companions, (134)

of whom
and

who

were
Ibn

Jbir

cAbbas.

b. cAbd
When

cAtd, and his fellows

Allah,

Jbir

b.

attended

126
his hadith

sessions,

4iadith. (135)

they

and when

(d. 68) used to come to cA, ishah,

hadlths

were

Yacqb,

said

anything

he had

that

thoroughily

as

). (13s)

in al-Sham

activists

in al-Sham

where

(137)

His son,

father

to

travelled

memorizing
(commercial
thus

al-Madinah,

of his fellow

that

with

above that

came from

who

is a report

would

gather

known

Ab

Idris

and
,
authority.

whose authority

to the Syrian

al-Shm

outside

and settled

that the m uha ddith n

indicating

in which

the Syrian

they

exchanged

Successors is the well

(d. 80), who

al-Khulani

he associated with

In addition

hadith, (140) there were other

in a circle

material. (142) Among

of Companions

a number

date.

at an early

hadith

their

in the

Successors. (139)

there. (141) There

al-Smit

b. cUmayr

sessions

b uy

the

as

Successors who were active in


hadith

his

seen

in comparison

It is been remarked
settled

He held

his

studied

cUbayd

to authenticate.

not

cAta

his status

enhancing

to him

they

she was living

when

mosque. (136)

recited

transactions

Makkan

holy

of the

vicinity

him

Successor

and the other

cAn,

left

informs

us

that

the Companions AbU al-Dard,, <Ubdh b.


Shaddd

(143)

b. Aus

Having

and

once related

he was questioned,

received

material

a hadith

he said: (144)

on

about

127
Maklil,

the most famous

He travelled

activist.
various

sessions at which

haditihs

He

have

to

seems

The

best

oldest,
were

cAbd Allah

b. Massd

the

knowledge

report,

hadith

is according

cAbd Allh. (15o)

Allh

sunnah:
cAbidah

who

cAlgamah

also

b. Shurabbil

did not confine


travel

from

the

that

as saying

the

Ibrahim

the

Qur'n

), al-Aswad

to their

Kufah to al-Madinah

of
the

and

(d. 74 or 75),

(d. 62 or 63), al-Hrith


(d. 63 ). (151)

of

al-Nakhaci

some of the companions

people

themselves

soundest

of the companions

Successor,

(d. 61-73

(d. c. 70), Masrq

c. 40), cAmr
Alldh

taught

on the

[b. Mascd]. (149) In

of cAbd Allah

in one report

(d. 133-

it was

unless

for

of hadith.

b. Muqsim

Mughirah

The younger

Companion

transmission

to the transmission

(d. 96), enumerated


cAbd

in the

he is recorded

Kufan

They were reputed

was accepted

of the companions

authority
another

no hadith

(147)

the

of

famous

the

(d. 34). (148)

transmitters,

to him. (146)

in writing.

respected

of

and reliability

One of the Kufan


136), said that

pupils

held

as having

his material

and

In

of 41m. (145)

and read

were studied

known

was also a hadith

represented

organized

Successors

their

is

faqih,

in search

the world

Makhl

reports,

Syrian

The

b. Qays

pupils

master,

to acquire

(d.

of cAbd
but would

hadith

from

128
from

cUm ar, (152) and

b.

al-Aswad
cAlgamah

with

Ibn

that,

would

wa-al-haram.

or knew,

study

of

strong

Ibn

did

not

adherence

of

Massd

and when

to say

had read

and al-halal

S IJ1i

II

asked his fellow,

Masrq,

he might consider

them and then erase the m. (158)

Masrq
already

as having

associated

Prophet,

and

knowledge.

reports.

having

(i59)

Al-Shacbi

know

anyone

Masrq.

(16o)

He went

Masrq

was

more

to al-Madinah

Zayd b. Thbit

in dilm. (161)

is recorded

who

was

in one report

Companions
the

variety

as having
widely
where

sought

after

the

of

their

of

said that he

travelled

than

he found

to be one of the most deeply


much

so that

as we have

He is recorded

discovered

with

(157) He

al-na,? 'ir,

activities,

the

with

did not

Companion

in hadith

also engaged

seen in various

for him

to write

the

of cAlgamah

concern

v.,

or knew

had finished

they

on al-manslk

great

that

teach

would

cAlgamah

and

cUmar
they

met

cAlgamah

and

in his advice:

appears

The

material
The

they

caused

Massd

(156)

adherent

when

how to read the Qur'n,

they

hadith

Massd

Ibn

as well. (155)

but

an

other. (154)

he had read

anything

was

Allh,

each

to

cAlgamah

people

Yazid

of cAbd

disagree

cA ishah. (153 )

the

rooted

by students

of

129
hadith. (162)

b. Shurttil

cAmir
known

for his knowledge

fiqh,

made

Makhl,
he

had

never

set

eyes

with

Shacbi. (163)

Al-Shacbi

they

two

with

of his

Abwal

says

written

on the authority

them

he

that

himself.

(166)

al-Shacbi

that

they

had

the

He

[al-Shacbi]

concerning

<Asim ala sahifah

from

that

cAsim says that


fiqh

and

Al-Shacbi

of Jbir b. cAbd Allah.

report,

down

to study

mosque

all

al-

used to gather

to cAmir

heard

than

to write

transmitter

already

more

mdiyah

The Basran

read

In another

hadiths

in

colleagues
(165)

him. (164)

said that

was

who

his audiences

hear from

the hadith.

memorize

as having

to any sunnah

advised

of hadith.

diffusion

anyone

in

as his expertise

as well

is recorded
on

regard

might

103-1 10), who was

in the

efforts

Successor,

knowledgeable

whatever

of hadith

considerable

the Syrian

(d

al-Shacbi

they

told
Jbir

read to

and he gave his approval

of them. 067)

Ibrahim
fugah'

al-Nakhaci,

in Kufah, is praised

Acmash, his devoted


hadith

to Ibrahim

pupil,
without

who

was

one of

for his knowldege

the

of hadith.

says that he could never


his relating

greatest

mention

it to him or adding

Ala
to

130
it. (168)

He approached

the sense of the hadith

was one of those who related


its precise

than

form. (17o) He was principally

its legal aspects. (171)


he related

when
Ibrahim
heard
Ibrahim

was

his

of those

one

on the

a wish

in a circle

Although
in

which

(175) it was never

sessions.

(176)

frequent

it meant that he had

Isliq

al-Sabici

some pupils
he

(178) When

gathered

around

Allh

that

he said: " he would

saying:

"cAbd

Allah

Acmash

was

pleased

says
with

pour them
cAbd
...
his

hadith

he used to

b. cUmar and Rfic

al-Bar'

asked how Ab al-Ahwas

hadith,

transmitted

to hold formal

tells of himself
Abd

be kept

have

may

his intention

the two Companions,

not

should

writings

being

however,

who,

of cAbidah,

(172)

some down,

to have written

b. Khadij. (177) He used also to attend


sessions.

to hadith

objected

who

his own

hadiths,

Abil

Massd.

Ibn

of

authority

the links

authority

that

his death. (174)

Ibrahim

with

concerned

more than one of Ibn Mascd's companions.

youth,

expressed
after

on the

down. (173) He is reported

written
in

hadiths

rather

isnd
his
him
to
give
asked

Al-A'mash

said that if he omitted


it from

spirit. (169) He

in a critical

the hadith

b. cAzib's

used to relate

upon us in the mosque,

Allah
meetings

says
with

...

"(179)
Ab

AlIshq

131
because

he received

lhadith

of cAbd Allah

Massd in

b. Ibn

them. (i8o)

Al-IJasan
transmission.
Ayyb

Shuwbah
if he

al-Sikhtiyni,

the authority
further

is a key figure, in Basrah, in hadith

al-Ba$ri

asked

Ayyb

to have held hadith

a further

sessions

told him that it was difficult


directly

from

with him his hadiths,


them,

relate

I2addathani.
devoted

(182)

Al-Hasan

to the muhaddithn

seems

to hear hadith

asked his permission

to read

of time

is reflected

that

in Thbit

and to

formula

the

with

authority,
amount

and one of his pupils

regularly,

for him to attend,

The great

on

he had, plus

from
he
others,
which
received
his

on

said that

1,000. (181)

him; he accordingly

pupils,

reliable

1,000 hadiths

had transmitted

of al-Hasan.

1,000 and then

of his

one

al-Hasan

al-Bunni's

saying: (183)
JU

i
1.
4..
:

.:
rS.
o
s:; . y. :: .

v.,

lo<,,
1j,
s:
r
+.:

r..
. -" o4
His hadiths were recorded in writting
al-Tawil

that
says
,

them. (i85)

In one report,

his books. (186)


books,

he borrowed

of which

His son, cAbd Allah


only

one sahifah

His pupil, Humayd


(184)
.

al-Hasan's

al-Hasan

UJI a,

books and copied

says that he has consulted


says his father
escaped,

burnt

his

his
the
of
end
at

132
life. (187)

However,

The one is that

transmission:
for

concerned
form;

the

other links, including


Muhammad

went

Companions,

4,000
cAbidah,

for

cAlgamah,

He says that when


there,

cAbidah,

A, war. (193)
the atrf
association

heard

Ibn

before

searching

hadith.
and

al-Zubayr's

he went

al-Rahmn

to Kufah
Masrq,

occasion
from
hadith

not

omitting

there

from

Ibn

Sirin

[ahdith

five

Zayd b. Thabit. (196)

cAbidah

in the precise form

Sirin

in which

from

Ibn

his opinion

hajj;

he had received

Ibn

on this

al-Zubayr

was concerned

with

on their

an authority

on the

a! -

His strong

in Kufah. (195) During

went

Ibn

scholars

and al-IHrith

Ibn cAwn sought

I both

he met

Layl. (192)

and ask him about them. 094)


made him

He

he found

b. Abi
were

the two
(i9o)

journey

Shurayb

Film that he heard

he heard

mursalah,

where

he used to approach

the Kufans

period,

more

the exact

Hurayrah.

On this

(i9i)

cAbd

directly

of Jamjim,

cllm ; it was for this reason that


on the abundant

for

also sometimes

Ab
and

the battle

He says that

with

of ahdith

hadith

cUmar

cAlgamah,

[of hadithsj

than

been

his pupils. 089)

b. Sirin

to Kufah,

hadith

but

the Companions,

omitting

famous

he is said to have

is the relating

of hadith

his method

marked

of the

content

the other

(isa)

only

two features

and

to relate
them. (197)

133
JUYNBOLL'S

OF THE

EVALUATION

SUCCESSORS IN THE TRANSMISSION


In dealing
by three

Basrah, Juynboll

with

Successors

discussion

it

in the

information

at face

piece of information

On al-Hasan

for his insight

faith

in all matters

found

in so many

in

known

do not

contain

have fitted

far

to

time

any

infer

other

had already

Hasan wrote

this

been

his epistles,

that,

brought

even

is

theory

already
to

where

it is surely

not

appropriate

circulation

at the

did not know

about

into

he either

at all, are

attributed

if

as

but that his

in contexts

even

Therefore,

admirably.

advice

as well

was

treatises

early

reputed

this

which

silentlo,

that

for

is

theory

whose
fiqh

evidence

any Ihadiths,

from

the

if anything

of hadiths,

namely

these would

traditions

of his view

expert,

as an overall

supporting

an argumentum
by others,

wrong

of any

Muslims

devout

concerning

problems

Strong

minimal.

adduced
Hasan

"Here
says:

of pious behaviour

in the transmission

activities

relevant

account

aside,

puts

and

juynboll

al-Basri,

that he became

at best

takes

that he is one of those early

was sought

the

take

not

rather

to,

eye

In this

of hadith.

information.

contradictory

proposed

the part played

direction
in
the
go
may

which

a blinds

turns

and

dismisses

he does
but

value

OF IIADITH

transmission

that

appears

OF THREE

STATUS

134
them

is at best unlikely

- which

unmentioned
cannot

is even

- which

increasing

number

falsely

of people

his death, that they had heard


Regardless
treatises

absent from
al-Basri,

all of them

In the

Fada41 Makkah

The editor

rislah

after

authenticity
hadiths

flh,
out that

points

of

are not

to al-Hasan

ascribed

wa al-sakan

of this rislah

there

are
is

there

is
which
ascribed to
al-din,

Far'ld

entitled
,

the

al-Basri,

rislah

a rapidly

him. "(198)

with

about

to al-Hasan

entitled

32 hadiths.

another

of the controversy

on any

especially

claimed,

traditions

ascribed

spread,

he

way

transmission

scale, if at all. But as his fame

measurable

the

hadith

with

deliberately

Either

unlikely.

more

be identified

possibly

he
left
them
or
-

al-Hasan al-Basri, consisting of Qur'nlc verses and hadiths on


54 faridahs.
although
Nabi

(i99)

hadiths

In

his

Umayyad

to the

treatise

do not occur, the concept

caliph,

of the sunnat

al-

appears:

tI
I"
L
L"S.
I.
l,
.
. oS}
."
4-U
11
e
C
.
o.
dA
JJ
.
l.
I
I
Li
du
U
Jr
ZjI
a1?.,.
a.
e

jwmI j
. ...
JI(>I"
i. > J t-wJ 1j LSJ
,"Yrcp(s, wa.
I

r YvL), - el .r9 a. al
tL
However,

should

contain

it

is not

lo

necessary

the relevant

hadiths.

L4

v. o
ti

al
l
J..
:
- &U -.., ". j

that

such

small

We find,

Jus

treatises

for example,

135
that

(d.

al-Tahwi

his dogmatic

treatise,

a footnote,

additional

argument:

is not

there
epistles
these

one

are merely

Qur'nic

either.

ras'il

he

following

the

as an
to

ascribed

epistles

378-391,

al-carab,

pp.

Whether

or not

these

is open to doubt. (2o 1) In fact,

wa'ziyyah

in which

is not one

there

Successors,

al-Hasan,

in the transmision

of hadith,

Juynboll

on the information

concentrates
this field.

of the three

the position

and Qatdah,

cIkrimah

their

undermining

For all three Successors he neglects

reliable

pupils

in transmitting

On the

other

hand,

transmitters

he

and holds

recorded on the authority


"Over the years

people

who

are alleged

culled

from

a number

majority

though

verse either.

Examining

says:

in

in general.

ras'i1

Hasan's

are genuinely

hadith

prophetic

in the

"Moreover,

tradition

hadith

al-Tahwiyyah,

adduces

in Jamharat

collected

one single

hadiths

Juynboll

important

compiled

al-'Agidah

to the relevant

makes allusion

Hasan

who

(200) does not relate

collections

In

321)

of these

considers
them

the

part

responsible

for

authority.

of

unreliable

the

material

of the Successors. On al-Hasan, he

I have collected

were

the part of their

on their

materials

in

activities

to have heard
of different
inexperienced

the names of some 380


traditions
sources.

with
That

transmitters

Hasan,

the

vast

appears

136
from

defectiveness

the overall

Basri isnds.

This resulted

in his tarjama

the whole

very

cases of sam'
should

once

were

all

be

out to be an on

Very

piety.

many

Hasan

al-Basri

these

critical

of Hasan

reveals

surely

and

works,

at all commensurate

and renowned

questioned

for

and

in the rljl

turning

one, not

unfavourable

a man of his stature

with

Tahdhib,

the one in Ibn Hajar's

notably

most Hasan al-

characterizing

of

exonerated

allegationtions.
Moreover,
crowds
great

of shadowy,
many

doctrine

and

cross

forgers,

cross

alphabetical

of those

Hasan's
And

order".

the

material

authority

of the

Juynboll

believes,

in fact,

not their

case, the
considered

people',
few

sayings

alleged

reliable

can, therefore,

who used their


pupils

- and even

not be held

supported

by

that

responsible

Hasan

who

isnds.

is

which

is,

the work

were

of

generally

is extremely

for

in

pupils

He says: "In any

names.

epithet

says,

transmitters
but

a
see

as Juynboll

reliable

of Ijasan,

qadar

pupils,

of al-Hasan

work

as a

(For

notorious

most

on the

'anonymous

of the

so-called

contains,

recorded

as well

transmitters.

'unreliable'

section

of

figures

propagandists

The appendix

section

pupils

fictitious

probably

otherwise

I. )"(202)

Appendix

alleged

of

notorious

representative

"A

list

the

rare-

the hundreds

Their

names

of

might

137
have

simply

inserted

been

by

otherwise

anonymous

people. "(2o3)

According

to Juynboll,

of transmitting

accused

on the

Juynboll

not even bother


whom

Hasan

saying.

in many
It

mentioned.
'traditions',
reality

was

in large numbers

instances

his

prophetic

own

but in most cases clumsily


list of sayings
prophet

in other

discussed

in

the

Hasan's

name

moulded

after

fabricated

to al-Hasan

ascribed

from

-a

second

chapter-

What

...

is not

number

are in

appears,
his

of

death

seemingly

into
sound

isnds. "(2o4) He gives a


in one source

and

and to the
has been

which

phenomonon

sources

prophetic

himself

a sizable

the help of sometimes

sayings with

the

of mursalt.

that

isnds

utterances

heard

the prophet

even

feasible

in whose

of Hasan did

alleged pupils

to have

supposed

seems

transmission.

the name of the Companion

to mention

This resulted

is more,

says: "Many

of al-

authority

al-Hasan's

of

are

pupils

al-Hasan's

mursalat

Hasan; in fact, this was a feature


In this regard

of

many

several

of

Hasan's

m ursala t.
In cIkrimah's
Tahdhib

is

favouring

him,

undermine

case, although

full

of

reports

(205) Juynboll

his activities

his tarjamah
both

favouring

cites only

in hadith

in Tahdhib
him

and

a! not

some of those which

transmision.

Discussing

138
cIkrimah's
Hasan

isnds

likely

to have

brought

authority

into

Tahdhib

of cIkrimah

totally

numerous

forgers

cIkrima's

fame

may

untrustworthy

into

cIkrima's

then

mouth

who

on the

or another.
are

listed

of cIkrima

that they

verbis
but

there

pupils

alleged

have

of cIkrimah,

in one way

"And

are

himself

cIkrima

whose hadiths

are suspicious
says:

and

pupils

several

gives

it is not said expressis

material

in which

al-Tahdhib,

he

them,

anonymous

circulation

at all. " He then

giving

whom

from

"as was the case with

that

later

above,

profited

in

mentioned

After

discussed

material

had no part

believes

juynboll

pupils,

may

of

put forged
be

safely

assumed to have done just that. "(2o6)


On Qatdah,
stature

of the aforementioned

Dicama

(d.

Tahdhib,
similar

117/735).

An
of his

especially

Basran transmitters
analysis
alleged

we can dispense with

it here. "(2o7)

Tahdhib

abounds

ability
A quick

for example,

at the tarjamah

Tahdhib

Ihadith transmitters

pupils,

with

tarja
yields

Qatdah's
reports

of <Ikrimah

al-Tahdhib,

as being

reveals

among their

of

the

is Qatda b.
ma in the
results

tarjamah

pointing

so
that

of cIkrima's

of Qatadah in the transmission

and reliabilty
glance

of his

in the analysis

to the ones obtained

al-Tahdhib

Successor

says: " Another

Juynboll

in

to the

of hadith.

and Qatadah

in,

best
the
some of

pupils. (2o8)

139

NOTES

1. Tradition,

p. 39.

2. See the next chapter for a discussion of the activities of the qu$$$.
3. In this section

he stresses

in the course of time were


will

be discussed

his view

raised

that

to the level

of these fugaha'

the legal decisions


of prophetic

sayings,

a theory

which

in the next chapter.

4. See p. 33 and p. 74.


5. Tradition,
6. See, for

p. 33.
their

example,

in Ibn Hajar,

tarjim

Tahdhib

al-Tahdhib

and

other

sources.
7. Ibn Sacd 2

2, p. 114. Ibn Asakir,

8. al-Ma, rifah
9. Ibn Sa'd

Madinat

Dimashq,

p. 13,23.

2, p. 309.

7 1, p. 5 (5). p. 8 (6).

10. al-Matrlfah

2, p. 533-34.
2, p. 121 (13), (22). p. 123 (22). also al-Khatib,

11. Ibn sacd 2


159

Tarikh

al-Juni,

1, p. 158-

no. 214-217.

12. See Tahdhib


13. Muslim

11. p. 137.

4, p. 2301, Zuhd (18)

14. Ibn Sacd 7


15. Tahdhib
16. al-'IIal

1, p. 97 (16).

8, p. 400.
2, p. 18 no. 115.

17. al-Magrifah

19. al-Khatib,

10, p. 445.

al-MaTifah

2, p. 542.

18. Ibn Sacd 2

20. filyah

no. 74.

2, p. 116 (19).
al Jami'

al-Macrifah

1, p. 484.

1, p. 123 no. 117.

4, p. 181-182.

21. Ibn Sad 7 1, p. 82 (2).


22. Ibn Wacidiih,
23. Ibn Sa'd 2
24. Siyar

a! -Bid's

wa al- nahy

anhl,

p. 19.

2, p. 125 (21 ). AbO Zurah p. 553 no. 1506.

5, p. 253.

25. Ab Zurcah
26. See al-Khalib,

p. 539 no. 1458.


al-Jami'

1, p. 158-159.

Ibn Sacd 2

2, p. 121 (13), (22), p. 123

140
(22).

2, p. 123 (26) where he is found writing

See also 2

Prophet's practice, on the authority


27. al-dIlal

down details of the

of Ab Rfic.

1, p. 112 no. 466.

28. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 179 (22). Ab Zurcah p. 619 no. 1771.

al-Muhaddith,

p. 606 no.

881.
29. Ab Zurcah

p. 513

no. 1359.

30. Ibn Sacd 5, p. 216 (15).

31. al-'Ila!

1, p. 363 no. 2295.

32. Siyar 3, p. 351.


33. Tahdhib
34. Siyar

2, p. 43.

4, p. 55

35. See al-Magrifah

Ibn Sa'd 5, p. 354 (6) (10). al-'Ilal

2, p. 22-23.

1, p. 44-45

no.

2012.
36. Ibn Sacd 2 2, p. 126 (12), (16).
37. Id, p. 136 (6).
38. a1-Marifah

1, p. 489.

39. al-MaTifah

Ibn Sad 2 2, p. 126 (9).

1, p. 489.

40. Ibn Sacd 8, p.47 (4).


41. Ibn
various

Sacd 2

2, p. 125 (9),
illustrating

reports

(12).

his engagement

42. al-Khatib,

Taqyid

43. Ibn Sacd 2

2, p. 124 (9).

down

a! -cilm,

p. 74-85

the hadith.

3, p. 399.

1, p. 486.

46. a! -Muhaddith,
47.

in writing

Tagyid

p. 81.

al-ilm,

44. Ibn Sacd 2 2, p. 116. Tahdhib


45. al-Marifah

See al-Ka(ib,

p. 164-165.

Ibn Sacd 2 2, p. 124 (20).

48. Ibn Sacd 2 2, p. 125 M.


49. al-Mliki,
50. Siyar

Riyasf al-Nufs

3, p. 238.

51. al-Ma'rifah

2, p. 32.

52. See a! -MaTifah,


53. Siyar

1, p. 61-62.

1, p. 491,

and al-Maliki,

4, p. 325.

54. al-Muhaddith,
55. al-Macrifah

p. 606
2, p. 740.

no. 881.

Riyac

al-Nufs,

1, p. 61-62.

for

141
56. Siyar 2, p. 599. See also 2, p. 617 for a report demonstrating

the capacity of

Ab Hurayra's memory on the authority of the prophet among the companions.


57. Ibidem
Allah

2, p. 271,

You frequented
Ibn cUmar Says :
...

where

more of his hadith.

more than we and you know

the Messenger

of

See also Abu Zurcah p. 545


,

no. 1480.
58. Ibn Sad 5, p. 227 (14).
59. Siyar

2, p. 608.

60. Siyar 2, p. 607.


61. See a! -Magrifah
62. al-Khatib
63. Id.

64. Tahdhib

no. 702.

p. 538

no. (1172).

no. (1 165).

6, p. 356.
4, p. 46-47.

66. al-Magrifah
67. Tahdhib

2, p. 719.
11, p. 101.

68. a1-Khatib,

a! -Jmic

69. Ibn Sacd 7

70. Siyar

2, p. 55 no. (1153).

Siyar

3, p. 386.

where

he met Mucadh

(15).

11, p. 129

3, p. 385.

71. Abu Zurcah

p. 214

72. See Tahdhib

1, p. 263-264.

73. Siyar

no. 177.

3, p. 361.

74. Ibn Sad 7


75. al-Khalib,
to relate

a1-Mu(iaddith

2, p. 58

Jmi,
al
,

2, p. 57

65. Siyar

2, p. 826.

1, p. 166 (9).
a! -Jmi,

2, p. 160 no. 1486,

to him some of the prophetic

76. aI-Bukhari,

al-Tirikh

77. Ibn Sacd 7

1, p. 14 (6).
1, p. 13 (4).

79. Ibn Sacd 7

1, p. 5 (21).

80. See Ibn Sacd 7


81. Ab Zurcah,

p. 555 no. 1512.

2, p. 381,383.

83. Siyar

2, p. 390.
1, p. 196

85. al-Marifah

1, p. 160.

1, p. 17 (3), (7).

82. Siyar

84. al-Ilal

al-kabir

78. Ibn Sacd 7

hadiths.

no. 1051.

2, p. 817.

Abu

Zur'ah

p. 670-671.

and asked him,

142
86. al-Khatib,
87. Siyar

2, p. 8 no. 1014.

al-Jamie

no. 1164.

1. p. 425.

89. al-Marifah
for

possible

2,

p. 634.

of

the

all

those who were

Muhaddith

p. 235

Ila1

91. Ibidem

present

to

all

p. 9-10 no. 19.

al-Ilm

1, p. 64 (8).

3, p. 351.

95. al-Muhaddith,

p. 408

97. See Tahdhib

5, p. 251.

98. al-Marrifah

2, p. 579.

99. Siyar

no. 428.

(15).

6, p. 76

Sa'd

4, p. 522.

100. al-Mubaddith,

p. 179 no. 30.


p. 178 -179 no. 29.

101. al-Muhaddith,
102. al-Malrifah
Siyar

Ibn Scad 5, p. 354 (6)"

2, p. 22-23.

4, p. 424.

104. See note (6).


105. See AbU Zurcah,
106. Ibn Sacd 2

p. 406

no. 940.

2, p. 129 (21).

5, p. 89 (11) (15).
5, p. 89 (24).

109. al- Marifah

1, p. 468.

110. Id, p. 470.


111. Ibn

Sacd 2 2, p. 130 (3).

112. Id. 2 2. p. 130 (15).


113. Ibn

cAbd al-Barr,

114. Ibn 'Abd

al-Barr,

1 15. Siyar

4, p. 424.

116. Siyar

4, p. 424.

of

tells
the

us that

prophetic

passed them on to those who were

1, p. 75 no. 224.

94. Siyar

108. Id.

hear

1, p. 71 no. 197.

93. Ibn Sacd 4

107 Id.

report

al-Barn,

no. 133.

92. Abli Khaythamah,

96. Ibn

In another

Companions

Accordingly,

103.

2, p. 54

4, p. 55.

88. Tahdhib

90. al-

Also

al-filmic

1. p. 73.

al-Jmic

2, p. 144.

it was not
hadiths.
absent. al-

143
117. ibidem.
1 18. al-Mufannaf

no. (20902).

11, p. 425

5, p. 133 (20).

Ibn Sa'd

119. Ab Zurcah, p. 413 no. 972.

120. al-Magrifah

1, p. 552.

121. al-MaTifah
122. Ibn

cAbd al-Barr,

123. Siyar
124. Id.

2, p. 827.
1, p. 77.

al-Jami,

5, p. 55.

5, p. 56.

125. a1-'11a1

no. (1590).

1, p. 269

126. Ibn Sad 2 2, p. 133 (19).


127. Siyar

5, p. 14.

128. See the fifth

of this part. al-Tabari(3,

chapter

LV

Li1

129. Ibn Hajar,


130. Siyar

Tahdhib

says:

l
f
tae c >>LJI "
ej.,.

-i
S'.- ...

1I'

'A

10, p. 413.

a! -Tahdhib

5, p. 98.

131. See Ab Zurcah


132. Siyar

p. 2485)

p. 364, p. 369.

5, p. 99.

133. Ab Zur-ah
134. Tahdhib

628 no. 1808.


p.
,

7, p. 200

135. al-Hal

1, p. 44

no. 20.

a! Jamie

al-Khalib,

1, p. 233

no. 453.

p. 422

no. 465

136. Ibn Sacd 8, p. 47 (4).


137. Ab Zurcah, p. 369.
Jurayj,

his devoted

which

he transmitted

See also al-Muhaddith,


asks him in what

pupil,

material

form

he would

describe

where

Ibn

the manner

in

to him.

138. Ibn Sacd 5, p. 345 (1 1 ).


139. Siyar

140.

5, p. 82.

For example,

cAbd al-Rahman

Jubayr

b. Ghunm

141. Ab Zurah mentions


rule (between

65-86

b. Yasr, Ab Qilabah,
142. See Siyar

b. Nufayr

Kathir b. Murrah

(d. 70-80)

(d. 78).

al-AShcari

some of those who came there

p. 501-502

no. 1314,

cUgbah b. Wisj.

4, p. 358.

(d. 75-80),

cAbdah

al-Qsim

during

'Abd

b. Mukhaymirah.

b. Lubbah,

Khlid

al-Malik's
Muslim

b. Durayk.

144
143.

al-Ma'rilah

2, p. 719.

144.

Ab Zurcah,

p. 317 (594).

145. See al- dal


146.
147.

1, p. 412-13

See for example

Ab Zurach, p. 365,

See Ab Zurcah,

Makhl's

al-cA1a, b. al-Ijarith

pupils;

148.

See for Example

149.

a]-, IIal

2, p. 18 no. 119.

150.

al-Hal

2, p. 19 no. 120.

151.

Siyar

152.

al-Khatib,

p. 369,

no. 896 in which

p. 395

(d. 167) receives

cAbd al-cziz
Makhl's

no. 2694.

book
(d.

the Syrian

Sacid b.

transmitter,

on the pilgrimage

from

the best of

136).

2, p. 576-577.

al-Magrifah

4, p. 65.
1, p. 123

al-Jmi,

no. 117.

153. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 202 (9 ff. ). In this report


and his fellows

of his father

correspondent
154. Id.

p. 274.

the son of al-Aswad

b. Yazid was the

to cA'ishah.

p. 48 (27).

155. Tahdhib
156. Siyar

8, p. 278.
4, p. 55.

157.

al-cIlal

158

al-Magrifah

1, p. 307

2, p. 555.

159. a1- Marifah

2, p. 542.

UI
..
e
ri. o-

16Yl j .6YlC

4jr
.msssy

no. 1866.

ti J.
tue'I ip'S!I ,
_jai

ljc
l3
_J

a!

"LEI
!W

160.

Ab

161.

Id.

Zurcah, p. 652
P. 654

no. 1944.

162. al-Muhaddith,
163.

p. 179 no. 30.

Ibn Sacd 6, p. 177 (12).


JI >a i. eb Le Z;... +Al
ve&,:.

164. al-Macrifah
165. Siyar

I.

, 1 1.e

3, p. 237.

4, p. 522.

166. al- Muhaddith,


167.

no. 1937.

al-Magrifah

p. 430 no. 483.


2, p. 826.

See also al-Magrifah

la.; l-ti 4iiJI , . Aa, 1


l
w.,.r.

168. Ab Khaythamah, al-Ilm, p. 18, no. 63.

2, p. 276.
.rL

1:.

OA AM

145
169. al-Matrifah

",

2, p. 607.

LS ov:.-'YI JU

170. Ibn Sa'd 6, p. 190 (6).

" le iii-T-i waI


2, p. 607. erl.., t35j ti il. Jj
.

171. a! -Magrifah

., y'Ywj

172. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 190 (10),

JU :, li ICI : Jl.i

,s 4JJ ':

jU

vJ41-1-

:p&cr '
"

%:

190 (16).

173. See Ibn Sacd 6, p. 189 (6,22),


174. al-dIlal

a.. -t; 41JI

I1 i+1ri J-G
r`-!

1, p. 76 no. 230. Ab Zurcah p. 655 no. 1952.

LI: S

1 JU :

16:

. %41 %

175. Ab Zurcah, p. 470 no. 1218.


176. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 190 (7) (23) (27).
177. al-'Ila!

1, p. 16 4 no. 8 51.

ul, E ,as "rs

I
l
ZJlA
. ,, ,,,
2, p. 623.

see also a! -MaTifah


178. al-, Ilal

1, p. 71 no. 197.

179. Ibn Sa-d 6,126

(17).

180. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 239 (17).


181. al-dial
182.

3, p. 209.

a! -Magrilah

al

.L

u.

a.,e

vlg. 1

2, p. 13 no. 63"
2, p. 828.

p. 427 no. 473. al-Marifah

al-Muhaddith,

183. Ibn Sa'd 7

2, p. 4 (8).

184. Ibn Sacd 7

1, p. 116 (4).

L JI j,

LJ-

JU
i&
i:
4.2..
-j
:
aa...
vlS
vw.
s.
o
a
ulk A.
'-lc
...
.
ve
,,.

185. Ibn Sa'd 7

1, p. 126 (19).

186. al-MaTifah

3, p.227. Ab Khaythamah,

al-Ma, rifah

2, p. 89.

al-'Ilam,

p. 18 no. 66.

l.aU.-,, L.:S U ul
187. Ibn Sa'd 7 1, p. 127 (10).
188. Ibn Sacd 7
jdmi,

1, p. 115 (27).

See al-Khatib,

al-Kifayah,

p. 186.

2, p. 36.

Ibn

al-Katib,

al-

cAbd al-Barr,

al-

2, p. 32 no. 1093.

189.
Tamhid

Tahdhib

2, p. 270.

See also

al-Magrifah

1, p. 57-58.

190. Ibn Sacd 7

1, p. 141 (2).

al-ella!

1, p. 205.

146
p. 408 no. 428. al-'Ilal

191. al-Mubaddith,
192. al-Muhadith,

p. 231.

193. Wakic, Akhbar


194. al-dIlal

al-Quoiit

2, p. 228.

1, p. 263 no. 1527.


2, p. 25 (6).

195. Ibn Sad 7


196. Tahdhib

9, p. 215

197. Ibidem.

61-x-,

198. Tradition,

Mushki!

Tradition,

p. 50.

203.

Tradition,

p. 52.

204.

Tradition,

p. 51.

Tradition,

207. Tradition,

ma, ni a1-Ithr.

184.

202.

205. See Tahdhib

p. 8-9.
Sharh

a! -thr,

201. p. 49, footnote

206.

>, DIS

p. 49f

199. See Fada'i1 Makkah


200.

2, p. 17 no. 107.

7, p. 263-

273.

p. 57.

p. 58.

208. See, for Ikrimah,

7, p. 264 and, for Qatdah, 8, p. 352.

147

CHAPTER FIVE

TALAB AL-cILM

OF

THE

OF THE SECOND CENTURY AS A DATE

FOR

DISCUSSION

BEGINNING

OF

THE FIRST TALAB

In this section,
in support
begining
hadith
regional

presents

He believes

supports
of
the

concerns
date when

this
talab

this

as will

the earliest

activity
al-dilm

journeys

and the

became the general

than

740s-750s,

this

century/

the

evidence

for the overall


hadith

"This

says:

earlier

centres

regional
during

not

of the

in the following

journeys

the first

the

argument
late

If it can
.
pages, that

of the second

surely,

character

for

cannot be traced

the beginning
constitutes,

al-dilm

relatively

practice

than

more

a date

juynboll

be attempted

date

of the talab

Proposing

data on talab a! -'ilm

to a time

were

centres

view.

argument

He holds the idea that

that the chronology

this activity

be proved,

the late

regarding

in the various

and final

another

of hadith.

of the transmission

beginning

various

JOURNEYS

of his hypothesis

journeys

back

AL-cILM

Juynboll

activities

PROPOSAL

JUYNBOLL'S

additional

maintained

hundred

years

in the
or so

148
prophet's

death". (i)

evidence

and sources,

the

after

Juynboll's
difficult

also

data on

earliest

do not

talab

this

presenting

indicating
same

traveler

of the first

started
Allah

collecting

we

b. cAwn

who

started

earlier

tabaga.

search

in 131/750.

for

hadith

traveling

of hadith

in which

(d. 181/797)

traditions
point,

he

as the first

we read that

he

But in cAbd

141/758.

a hadith

we encounter

It is

Rmahurmuzi

travelers

In his tarjama

report

collector.

Furthermore,

All these data

juynboll's
aw'l1

one unambiguous

in the year

(d. 151/768)
his

view.

examine

should

b. al-Mubrak

hadiths

The

But before

journeys

b. Rshid.

cAbd Allah

his

factors
do
other
as
also

gives a concise list of tabagas


mentions

reports

selective

merely

the "regional

material,

Macmar

for the talab

negates

was the first

who

it extremely

see that not only

support

even

He says: "I found

evidence.

found

we will

relies

al-dllm

of this activity,

character"

this

they

Juynboll

scrutinizing

after

this chronology

In this discussion

are the data on which


that

fact,

I have

to see how he establishes

al-. ilm journeys.

but

In

allegedly

traveler
ten

as mentioned

years
above,

to a time well into the second century". (2)


With

respect

book devoted

to the aw'11 report,

intirely

to the talab

Juynboll
a1-hadith

selects it from
journeys,

i. e. al-

149
Rihlah

fi

talab
to a time

refering
besides

which

al-hadith,

this fact, the report

into account as supporting


The report,

travel. "(3) Although


Rashid

was

another

version

first

the

"

Yaman. "(4)

Ibn Hanbal

that the companions

(d. 23).

