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Vaccines: A Second

By Gary Null, Ph.D., ©Copyright 2000, Gary Null &
Associates, Inc.
E-Y posted October 18, 2009 (Orig. pub. 2000)

Vaccines: A Second Opinion by Gary Null, PhD (Oct.

18, 2009)

Safety Issues
Vaccines are Based on Unsound Principles
Questionable Science
The Natural Evolution of Disease
Vaccine Propaganda
Toxic Vaccine Ingredients and Manufacturing Processes
Vaccine Failures

Note: The information in this document is presented for

informational purposes only.  It is not intended as a
substitute for diagnosis and treatment by a qualified

For more than a hundred years, two basic assumptions
have been put forth by public health officials. One is
that vaccines are safe. The second is that vaccines are
effective for the conditions for which they’re given. The
public and our legislators have, by and large, accepted
these assumptions as true, and as a result it is now
compulsory in many states that children have as many
as 33 inoculations before entering school, with some of
these given as early as the first few weeks of life.

We’ve been told that the end of smallpox, polio, and

measles as serious health threats is due to mass
inoculation programs, and again we have accepted the
official dogma unquestioningly. But as we shall see
here, this is not exactly the truth. What’s more, a
disturbing reality that has generally been unrecognized
is the ever-growing number of individuals suffering
adverse reactions to vaccinations. These individuals are
predominantly infants and children, and the problems
they’ve incurred as a result of vaccination go way
beyond sore arms and transitory fever: Such conditions
as autism, attention deficit disorder, minimal brain
dysfunction, and other biochemical and neurological
abnormalities have been linked to the effects of
vaccines. Most tragically, so has SIDS—sudden infant
death syndrome. Yet because of underreporting of
these troubling statistical links, a full picture of the
effects of vaccination has not emerged. And the
problem of underreporting is a deep-seated one,
because not only are the news media not playing up
what has already been learned, but doctors are not
being encouraged to report possible adverse reactions,
slowing additional learning. Couple these problems with
the official line that for the greater good of the majority
a small minority must accept negative consequences,
and you have a situation in which nobody is really
looking for the truth.

This investigation is an attempt to do that. It has

required nearly five years of in-depth analysis, and a
review of thousands of articles. I am not personally
taking positions on individual vaccines, but I am, rather,
presenting information based upon hard science;
hundreds of references are included here for those who
want to read further. For people challenging mandatory
vaccination policies, the reference section will be
particularly helpful, as it will be for anyone who simply
wants to look beyond the official line and see what’s
actually happening. It is interesting to note that the
situation with vaccination is analogous to that with
chemotherapy; both are presented to the public as
efficacious and safe when in reality, with a few
exceptions for each, they are neither. In both cases,
then, personal decision-making requires extensive
research.—Gary Null.

Why We Assume Vaccines are Safe and

We are repeatedly told that vaccines are safe, vital to
our well-being, and necessary for the prevention of
many diseases. Most of us take it for granted that not
being vaccinated endangers our health and safety. In a
worst-case scenario, we envision world-wide plagues
and even extinction. Our faith in vaccinations is so
strong that we think of them as panaceas, and look to
science to develop new ones for every known affliction,
from the common cold to AIDS. Here we take a close
look at our assumptions and ask, are we seeing the full

* Jamie Murphy, author of What Every Parent Should

Know About Immunization explains society’s general
acceptance of vaccinations as due, in large part, to
state laws that dictate children must receive vaccines
before they can attend school. Murphy elaborates on
the history of these requirements:

"Right now, all 50 states have vaccination statutes that

require immunization before a child is allowed to attend
school. But it wasn’t always that way. In 1905, to give
an example, only 11 states had compulsory laws. In
other states it was optional. And in the early 1920s,
there were four states--Utah, North Dakota, Minnesota,
and Arizona--that had explicit statutory provisions
against compulsory vaccination. Over the years,
unfortunately, all of the states have made vaccinations

Murphy feels that one of the major mistakes that was

made--and that is repeatedly made--is that the
politicians, who were greatly encouraged by the
lobbyists from the drug companies, were convinced,
without proper investigation, that vaccines were the
only way of preventing disease. This, Murphy says,
"gives credence to an idea that has dominated medical
practice for this entire century."

Barbara Loe Fisher, cofounder and president of the

National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC), in Vienna,
Virginia, reminds us that people tend to trust that the
law is in their best interest. Those who feel otherwise
are given a difficult time.

"Part of the problem is that in 1905 a Supreme Court

decision, Jacobson vs. Massachusetts, set the stage
for what we’re experiencing right now in this country,
and that is that many people don’t feel they have the
option to say no. Parents who do are being charged
with child medical neglect and child abuse. The Clinton
administration has now linked entitlement programs to
vaccination status, which means that a poor family
dependent upon federal assistance will not get food
money, medical care, and other entitlements if they
cannot show proof that their children have gotten every
single one of their ten required vaccines."

