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Making Carbon Black

Presented by
Sid Richardson Carbon Co.

Graphics by Fred Hendrickson

Carbon Black Process


Utilities & Energy
Conservation
bag filter vent
(intermittent)

Boiler
incinerator

secondary filter

reactor vent
(intermittent)

surge tank

grinder
primary bag filter

pelletizer

air
dryer

gas

off-spec tank

feedstock
quench
water

secondary quench water

dryer exhaust
bag filter

tail gas combustor

inline waste heat


boiler

Reactor Section/Carbon
Black Formation

Collection &
Conveying

Pelletizing &
Drying

Storage &
Handling

Carbon Black Process


Boiler
incinerator

bag filter vent


(intermittent)
reactor vent
(intermittent)

secondary filter
surge tank

grinder
primary bag filter

pelletizer

air
dryer

gas

off-spec tank

feedstock
quench
water

secondary quench water

dryer exhaust
bag filter

tail gas combustor

inline waste heat


boiler

Reactor Section/Carbon Black Formation


where the carbon black is formed

Raw Materials
Making carbon black requires six (6) materials:
Fuel (natural gas or oil)
Oxidizer (air)
Feedstock Oil (no. 6 type oil)
Water
Structure control additive (potassium salt)
Pellet binder (if required)

Reactor

Preheated
Air

Feedstock
Oil
Natural
Gas

Refractory
Reaction Time = 0.3 to 1.0 sec
1650 C
(3000 F)

Alkali
Metal
Additive

915 m/sec
(3000 ft/sec)

Quench
Water

Typical Tread Reactor


Air Line

Combustion
Section
Natural Gas

Oil Sprays
Quench
Water

Typical Tread Reactor

Process Air Preheater


-to preheat the incoming air

To Oil Preheater
& Smoke Header

Preheated
Air
650 C (1200 F)800 C (1500 F)

Carbon Black Stream


Process Air
Blower

Process Oil Preheater


Carbon Black Stream

Hot
Feedstock
Oil

To Reactor
Oil Lances

Carbon Black
Oil

To
Bag Filter

Carbon Black Process


Boiler
incinerator

bag filter vent


(intermittent)
reactor vent
(intermittent)

secondary filter
surge tank

grinder
primary bag filter

pelletizer

air
dryer

gas

off-spec tank

feedstock
quench
water

secondary quench water

dryer exhaust
bag filter

tail gas combustor

inline waste heat


boiler

Collection & Conveying separate carbon black from process gas


stream & transport to pelletizing area

Bag Filter

Carbon Black Stream

Bag Filter
Tailgas

Carbon Black Stream

To Surge Bin / Pelletizers

To Dryers &
Incinerator

Reverse Flow Bag Filter

Bag Filter Hopper

Surge Bin & Powder Pumps

To Pelletizer
Powder Pump

Surge Bin & Powder Pumps

Carbon Black
& Air

Clean Air

To Pelletizer
Powder Pump

Carbon Black Process


Boiler
incinerator

bag filter vent


(intermittent)
reactor vent
(intermittent)

secondary filter
surge tank

grinder
primary bag filter

pelletizer

air
dryer

gas

off-spec tank

feedstock
quench
water

secondary quench water

dryer exhaust
bag filter

tail gas combustor

inline waste heat


boiler

Pelletizing & Drying densify the carbon black to meet transportation &
customer requirements

Loose Black from


Powder Pump

Pelletizer

Water &
Pellet Binder

Pellets
To Dryer

Two Helix Shaft

Pelletizer

Pelletizer

Pelletizer Pin Shaft

Dryer
From
Pelletizer

Tailgas

Bucket Elevator
To
Storage Tanks

Dryer

Carbon Black Process


Boiler
incinerator

bag filter vent


(intermittent)
reactor vent
(intermittent)

secondary filter
surge tank

grinder
primary bag filter

pelletizer

air
dryer

gas

off-spec tank

feedstock
quench
water

secondary quench water

dryer exhaust
bag filter

tail gas combustor

inline waste heat


boiler

Storage & Handling Convey carbon black pellets to storage area for
transportation to customer

Storage & Loading


Magnetic
Separator

Hummer
Screener

Loading Spout
and Screen

Sid Richardson Carbon Co.

Reject

Storage & Loading


Magnetic
Separator

Hummer
Screener

Loading Spout
and Screen

Reject

Storage Tanks

Storage & Loading


Super Sacks

50 # Bags
N299
N299
N299
N299
N299
N299
N299
N299
N299
N299

Carbon Black Process


Boiler
incinerator

bag filter vent


(intermittent)
reactor vent
(intermittent)

secondary filter
surge tank

grinder
primary bag filter

pelletizer

air
dryer

gas

off-spec tank

feedstock
quench
water

secondary quench water

dryer exhaust
bag filter

tail gas combustor

inline waste heat


boiler

Utilities/Energy Conservation utilize the waste gases from the process for
energy conservation and to produce steam and/or electricity

Tail Gas Boiler

Waste Heat Boiler

Process Control & Economics


Particle size

(Nitrogen Surface Area)

15 to 450 m2/g
Measure of the total surface area

Surface Area

(Iodine Adsorption)

15 to 450 mg/g
Quick measure of surface area but affected by
surface chemistry

Structure (OAN)
40 to 200 ml/100 g
Carbon black particles fuse together to form
aggregates and agglomerates

Particle Surface Area


Measured by nitrogen surface area
Small particles high nitrogen surface area

Tread

Large particles low nitrogen surface area

Carcass

Particle Size
A function of reaction temperature, reaction time and reaction
velocity

Higher reaction temperature = higher nitrogen surface area =


higher fuel usage = higher production costs
Shorter reaction time = higher nitrogen surface area = lower
fuel yield = higher production cost
Greater reaction velocity = shorter reaction time

To Produce 1 kg Of
Carbon Black

=
1.58 L Oil

Requires
0.32 Nm3 Nat
gas

0.55 kw Electricity

5 kg Water

Structure
Higher additive rate lower OAN
Low structure
Low OAN higher production rates

High structure
High OAN lower production rates
OAN = Oil Adsorption Number