In another

and al-Aswad

Muhaddith
the title

refered

different

during
activity.

ha di th

I found

collector,

which

He was the first

to travel

to al-

in another

mentions,

report,

from

hadlth
hear
and

to learn

of this report

in particular.

us to the work

of al-Rmahurmuzi,

al-

we find

that

this

work

those who visited

various

mentions

some of the prominent

In particular,

(d. 62-73)

<Algamah

as having
these

(5)

a number

in their travels. (6) Moreover,

century

cUmar

are mentioned

When we consult

al-Rmahurmuzi

the first

Macmar b.

may suggest that

a1-Kun,

to categorizes

provinces

list,

represent

refers

al-fsil.

He was the first to

in

himself

version

(d. 74-75)

Also Juynboll

"... He

runs:

Kufah
from
Massd
travel
to
Ibn
used
of

in order

to al-Madinah

be taken

chronology.

by al-Nasd i

....

But

proposes.

to Ibn Hanbal,

travelling

recorded

reports

cannot

to al-Yaman.

this version

states specifically:

this

his proposed

in search of hadith

travelled

discussion

under

is ascribed

which

with

than Juynboll

earlier

much

abounds

of

previous to

reports

which

Successors

who

flourished

engaged

in this

kind

of

the names

of

reports

contain

150
Sacid b. al-Musayyab

(d. 94/),

Ab

Macshar

(d. 119-20

Jbir

b. cAbd

al-Kfi

Rmahurmuzi
province.
Ibn

(d. after

Allah

(d. 62 or 63 ). (7)

Masrq

Among

for

Allah

b. cAwn, I consulted

traditions
says, but

al-Zuhri

a hadith

traveler

allegedly
perhaps

half
[hadithl

Salim

Sirin

(d. 1 10 ), in Kufah

Mujhid(d.

101-104),

Raja, b. Haywah
have taken place
Successors.
his journeys

to just one

in

from

from

(d. 112). (9)


prior to the

Thus it means that

his

do

search

(d.

not
for

as Juynboll

The report

from

from
from

to which
we

in 131 /750"

al-Sha'bi

in al-Sham

that

there
(d. 106)

al-Qsim

(d. 110 )and Ibn

al-Hasan

Makkah

(d. 110)

al-Tahdhib,

in al-Madinah

than

In the case of <Abd

earlier.

a century

(d. 106), in Basrah

and

96),

the list, al-

b. Sirin

started

who

-110),

are much earlier

found

ten years earlier

(d.

103

after giving

the Tahdhib

us;

Nakhaci

companion,

(d.

al-Shacbi

(d. 124). (8)

however,

says: " He heard

104 or later),

famous

Muhammad

example,

Ibn

"encounter

70),

are some who

and

refers

), the

Furthermore,

these

Shihb

Qilbah(d.

some of those who travelled

names

al-Mubrak,

Juynboll

Ab

103-110)

and al-

cAl. , (d. 114)


(d. 112-118)

Makhl

So Ibn cAwn's journeys

and
and

must

dates of the deaths of these


Ibn cAwn

must have begun

at the latest by the end of the first

may, perhaps, have caused Juynboll

to think

century.

What

that Ibn cAwn

151
started

his search for hadith

report

concerning

material,

beginning

the

which

has

giving

these

in 131 /750

his

of
do

to

nothing

is a misreading

of a
his

propagating
his

with

for

search

hadith. (1o)
After
reports

"It

having

that

there
(d.

Makhl

made extensive
Makhl

perhaps

personal

the level'

Syrian

118/736)

journeys

in search of knowledge,

and

one more example

were

but

fugaha',

well-known

'raised

to

), as is also substantiated

(...

cases of sama'

as

of that class of

in the course of time

traditions

of prophetic

to the

112/730

at the same time

opinions

by the numerous

is also a reference

between

constitutes

Successors,. who were


whose

two

away

He says:

is true

Successor

argues

of two Successors in (slab al-

the engagement

showing

'ilm journeys.

juynboll

reports,

from

Companions

which

are

doubted.
Besides,
(tuftu

the

term

'ilm

in search of knowledge)

dIlm

in this

gada
various

may, moreover,

as referring

alleged

statement

should

rather

's or, simply,

ra, y.

This

from

the world

for a change very

to something

cotext

quotations

Makhl's

li talab al-dilm ( i. e. I roamed

'1-arda kullaha

be interpreted

in

other than hadlths.

be identified

with

can be substantiated

the tarjama

well

of an older faqih,

fatws,
with
Masrq

152
(d. 63/683)

b. al-Ajdac

as having

recorded

Masrq.

Here 'ilm

b. cAbd Allah

al-cIjli's

him ( lahu

ahdith

he allegedly

between

givers

the

faqih

terms

should

be

Moreover,
remark
of

Ibn

Juynboll
harmonizes

should

that

Masrq

description
to saying

of passing

Masrq

of
that

quality

in

in various

Masrq
who
take

al-Shacbi's

the

context

early

taught
into
remark

the

these

with

chin

report.

al-Shacbi's

as one of the companions

people

account

no

as fully

So the word
of

and

fugah'
are

reports

that comes just after

is recorded

period,

seen, in the

Makhl

and

of hadith.

transmission

early

already

of the great

are recorded

there is a report

Massd

We have

of hadith.

interpreted

in which

Ahmad

on the one hand,

and mufti,

the participation

They
in the

that with

be made, at this

can hardly

activities

involved

traveled

to something

reported

traditions

on

eyes

set

"
legal
tenor.
0 t)
not
-

chapter,

exception.

refer

is tantamount

which

m uh ad di th, on the other.


previous

must

who

a few

transmitted

of religious

the

never

and Ibn Sacd's brief

sliha)

A distinction

in

Shacbi is

tarjama

to harmonize

statement

was one of the fatw

mainly

had

definitlely

if we want

hadith,

than

other

he

that

said

In this

who was a(lab Ii '1-gilm ( i. e. more widely

someone
than

Kfa.

from

this
the

al-sunnah.

when

report
other

(12)

two

So
he

reports.

153
Makhl,

in a report,

report

of the 41m, which

an example

is given.

tells in some detail

of his journey.
Makhl

In this
for,

was looking

It is a prophetic hadith : 03)

i;
LoI"
I
L61
t.
"A
-u
3,114-6
&,
SJ
cJi1.
yY
1
-6
,.
Y! 1.4.1a
Lv..9 a.;. ::., YIl. v.la loe t-Ni
lie tAl x.6 L., 4I . .:icJi
,
I
1twi
J
IL.,.
i
L.
J
J.
is
&J
r
4-66
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wy
r"6
J
ct
.
V. +

Lj.

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U
J
41
f'`'s

4q,

LL

L9

`J

c 4: 1.1

9c.,,

L., J

JS

4rJLt

s_wI

4Lh)i

Nevertheless,

indisputable,

reports

were

number

of reports
Juynboll

which

fact,

relies

these reports

journeys

constituted

the Companions.

general

the talab al-cilm journeys


to the
century.

strong

contact

but which

demonstrate

clearly

practice

following,

he ignores

that

as early
I will

considerable

in the sources

are to be found

in his study,

In the

the

about

what

which

of these

that the significance

even supposing

talab

present

the

centres

during

In

al-cilm

as the time

of

the data on

and on other factors which

between

on

testify

the first

154
CHRONOLOGY OF THE TALAB

Ab Ayyb

hadith

Jbir

from

Jundub

(d. 73-78)

for a month

b. <Abd Allah

people

The companions
They
learn

of this

version
74-75)

hear

report

cAlgamah

b. Qays

from
cAlgamah

cUmar. (is)

al-Aswad,

He said

that

years. (t9)

When he went

memorize

riwyah

from

(d. 23).

cUmar

(d. 62-73)

in order
In

to

another

and al-Aswad

(d.

(17)

al-Nakhaci

He was the most intimate


and his fellow,

Kufah to al-Madinah

in particular.

are mentioned

exchanging

Massd

from

hadith

in groups

Mosque

he found

where

(16)

of Ibn

used to travel

and

in search of 'ilm

Prophet's

( yatahadathn).

ahdith

to hear one

60 and 70)

( d. between

al-Bajali

to al-Madinah
in the

in order

to al-Shm

b. Unays (d. 54). (15)

<Abd Allah

He went
the

to hear a

him. (i4)

He travelled
from

(d. 58) in Eygpt

to cUgbah b. cAmir

b. cAbd Allah

hadith

JOURNEYS

(d. 50 or later )

al-An$ri

He travelled

AL-cILM

( d. 62-73

of Ibn Mascd's companions.

used to travel
he prayed

with

behind

to cUmar, other

He

Ab Bakr

and

for

two

cUmar

people

to
him
asked

him for them. (2o) Also it is recorded

155
that

he went

Damascus

Masrq

to al-Sham,

in search

Masrq

report,

He went

(23)

to

Zayd b. Thbit,

al-Hrith

b. Mucawiyah
from

known
than

of dim

to have

is reported

Companion,

He travelled

of

mosque

Ab a1-Dard'. (21)

he had never

that

records

more widely

another

the

(d. 62 or 63)

b. al-Ajdac

travelled

harf.

the Companion

and sat with

A1-Shacbi

he entered

where

Masrq. (22) In
travelled

where

al-Madinah,

who was firmly

who

anyone

for

he found

rooted

the

in cilm. (24)

al-Kindi
to al-Madinah

al-sham

in order

to

meet cUmar b. al-Khaltdb. (25)


cAmr b. Maymn

He was originally
Jabal to al-Shm,
settled

(d. 74 or later)

al-Awdi

He went with

from Yaman.

stayed

with

him

until

his death,

Mu, ddh b.
and then

Ibn Massd in Kufah. (26)

with

Ab Bairayyah
He went

( d. 77)

al-Kind!

to al-Shm

to meet

the Companion

Mucdh

b.

Jabl. (27)
Qays b. cIbid
He went
Arbidah

( d. after 80)
to al-Madinah

in search of 'ilm. (28)

al-Tamimi

He is reported

to have

said :I

went

which I heard that there was 'i1m. (29)

to any country

in

156
Zirr

(d. 8 1-83 )

b. Ijubaysh
He travelled

a delegation

with

during

the caliphate

simply

to meet and learn from

He attached

to al-Madinah

The reason for his visit

of cUthman.

himself

of Kufans

was

of the Prophet.

the Companions

b.

b. Ka, b and <Abd al-Rahman

to Ubayy

Awf. (30)

cAbd Allah

b. Fayrz

He travelled
from

He went

to al-Madinah

him

he came from

that

(altamis
cAbd

( d. after

al-Rahmn

(d. 83)

Layl
attributed

throughout

the Amsr.

Ab O al-cAliyah

al-Riyhi

( d. after

He is recorded
in Basrah
of Allh
to

mouths".

(34)

travel

for

on the authority

al-Madinah
In another

days in order

and

90)

report,
to hear

used

to hear

of the Companions

we were
we

he says

(33)

said: " We

as having

(s), but

in which

to him

that he travelled

traveled

He told,

to ask for good things

in order

Kufah

is a statement

Messenger

80)

he met Ab Hurayrah.

where

b. Abi

al-Rahmn

riwyah

a hadith

(32)

al-khayr).

There

80)

b. cAmr b. al-cAs. (31)

cAbd Allah

b. cAbd

(d. around

to al-T, if to hear

Palestine

from

the Companion

Khaythamah

al-Daylami

satisfied

not

heard

it

from

he states

that

riwyah

from

of the

until
their

al-

we
own

he used to
(35)
someone.

157
He recited

Madinah. (36)

Sacid

He had been in al-Sham

He said that he would


(38)

Dh al-Hulayfah.

Allah

cUbayd

lived

in

al-

Ab Dharr. (37)

with

( d. after 90)

b. al- Musayyab

one hadith.

b. Ka<b who

to Ubayy

Qur'an

the

in search of

days and nights

travel

Hurayrah

to Ab

He used to go reqularly

in

(39)

b. cAdi

(d. at the end of the

b. al-Khiyar

reign of al-W alid )


He travelled

from

al-Madinah

a Ihadith

to hear

to Iraq

cAli (d. 40). (40)

from
Sacid

to two

adherence
Hijz

: Ibn

disagreed

cUmar

on various

go to Ibn

most
and

Ibn

matters,

cUmar

Companions

important

disagreed

who

When

cAbbas.
he would

to ask him

for

he is known

but

Successor,

a Kufan

He was

then

(d. 95)

b. Jubayr

write

about

the

them

lived

verse,

in

Kufans

down,

them. (41)

his

and

On one
so he

occasion,

they

travelled

to Ibn cAbbas, to ask him. (42)

92-100),

the Madinan Successor, said that when Sacid used to

pass

by_

questioned

Shagiq
b. 'Abd

perhaps

about

on his way

about the far'id

b. Salamah
al-(Aziz)

al-Asdi

one

particular

to the

and other

cAli b. al-Husayn

Ihajj

he would

(d.

be

things. (43)

(d. during

the reign of cUmar

158
He went

Burdah

Companion

him

sent

cAbd Allah

Qilbah

to

three

Ab

to learn

from

the

b. Salm (d. 43). (45)

as having

days

from
al-Shacbi

He once related

a hadith

giving

travelled

it

to him

to al-Madinah

and settled
in a! -

someone

to come

there,

in

him. (46)

b. Shurahil

he was

to Syria

moved

said that he once stayed


for

waiting

to hear a hadith

cAmir

al-Madinah

Successor who

He is recorded

Madinah
order

from

( d. 104-107)

He is a Basran
there.

[hadith]

b. Abi Msa ( d. 104)

His father

Ab

he heard

where

(44)

al-Dardl.

Ab

to al-Shm

(d.

103-10)

to someone and

for

even

nothing,

told him that


though

less important

for something

people
than this

hadith. (47) He went to Makkah in order to meet a Companion


of

Prophet

the

mentioned

because

of

hadi

three

to him. (48) A1-Shacbi is recorded

demonstrating

the importance

th s which

in some reports

journeys

of the

were

for

talab

as
al-

cilm. (49)

Al-J as an al-B a$ri (d. 110)


He travelled

to Kufah

cUjrah. (5o)

When

he went

whom

some

prominent

were

to

meet

the

to Makkah,
Hijzi

Companion
people

Successors,

there,

Kacb b.
among

sat him

in a

159
chair

and

[hadithl.

around

b. Sirin

( d. 110)

He travelled

to Kufah where

Successors,

cAbidah,

Layla.

He heard

(52)

Madinah.

(53)

Makiil

al-Dimashgi

He roamed

of the

cAt, b. Abi
He went
returned

famous

Madinah,

Rabh

knowledgeable

He travelled

b. Abi
in

al-

In his travelling
for

example,

Egypt,
he met

Sacid b. al-

(58)
Shurayh.
and

al-Madinah,
higher

which
status

him,

when

his Makkan

he

fellows,

(d. 117)

al-Sudsi

to Kufah
he

among

than

gave

and others. (59)

to al-Sha<bi. (60)
asked
its people

was told that it was Sulaymn


b.

Kufan

( d. 114)

b. Dicmah

where

Hurayrah

in search of cilm, (54) visiting

Successors,

to Makkah,

He went

Ijumayd

relate

(d. 112-118)

b. Dinr, Mujhid

Qatadah

Ab

from

and al-Shm. (55)

to

al-Rahmn

and 'Abd

[ahdith]

Musayyab, (56) al-Shacbi(57)

<Amr

him

he met the prominant

cAlgamah,

the amsar

al-Madinah,

some

hear

to

(5 i)

Muhammad

Iraq,

him

gathered

He also went

who
concerning

to al-

the

most

divorce,

and he

was

b. Yasr. (61)

Hilal

al-cAdawi

from

Basrah to Kufah to meet Ab al-Ahwas. (62)

al-Ba$ri

160

Ab

Micshar
He went

from

b. cAbd

to Basrah

Kufah

to hear

a hadith

from

the

Abn b. Abi cAyysh. (63)

Basran transmitter

Busr

( d. 12o)

al-Kfi

(al-Shmi)

A11h al-Harami

(d.

around

in order

to hear

120)
He used to travel

to the various

amsr

one hadlth. (64)


Ibn

Shihb

He travelled
Muhayriz

(d. 124)

al-Zuhri
to

to

al-Sham

and Ibn Haywah. (65)


for

and al-Sham

b. Dinar
to

b. Abi

Basrah,

to al-Madinah
were

(d.

Kathir

himself

Al-Zuhri

was

centres. (67)

order

to

meet

b.

al-Hasan

in order

there. (7o)

al-Khrasni

of the Companions

132)

in hadith

but he settled

ten years in order


cAt,

in

al-Madinah

He was an expert

who

Hijz

(d. 100). (68)

Muhammad

from

Ibn

( d. 126)

He went

Yahy

between

He commuted

from various

sought out by other transmitters


cAmr

meet

years. (66)

forty-five

b. Yazid,

cAta

of Hijz.

in al-Yammah.

to meet

the

He was originally
(69)

He travelled

sons of the Companions

It is said that he stayed

in al- Madinah

to engage in talab al-'ilm. (71)


(d.
were

135) went
already

to al-Madinah,

dead. (72)

but

most

161
THE HAJJ JOURNEY

An

important
( the

passing
mention),

the hajj
the

which
meet

the first

them

each other

Sikhtiyani
"They
Ayyb
pupils

(d.

when

to memorize

the cumrah

hajj

the

accompanying

who

had

his

sought

hadith,

all over

in Makkah,
and to

scholars

Ayyb

predecessors,

alsaid:

to meet each other". (73)


Hijz, used to urge his

from

there. (74)

activities

during

the liajj
the

caliph
and

Mucwiyah

Ibn

cAbbds

other

report

by groups

had

(d. 60);
his

of

represents

of his pupils

during

pilgrimages

during

of the hajj. (76)

Some of the
their

we

cAbbs once performed

al- 'ilm .(75) The

Ibn cAbbas as being surounded


the nights

Ibn

Umayyad

entourage

his

from

of (alab al-dilm

from

material.

in order

he brought

reports.

that

of the

to gather

their

he returned

can be seen in two

those

about

speaking

only

factor

Scholars

to meet the Hijzi

both

what

A good reflection

Mucwiyah

next

in

was the use of the occasion of

century,

and exchange

131),

Juynboll

diffusion

to the

used to make the hajj


himself,

on

had the opportunity

world

enabled

by

also of the

contributed

or of making

Islamic

touched

is true

same

which
during

already

factor,

lifetimes.

Successors

al-Aswad

made

b. Yazid

many

al-Nakhaci(d.

74-75),

who

162
performed
close contact

lived

first

Ab

(78)

in Kufah

directly

from

to him by someone
used to go to Iiijz

in order

a year, once for the

twice

95), from

92-100)

used to pass by [al-Madinah]

he would

about

far'id

disagreed

and

about it when

Such journeys
and Successors

they

facilitated

from

different

If

Said

said that

be questioned
the

Kufans

it down, in order

Sacid wrote

on any a matter,

Ibn cUmar

(82)

matters.

other

Kufah,

hajj and once for

the <umrah. (81) <Ali b. al- IHusayn(d.


where
,

to hear

been related

had already

else. (so) Sacid b. Jubayr(d.

the

the hajj

He once performed

which
,

who

either

performed

Ab Hurayrah

of meeting

him one hadith

send his son as


(d. 95-100),

al-Nahdi

cUthmdn

60 times. (79)

the principle

with

he would

and then in Basrah,

hajj or the 'uznrah

80 times, (77) had a

or the <umrah

cA-ishah, to whom

with

a go-between.

hjj

the

either

had
to ask

met. (93)
meetings
regions

in which

Companions

disccussed

and learned

hadiths.
cUrwah

b. al-Zubayr

to meet the Companion

was

he had on the authority


he also met him
hadith.

(84)

b. Amr, who

<Abd Allh

on his way to the hajj, to profit

by his aunt,

advised

from

the large

of the Prophet.

on the next

hajj,

to check

passed them

amount

cUrwah

cA, ishah,

of 'ilm

did this, and

a one particular

163
A number

throughout

matter
they

Kufan

of

to

hadith

Makkah,

they

Ibn

which

he answered

cAmr

b. Dinar(d.

themselves

a list
cAbbas

these
126),

sitting

Tws

cAbbds

[hadithl

to him,

heard

the hadith

said : It

is as if I

After

performing

Syria)

went

Huyay

concerning
women

which

Kufah

the diffusion
examples

further

the importance

scholars

Bashir

b.

Ibn

Hurayrah'.

Ab

(probably

visited

wives,

cAbbs
"(87)
from

Safiyyah

bint
her

to question

also found

a group

of

for the same purpose. (88)

present
,

and exchange
of

They

matters.

are numerous

depict

Prophet's

found

once

man come to Ibn

of women

and then they

in

(d. 106) and

called

upon which

a group

one of the

various

from

There

the hajj,

to al-Madinah

(d. 50),

Tws

said: "I saw this

of

and

at Makkah,

Basrah,

a man from

Kacb al-cAdawi
and relate

was going to

Successors,

Ijijazi

learnt

in a salhifah

a majlis

questions. (86)
both

with

people

of questions
held

with

of Kufah

b. Abi al-Hudhayl

cAbd Allah

it to him.

gave

the

was

al-Nakhaci

she obliged

and

When

the hajj.

cAlgamah

it,

about

composed

one particular

to perform

subject. (85) When

on the

discussed

number,

c, ishah

ask

the Successor

that

journey

their

one of their

arrived,

deputed

Successors

references

in the

sources

of the thajj and the umnah


of

either

hadith.
teaching

In the following
or

learning

in

some
'ilm

in

164
connection

with

cAbd Allah

crowds

b. <Amr
hadith

relating

Allah

Juzay surounded
on the authority

to

came

the

by people

to whom

(d. after

Iraqi

in the year

his father

b. al-Hrith

he was relating

he

b.

ahadith

already

familiar

another

report

with

the

Makkah,

al-Hasan

Madinan

scholar

hadiths
that

him

was

al-Basri

, Ali

b. Zayd

would

Sacid b. al-Musayyab

ask

there. (91)

about

out

In
by

after performing

b. jadcn

him

to go

as if he was

also sought

who came to al-Madinah

Whenever

most

He was advised

available

Said

the

was

who

asked

(d. 117)

b. Mihrn

He questioned

find
we
,

(92)
.

(al-Madinah)

among its people.

faqih

Basran transmitters

90)

Maymn

Successor

b. al-Musayyab.

hajj

to

of the Prophet. (9o)

to Said

the

of the Prophet

<Abd Allah

the Companion

al-Madinah,

knowledgeable

the

shadow

(d. 85-88)

b. Juzay

Sacid b. al-Musayyab
When

of

the

authority

on the hajj with

went

He saw there

in

seen,

on the

b. al-Hrith

Ab Hanifah
93.

was

(d. 63)

him. (89)

of people round

cAbd

are given.

b. al-, A$

b. cAmr

Allah

cAbd
Kasbah,

this journey

went

to question

to
the

some matters. (93)

165
b. Dinr

tAmr

Ab

Jacfar
him

motivated
Dinr. (94)

( d. 126)

( Makkah)

al-Bgir

(d.

to

pilgrimages

during

that when

he arrived

Dinar

because

other

scholars. (96)

cAta

b. Abi
Scholars

, A1., b. Abi

what

he should

knowledge

that

forty

cAmr b.

frequent

he had

had from

the

( Makkah)

the

Makkan

the

around

during

b.

,Amr

his son, cAbd Allh,

at Makkah,

to gather

Rabh,

that

to meet

was

life, (95) advised

(d. 114)

Rabah

hajj

said

Successor Tws, who performed

his

of the

used

the

perform

The Yamni

11 4-1 18)

Successor

learning

mawsim,

from

him. (97)
Bajalah

near

b. cAbdah

cAmr

b. Dinar

the

steps of

(d. 90 )(
al-Iiasan

al-Bagrl

When
while

heard

Zamzam,

Mujhid

relating

session

Tws,
<Atal,
,
b. Sirin

He performed

the hajj
hadith

b. Zayd (d. 93-103

he came to Makkah,

this

Mu$ammad

during

in the year
to cAmr

70

b. Aws

)( Basrah). (98)

(d. 110) ( Basrah)

he sat and related

attended

him

and jabir

al-T'if)

( Basrah)

al-Tamimi

people

[hadithl
were
and

the

gathered
Among

to them.
famous

round

Makkan

him

those who
Successors

cAmr b. Shucayb. (99)

( d. 110) ( Basrah)

hajj during

Ibn al-Zubayr's

period

( 65-74)

166
in which

[hadith]

he heard

from

him

Zayd

from

and

b.

Thbit. (i oo)
Salim

b. Abi

a! -:

He used

He was

in

seen

al-Khif

and Tws.

to Makkah

the most knowledgeable


to frequent

Munkadir

Makkah.
the
of
of
people

( d. 130 or later)
studying

Thawr

b. Yazid

Sham, went

Al-Layth

and inquired

for the hajj

( d. 124)

al-Zuhri

mosque

from

He went

He was told

(d. 94). (1o4)


Muhammad

and

seen sitting

were

who was

b.

al-

in the holy

al- cilm. (105)

al-Shmi

them

during

(d. 175)

on the hajj

and

al-Awzci,

in the year

on the hajj

b. Sad

On this occasion,

(103)

Ab Bakr b. cAbd al-Raihmn

Shihb

[alhdith]

scholars

( d. 127 or 128) ( Kufah)

b. Shaddad
went

100.

the lhajj in the year

he met al-Hasan, cAta,

Ibn

the

where

mosque,

( Kufah)

He performed

He

on the

mosque,

to him. (1o2)
b. Rabicah

Jamic

holy

( kufah)

(d. 113-115)

b. cUtaybah

al-IUakam

Umay

in the

hadith,

to relate

of Ibn cAbb as.o oi)

authority

resorted

( Kufah)

(d.
97-101)
cd

both from

105 and people

al-

heard

that time. (106)

( Egypt)

in the year

113.

On this occasion, he

167
[ahadith]

heard
Shihb

from

various

Ibn

al-Zuhri,

Mulaykah,

Abi

Nfic, cI mrn

b. Abi Anas. (1o7)

MOVEMENT

BETWEEN PROVINCES

The following
from

transferred
Mucadh

b. Jabal

The
Prophet's

Abii

Prophet

He visited
he was

one province

him

sent

by

the

having

reasons.

(ios)

al-Yaman.
where

After

the

he died. (1o9)

He also visited

Damascus in which

muhaddithn

to relate

to them

(d. 68)

b. cAbbas

collecting

'ilm

in al-Madinah.

(113)
(d.
Basrah
40).
for
of
cAli

in Makkah. (ti4)

Ta'if for one or two years

He took

for various

who

iii)ii)

Hijz and settled

Allah

to

to al-Sham,

He spend his youth

cAbd

al-Zubayr,

( d. 18)

Kufah. (iio)

prophetic

was the ruler

Ab

and Successors

to another

Ibn

them were

(d. 57-59)

requested

cAbd Allah

cAIa,,

is a list of Companions

death, he went

Hurayrah

Among

scholars.

b. -Umar
part

until

Then he went

He
to

resided in al-

his death. (i i5)

b. al-Khattb

in the conquests

been in Syria. (i 17)

He finally

(112)

( d. 73-74)
of Egypt

(i
Persia,
16)
and

168
cAbd Allah

b. cAmr

(d. 63)

b. al-cAq

He was in a1-Shm, Egypt and Kufah. (i18)

He had estates

in Egypt and al-T'if. (ii9)

b. cAzib

al-Barn'

He was

( d. 72)
from

originally

Kufah and died there.


Abil

al-Tufayl,

cAlgamah

al-Madinah,

he settled

in

(120)
(d. 85)

b. Wathilah

cAmir

He settled

but,

in Kufah and then in Makkah.

( Kufah)

(d. 61-73)

al-Nakhaci

(121)

He spent two years in Marw. (122)


Qabigah

b. Dhu, ayb (d. 86-89)

He moved

to Syria,

probably

(al-Madinah)
after

the battle

of Harrah

(64 ), and died there. 023)

Ab

Salamah

b.

( d. 94 or104)

al-Rattmn

cAbd

( al-

Madinah)
He visited

Kufah.

rule of Bishr b. Marwn.

Ab
after

Rfic
90)

al-Madani

Basrah

during

the

(125)

Nufayc

b. Rfic

al-$'igh

(d.

( al-Madinah)

He settled
cUrwah

He also visited

(124)

b.

He lived

in Basrah. (126)
al-Zubayr
in Makkah

(d. 94)

( al-Madinah)

for nine years

with

his brother

<Abd

169
Allah

( 64- 73); (127)

b. al-Zubayr

invited

the Makkans
him. (128)

from

He settled

Ibn

in Makkah

Yaman,

for

from

but

al-Madinah

al-Acmash

heard

Mujhid

b.

1000 hadiths

Jabr

He was known

famous

from

( d. 101-104)

Kufan

(131) He

frequently
transmitter

him. (133)

(Makkah)

for his extensive

(134)

travelling.
in Kufah

It is said

(135)

(d. 105)

b. Muzhim

He settled

al-Madinah)

of Ab Hurayrah.

that at the end of his life he settled


al-Dahhk

came to

he used to go to Kufah

reasons. (132) The

commercial

Ifriqiyyah,

Egypt,

him. (130)

(d. 101) (

al-Samman

He travelled

and muhaddithn

scholars

He was one of the best pupils

for

he stayed

in al-Madinah.

al-Sham,

in all of which

$alili

was from

hadith

( al-Madinah)

then

and to hear ahadith

Abil

hear

and

to Egypt, where

-Abbas

in Khursn,

extensively

learn

He also went

Mawl

and Iraq,

attend

once to have

and married. (129 )

seven years
cIkrimah

to

he is reported

in Khursn,

where

the people

heard

[hadith

from

him. (136)

tafsir

on his authority.

Salim

b. cAbd

He met Sacid b. jubayr

AllAh

in al-Rayy

and received

(137)

b. 'Umar

(d.

106)

(al-

Madinah)

170
He came to Syria three
Ummayyad

caliphs,

during

times

al-Malik,

cAbd

the rule of the

al-Walid

and

three

cUmar

b.

al-cAziz. (138)

cAbd

al-Ijasan

(d.

al-Ba$ri

He was
governor

a ktib

for

Mucawiyah

of

( Basrah)

110)

b. Ziyd

al-Rabic

in Khursn,

who

the

al-Hrithi,
in the

died

year

51. (139)

b. Shurliil

cAmir

He fled
for

or ten

eight

Allah

from

b. cUmar. (140)

with

a! -Shacbi

report

acompanying

A Kufan

in Khursn

learn
we
,

to al-Madinah

al-Mukhtr
months

(Kufah)

( d. 103-110)

al-Shacbi

the

cAlgamah

cAbd

he stayed
In another

months. (141)

ten

that he was with

companion

said that

transmitter

for

he stayed

where

in Marw

for two

years. (142)

Raja,

b. Ijaywah

He arrived
Ishq

(d. 112)
in Kufah

at-Hamdni

(al-Sham)

accompanying

and Qatdah

heard

Bishr

b. Marwn.

(hadith]

from

Ab
him

on

his arrival. (143)


cAbd

al-Rahman

b.

Hurmuz

al-Acraj

(d.

117)

( al-

Madinah)
He moved
there. (144)

away

to Egypt

at the end of his life

and died

171
Muhammad

b.

Kacb

al-QUrazi

al-Madani

first

in

where

(d117-120)

(al-Madinah)
He

settled

Kufah

admired, (145) then in al-Madinah.

b. Shucayb

cAmr

He settled
Makkah
Habib

b.

delighted

as if a prophet

Nfic

( d. 118)
to

'ilm. (147)

Thabit

He came to al-Ta'if,

greatly

he used to come frequently

in al-T, if, but

Abi

was

(146)

as-Sahami

and disseminate

he

al-Kfi
where

(d. 119)

(Kufah)

it is said that the people were

had come to them. (148)

Ma w1 a

Ibn

(al-

(d. 1 17-120)

cUmar

Madinah)
, Umar

b. cAbd

sunnah. 049)
al-Yaman.

Ab

caliphate.

Ab
who

He also appointed

al-Sabi'i

was

in

him

to collect

to teach

them

the sadagat

of

( d. 126-29) ( Kufah)

Khursn

during

Mucwiyah's

(d.

60)

(151)

Zurcah,

in a report,

came to Syria

cAbd al-Malik

al-Qasim

to Egypt

sent him

(150)

Ishaq
He

al-cAziz

mentions

and settled

b. Marwn

b. Mukhaymirah

there

some of the
during

the caliphate

(65-86). (152) These are:

(d. 100)

scholars

( Kufah)

of

172
Muslim
Ab

b. Yasr

Qilbah

cUgbah

(d. 100-101).

(d. 104-107

b. Wasj

al-Ijasan

)(

(d. 82-83)

cAbdah b. Abi Lubabah


Khalid

(153)

b. Durayk
b. al-Hurr

(d. 127). (154)

(Basrah)
Basrah)
(Basrah)

(Kufah)

al-Shmi
(d. 133 in Makkah). (155) (Kufah)

173

NOTES

1. Tradition,

p. 66.

2. Tradition,

p. 66-67.

3. al-Rihlah,

p.94.

4. Siyar

7, p. 7

5. See al-Khatib.
6. He entitles

1, p. 123 no. 117 and Ibn $alh, p. 210.

a! -Jami

this list :

7. See p. 223-224

j1I

i1I

I-
ju

I}I

JI v

p. 229.

no. 111-116.

8. See p. 231-32.

9.5, P. 347.
`,
L
I
i.
:
i&a .
j vr.... es j c5s>I :.. cjz &, z'U j

10. Ibidem.

11. Tradition,

.;ate, (4.1AA ...

p. 67.

12. Tahdhib

10, p. 110.

13. Ab Zurcah, p. 328 no. 630. Ab Dwd 3, p. 80 no. 2750.


14. al-Rihlah,

p. 118-120

no. 34.

15. al-Bukhari

1, p. 173, cilm (19)

p. 110

There

he went
went

no. 31.

to Egypt.

is another

P. 113

no. 32.

Ibn

'Abd

al-Barr,

Jamie

Ibn cAbd al-Barr,


.
report

in which

However,

Jabir

the editor

1, p. 93-94.

Jamie

1, p. 93.

is recorded
is inclined

al-Ri2lah,

as saying
to think

that

that he

to Syria.

16. Ibn Sa'd

3 2, p. 61 (20).

17. See note 5.


18.

Siyar

19.

Ibidem.

4, p. 57.

20. al-Marifah
21. Siyar

4, p. 56.

22. Ibn Abi


cAbd

1, p. 438.

al-Barr,

Shaybah
Jamic

8, p. 731-32
1, p. 94.

no. 6179.

Ab

Zur'ah,

p. 652

no. 1937.

Ibn

174
23.

Ibn Abi

24.

Ibn

Shaybah

Sacd, 2

no. 6180.

8, p. 732

2, p. 116 (19).

Ibn

Jamie

cAbd al-Barr,

Zurcah, p. 654 no. 1944. al-

Ab

1, p. 94.
Ma'rifah

1, p.

al-Ma'rifah

1, p.

484.
25. Ibn Sacd 72p.

155 (2).

26. See al-MaTifah

1, p. 234, Siyar

27.

Ibn

Sacd 72, p. 153 (17).

28. al-Wal
445.

4, p. 158.

2, p. 18 no. 115. Ibn Abi Shaybah

Ibn cAbd al-Barr,

29. al-'Ilal

Jamie

8, p. 732 no. 6183.

1, p. 94.

2, p. 146 no. 938.

30. Hilyah

4, p. 181-82.

31. al-Rihlah,

p. 135

In another

no. 47.

to Makkah,

al-Madinah

p. 92 no. 20.

al-Rihlah,

the Companion

him on his estate al-Wahl

he found

where

he followed

report,

from

; see p. 137

no.

48.
32. Hilyah

4, p. 351.

33. al-Drimi,
Rihlah,

p. 93 no. 21.

34. al-Rihlah,

Also Ab Zurah,

Siyar

36.

Siyar

37.

al-Dhahabi,

no. 1741.

4, p. 207.
4, p. 209.
Trikh

2, p. 152.

al-Islam

38. Ibn Sa'd 5, p. 89 (8). al-Magrifah


p. 127

no. 41, p. 128-29

39. al-Ma'rifah

1, p. 468-69.

40. al-Rihlah,

p. 130 no. 45.

41. Ibn Sacd


42.

p. 612

(2).
71,
Sacd
82
Ibn
570.
p.
alno.

p. 93 no. 22.

35.

al-Rihlah,

(47)

1, p. 114 mugaddimah

6, p. 180 (1).
p. 139

al-Rihlah,

1, p. 468-69.
no. 43,44.

al-Rihlah,

al-Muhaddith,

p. 223 no. 111.

al-Muhaddith,

Jamie 1, p. 94.

Ibn cAbd al-Barr,


no. 42.

p. 128

p. 329

no. 364.

no. 49.

43. Ibn Sacd 5, p. 160 (5) and 6, p. 180 (9).


44. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 69 (10).

45. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 187 (11), (6).


46. Ibn Sacd 7

1, p. 134 (22).

2, p. 166. al-Rihlah,

al-Ma'rifah

al-Darimi,

(47)

muqaddimah

p. 144-145

no. 53,54.

no. 568

1, p. 114.

al-Muhaddith,

p. 223

no. 112.
47. al-Humaydi
al-Rihlah,

2, p. 339 no. (768).

p. 140-41

no. 50.

Ibn

Ibn Abi Shaybah

cAbd al-Barr,

Jamie

8, p. 732
1, p. 92-93.

no. 6181,6182.