Why We Should Question Our Assumptions

Vaccines should not be taken on faith alone. Rather, we
need to take an objective look at their risks and
benefits, as well as at their record of effectiveness. Vital
points to consider about vaccines are the safety issues
involved, how vaccines work, the questionable science
behind vaccination, the natural evolution of disease,
vaccine propaganda, and vaccine ingredients and
manufacturing processes.
Safety Issues
Significant adverse effects have been reported with
every type of vaccine. These reactions can occur soon
after vaccination (short-term reactions) or several
months to years later (long-term). Delayed reactions are
more insidious and less obviously linked to vaccination,
and thus necessitate large-scale epidemiological
studies to be proven. They can result in permanent
conditions such as epilepsy, mental retardation,
learning disabilities, and immune system dysfunction.

Short-Term Reactions. Results of research conducted

by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) have shown that
evidence indicates a causal relation between: hepatitis
B vaccine and anaphylaxis; measles vaccine and
thrombocytopenia, death resulting from anaphylaxis,
and death from measles vaccine-strain viral infection;
measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and
thrombocytopenia, and anaphylaxis; rubella vaccine
and acute and chronic arthritis in adult women;
diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine (DTP)
and acute and chronic encephalopathy, hypotonic-
hyporesponsive episodes, and anaphylaxis; the
pertussis component of DTP vaccine and extended
periods of inconsolable crying or screaming; tetanus-
toxoid-containing vaccines and Guillain-Barre
syndrome, brachial neuritis, and possible risk of death
resulting from anaphylaxis; oral polio vaccine and
Guillain-Barre syndrome, and death from polio vaccine-
strain viral infection; and unconjugated HiB vaccine and
susceptibility to HiB disease.

The committee could not find enough evidence to

indicate either the presence or absence of a causal
relation between: DTP vaccine and aseptic meningitis,
Guillain-Barre syndrome, hemolytic anemia, juvenile
diabetes, learning disabilities and attention-deficit
disorder, peripheral mononeuropathy, or
thrombocytopenia; and rubella vaccine and
radiculoneuritis and other neuropathies or
thrombocytopenic purpura.

One would think that before injecting children

worldwide with hundreds of million of doses of vaccine
there would be enough clinical trials performed to
determine exactly what the effects of this large-scale
human genetic experiment would be. Lack of funding is
not the problem. Each year, more than $1 billion is
appropriated by Congress to federal health agencies to
develop, purchase, and promote the mass use of
vaccines in the U.S.; the problem is that none of that
money is used to fund independent vaccine researchers
to investigate vaccine-related health problems. In itself,
the lack of studies on possible short- and long-term
effects of vaccines should raise questions in any honest

In the meantime, between 1991 and 1994, 38,787

adverse events were reported to the Vaccine Adverse
Event Reporting System (VAERS). Of these, 45 percent
occurred on the day of vaccination, 20 percent on the
following day, and 93 percent within two weeks of
vaccination. Deaths were most prevalent in children 1
to 3 months old. Since, as has been amply
documented, only one tenth of vaccine-induced
reactions are reported to the VAERS, this number vastly
underestimates the real incidence of vaccine-
associated complications. Furthermore, because a link
cannot be proven when the adverse event occurs long
after the time of vaccination, this reporting system is
giving a very limited perception of the real extent of the

Long-Term Reactions. The list of adverse events that

have been linked to vaccination, is, unfortunately, much
longer than the one presented by the IOM, partially
because, as we’ve said, long-term causality is hard to
prove. There are, though, hundreds of reports
documenting cases of meningitis, asthma, inflammatory
bowel disease, diabetes, autism, chronic encephalitis,
multiple sclerosis, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis,
among other conditions, that seem to be linked to
vaccines. They will be discussed throughout this

Why We Need the Right to Choose. Most of us

assume that vaccinations are completely safe, even
harmless. Alan Phillips, the founding director of Citizens
for Health Care and Freedom, a North Carolina
nonprofit corporation dedicated to raising awareness of
vaccine issues and supporting the right to choose,
believes otherwise.
Says Phillips,

"I have seen information to directly contradict all of the

commonly held assumptions about the safety and
efficacy of vaccinations. The primary one that concerns
me is the assumption that vaccines are completely
safe. Most medical people, if you press them on this
issue, will say that nothing is completely safe. But
pediatricians almost universally will imply or state
outright that they are."

"Physicians in this country are required to give a piece

of paper that alludes to the possibility of some sort of
problem with vaccines. But the way information is given
is ambiguous. It makes some reference to maybe a one
in a million chance of a child dying. That’s what was on
the paper that my son’s pediatrician gave to my wife
when we took him in for his first two-month checkup
immunization. At that point, we were completely
unaware of the issue, and, quoting him directly, the
pediatrician stated outright: ‘That never happens.’ I
remember that clearly in reference to the possibility that
maybe one in a million children will die."

"The fact is that in this country over a hundred deaths

are reported each year following vaccination." And,
Phillips continues, "the FDA admits that 90 percent or
more of serious vaccine adverse events are not even
reported, and independent sources raise that figure to
as much as 95 or 97 percent. So any pediatrician or
other person who says that this doesn’t happen is
In addition to vaccine-induced deaths, there is the
potential for any number of serious side effects. Meryl
Dorey, editor of the Australian publication Vaccination:
The Choice is Yours, and president of the Australian
Vaccination Network, reports that "for one 39-month
period ending in November 1994, there were 32,000
serious adverse effects reported. If we accept this 10-
percent figure from the FDA, that would mean that there
could be 320,000 children being seriously injured by
vaccines. It’s unacceptable for any drug or treatment to
be killing and injuring people at such a high rate. There
should be alarms going off. There should be people
asking more questions."

By the way, apparently not everyone accepts the FDA

numbers. One vaccine manufacturer, Connaught
Laboratories, estimates a 50-fold under-reporting of
adverse events!

Dr. Harris Coulter, an expert on the pertussis vaccine, is

co-author of DPT: A Shot in the Dark and author of
Vaccinations, Social Violence, and Criminality. Coulter
says that while vaccines are described as safe, safety is
a relative term that the government cannot clearly
define. "They say that the vaccine is safe because only
one in x number of hundreds of thousands of children
gets a violent reaction. The number changes from time
to time. Sometimes it’s one in 100,000, sometimes one
in 300,000, and sometimes one in 500,000 vaccinated
children. You can question if that really means safe. For
the child who is damaged, that is not safe at all."
Coulter brings up another important issue concerning
safety: There are a variety of degrees of damage that
can result from vaccines, and we shouldn’t be
concerned only with the most extreme. As he explains,
"in any group of people who are exposed to a stress
factor--and a vaccine would have to be called a stress
factor--the reactions to that stress will vary from
nothing at all to a very serious reaction, maybe even
death. What the scientists who are concerned with
vaccinations tend to leave out of consideration are the
people in the middle. One in 100,000 is very seriously
affected; they get cerebral palsy or mental retardation
or maybe they die. We know that all those things
happen. But what about the ones in the middle?
There’s a whole spectrum of varying reactions to
vaccinations. And that is a factor which is simply not
examined at all by the people concerned."

Coulter makes the vital point that concerns about

vaccine safety and efficacy are well-documented in
major peer-reviewed journals, such as the New England
Journal of Medicine, the Journal of the American
Medical Association, and The Lancet. "All that
information is there if you just take the trouble to look
for it." And Dr. Dean Black, author of Immunizations:
Compulsion or Choice, points out that government
discussions of vaccine risks are recorded in the
Congressional Record,in a text concerning
compensation to families of children who have been
harmed by the procedure.
Black tells us that

"Congressman Henry Waxman, who chaired the

hearing, is quoted as saying, ‘A properly manufactured
vaccine that has been properly administered can cause
a terrible adverse reaction, an admitted scientific fact.
The children who will be victims rather than
beneficiaries cannot be predicted.’"

"The [Congressional] Record goes on to justify mass

immunization practices by comparing children to
soldiers who must at times sacrifice themselves for
their country: ‘As a nation we require that all children be
immunized so that most children will be healthy. Today,
the subcommittee will begin to consider what society
owes to those who are hurt, to children injured in the
line of public health.’"

"The International Association of Biological Standards

is the association which sets the expected risk/benefit
ratio that should allow vaccines to be used. What is this
standard? How beneficial must it be relative to a risk to
be able to be used? What the International Association
of Biological Standards says about vaccines in its
manual is this: ‘A relatively small number of damaged
persons, due to inoculation, is first considered the
lesser of two evils.’ So, we have an admission of
damaged persons, who Waxman says have been
injured in the line of public health, and about who the
International Association of Biological Standards says:
‘The subject affected by an inoculation has, without
doubt, made a special sacrifice in the interest of the
general public.’"

As Dr. Black says,

"If I am a parent whose child has been injured in the line

of public health, my individual child may be dead. As far
as the government is concerned, that’s just a risk I have
to take. My child must be willing to die in the service of
the general public." Thus Dr. Black brings up a troubling
assumption behind vaccination programs—that it is
right for a few children to be sacrificed for the good of
many. The questions that of course arise are: What if a
child’s parents don’t agree with that? What if a child
doesn’t? We’re looking at a philosophical assumption
that has never been dealt with in an open way in this
country, and maybe it’s time for some public discussion
of the issue."

Another troubling area of concern is this: If vaccines are

as safe and effective as medical science says, then why
are doctors not lining up for the shots? After all, doctors
are exposed to infected patients every day. In fact,
physicians belong to a high-risk category and are urged
to accept vaccinations because of their continued
exposure to infectious disease.

Despite these recommendations, it is well known that

many doctors refuse to vaccinate themselves and their
families., In the Feb. 20, 1981, issue of the Journal of
the American Medical Association, an article entitled
"Rubella Vaccine in Susceptible Hospital Employees,
Poor Physician Participation" reports that the lowest
vaccination rate among medical personnel for the
German measles vaccine occurred among obstetrician/
gynecologists and the next lowest rate occurred among
pediatricians. The authors conclude, "The fear of
unforeseen vaccination reactions was the main reason
for the low uptake rate of physicians to be vaccinated."