175
48. al-Muhaddith,

p. 224

49. See al-Rihlah,

p. 142,96.

no. 115.

Hilyah,

4, p. 313.

Ibn

cAbd al-Barr, JJmi,

1, p.

95.
50. al-Rihlah,

p. 143 no. 52.

51. Ibn Sacd 7


52.

1, p. 115 (5). Siyar

4, p. 571.

231.
p.
,

al-Muhaddith

53. al-dIlal

1, p. 86

54. al-Hal

1, p. 412-13

no. 305.

55. See Ibn Sacd 7

no. 2694.

2, p. 160 (19). Ab Zurcah, p. 328 no. 630.

56. Ibn Sacd 2

2, p. 130 (5). al-'ilal

57. Ibn Sacd 7

2, p. 160(91).

58. Ibn Sacd 7

2, p. 161 (1 ). al-Marifah

59. al-Macrifah
60. al-Mal

1, p. 443.

2, p. 238

2, p. 603.

5, p. 82.

no. 1715.

61. Ibn Sacd 2 2, p. 132


62. al-Muhaddith,

2, p. 604.

al-Macrifah

Siyar

(24).

p. 232.

63. a! - Ri,41ah, p. 148 no. 58. al-Muhaddith,


64. al-Dirimi
Zurcah,

1, p. 114 mugaddimah

p. 344

no. 2694.

1, p. 412-13

no. 692.

a! -Rihlah,

p. 223 no. 1 13.

(47) no. 569

rifah
a!
-Ma,
.

no. 57.

p. 147-48

Ibn 'Abd

2, p. 386. Ab
al-Barr,

Jami'

1, p. 95.
65. al-Muhaddith,

p. 231.

66. See Ab Zurcah, p. 409 no. 948. al-Ma'rifah


67. See for example,

a! -Ma, rifah

68. al-Macrifah

1, p. 543.

69. al-Ma'rifah

1, p. 621.

70. al-Muhaddith,

71. Siyar

6, p. 31.

72. Siyar

6, p. 141.

75. Siyar

2, p. 688. aJ-Mu]addith,

p. 232.

p. 231.

73. al-, Ila! 1, p. 369 no. 2346.


74. a! -'Ila!

1, p. 636.

v3JJ, a, I p LS

1, p. 140 no. 676.


3, p. 351.
Z'jUl

uLI-i cw

lsla
use
el

, lcm

JU

176
76. Ibn Sacd 2 2, p. 122 (19)yaj
UAL,,
-4LA,

L,

6f.

77. Siyar

: JL!

Wja

jA

Zi.l Jl, J CtUI AzAj vA, &


ll

iLLL;

). a
,

JL-.,

4, p. 51.

78. al-Ma'rilah
79. Tahdhib

2, p. 777. Ibn Sa'd 6, p. 202 (9).


6, p. 278.

80. al-Rihlah,

p. 132-133 no. 46.

81. Siyar 4, p. 325.


82. Ibn Sacd 5, p. 160 (5).
83. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 180 (1).
84. See al-Bukhari,
(5) no. 14. Muhammad
no. 43. cAbd
Jami,,

(7) no. 7307.

13, p. 282, al-Ptisdm

met Anas, Malik,

b. Abi Bakr al-Thaqafi


b. Yazidmet

al-Rahmn

Mas'd

Ab

4. p. 2059

Muslim,

1, p. 337

al-Angari,

al-

hajj

(13)

Khalib,

al-

1, p. 121 no. 112.

85. Mu$annaf

4, p. 190 no. 8441.

86. al-Ma'rilah

2, p. 816.

87. Id. P. 93.


88. Ibn Abi Shaybah

8, p. 127-28

89. Ibn Abi Shaybah

15, p. 5-6 no. 18956.

90. Ibn cAbd al-Barr,


91. Tahdhib

Jami'

no. (3873).

Ibn Hanbal,

1, p. 45.

10, p. 391. Ibn Sa'd2

2, p. 130 (7).

92. Ibn Sacd 2 2, p. 130 (9,11).


93. a1-11a1 2, p. 270 no. 1941.
94. Siyar

5, p. 302.

95. Tahdhib

5, p. 9.

96. Ibn Sa'd 5, p. 353 (7).


97. Id. 7 2, p. 163 (4).
98. a! -llal

2, p. 17 no. 103.

99. Ibn Sacd 7

1, p. 115 (8) Siyar


.

100. See Tahdhib


101. al-Macrifah
102. Tahdhib
103. al-'Ilal

4, p. 5 71.

9, p. 215.
2, p. 101-102.

2, p. 433.
1, p. 422 no. 2774.

104. Ibn Sacd 2

2, p. 133 (2).

105. Ab Zur, ah 2, p. 720-721

no. 2299.

Musnad

al-cilm

6, p. 337.

177
106. al-dllal

1, p. 366 no. 2317.

107. al- Ma'rifah


108. Ibn Sacd 7

2, p. 142,443.
2, p. 114 (1 1), al-Ma'rifah

109. al-Marifah

1, p. 234.

110. al-Macrifah

2, p. 740.

111. Siyar

1, p. 234.

2, p. 599.

112. Ibn Sad 2

2, p. 121 (13).

113. al-Dhahabi,

Tarikh

al-Khalib,

al-Jdmic

1, p. 158-59

nos. 215-217

3, p. 35.

al-islam

114. Id. 3, p. 35-36.


115. Id. 3, p. 36. Tahdhib
116. al-Dhahabi,

5. p. 278.

Tarikh

117. Tahdhib

6, p. 462.

118. Khalifah,

p. 36.

119. Ibn Sa'd 7

2, p. 190. al-Dhahabi,

Tarikh

120. Ibn Sacd 4 2, p. 83 (10). Tahdhib


121. Khalifah,

5, p. 330.

3, p. 177. Tahdhib

al-islam

al-islam

3, p. 38.

1, p. 425.

p. 30.

122. Ibn Sacd, p. 62 (10).


123. Ibn Sacd 5, p. 131.

Tahdhib

8, p. 346-347.

124. Ibn Sacd 5, p. 116 (2). Tahdhib


125. Ibn Sa'd

5, p. 115 (26).

126. Tahdhib

10, p. 472.

127. Siyar

4, p. 414.

4, p. 432.

128. Ab Khaythamah,
129. Tahdhlb

2, p. 7,8.

Siyar

Tirikh

4, p. 423.

3, p. 2485.

as having

of Ab liurayrah

Sacd 5, p. 222

p. 10 no. 23.

Ibn cAbd al-Barr,

131. He is recorded
authority

al-cIlm,

7, p. 185.

130. See al-Tabari,


Magrifah

Siyar

12, p. 117.

said

Ibn Sad

2, p. 31,33.

al-Tamhid
that

there

but that he knew

5, p. 213 (16)

was

whether

133. Siyar

5, p. 36.

134. Siyar

4, p. 452.

135. Ibidem.
136. Ibn Said

6, p. 211 (19).

Siyar

no one who

(24)

5, p. 36.

(26).

al-

5, p. 15,30.
related

he was honest

(1 1).

132. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 158 (2), 5, p. 222 (9). Siyar

(20)

on the

or not.

Ibn

178
p. 210 (17).

137. Ibidem
138. Siyar

4, p. 465.

139. Tahdhib

3, p. 243.

140. Ibn Sa'd

6, p. 172-173.

p. 62 (10).

142. Ibidem,
143. Siyar

2, p. 368-69.

144. Siyar

5, p. 70.

145. al-'Ilal

Tahdhib

147. Siyar

9, p. 420.
5, p. 165.

148. al-Hal

2, p. 361 no. 2534.

149. Siyar

5, p. 97.

150. Ibidem

98.
p.
,

151. Ibn

Sa, d 6, p. 219 (20).

152. Ab

Zurcah, p. 501-502

154.

6, p. 291.

2, p. 361 no. 2533.

146. Tahdhib

hadith

4, p. 297.

p. 173 (4).

141. Ibidem,

153. In

Siyar

Siyar
circle

4, p. 358,

is a report

of his and other

Successors'

being

in al-Sham.

It is recorded

155. Tahdhib

there

no. 1314.

that he met Ibn cUmar in al-Sham.

2, p. 262.

Tahdhib

6, p. 462.

in a

PART

TWO

ASPECTS OF IJADITH

180

CHAPTER

ONE

THE QUSSAS AND THE FUQA HA'

AL-QU$$A$

The

gss(

him,

(i) Such
preacher,

the Qur'an,

message. (2)

drawing

consisted

is tadhkir
In

considered

his

Pedersen

qussas shows that their


the

people with

the

study,

to be the forerunners

He takes the aw'il

course

to

Qur, an and

hadith,

fear and hope.

This

or wacz ". (3)

Juynboll's

indications

earliest

and

available

of the gasas,

the contents

interpreting

and

to convey

and poetry,

about the older


in

as w ciz

as an exhortatory

acted

thr

law, and impressing

enforcing

known

upon all the material

the sunnah,

Describing

CENTURY

also

a person

says: "the information


activity

is

pl. qusss)

mudhakkir.
minatory

IN THE FIRST

of time

reports

became

known

his views

about this: "During

followers

can be assumed

the

q uss c are
of lhadith.

of the transmission

concerning

of people

of

activities

the first

spreading

stories

as hadith. "(4)
the prophet's

to have talked

s as "the

qusc
which

in the

He summarizes

lifetime
about him.

most of his
After

his

181
death

the only

people

be construed

may

hadith

regulated
first

the

as foreshadowing

lsnds

came

says:

The first

probably

the

above,
into

tarhib

role in early

Passing

over

that
and

standardized

as

hadiths

earlist

decades of

was

perhaps

provided

with

were the qusss. "(5)

( gisas, ahdith)

stories

elements. "(6) He believes


important

when,

circulation,

contained

the

of, say, the last few

transmission

century/700s-720s,

demonstrated

to do so in a way

who continued

related

He also

by the qusss

and fad'i1/math91lb

wa-targhib

that the qusss played

an extremely

Islam. ()

any

of the

exaggeration

role

the

qusss

played in early Islam, I see no reason to believe that only the


activities

of the

hadith.

If the sources

first

century,

Companions

foreshadowed

qusss

they

tell

tell

and the Successors

calls "the standardized

about

us more about

is to be considered

anything

us little

transmission

the

the qusss

the engagement

in hadith

activities;

as foreshadowing

and regulated

hadith

what

of
in the
of the

(s) thus, if
Juynboll
it

transmission",

is these activities.
Having
significance
Islam.

juynboll

according

that,

said

to

puts
the

would

disagree

with

on the

qusss

activities

aw'il

the qusc s is a new one in Islamic

evidence,

the

deep

in early

the phenomena

life. There is a report

of

which

182
dates

it toward

the end of cUmar's

report

dates it during

a new

practice

had not found

speaking,
the

Companions

those

who

life,

the

called

in the transmission

activity

among

Layl(d.

the

with

either

in particular

and fugah',

who

82), who

in

is illustrated

to one of the prominent

attributed

generally

were

The
lack of this
hadith.
the
(i
i)
of

Companions

the

activities,

Successors,

older

Another

So because it was

reputation

culam'

involved

b. Abi

qusss

a favorable

or with

were

(35-40). (lo)

al-fitnah

in Islamic

reign(d. 23). (9)

a report

Successors, cAbd al-Rahman


for

was asked

his opinion

on the

gasas. He says: (12)


t..
I
. . "i*

I-LU
0

There

are various

of the Companions
as something

Companions.
find

Among those who condemned these activities

we

Massd,

continously.
objection

the first
hesitated

(14)

to activities

path

cA ishah,

Khabbb,

to have allowed
he

Prophet

his

to the

There

Umm

of the

it

and

Anas b. Malik,

gss

They considered

of the qusss activities.

contrary

Ibn

cAli,

the disapproval

demonstrating

reports

Ibn

cUmar,

b. al-Hrith,

al-Dard,. (13) cUmar is reported

gss in Islam,
at

Silah

first

are other

Tamim

and

al-Dri,

admonished

reports-which

of the qusss. (15)

to be a

show

him
his

183
The unfavorable

the Companions,

among

is rare

of qusss
Companions
Although

in the

in importance

been

entered

by

notorious

"When

of the

gss during

we saw someone

called

Not only

some

of them

disapprove

Qilbah

(d.

Bakr

96),

of

among
113)

the ulam'

describes

the

of the Successors:

Of the Successors

who

activities,

to condemn

actually

are

and

these we find

(d. 83) Ab cAbd al-Rahmn

al-

(d. 94), Ibrahim

a! -

b. cAbd

al-cAziz

b. Muhammad(d.
b. <Abd Allah

), Maymn
the

in

Successors, (16) the

of the qussa . Among

(d. 100), Salim

had

engaged

not engage in quss

al-Qasim
,

some

ranks

we used to say ' He is shib

reported

cUmar

b. Hazm (d. 110-120


However,

(d.

70), Sacid b. a! -Musayyab

(d. 104),

Zayd b. Thbit

most

b. Abi Layla

(d. after

Nakhaci

did

of the activity

cAbd al-Ralimn
Sulami

yaqussu,

were

grew

qusss

who

the generation

and fugah'

culam'

younger

b. Qurrah

Muc wiyah

bidcah ". 07)

but

of the

reputation

and their

public,

of Successors

particularly

and fugaha'.
position

the

gasas.

in the course of

of the qusss increased,

a number

or three

two

only

are said to practise

who

among

activities,

of the quss

by the fact that this sort

We find

them.

sources

the activities

hadith

is supported

among

time,

of the activities

reputation

more

b. Mihrn
reliable

(d. 101),

), Ab

106), Khrijah
(d. 106)

b.

), Ab

(d. 117). (18)


qusss

had

the

184
of some of those who were

admiration

And

(i 9)

activity.

Of course,

I do not dispute

qussa$

some who
order,

Oadith.

especially

in early

be taken
hadith

they

of the activities

of the

foreshadowing

time,

hadith

the circulation

of

is the
role

of hadith,

that

decades

hand.

could

of the first

is to be taken

it is, in my view,

to emphasize

as
the

in this field.
the activities

the activities

and the Successors in the transmission

on the other

they

and regulated

and the Successors

in my opinion,

special

material

the standardized

of the qusss on the one hand and to overlook

the Companions

In

that their

In fact, if anything

of the Companions

or another.

to

for

of, say, the last few

the transmission

the

was considered

important

the

among

were

us here

and the claim

".
...

is no reason,

(2o)

in one way

concerns

as " foreshadowing

century/700s-720s

There

some

there

at a later

gained,

Islam,

transmission,

activities

liadith

that

of gasas

above,

was responsible

What

(21)

that

reputation

the fact

abused

be one of those which

played

mentioned

in the above evaluation

qusss,

bogus

have

also engaged in this activity.

muhaddithn

fact, their

as

not in favour

of

of

185

AL -FUQAHA'

DISCUSSION

OPINIONS

ARE

OF JUYNBOLL'S
RAISED

TO

THESIS

THE

THAT

THEIR

OF 'PROPHETIC

LEVEL

SAYINGS'

Apart

from

transmitters'

cause a saying

of the Prophet

reasons

and other

errors

to a Companion

to be attributed

or to a Successor and vice versa, (22) it is a well known

fact that

a Companion or a Successor might relate a prophetic


on the authority

a fatw

of the Prophet

on another,

without

was a general practice


both

the Companions

fatws

in solving

The finding

of

attributed

to a Companion

automatically,
When
prevented

opinions.

raised

presented

a piece

the

to them.

of advice

(24)

Some

a legal

or

or to a Successor,
Prophet,

does

giving

fatws

Companions

not

mean

it

is,

saying".

to the provinces,

according

adhere

decision

and in another

to "the level of a prophetic

cUmar sent some Companions


them

in Islam, among
as

containing

to

It

and the Successors, to use precedents

problems

attributed

the Prophet. (23)

for the first fugah'

a report,

report

hadith

and give it as

on one occasion

mentioning

which

to

mostly

their

he
own

to previous

186
in giving

examples
judgement

in

For instance,

fatws,

fatws

but

if there

Sulayman

are no such previous

4e

u.

own

example.

to us the behaviour

Ibn cAbbs and Ibn cUmar: (25)

i
L.
r.
'
rte
r`Si
-i
.
,
w; Y L. t " J.,.L cri
v-I. ju

their

employ

b. Yasr describes

of the two Companions,

1 li

others

Li i

la" 4sji Y :J si
:,-;
.

Y
,,,.: cri

21

LA

bLi

ali(9

i : S
-

l.. t &; ' ,,


(J.,
__

L. Wul

JV
"jr,
A confirmatory

report

Ibn cAbbs is found

concerning

In Ibn

Sacd:
1
f.
fi

ejLSejLi . j.. Y I
1-4.

L:. 4i
,

4
j

J6 p1 4-i
i
J..A-* .raj

L9 -

v Kj v r I
vs:
.
di I J. s-, j yr tj 6 +JI
irL
c;
.

U I J.

ELII L
1 6.9 6 li

r:
.

131L.)-Lt wI&
vt

In sum, in the case of a lhadith


as to

Companions

later

authorities

might

their

giving

as well

reasons

the situation

hat 1

wa

individual

Juynboll,

to above.

He believes

harm
judgement

way

stage, either

that the prophetic

matters

"were

mainly

on the part of the first

through

or for the other

in his study,

and gives

to the

attribution

as a fatw

lhadith

in a different

this.

Successors,

be the secondary

the prophetic

alluded

support

or to

back to the Prophet

traced

understands
to

some examples
hadiths
the

regarding
products

legal minds

of

Islam

187
produced;

later

remoulded

into

p. 17)

hadiths

To support

statements

juridical

these

this veiw,

fugaha'

in some reports

in other

reports.

Musayyab
(which

some

in matters
new

inspired

juridical
previously

as being
than

rather

set examples,

later.

does go back to the prophet

It

be

must

dictated

which

at

by
most

was in due

set by Muhammad,

had not

law.

the

should

products

as being

be considered,
of Sacid's

of them

at all. A legal decision

own

back

traceable

lies in the mere fact

as Sacid's decisions

the

collections

solving,

problem

these legal decisions

instance,

insight,

religious

than

rather

as verbally

revelation,

the example

decisions

did not yet mean insight

stage, fiqh

words,

with

The reason why

years

as ad hoc

by it. In other

yet become identical

fifty

legal

in the hadith

and forbidden

but

course also to include

quoted

and

it is Sacid b. al-

that

of maxims)

as mentioned

hundred

religion,

in the case of Sacid b.

these

with

the form

take

permissible

first

examples

of the early

to the Prophet

are attributed

says: "I maintain

that, at this early

assumed

in the

giving

or a Companion

compiled

the

which

of

examples

to a number

is to be credited

sometimes

prophet

he puts forward

attributed

After

Juynboll
who

been

going back to the prophet". (Tradition,

and practices

al-Musayyab,

seem to have

opinions

to

being

that indeed

or one of his Companions

simply

188
does

not

being

being

require

a product

instances

where

definitely

point

solution

to the

decision

was

their

opinions

He thought

terms

first,

in

problem
into

these
a saying

is indeed

be they

the

these

for

a legal opinion

of

of his

or one or more

examples,

by various

of examples

to authorities
whatsoever

repeated

prophet

this

p. 16)

examining

in the

practice

of the

before

attributed

no necessity

having

merely

statements

number

juridical

only.

moulded

actual

numerous

to one conclusion

Companions. "( Tradition,

consider

The

reasoning.
with

his predecessors,

Before

of Sacid as also

mouth

Sacid is credited

Sacid with

crediting

the

latter's

the

of

Sacid. There

preceding

put into

Successors
matter,

supporting

I propose

and followers
then

and

this from

first

to
as to

to present

Musannaf

cAbd al-

Razz q.

Shurayh

b.

al-

He served

for

Hrith
a long

praised

for his knowledge.

sunnah

rather

ILI
l
t5:

j-

than giys.
,J f-<; :.

period

in

gad',

in which

(26) He was in favour

he was

of following

al-

He says: (27)

1jcYjI,

:,L:

-, :.

L'.. J 161
Jh

He states

clearly

that

he followed

a! -athar.

(28)

Ibrhim

V
al-

189
Nakhaci,

one of his pupils,

his judgements

Sacid

b.

tells

Shurayh

us that

used to base

[b. Mas, d]. (29)

on those of cAbd Allah

al-Musayyab

According
L) s: i4

to one of Sacid's pupils


v lS L. j.

v Vii:

:(3o)

L,U11 Z" 6.2... 11w

L 1 l.. JJu

sue.--v:,

L;
.CA-1
On being asked about a particular

he said: (31)

matter,

J
Yi-t.
Ij
L.,,
U
l.
WI
'V-j
L,
P4-JL. cs)i
t
J
.
(x"-4.
Ab al-Zind
to

afford

Ab

Said

a wife.

al-Zind

then

Sacid said that it was. (32) Ibn


He gave an answer

matter.
Said

and ask him

Said

gave

When
you

cUrwah

him

Ibn 'Umar

that

he was

b.

the

same

him

asked

<Umar was
and told

fa tw

was informed

that

they

should

if this

was

sunnah.

said

the same question.

asked

about

his questioner

some

to go to

The man did so, and

as Ibn

had

done.

of this, he said: " Well,

I told

cUmar

an "lim. (33)

al-Zubayr

His son, Hishm,


said that he had never
matter

o-. j

asked Sacid about the case of a man who cannot

maintain

divorce.

L3...
oi v.: ,iI-z

according

who was also a faqih


heard

to his own

his father
judgement.

and am uhaddith,

give a decision
(34)

on any

insisted
cUrwah

190
on following

Salim

b. cAbd

He was
He told
the

Allah

have

you

Mawla

cIkrimah

[on any matter]

concerning

The man said: "I will

J.

accept

He was once

I may come to a different

cAbbals

not spoken

according

to my own opinion

(37)
...

his own opinion

about giving

asked about a matter,

He was then

So he said: (38),
cAta

pupil,

and,

RabafX

He was cautious

devoted

nothing

matter.

I cannot reach you". (36)

but two

Abi

When

on a particular

he had heard

gone away,

Ibn

He said: I have

b.

a fatw

Slim told him: "I may give you an opinion

at a time when

opinion,

know.

that

I;u
VI e.i

when

cAI-

for

his questioner

opinion".

then,

b. cUmar

approached

matter

your

(35)

al-sunnah.

asked: Why

i, jYI
pronounced
would

ra'y.

If it was athar

would

say ra'y .(39)

on which

not

on any

ask him if what


he would

he said: I do not

give your

IL ;,i LLll ;...,


matter,

as a fatw.

opinion

on it?

il
Ibn

jurayj,

his

he had said was Film or

say ddim, but if it was ra'y

he

191
Ibrahim

al-Nakhaci

Al-Hasan
athar

b. cUbayd

I everything

asked

concerning

No, but I have heard


for those things

Allah

(fhr

which

heard

he gave fatwas.

I have not heard from

that

Ibrahim

reporting

an analogy
I

that

said that he had


to his own

according

anything

He said:

those things

al-Acmash,

[as

(4 i)

opinion.

Muhammad

b.

Sirin

He used not to give his own opinion


was based on some report
would

if he had heard

I and I have produced

have heard. (4o) One of his pupils,


never

him

consider

followed

al-athar.

a particular

way).
disliked

on dilm, they were

to be on the right

( combining

more knowledgable

Qatadah

Dicamah

particular

was

matter.

the cumrah

if their

this practice;

racy was better

Qatdah

path, as long as he
al-mutcah

once

than

in

and <Uthmdn

disapproval
than I.

bi-

and the hajj

He said: cUmar b. al-Khattb

on ra'y, their

b.

it

unless

that he had heard. (42) He said: they

(43) He was once asked about

i1 al-hajj

al-cumrah

b. cAffn

someone

as a fatw,

was based

If it was based

mine. (44)

al-Sudsi
asked

by one of his pupils

He said: I

do not know".

concerning

His questioner

192
asked him to give

then

had not used ray


that

a fatw

al-Ijasan

for forty

In another

time. (45)

given

Qatdah

told him that he

He was fifty

years.

he declared

report,

based on ra'y for thirty

old at

years

that he had not

years. (46)

al-Ba$ri

al-Hasan

was asked

if he gave fatwas
heard from

his

by Ab

to the

opinion

were

was

Salamah

people

b. cAbd al-Rahmn

based on what

better

for

them

he had

to what

according

to his own opinion.

others or according

that not all his fatwas


that

his opinion;

He told him

he had heard,
than

their

but
own

opinion. (47)

Ibn

Shihab

al-Zuhri

He was told

by the well

known

'When you give the people your


just your
sunnah,

them

that it is sunnah,

Rabicat

al-Ra, y:

them

that it is

something

in order

from

that they

the
may

that it is your opinion. (48)

not think

Ayyb

inform

and when you give them

opinion;
inform

opinion,

faqih

al-Sikhtiyni

He was asked about a matter


had heard

nothing.

concerning

which

he said that he

Then he was asked to give his opinion

on

193
it.

He said that his ra'y

In the following,

was inadequate

I shall quote

to deal with

book,

this

Successors

are

From

these

would

repeat

without

the

given,

examples,
earlier

in

collections.

Companions

and

see that

shall

material

the

to the

addition

we

prophetic

hadith.

the

fugah'

early

in giving

verbalism

the

their

fatws,

attribution.

al-Musannaf

abounds

greatest

fagih

of his time,

Jurayj.

Ibn Jurayj

to compile
pupil

from

materials

a1-Mu$annaf

hadith

of cAbd al-Razzq, one of the great early


In

from

examples

it. (49)

al-Razzq,

whom

in his turn,

reports

in Makkah,

is considered

a collection

of Ala,,

with

to cAt,, the

on the authority

of Ibn

to be one of the first

authors

and to have

of hadith,
he frequented
is regarded

traced

for

been the best

17 years

as a reliable

(5o)
.

source for

cAbd
Ibn

Jurayj. (51)

-Ali

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An examination

The first
argument,
those

of Juynboll's

which
Said

of

adduces

for

are sufficient

to support

his

here,

are

us to examine
He asserts

b. al-Musayyab.

that:

"Many

later appearing in collections with isnds containing

traditions,

his name, can be traced


himself

juynboll

that

examples

examples

also in other

do not go back

that

sources

to persons

as utterances

himself".

than

older

of

Then he gives his examples:


" E.g. (1). The legal
divorce
, Ali,
Allah
Jubayr,
.

Abi

Bakr

b. cUtba,
al-Qsim
Rabah,

Muhammad

l xalga

the [concluding

before

Ab

maxim

b. cAbd
Abn
b.

cAmir

b.

of] the

ar-Rahmn,

b. cUthmdn,

Muhammad,

'n-nikah

marriage),

cAli
b.

(i. e. no

ascribed

to

Allah

b. cAbd

b. Husayn,

Sacid b.

cUbayd

Salim

Sa, d, Jbir

b. Kacb, Sulaymdn

qabla

cAbd Allah,

b. Zayd,

Nfic

b. Yasr, Mujhid,

b
cAla,

b. Jubayr,

al- Qasim b.

200
cAbd ar-Rahmn,
Shurayh,

cAmr

Tws

b. Kaysan,

Ibn al-Musayyab
is also listed

abandons
(Ab

is found

feels

her

that

the salt),

in a slightly

different

maxim

marriage

without

(Tirmidhi,

nikh

is listed

III,

pp. 407ff. )

al-Basri,

Shurayh

and Ibrahim

p. 411);

hand,

allegedly
between

pre-Islamic

transmitted
Zuhri

judge

Batish,

of the

Aktham

Ghyat

with

belongs

Sacid b. al-

and Ab Hurayra,

to a report

according

(i. e. the child

!i 1-firsh

al-walad

bed),

Ibn

tradition

as a prophetic

also Hasan

the other

and

(i. e. no

i11 bi-waliyyin

the Successors

in the isnd

Mister)

I, p. 181 passim;

among

Musayyab

of the

saying,

fugah'

(4). The legal maxim

rule

nikha

l, p. 76)

in a prophetic

version

she

of various

(ibidem,

marital

started,

(i. e.

to Ibn al-Musayyab

ascribed

14, = ed. M. F. Abd al-Bgi,

such as Sacid, but

to the

a guardian)

and also as a ruling

an-Nakhaci

has

period

109, = ed. M. M. cAbd al-Hamld,

(ahra

The legal

's-salat

tarakati

e. g. Nasa i, hayd 2, = ed. Ii. M. al-Mascdi,

(3).

p. 463)

III,

in Ibn Maja, (a1q 17 (=

1-haydatu

aqbalati

performing

Dwd,

as

as well

cIkrima

II, p. 660);

idh

[a woman]

b. az-Zubayr,

#alq 9, s ed, Krehl,

tradition

as a prophetic

(2). The precept

Shacbi, cUrwa

Hasan al-Bari,

(see Bukhri,

ed. M. F. cAbd al-Bgi,

when

b. Harim,

aw'il

b. Sayfi,

al-was'il

is on

genre,

cf. E. I. 2, s.v.
i1

macrifat

201
1, p. 184;

al-aw'il,
(5). Drimi,

85 (=

wud'

the ablutions

concerning

p. 109) lists

of the m ustahda

al-Bagri

and Sacid b. al-Musayyab.

precepts

exist traced

unambiguously

(6 ). In Malik

we often

statements

preceded

ablution

many

this precept

m ursal

traditions

by

same

the

to Hasan

and also Sacid's

texts

as prophetic

e. g. salt 60 and 61, = ed. M. F. cAbd al-Bgi,

sayings,

On the whole,

by Sacid are very

formulated

precepts

of Sacid

to him;

ascribed

find

of precepts

ascribed

Although

back to the prophet,

has remained

own

a number

pp. 94f.
numerous

in the Muwafta'.
In al-Khatib

al-Baghddi's

we read a statement

in which

of Ibn

were

al-Musayyab

circulation
find

with

a statement
In fact,

gives, but
"many

to the contrary.

I have

examined

via other

later

appearing

his name,

utterances

of himself

himself".

In the following

order of number

that all the marsil


of time

brought

that

bears out his assertion

can be traced

in collections

with

also in other

that do not go back to persons

corresponding

into

people. On p. 405 we

all of the six examples

none that

containing

lines,

"

I have found

traditions,

p. 4o4, last few

it is implied

in the course

isnds

perfect

Kifya,

a discussion

that

isnds

sources

as

older than

of these examples

to those of juynboll:

he

in

202
1. This

is

utterance

ascribed,

to persons

quotation,

either

(d. around

and Shurayh

80) or contemporary

b. al-Zubayr(d.

and AbU

Bakr b. cAbd al-Rahmn


Mjah,

see this legal


of the three

maxim

as a prophetic

hadiths

mentioned

However,

name.
canonical

the legal

collections;

to the prophet,

ascribed

successors,
Musannaf

2. There

in two

is no need to trace

hadith;

1, P. 74-75

slightly
cA, ishah

hadith,

appears

).

Sacid's

these

two

can be traced,

as being

as to the companions

and the

hadith

See, al-

maxim

collections.
5, p. 15ff.

which

is ascribed

in Ns'i to find

in Abu

Dwd

(see (ahrah,

it

himself

to
as a

as a

no. 282,283,285.

However, not one of the lsnds that relate this

to the

Prophet

has Sacid's

name

this

precept

is ascribed

to other

different

words,

and

no isnds

contain

to compare

need

in Ab Dwd,
it

I found

us to, to

refers

that

there

the precept,

to the Prophet

ascribed

Moreover,

Juynboll

6, p. 415 ff. Ibn Abi Shaybah

prophetic

hadith

as well

of the earlist

Sacid b. al-Musayyab

hadith

do not

we

(d. 95),

(d. 94). When

b. al-Hrith

a source which

for

him,

with

94), Sacid b. Jubayr

cUrwah

Ibn

Juynboll's

Sacid, i. e. cAli (d. 40).

than

older

example,

consulted

from

as appears

al-Hasan

as a transmitter.
Successors,

in

or at any rate in the same sense:

to

(Drimi,

taharah

(83),

no. 795,799.

203
), to Salim (or al-Qsim)(

1,166-167
128).

1 found

asked

about

of this report

one version

indication

the

it did

that

see Ibn Abi Shaybah, l, p.

not

ascribed

than I

he said: '0 son of my brother,


,

al-m ustahadah

( al-Drimi,
...

3. The

ha di th
Tirmidhi,

in

gives it as a ruling
place.

Tirmidhi's

reflection
hadith.

he.

than

indicate

issuing
it

mentions,

Companions
the

that

fatws
is

but Tirmidhi
in the same
of this

ascription

is no

based

ascribed

of various

as well,

Successors

and

As a fatwa,

as a ruling

as juynboll

words

of their

contemporary

is listed

of various

to Companions

maxim

this

concerning

Fahrah (83) no. 792 . 1, p. 166 )

prophetic

Successors

on being

his ra, y.

represent

is no one left who is more knowledgable

there

to Sacid, with

on the
only

not

than

more

prophetic
to

persons

Sacid, but to some of those who were

with

Furthermore,

Sacid's name

is not

included

older
in the

isnds going back to the Prophet.


After
IL LS-IY

the prophetic

mentioning
1+j
-,

4LJI-

(J

hadiths,
I W.

al-Tirmidhi
"W

says:

I I,i.a
Vi

jjJ

Ij

W
I
'.
1,
Jmi
s.
"
Y
r.
s,
.

"r
I

cJ JYIC

cri
t-

Lr

CUJJUj

Y: I,yJL: P+.:i

1L.;Jl
WI

l. i
c

ist cs I1
&y

204
IJL.
JjLII
,:
J

w 4111"j

el5jVlJ

cs).l.

I"r.
r:

r.

t. -iJ

aLJIJ

J.
. -Ii
4. This example

is, in fact, not one of an utterance

Sacid in one source and to the Prophet


transmits

this hadith,

from

to

ascribed

in another.

Al-Zuhri

the Prophet, on the authority

of

Sacid and other Successors, i. e. Ab Salamah, on the authority


of Ab Hurayrah,
,A ishah.
al-Zuhri
(21)

Also there

Sacid and

do not appear. (see for example,

Muwatta',

agdiyah

2120,2121

7, p. 442-43,

al-Musannaf

p. 148 no. 7277.

no. 13818,

wasy

al-Tirmidhi,

(5), no.

).

5. The precept
Sacid which

of the ablution
Juynboll

says

of the mustahdah
"has

to him" is also ascribed

same

page

of

al-Drimi,

, Umar, cAta, al-Hasan,

6. This example

attributed

to others

in various

specifically

to

reports

cAishah,

on
Ibn

and al-Awzci.

does not represent

"Sacid's own statement

by the same texts as prophetic

numbers,

in a1- MuwaUUa', ca1t 60 and 61, are two versions


prophetic

to

unambiguously

remained

preceded

a mursal

of

in which

13819,13821.4,

the

on the authority

channels,

are other

no. 20 . 2, p. 739.

ascribed

b. al-Zubayr

and cUrwah

hadith,

but

they

sayings".

are preceded

These two
of

by two

205
versions

hadith

of a prophetic

isnds,

salt

include

the name of Said.

58 and 59.

in the same sense

Moreover,

full

with

these two lsnds

do not

Z-A
J ej.:
VAI P.

j.

CI
.....

l.i "- -

I4-1.
4.1.1
LLz

61 V-LL. .JU'

jl&

.iI-

I JJ-&M6
41J

Ju cil :.,. ii

e
o,
..... ,.

JJ-'J

Li.-

U
I!.
4.
t.:
c
j
%J...,

-OA

I J.
4-1J

w
6L-I6r..
rL
4.r,-"l
S
,s. tSj - r1-i
.....

&4.."j 1 L= b, ;, 1..

J.s.!-: ! r_.r"

j c

i &x14.
I-1
61I-e x:,
.
4;J

tLI LS1. - 4.U

1 .

,1j:
Le.
1-'%
%
bz
>i
QJ .(--- -- Ji -'2A-
- _i -1
U3
. -.

Juynboll's

comment

Khatib's Kifyah,
opinion.
Ibn

circulation

regarding

He says that

al-Musayyab

with

on the statement,

were

which

Sacid's marsil

" it is implied
in the

perfect isnads

course

that

appears

is incorrect,

in a! -

in my

all the marsil


brought

of time

via other people".

of
into

In fact this

statement runs:
.r_

L
L.
l
I
o.
:r

This means that the

Lam.
L4il
s.
., , s.; ..": -:,, ,. .,
. :
marsil

of Sacid are found

It.

as muttasilah

206
on

the

authority

transmitters.
Sacid's own
not about

Having

to Ibn

Successors from
be taken

from

the

developed

these

into

here

is about

prophetic

that

decisions

are also attributed

more than one centre;

as Ibn al-Musayyab's

other

sayings,

into muttasil.

examples

al-Musayyab

through

argument

as developed

hadiths

mursa!

Companions

the

said this,

statements

It appears
attributed

of

why,

own products

that

to other

then, should
?

are

these

207

NOTES

1. See Pedersen,

The Islamic

2. Tamim

says, replying

al-Darf
r4.:

rUI

lj

Preacher",

to Umar when

JL...
lJ
iJI
61,?
r.:
y.
,

I, l
y.:

(d. 135) using al-sunan

al-Khurisani

p. 226.231.
asked about his qa$a$,

see Siyar

Macmar saw -Ata'

2, p. 447.

3, p. 220 no.

in his ga$as. See al-Mu$annaf

5403.
3. " The Islamic

Preacher

4. Tradition,

p. 11.

5. Tradition,

p. 74.

", p. 237.