Dr. Robert Mendelson wrote a report about a Los

Angeles physician who refused to vaccinate his own 7-
month-old baby. According to Mendelson, this doctor
stated, "I’m worried about what happens when the
vaccine virus may not only offer little protection against
measles but may also stay around in the body, working
in a way that we don’t know much about." Yet the
doctor was still vaccinating his patients and justifying
his actions: "As a parent I have the luxury of making a
choice for my child. As a physician, legally and
professionally, I have to accept the recommendations of
the profession, which is what we also had to do with
the whole swine flu business."

In the British Medical Journal, an article entitled,

"Attitudes of General Practitioners Towards their
Vaccination against Hepatitis B" tells us that of 598
doctors questioned about hepatitis B vaccine, 86
percent believe that all general practitioners should be
vaccinated against hepatitis B. Yet 309 of those
practitioners had not been vaccinated themselves. This
less than enthusiastic response by physicians is further
noted in another British Medical Journal article on
hepatitis B vaccination and surgeons: "Infection with
hepatitis B virus is a serious hazard for health workers.
Surgeons are particularly at risk with potentially
devastating consequences to their well-being and a
major threat to their livelihood if they become carriers."
However, either surgeons do not take this threat
seriously or realize that vaccinations do not offer
protection, because the article goes on to say, "Despite
good evidence of an increased risk of infection, a high
percentage of surgeons in this study had not been
immunized. Clearly, there is a failure by all surgeons to
protect themselves and to insist that junior staff are

It would seem that there are many doctors who are in

agreement with the words of Dr. James Sheenan, who
says, "The only wholly safe vaccine is a vaccine that is
never used."

Vaccinations are Based on Unsound

Vaccines are suspensions of infectious agents used to
artificially induce immunity against specific diseases.
The aim of vaccination is to mimic the process of
naturally occurring infection through artificial means.
Theoretically, vaccines produce a mild to moderate
episode of infection in the body with only temporary
and slight side effects. But in reality, they may be
causing diseases rather than preventing them.
According to Jamie Murphy, "Vaccines produce disease
or infection in an otherwise healthy person... And so, in
order to allegedly produce something good, one has to
do something bad to the human body, that is, induce an
infection or a disease in an otherwise healthy person
that may or may not have ever happened."

Murphy continues:

"You have a situation in which everyone is being given a

disease with no control over that disease, because
once you inject a vaccine into a person’s body, whether
it contains bacteria or viruses or split viruses or
whatever--you have no control over the outcome. It’s
like dumping toxic wastes into a river and saying, ‘If we
just put a little bit in, it won’t pollute the river. It will be
just enough to do what we want it to do.’ Of course,
what they want the vaccination to do is initiate the
building up of our immune defenses, just like a regular
infection would do. The problem is that the medical
profession and science do not know, and have never
known, what the infecting dose of an infection really is.
It’s not something that can be measured. So they’re
really guessing at the amount of antigen and other
supplementary chemicals that they put in the vaccine."

"Vaccines are portrayed as being indispensable and

somehow better at disease protection than what our
innate biological defenses and nutritional resources
have accomplished for thousands of years. I think it’s
the height of arrogance for the medical profession to
think that they have duplicated a biological process that
has taken care of people since the beginning of time.
People can deal with infectious diseases without
vaccines. Before the introduction of the measles and
mumps vaccines, children got measles and they got
mumps, and in the great majority of cases those
diseases were benign."

"The most important point I want to make is that there’s

no logical reason for having a vaccine when these
[natually occuring] infectious agents...can stimulate the
immune system to take care of that disease by itself.
We don’t need anything artificial to do that for us."

Another argument against vaccines is that they are

suppressive, rather than curative, causing the vital force
of the body to shift its emphasis either to some other
disease or to a deeper disease. Symptoms can be
suppressed for the moment, notes homeopathic
veterinarian Dr. Charles Loops, but down the road some
type of chronic disease is going to develop: "If you treat
irritable bowel syndrome, for instance, with cortisone
and antibiotics, you can drive the disease to a state
where ten years down the road you’ll be dealing with
colon cancer. And we have equivalents in animal
disease. The most important thing is to treat disease,
any type of disease, in a manner that enhances the
body, so that it can heal itself, and that means using
herbal, homeopathic, or some other type of stimulatory
medicine, rather than suppressive medicine."

Walene James, author of Immunizations: The Reality

Beyond the Myth, adds that the full inflammatory
response is necessary to create real immunity, and
reports that in The Lancet on June 5, 1985, there was
an article about measles virus infection relating to a
variety of diseases in adult life. Researchers in
Denmark, the article explained, examined the histories
of people claiming not to have had measles in
childhood, yet who had blood antibody evidence of
such infection. The researchers found that some of
these people had been injected in childhood with the
measles vaccine after exposure to the infection. This
may have suppressed the disease which was at the
time developing in their bodies. A high proportion of
these individuals were found in adult life to have
developed immunoreactive diseases, such as
sebaceous skin diseases, tumors, and degenerative
diseases of bone and cartilage. The conditions included
cancer, MS, lupus, and chondromalacia, which is
softening of the cartilage.

James quotes Dr. Richard Moskowitz, past president of

the National Institute of Homeopathy, and a cum laude
graduate of Harvard and New York Medical School, as
stating, "‘Vaccines trick the body so that it will no
longer initiate a generalized inflammatory response.
They thereby accomplish what the entire immune
system seems to have evolved to prevent. They place
the virus directly into the blood and give it access to the
major immune organs and tissues without any obvious
way of getting rid of it. These attenuated viruses and
virus elements persist in the blood for a long time,
perhaps permanently. This, in turn, implies a systematic
weakening of the ability to mount an effective response,
not only to childhood diseases but to other acute
infections as well.’"

James explains that increased antibody production may

not be the most important aspect of the immune

"Vaccines isolate antibody function, and allow it to

substitute for the entire immune response. Scientific
evidence questioning the role of antibodies in disease
protection can be found in research performed by Dr.
Alec Burton, published in a study by the British Medical
Council in May 1950. The study investigates the
relationship between the incidence of diphtheria and
the presence of antibodies. Since diphtheria was
epidemic at, or just prior to, the time of the study, the
researchers had a large number of cases to investigate.
The purpose of the research was to determine the
existence or nonexistence of antibodies in people who
developed diphtheria and in those who did not. It
looked at patients and people who were in close
proximity to patients, such as physicians, nurses in
hospitals, family, and friends. The conclusion was that
there was no relation whatsoever between antibody
count and incidence of disease. The researchers found
people who were highly resistant with extremely low
antibody counts, and people who developed the
disease who had high antibody counts. Dr. Burton also
discovered that children born with a-gamma
globulinemia (an inability to produce antibodies)
develop and recover from measles and other infectious
or contagious disease almost as spontaneously as
other children."

Further, Jamie Murphy insists that introducing antigens

directly into the bloodstream can prove dangerous.
"When a child gets a naturally occurring infection, like
measles, which is not a serious disease, the body
reacts to that in a very set way. The germs go in a
certain part of the body through the throat and into the
different immune organs, and the body combats the
disease in its own natural way. There are all sorts of
immune reactions that occur. Inflammatory response
reactions, macrophages, and different kinds of white
blood cells are used to combat the virus. You also
cough and sneeze and get rid of the virus that way.

"When you inject a vaccine into the body, you’re

actually performing an unnatural act because you are
injecting directly into the blood system. That is not the
natural port of entry for that virus. In fact, the whole
immune system in our body is geared to prevent that
from happening. What we’re doing is giving the virus or
the bacteria carte blanche entry into our bloodstream,
which is the last place you want it to be. This increases
the chance for disease because viral material from the
vaccine stays in the cells, and is not completely
defeated by the body’s own defenses. You overload the

Additionally, vaccines are less efficient than the body’s

own immunization processes. Murphy observes that
vaccines, unlike childhood diseases, do not produce
permanent immunity. "The medical profession does not
know how long vaccine immunity lasts because it is
artificial immunity. If you get measles naturally, in 99
percent of the cases, you have lifelong immunity. If you
have German measles you will have lifelong immunity.
The chances of getting measles twice, German measles
twice, or even whooping cough twice are so remote, it’s
unbelievable. However, if you get a measles vaccine or
a DPT vaccine, it does not mean that the vaccine will
prevent you from getting the disease. Nobody knows
how good vaccine prevention is. But I can tell you that
the recent figures I’ve seen coming out of government
and medical journals, which I read constantly, is that at
least 40-65 percent of all inoculated disease that
occurs in this country (measles, DPT, or tetanus) occurs
in vaccinated individuals, and that to me says that the
vaccine isn’t working."

Walene James notes that people sometimes confuse

the principle of vaccination with the principle of
homeopathy, when they are very different. One of the
differences she cites is that mass compulsory
vaccinations are based upon the mistaken notion that
one size fits all. Another difference is the amount of
toxins given. "The homeopathic dose is minute. It is so
small, in fact, that there is only an energy field left.
Through a method called potentization, you are only left
with a pattern; there is no trace of the substance. This
is not true of an allopathic vaccine. Also, when you are
taking homeopathic treatments, you are taking just one
treatment, not a whole lot of them. Further, in classical
homeopathy, you are never supposed to violate the
body by piercing the skin. Medicine must be oral.

"Most important, the homeopathic remedy is holistic. It

addresses the uniqueness of the patient as well as his
wholeness. The patient is seen as a mental and spiritual
being as well as a physical organism. In contrast,
vaccines are herd treatments....You are regarded by
orthodox medicine as part of a herd, like cattle, sheep
or buffalo."