6. Ibidem.
7.

On the origins

of Arabic

8. See a cross section


9. See Ab

Hilal

of their

al-cAskari,

10. Ibn Abi Shaybah

responsible

11. We find,

later,

the ranks

and Muhammad

demonstrated

activities

for

initiating

See also 14, p. 114 where


this

some younger

Successors

of the qu$$ac,

for

b. Kacb al- Quradhi.

above.

2, p. 113.

al-Awa'i!

8, p. 746 no. 6241.

al-Khawrij

entered

p. 165.

prose",

Ibn Sirin

made

activities

and

activity.
who engaged

example,

in iadith

Sacid b. Jubayr,

See Ibn Abi Shaybah

al-Hasan

8, p. 744-745

al-Ba*ri,
nos. 6235,

6240.

12. Ibn Waooh, al-Bidac


13. See Ibn Wahb's
al-nahy

wa al-nahy'anh,

Jamic, pp. 75-77.

canh, pp. 16-23.

14. al-A wail

a! - Batith

p. 19.

Ibn Abi Shaybah


cal al-khalac,

8, pp. 746-49.

al-Bidac

wa

pp. 138-141.

2.13.

15. See Ibn Abi Shaybah

8, p. 746

no. 6242, p. 748

no. 6250.

16. See note (11) above.


17. al-Bidac

wa al-nahy

18. see Ibn Wahb's

Jmi'

148 (2). Ibn Abi Shaybah


,anha

pp. 19,21,22.

canh, p. 21.
75-76.
p.
,

.
al-Mu$annaf

8, p. 743 no. 6232.

Hilyah

2, p. 287.

; A4,11A

L:: 1., 131l'S


LJ.1, j. 1: da.
_JI

3, p. 222 no. 5411

p. 748 no. 6251.

al-Bida"

Ibn

Sa'd 5, P.
wa al-nahy

208
19. Ibn Abi Sbaybah
20. Among

them

8, pp. 743 no. 6232. a1-Mu$annaf

are al-Hasan

Quracii. See, for instance,


21. See Ibn Hibban,
22. See, for
Kif

Ibn Abi Shaybah

al-Hkim,

b. Jubayr,

Muhammad

b. Ka-b al-

al-Mawffeat

1, p. 44 ff.

8, p. 744-45.

1, p. 71-74.

al-MafrObin

example,

Said

al-Bari,

3, p. 218 no. 5395.

Marifat

Ibn al-Jawzi,

p. 21. al-Khalib,

al-hadith,

tu1m

a1-

yah, p. 417-18.

23. See al-Khatib,

p. 417.

a! -Kifyah,

24. Ibn Sacd 2 2, p. 117 (5).


25. al-Dhahabi,

Tadhkirat

For the second report,

1, p. 38-39.

al-huffdz

see Ibn

Sacd 2 2, p. 120 (17).


26. Siyar

4, p. 102.

27. Ibn cAbd al-Barr,

Jmi,

2, p. 137.

In an early

source, this saying

appears

in

a story:
y:

ju

t `uL1VI ;-, it* L. 1 Ul L iJly

WI 6L&-."L
LIII

i. ,

GV% ejI.

JLIJ

Ny

r4-: YIJ

,1I VAJ . LJJ I


JJl

.., .A

olY ip+ J.aj ". Lj


1

...

Vla

L:;

f.., : JU w. SJI Z#e ...

l WlJ 1..
.I..,

V :.

y. n

l+--.i UL- J li LSJ Ii ^: J I IN jIy_ CJJYI61.1. :I,,_1 dial . IJ-1

Lt z:,.ia: 1L. J. 1: &J 4UL.

L;

Vj C7.-,u . r,t.., L.. .-:

L'
- -JII'!

".:

C. I r:., (YV) Z..4: 1I


28. Ibn

cAbd al-Barr,

Jimic

2, p. 34.

Also Ibn Sa'd 6, p. 94 (13).


W
FYI
;
in.
f!
,
.

29. Siyar

Y
l.
l
3
a
=,, j
y; ,i31

W1

4, p. 103.

30. Ibn Sad 2 2, p. 116.


31. Ibn cAbd al-Barr,
32. al-Shfici,
33. AbU Zur'ah

34. al-MaTifah

Jifmic

2, p. 29.

2, p. 65 no. 212.
p. 404 no. 931.

1, p. 550.

35. Ibn cAbd al-Barr,

JJmic

-ui,)..;Li

J, i, fit ':. - --L.

2, p. 138.

will

fly

l3 z;-Jl

c"I

;n.,. JI

36. Id. P. 32.


37. al-Magrifah,
38. al-Darimi,

:JU t, L1

2, p. 10.

...

1, p. 45 muqaddimah

l+_,i J::, VI 4J

VI

L.: L_S. a JU

17, no. 108.

: JU . Vj, i Y: JU . t. -
mir

.U

- :
CJs.

",
t.

I
I
lA.
6
41J
61
&
y j'i V1

JU

209
39. Ibn Sacd, 2

2, p. 134 (5).

Wj
JU
1
JG
I,
:
alS
61j.
:
ti`. &K r ql j jt t1a:. r LI,
.VTR

U.
131
J.
L.
r. 6K
,

40. id. 2, p. 608-609.


s l., &... ie. J L. -

A-.,

:ALS 14--

Si j1

41. Ab Zurcah, p. 668 no. 2015.

a1-Ilai, 2, p. 360 no. 2518. Hilyah,

mir J.i

J., t, -A
42. al-, Ilal

2, p. 360 no. 2517.

43. Ibn Abd al-Barr, Jmi"

:a1. JK

c.

t-&Alr. l all

4, p. 222.

*Ir.!

.---t,

a... W ". " If 1 r J,, i" Y AL Ci

2, p. 137

r, Yl

fIi V j.

J,Jl

1 4s16jyA I,yJIS
,

44. Id. 2, P. 31.


t)-i

V+% I

&9-- 6p

ir,

LI
Jlwy.
"

l :, . a.l L i: l I ir<
JL: o-l I
<l"
"l

L .A:

. a ti L-4--ti.f L1JA
.
45. Ibn Sad 7

2, p. 1 (6). al-Ma'rifah,

611 W..

Ibn al-Jacd, 1, p. 522 no.

2, p. 280. Musnad

1057.
J.:::
Y:
JLU
7.I"
: JU .,: L.1,,.

LU.q jai
I"
46. Musnad

4:_

JU

;t 1L

= &, I :JU IW.. j... jA r.S wIJ

Ibn al-Jacd 1, p. 523 no. 36. Siyar

L" ... ;,
47. Ibn Sacd 7

1, p. 120 (21).

,,.

WI

JAmic

131j.
Lij

.:,
:

.s1L. : JJ:.:; Ail

Ibn cAbd al-Barr,

Jamic

i: i,

Ju 2.:i,,& ,;, i

2. p. 60.

fl "-. -'_

"i ,. WIV. rL- l..:..: 1ji


1
t4-. 16-

c11 -h"

L. J.. DWI

psi.

50. Tahdhib
51. Tahdhib

4. P. 403-4.
6, p. 312.

t4J

L111
i

I;3I -5. Li L: "1.;, cy,Y Z'::


JU
i
,
4.11I,.:1:,_ Y U.

4.:t

49. Ibn Sacd 7 2, p. 14 (24).


4-UH rJ : JLU .

L.
i
Jl
yt

2, p. 144-45.

Lt,

qt,

LLi 3_:,..,,,}" 1 1:.


.

- t4-y

48. Ibn cAbd al-Barr,

L. &-A4.,., J!AAj,. 1
_.

5, p. 273.

:. , ij

S.
I
l:
j
.. -- .-a., Val! L. Js L&Gillj V:L.. -.JI Jl:. it
Z;

I
I
, ..4I,,.

J2 JLU LA 4. 1
_,. VI`L

JLU
1
ji.
%
L,.
&&
(J:
!
+.

210

1
TWO

CHAPTER

THE ISNAD

JUYNBOLL'S

CHRONOLOGY OF THE

OF THE

BEGINNING

ISNAD
The isnd is one of the two
being

other

the matn

hadiths;

without

Juynboll

does

transmission
decades

it,

main features

It is essential

hadiths

believe

not

of the hadith

of the first

the

late

sixties

conclusion
gave

or

to the
at the

probably

the origin

as having

taken

place

he says: " Scrutiny


institution

of the

creation
in

earliest

the

late

in

sometime

however,

seventies

chapter,

of the

of the institution

date: "...the birth

early

of his first

way

century

is accepted

in the

used

than the last few

In discussing

century.

of

as worthless.
was

earlier

material

isnd, he suggests a definite


of the isnd

isnd

the

the

transmission

to the

regarded

are
that

of the hadith;

in

the

of informants
of

seventies

the

isn d

of the

first

(the late 690s) ". (2)

THE ISNAD
The
chronology

AND ITS ASSOCIATION

main

evidence

is "the saying

WITH

THE FITNAH

juynboll

adduces

attributed

to Muhammad

to

support

this

b. Sirin (d.

211
110/728):

[sc.

'They

inquiring

said: Name us your


sunna their
bldac their
that

the

separate

study

Before
two

were

traditions

between

fitnah

the fitna

in this
Ibn

and

they

occurred

Juynboll

is meant

report

ahl asahl al-

contends

the conflict

He devotes

al-Zubayr.
this

interpretation.

his arguments

for this view,

I shall refer

he

as

which

to prove

mentions

to

used

not

but if they were


,

not accepted. "(3)

to an attempt

I consider

were

Thus, if these were

accepted

were

Umayyads

reports

but when

informants.

traditions

by the word

traditionists]

isnd,

the

after

the

to
his

substantiating

arguments.

With
(d. 233/848)
allegedly

to

respect

is ascribed
never

Acmash lived

heard

from

transmission
definitely
another
fitnah

he

a remark
traditions

59-61

have here a context

first,

the

are mentioned

"To

concerning

Ibn

until

the concept

145/762,
fitna

Main

al-Acmash,

the fitna.

before

(679-681)

in which

says:

who

Since alwe again

and tradition

in one breath, in which

by fitna

the one of Ibn az-Zubayr is meant "(4) In fact, from


.
remark

ascribed

here is meant

Zubayr'S. (5)

Ibn

to Ab Dwd, we learn
al-, Ashcath's

fitnah

that by

and not Ibn al-

212
The other
Anas,

in

context

this

50/670

Ibn

consistent

search

prophet,

isn ads,

interpreted
looked

in

I sn ds

interpretation
the

Ab

Dwd

statement

half

of which

a statement
by Macmar

back

difficult

has made

Zuhri

Zuhri's

1,100 musnad

in them.

b. Rshid

b. Kaysn

of
It is

in all 2,200
literally

this

traditions,

but

the other

1,100 if

That

he indeed

traditions

is borne

(d. after

(d. 154/770)

authority

methods.

Taken

he collected

latter

to harmonize

had collected

for non-musnad

of Slih

This

on the

musnad.

not interested

to the

mu sn a d;

are

which

use

Zuhri's

all the way

somewhat

may be asked why

from

as indicating

were

were

lived

made consistent

ma rf Cj,.

that

mean

to mean that he consistently

concerning

was also on the look-out

reported

words,

al-Ajurri

remark

he was supposedly

by

other

mean that he only found

the question

out

going

that

as-Sijistni

in this

who

lsnds

is, however,

with

traditions

for

it may

who

az-Zuhri,

in this

asnad

Firstly

it can be explained

thus it may be taken


for

alleged

Shihb

b.
Jjl.

says: "The verb

as the first

until124/742,

to Mlik

ascribed

6., l

interpretations.

indicated

secondly,

report,

L,

juynboll

of two

of isnds;

might

says:

report

admits

Malik

that

he

which

Regarding

is an aw'il

report

140/758)

in which

Zuhri's

as

213
for

search

sayings

Companions

to

attributed

is explicitly

attested.

To conclude from this that it was Zuhri who was the first
to make consistent
interpretation
Zuhri's

use of isnds,

to consider

Ibn

as the

Indeed,

too.

the fitna

I would

hadiths
Mlik,

Some critics

said that
without

According

to Ibn

Abd al-Barr,

Muwatta',

Malik

mention

of

of Ibn

az-

the

conflict

in dismissing

al-Zuhri

the other

hand,

authority

of Nfic, the

Malik

In
that

his m ursalit

15 of these,

All of these hadiths

on Ibn

informant.

hadiths

( )

(8)

on alon the
does

not

to the prophet. (9)

On

80 prophetic
of Ibn

mursal

as worthless.

commentator

132 prophetic

relates
mawl

his

the famous

him

related

used to relate

mentioning

link

the

one seems to me unlikely

al-Zuhri

there

relates

the authorities

than al-Zuhri.

with

considered

authority

authority

of

was one of those who

al-Zuhri

likely,

to in the statement

Juynboll

but the first

in one report,

cUmar's

from

of

"(6)

agree

interpretation

In fact,

alluded

one resulting

and the Umayyads.

second

In view

in 50 - it seems more

he
born
was
-

therefore,

Zubayr

in the first

above, seems the more appropriate.

lifespan

Sirin

as I suggested

al-Zuhri

hadlths

on the

cUmar , who was older

are m uttasilah

except one

214
(no. 6 18), which

however,

to other

according

is also

virsions,

m uttasil. (io)
At any rate, even if we accept Juynboll's
Malik's

it denotes

statement,

interpretation

of

use of the isnd

the consistent

but not its initiation.

SCRUTINY

OF JUYNBOLL'S

THEORY

CONCERNING

of Ibn Sirin

mentioned

'THE

DATE OF THE GREAT FITNA'

Turning

back to the report

it is Juynboll's
is meant

Ibn

al-Zubayr's

the civil

war

ensuing

justify

this

chronology
the first
of Ibn

from

of the term

makes

al-fitnah

and that,

statement

cannot

from

killing

cUthman. (i i)

summary

of juynboll's

He orders

in various
them

in 35.

intrepreted
The

of the

to prove

by this term

that

is the one
fitnah

the word
as that which
following

To

in

ensued

is a brief

article.

He traces the word


cUthmn

and not

study

in an attempt

consequently,

Ibn Sirin's

of

of cUthman

a separate

that came to be known

al-Zubayr,

the

with

the Umayyads

the killing

Juynboll

view,

fitnah

conflict

in this report

fitnah

that by the word

conviction

above,

fitnah

reports

according

in connection
which

appear

to the dates

with
in

the killing

of

early

sources.

of the death

of their

215
These works

authors.
Kitb

are:

al-tabagt

Nasab

Quraysh

by a! -Musacb

Trikh

Khalifah

b. Khayya

Ahmad

b. Hanbal

Musnad

by Ibn Actham

al-Futh
Sahib

cUyn

al-Kfi

al-tiwal

by al-Dinawari

Trikh

al-T ab ari (d. 310 )

al-

(d. 279)
(d. 282)

(d. 284)

(Eutychius)(d.

al-cunwn

Juynboll

mukhtalif

al-m ajm 0c cal a1-tah qiq wa al-ta cdiq by

al-trikh

Murj

mostly

(d. 270)

al-Yacqbi

Sacid b. Bitriq

Ta'wil
and

a1-akhbar,

Trikh

Kitb

as he says, "were

by al-Baldhuri

al-ashraf

al-Akhbr

(d. after252)

to sources which,

by Ibn Qutaybah

Ansb

(d. 255)

These are:

texts".

a1-Macrif,

(d. 241)

(d. 256)

al-Bukhri

Then he refers

Kitb

b. al-Mucab

(d. 240)

by al-Jhiz

a1-cUthmniyyah

hadith

b. cAbd Allah

(d. 236)

al-Zubayri

historical

by Ibn Sacd (d. 230)

al-kabir

by

al-dhahab
concludes

Mahbb

328)
al-Manbiji

by al-Mascdi
from

(Agapius)

(d. 350)

(d. 345)

his consideration

of these reports

216
that

" Evaluating

to say that

venture

dates

relatively

these

hazard

to say,

the killing
than

of <Uthman
latter

the

almost

the

that

every

half

Then he reviews

'civil

connotation
occurrence

Zubayr

of the

Hijra.

Of

said

without

a
the

after

existence

in the history

often

called

against

of Islam

earlier
to

as well
give

the first

caliphs.
as later,

also came
list

that

of cAbd Allah

But inasmuch

a detailed

of

its

His finding
event

political

in the

with

and contexts".

is the revolt

the fitna

killing'

cUthman's

connotations

the Umayyad

I propose

the word. "(13)

after

sources,

fitna

of the word

the occurrence

strife

in diffferent

disturbances,
fitna,

from

not earlier

above mentioned

most of the

and others, "to compare

most

means,

had come to power. "(12)

'Abbsids

is "that

can

of
does

ensuing

originated

into

came

war

be

at

compilers

That

century

above

it

that

fitna

second

cited

report
doubt

reasonable

' of the word

as

existence

the word

sources

' civil

connotation

of the

into

discussion.

under

context

in the time

of the

dates

in the Christian

whereas
,

in the

occur

all come

death

to the

close

sources

have

but

so far I

given

one originated

a single

not

the word

with

by the sources,

suggested

not

the reports

fitna

is

b. al-

as other

to be called

occurrences

of

217
There is a counterargument

fitnah

the word

He thinks

'Uthman.
proposal

the

of

century,

of 'Uthman
tries

at which

this

it is the

invalidates
argument
First,
following

way

before

detailing

we shall

sources

will

authors'

than

it is definitely

anything

his sources,

his

the

be said
that

sources
I base

my

says: "In

the

else.

Juynboll

the evolution

of the turmoil
sources

around

of the word

fitna

'Uthman's

death

available.
here

in the

be dealt

with

deaths.

This is done merely

The only
not

to it, it should

In most cases it is impossible

age of a report.

juynboll

discussing

before

treats

juynboll

to trace

try

reply

the killing

from

fitnah

of the

considerations:

on the basis of the earlist

that

term

rather

on the following

of efficiency.

the

in which

his theory

dates of their

by

elswhere.

as used in the accounts

The

ensuing

and Juynboll's

counterargument
that

war

However,

half

latter

the civil

of

Juynboll's

undermine

as the

killing

the

with

may

as late

to be called

was

to rebut

this

that
date,

late

(d. 95+), in which

in connection

occurs

ascribed

a risilah

b. al-Hanafiyyah

b. Muhammad

to al-Hasan

second

He published

by Josef van Ess.

chronology

was raised against this

which

evidence
later

than

that

order

for reasons

to ascertain

such a report

the year

of the

of death

offers

the
is

of the

218
writer

who inserted

it in his book. "(14) In his enumeration,

mentions

15 reports

connection

with

but he differs
dismisses

in which

Others he dismisses

is not in the context

killing

of cUthmn.

based on isnd
for

in relation

dismissing

of his different
cannot

follow

in the time as suggested


existence

at dates
of

quotation,

by which

consider

these

all these

because they

appear

being so, there would


considering

he introduces

in

the

doupt

an argument

At any rate, his

reports.

In

are arguable. t15)


of these

view
I

reports,

"not a single one originated

To judge

sources

dating

dates

of the

the

above

from

his sources,

as products

he appears

of the cAbbasid
from

that

to

period
This

time.

seem, in any case, no good reason for his

them on other grounds,

On the other

from

grave

close to the death

sources".

reports

has

in

by the sources but have all come into


,

relatively

compilers

that

kind.

appears

war ensuing

of the evaluation

his conclusion

Some he

which

he adduces

to certain

the reports

method

fltnah,

Juynboll

of the isnd,

all of them,

of a common

of the civil

Even though

the value

dismisses

prophecies

in

appears

each report.

because the word

them,

reasons

He

in the way he evaluates


as forged

fitnah

word

killing.

cUthman's

simply

concerning

the

he

hand, in dealing

before
with

dismissing

them.

the occurrences

of the

219
fitnah,

word

in various

investigation
fitnah

causes him

which

as " being

to as fitna",

the first

juynboll

also appear
in

dismissing
same

should

Pitnah

since they

report

which

the killing
these

<Ali's death"

after

Secondly,

arguments

certain

reports,

number

far

is

the

sole

Ibn

to

to the event
he adduces

reason

for

fitnah,

the

al-Zubayr's

one single
from

ensuing

any allusion

" the fitna

from

fitnah,

in

shortly

onwards.

he does not consider

in the sources

example,

as a fitnah,

to any other

sources

sources.

if first

in much the same sources.

he accepts as referring

of cUthman

Moreover,

Thus,

in his argument,

does not admit,

as he

to Ibn al-Zubayr's

referring
first

also appear

referred

to cUthmAn.

to the , Uthman

referring

al-Zubayr's

generally

to refer

sources

to reports

apply

While Juynboll

the

<Abbasid

the reports

Ibn

the same critisicim

in cAbbdsid

an

connotations,

regard

the term

referring

first

other

event of this kind

that he considers

all of the reports,

appearance

to

does not apply

does to the reports

fitnah

with

sources,

So, supposing

he consults.
by

which

what
more

the first

he dismisses

about
than

source

all the reports

the

the

he consults

appear

that we accept
the

unmentioned

15 that

that

significance
ones,

he

discusses?

is the

Tabagit

all
of

which
For
of Ibn

220
Sa, d.

He says: "Ibn

Sacd gives

killing

of cUthman in which

these

two

reports

also in

Ibn

are

LI

two

Sacd

Le.:. WL

fitna

the word

and dismisses

occurs"; he refers
However,

additional

I,r, Iw

there

i-

l: r l',,

WI JJJ. v-4 rte V v-., Ldz ejK: JVC


j
w& dl1

to

reports:

tLI...,aj f"

J l . L" i

the

concerning

them. (16)

the following

IU

reports

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Thirdly,
killing

that

Juynboll's

sources.

that

This

is not

the

Juynboll

are all that


I shall

cite

and then

give

case.

sources

the

with

texts"

he mentions

on each of these

comments

the reports

he calls " historical

the occurrences

are in the

in connection

fitnah

the word
in what

of cUthman

suggests
there

tracing

that he does not mention.

" Balduri

(d. 279/892)

has a report

in which

the plural

Titan

is used" (p. 151)


Ansb

al-Baladhuri,

U2-1 wig

13L:

al-ashrf

v, S :ilj:

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"Dinawari

(d. 282/895)

connection

with

al-Dinawari,
L JjiiL

mentions

the

fitna

word

in

once

cAli" (p. 151)

a! -Akhbr
IIVA

al-(iwl

J. , JI&...;

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AiL, L.J.. V;,

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(d. 284/897)

does not

account of the killing

of cUthmn

Trikh

have

the

fitna

word

in his Trikh"(p.

in his

151)

al-Yacqbi
:,
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Trikh

(d. 310/923)

JI
CL.,

has the word

uJ1

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11

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151)

in two reports"(p.

al-Tabari

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233

Juynbol!
his hypothesis
he defends
" In Arabica,

XXI,

(probably

early

doctrine,

introducing
After

1974,

in which

ahl

Protagonisten
"severing
Then,

old bonds

authenticity

product
two

immediately

of this

of allegiance
XXII,

1975,

risla

was

previously

tenable, its supporting


relatively

late, probably

sources in which
the civil

my

on the

AbU Bakr and cUmar.

by God,

Ess: die

erste

as people

up new ones".

p. 49, he stated

Arabica

entered

)'promised'

and striking

century,

to

in a paragraph

described

accepted

as being

that,

if the

a genuine

the thesis as presented


paper

was

no longer

evidence being mainly based upon the


post-Umayyad,

the term fitna

war following

Although

in

100/719)

(Van

) were

Spaltung

an

attributed

in Hasan's view,

al-uwal

of the first/seventh

years

after

community,

al-furga

risla

occurs

(Van Ess: Anfechtung

der

in Arabica

which

Ess published

(d. circa
fitna

the word

the period

the

century)

b. al-Hanafiya

cUmar the Islamic

in which

J. van

pp. 20-52.

first/seventh

upon a time of fltna

of the fitnah,

Hasan b. Muhammad
irj'

the chronology

concerning

as follows

of Van Ess to

the counterargument

summarizes

time of origin

was for the first

the killing

Van Ess's argument

time

of those
used for

of cUthman.
has a lot to commend

it, I

234
that

maintain

the

in

approached

passage

from

that

does

a way

Kitb

the
not

can be

al-irj'

undermine

my

initial

hypothesis.
The word
the period

fitna

immediately

In other words,
the period
found

in the passage under


following

as from

in the words

fi

'1-liana

A further

description

yufriqu

rijlun

rijlan.

This description,
itself

commencing
cUthmn's
'People

twelve

severing

during

context of fitna
Qur'anic
than
during

'alayhi

murder,

originated

of this

of cUthmAn

This usage can also be


Uthman

zamn

as Van
old bonds

which

we

usage of the word,

'civil

war'.

cUthman's

To be sure,
reign,

only

rijlun

'alayhi

to cUthmdn's

and not especially

to the period

after

cUmar's

Ess apparently
and striking

death
took

following
it to mean.

up new friendships'
in the empire

reign, not after.

is reminiscent,

in the words

pertains

to those factions

cUthman's

is given

wa-yuwli

in my view,

years

to apply

period

rijlan

(23/644_35/656)

be taken

should

fi

reign.

find.

sometimes

reign

by fitna

of the reign

to

refers

cUmar b. al-KhaUab's

the beginning

is characterized

discussion

which

The use in this


...

in my opinion, of the common

'tribulation'

or 'confusion',

rather

there

is no record

after.

If Hasan b. Muhammad

of'civil

war'
b.

235
had

al-Hanafiya

in mind when

murder

have mentioned
Ab Bakr
the

the

protagonists

as , Ali

well

for

responsible

death

In my view,

unmentioned

he indicates

(for the worse)

change

of Islam

from

qualification
he

would

grandfather,

at his grandfather

cUthman's

development

the

as
even

as

also

the ensuing

and

by leaving
that

if

that,

that followed,

in the drama

unrest.

of the earliest

in mind

cAli, his own

pointed

would

in the row after

murder,

cUthmn's

cUthman's

he surely

with

meant

implicated

if he had not explicitly

of grave

fitna,

also be borne

had

risla

have

one of the major

from

ensuing

he used the word

following

period

automatically

period

war

cUthman's name as a third

of this

the

partly

civil

and cUmar. It should

author

fitna

had

cUthmn

as

his Geschichtsbild
its first

underwent

major

the date that cUmar's reign

came

to an end in 13/644. "(17)


In fact,

the

not introduce
Khattab's

paragraph

the period

Hasan b. Muhammad
others

to take

and what
lalhah.

it is about

b. al-Hanafiyyah

toward

he calls

juynboll

"immediattely

Indeed,

reign".

which

the two

ahl al-furqa

and al-Zubayr.

caliphs,
al-uwal

refers

following
the attitude

us to does
cUmar b. alwhich

took

and advised

Ab

Bakr

the

and cUmar

i. e. cUthman,
,

There is an element

al-

cAli,

in the paragraph

236
which

to the

relates

cUthmn

Juynboll

war

civil

to a report

alludes

the reign of cUthman is described,


fitnah.
the

He considers

context

this fitnah
civil

characterizes

both

death of Uthman

and the civil

the term fitnah.

This report

of

the one in
killing

the

one of the type


brought

of

of reports
about

the

from

his killing

by

IO-a4LI

I . s
_U

ir.

that

the unrest

of

by the word

from

from

ensuing

killing

the period

where

as different

war

the

as he thinks,

In fact, this is precisely

cUthmn.
which

the

of

from

ensuing

war ensuing
runs:

14.U I
i
sJ1.0 I_s.ISj.
;L .Au I

L. i

...

'a

1.
, .m

Jaii
i. j j 1,

UI

'Lc

vI. =vL,

Ufl

t7I

v. i i :, i II

mp
On top of this, Juynboll
of this rlslah
al-uwal,.
which

In

explains

and the meaning


his tarjamah,

of

'ahl al-furqa

the words

al-Dhahabi

mentions

information

this:

Jai
6-.
: -L.. Cr.
,,,-' tLt='

L-lz
6
LrLj

the purpose

seems to misunderstand

v, v

v-:
--r

J1. jl (J j& AA tS-J L-,* .. e


.

s,
JViL,
1rIJU,
J
Ui
lY
.
.
u

i
".. .

Al

JU

IJ
Ij
1L
..J
,

, r.v.: JU J L. Z,...J I

14.
t.:
olYI
x.:
.X115.

JI iJL

iI

237
A1-Dhahabi
1"

-:

goes on to say:
4JJ1uJI uUj

.:.c t1J I
,
u..

bL

;.

1. -, ""- ;

Wir.

it

c.s

1 txej-i
_ ,

.La

i, L&A t,
Y
L,
fg:, CSil .
,,, 1I , L. i Vii,

"I I "J, Y

CK-

J .. l : : L
.

I JJ3

IyJI
,

lei
.

i:,

el

Ul_,
Ali 1aj vrj..!.

L..oY

1
J,
L'
to 4z. L, JY

j
Uj4.
.:
}LI-.

l
1.
y
. &4 *i., j
In the following,

I cite the relevant

passage from

the rlslah

of al-Hasan.
LALcjj l}: "Lo
1

L;ti1Li

lf4la
,

:..

L.
I
ij
tl J .s{-.-J
(S

X11 y.e 4._:"

l/i-e

I+;

L',
L"i
1..
Ii
,.
i

t. 41
.,
.,

1
I.
L..
s
.,.
.
:.. s
.

J--l.

IiJ.
v

J1

Yl vlt
cslIr_
i
Cu
I
l.
dJ
I
L.:
IJ
sJ
".;
.., `1..y
YIL

L4J csj1&.!,j le
sue.! .rL
Y
11:,
IJ.
4l
01

4iv

Li .-

La.m%41 psi

of

refers

L:,...

)i

"sj V
l.,
k
*
l:
4. ,
rJ j
.

Juynboll

I
JAL
4U
j

1
J:
Jj.
;
:
l
I
1J
Y
4-U
sue
Jci
Cj-.
cs
c)-4Y

t-+Z.. JI -i-ii
t

Kifyah

j 4.cJ 4..I,p r'

Ili
a
.

lyi

41

is WIJ

!A

L. r -1
jaLLi
39
a.
;
sS.
u sSJ vJ ; : -
s
v.
v-.
cs

tJ

J4i

S FYI

1I oYI

us to a variant

al-Khal. ib

al-Baghdadi,

JJ
JI
1i" "6
.*f
JL-t,. ulc &-. "*

of Ibn Sirin's
which

he

report,

in al-

believes

to

238
his view:

substantiate

"... on the basis of another


can prove
not

with

talking

born

about

his infant

years,

to an event

referring
lifetime.

adult

happened

which

We are indeed

in that
fa-lamm

in which

the words

'l-fitna

are replaced

by hatt

waqacati

latter

version
(or

akharatin
actual

mention

precise

time

in which

bi-ukhratin).

These last words

for

means of checking
"... they

rendered:
until

recently.

expression,
together
recent

referred

the lsnd

are

were

past. That this

of transmitted

not used to inquiring

Bi-akharatin

these intimate

supposed

or bi-ukhratin

I could not find


a vague
moment

past is unambiguously

arabischen

waga'ati

Sprache,

kna

bi-

which,

like

the

to indicate

the

as a new

reports,

can be

the isnd
rare

Belegstellen.

But

indication

in the recent,

substantiated

bearbeitet

this

is a seemingly

sort of time

is situated

hatt

after

many

to in Lane, s.v. and Th. Nldeke,

klassischen

we have

to have been introduced

the reliability

for which

than a distant,

fitna,

of the

we find

his own

and that

'1-fitna

has a parallel

he was

that

fortunate

of the report

he was

during

occurred

variant

he was

before
but

we

report

that

of certainty

which

an event
during

of the Ibn Sirin

degree

a reasonable

or sometime

indeed

version

in the
rather

by the loci

Belegwrterbuch

zur

von Jrg Kraemer,

239
Berlin

1952, s.v. In other words,

fellow

traditionists
the fitna

until

were

basis of this parallel


the word

anything

but Ibn az- Zubayr's

fitna

In my opinion,

in Ibn Sirin's

which

he refers

us to.

(or bi-ukhratin)

of juynboll's

4--j4
.

report

for bi-akharatin

the primary

e, JjWl

6-4

In

one.

Cal,

vi

p+

Iji

Ls
.

j ,i

1.J

L, . J,. _,

jAj

I",. i (Ji
. _,
In a variant

the

Sirin's

Il5
119
Vi
J

OIWIJ

to

it is the variant

view,

The sense of 'recently'

1,p. 30, we find

i.

ago. On the

as referring

Ibn

regarding

j. c 6: tA

JU

isnds

it seems to me, to

statement

is not the only, or indeed

Lisn al-cArab

after

revolt. " (18)

if anything,

the opposite

says that his

time

a short

it is out of the question,

interpret

support

himself

to inquiring

not given

out, that is until

broke

would

Ibn Sirin

of this

above

mention,
recent

&K U ey,. .A

there

variant,
which

indicate

are words
distant

the

..:

Juynboll

that
past

rather

(
in
another
ej(S

page

as

does not
than

the

source:

'L

).

The following

and,

on the same

appears

which

These are: JjVl

past.

Jj'I vL,iJI

Kilyah

report,

4-1.,!

are the variants

earlier,

al-cilal

of Ibn

of al-Tirmidhi:

Sirin's

report

in al-

240

JiY, erLd

vK " JVr_r_wvr

v. c IJJLM 1";.4IIL.:

Iof
L.
"
i_
IU
J

JAI
i. C
. .LJI
" During
would

the first

the people

Y Irk

When,

the isnd,

so that the hadiths

would

asked about
down

wrote
sunnah,

the isnd,
on the

and they

I jL'., II
ur. 6JI,

jiv,

they

until

might

of those

when

Then

investigate.

who

r_rr-w c:, ire

they
They
to the

adhered

of those

L. rs iri J--&=Le.1
crt

L41o
4I

1
..
i
ILj.
m
tuJ

However,

lj+: &

down on the authority

I,
iysII
c
L"4I
sJi.W
(dSJ

" During the first

later:

to the sunnah. "(20)

L- Jl Id C)K :ju

W. IjJ.

the isnd

so that

authority

of

...
.
LS

YLSii6

6-<-A
fj

did not write

who did not adhere

and those

JU f.. 911 vrr_,

not ask about

of

be ignored. "09)

ciz
" They

people

the fitnah

however,

J,s;:

l.e v lS v.. IJy6..

occurred,

be transmitted

might

the people of the bidcah might

L..,YI vt v.s-I'

the fitnah

the isnd.

of the sunnah

YWI

vyJ'

Z.!.
I

rJ

until

did ask about

thay

1
JL"sl

.J,

period,

not ask about

occurred,

Vrs&r, J-LaI.. WI... -

period

people
would
,

the fitnah

occurred,

I,?.c,sJ

not ask about the lsnd.


they

did ask about

it, in

241
order

to aquire

reject

those of the people of the bidac. " (21)

Finally,

the hadiths

can it not

why

? We have seen already,

after

in which

he refers

cUthmn

by the simple

have found
fitnat

JJ

The last thing

definite

Thus, he thinks

that

time,

Rafidites

that

such
because

characterized
from

the killing

he calls

on his authority
the killing

of Ibn

that

of

hand,

al-Zubayr

JUA...

jLU:

Juynboll

of the term

in his excursus

discusses
ahl

groups

as the
there

by its beliefs

term,

describing

innovative

in Ibn Sirin's

is

in Ibn

al-bidcah/al-bldac

that this is a later

the term

one or more particular


own

or just

his birth

On the other

of people who shared 'similar

groups

Sirin

JU :J Li

iii

He believes

report.

was

from

ensuing

LijJ

Jl6,1
j+..,

Sirin's

Ibn

that

: (22)

UAL
.

the interpretation

and

reports

al-fitnah.

in which

a report

na Jai

term

of the sunnah

before

above,

to the fitnah

Ibn al-Zubayr

wl

be assumed

that had occurred

to an event

referring

of the people

report

ideas'.
refers

to

of people who lived

during

his

the

Khrijites

and

the

such

group

Qadarites,
was

no

at the time

that

of the fitnalh

was

ensuing

of cUthman:

" The use of the word

ahl

followed

by the genitives

sunna

242
indeed,
and bidac may suggest that Ibn Sirin
and,
who used this idfa
loosely

defined.

struck

by the frequently

(groups

Every

of) persons

tendency

for

to two groups

referred
-

by many

characterization

of,

heterogeneous
time

or another,

matter

what

working

for

multitude

bidhas in common

I rather
in

that

mostly

The bidcas

Ibn

think

that

mind,

or a few

we have

Sirin

groups,

who

propagated

versus
view

may very

had one, or a few,

and who, as a consequence,

referred

who

here his 'polarized'

of his days. The ahl al-bidac


people

of no

had one

use of ahl as-sunna

Sirin to be a danger to society. One finds


innovators

as a

ideas

ideas. Ibn Sirin's

have been those

al-bidac

innovative

similar

well

the

precludes

one or more

harboured

society

ahl

been

who, at one

of people

on the Muslim

the

have

will

in this field,

this

individuals

group

suggests

nomenclature:

of anonymous

particular

ahl al-bidac

think

example,

upheld

purport.

which

others

of certain

of so and so. .... However,

ahl of such and such, ashb

detected

the

precipitated

be

will

It is as if this

in the sources.

mentioned

tendency',

history

'categorization'

recurring

'categorization'

'categorization

of people, be they

Islamic

of early

student

also others

distinct

were felt by Ibn

the earliest

individual

to as m ub tadic.
by the ahl al-bids'

as referred

to

243
in the Ibn Sirin report
It is probable,
those

in my opinion,

The order
borne

(Qadarites,

Khrijites,

with

the Khrijites,

are taken

inferred

that

Khrijites

of the first

compliance

an arbitration
to indicate

during

a time

fitnah

that

indeed

distinct

ensued

innovative

origins

of the three
of the fourth

as early

suggestion
moreover,
ahl

al-bidac

as the time

of

people who

shared

ideas'.