In his widely circulated critique of vaccines,

Vaccination: Dispelling the Myths, Alan Phillips writes,

"The clinical evidence for vaccination is their ability to

stimulate antibody production in the recipient, a fact
which is not disputed. What is not clear, however, is
whether or not such antibody production constitutes
immunity. For example, a-gamma globulinemic children
are incapable of producing antibodies, yet they recover
from infectious diseases almost as quickly as other
children....Natural immunization is a complex
phenomenon involving many organs and systems; it
cannot be fully replicated by the artificial stimulation of
antibody production. Research also indicates that
vaccination commits immune cells to the specific
antigens involved in the vaccine, rendering them
incapable of reacting to other infections. Our
immunological reserve may thus actually be reduced,
causing a generally lowered resistance."

Echoing the thinking of Walene James, Phillips adds:

"Another component of immunization theory is ‘herd
immunity,’ which states that when enough people in a
community are immunized, all are protected. There are
many documented instances showing just the
opposite--fully vaccinated populations do contract
diseases; with measles, this actually seems to be the
direct result of high vaccination rates. A Minnesota
state epidemiologist concluded that the HiB vaccine
increases the risk of illness when a study revealed that
vaccinated children were five times more likely to
contract meningitis than unvaccinated children.",

Writing in Nexus, Phillips makes the point that

immunization practice assumes that all children,
regardless of age and size, are virtually the same.

"An 8-pound 2-month-old receives the same dosage as

a 40-pound five-year-old," Phillips points out. "Infants
with immature, undeveloped immune systems may
receive five or more times the dosage (relative to body
weight) as older children." What’s more, random testing
has revealed that the number of ‘units’ within doses has
been found to range up to three times what the label
indicates, with quality control tolerating a rather large
margin of error. In fact, Phillips reports that "‘Hot Lots’--
vaccine lots with disproportionately high death and
disability rates--have been identified repeatedly by the
NVIC, but the FDA refuses to intervene to prevent
further unnecessary injury and deaths. In fact, they
have never recalled a vaccine lot due to adverse
reactions. Some would call this infanticide."

Questionable Science
Many scientific studies tell us that vaccines are safe
and effective when this is not necessarily the case.,
Doctors and vaccine proponents often quote studies
done solely on antibody production in the blood, not
taking into account clinical experiences., In her
research, Cynthia Cournoyer discusses some of the
studies that started with the hypothesis that vaccines
are safe and effective.

"They never consider the opposite possibility, that

vaccines are harmful and ineffective," Cournoyer says.
"When vaccine failures and reactions occur, they are
explained away. Researchers conclude that the doses
were wrong, the control group was wrong, or that
something else was wrong. Using common sense, I
would conclude that perhaps something is wrong with
the vaccines being studied."

Cournoyer uses this example to show just how biased

vaccine studies can be:

"A 1988 Lancet article reports a study in which a group

of children were given the cellular pertussis vaccine.
Those who had a reaction to the first dose were
removed from the research population. Only
nonreacting children were kept and given a second
dose. Researchers were not interested in studying the
children who reacted to the first dose. This allowed
them to say that the new vaccine was safe and
effective. In reality, however, children are receiving first
doses all the time."

Dr. Dean Black believes that scientists know that there

are risks and benefits to vaccination but assume that
the good effects outweigh the bad. However, they do
not have proof to back up their claims, a point brought
out in Congressional hearings. Black states,
"Congressman Waxman addressed this issue directly at
the Congressional hearings on vaccine safety when he
asked Dr. Martin H. Smith, president of the American
Academy of Pediatrics,

‘In your opinion, Dr. Smith, is there an accurate

reporting of reactions to vaccines?’ Smith said, ‘Not at
the present time.’ [Congressman Waxman questioned]
Dr. Edward N. Brandt, assistant secretary for health in
the Department of Health and Human Services, ‘I have
been hearing that physicians don’t even know a
reaction when one occurs. They assume that it may be
from some other cause. Is that a fair statement?’ Brandt
replied, ‘Certainly there have been a number of people
who have pointed that out.’ Congressman Waxman
then asked Brandt, ‘How do you prove that a vaccine
was, in fact, the cause of an illness or disability?’ To
this, Brandt said, ‘It may very well be impossible to do
that in individual cases.’ And of course," Black points
out, "there are only individual cases. So, we have in the
Congressional Record a clear statement that says we
do not know the risk of harm."

Black continues by asking, "How about the benefit?

The benefit means children would have become injured
or would have died without the vaccine. The question
is, how do we know who would have died without the
vaccine? How do we know how many would have been
harmed without it? The answer is, we don’t know. It’s
purely hypothetical."

Black then brings up an issue that needs more attention

—what if we stopped compulsory vaccination?
"By looking at what happens in countries where
vaccinations are no longer required," he says, "we can
get an idea of what would truly happen if we were to
cease demanding compulsory immunization in America.
In 1975, Germany stopped requiring pertussis
vaccinations, and the number of children vaccinated
promptly began to drop. Today, it has dropped to well
below 10 percent. What has happened in Germany
from pertussis over that period of time? The mortality
rate has continued to decrease. That would likewise be
our experience here."

The Natural Evolution of Disease

Immunization supposedly puts an end to disease. We
attribute the decline in polio to the polio vaccine, the
"disappearance" of smallpox to the smallpox vaccine,
and so forth. , , , , , The media tell us that science is
working on an AIDS vaccine, and we trust that this will
fully end the affliction.

But are vaccinations the magic bullets we believe them

to be? Dr. Coulter concludes otherwise. Regarding
infectious diseases of the past, he states,

"The incidence of all of these infectious diseases was

dropping very rapidly, starting in the 1930s. After World
War II, the incidence continued to drop as living
conditions improved. Clean water, central heating, the
ability to bring oranges from Florida to the north in
February so the children could get vitamin C--these are
the factors that really affected people’s tendencies to
come down with infectious diseases much more than
vaccines. The vaccines might have added a little bit to
that downward curve, but the curve was going down all
the time anyway."

Dr. Coulter’s words are supported by the Australian

Nurses Journal:"A careful study of the decline in
disease will show that up to 90 percent of the so-called
‘killer diseases’ had all but disappeared when we
introduced immunization on a large scale during the late
thirties and early forties." A similar statement is made
by the Medical Journal of Australia: "The decline of
tetanus as a disease began before the introduction of
tetanus toxoid to the general population. The reasons
for this decline are the same for the decline in all other
infectious diseases: improved hygiene, improved
sanitation, better nutrition, healthier living conditions,

Alan Phillips elaborates on this theme:

"We just assume that vaccinations are responsible for

disease decline, which is not the case. For if you check
the statistics, you will find that the vast majority of
disease decline proceeded vaccines. In the case of
measles, for example, there was a 97-percent decline
preceding vaccination; in the case of pertussis, 79
percent. When you look at the graph of the decline in
death rate over the course of the century, you see that
the rate of decline, post-immunization, was virtually the
same as the decline pre-immunization, suggesting that
it’s difficult to tell whether or not the vaccine had any
effect on an already well-established decline in disease
deaths." ,

The statistics on the abatement of childhood diseases

before the period of mass immunization are not well-
publicized, because they could tarnish the shining
image of the vaccine as savior. According to Jamie

"From 1911 to 1935, the four leading causes of death

among those aged 1 to 14, covered by Metropolitan
Life Insurance Company policies, were (1) diphtheria, (2)
measles, (3) scarlet fever, (4) and whooping cough. The
standardized death rate among children ages 1 to 14
from the leading childhood diseases declined from 145
per 100,000 living in 1911, to 28 per 100,000 in 1935, a
decrease of 81 percent. By 1945, the annual death rate
from the four leading communicable diseases of
childhood had declined to 7 per 100,000. Thus, the
combined death rate of diphtheria, measles, scarlet
fever, and whooping cough declined 95 percent among
children ages 1 to 14 from 1911 to 1945, before the
mass immunization programs started in the United

Phillips also attacks the notion that vaccines are

responsible for the dramatic reduction in infectious
disease during this and past centuries.

"According to the British Association for the

Advancement of Science, childhood diseases
decreased 90 percent between 1850 and 1940,
paralleling improved sanitation and hygienic practices,
well before mandatory vaccination programs. Infectious
disease deaths in the U.S. and England declined
steadily by an average of about 80 percent during this
century (measles mortality declined over 97 percent)
prior to vaccinations. In Great Britain, the polio
epidemics peaked in 1950, and had declined 82
percent by the time the vaccine was introduced there in
1956. Thus, at best, vaccinations can be credited with
only a small percentage of the overall decline in
disease-related deaths this century. Yet even this small
portion is questionable, as the rate of decline remained
virtually the same after vaccines were introduced."

"Furthermore," Phillips points out, "European countries

that refused immunization for smallpox and polio saw
the epidemics end along with those countries that
mandated it. In fact, both smallpox and polio
immunization campaigns were followed initially by
significant disease incidence increases; during
smallpox vaccination campaigns, other infectious
diseases continued their declines in the absence of
vaccines. In England and Wales, smallpox disease and
vaccination rates eventually declined simultaneously
over a period of several decades. It is thus impossible
to say whether or not vaccinations contributed to the
continuing decline in disease death rates, or if the same
forces which brought about the initial declines--
improved sanitation, hygiene, improvements in diet,
natural disease cycles--were simply unaffected by the
vaccination programs."

"Underscoring this conclusion was a recent World

Health Organization report which found that the disease
and mortality rates in the Third World countries have no
direct correlation with immunization procedures or
medical treatment, but are closely related to the
standard of hygiene and diet. Credit given to
vaccinations for our current disease incidence has
simply been grossly exaggerated, if not outright

Vaccine Propaganda
Consider the case of a recent Miss America. As
described in a newsletter put out by The National
Vaccine Information Center, "Before the...pageant that
crowned her the new Miss America, Healther
Whitestone gave an interview to the Birmingham News
in her home state and candidly talked about how she
became deaf after a serious reaction to a DPT shot at
18 months old. Heather’s Mom also talked to The Star
and other broadcast and print media about how
Heather reacted to her DPT shot with a high fever and
then came down with an infection that brought her
young daughter close to death.