We find

caliph,

in

cAli's army

these

of cUthmn

group,

the

also

seems,

killing

groups

similar,

time

from

meant

from

can be

that

Mucwiya's

which

means

a 'group'. " (23)

this view;

agree with

And from

It

committee.

came to be felt as constituting


I cannot

with

this

120).

contemporaneous

is not

here

but

(p.

literally

who deserted

period,

at the latter's

to install
possible

Khrijites

with

his lifetime.

ar-riwya

to be at least

if not even earlier.

the Khrijites

wa '! -ahwA, in al-

of the ahl al-bids'

Taken

to

alluded

is not arbitrary

the same order.

the Qadarites

Sirin

during

Rfidites)

1'i 'ilm

that

protest

being

A1-kifya

al-Baghddi's
we find

where

Ibn

that

such as came into

out by an account

Khal. ib

assumptions:

bidcas of the Qadarites,

politico-religious

and the Rfidites

of the following

admit

the

alluded

there
'one

the sources

to by Juynboll

cAli b. Abi Tlib,

of the
were

or more

tracing

the

back to the

in particular,

the

244
Khawarij

and the

cAli but

also began

The Khawrij

Rfidah.

to formulate

In a passage adduced

time.

b. Abi

cAli

Talib

regarded

min

Khawarij

and al-Qadariyyah:

al-sahbah,

I
_`

l. l IJJ.
c

; Iy

v- J

iJ l

i ;
L

(f

Li-11j,

of his

LiJ

U..AJ.

being
have

the first
seen

cUthmn

in the

J
,.o1S... Ji
sc, }1 I

L.
.

Zr II..., Y l

Jj"Jal

In another

gasas .(24)

gasas and the fitnah

J. AAAA

al-

ri

accuses the Khawrij

Ibn Sirin

to practise

l l

a! -

with

r
s.Lr-

i
4--9s
a
L1.
(.

in which

mentioned

debate

.uc, }.

. V4.

is a report

ahl

mutakallimi

L ;.. d1I ;_".:.+..1I i


I4:,

at that

we have seen

chapter,

Jl

There

heresies

own

as awwal
because

sunnah

I,
la
W.
L
11.
11
,,
,
t.: r,

their

in the first

deserted

not only

from

ensuing

report

of
we

the killing
In this

same breath. (25)

of

report

Ibn cUmar says:


JI-.,
I
4.1J
..o
j sl-,m u-!r v

X11I

. ,, a.&

zlau

In another

variant

C).4-..

Uaj

from

this

other

fitnah

1.11
0

Y3 . 'L

Yj 4 L1J
1 J.- 14
. LrL c,di- ti
"6

The

L<

of this report:

SJj .

.., yJ.vi 04

L<
I
:,.

rJ

distinctive

is al-Ra

group

idah

of

ahl

al-bidac

or al-Shicah.

Uta

generated

The

most

245
extreme
its name
There
first

from

the

are two

the first

is a connection
al-bidac,

a group

of its

cAbd

reports

the first
of the
And

consistent

cAli's

between

fitnah,

between

it is also implied
for

the isnd

the fitnah

to him:

he was the

time, (26)

and he was

that there

of the fitnah

such considerable

bidac

and ah!
resulting

came into existence

no such bida,

conflict

takes

b. Saba,.

Allah

in my opinion,

the occurrence

we find

which

of the prophet. (27)

in Ibn Sirin's report,

demand

whatever

leader,

pertaining

during

a! -rafd

and while

Zubayr.

fitnah,

al-Saba'iyyah,

to put lies in the mouth

It is implied,

result

name

aw'il

to propagat

from

is

of a! -Rafidah

the

Umayyads

in this
that

report

and
that

was created

is, not the initiation

as a

Ibn

al-

it is the
after

the

of the isnd.

246

ISNADS IN THE EARLY SOURCES

To demonstrate

time in soundness"

grow with
of hadiths
Jmic

defective

appearance

with

examining

the following
Apart
factors

di I

Juynboll

isnds,

have a tendency

selects a few examples

isnds

these

examples,

source,

those

it seems

from

the transmitters'

cause the lsnd

in the following

to be defective

examples

are different

there

errors,

or otherwise,

1 ba da>.

Lit J:. L.... I l: t -

cs .Iwa. .

cri

131
4a
. v.,
_i

...

%'r/% sei

JU:

vj-j

j ui

I l., jU

aS.-. ,

1I
J
l
1
J.
jL

J L:. L

;. suejULl,:
cu

".s 4.,

L1.e

I.

:W

- f-[-i

'.
+.

4. S .JW

LL J1

:L. "

(,

UJ

ip

&JI.

(U I-ul-

lit
r

LJI

el.o J. i.

:...

I
.:1.

I J. s-i
d-1J

te w, ._
L,.

Lal. c

s.
. -'ju

LHjK v

cslr

1.
- +,. .,j

L"
le
31
3
,.
&1JLtLc i:
c

w1a,

as

vi

..-Jl.

works.
to give

appropiate

JU

cri

their

with
later

in one or more

I
J.
J.,
41J
v
-, j
'L. e -

"JV

(d. 198)

Ibn Wahb's

and compares

perfect

to

account.

which

appears

isnds

in an early

that appear

with
,

Before

"the idea that

S-

&. e

JU v1
-

Le
,.

247
Llju.

42-4.04
j

U
I
4--6 .. f-

r-UsJU

. ;;r .ter..

I A. &ii-- )LS 1..19 aI


li
- v-"
C
f.
.

i
vi 60l,

v'4 4 , aiji

xv /I a,..ai.

"

JU

- r+L.,,

JI
LA
Llkj
6.
4-\+a
vJl vI . v4
vL*-'
t>&
eIij
.
va
W-69, c&

J-;i-

.:.:
. cSi.
owI y
+.
.J
1.

A 10 /Y 9

As we

lS a, w em4., J SS
.1

'd-

-v.

can see from

might

on one occasion

while

on another

the

they

transmitters

in a defective

a hadith

transmit

occasion

examples,

above

do so with

might

N,.

form,

a complete

isnd.
It is true
intentionally
but they

the

the

tell

sources

or unintentionally,
also tell

material

and

the isnds

who were
It is surely

isnd.

of the reliable

us of transmitters

abused

us of others

both hadith

with

transmitters

who,

of hadiths,

scrupulously

careful

not fair

to reject

because

of the bad

all

(2s)

ones.

At
hadith
or

that

any

the

rate,

does not

necessarily
isnds

uninterrupted

time.

In the early

of the Prophet

existence
imply

of a defective

the absence of other

for the same hadith,

sources of the second century,

is put side by side with

and the Successors, in one place.

isnd

for

sound

at the same
the material

that of the Companions

In these collections,

hadiths

248
appear

with

be found,

sound

as defective

as well

in the same collection

to a Companion
different

in different

or a Successor, instead

isnds.

isnds.

The following,

A hadith

forms,

attributed

of to the Prophet,
are from

examples

can

with

cAbd al-

Razzq's Musannaf :

Macmar

the

relates

following

hadith

channals: Once on the authority


(al-Zuhri

munqatic
another

time

father,

and the

third

Hammam b. Munabbih
tt"

w-J.

of al-Zuhri - AbU Hurayrah

did not hear

time

Ab

as

Hurayrah),

of Ibn Taws
on the

as muttasil,

his

authority

of

Ab Hurayah:

JU
:JUa, , a
r. j
1L

jK&:
C" 4I L" U
.

from

hadith

on the authority

as a mursal,

different

through

I
csr4J
l

le; l: r.S,r

r- -

I:
I
:,
. J9j

-f.

lj

l
L.;
U-1
u
<-.
iI,
cin
4.

e
y.:.:

t4L
f
ul. ff

iLje,
j
t5.

(Y.rvY)
.-1V
J L: t."j

4_Ul

4-,1 4UI

LL
I
ir
vt
vUJJ

tii

(t'. YVr)
4a.. tL. i 4-elc 4JJI
o
l.
.

JIc:, s r_. r

yr

rte.

Y
:
sSrl
... VL.
ir, f LAA

VV./%N(r. rvf)

Macmar

relates

Qatdah

and cUthmn

on the authority

a hadith

with

al-Jazari,

full

isnd,

on the

of Ibn cAbbas(no.

9394);

on the authority
authority

of

of Miqsam,

on another

occasion,

249
he relates

it on the

Jazari directly

mentions

channel

(no. 9390):

vi ,

J I

part

I
11
ist
Ir,

of it as

ri

Also cAbd al-

through

m ursal

i
r,

another

jU

J-LOA
r.

JU,

: JU 4 LA--p

"

al-

and cUthmdn

( no. 9728).

the Prophet

from

Razzaq

of Qatdah

authority

j
0Y''1. ) Y. o/o'WI
c)'

1t

itI

: JU
-

c:rC

CSJ.

Ia! ' LS ,ju.;


i;,

J.c . 1I "U,

's'. Vo
.,

lc:

Ju

'L4

i=

"-"*-"
.

.11Itsi - V,: J IL:

L4L
1
- ;. .,j
L;,j

i. c jzlj,

LuI.
aI.

LEII. JU,

; All

v.. i

JL:

i
Yi
au,
3
t#-!..
IN

iA-Il L, Z.. o11,.o .JU4

1
LL
I..

.;

(Vm)
4.U I-

(WYA) Toi(/o e,l-, .

cAbd al-Razzq
one as mursal,
other

1-

4-UI J. t-, j csal; :Y Li Lsj; rI & La=zj j111 &-c

as having

mentions

a hadith

between

L, lt

in
Macmar
two forms:
of

al-Hasan

in

in the

of Qatadah - al-Hasan;

on the authority
the link

1-i
... - r.

and the Prophet

in

the isnd :
4-Lo4LIII

IV-, j) : JU
LJ

i l.. sJ .,'J L

I.
J

4111JA-!.

, J

ju

JI v. c e.tL:Li &z
&c
j-&&A
.

;LL..

V-"j

J 1, +_`,
ly,
- r.

Zu

(%rr.A) r%-/V
lJ
IW
u..

Lic &.e V-L 1,LiyJ IWI

L
W
t-.
c
. c

J)

A it

I"-

250
J,r I. I - 4-1

4+ J -'U5J

LU
cs,
t...

,zI,,: :JV

a; .

4-.1x- dJ 1

J
li
K:
J-$..
1
ej
41J
j

-r"
Li

ai--.

J:,-U: JL!

.;

, `j.:

VIU

-A. A

-"'J

&4J LU I

(\ fl'o)
Q... LJIW

I,t.. c ij
ei Uz v. c 4.11

J v. c ei 1

yr

(wru. ) rfl/v . 41..


Macmar
Ayyb

Ab Qilbah

it

relates

on

the

With

cImrn.
of

authority

transmitter

additional

a hadith

transmit

and al-Thawri

appearing

on the authority
isnd,

another

Ab

between

Macmar
with

shaykh,

another

of

an

Qilbah

and

cI mrn:

'J -A *IL!;
-)-CU .

L
; IJI&lCA:
<,
SI CI JU 6I_1d.
< s. 5U yHi &r_

(Nrrty)fro/v ...
IZ

Z .u

(\ rr t A) fl o/v

cAbd

al-Razzq
al-Zuhri
-

shaykh

of his, Ibn Jurayj,

of al-Zuhri

with

a hadith

mentions

Macmar

v, -.

Nudbah

...;

relates

a transmitter

the

on

he then

notes

this hadith

intervening

authority
that

of

another

on the authority
between

him

and

Nudbah:
l.c wIL.
c)M

Jj.
r.

J
l!
Zijc.

; )f y.o
,

(Nv")mp

I zlt,: -.vl"j
0.

li

251
ry 1/1. L. s ist

; J-s=

1+.:! &; (

(: -a

Lj-::

&-I
r
.

ejrj

('rrt)

cAbd al-Razzq

the hadith

.
rs-.
"

as Ab Hurayrah's

appears

.r4 er_.s Lir.

own saying:

JU

LL= ,

(\ rA. )...
oil 4..Jri

LJ JU

...

y
,

JU

J li

4-Ul J.

s,;.: 6K

l
Ll4r
t L.
)-JJ

JU :JUwiZ,.

,.,J I

l
c:r c,t_

Lx- .; 1
L.-

(vr1M).
4. L 4-Ul-

through

In one of these isnds

isnds.

as defective

sound as well

hadith,

prophetic

Macmar and Ibn Jurayj, in various forms,

two of his shaykhs,


with

the following

gives

Zlc-

am
_.

MAY)... -f. l. j
&J
-t

b-a J? J cJ

' CYO
vr;

'
.. J

aL I t, J..

<k

I
j.
411
-

JVJ,
j'.

)JI
&A.
(SJ.

;
d iWJ

r.rmLi-

ui

&&
`LA
-A

izI
'Lu

; r.,sA L1414L
t %V-% /V

The
collections
or

following,

i
Li
rll, o
,

(mm) ... 4ul J",

examples

of the same period;

uninterrupted

w l

lsnds

of

l ;.t

JU: Ji

hadiths

,,

I
V
;
.

i-

di
-Cr

appear

in

two

in one of these they have sound


while

in

the

other

they

have

252
defective
Malik

isnds :

cUrwah

his father

hadith

same

the prophet

t I-

In one of them

I vii"/Y

Ysuf

relates

defective

with

the link

between

b.

: Hishm

m ursal
Ab

forms,

is mentioned

JU- f."j

as

the Prophet.

in different

isnds.

perfect

hadith

following

the

gives

the

as well
cUrwah

as
and

A-.L 'LUI V1... -4JIJ,


vd1
.
ue,
Uo
L.
3s
s.e .
iJ
I
v

;jwfU.,

l., i lei

(f) -r C.-. "V.-.


-

rJ

-1.:
. ...'e
Lc v..c 4., l csz J,, c

I
J.
Lc
I-'
lL
41J
---j t-A JJ
v
3,,
xJ cr
f-JW

flALA -

L
JLo - 4.,. j 4-1.
4l1I
c
(,

Zi:u.

If 'J. LI,,JI . j--..


Wakic

mentions

while

Ibn al-Mubarak

'Lu

the following

in al-Zuhd,

hadith,

mentions

a full

it with

as mungatic,

isnd :

J 14. II ssc w s.
VLLL

I J.ry, J

l: , "i ,. l. e . 1.a.41 ,
_,
/1
J
&jJ
I.
.:
.
-I .
LL.. .saJ
.. L

lSi
,i

:-. L.., . 1. l.l ,l. o

J
l
L::.
L`
L+Jv.
uI:

t. :: t. Lt

(vo) r. r
14. a.1.., j. i

Z,.a L.f l. o
-

4. J. lu J =" "-JL!

y d.., JS

i
, v. , .... -:,

v,

JU
I
l.
J.
L.....
z
, "i
um _,.
.
1Iv.
LL
JI
V,
.
i
e
. owJI .

J,.., ,

;,

lr

i Sl.. L. - Ole di

253
Jj L41 wY aA JI. tai:

I Ait j,

-Alt j tl. "

iI, y'

Y 6K 6p
". L:.: U L--.
-&

(.I. r) v%r0.
The link

Muwatta'

between

Ab

Nfic and

Bakr

in al-Musannaf:

is absent in the isnd

3A.,. JI 5.;,Lei esi


,
6S_,J, UJ

L4..,

e:

toe

L;,

L. J1I

It;

J. al

'LJ

cu i...o i .:L
L, l

4L;,-Li

,-,
l
AL!
sal
.

Afl/V

61 I rte; rL

wi
f,

Muwa((a'

pupils.
exclusion

They

differ,

of various

give for particular

Musnad al-Muwatta'

in several

sometimes,

41 _

1
. 5. ,s;, sLl

The following

of this

example

versions

not only

by different

in the inclusion
that

are examples

or
they
from

lw.
I
Jr-,
;,
411
b.
vi
C ... ,
i
) ).h vei
ul. e -

AJ
mj,,
.
.! _

-L!

-1'r .

tyl

but also in the isnds

hadiths
hadiths

tf.,i. i,

is an obvious

of Malik

It is related

phenomenon.

Jr el,
,

LLIJ
A.

J.. Aj

t+

fjj
4-i-!
<Jv -. fJj
Y.L/V (\rvV') .,;r. e;,

The

JV t7l u cs rte r, i.u 1 .11LM.


.

! Jam, a:
Loi

8. L+A-., l

in al-

isnd

in the

yi,
fL. - _i

LJ

r-ll

b-a

lam bI-

iii . JU - tl..,, ,

4JJi

254
I &., IjrAj,,
&JL..j r...13_i
j-AJ
,

IJ
l
i,:
j
_$ 4d

gj

b.1

j"<. i

..

j4.41,

LL

1 1r:;.
t.

I..L
L
LJ
.
*J 1-*a:

L
)
,.

VS1I

d , a-iz

V. Li,

J
Vi UM.:

LIjj

ci---jj

b- 1.i

rl

I
WI
L&;
ir.
i>a
ire
-J-J r!
-2J

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L'S IJ,_.i ti

tri

I
r s

ir. Z-

U
I
lL
4.
j 4-:

l, r_L-C r, IJ., ILi l ., I


L)do

4-,
-' 6-1 c)=

vt
1li
.

i-i

wl

'..

r l a.!= Lk, JJ

fl..

l.y. ,.;I

t;

4-Lil

Ajwl

i v--,
ivt

r_.r (Ic
IJ
41J
...

V rJ.

IwI
. .5..

JUI
i
.

A-Ll

ofc, e .

:"iIJU

psi.

0--ji

I.t;,t v., t-..


}J

ri

v.: -11 &-+

I
(Sjj,

djlI.

Ijj
s

&. c

L+Z

L-

tj

4:pj.

I51.jrIwI6LSj

I aLLC ULI
li
.s

.dI
Jo.
1...,
3
c,
tJ
.

LeS t., 1Z.c i. JLZc

Z)l v., L..a &jI 4.U I l. c vc i. . cw4.


L*J.ih J LL ire

&

j
I.
Ij
j..:

1.:

..

i,
LiJ
. ...

w Ij vI j. I I sr LL, I:
.!

A!

;
1...,
J
s$j,
j j.; r, c1f.
y.
.

I4J JL;.
6.c fJ LM4.

... .

6-,

Iw,
LIY

LLII

Lr"

LAIJ
A.

I.l

I JL : sj &- I-

I3.
.

; x: J I .s.. j.A Uh JJ,


.

tJ=

Je,
l
l
s.:
yl :
. .
V.

f f-fr

Li
tU I J. j... "-ALA:J
jJ

LI.

-.

ir. u"-s:

v. Lc 4.L1IUIJ.

Ji: tJ "

JU

a.

14.
E bi. ' Ga -

bz
V1

UI

AA

a,.aj .41

I,sJ1L 7IL.;

tii

v.,
4UI
__
,y., c

;,JU &.a L1-" tL,,, j

. 0,

:4

L4,.;; I

LSj
LL4

I'..
w
"L4..

J-4-.
I
di
il
4j u ..o
j

255
Z>1 b t. mil

lj Zy&...4.,.i jU

L. s- ba UTM
4Iv.

cis

Esse

s.t' --b

V irk

Iw

c V-J j.

I Z,. 144-

1-2111 J.
tra
4.u 1

Lei.

OVud

L, -wIJ.

r-,, rJV
IiJ II.,:
-,.,

wIJr.

C).jl

it

L
.

41J1

.., t"j

.,j

LL
Y
JU
ti- j
V- +j
I3A

i:, L..: L

...

Lr y I . c . c ,. 4JJI_
cri
,

rte
.

LS

LLol
l
I
IA
i
c
.
v.

&. c

L4 Z 1-

J
1.
I
w
4d-Ll .sue

Lez
wI
u",

4JJI

LVL-

41-111

I ;. C1f..
4-1J
.
y

; ,.;I-

Ij-., j14.:
4-11

I
i
c
JJ_
..
.,t

4J
j. aj-UI
.

(yI PJJ : .U r`, r"

Li

U
Ij..,
4.
c

le, I rr

1kJ

LI
.

wq
iji

In the third
into existance:

of Ahmad

are found
There
mentioned
that

the

works

hadiths

prophetic
Musnad

century,

in these

another

on hadith
with

later works

with

existence

absence of a perfect

Juynboll's

isnds,

of a defective

such as the

The hadiths

their

m uttasil

examples

examples

came

for the most part, to

uninterrupted

and the 'six books'.

V""

of compilation

restricted,

is no need to list further


above;

type

just cited
lsnds.

similar

are adequate

isnd

one at the same time.

does not

to those
evidence
imply

the

256

AN EXAMINATION

OF JUYNBOLL'S

EXAMPLES

FOR THE

HYPOTHESIS OF THE GROWING BACK OF THE ISND

We shall now examine


they support

his argument

Juynboll
grow

in soundness
from

with

abundant

material

with

that very

same material

this sentence, Juynboll


from

Iraqi

two

here.

suffice

b. cAmir

The isnd

Shucba
-

back of the isnd.

isnds

can very

have

Ibn Wahb's inic


in later

iraqi

compared

with

in Ibn Abi Shayba,

Qatada
-

b.

inserted

"One lsnd

one another
III,

must

p. 389: Aswad
Ibn
-

I, p. 50, with

Ibn

between

On

cUmar

<Umar

and

the

"(3o)

prophet.

First
works,

of all

this

Musnad

Shaybah
early

collections. "(29)

Sacid
b.
al-Musayyab
-

also occurs in Ibn Hanbal,

to

in comparison

footnote:

<Umar - prophet
al-KhatI.

a tendency

be substantiated

well

gives the following

collections

to see how far

examples,

of the growing

says: " the idea that


time

with

Juynboll's

(d. 235),

source

reference
Muhammad

and

given,

is between

comparison

Ahmad

(d. 241)

a later

Iraqi

relates

this

b. jacfar

(d.

192-94)

Musannaf

and

and not, as Juynboll

contemporary

suggests,

on

the

and Hajjj

Abi

between

Ahmad,

collection.
hadith

Ibn

an

in the

authority

[b. Muhammad

of

257
(d. 206),

al-Missisi]
Both

are

Shaykh

of Ibn Abi Shaybah.

of the isnd

authority

of the

same

Aswad

b. cAmir

(d.

of

contemporaries

to be explained

that

on the

So this insertion,

by something

This example

in course of time.

imply

necessarily

of Musannaf

Ibn

Musannaf

of the

Abi

"It

otherwise,
I. (Mursal

from

with

imn

isnd

I consulted

and I found

that

in the published
error,

and

isnd. (32)
says:

a short

selection

of

their

lsnds,

defective

or

when

...

One of the characteristics

he transmits

in Bukhri,

imn

traditions
e. g. with

of

[or tells a
a seemingly

24 = 1, pp. 16f. ) and Muslim,

107-8 (1, p. 78).

2. (Mursal
never

one

here

story? ], he lies' (p. 66). This is also found


sound

does not

the above thesis:

Hasan al-Basri)

is that

the munfiq

confirms

a typographical

to give

the fmi,

to corroborate
from

back

the idea

Ibn Wahb's Jmi', Juynboll

from

appropriate

these traditions

Shaybah

in Ibn Abi Shaybah's

his examples

seems

has

However,

appearing

is merely

, Umar is, in fact, present


Giving

if conceded,

for a hadith

at the same time.

the absence of cUmar in the isnad


edition

the

the absence of a sound or uninterrupted

for the same hadith


manuscript

isnd

of a defective

the existence

208),

by the growing

than

other

Shucbah.

from Zuhri)

condoned'

'Lying,

whether

(p 67). Cf. Ibn

Maja,

in jest or seriousness,
muqaddima

is

7, (- 1. p.

258
18), Drimi,

7 (P 364)

rigq

seemingly

isnds

sound

and Ibn

on the

Hanbal,

authority

1, p. 410, with

of cAbd

Allah

b.

Massd.
3. (Mursal

from

Zayd

mendacious
Hanbal,

p. 433,

Nas'i,

and

seemingly

sound isnds on the authority

4. (mursal

from

aware

mendacity

of

continuously

some
them

confronted

73). As is to be expected,
in the canonical
5. (Mungatic,
Samura
tradition

this tradition

used to be

Companions

it until

with

they

Shabib

b. Said

b. Jundab

be traced

can no longer

Shucba b. a1-Hajjj
He who

prophet)
-

(variant:

he thinks

(v, pp-36f. ) we

tradition

with

Mughira
...

this

unknown
from

relates

is also transmitted
b. Abi Layla

cAbd ar-Rahmn
isnd

: al-Acmash

cAli - prophet.
sounder

a seemingly

from

and Ibn Abi Layl

The first

isnd

from

- al-Hakam

from

back

going

to al-

as well

- cAbd ar-Rahman

scholars.

authority

from

b. 'Utayba

al-Iiakam

the prophet,

[i. e. the one on the

of the two in the eyes of the tradition

the same

adds the following:

by Shutba
Samura

Tirmidhi,

enough,

isnd

sound

me a

it is thought)

of which

interestingly

find,

b Shucba. Then Tirmidhi


tradition

(p.

repented

that it is a lie, that man is one of the liars (p. 73). ' In
'llm

he

and

collections.

of which

with

of Ab Hurayra.

his

of

...

86)
p.
,

b. cAjI n) The prophet

Muhammad
in

(v

77

zakt

at a

(p. 72). Cf. Ibn

(on the Day of Judgement)'

imm

II,

not look

'God will

b. Aslam)

as with

the

b. Abi Layla

of Samurai

is the

259
Then, after
I asked

Drimi:

isnd of which
and someone

tradition

tradition

else makes

it musnad

(into

abovementioned

who

man

lsnd as found

as reflecting

the

traditionists

responsible

for

and

following

a. There

entirely

relates

is

at all. I

to the prophet
that

happened

hesitation

in

meant

eventually
words

on the
this

making

the

isnd

to the

may well

be

of those

part

'sounder'

by

the names of al-Hakam

be

may

to be a lacuna

presumably

extraneous

matters)

Juynboll

b. Ibn Wahb
with

cAbd Allh,

who

b. Abi Layl. "( 31)

pages,

Wahb's Jmic.

Prophet,

like

a tradition

comments

appears

two

where

tradition

made

the

on

sections of this passage:

corresponding
1-

to him

pertains

Shucba and Samura

cAbd ar-Rahmn

The

only

in Ihn Wahb, and Tirmidhi's

between

someone

or when

the abovementioned

it can be traced

to guess what

considered

inserting

tradition,

a mursal

saying. '

prophetic

It is not difficult

this

relates

the

a tradition

relates

in a Companion),

else), would

whether

relates

who

someone

(i. e. fills

said Drimi,

it is not known

that

Or when

something

too? ' No,

to him

pertain

to be faulty?

of which

afraid

goes on:

he knows

to these

pertain

am

'Does this

the isndd

transmutes

Tirmidhi

a while,

originally
in the

this hadith,

an isnd beginning

with

left

kadhib

pp. 67 and 70
blank,

contain

section

of Ibn

on the authority

of the

does not indicate

mentions

but because

between

this.

the name of al-Qsim

part of the page is missing,

b.

we do not

260
isnd or not. (See p. 70 )

know if it is an uninterrapted

d. We
appearing

find,

with

Ibn Wahb's

Successors.

the

This is not

al-Zuhri's

both

contains

al-Firybi

Ibn

<Ajln

with

a mursal

isnd on

hadith

Ibn Wahb appears.

However,

Maq('.

Ibn Shihab in the isnd

and Ibn

ShihAb

are

172).

of the hadith
given

of Ibn Massd.

in different

as a prophetic

I suspect

that

.
`u1. I

b. cAbd

of cAwn

8, p.

a! -Tahdhib

I
have
that
this
report
collected are
of

All the variants

on the authority

as being

JIWI

Allah, the son of Ibn Massd ( See Tahdhib

an

(p. 48, n. 1 1)

is incorrect

pupils

to

and
with

It is part of a saying recorded


i. e.

like

defective

and

sound

by

al-m unaflq

this is a source,

this

cites

J Li 4.:I
I
I.
W
v
i
v.
ir,
v.
LU
t;
e
c

sr

vl.
y

Both

besides

to the Companions

to the Prophet,

mursal.

of

hadith,

(p. 51, no. 21 ), because

own words,

the mention

appears

this

in a late source, $ifat

isnd in which

uninterrapted

2.

isnds,

Jmic, which

traced

that

example,

of al-Hasan

(d. 301)

al-Firybi

hadiths

for

sound

the authority

in the

or Muslim.

of Bukhri

collections

in any of the isnds

does not appear

c. al-Hasan

words

hadlth

with

Ibn Wahb
in two other

mentions

the rest

hadiths.

One is

an uninterrupted

lsnd

on

261
(p.
73).
Massd
Ibn
of

the authority
saying

Ibn

of

defective

Massd

This

Muwa f ta' ( 2, p. 989, a! -kal


in

appears

Ibn

by

related

(p. 70).

isnd

Hanbal

The other
Mlik

is exactly

b.

Anas

as a

with
in

as it appears

m 7, n. 16).

a
the

The version

that

Mas, d's

own

JU L, .A. 1.::

Li-t--

as Ibn

is recorded

is given

words:

1S
XU1 ,..
r- ;, :JU0.,

Y
I
f.

1bl:
Y
j-j-A
aKJ
Yi
4--1je
.,
CL.ai
sA

Ja.-J I uff Yi je : ;. >-evJViJ.


.

l I:S du l s..
.
.

I
I,
. S J.J J

.:

Y li. s

4.L l .t". .5_,

LN.p
It appears

in a longer version

Ibn Wahb's

jmic,

in a work

the Musannaf

Y sSJ I

I,) Yi t-j: s iiL

1,3
Yi
tJ
5.1I
ts+-.
:
,
c
JI
i .

.Ib!

LJ
ri
c'j

ja-

r-i
.

Ij ESL I.

JU

li Yi

ire r".. "


I
... "ISJ cs.4J

vi Y

j>

Y3 j-e.

JI
b4J
J-GLA csW ,+I

3 L.1U J L;-2 4j

J, >1-, - t. W,3 <4z du 1


'La

JII.
L

tu. o je JI .

LS1J
J
IL,
-3

r vIj

L I,j JIvJA"

Iij

ti-t--Oil
b4j
cssf-.
JWI
a-'!

1013
v.

(d. 211).

of cAbd al-Razzq

v lam,I La L I. j L: ,Y-.." i. I vs cs.Y Iii,


3I

with

contemporaneous

Il sue 4..:5:
.
u-

Z*41 I

I cs"4:
UJ

du
I
J.
s.. j `..
4119 aK,

vt.. e j.

VI
J.4Lj Z` .; JI tai
(V.. VI ) %V/11
t.
ala.
. _,
Al-Drimi

relates

marfc

through

Ishq.

Ibn

all

of this

another
Majah

version

on the

channel,

also relates

of

it

Abd

al-Razzq

authority

as m arfc,

but

as

of Ab
with

262
different
cAbd

isnd,

has

al-Razzaq

formerly

is described

which

another

al-Busayri
in

report
Prophet

to the

attributed

by

the

which

are

as weak.
words
to

attributed

Ibn

Mascd himself
... W ,.,

i o. l.. JS : jjA..
UA
:pIJ
:JV
-"

JV...
..
r.
,

L..,
WIL,
L
4--1=
- .

:J I

:J I JI ,y,.
>IIvr.
u.

I
dJ
-

L,-I

( 1, V 1Y
.
. -101/11

with

report

Ibn Wahb,

11 J UJ I

U3
Ij
: Jr!

Lj

Y
.
;
4J
.
...

part of Ibn Hanbal's

contemporary

s. dl L t5 tj

l.i

L.
JLv
a5_
3.
3
'Wi
L,,..
.

m.
dU
Lri,.

The first

v- --
r
:,
.
I
LA
cs. qj4-I

rte
.

I
JU
j". *-W--:r. :,r .rte r.
IL
I
L
I
I
1
J
IIj
-11
5.1
. :
,}iJ LoJ a,Y.: "; WSJ

rye
.
JJ.L ,

ZpV r. w

I
"_
t<
LIM. J.L

occurs in another

the Musnad

source,

of Ibn al-Mubrak

(d. 180)
:
.i

1: i. U 1
-J
.,.

L:: J,si-,

1. er

L1 - -

ir. J. >-r- yr. ;-;

J_,.
*
3.

We

find

this

hadi

in

th

an

y
c,.,
OV- C._.
early

Ibn

source,

Tahmn (d. 168) :

J l j.=,.
l

J
46

'

-1i 41JI to lYi.;

LLJ
r, +s...

I
i,
v
c ". "" . SJ J,.... cr .rte
96+-,

4.AL I LrL.- '-LII Jj-yj jU


iyJ j t4-S,?

IjLL.

(%'TV) %Y.

iJ I rr

zjI,
CJ. .

263
While

in his al-Sunan

al-Nasa'i,

cAjln - his father


Sunan
Ibn

Ab Hurayrah

al-Acmash

in his al-

the same isnd

Ab

Hzim

Ibn

the isnd

in his al-Sunan,

it with

he relates

a1-Kubr

lahmn,

it with

relates

Hurayrah.

Ab

in

as that

(p. 93 A. )

4.

Ibn Wahb

other

presents

as m uttasil

this in two forms,

one as

I Jj-j
W1J

&r.

the

mursal,

LS
J
Iv
"l+.,
.: r*
t11.
L
6
't-e.

61 v

l.ey.

.JI,

LAI t, L"i

ze
lru
6-0
0,;, L+.!
YTL),
- - y

LU
La

ire
irJrj
(r'2J

Z -.-J 1u, +i :>ar l.. w s...

ir, 1JaL.

J
V:,

J
1
l...
(",

LO

V%

It also appears

in Ahmad

cAbd al-Razzq,

in whose

LJ.:, LJ &!j Aa:j


.

and al-Tirmidhi,
Musannaf

t-.. i

it

v .

on the authority

it does, in fact, appear

Ahmad ( al-Musannaf

the same form as in the Musnad

of
in

11, p.

158 no. 20195).

1I
I<:
&a
Ji
)..,
VAi a;.
4...1.E 4JJI uJ- - dl I J. >- j'-L-1
I
4.Lc 4_1J
L

I
J,
4_U
l. .tie
-

Ui jJ.3.1I.,; t. - ...si ,i......


uJ

I0

sS: J,

lS
LA
jLL

:cJl"'
.ki

lt

JIv lS sil,
I
..
- rL. .
viSl
.

264
L! J-3 L4-1lt-J-l
-

4
4-:
1

A! eil tlx--A

LA-1

4-"-

J 1--A

4d

Lla!

Ifl

-i

or(/11
0- Ic,

ist. v I,., J I j-k-r-yr

in rA-

j
I
v-2-: - csy. r:

rb

J
V"
IS
L.:
I
Js..
i.
41
W1J
t.
aj uJ1 j
tyli
.
1.
1
J,?
J
Iv
29
L, a t1J ul. o -1
i.
taJ
t.:
. t
1JI-

rLA/f

L, ya l{. i.. "a... i 4. i


.

t1sw

in

isnd

uninterrupted
citing

them

al-Sunan

ca-,

of Ibn Wahb

respectively

.;

il. oJ IjJ.; J I "lag (\W')


both

mentions

al-Kubr

as links

Sr,.1.

U
L
Lam:
Jly_
Z.
i!
m
4.,. Vi
-r"j

(s)
Al-Bayhaqi

lt. u

the

and that of cAbd al-Razzq,


( see 10, p.

in the two isnds.

196)

S. This hadith

appears

contemporary

of Ibn Wahb, on the authority

Shucbah

in the musnad

and Samurah

b. Jundub,

(d. 204), a

of al-Tayalisi

of al-Mughirah

isnds

with

b.

the same as

those in al-Tirmidhi.

J li : JU

1
V.;

(Mo) %(%
j.
lyC

Js:

`'

::

L12
J-- Vl=csiiej11.1

Uj

C.y&

u'

JV.

iJ Li

JI.;,
rS

't-i"
6- t1. j
Lgj j

LLc

15
J4-1 -? sui cr

LJ

Li

WI

JIJj
4J
-

i
JLJ
J1
112
I
c,..:
1.3.
..
,
.
IW

.':

'

c_

1-a-a

1
I614.
Jli-r1.
e
4-U
(-4c
&;
A-d
-V-.
-a-,
1
.
LSLe- f

..

J 1&L1I.

I
S
i
u I tSJ I .sue
41.
}.
v:
,

-J* J

265
The remark
quotes

part,

of Ibn cAdi concerning


may

explain

the

Shabib,

defective

Juynboll

of which

isnd

Wahb's

in Ibn

JJmic:

c)-A

r,I .:r :. 5 e.:lam.

CL
4.:iS J.4. hi 4.:&.
JI
J

1,.
11
s:
&
d.
>.
,

131 : SJI L&-iYvI


,
V /E ".: ;y.: J 1.4L

J : cs.s r. i,.
J.

I
Ajj

{
.
'. J,)--.

L.

JSI

___
lam

,I

266
NOTES

1. Tradition,

p. 19.

2. Id. p. 75.
3. Id. p. 17-18.
4. Id. p. 18.
5. Siyar

5, p. 407.

JjPJ j., 1 JU

I.L. vJI 4... 11.


6. Tradition,

p. 18-19.

7. See Ibn Rajab, Sharh


al-Zuhri's

dilal al-Tirmidhi

p. 176.

For representative

examples

of

Ab DAwd, al-Marsil.
see
,

aiursalt

1, p. 37.
1, p. 112 no. 465
al-Tamhid
.
4A6.6M 13U I Sj LX rte v. il JLI ' V..*A jIJs.. J J+i=l ir'''ate

8. al-dIlal
as

(JL. 4.:yI 1U t a.. J r: ,1 it


9. See Ibn cAbd al-barr,
10. Id. p. 170 ff

Tajrid,

rt

ir; l i

p. 116 and pp. 152-155

1! j 4tsAy1l
Wi:
J
rt3 s111

t. Jl 1:.,4

no. 479-493.

no. 539-618.

11. See " The date of the great fitna".


12. P. 152.
13. P. 152.
14. P. 145.
15.

An example

of this

may be seen in my discussion

of one of these in the first

chapter.
16. See " The date of the great fitna",
17. Excursus

p. 145-146.

"Muslim's

to his article

introduction

to his $aiiI",

p. 303-304.

18. Id. P. 307-308.

19. al-Khatib,

al-Kifyah,

p. 122.

20. Ibidem.
21. Ibn Rajab, Sharh
22. Mufannaf

dIlal al-Tirmidhi,

Abd al-Razzaq

p. 62.

11, p. 366-67

no. 20757.

23. P. 309-310.
24.

Ibn Sirin, when

L jI, y ll

:j.4

jW1

asked about sitting


II A4

LA-1

with

the quf$a

41
y.
U,

iJ l,

says
,
4.1& J. LN1 Y'

4.;

J, }." iY

267
Ibn Abi Shaybah
In a another

14, p. 114 no. 17774.


of this report:

version

L. J, 1 i1 It4.; : Jt

L.
JI
11
a. tvt
. ..
Ibn al-Jawzi,

. J..

p. 344 no. 196.

a1-Qu; $s wa a1-mudhakkirin,

JL.

Jj

1bm r_y: y c: "

See also p. 177 no. 26

w3 Zr J ;1
i.
Ju
l-",,
C
ji Jj--Jf
Ibn

al-Jawzi

the report

explains

away

b. al-Khattab's

of 'Umar

r. +l , 31 r. -i W

.iii

of Ibn cUmar and Ibn

the reports

ga$as to Tamim

permitting

YIj - ..34! Sj u-

; II 414111 LA &I. "'-

in favour

Sirin,

of

al-Dri:
ir: ..,&

i L1 L

... IJI I11


25. See Ibn al-Jawzi,
26. al-Suyti,

a! -Wasa'il,

p. 117

27. al-Suyti,

aI-Wasa'iI,

101.

In Tahdhib

Hurayrah,

1, p. 291,

say:

29. Tradition,

Tradition,

A-I. >Jl

:p.. Jj1
_41-1

$Alih

and al-Acraj,

UAI& Yj : y. ya

two

,c

of the best

,U it

JJ1

pupils

of AbO

J
A-1
aa_
.,.
,)...
.

p. 115.
88.

p. 115-16.

32. See a microfilm


Imam

Ab

"ILS {1 ,y* jL1

30. Ibidem, p. 115 footnote


31.

L.. r WI

Jj.
SUI .,_.a 4. j 4.:i& 41JI OL. 4.1.11

L..
.
28.

. VL- rLi

24,25.

p. 176 no.

wa-al-mudhakkirin,

al-Qui$$

Muhammad

of a manuscript

of Mu$annaf

b. Sacd University,

Riyad.

Ibn Abi Shaybah,

1, preserved

in

268
THREE

CHAPTER

OF HADITH

CHARACTERISTICS

IJADITH

AND REGIONALISM

LOCAL REMARKS

Adducing
character"
selective

the

of
reports

his thesis

various

centres,

in which

exchanged

between

dominated

the early
half

the second
talab

for

an argument

and was on an ever


the sharp

increasing

gives

also after

lost its purely

local

scale carried

in the

So it was Shfici (d. 204/820)

to have said: 'I do not care where


Ufa,

character

described

edges of the rivalries

who is reported

be it

the

out in more than

above gradually

from,

are

local character

that

disappeared.

comes

some

local rivalry

century,

second/eighth

regional

and " in the course of

transmission

had gradually
...

al-'ilm

one centre,

He believes

centres.

of the

Juynboll

denoting

remarks

hadith

of "the overall

Basra

or

Syria,

a tradition

as long

as it is

sound'. "(i )
Apart
which
first

from

attest
century,

the

the Fa1ab al-'ilm


strong
remarks

contact

journeys

and other

between

centres

and reports,

displaying

evidence

during

the

the hadith

269
interchange

between

the significance

rate,

Juynboll's

argument

decidedly
fellow

of the reports
is disputable.

of Malik

on the attitude
had

ath-Thawri:

words

do not admit
than:

positive
that they

that

did not create


Juynboll's

that

accurate,

there

making

remarks

even

are other
in

in

he comments
Iraqis

he has

that

"he

most famous

his

to have
been

said about
slih.

...

his

more favourable

of an interpretation

or

harmless

in the sense

too much confusion. "(2)

In fact, even

I hope his traditions

assuming

the

he is reported

'I hope

At any

are mentioned

For example,

concerning

Thus

transmitters.

which

b. Anas towards

his doubts

Sufyn

in the sources.

abound

centres,

were

interpretation
in which

reports

favour

of

Sufyn

remark

is

is recorded

as

of this
Malik
and

other

Iraqi

transmitters:

l. e

1%0/ -, 4: j1,
bL. "1 wj

y vf, Jl rK

1I
l'.
elsJL
L.
i.
_1t

: :1J1. JL; j L
L31-lt
r-LJ

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t/t"

J+JJ

JU 4j IyJ L

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J{ J.

i,,. A-: t: Z, 1I I:LA,,. AU 1.. d J1:


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_,.
LU I,, r Li L:

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csj_4LI cr.
... -

1
A
1.
Z:
I
JAI
d
5!
j:
4J
: c.
,, 'i
"JL! .
iV o

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'J

J LIA

. &A

JU
(\YA)

270
IIA . csr

x.
.

Jai

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rji
4.:,
r. r

`ir...
-ill

JJ UI jJ U (,+! I WWL :

JbI

1
J1L:..,
AAL, :
t_,

Zpr.

'Al
01 sei
Yij
",

rq-k
On a report
Macmar

b.

Rashid,

Medina/Iraq
(d.

b. Rashid
transmitters
from

153/770)

reliable. "(3)

and

The

in the suggestion

that

says:

The report

can

is referred

which

be considered

*11tit UJ

J. o.o L, J)U e,.l


was
the

regarding

made

by an Iraqi

material

of

moved to al-Yaman

and settled

ANAS

MATERIAL

B. MALIK'S

To attest

the regional

of Anas' material
Malik's
both

alleged

Medina

quite

to runs :(4)

bU cr.j U. ir; Ij cs.r*3 JI

233

Kfan

IJU
l C+.
'
Vi

L. L:

remark

or

he produces

&A r. " :L`.s III

This

Macmar

what

what

whereas

Medinans

other

controversy

Basran

from

transmits

be rejected,

should

Zuhri

"

Juynboll

is apparent

of the transmitter

the material

concerning

in Malik's
traditions

an

scholar

Iraqi

who

AI

J.n

died

transmitter,

in

who

there.

TWO CENTRES

BETWEEN

character,
Muwatta'
from

IJIj.;

the

Juynboll

gives his account

:" And although


prophet

and Basra - he supposedly

lived

Anas b.

are 'claimed'
many

years

by
in

271
each centre,
he lived

when

it is imposssible

although

(..... )-

where

one, I think,

significant

in the Muwatta'

that

b. cAbd Allah

Talha

and

al-, Ala,

b. cAbd

Successors

such as the Barran

Muwa(ta'

1096).

If,

for

responsible

for

nonetheless

inevitable

his Basran

pupils

or for that

matter

his Basran
Anas'

doutful
not

his

claimed
dichotomy

why

alleged

only

to have
between

between

those

heard
Iraqi

countless

is held

Anas
simple

Even
Basra

in hadith

something

with

but
-

ones,

in the same material

pupils

activities

isnAds

as his Medinan

unanswered.

up and down

also

he has not instructed

in the same traditions


his Medinan

we

Iv, nos. 1075

the

material,

b. Abi

and the Kfan

at-Tawil

of argument,

sake

- question

in the extreme,

to blame,

Humayd

diverse

ones, remains

traveling

historical,

the

this

all

Anas

( cf. Ibn Fiajar, Llsn,

cAmr b. Shamar

Allah

However

Iraqi

various

Zuhri,
as
such

b. 'Abd

ar-Rahmn.

in the

traditions

to Anas rests on

isnds,

Ishq

b. Abi Namir,

encounter

and

'claim'

in Anas

exactly

fact and a highly

of Anas's

examination

Successors

Sharik

forger

it is a striking

tells us that Medina's

Medinese

various

to ascertain

transmitters
with

material

traced

accept

and Medina

transmission

for which

traditions

if we

him.

In

as
are

Anas himself
who

as

is

falsely

sum,

the

back via Anas to the

272
and Medinan/Syrian

prophet
to

the

historicity

of Anas

maintained.

--(5)

as transmitter

In fact, all Anas's


except

b. Shamar

cAmr
Anas's

where

Juynboll

does not explain

between

the Iraqi

Muwatta'.

by the Madinan

related

are not related


well

and
vice
versa.
,

that

there

Madinan

If this

is an internal
Successors

of them, in the Muwatta',


that of the others.

material

why

masters

or

Muwa(Ua'

of Anas

the hadiths

in the

which

on the authority

are

of Anas

in the Muwatta'

transmitter

as

is the case, it can also be said

inconsistency

themselves

al-Tawil.

by the dichotomy

he means

Successors

by the Basran

is

are Madinans(6)

ones in the

and the Madinan

He seems to wonder

traditions

that he was one of Malik's

Iraqi

what

the

Mdlik's

among

pupils. () But even assuming


are the other

if

Ijumayd

transmitter

is not considered

masters,

from

of prophetic

Anas

via

explained,

in the Muwa((a'

pupils

is the Basran

one, who

be

satisfactory

cannot

prophet

back

traced

material

in

because

on the authority

the material
the material

of the
of each

of Anas, is different

273
JUYNBOLL'S THEORY OF THE 'AGE TRICK'

One of the features


the hadith

Juynboll

that
is

transmision

lying

to characterize

claims

about

Speaking

age.

one's

about the Successors of Iraq, he says: " Even more so than was
the case with
far,

lived

the theory
common

century
of

large

a surprisingly

supposedly

the

the other

cannot

of

old age that

in

conditions

that

the

transmitters

died at an age considerably

the

age reached

average

century
come

in, for example,


to call

digression,

Discussing
article,

died between

the West.
it

so many

Iraqi

also from
the
Juynboll

deserves,
Successors

Ishq

He
born
"
was
says:

126 and 129, which

most 97 years of age when he died.

do not admit
tradition

of

in the

than

twentieth

This deceit is what

of Ab

eighth

more advanced

other centres, resorted


tarjama

and

seventh

living

males

'age trick';

because

transmitters,

earlier

the

by

Successors

must have been

majority

vast

so

I have developed

have been easy and simply

supposition

dealt with

Iraqi

about one's year of birth


Living

practice.

centres

percentage

to such a ripe

that lying

Iraq

from

Successors

I think,
as well

I have
a short
as later

to it. "(s)
al-Sabici,

in

an

in 29 or 32 and

makes him at least 91 or at


At this point the question

274
is justified:

select

is simple:

answer
did

who

why

average

is 75 or 76

transmitters

old

in that

of the

part

famous

world

Ibrahim

transmitters,

to establish

The

such

status

ages,

they

that
they

rather

the
of
have

may

in order
have

met

to claim

the

could

able

were

than

was

in reality

than they were

In so doing,
of Successor

we

majority

vast

advanced

at least the probability

masters.

coveted

--namely

to be much older

pretended

certain

at

what

50--

at about

al-Nakhaci.

dying

with

rare

life span of males in those days

expect to be the average

might

One of the very

years.

died at an age corresponding

who

the

study

at 78 lunar

was fixed

scholars

solar

any transmitters

In a recent

age.

The

traditionist?

are hardly

there

Islamic

age of early
that

years,

because

die at a ripe

not

a long-lived

such

that of Successor

of a

Successor.
It is my conviction
number
enjoyed

of Successors
the privileges

However,
over

vast

with

majority

under

the strong

of the
explicit
of

the

traditionists

that went with

despite

his theory

argument

that by means of this age trick

figures

tradition

undeservedly

this status. "(9)

conviction

' age trick',

a large

that Juynboll

he does not

to support
transmitters

provide

the claim
died

holds

at

his

that

"the

an

age

275
considerably
living

males
West. "

age

in the

twentieth

6 Kufan

of

easy to counter

or

these

about

118 at the age of 56 or 57), (13)

(d. after

by others

who

Sacid b. Jubayr

they

are

In fact, it is
died

in their

(d. 95 at the

b. Dicmah al-Sudsi
Abn

the

(d. 96 at the age of

(d. 117-

b. Slih b. cUmayr

age of 55), (14) Sacd b. cUbayd

100 in middle

al-Sabici, he

( d. 92 or 94, at the

b. Yazid al-Taymi

age of less than 40), (12) Qatadah

110+ at the

the

p. 61)

b. Yazid al-Nakhaci

50), (11) Ibrahim

example,

that

suggesting

more,

examples

age of 49), (1o) Ibrahim

by

and one Basran who reached

For example,

or fifties.

age reached

in, for

century

(
See Tradition,
examples.

representative

forties

Successors

hundred

one

the average

of the case of Ab Ishq

In his discussion

mentions

than

more advanced

al-Sulami

Unaysah
Abi
Zayd
b.
(15)
age),

( d.

al-Kfi
al-jazari

(d. 1 19 or 124 at the age of 36). (16)


Interestingly
to, for
scholars
years"

the statement
was fixed
an age which

males at that
nothing

enough, in the study which

time,

odd in this:

biographies

in which

that

" the average

at 78 lunar

years,

juynboll

age of early
that

that

the author

and death

Islamic

age for

of the study

" On the basis of one hundred


both birth

us

is 75 or 76 solar

he does not accept as an average


we find

refers

sees

and fifty

dates are supplied,

276
it can be affirmed
in these two works
however,
this

was 78 years.

yields

have

service,

and nervous

Looking
Western

into

countries,

'considerably

in 1987-88
Switzerland
scholars

cigarette
tension
the

smoking,

would,

age of

that

but rather,

in Sweden
was

and
years.

of a group

of men

pollution,

the

military

life. "(17)
males

of
age

some
is not

for some of them,

of life at birth

it

in Iceland

in 1987 was 74.16,

and in

(18) The average

age of

73.90.

in any case, normally

the male in general.

years,

of 75 solar

75 as an average

The expectation

1987-89

air

born of modern

average

we find

was 74.58,
in

are lunar

and who did not

and childhood

more advanced'

is about the same.

lifespan

be expected

would

infancy

survived

to cope with

As these

an average

And this, in fact, is what


all of whom

of the individuals

must be made for solar reckoning;

a correction

correction

lifespan

that the average

be higher

than

that

of

277
IJADiTH

IN

ASSOCIATION

With
Egypt
full

who,

198/813),

can rightly

that

bulk
Iraqi

various

of their

percentage

one following

of these
of two

I have

late into

Allah

b. Lahica

(d.

Allah

b.

Wahb

(d.

originators

of

as the

but with

the consideration

supposedly

in

gathered

When we

Ibn Wahb's Jmic, it appears that a


is

isnads

the

at the

examined

jmic,

in his

chapter.
turn

In

says:

itself.
Egypt
in
and not

centres

of

Wahb's

investigates
kadhib

material

Juynboll

Iraqi

by

judging

Successors'

level

the

or the

that. (i9)

However,
Ibn

cAbd

was

of the transmitters

provenance

from

pupil

be considered

for example,

scrutinize,
large

his

cAbd

in the province,

hadith

ITS

AND

came relatively

well-known

with

circulation
the

of traditions

the

174/790)

hadith

in Egypt,

to the situation

the transmission
with

KHURASAN

IRAQ

WITH

respect

swing

AND

EGYPT

the

argument

the isnds
same

on the

There are 43 isnds


out to be Iraqi,

Basran transmitters

Hzim, (2o) and Shabib

chapter
hadith

of a full
which

Juynboll

mutawtir,

in this chapter.

7 of which

chapter

the

Only 11

are on the authority

who used to visit

Egypt, i. e. Jarir b.

b. Sacid, (21) and one on the authority

of

278
a Hijzi

two others
the

level,

settled
al-layth

are Madinan

However,

Iraqi.

are

but, at

is on the

one

b. Sa11Am, who

Yahy

transmitter

in Egypt, and the other

of the Egyptian

on the authority

b. Sacd.

Iraqi
cIrgi

are

Basran

of the

authority

level,

at the Successor's

which,

subsequent

b. Muslim; (22) there

i. e. Muhammad

transmitter,

i;...
bl
...... c-1-11,,,

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Khursanian

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support

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tier

the

examined

Khursnian

scholar,

is well

known

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scrutiny,

that,

turn

however,

vly:

when

we

the time

at the Successor's
in

which,

lj -Er

Khursanian

hails from

mentioned

most likely

He does not,

this general

I have

above
will

that,

predominantly
it supports

-ftf

t.:: I
ism

I
r. rW ir, C -j

likely
is
"
It
says:

with

the material

enviroment
or

iJ, 4, Z,., r.. lr.

Juynboll

an Isnd

transmitters,
and/or

ll

L..:

, :,.,:

the

case

out to be from

offer

any

of

Basra
to

examples

statement.
representative
Allh
cAbd

for his activities


I investigated

isnds

b. al-Mubrak

of material

(d. 181), who

in the transmission
the first

part

of a

of hadith.

of his published

281
Musnad,

which

Basrah

subsequent
remaining

isnds

Madani

are

is either

are Hijzi

by the next

two

is

the
The

or Kufah.

to some

and

but

non-Iraqi,

Basrah

from

first

the

of which

Shmi

extent

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83 lsnds.

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286

NOTES

1. Tradition,

p. 65.

2. Tradition,

p. 64.

3. Tradition

p. 64.

4. Tahdhib a! -Tahdhib
5.

Tradition,

p. 67-68.

6. In addition
Yazid

to those
Said

al-An$ari,

b. Abi

Bakr

7. The

related

Jufi(d.

127-32),

referred

b. cAbd al-Rahmn
cAmr Mawla
Juynboll

which

Shamar

Ihadith

refers

and al-Acmash(d.

it is mentioned

b. Abi cAmr Mawl

Abi

10. al-Muhaddith,

p. 357 no. 296.

1 1. Ibn Hajar,

Taqrib

prose",

to give

p. 170.

5, p. 61.

13. Tahdhib 8, p. 355.


14. Ibn Sacd 6, p. 235 (1). Tahdhib
15. Siyar

1, p. 94-95.

5, p. 9.

16. Ibn Hajar,


17. Richard

Taqrib

al-Tahdhib,

W. Bulliet,

p. 200.

18. See Demographic


19. Tradition,
20. See Tahdhib

Yearbook

p. 44.
2, p. 72.

21. Id. 4, p. 306-307.

1075)

the impression

p. 95 no. 270.

al-Tahdhib,

no.

p. 222 no. 2118.

1989, United

cAbd al-Ralimn.
that

b.

cAmr

(d. 148), Jabir

the same transmitter

that

p. 46.
of Arabic

b. Abi

a! -

he
that
was a contemporary
means

This

al-Muttalib.

9. "On the origins

12. Siyar

us (in

b.

al-RahmAn

b. Sacid, Muhammad

of Jacfar b. Muhammad

in order

to as cAmr b. Abi 'Amr

are 'Abd

Yahya

Rabi'ah

us to tells

148).

there

b. Ruqaysh,

al-Muttalib,

on the authority

In no. 1096

8. Tradition,

in the quotation,

mentioned

al-Thaqafi,

source

of Malik.

10, p. 245.

Nations.

is sometimes
that

he is <Amr

287
22. See Tahdhib

23. Tradition,

9, p. 444.

p. 62.

24. See Musnad Abd Allah b. al-Mubrak

1, pp. 3-47.

288
FOUR

CHAPTER

THE AUTHENTICIT

OF HADITH:

A DISCUSSION OF TWO MUTAWATIR

In

three

chapter

investigation

two

tries to attest
the

place

m utawtlr

the late origin

Another

"conclusion

that

historicity

hadlths

for

purpose

as such

of a hadith's

reference

ascription

punished

of his relatives
and

is

over

it occurs

This dictum

a great

separately;

by a preamble and/or followed


Another
allegedly
who

m utawtlr

reported

[deliberately]

many
at other

tradition,

lies

for

the

In his

the most

'the deceased will


buk'

a weeping
like

sounds
different
times

be
I

a slogan
contexts.

it is preceded

by a sequel.

by a vast number
tells

the

containing

mutawtir,

[ or in a variant:

him. '
in

mentioned

Sometimes

the hadiths

to it being the maxim:

by the lamenting

is to prove

is no guarantee

can be considered

of nlyha

common

study

as

of these

to the prophet. " (t)

own words: " In Muslim terminology


prohibition

fabrication

he

Iraq

and to designate
the

of this

under

puts

In this investigation,

of hadith

tawtur

Juynboll

tradition,

is responsible

which

hadiths.

Muslim

of

HADITHS

about

even

more

famous

of Companions,
me, will

have

runs:

and
'He

to seek for

289
himself

a place in Hell. ' "(2)

NIYA IAH
With

to the first

regard

niyhah

is a Iraqi

almost

all the hadiths

are headed

He investigates
historical
and

Ibn

in al-Wgidi,

isnds,

in these

their

authors

in Iraq.

with

Madinan

isnds,

root

the isnd

occurrences

forbidden

are all headed

Ishaq received
In view

is

left

and

death;

b.

is banned.

isnds:

to ascertain
derivatives

at an early

one

does the NWH

Sacd in which

or Syrian

of

reports

in only

buk'

only

in Ibn

settling

several

defective",

containing

Medina

Hishm

to the eventual

sources it is difficult

of his having

gidi,

the appearance

to attribute

of niyhah

the information

a1-W

of Hamzah

of the death

reports

Iraqi

of NWH "

in the early

Ibn
in
once

" wholy

by

that

Maghzl

Hamzah's

concerning

The other

historical

Hlshm,

In Ibn Sacd, he finds

In the remaining

occur.

earliest

Ibn

sources

of which

reveals

and Egyptian.

NWH

of the term

It is found

two

that

derivative
Syrian

a few

in the account

term

report,

with

the Sirat
Sacd.

"a

contain

He is inclinded

cAbd al-Muttalib.
of this

which

suggests

His investigation

the existence

sources,

Tabagt

twice

concept

by Iraqi

Juynboll

tradition,

"In

where

it is
the
Ibn

of NWJJ.

age he might

290
have been exposed
Iraqi
-

who

occurrences

also
of the

The few Medinese

in

term

derivatives

Ibn

with

evidence

so

unequivocally

concept

extent

pointing

nlyhah

and Egyptians.

concept

justify

the
or

derivatives.

do not

at burials

considered
undermine

to

to the extent

other

of Iraq,

in the direction

that

conclusive

constitute
the

all

does - the one

that

is
defective
-

contain

evidence

and also to a
ground

of the

niyha. "(3)

in the collections

justified

The

NWH

with

to Syria and Egypt, as the breeding

This result,

which

to

as

isn ds.

isnds in Ibn Sacd supporting

weeping

be

possibly

to

on chains of Iraqi

relied

of NWH and the one and only

cannot

limited

collective

statements

in his new
applies

Sacd, however,

mainly

going back to Ibn al-Munkadir


it

circulating

consideration

of

or untraceable

dealt

that

same

use

heading

transmitters

reports

made

that this collector

conclusion
Syrian

The

- surroundings.

W gidi,

in reports

to the term

at this

according
of hadith
occurs

are Iraqi

stage that

is borne out by the case

also, where

niyha

cannot

at all in Medina

almost

all the isnds

- and to some extent

He says: "I think

and, therefore,

it was practised

to juynboll,

the

overall

be attributed

Syrian

conclusion

in all its forms

in

is

is an Iraqi

to the prophet.

If

I
and
see no reason why
-

not

291
lt
was at any rate never referred
He goes on to say: "I
Syrian

do not believe

and Egyptian

traditions

being

isnds

Iraqi

to in Medinese

was felt

to be something

implied

in

the

traditions

from

explicitly

numerous

customs

were

mourning

practices

of the conquered

Arab

women,

conquered

who

territories,

indigenous

women

perhaps

gradually

adopted

the irritation

information,

come

so much

.....

and their

vogue

report

it is not unreasonable

that
to the

by

the

majority.

mourning

practices,

the anger or

If we lend credence

to

to have

namely

the

b. Kacb. Unfortunately

It is safe to say, however,

to set as terminus

A. H., that is two decades or so after

the

of

the overall

may have roused

Qaraza

). These

husbands

as to be recorded,

about

and as is

It is likely

we can even fix a date for ntyha


into

This

bewailing

typical

influenced

heavily

the year of his death is not certain.


that

traditions

their

Arabs.

of the conquering

aw-il

abovementioned

by everyone,

(buka').

from

people.

who must have formed

It was they who set the fashion

practice

something

accompanied
were

The only

traditions

rukhas

a few
nlyha

different
a few

from

heading

was weeping

definitely

"(4)

traditions.

apart

isnds
the
all
-

different

the

that-

is a mere coincidence.

referred

(niya ia), as appears

to in Medinese

the founding

post

quem

40

of the city of

292
Kfa and some thirty
The following

First,

years

it is only

in the quotation

above

the death

the one

from

prophetic

Juynboll

some muhaddithn

to be mutawtir.

the

= weeping

buk,!,

variant:

This hadith

of the prophet. "(5)

may be made concerning

remarks

In fact,

after

appears

with

this discussion:

saying

mentioned

is considered

which
They

by

it with

mention

(6)

X11 oLi, -,

isnds

from

Hijz and

both regions,

Iraq. (7)

However,
prohibition
hadiths

with

as Juynboll

the niyhah

evaluate

is

of nlyhah
associated

factor,
that

let us assume, for the sake of argument,

the

thinks?
hadiths

method

it;

does this

of all,
that

suggest
Arab

women

husbands
forms,

I think

are

adopted

that

the niyhah
were

exposed

only

on

territories'.

of the Arabs

during

here to prove

to prove
hadith

of the Iraqi

were

Iraqi

or not but rather

by juynboll

customs

the

only

reflect

mutawtir

it is contrary

into the ' conquered

was a practice

of the various

It is not our purpose

are no more than the invention


first

because

mutawtir

that the

to

that

thay

circle.

But

historical

fact

to

to which

something
accompanying
Niyhah,

to

their

in various

the Jahiliyyah.

293
Secondly,

differentiates

Juynboll

between

niyhah

and buk,!,

headed

by Madinan

isnds

they

describe

niyhah

the

of Ibn

from

their

with

a Madinan

instead

of niyhah,

which

in

Ibn

representing,

L+.,
j4.
41J1
iI ae - f. 3 _Lc

term

mentioned

in

a derivative

of

believes

learned

they

appears

Sacd, with

the word

in juynboll's

view,

tu,

I,. iJ I, . LS.;,
JI b-"

1Le:
f-A5L

buka'

a different

r-i
,
J 1-WYIA

y",
.

J+Y I L

Y
l...
o.:
,
c..
tz,
.lot

u>-j

ink

o. /i

J Lii

I-4.1.1
1.1
JI
V-,.:

v.
csle

taj
JI vu.

I J, }.W L
:i. L: UJ.

-a

L.
J. +.

bl tA" L.._; I..1


(-(-L-

I
LIA
&-.
r

YI.,.; t

j 4-eL

Vle

1..:J I , Y i.

YIr
rLLLS:,
1-A"J.

4. L IILI 4- JI `A,>6
I
Li-acSyl. sJ csU-- "

" LLf'

ce

it

v-m +

:
v

31.,
E ir,

"... i-e-i,

iii

LA! -'
mc
(U 1
J.
1
d_1J
os-w.j
LJL.

vi-

is-:IJL

*. j"I

x,51 'juJ.

c'sy

the

The same event

environment.

isnd

in which

in which

Juynboll

even when

occurs,

is an event

there

all hadiths

(8)

practice.

"jjJ it

Iraqi

new

buk'

and al-Wgidi

NWH is used, something

investigation

his

sets aside

as those

events

same

Ishq

He thus

in which

For example,

appears.

the works

in

4J I

I,.:

LQri '--

J1
r &: v-1 6--. j -t1..., i tilt
1.i 4_,JI

Wl

S
l..
i
. aJI
jJ;. LA
rNo

294
di
I
Js--)
4JI I 4.6l..
e

uJ il

eJ

I
Li
L
v-;
i&
trC
vt+L
r--z
...
.
"u
. ., J-11cr. fL., J
o

J L"
WSa
tie
..
e
j
Lr.

JLLi i:
-r

"i

YIL..!

&..

UJ I

Ll -1.I.-i

irAji

C:
J
I
l*
dU
(",y.: .w
uU

,wI.

JLi U

71LI

YJ

Y
VSI,yj

U
I
J.
4.
s.
e
,

&* J4
LLi
.

LIA L.

ZY

(') \. /\
It

is true

distinction

between

that

mean
lughah

there

that

a few

are

In Mujam

is not buk'.

. 61Jt, '

1ULi4uJ.

J.

In fact, in these reports,


b uk'

ordinary

Thirdly,
the origin

cJ+i

ai..

al-

Juynboll

basis

Concerning

of

transmitters

is

basis he

However,

investigation.
isnds

he ascribes
or

the

defines

to their

subsequent

Jmic, it appears

Iraqi

at the

judging

Successors'

by
level

that
the
or

a large

stage.

one

for

percentage

provenance
the

in

origin

lsnds, he says: " When we scrutinize,

Egyptian

isnds

that

Successors

the

Ibn Wahb's

example,

in this

between

0o)

of niyhah.

does not state on what

isnds

of the

I"C. s!

JI
JeLLiJ
UiIj
L.,:
i-,
:
.

is made merely

a distinction

and the b uk'

places he declares

the

of the

magyis

I.rJIi ,

UI

L:
oL<-JI
.

on

(9) we find:

JI4.:
cj:
..j...

other

which

does
but
this
buk'
not
exists,
and

niyhah

niyhah

in

reports

of

the

following

295
that. "(ii)

he describes

an isnd

"purely

Medinan".

Shaybah

is Kufan

This isnd
"lt

in

appears
isnd

In this

Ibn

that

that

I
L2
>jJ-m.

of NWII

the derivatives

appear

n'ihatin
isnad

by an Iraqi

one;

claims,

only

kullu

He says: " The report


Umm Sacd is headed

is made

juynboll

in Ibn Sacd, which,

appears

lila

Ibn Sacd is Iraqi

". (13)

the shaykh

of

are Madinans.

and the next two transmitters

runs :(14)
('

L-- JL", er i,--.. JI s. c UJL!


y. Jay e.a " V. c

j+-.
.

Applying

s. a

the same method

}eJ

Ic)

of judging

to

be

different.

Here

ty:

the origin

Ibn

Sacd

" We find

quite

a few

more reports

c! t

}
Via-.

of isnds

sources, I have found

are

Juynboll's

the sources and my own examination

'abagat

(t

Ui
-WI

at the Successors' level

that" to Juynboll's

or the one following

J..

OSi

La. t-!
J- `

" by the provenance of the transmitters

concerning

are Madinans.

judgement

In fact, it is as the same as the previous

reality

as
Abi

of Ibn

the shaykh

a different

occasion,

isnds.

tukadhdhabu

the

Shaybah

{..,
)
{.
1
w
U-
1,
ii->rv. c
Zy r
t4
}S

his thesis

Iraqi

J-:- jIv

Abi

runs:

on an isnd

This isnd

thadiths,

niylhah

and the next two transmitters

on another

supports

that

(12)

v. c (v+J-4 ) tul

However,

with

of the isndsof

In his investigation

findings

of them.

in Ibn Sacd in which

niyha

296
in one form
mourning

practices

supported

by Iraqi

Juynboll

is forbidden.

or another

persons

and Syrian

other

J-:
JVJ.
Lj

WI
LvI...
c.r
u-1-1

r.

yr

fl-i

4&Lr-dU I L,L

J.

J.*J .ry

l. SI JU

which

_i1.

L6r

W1J..,,

---j

Aj tLj
l..
Uu
j
CAA.. ,

tic

l
L.
i
..
... i. v. .

LJ

jI.,;

r.

:,; IjuJj.

s-
LA
t.
.

LSJI

) AA/\-1

Z,-; 6 lit ., -

---j
c
cs1. ..

l.,
I
J,
I
.
'U
11J
c
r, 1.
sj
L..o

l.

wI,

and are

The reports

IwI vt
,-

vt

...; .t,. e I r. I v. ir, v-. I


i

Hamza

than

isnds. "(i5)

concern

us to are:

refers

1JI J.

over

All these reports

........ -

t v-,

I t,

il
IJJI
L;:

UJ

l.
cu
fJ1

IU
l: -Lt CJ j 1.14..;,

VI VI-4
I
Ju

ir.

i-4 U.: JU.

L
_)-!.VIc sL
Lam:
'sj. il L Lag-a
.i

II

vi iwv

J, 9-...i

vL
01

(\A) 1f A/1-i`

bL, ' r
I ti

J I , Y i uJ, JI y "u4
.
,

Jl,
113
bi
j->.
. v..., , -.'
&,
sei
"j,
J
x:
rs-
.
,

L,
d
L.
Ai
" l
. Lc

c"JI

bi : Ju f."j

di
1c
LA
(19-i

Two

reports

niyhah

to which

he refers

are, in fact,

not

critical

of

297
Ul
i j

J
I
r. t-! uJ!

J Ij l

iI

jLL ;.

Z,.m FYI

Lt
&-j.
zs.
a,.
e
VIA
-a

jU LJL.

(e')

He refers

Sacd 8, pp. 2ff.

in Ibn

us to reports

verse.

of them, which

refers

to the practices

6.4 eir. Ijl,

JI LL &J"i

wIwI.,

-"YIt1,,,,

.,,

but one
:

LJI...

-.

i-

.UII,

the

is Madinan

of niyhah,

.-

" VSy+ j

regarding
Iraqi,

These are mostly

exegesis of a Qur'nic

1A/'%

u
--j

L':L im ":

Y 61, Jjjjal 6- 4:0

li 1-" ,= Yj L j-u li 4-1


i
-"A.

(r)r/A. 31j,
Commenting

on a particular

a derivative

of NWH , juynboll

left

discussed

be

to

transmitter
hadith

that,
have

might
,

isnad

in Ibn Sacd, which

contains

is
isnd
There
"
only
one
says:
but

been

for

one

wholly

a Medinese

unknown

one. " (16)

This

is:

" l< <,. 4..i &.a X1 .JJI Vki &-.,dJ L4 L JU " w .s-w L
j,
IJ L
ij
jI
I,
Vii
11
vj
v:
r,
L,
4.:
s-;
S..

rs
rL
iU
-.
--< ,

l:
cyJ

(U)
By the 'unknown

transmitter'

In fact, he is a known
of al-Wgidi,

who

juynboll

transmitter

received

this

\ LA/\-r

means Malik

...

I...
r-i
.

b. al-Rijl.

and he is one of the shaykhs


hadith

from

him,

with

this

298
isnd,

in his Maghzi.

Musnad
" Every

al-'aylisi
isnd

bewailing

supporting

appears

Musnad

and

weeping

concerning

a saying

to be Iraqi. " (18) The following

in

appear

al-Taylisi:

.I IvI
f.

(17)

I
1
I
i
v- v-c -: ... &j La
c
-
-"
.
.
l
lIz
JLi
IiJ
l.
lvl:
I.
:
t4-U
t_Lc
- tL,, j
s,., .._l
LrL-

IJtiJIw

e.;i

rL.
4.
41!I-,:
LJ I

JI
....

I i- t-Li I II
&Z
.
,
i"
.,
1Jl
Ll
&.
L 1
A .;
oi
.

y_y
arc

L1JI Z.
,..

vl-,- vl-5
i Z>-.
I
v;

JV ; S.L.
1&i

JU

(mo)r%04-...
Cul UL
1 " v-: t; V -l'.

4
b-:
iJ JL*4,-J1 r- ii

LV

14J
1
L.
Ij
ll
mo
Ij
yip
ir.
in cri
w.
rte
rte
,
.
l.
Ij
YJ
J
I
lS
d.
_i
e
!..
L_1.
41.41
v.
-aJ
t
-LU
. ; .:
"3lS y_. c
... P4:L.
u

VKA

Musannaf

Ibn

" In the Musannaf


impressive
lsnds,
prohibitions

Ab!

(10.0

Y1.

Shaybah
(d. 235/849)

of Ibn Abi Shayba

series of traditions,
dealing

.la

with

of various

NWII
grades

with

sound as well

as well

as BKY

of severity

we find

an

as defective
derivatives,

as well

as other

299
in which

reports

to be permissible.
Meccan,
Muhammad

The vast

is

one

forms

certain

of weeping

b. Ishq

in

we

again without

a derivative

The following

lsnds are found

in Juynboll's

encounter
and

of NWH. " (19)

source :
ej Lai

1 IwI_...

:JPI`.

One is

of NWH I-

in either

Medinan

are found

is Iraqi.

which

derivative
no
-

one is purely

4.U Puj-

of isnds

majority

Medinan/Syrian,

or wailing

ju

J. s, j jVJV

I
e
it
ire
JAc

JI "y 1. :,

.Ll.

l" :,

Iw
I,
, .. yl

slsc . e s

y., ..,., ... -

1. . 1 4.lJ I

.:V .1. ".

YMo.,

vi. i.,

s..
. vl

tg

ML).,
.

L. Y I

v. l. 3- Y JU . JJ, Y...
id

s" , o5 M

Lail JU fl.,, j tJ

JJI Z LL JII S

L(

I-II: . AA ,IjI

YJ IJ*

L,- .j

aLI

JI
L: 61 rL

&.r

&-A

I)
Q.A-+1

IJL!

"j
P.

4: 1c 41JIXLJ

r.

L' &

LUIL

Lit
.,

I'

I4f e'

1
IL
.
kdz

vl.,-. ,.

c:,t cj1..4.....

YJ

cr`

Uz &z
LrLJ VlI...

dig
,
ve
r..
,

W L, l.. ejl ti-i

vrLA--, IJ lJ

(I

I ue 6.e
61 4-1J

l C).
I
Vi A L).&Zlj ... -

i 6.A Lj"
vi

4--L'uuU" 4-u J.4--j J L! JU

l.J

1.. JU .i
41A I

.j

! A-J

300

II
-LL 'l..

41JI J. s. j

JU JU rte &i f 6.c Ci


.

Wis..

The

following

pI5

isnd

Madinan/Syrian.

Y 1Li.

is that

-11
...
LA-"

LSy
Li! &eJ c.
. X11 .

1 v1 ft

Juynboll

designates

as

is no Syrian

transmitter

in

which

(2o) In fact, there

it.

WI ir,
I
l
v
ire
L.
cs. r . t
.4"

41II uj.. e 411IWj

JU c$
ta.

4j

LL --JU 2&.".l< &c

z3

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(21)

reference

the

in cAbd

traditions

6667-92
nos.

III,

yields

following

exactly

JiiJj-<-

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Li
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v. uJ

the same results! ".


in

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Musnad
Again

(IlAo)

g;
a:
...

Alimad
all traditions

in which

derivatives

of NWH

occur have

303
Iraqi

isnds

isnd with

is one

and there

Syrian

defective

particularly

nawh. "(22)

the word

e1JI Js- j JU .JL;

cri

L. AUI

,1IV;

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i ,.. e-i
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i
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l
I
L.
;
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, A- c
jV

bI-

Jj

CjJl

ZA-LA

yj
rl='
Va.

canonical
final
which

further

and various

results.

says:

"A

other

collections

All the traditions

a derivative

Yj
,

LA

r/

1jo

Juynboll

... -

I
i
ijli.
v.,
eye
s_i

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i
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Lf -

1,
>i

tVLi

vl.,,, VI-4
J.s-.J JVJL!

l
Y

thorough

from

study

Iraqi

the

six

the following

yields

the sunnite

of NWH occurs have

of

collections

isnds

with

in
the

304
exception

Hijzi lsnds
the six and

in later hadith

both of the words

pursues

in others

In his dealing
Juynboll
hadith

its

discusses

in which

earliest

source

Musnad

",(24) as juynboll

The lsnds

of this hadith
From

collections.
conclusion

that

this
hadith

this

The method

which

is to trace

its occurrence

sometimes
which

in

considered.

Juynboll

in works
view

of

man

in

non-occurrence

and

this

in an insignificant
tradition

says, which
increased

in Iraqi

originated

hadith

hadith
complete,

examination

Iraqi

reaches

in investigating

in particular

following

collection.

in later

time

Juynboll

investigation,

applies

is Iaylisi's

is an Iraqi

with

"The

way.

occurs

that are now no longer


the

hadIth,

calayya

that it does not exist in non-Iraqi

it does but

or that

collections,

kadhab

occurrence

He finds

collections.

IIADiTH

'ALAYYA
with

in some sources

only.

niyhah

the

that Juynboll

quotations,
and buka'

niyhah

he pursues
,

THE MAN KADHABA

both in

collections.

the foregoing

from

ones. "(23) In fact, the

to above are to be found

that are referred

It is apparent,

while

and Egyptian

Syrian

of a few

the

circles.

this hadith
collections,
a method
cannot

be

305
al-Nas'i
He first

is Sunan

examined
the Sunan
hadith

the non-Iraqi

examines

collections.

(d. 303/915),

of Nasa'i

lived

who

if we take the following

all the more astonishing

in

- and gathered

find
do
Egypt,
his
life
in
we
not
of
most

for
-

source

Indeed,

he says :"

on which

al-Nas'i,

The first

it. This is

considerations

into account.
It is reported
hadlth
early

with

that

various

collecting

all
from

masters

allusions

Balkh,

Rhawayh

both

Ahmad

from

b. Nasr and

Nisbr,

Ss. This last shaykh

later

in Raqqa.

238/852)

we know

several

that

transmitters

they

and

Ishq

allegedly
who

Slih

Ibn

in

Ibn

b. Ziyd

who

tradition.

also
About

Rhawayh

transmitted

appear

b.

and settled

are two

the man kadhaba

b. Sacid (d. 240/854)

b. Ibrhim

Shucayb

there

masters

at-tahdhib

Iraq, Qutayba

in Khzistn

was born

his

in Isnds supporting

Qutayba

from

Among

Ishq

and Ab

his

but it seems fit to

and one from

Khursn

from

emerge

the Tahdhib

all over

that

were

reputedly

who

take far too much time,

name here three from


Sacid from

of those

names

vague

of Ibn Hajar would

in Egypt. It is self-evident

definitively

the

to study

he, already

but that

in Khurdsn

masters

in life, settled

Nas,
i went
man

as a young

isnds

(d.

traditions
of man

306
kadhaba

traditions,

masters

of Ahmad

these

feasible

and the same goes for three


(d. 245/860).

b. Nasr
the

channels

reach Nas'i in spite

man

isnd

whole
Anas

- prophet,

Differently

put,

probably

much

with
at least
longer,

thirty
as we

headed

man

kadhaba

from

his master,

because it was falsely

after

the former

had left for Egypt, or which

tradition,

because he did not trust


man

kadhaba

and

circulated

an

Nasa'i

never

either

in an Iraqi

to the latter

attributed

the pupil

hundred

together

203/818).
tradition

compiled

years

before

Six of the eight


in its

different

(d. 160) in common.


Nas'i might

rejected

it. In actual fact, as we saw above, the

tradition,

collection

the

received

its

with

probably

man gAIa ealayya m lam aqul etc., is already

variant

one

Qutayba

which

died,

b. Sacid, supporting

isnd

by his master

Nas'i

see, there

shall

is listed.

saying,

before

years

the

b. Sacd - Zuhri

kadhaba

man

not

him in 279/892,

years before

the

did

tradition

b. Sacid - al-Layth

Qutayba

so, through

in the Jamic of Tirmidhi,

of the fact that

who died some twenty-three

Even

kadhaba

of the

masters

by someone
Nasa i,

isnds
readings

This traditionist

have received

through

who

in his Musnad

died

almost

heading

Shucba

is also a link
his master

attested

Tayalisi

namely

have

older

(d.
the

b. al-Hajjdj
in traditions

Ahmad

b. Nair

307
(

). On top of all this there


.....

Lahica, a key figure


to have

claimed

are isnds

in the development

hand,

on the other

traditions

because he did not trust

In his al-Sunan
through

transmitter:

....

Ibn Lahica's

him. "(25)

gives

al-Nas'i

this

ha di th

four

of

Shucbah

them

b.

appears

as

(26)

i". -.. -

L',.r

Li
4
cam.
ylc
M-rv.

in

and

But it is

Ibrhim
Ishq
b.
is
them
one of

seven masters;

Rhyah,

al-Kubr,

in Egypt. He

Nas, i spurned

that

also true,

master

b.

cAbd Allh

of hadith

an Iraqi

it from

heard

with

I,, =

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39

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308
4A I-LUIj.

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Lit

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J5( -i

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li

.--""
(M

al-Shfici
Al-Shfi<i,
his

Rislah,

masters

in

Muhammad

is a Hijzi

who

(27) in variant
these

lsnds

al-Darwardi

collector,
forms,

are

two

gives
four

with
Hijzis,

and Yahy

that

hadiths

Malik

bearing

mainly

does not

mention

this

hadith

of al-Darwardi

b.

disregards
to him

in his Muwa((a',

since the shaykhs

in these isnds are also among Mlik's

On the responsiblity

His

and one

juynboll

it is incomprehensible

in

al-cAziz

cAbd

because

in mind its importance,

transmitters

isnds.

b. Sulaym,

Syrian, cAmr b. Abi Salamah al-Tinnisi.


these

hadith,

this

of introducing

of these
shaykhs.

this hadith

309
into

Hijz,

Juynboll

is to be held

using his name who


the dictum

source,

following

comment:

"Another

Hijzi

(d. 2 19/834),
following

that

defective
b. cUyayna

but

perfect

highly

l
man
uI
-

isnad

his

commented
isnds

i can Abi

Hurayra

sessions
Humaydi

did not receive


learned

Through

Slih

Dhakwn,

were
Kulayb

- prophet

best pupil
for

and

seventeen

does not list

if we realize

saying,

and cAbd al-cAziz


these

saying

Bukhri
In
the
time
of
on.

Ab

Humaydi

remark

also deserves

(d. 256/870)
in circulation,
b. Shihb,

b.
he

channels

it. Besides, Ibn cUyayna's


of the

the

only once with

relevant

of Shfici

the

al-Humaydi

isnd:

for the man kadhaba

going back to Ab Hurayra

Successors

saying

that

astonishing

ad-Dardwardi.

he allegedly

b. az-Zubayr

hadith

he had also been a pupil

apparently

He makes

had been Ibn cUyayna's

attended

It is, indeed,

Muhammad

how

" (28)
...

al-Humaydi,

lists the man kadhaba

reputedly

more

Musnad

cAbd Allah

collector,

(11, no. 1166). Humaydi

years.

introducing

for

responsible

al-Ijumaydl

On the Hijzi

had

it is he or someone

in the Hijz cannot be established

Musnad

Sufyn

" Whether

remarks

on

to be

only four
via the
Muslim

b.

310
Yasr and Ab Salama.
in isnds

Ibn

of

he was

where

Uyayna,

Hajar,

had apparently

saying

or Medinese,

isnd.

opposite

of what

indicating

that

substantiate

Ibn

the saying

caught

recently

been brought

participate
concerned

that

with
from

in Ufa
Hajar,

in

his contempt

who had been actively

several

decades before

Tahdhib,

II, p. 49). " (29)

I shall

quote

this

hadith

isnd

&

Yw
I

cp

very

b. Yazid

for Jbir
spreading

should

as

forged

much

appears
al-Judi

(d.

traditions

moved to Mecca (cf. Ibn

as it appears

in Musnad

Humaydi:

iii J L)

had

content

was indeed

traditions

Sufyn

It is as if
.

m uhaddith

Sufyan

falsehood

to

unable

still

of this

as

it
deemed
that
was
and

self-respecting

in its transmission.

unmistakably
+13o/748),

a saying

into circulation

every

time

a less 'defective'
that

a rumour

at the

the

be interpreted

may well

was

with

Iraqi

him via a 'sound',

man 1 uhsi seem to convey

say and

cUyayna

in Mecca

IV, p. 122), the man kadhaba

Tahdhib,

they

Kfa,

left

definitively

to settle

His words

repeatedly

he only

although

not yet reached

he had

imperative

all these emerge

and

in order

born,

(Ibn

in163/780

Although

"
vL.
J

L2 JLi

al-

311
. JWI

4i

rLi

JL: i..

.L

l:
1
y;.
Z.
1J'
iY 4
Vi

bj'

Vii

(()

i
i
,
c...._
Two things

invalidate

Juynboll's

comment

not Ibn cUyaynah, who

from this isnd that it is al-Humaydi,


says:

...
out that,

points
word

uhsi

Also,

in the

it

occurrence

the

case

is clear,
of such

appropiate

method

of the hadith

that

of

is a remark

is something

there

a hadith
of judging

that

the

the

on the
requiring

whether

or not

or not it and its isnds

it with

case

book

of

or

occurrence

in a particular

We have seen that, while


he gives

and

al-Nas'i

I think,

or whether

in his Sunan,

al-

non-

is not

an

its author

knew

existed

at that

al-Nas, i does not mention

several

isnds

in al-Sunan

it
al-

lsnds,
four
but
it
with
al-Humaydi
presents
al-Shfici

mentions it, in his Musnad, with


Juynboll

there

manuscript,

indicates

which

from

Humaydi,

Kubr.

s.

of the Musnad

the editor

there.

correction

time.

Secondly,

it appears

First,

thinks,

cAbd al-cAziz

although

b. Muhammad

only one defective

he had "been
ad-Darwardi.

a pupil
"

isnad, as

of Shfici and

312

Ibn

Wahb
The

fraqment

published

about

14 chapters,

which

the

Wahb's

is the

one of which

Juynboll

" cAbd Allah

(d. 197/8 13) devotes

in his mic

) traditions

forty(!

circa

Companions
having

transmitted

of this

chapter.

in this kadhib

Juynboll
had

practised
this

in

kadhib

chaptcr,

during

the

Since

are reported

that

listed

as

isnds
twenty

elsewhere

the

also

that

latter

tradition
Ibn

Wahb

and compiled
half

of the

that it does occur various

probably

number

kadhaba

in Egypt,

during

roughly

the

a few

time

it
is
the
all
more astounding
-

in the Jmic.

although

result

man

as traditionist

Musnad,

the

observe

"(30)

forget
let
not
and
us
-

in Taylisi's

same time

Iraq

his profession

second century
times

reports

goes on to say: " If the

circulated

chapter

among

collections,

the

the

is not listed

chapter,

yields

count

chapter.

a lengthy
we

in

conclusion:

Wahb's
in
Ibn
also occur

man kadhaba

from

transmitters
appear

to Iraqi

the saying
A brief

tradition

of this

who, according

From

occur.

Again

traditions.

that the man kadhaba

peculiarity
the

to kadhib

draws

contains
chapter

the following

absence of this hadith


b. Wahb

jmic

kadhib

does not

hadith

kadhab

man

Ibn

of

compiled

at about

the

that it is not included

of traditions

with

kadhib

313
the

regarding
considerable,

transmission
we might

Wahb

had started

what

I am almost

transmitters

mendacious

have

subsequently
harsh,

traditions

to take into
Nas'i, who
have

it together

inclined

headed

died

the list

with

it either. " (31) To conclude


of this hadith

existence

Egypt

not earlier

than

of the third
transmitting

traditions

described
ascribed
province

A. H.

century

above,

it

took

to the prophet
conquered

of

less

(..... ) - that

later,

his argument

does not

regarding

the

says: "Summing

began

in

to circulate

the end of the second century


than towards

not earlier

In spite
people
one

of

of the alleged
who
the

settled
most

two, maybe three,


less

as yet

hand, we have

years

the saying

towards

A. H. in any case, and possibly

and would

but

in Ibn Wahb, Juynboll

up, it seems safe to say that

this,

in vilifying

reservations

one hundred

more than

if Ibn

later,

him,

On the other

also - albeit

that,

cri

of similar,

is

chapter

years

have reached

in this chapter.

account

a few
dernier

to call,

would

this

to conclude

venture

even

putting

in

of traditions

than

half

the end
in

activities
in

famous

centuries

a century

Egypt

as

sayings
to reach a
after

his

death. " (32)


In fact, in view
regarding

Ibn Wahb's

of al-Sunan
work,

al-Kubr

and the

these conclusions

find

argument
hardly

any

314
justification.

In none
to

according
hadIth

I have

that

subject

hadith

of the

in the kadhib

mentioned

seen

is the

in the kadhib

Abi al-Duny

gives 87 hadiths

in connection

not appear

dhamm

in

this

which

with

Ibn
Ibn

(33)

chapter.

in which

al-kadhib,

Juynboll's
kadhib

with
chapter

possibly

of Ibn

the concept

the hadith

does

(34)

Concerning
traditions

none of

al-Razzq and Mu$annaf

'Abd

give this hadith

in Bab

kadhab

man

to the filmic

similar

abi Shaybah,

kadhib

compiled

For example,

chapter.

the 'six books', or any of the works

Wahb, such as Musannaf

collections

is considerable",
that,

it

is only

number

of

of traditions

the tranmission

regarding

two if we count

"the

that

remark

one

hadith,

or

of Ibn Mas'd,

on the authority
L,39

runs:
In the fraqment

kadhab

nature,

chapter

just before

of Ibn Wahb's

which

Juynboll

the kadhib

jAmi',

a hadith

does not mention,


chapter.

This hadith

of the man
in the

exists

is : (35)

J li r1.., t. 1o 41J1Lo "


4-. .HI
Ibn

al-Jawzi

different

isnd

kadhab. (36)

gives

this

LI
laiI Lj-:
-iJ LC-r,tj
hadith

in a different

in his account of the (uruq

I J.....
version

of the hadith

di
S
:

with

man

315
In a manuscript
entitled
have

Musnad
found

related

from

Ibn

three

some of Ibn

containing
Wahb,

hadith

of this

two of his Egyptian

hadiths

in al-Zhiriyyah,

preserved

versions

Wahb's

Ibn

which

(37) I
Wahb

and one Syrian:

masters

1,.: `1 J.:i fI L.
LIH
I
L
U
I
JU,.,.
J,
ajlc
41J
4.
>-j
t1-j
r:
VU
j., a
i
wI
1:
1
;i
b-4
bV
b.
>.

.:
jL
,
"j
Ul
:,;
1.
11'10.

L'iI
(:Pt

v-H J..)+= vt jr"

JLivlc411Icr"

IVIA.

"I L! e,.l I

IA-. .I o.. j

eWIv.,

;Il.;
IL

V.

lL
L-A-11
Li c,
L:.
a
ey.
t_,
all
'.
&
j.
-Lt
.;

first

two of these
mentions

saying

on the authority

only

-!

L
XIj

ij

of the

isnads

whom

i.:, j

4-uI Js-

a-

in his juz'

&Zvia

4-uI

ij

V%
0.
4.1
jU1v..
al-Tabrni,

vl.

i ;J

J1I r- L.
Jl' &4
VU

IieIs

64 i-ili

Li IIi.

v,
u....,
c',.,
'v-:

WI

I,
YS
J,
,
via

tic

&t

4-IJI jj... jIericra-)

w--U-11
-=- t--SVS

&r, rt:

ti lb ALI ",

(uruq

through

the first

of this
different

part. (38)

of Anas, with

Wahb occurs but in a different

IJ
sui.
".

'

saying,

relates

the

pupils,

the first

He also relates

an lsnd

in which

of
the
Ibn

succession. (39) Ibn Hanbal gives

316
Said

b. Abi

Ayyb's

hadith

of cAbd Allah

authority
In

another

the same isnd,

with

b. Yazid, in his Musnad.


containing

manuscript

but on the

(40)
of Ibn

some

Wahb's

hadlths, (4t) the man kadhab exists :(42)


l+"JI .. l I

k..

.s.y

.l.l I ,.1 .U I Jj. -j

e.:.; it; I :rL -: + J v I -+,r;. I-

- -Jli

61 Jj4

:
+ LvL& s*j aLt
j-. m.

YIL:
y
-Lj ji
J LI

I,

t' 9.

Juynboll

Ahmad,
that

Himyar.

on

third

Lahicah,

fragment

in the kadhib

Another
cAbd

(44)

hadith,

that

Musnad:
LA

br rL.
WI
sAj
v
L
.

in

of Ibn

one shaykh

occurs,

is

Lahicah,
from

Ibn Lahica,
In fact,

also figures

discusses,

in

in the
being

in the isnad

one that

he

Mu sn ad

one of his appearances

Juynboll

b. Wahb

appears

< <'
but

manuscript,

is that, but for

Hubayrah

of the fmic,

chapter.

Allah

Ibn

in the jmic(43)

of this isnd figures

to Ibn

published

feature

41JI.+.c

i,

as a pupil

is a majhl,

link

oldest

also

b. Musa

The most striking

addition

Ahmad's

! sn d, which
Hasan

4.jlc

lj I fj.:

of this

authenticity

this

no transmitter

which

JSjLL

i :IJ: J! '.' J. . +

the

featuring

"the

J.:

-YIII"rl.

doubts

comments

JL
(*
t"j
15

IL-

I r.SL_I "I

.jI

.,....

Ci
i
..
u
,.

appears

of
in

(45)

v r-=
l
l
.
r..
,

l
1.;

Ju
i
Gr
eJ
r.
stU

4Aj .sly,

JJV JU 4.t J,..

317
I.i. sj y-11
W
("

I.
(<. 1<.

L&La

L r.;

l
i
J.
L+-.
V
L.
WI
WSJ
Lr.

"SJI
ELII

4WI Jry

r;

cri

fl-j

4...,r+
On this hadith
" This isnd
without

Juynboll

the

also supporting

Ibn

of

al-Jawzi

(d. 597/1200)

Hrn

b. Macrf,

Bahr

purely

Egyptian.

The Companion

bacame

Mucawiya's

succeeded

by

(incidentally

lacking

(d. 62/682).
with

the

in Ibn
the

b. al-Hrith,
Ibn Wahb

him with

who credited

words:

with,

Ab cUshshana as master

are

in Egypt

and

he

was

b. Mukhallad
traditions

but this

man is

he is a majhl.

cAmr

the best

memory

isnd

esteem

by

of all the

It is, therefore,
does not occur in

of Hishm

of Ibn Wahb

isnd

this

in high

instead

of

isnds

was held

that the whole

all the more astonishing

instead

heard

who

he had been a pupil.

of whom

This isnd

of

b. Abi Ruqayya,

the next transmitter,

shaykhs

the Jamic.

al-Jawzi),

in other

al-

function

Maslama

transmitters

Hishm

else dealt with,

this

Companion

other

Among

him we do find

nowhere

3700)

governor.

in the Kitb

These

cUgba settled
In

but

with,

b. Sabq.

b. Nasr

tradition

kadhaba

man

found
is
sequel
or
once more

preamble

mawdt

says:

and Maslama,

is also listed

in Ibn al-

318
jawzi.

It is hard to say when


If they

existence.
must

If they

of Harlin

or more persons
on this

hadiths

in the Jamie. (48)

b, a1-Hrith.

Ab

Hanifah
Juynboll

The saying
but Juynboll

transmission
ka dh aba
fabrications

or of one
may be
is not

works. (47)
in various

is not a master
Wahb's

of Ibn

of

master,

(49)

man

kadhaba

his attention

turns

occurs in the Musnad


dismisses

traditions
began

"I venture

with

saying
to the Iraqi

of Ab Hanifah

the involvement

of hadith:

that

Rija1

do figure

cUshshnah

he is a master

and the
then

Ab

the

probably

b. Nair

in the

b. al-Hrith

and cAmr

rather

of the

Ruqayyah

b. Abi

him.

reached

are

Bahr

does occur

b. cAmir

cAmr

- they

and/or

Hishdm

passage.

but

tradition

we have

names. "(46) A few remarks

using their

cUgbah

Wahb,

in the edition

the non-occurrence

for!

b. Macrf

His tarjamah

majhl.

Ibn

have

in Nasa, i to account

handiwork

jimic

the man kadhaba

do not - and we still

tradition

made

Ibn Wahb's

before

was compiled

came into

197/8 13, the year of his death, we

predate

that

conclude

and how these isnds

several

of Ab Hanifah

to discard

Ab Hanifah

to circulate

collections.

perhaps

in

times
in the

all the man


the

isn d as

as long

as two

319
hundred

years

these isnds

a brief
cAbd

says " The isnds


The first

ar-Rahmn

b.

ascribed

to Ibn

among Ab Hanifa's

a weak

without

specifying

Khudri
The

instead

of Ab

Isnd

third

cAbd

which

runs:

ar-Rahmn
in

listed

nowhere
perhaps

Dhba

or Dhawba

name

Ab

lsnd

in Ab Ysuf's

is called in full:
a note

that

Ab

Kltb

al-Khudri.
Dhba

prophet.

AbU

name
which

The editor

he had

whom
Ru'ba

Shaddd

Ab

it.
b.

Ru-ba

is

it

is

and

of the

in a comparable

In that isnd

al-thr.

is perhaps

to Ab Sacid al-

as a misreading
occurs

Sacid

He attempted

dictionaries,

biographical

to see this

permissible

from
Ab
-

Hanifa

Sacid

Ab
the

he alluded

Sacid al-Kalbi
Ab

is

al-Qdsim

mentioned

often

that

ra., y

Sacid - prophet.

Ab
-

Ab Sacid he meant.

the impression

to create

masters.

transmitter,

The second isnad runs:

b. Sacd al-cAwfi

- <Atiyya

Massd,

b.

father

of Ab Hanifa's

many

not listed

for

- al-Qsim

Massd

b.

Although

are eventually

, Atiyya,

needs

interesting

seem sufficiently

Allah

cAbd

- prophet.

Hanifa

which

isnd runs: Ab Hanifa

decisions

Ab

puts

on.

analysis.

grandfather

this, Juynboll

an examination

examination,

under

to be commented
Juynboll

his death". (5o) Despite

after

Athr
the
of

Ab Sacid
mentions

in

one and the same as Ab

320
Rawq, which

is the kunya

is then again confused

turn,
isnd

dealt with

Sacid b. Masrq

the saying
of whom

Ibrahim
isnd

was allegedly
many

with

isnads

nowhere

listed

defective,
as having

b. Shaddd
Works.

footnote

isnad

isnd"

in

Ab

relationship.

Ysuf's

"(51)

in some of the Rij, 11'

Kitb

In fact,

saying

are

masters. (52)

refers

a! -thdr".

he says: "
the man kadhaba
...

heads the man kadhaba

The last

erroneous.

is found

in it anyhow. " (54)

the

and Ab Ijanifa

had a master-pupil
are actually

here.

the name of Ab Ru'ba, juynboll

on this sentence,

does not occur

analysed

among Ab Hanifah's

(53) Discussing

Indeed,

Musnad.

because Zuhri

b. cAbd al-Rahmn

a "comparable

in this

tradition

these two, different

while

isnds

all the other

Anas
- prophet)

the man kadhaba

supporting

only

is listed

Anas
- prophet.

by Anas on the authority

Some of these remarks


a. al-Qsim

transmitted

occur

one is particularly

Ab Ijanifa

Zuhri
-

from

for

runs:

(AbU Hanifa

collections,

same is true

isnd

b. Yazid at-Taymi

occur in all the canonical


all the others,

who, in

b. Sacd of the second

cAtiyya

The fourth

above.

Just as in the fifth

b. al-Hrith,

of one <Atiyya

the

to

In a
saying

'comparable

: (55)

411
AI. - x,.,
S z,...
-e:

J l: Ci-

1
1,
4
41J
i
r1... -el,
c. . Jul

1I &c -ate

41il 4'.: j
1Js. l.i IJ-"_.

321
c. al-Zuhri
master

and AbU Hanifah

- pupil

The Jmic

relationship"

of

Juynboll.

al-Rabic

So from

interesting
there
above

had said:

whose relatives

foreshadowing

perhaps

he passed
wept

he heard

[ the funeral

this report,

different

i sn d-

or reflecting

the harsh

cited
distinct
above

that cAbd Allah b.


with

the weeping

God forgive

have forgotten

(Italics
'
her...
etc.
over

in considering
with

"May

tradition

scrutinized

be punished

she said:

of the

b. Habib

It bears

the Muwa(xa'

from

The dead will

made a mistake.

though

of ar-Rabic

kadhaba.

to

the following

but in the buk'

he did not lie but he must

are justified

of a version

reaches

the Jmi,

the verb

tribesmen",

is available

which

When cA isha was informed

of God said when

" In

to the hadith

of his fellow

have

source,

conclusions:

(...) and runs:

Allah,

Juynboll

is no trace of the dictum

similarities

, Umar

b. Habib

this and the occurrence

(... ) we do find

had a

does not exist in the incomplete

saying

in this

hadith

as having

-(56)

of the Jamlc of al-Rabic

edition

" listed

b. $abib

The man kadhaba

buka'

are indeed

what

'cAbd

or he must
the Messenger

of] a Jewish women


mine). Perhaps

we

just like its counterpart


in the

Mu wa tt a',

as

tone of later versions

in

322
injunctions

which
threats

of Hell.

Differently

from

'inadvertently

kadhaba
intentionally'

additional
I think

the

we do not know

exactly

been in the course


And

another

when

of this behaviour.

And

edition

is not verifiable

what

There
Jmi'

of

evidence
Warjalani
the Ami
with

is grave
al-Rabic.
that

doubt
Paw

this JAmic

is a work

of the second
his

is that

1
4-U1 X1-- 4-1.1

forged

collection

At the end of

authenticity
gives

It

of the

convincing

by its redactor,

is a complete

the saying

L-.
uw C-

century.

is announced.

volume

Miskin

there

two isnds : (59)

died, but it must have

the

b. Salim

of al-Rabic, in which

in mind,

have contained. " (57)

concerning

(d. 570). (58) However

non-

Unfortunately,

in Iraq.

half

(p. 394) a third


that might

the

with

does not seem to have come down to us complete.


the two volume

buka'

for

in this collection

circumstance

regrettable

in this

introduced

is

'lying'

ar-Rabic

of the second

to 'Iying

truth'

in determining,

dictum

term

the case in the somewhat

quem for its emergence

post

of the

stages

of the sinfulness

of the complete

the

initial

with

emphasized

evolution

telling

of

are also justified

we

terminus

in its

concept

accentuation

occurrence

not

as is so often

which,

collections,

are

the

put,

is witnessed

into

tradition
later

prohibitions

and

exists

edition

alof

in two hadiths

323
i,
. T:: _i

vm
s.t
-)UI

JU -4-j

vla

U9 :J Li :ALJI Z..;oU. c:r=


-r.
.A

I-

v-;
-t

1:
JLJJLji
WIJ.
'-,
LsG-.
b-i
>-iJi
4.0:
rL..,,teiz tugL,
wIJJ
JUe.UIU .... it 1.U: JU -., W16.... &LaI-s''Iii...+-c
I
i,
(
-.,.
s,
t+i..
".
,
.,.

.WI..

Musnad

Taylisi,

a source

Juynboll

that

source

which

this tradition

despite

absence of this hadith

from

the incomplete

fimic available

to him

Juynboll

the conclusion

and the occurrence


that

must have come into circulation


two

death

dates

b. Habib

of ar-Rabic

(60)

the

of al-Rabic's

of it in al-Iaylisi,

sometime
(.....

being

From

" the man kadhaba

in Iraq

in

of it in al-

of the isnd

edition

al-

source

the occurrence

of al-Taylisi.

as a master

is Musnad

" the earliest

five
it
in
7
times,
occurs

by Shucbah

draws

deals with

he considers

occurs",

Shfici. This saying


headed

I
'-. 1...,
t1J
t.
_!s
ul.. e-

al-Tayalls!

The next

which

:S..

dictum

between

) and Tayalisi,

the
in

other words, sometime in the course of the second half of the


second century
the various

A. H.

pupils

Responsible for the dictum are probably

- or people

using their

names

key
the
of
-

figures, or 'common links' (..... ), in the man kadhaba


such as Shucba b. a! -Hajjj

(d. 160/777),

active

isnds,

in Basra

and

324
Ufa,

AbU

cAwna

in

active

174/790),

al-Waddh

Wsit

and

Basra,

in Egypt

active

and many of his pupils

b. cAbd

Allah

Abd

Allah

and

the

death

does exist in the fmic

in the various

hand,

centres

Juynboll

in Egypt",
this

circulated
it was

that

190/806".

"cAbd

hadith;

being

circulated

On the one
174/790),

b. Lahica(d.

figures

possible

to have

hand, he holds

on the other
in Egypt

"not

badlth

this

of a1-Rabic? (62)

Allah

hadlth

the dates of their

when

world,

of al-

between

are the

for circulating

as one of the

earlier

the view
than

circa

(63)

One conspicuous
hadith

of Islamic

considers

how

authors,

the same as that

are about

active

two

to be held responsible

transmitters

deaths

of these

of his masters

that it was introduced

But supposing

dates

(d.

Iraqi. " (61)

As we have seen, this hadith


Rabic b. Habib.

176/792),

b. Lahica

the majority

although

were

(d.

that

feature

in the various

appears

he accuses the various


the hadith

collections

of the relating

quotations

hadith

collectors,

or their

shaykhs,

of this hadlth

investigation

of juynboll's

either

above,

is that

the authors

of mendacity

something

of this

which

of

because

cannot

be

justified.
In actual

fact,

from

the foregoing

discussion,

it appears

325
that it is only in the MuwaUUa'
And

we

know

that,

Muwatta'

available

which

in their

exist

vary

material

Ahmad

that

at his time,

this hadith

for

in addition

is found

contents.

Malik

example,

had,

a variety

385), and it appears

a! -Nas'i

there

the Muwaf(a'

as discussed
with

two

does not exist.

let

alone

of the

versions
are many

But even if this hadith

(d. 241), it is not found


Sunan

to the

to us now in print,

in any of these versions,

all the hadiths

that this hadith

more

does not

does not contain


reflect

in the first
of isnads

hadith

chapter.

While

in the Musnad

in some later hadith


(d. 303), Sunan

the

of

collections,

al-Draqu(ni

(d.
275).
Dwd
Abi
in
Sunan
only once

(d.

326

NOTES

1. See Tradition,

pp. 96-133.

97.
p.
2. Tradition,

3. Tradition,

p. 102.

4. Tradition,

p. 106-107.

5. Tradition,

p. 106-107.

6. See a1-Azhr

p. 20-21

al-m utanathirah,

p. 123 no. 44. Ithf


p. 79, al-Kattani

dh al-fatia'i1

alludes

7. See, for example,

p. 96.

al-Mushtahirah,

to the variant

the isnads

no. 43. Qatf al-azhAr

Nara

al-Mutanathir,

niyahah.

of this hadith

in the Musnad

p. 31,61,134,4,

36,38,39,41-42,45,47,50,51,2,

In

al-MutanAthirah,

1, p. 26,

of Ahmad

p. 245,252,255,437,5.

p.

10 6, p. 39,57,107,281.
8. See Tradition,
9.5,

p. 99-102.

p. 367.

10. See, for example,

the reports

11.

Tradition,

p. 44.

12.

Tradition,

p. 105.

13. Tradition,

p. 107 footnote

in Ibn Sacd below.

(52).

14. See Ibn Sa'd 3 2, p. 7-8.


15. Tradition,

p. 101.

16. Tradition,

p. 101.
in Ibn Sad, p. 466 no. 40. al-Bukhari,

17. See his tarjamah


p. 313.

al , Jars

18. Tradition,

wa al-ta, dil 8, p. 216. Taqil


p. 104.

19.

Tradition

20.

See Tradition,

21. Tradition,

105.
p.
,
p. 105.

p. 105, note 39.

al-manfacah,

al-Tirikh
p. 256.

al-kabir

7,

327
22. Tradition,

p. 105.

23.

Tradition,

p. 106.

24.

Tradition,

p. 108.

25. Tradition,
26.

p. 109-110.

p. 77.

27. pp. 394-395

no. 1090-93.

28.

See Tradition

29.

Tradition,

p. 113-14.

30.

Tradition,

p. 114.

31.

Tradition,

p. 115.

32. Tradition,

p. 118.

33. al-Mu$annaf
507

p. 112-113.

al-A dab (69).

347-348,

Ibn

11, p. 158-162.
Muslim

4, p. 2011-2013,

(46). Ab Dawd

al-birr

Shaybah

Abi

al-birr

8, p. 590-593.
(27,28,29)

Bukhri

10, p.

al-Tirmidhi

4, p.

4,297-298.

34. See pp. 485-546 no. 468- 596.


35. p. 60.
36. See Ibn al-Jawzi, al-MawifOWt 1, p. 75.
37. See Sezgin 1 3, p. 144.
38. See p. 38 a.
39. See p. 41 a.
40.2,

p. 321.

41. No. 3497

in Chester Beatty.

42. p. 20.
43. Tradition,

p. 118.

44. p. 72.
45.4,

p. 156.

46. Tradition,

p. 117.

47. For example,


al-Jarh

al-Bukhri,

wa al-ta, dil

Tajil al-manfa'ah

9, p. 57 no. 336.

50. Tradition,
of hadith,

Ibn

Hibban,

8, p. 192 no. 2668.


al-Thigat

Ibn

5, p. 501.

Abi

1iatim,

Ibn Hajar,

p. 432 no. 1136.

48. See the index of the printed


49. See Ibn al-Jawzi

al-kabir

al-Trikh

text.

1, p. 68. Tahdhib

p. 124. See, for

pp. 119-124.

3, p. 71-72.

this discusion

of Ab Ijanifah

and the transmission

328
51. Tradition,

p. 122-23.

52. See al-Mizzi,

Tahdhib

53. See, Ibn Hibban,


54. Tradition,

55. al-Athar,

Tradition,

al-Thigat

4, p. 357. Tarjif

al-manfa,

ah. p. 174-175.

p. 207 no. 922.


Tahdhib

al-Kaml

3, p. 1415.

p. 124-25.

58. See al-Hadith


59. See 2, p. 74-75

bi Ifriqiyyah

2, pp. 497-517

no. 738,739.

60.

Nos. 80,107,191,342,362,2084,2421.

61.

Tradition,

62-Tradition,

3, p. 1415.

p. 123 no. 130.

56. See, al-Mizzi,


57.

al-Kamal

p. 128-29.
p. 128-29.

63. See Tradition,

p. 1 18.

and in particular

pp. 514-17.

329

CHAPTER FIVE

JUYNB OL L AND HIS

In

to his book, Juynboll

the introduction

formulating

his ideas regarding

not exposed himself


has

done

his

scholars

until

the following,

research,

This

will

views

by those of Goldziher

the, enlightening

everything

regarding

the

of the

for the edification

to preserve

of his

Juynboll

has

concerning

the

hadith

concerning

pious followers

sayings

In

and Schacht.

of Goldziher

conception

p. 1)

those

with

us how heavily

predecessors'

is: "The Prophet's

the community

or western

and conclusions

views

transmission

show

by *his

The general

private,

Juynboll's

of the hadith

endeavoured

Oriental

compare

especially

repeated

constantly

I will

influenced

transmission

"without

says:

those of either

with

he has

of his predecessors, and

after

predecessors.

subject,

he

in

that,

of hadith,

it was all over. "( See Tradition,

on the origins

been

as

declares

the origins

to the influences

my findings

comparing

PREDECESSORS

have reverently
master

have

and

and instruction

of

that he said, both in public and in

practice

prescribed

by him,

the conduct

behaviour,

whether

in relation

of the
of life

religious
in general,

obligations
and social

to the past or the future.

When

330
the rapid

handed

they

they

added

in accord

them

they

with

many

sayings

the Prophet
whole

Islamic

hadith,

which

because

and were

regarded

of factors

which

during

soundness

or of whose
dealt

the

with

under
for

the norm

the

of the

material

generations

subsequent

in the following

be described

will

in their

therefore,

the basic

to be

thought

were

as setting

who

his death

had been developed

formed

increased

vastly

countries,

to those

These hadiths

which

They

world.

which

to him,

convinced.

and legal practices

religious

Prophet

and could

be ascribed

in general

to distant

own ears, and after

his sentiments

with

were

of the

their

salutary

legitimately

view,

hadiths

on these

had not heard

led them

of conquests

succession

chapters.
In the absence
rash

to attempt

which
even

parts

of authentic

of the hadith

as to which

immediately
acquaintance

of

with

the vast

than

most

tentative

are the oldest


date

them

following

evidence

the

to express

the

back

material,

to

generations

trust

rather

brought

together

unlikely

to have even as much confidence

in the carefully

the

or

death.

Closer

induces

sceptical

the

material

regarding

compiled

be

as to

original

stock of hadiths

optimistic

opinion

Prophet's

caution

indeed

it would

collections.

We are

as Dozy regarding

331
large part
greater

The badith
infancy

Islam,

which

but

historical

and

two centuries.
for the history
of

of
the

rather

as a reflection

in

community

during

" ( Muslim

Studies

2, p.

towards

the

appeared

of its

stages

the first

not serve as a document

will

by far the

consider

of the religious,

during

of Islam

of

tendencies
maturer

probably

of it as the result

part

social development

the

but will

of the hadith,

the

development.

the

18-19)
Juynboll

also

authenticity

study

literature.
does

not

statements

of a doubt

deny

activities

to constitute

to be developed

in

have,

from

we will

prophet's

at least

partially,

traditions'

is indeed

ever be able to prove

(Tradition,

p. 71)

just

that

but it may have

pages that

we have in the way

that what

need for traditions

the foregoing

what

it

the

the

probability

may

of

he says: "This

his views,

all

hadlth

of the activities

only a reflection

that

that

believes

by one or more of his followers,

apparent

as to whether

and

Summarizing

and/or

been reported
become

Kadi th

were

which

attitude

a sceptical

is, as a whole,

elements

hadith

the

of

transmission
other

takes

I am sceptical

beyond

a shadow

of 'sound

prophetic

purports

to be. "

He continues that: "We have seen that the


traced

all the way back to Muhammad

only

332
began to be emphasized
20) and that only
known

as

Companions

It is therefore
'prophetic'

authority... " ( Tradition,


transmission",
following

can be assumed

hadith

to have talked

who

ulam, P,
life should
latter

were

with

any
have

may

or a later

most of his followers

lifetime

him. After

about

the

when,
hadiths

his death
that

the
be

may

and regulated

standardized

decades

as was

perhaps

provided

with

of the first

demonstrated

isnds

came

into

the qu$sas.

this phenomenon

the former

formulating

be approached

mainly

that

collection

of, say, the last few

the earliest

Parallel

of a

more prestige.

to do so in a way

continued

transmission

circulation,

level'

"The earliest stages of hadith

p. 72)

the prophet's

century/700s-720s,
above,

of

of a Companion

opinion

as foreshadowing

construed

opinions

in
the
Juynboll
them,
explained
are
as
visualizes

:" During

people

was

the assumption

a canonical

as the personal

what

to the

to lend them

to dismiss

from

tradition

life

started

impossible

personal

'raised

became

saying, no doubt in order

prophetic

only

the

containing

or Successors

99-101/717-

of this emphasis

as a consequence

reports

II (reigned

'Umar

under

pointing

we find fugaha'
their

in the light

to formulations

ideas

and also
about

how

of the new religion,

the

own

of this sort arrived

at by

333
others.

The activities
...

into what

probably

stories

The

disseminated
spread

by the fugah'

as well

the new

religion,

was

with

in other

memories

or derived

from

that

he had received

is the

(maths),

or otherwise

acceptance,

was
had begun

facts and

religious

maxims

or purely

texts

or slogans, of
socio-political,

in
or,
many
-

to revered
to

or forgery,

of invented

ascribing

objectionable

expected

Muham mad

which

Fabrication

of dicta,

which

had said and done,

of the revelation

- tenor

of a legal/ethical

or less successfully

the prophet

God.

to

pertaining

flavouring,

more

or un-Islamic,

unobjectionable

respectability

have comprised

strong

the form

anti-Islamic,

or doctrinal,

prophet's

taking

also those

materials

from

opinions

extent

words,

falsely

deliberately

often

distinctly

perfectly

the spirit

and

and prohibitions,

by

quf$A

/mathlib

and fad'i!

statements

probably

of what

by the

related

and to a certain

inspired

directly

preserved

said that

the

as enjoinments

a sometimes

probably

alhdith)

of

by the culam, will

transmission.

wa-targhib

contents

features,

nature

tarhib

contained

elements.

(gicac,

also developed

and culam,

came to be called hadith

later

The first

of fugh'

cases,

authorities,

whose

these

texts'

guarantee

immediately

after

the

death, if not on a small scale even already

during

his

probably

almost

334
lifetime.

" ( Tradition,

Even

the

investigates

two

in

indicated

that

fabricated,

forgeries

by

niyhah

hadith

Muslim

kadhaba

hadith

Muslim

According
transmission

of hadith

be traced

eighties

have

seen

unstandardized
wa -t arghib)
(Tradition,

in

a later

of

the

material,

What
still

and for

the

the

man

that

foreran

the
Their

hadith

of standardized

had preceded

legal

and
(qusc

contents
slant

( fa oa, il/

concerniing

thinking

or

this was, as

unstructured

time: "The likelihood

that

( See for

of the qus$a

also the genre of halal

fact

been

already

than, at most, to the seventies

The material

from

and it

2, p. 127 )

origins

a political

or with

for

wa targhib associated with faci'il

of edifying

material

have comprised
view

century.
above,

p. 23)

is something
will

back earlier

of the first

the

have

Goldziher.

was the work

: "... the earlist

wa mathllb

we

to juynboll,

consisted of tarhib

material

cannot

Studies

" is no guarantee

1, p. 229,

Studies

Juynboll

which

to the prophet",

ascription

were

they

as alleged

itself

tawtur

that

of a hadith's

Iraq

hadiths,

mutawtlr

to testify

the historicity
was

p. 74)

still
,

tarhib

ma th alib ). "

ha11 wa haram
that these qi a$
wa-harm
on

the

is slight
basis

of

335
individual

judgement

development

as well

is a

Islam

times... " ( Tradition,

later

of somewhat

in

as precedent

p. 12. See

also p. 15)
The same concept

was arrived

situation

the

the

recognition

under

naturally

the Umayyads.

At that period

only

in a latent

life.

Only

the halal

wa-harm,

legal

and

ordinances.

documents

carrying

of the relations
not

been

of religious

done

Anas in the middle


only

600

becomes

sayings
evident

the Umayyads.
pious

were

was

Prophet

how little
It seems that

mainly

made

Considering

scale of

of the ritual
to

produce

that

this had
MAlik

b.

was able to produce


to

relating

the activities
with

everyday

Previously

was done in this

concerned

under

for all the details

signature,

of the second century


of the

of the

on a large

and social life.

to such an extent.

with

and forbidden,

attempt

the Prophet's

and law

was, so to speak,

in touch

an investigation

An

to the

development

such research

the allowed

public

than was possible

state and was hardly

now was there

"The

administration

a freer

of the Prophet

of the traditions

study

by

accompanied

says:

corresponding

of conduct

life and in public

sunna both in private


was

he

Abbsids,

and stimulation

describing

at by Goldziher;

the

legal

direction

life,

it

under

of the party

of the

cultivation

and

336
production
sayings

of moral

views

the

existing

about it, and their


godless

to have

penetrated

Studies

2, p. 76-77.

their

The other

and 'ulama'

later

on the early
of

are ' raised

to the level

of prophetic

...

were

opinions

seem to have

been

( Tradition,

going back to the prophet.

one occasion, he says: "... it is more than likely


traditions

in the transmission

were

supposedly

these

fugah'

personal
the course

instrumental,
themselves

judgement.
of time

who

of which

'raised

remoulded
p. 17)

On

that the bulk

these

merely

early

to the level'

advices

(in Arabic:

of

fugah>

their

expressed

or legal

i,

produced;

life as legal opinions

started

These opinions

fugah

sayings':

Islam

legal minds

of

of individual

the products

mainly

origins

the early

and sayings

juridical

into hadiths

on the qus$a$ and

view

thesis

on the part of the first

these

as if

the ones

were

the opinions

wa-harm

judgement

See, for Goldziher's

of

people. "( Muslim

of the

circles

overthrow

it appears

At least

legal traditions,

part of juynboll's

is that

'halal

to wider

situation,

)
ff.
151
p.

material,

lhadith

hope for a speedy

more than

as those

as well

to the political

circumstances.

of this kind,

sayings

teachings

ascetic

stood in some relation

which

their

and

of
own

were

marf'

in
) of

337
prophetic

had eclipsed

an-nabi

( Tradition,

not his were

were

the Prophet
the authority

complete

into

" ( Muslim

that

the ascription

later

these were

frequently

"In

the course

projected

ahadlth

mawqfa,

adding without

which

practised

to

in the field

of

Schacht believes

2, p. 148)

was the 'starting

discussion,

of polemical

much

necessary

were

back to the Companions

back to higher

under

i. e. sayings

marfca,

by simply

to the Successors
projected

in Islam

or even successors, were

ahdith

Studies

to

are ascribed

sayings

So-called

names at random

sayings

It is not at all

circulated

the chain. This was also often

legal traditions.

Prophet:

time

name.

traced back to the Prophet,


a few

that

particularly
moral

to Prophet.

back to companions

transformed

easily

phenomenon

ascribed

a long

of another

i. e. sayings traced

scruple

sunhat

and Successors. "

light-heartedly

how

of traditions
for

which

out: "A

this

shows

rare in the literature

very

of Companions

sunan

pointed

of notice

which

on the concept

p. 42)

Goldziher
worthy

the emphasis

when

sayings,

authorities:

point',

then to the
doctrines

traditions

are
from

Successors become traditions

from Companions, and traditions

from

traditions

Companions

Whenever

we find,

become

as frequently

happens,

from

the

alleged

Prophet.
opinions

of

338
Successors,

decisions

alleged

the Prophet

traditions

from

and until

the contrary

Successors

to provide

question.

When
it

tradition,

of

indication,

the opinion
be

an

his view
they

as a rule

are

speaking,

from

the time

practice.
doctrine

law

often
...
was

legal

not

yet

authority

to

conclude,

than

earlier

of traditions.

in the first

half

reflect

In

"( Origins,

p. 188-89)

sentence,

he says: "I

do not exclude

maxims

may be older

than

date, generally
systematization

a stage

century

into

when
the

on the

the possibility

that

period,

and
legal

form

a footnote

the second century

may even go back to the pre-Islamic

they

and

of the second

put

automatically

the

stage of doctrine

a secondary
maxims

traditions,

primitive

in

he says:

maxims",

They

with

p. 156-57)

it. "( Origins,

the "legal

in

positive

other

some

or

the

doctrine

the

coincides

traditions.

legal

from

of a Successor

of the first

represent

The

for

of the

developments,

as secondary

regarding

take on the form

A. H., but

traditions

and followed

gradually

of Muhammadan

and the

reference

he knew

that

as a rule

must,

the opinions

unwarrantable

explicit

and alleged

consider

the Prophet
a higher

would

Summarizing
"

is proved,

and from

intended

absence

side by side, we

as the starting-point,

Companions

Companions,

of the

of
last

some

A. H., or

but this cannot be

339
assumed

but must be positively

Although

Goldziher

, Abbasid

dynasty

establish

the

received

official

imbibed

the

in the

belonged.

as a science

official

al-cAziz

spirit

He might

theologians

attained

of

empire.

was always

first

II

cUmar

zealous

which

ideas
later

on the

and who
flourished

who

rule

work
sunna

and

of

cUmar, who

in all matters,

was imbued
the real

he

the

stresses

:"

he

Umayyad

provinces

also

sunnah

the

a short

catchword

he

inaugurated
under

of the

his

the sunna

to establish

had

who

to which

in the outlymg

Elsewhere

( Id., p. 29) " and <Umar II


Medinian

The

during

II,

caliph,

to the quiet

effect

century.

put

2, p. 75), he

is but

Medina,

to give practical

p. 43)

"(Id.,

of cUmar

the Hezekiah

be called

the

Studies

of the dynasty

to give it recognition

that

emphasis

sunna

in

importance

official

endeavoured
the

rule

history

religious

of life

to the Umayyad

The

to

movement

and as the standard

recognition
:"

the

when

" ( Muslim

of the

house. He attempted
of

time

" The rise of the

that

the view

the

recognition.

the first

b. cAbd

holds

is thus

sunna

cUmar

episode

"(p.

(1) )

189 footnote

attributes

in each case,
...

proved

with

"
...

pious

era of religion

sponsorship

of

the

340
" ( Id., p. 39)
...

cAbbsids,

Discussing
Juynboll

'the origin

believes

than to sunans

concept

for

" (Tradition,
...

before

prophet

by the

than

p. 26) " ... cUmar II,

as guiding

second to the Qur-ln. " ( Tradition,

There

is

no

significant

Juynboll's.

With

respect

of the main conclusions


that,

generally

speaking,

to be drawn

from

'living

schools of law, based to a great extent


came first,

into

than

more

circulation

that

traditions

by

traditionists

any

the sunna of the

between

only

Schacht's

legal ones, and

Schacht

says: " One

Part I of this book is

tradition'

of the

on individual

from

the Prophet

towards

the

ancient

reasoning,

that in the second stage it was put under

of Companions,

b. cAbd al-

in importance

in particular

to legal hadiths,

the

prophet,

p. 35)

difference

of hadith,

concept of the growth

on granting
principle

" ( see
...

or his immediate

himself

prophet

him, was determined

a position

of the

by cUmar

time

more

an-nabi

or localities

persons

the first

sunnah',

is " the first

sunnat

He says: " The sunna

emphasized

followers,
ruler

to other

'prophetic

al-<Aziz

to the concept

ascribed

p. 34)

cAziz rather

concept

b. cAbd

cUmar

himself

man to apply

Tradition,

that

of the

the aegis

himself,
middle

put

of the

341
second
tradition',

and that

the Prophet
that
in

A. H., disturbed

century

a considerable
the

present

in the literary

few

Hanifa

evidence
what

into

presented

could

whereas

the growth

on over

the whole

fifty

years

result
and

which
the

things,

of traditions,

of the second
the

and

The

from

the

evidence

must,

available,

an

occasional

The

century.

of

part

is that

result

went

vigorous

in the

collections,

influence
in the

care has been taken

or absence of the traditions

the Prophet

classical

to the joint

and whilst

the

with

most significant

it was particularly

Shfici

for

of legal traditions

and the most important

can be ascribed

be cumulative,

sources

half

of legal traditions

traditionists.

the presence
the

between

and

A. H. 150 to 250, between

from

is only

period,

Malik

for the development

collections

the first

be collected,

appear

point

starting

the growth

roughly

here

which

after

as documents

and the classical

extensions

a firm

by investigating
period,

traditions,

He also says: " The aim of the

p. 138)

use of traditions

of legal doctrine,

from

to the traditions

originated

is to provide

chapter

systematic

Ab

of legal

collections,

" (Origins,
...

'living

this

The aim of Part II is to show

authority.
number

classical

Shfici

Shfici secured

only

supreme

influenced

and

in question
oversight

of Shfici
of

nature
to verify

in or from
or

the

342
incompleteness

well-known
the

general

The

conclusions.

did not exist

tradition

140)

Hasan

Barl

is

to begin

appropriate
dogmatic

traditions

legal ones, hardly


in the later

from

traditions
'Every

with

of the first

which

which

have

would

it

because

treatise
it

that

even

earlier

than

shows

speaking,

A. H. There

century

and the author

of

law,

of

matters

with

late

the

of

dogmatic

the

p.

in a treatise

of hadiths

at the time of its composition,

the Prophet,

opinion

is to show that it was

are, generally

which
existed

part

it,

if it had existed. "( Origins,

"Although

concerned

not

that

proving

as an indication

al-Basri

of hadiths:

appearance

of

in a discussion

the absence

considers

to al-Hasan

way

time

to it imperative,

Schacht

ascribed

best

at a certain

not used as a legal argument


made reference

does not invalidate

of our sources

is

that is,

is no trace of

states

explicitly:

is not based on the Koran, is erroneous.

' "

( Id. p. 141)
Both

Schacht

late but, while


towards
makes

the
it

first/seventh
hadith,

and juynboll

somewhat
century".

Juynboll

of the

second

earlier,
In

compares

came

that it began to be circulated

Schacht believes
middle

hadith

that

considers

his

"

century

toward

discussion

the respective

"

A. H. ", juynboll
the

end

of the
number

of

growth

the
of

of hadith

343
that

hadith

early

major

the

shown,

into

first

decades after

major

were

ascribed

treatise

same

" identified

the
from

traditions

'sunna

time,

but for the first

with

the growth

who is " the first

sunnat

an-nabi...

" with
the

argument

regarding

he

"... traditions

together
being
toward

Juynboll

of hadjth,

the growth
origins

came

with,

and probably

narrowed

down

to

does, from

the

to al-Hasan

al-

with

associates
himself

of hadith.
of the

relatively

the contents

the end of the first/seventh

of

cUmar b. cAbd
to the concept
Concluding

his

prophetic

sunnah,

into

existence

late

an-nabi

"

authority...

also because of, the concept


sunnat

who

al-Shafici,

overriding

man to apply

late

......

he gave, not for the first

to which

time consistently,

al-cAziz

says:

associates

of the Prophet'

the Prophet

several

p. 38-39,73)

as Schacht

way

have

may

and later

century/750s

in the

the

But as

occurred

as Schacht

Basri and in others. (See Tradition,


the

traditions

of hadith

growth

same

one for

he says:

the same conclusion,

of hadiths

In

of

of the

in the

compiled
as a likely

growth

of the first

the turn

Also he infers
absence

the

in four

caliphs

And in the summary,

of hadith.

growth

four

by Schacht

suggested

investigation

the

which

collections,

as that

period

to the first

back

are traced

only

sunny

as late

century. "( Tradition,

as

P. 39)

344
In the conclusion
that

the

this

for

need

Muhammad
(reigned

opinions

to the level'

and that

of Companions

of a prophetic

of isnd

Juynboll,

into

views

of Western

opinion

in his article

"His conclusion
literature
century.

writers

in the chapter

of
"("The

Tradition
isnd

Horovitz, in Islamic
in its primitive
A. H. - already

form

on Isnd,

of hadith,
or early

the first
to

according
seventies"

in

James Robson in his review

of the

summarizes

und Ursprung

the first
in

was

in muslim

entry
the

last

tradition",

1927,1,

)"

Horovitz's

des Isnd

of the isnad
third

of

p. 19.

", that
into

the

the
first

See also

p. 550, who says: "Isnad

was then - somewhere

established...

to lend

is also

on the Isnd,

Culture

the
'raised

became
in order

of

This view

"Alter

is that

II

p. 72)

" the late sixties

by Joseph Horovitz.

'Umar

containing

no doubt

place, he says, "the late seventies".

another

to

as a consequence

or Successors

the transmission

is in about

back

way

under

as reports

saying,

As has been discussed


entry

the

all

only

known

was

more prestige. " (Tradition,

them

held

traced

to be emphasized

99-101/717-20)
what

he says: "We have seen

chapter,

traditions
began

only

emphasis

personal

to his first

about the year 75

Also the interpretation

of the

345
word

in Ibn Sirin's

a! -fitnah
to

refers

conflict

between

was already

suggested

the

Umayyads,
to Schacht's
"spurious"

because"

prophet

good

was still
doubts

at the time

mentioned,

civil
breach

in

perhaps
war

between

war

Islam

which

arose when

to go to

Mecca

difficulty

in getting

during

of Hudaibiya.

64 or 72 when
is said to have

to the

Mlik
the

from

been born

was besieged

war

but

a
it is

is the civil

More likely

set himself

of Ibn

up

cUmar wishing
that

if he has

act as the Prophet

did

the Kacba in the year of


would

fit the years

in Mecca.

As Ibn Sirin

The circumstances

<Abdallah

day,

present

He says
.

visiting

and says: "I

produced

b. al-Zubair

fitna

of the

There was the

which

tells

the

was a civil

certainly

into Mecca, he will

he was prevented

the truce

sunna

p. 36-37),

Mucwiya

cAbdallah

In the Muwalta'

the killing

date for the

the

which

to consider.

a period

as

report

began with

( Origins,

exists

as Caliph.

when

Sirin's

was a conventional

and

cAli

the

and

Robson refers

but it was not the first.

which

too early

Ibn

this. There

about

al-Zubayr

by Robson.

during

time

contends,

b. Yazid (A. H. 126), towards

Walid

prevailing"

have grave

Ibn

war which

dynasty,
old

Juynboll

which,

dismissing

the civil

Caliph

end of the Umaiyad


of the

in

argument

of the Umaiyad

end

report,

in 33, he would

be old enough

to

346
speak with
isnd

in muslim

have

he gives

examples
tendency

to

information

in

to

his

to support

Schacht's

to grow backwards'

The view
the isnd

thesis

'

( Tradition,

of Juynboll

to this, Goldziher

thinks

of the tradition

itself

Belief
their

"traditions
form

are only

and judgement

same
:"

" this

light

and

a tendency

investigated
of the value

of the criticism

to the isnad

as that

Studies
in respect

stands
2, p.

...

in the
or falls

134),

of their

of the contents
of the isnd.

With

is paid to the

to the authorities

of a hadith

of

but not

of Goldziher.

Less attention

than

(Muslim

of the correctness

have

p. 115)

in the authenticity
reliability"

the judgement

the

have

that

in a different
isnds

the

on

isnads

soundness"

and the idea that it is applied


is about

juynboll

".

comments
that

on the chronology

respect

with

that

...

matn

isnd.

in

at putting

to the

contents

" the idea

time

with

grow

he

and

is " that

of hadith

backwards,

grow

study,

is an attempt

rewording

on the origins

theories

a tendency
this,

emphasises

period. "( "The

at that

p. 21-22)

tradition".

One of Schacht's
isnds

happened

on what

authority

and

outward

depends
Nobody

on
is

347
to

allowed
historical

'because

say:

of their

begins" (Id.,

at the

century

(the

thought

to

criticism

authority
ascribed.
of the

the

The

181)

and

of the authorities

the

that

could

of its

And apart from


developing

seventies

of the

first

found

'sound',

was

if

in an increasingly

in the course

can be dated

of time

to at least

of the isnd.
confined

be

from

that

its having

to lsnd
tool

for

ascribed

to

an adequate

Ihadith

it

ma to

the

of

resulted

birth

genuinely

isnad

! sn d

developed

mainly

to become

the

of

authenticity

which

after the birth

late

late

of isnds

criticism,

of informants

institution

lsnd,

science, whose

But hadith

material

690s).

This scrutiny

half a century

too

in

guarantee

a separate

came

(d.

says: " Scrutiny

of the

creation
earliest

late

sophisticated
into

of Ibn cAwn (d.

b. Mubrak

that criticism

to this, Juynboll

to the

supported.

of the isnd,

p. 135)

way

probably

or

(Id.,
isnAd.
'
the
of

of the criticism

Allah

Abd

contemporaries

In regard
gave

160),

a logical

contains

the correctness

On the chronology

Shuwba (d.

others

ma to

" It seems to have been in the time

he says:
151),

I doubt

absurdity

p. 140-141)

the

which

could

criticism,
the

sifting
the
not

oldest
thus

be

come too late to the rescue

literature,

it

suffered

from

two

348
serious, interrelated

(2) the near-absence


probing

the various
rising

of the application

(
Tradition,
"
mains.

According

Islamic

al-dilm
Introducing

development

of the hadith

to demonstrate
the first
for

slowly

increased

It

is on purpose

that

centres

One overall

each centre
39)

there

the

there

in

circulated

different

centres

administrative

are referred
evolution

before

anything

or no contact
far

apart.

collection

to as
in its
else.

between

In other

hadiths.

occurred,

of

A. D. the interest

of hadith

was little

earliest

decades

or three

centres

the

character

'the

separate

to be emphasized

were

Then with

says: " It is hoped

Juynboll

in the

these

if they

in the different

independently

local

700s-720s

He also says: " The proliferation,

of hadiths

for

on

section

characteristic

stages deserves

especially

journeys

of the Hijra/the

empire.

In the beginning

stage.

the last two

of the Islamic

earliest

at its early

centres',

centres

'separate'.

criteria

of suitable

developed

his

during

that

century

hadith

hadith

centres

disappeared.

to its naivete:

p. 75)

to Juynboll,

talab

of

both pointing

shortcomings

the
in

words,

"(Tradition,

p.

and codification

at least during

the

349
first

century,

first

half

an overall

by - among

Although
beginning

of

journeys

of its development
origin

in Medina

Islam.

On the

developed

partly

sayings

many hadith.

themselves
If theologians

of it which

in the

provinces.

The

pious

personally

but

travel

at the cradle

up in particular
point

out

the

of a particular
of their

to gain

acquainted

partly

the

with

such as were
and

in support

for

there.

The

character

of

circles
local

province

home, they
opportunity
the

in all

of the sunna

in the provinces

the gaps in the tradition

recourse

of

part

such as only

critics

It had its

is a large

developed

Muslim

al-cilm

there

of the Prophet,

grew

local

the

of talab

the

to all provinces

there was carried

teachings

which

date for

a specific

had local character.

as prophetic

some doctrine

fill

other

al-

to this, he says: "In the beginning

the hadith

hand

p. 75-76)

and the impact

respect

and from

were

features

he indicates

journeys,

hadith

independently

circulated

"(Tradition,

does not give

With

the centres

the onset of talab

Goldziher

on it.

740)

of the

with

only

al-dllm

the middle

individual

disappeared.

(alab

Until

other

gradually

of the early

character

various

which,

regionalism

cilm journeys,

current

(about

of the second century

characterized

lands

on a local scale.

largely

hadiths

wished

to

had no other
of

becoming
of

other

350
provinces.

" (Muslim

journeys

also

development

in inserting

general,

more

hadith. " (Id.,

in

points

the fourth

he says: "Yet another


This

context.

predecessors

some

chapter

will

of the

the Prophet.

other

inventors

which

brought

into
of

the

to the phenomenon

of

had

before

history

mucammarin

no

Joseph
in

him

into contact

had

Asia.

are

to

of the

hadith,

traditions

with

for

from

had an easier

devise

We

ones. They belong

to be 'companions
need

in

Balsamo

also had to invent

who

to this

respect

be mentioned

must

recited

In this they

saying

in a much later

With

the long-lived

inner

of hadiths,
their

that

show

ones' pretended

therefore

theologians

framework

onwards.

centuries

contact

and

ever

traditions

Companions

sort of imposter

called

'long-lived

practical

of the

talab,

provincial

Studies

century

adventurers
with

the

uniform,

Muslim

to the mu, ammarin,

referring
to the

more

the

Because

for

the status of

who claimed

age, i. e. from

this

in Islam.

the particular
and

for

p. 166)

Goldziher
forgers

hadith

He also says: "These

results

of journeys

amount

succeeded

2, p. 164)

important

yielded
of the

increasing

the

Studies

the

direct

task than
an isn d

the Prophet.

The

of the Prophet'

connecting

chains

351
between
Thus

they

escaped

fortunate

in obtaining

personal

contact

often

and Muhammed's

information

their

succeeded

with

fault-finding
credence

in finding

if

criticism
for their
We

Prophet.

the

communication.
were

claim

of having

shall

see that

audiences

gullible

they

had
they

swindle. "

for their

(2, p. 159)

Juynboll, in turn, posits a similar


with

dying

transmitters,

such

to be much older

to establish
certain

at

masters.

ages,

advanced

than they were

at least the probability


In so doing,

that
they

coveted status of Successor rather

only, this time,

"The vast

to most of the Successors:

regard

pretended

situation,

of

have

may

in order

in reality

they

were

majority

have

met

able to claim

the

could

than that of Successor of a

Successor.
It is my conviction

that by means of this age trick

number

of Successors

under

enjoyed

the

that

origins

privileges

of Arabic

the
went

prose" p. 170)

traditionists
with

this

a large

undeservedly
status.

("On

the

352

CONCLUSION

To contend

that

towards

the end of the first

number

of arguments,

have

been

in

significance

of these arguments

have

that

are based,

the data

generally

for

evidence
transmission
are

that

supposing

determining
of hadith,

On the

question.
reports

which

hadith

but

point

they

from

the
I

in

them

approach,

and

are being misused.

we

accept

the

early

the

awPil

late

or

argument,
there

to the early

origins

are left

apart

on a selective

hand,

other

issues which

adduced

we have seen that

in Juynboll's

adduced

it in a

this chronology,

and information

that some texts and references


Even

Quite

in supporting

speaking,

as late as

discusses

on the five
I.

part

began

Juynboll

century,

concentrating

investigated

found

of hadith

the transmission

unquoted

reports

origins

most of

as

of the

those that

in no way

affect

are

significant

other

the

of the transmission

or put

of

aside in juynboll's

argument.

To demonstrate
Juynboll

discusses

his theory
the

tarjim

of the

evolution

of the first

four

of hadith,
caliphs

in the

353
Tabgt
their

Ibn

Sa'd, and the number


in four

authority

indicates
judgement

Further,

Tabagt

the

in a detailed

an appropriate

to establish
than

attained.

I have

collections,

which

Juynboll
concept

transmission
came into

explained
selective
order

century".
how

Juynboll

approach,

evidence

but

in order

it finally

that
with

rather

other

early

the above view.


prophetic

sunnah
with

appearance

is a later

that

that it is a concept
as towards

In

the

relevant

not

only

bases

also sometimes

pointing

bulk

the

as late

his theory.

on the

in Iraq, it was later

He claims

"only

explained.

collections

comparison

the

its

of hadith.

to support

provided

that

example.

transmitted

early

assumed

corroborates

existence

prophet's

own

I have shown how it is not

originated

associates

first/seventh

as previously

made a similar

believes

and

is abused,

hadith

that

earlier

the

in the four

that, having

on their

relied

to trace the hadith

of these caliphs

authority

With

collections.

following

investigation,

method

back on

traced

in Ibn Sacd that positively

in fact,

caliphs,

than

rather

Moreover,

I see nothing

the four

that

hadith

of the early

former,

to the

respect

of hadith

In the

to the early

which

the end of the


chapter,

his

the

of

argument

I have
on a

abuses his evidence


same chapter
origins

in

I have

of the prophetic

354
sunnah;

Bravmann

has

that

prophetic

sunnah

the

Islamic

early

and

attests

genuine

in the

the engagement

by juynboll;

information

regarding

foreshadowed

instead
the

foreshadowed

the transmission

logically

work

engaged

the
in

There

hadith

activities

is sufficient

great

extent

during

the

talab
first

between

the centres.

second
journeys,

century

journeys
This

century.

contributed

reports

rather

to the

indicating

as the

than those of the qua


.
to demonstrate
were
kind

already

to what

to establish
period

and other

of hadith
depend

the begining
for

undertaken

of activity,

but it can be shown that these reports


his case.

to have

as having

recorded

are

interchange

earliest

what

it is, in my opinion,

Not only does juynboll

to attempt

scattered

In actual fact, as I
.

of hadith,
who

the

be supposed

should

information

al-dilm

factors,

selective

those

of

as

of hadith

if anything

said above,

Such data is

he considers

qusss

the transmission

Companions

of

of hadith.

transmission

disregarded

to us now abound

are available

regarding

and Successors

support

that

evidence

" is a very

that

sources

information

have

adduced

idea".

The various
with

also

(slab

material
on a few
of the
al-'ilm

do not, in fact,

355
In chapter

we have

two,

qusss

and of the early

former,

Juynboll

the great

it is their

hadith,
as

deal of information

the

the

as the forerunner

of

in the

if anything,

activities,

foreshadowing

As for

Islam.

' such an important

did not play

Qusss

were rare among the Companions.


of the qusss were

addition,

not
the

among

only
culam,

but

activities,

did

most

In fact, the
in early

role'

Moreover,

such
In

in particular

Successors,

and fugah',

also not

of them,

too, greatly

because

of the concern

a number

Islam.

by some of them.

condemned
of the

of

be taken

should

of hadith.

transmission

of
of

transmission

that

qu$sAs

activities

out, in view

the involvement

concerning
Successors

the

and

material

of the

activities

As I have pointed

of hadith.

Companions

the

their

the

in early

fugaha'

considers

the transmission

discussed

engage

in

disapproved

such
of

them.
In Juynboll's
cAbd al-cAziz
the

first

authority
the

with

century,

the prophetic
materials

sunnah,

which

were

level

were

of

sayings

prophetic

or indeed

anonymous

some hadith

by

circulated

who,

the end of
on the

were raised to

Successors

the

persons.

transmitters

of cUmar b.

towards

of the Companions or later authorities

followers,
there

thesis,

In fact,

or

their

although

intentionally

or

356
unintentionally,

raised

this way,

were

there

sayings

Companions

of

transmitters

other

the text of the hadith

concerning

was a common

as a fatw

cite a precedent

who were

and its isnad.

of Companions,

practice

or Successors in

without

regarding
Ibn

their

Sirin

necessary
this

Prophet's

the

while

it

is stated

the fitnah.

after

report

that

the latter

time

of Ibn Sirin.

that juynboll's
texts,

invalidate

appear

collections
to buttress
grow

of Ibn

not known

comes from
no

external

this

in

term

rather

on the grounds

by the term
on isnd',

of

became

al-Zubayr

of cUthmdn,

In the chapter

that

isnd

interprets

Juynboll

questioned
In a report

use of the

the

the killing

inference

fitnah

I have

in the

explained

misuse of the sources and


is

evidence

to

required

it.

By adducing
that

from

was still

and

on his authority.

to the fitnah

as refering

than that ensuing

the

that

on other

to its authority.
were

people

to

authorities,

attribution

death,

transmissions

Beside this, it

and later

occasions they would relate it with attribution


After

scrupulous

examples,

from

in it in a defective

fimic Ibn
form,

Wahb, of reports

although

in other

they appear with perfect isnds, Juynboll


Schacht's

backwards'.

theory

that

' lsnds

later

attempts

have a tendency

In fact, it is not necessarily

to

the case that

357

a perfect

isnd

examples

provide

Apart

late

the dubious

Juynboll
into

considerations

He treats

subject.
and

which

selective
to

adduces
information.

adduces to support

Juynboll's

the sources

Further,

own

every

there

he sometimes

are other
to the

approach

in an eclectic
that

argument,

is based

hypothesis

and

his thesis of the

and references

Almost
his

support

juynboll's

hadith,

of the

undermine

manner.

that

of the arguments

significance

existence

implies

of this.

good evidence

from

coming

in one source

did not exist at the same time.

that

evidence

isnd

of a defective

the appearance

on

he

selective
for

abuses evidence

the

sake of the argument.


There

is

inconsistency

makes concerning
evidence
them.

certain

and examples

isnds

" many

traditions,

containing

as utterances
than

with

which

himself",

Khursnian

of the hadith
he purports

which

Juynboll

later

appearing

that

and in that
hadith

hail from

and the

to support

in the case of the examples

his name, can be traced

of himself

Juynboll

the inferences

characteristics

This is clear, for instance,

of Sacid b. al-Musayyab,
that

between

adduces

as evidence

in collections
also in other

with
sources

do not go back to persons


of his

theory

that

Egyptian

Iraq, on the Successors'

older
and

level or

358
the

one following

isnds from

irsl,

sam'

between

Successors

whole

of early

hadith

do not appear

be such

should

would

be highly

cannot

be regarded

to dispose

and Companions,

suspicious

argument.

if there

as a reason

there

of hadith,

which

It seems only

natural

of certain

criticisms

of the

in fact,

However,

of the authenticity

in Juynboll's

of hadith,

of one stage in

and the omission

transmission.

indications

are contrary

are made by

which

to the transmission

themselves

critics

such as raft, tadlis,

there

conclusion.

uses some of the criticisms

the hadith

that

of representative

gives a different

both centres

Juynboll

An examination

that'.

not.

were

for dismissing

hadiths;

it

However,

it

all as spurious,

or suspicious.

The comparison
his western
influenced
himself
regarding
starting

of Juynboll's
show

predecessors
by them.

to their
the
point

with

us how

those of some of

heavily

Juynboll

is

Despite his claim that he has not exposed

influences,
origins

views

in fact, in the main views

of hadlth,

in approaching

he does take

the subject.

he holds

theirs

as a

359

APPENDIX
A list of hadith
they

which

transmitters,

are associated,

together
is given

the provinces

with

here, to facilitate

with

tracing

of

isnds

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