"But within hours after the Miss America pageant, a

horrified medical establishment moved quickly to
publicly dispute any connection between Heather’s
deafness and the DPT vaccine and instead blamed her
deafness on a bacterial infection for which there now is
a vaccine--Haemophilus influenzae B (HiB). The
American Academy of Pediatrics searched out and
found a doctor who had been part of the Alabama
medical group that treated Heather as a toddler. The
doctor publicly insisted there was no connection
between Heather’s deafness and the DPT shot and that
Heather had suffered a severe case of HiB disease that
coincidentally occurred around the time of her DPT

The newsletter goes on to discuss the phenomenon of

recently vaccinated children getting HiB. "Analysis of
individual reports made to the government’s Vaccine
Adverse Event Reporting System during the past two
years reveals a significant number of four- to eight-year-
old children coming down with HiB disease within one
to four weeks of vaccination. These reports are
reminiscent of the reports of invasive bacterial infection,
specifically Haemophilus inluenzae B infection, within
one to four weeks of acellular pertussis vaccination in
the Swedish vaccine trials in the 1980s. There has long
been speculation that vaccination may temporarily
suppress the immune system and leave recently
vaccinated individuals vulnerable to infections, from
otitis media to more severe infection such as Hib.

"Whether or not Heather Whitestone’s deafness is

connected to the DPT vaccine, there can be no doubt
that the American medical establishment went to
extraordinary lengths to publicly challenge Heather and
her mother in order to avoid having to acknowledge
DPT vaccine risks. At a National Vaccine Advisory
Committee meeting held several weeks after she was
crowned, one doctor suggested that the ‘public
relations problem’ surrounding the new Miss America
could be fixed by persuading Heather to become a
‘poster child’ to promote vaccination for the

To combat public relations nightmares such as these,

government scientists have turned to "behavioral
research" to ensure that vaccines are looked upon
favorably. A National Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases (NIAID) document reads:

"Rates of vaccine acceptance are unlikely to change

substantially as a result of the use of simple incentives
or educational brochures. The behavioral research
agenda that must be developed to improve acceptance
is based on identifying factors that motivate or inhibit
acceptance. They include characteristics of (a) the
intended recipient, (b) the guardian, in the case of
children, (c) the health care provider, and (d) the setting
in which the vaccine is delivered. Relevant findings
must then be translated into key elements of
intervention strategies that are rigorously evaluated.
Incomplete or inappropriately timed vaccination can
lead to a resurgence of disease, as occurred in the
United States with measles outbreaks between 1988
and 1991. Individuals who accept the first dose of
vaccine must be followed over the course of
immunization to identify the determinants of
compliance and noncompliance with the entire vaccine
regimen. These findings should contribute to pilot tests
of interventions to increase full immunization. Results
from these types of studies are also likely to delineate
strategies to increase vaccine acceptance and to
increase compliance with larger scale immunization

The same report continues,

"Clearly, improving immunization programs requires

rigorous research on fundamental cognitive, perceptual,
and cultural processes that affect health related
decisions. Although it is important to improve the
acceptance of licensed vaccine products, it is also
critical to anticipate the availability of new products and
pave the way for their introduction. …Behavioral
research also should be conducted during clinical trials
of products under development to improve the
likelihood of their use in full-scale immunization

Toxic Vaccine Ingredients and Manufacturing

What one will not find coming out of the NIAID is much
discussion of what vaccines actually are, or, moreover,
what’s in them. Walene James describes the contents
of vaccines, and urges parents to think about what
effects these ingredients could have on their children’s

"There are three categories of ingredients. The first are

cultured bacteria and viruses. All viruses, even
attenuated (so-called killed) viruses contain RNA and
DNA. RNA and DNA shed, and this can be picked up by
the cellular organisms in which they are immersed. This
process of shedding genetic material by the cells of one
species and its subsequent absorption into another
species is known as transession. Cells in which viral
RNA have integrated into the DNA of the animal cells
are known as pro-viruses or molecular intermediates.
These infected cells can lie dormant in tissues
throughout the body, and be activated at a later stage,
triggering auto-immune phenomena, such as cancer,
multiple sclerosis, lupus, allergies, and rheumatoid
arthritis. Transession explains auto-immune
phenomena, why the immune system cannot
distinguish between foreign invaders and its own
tissues, and why it begins to destroy itself.

"The second ingredient in vaccinations is the medium in

which they are cultivated. This can include rabbit brain
tissue, dog kidney tissue, monkey kidney tissue,
chicken or duck egg protein, chick embryo, calf serum,
pig or horse blood, and cowpox pus. These foreign
proteins are injected directly into the bloodstream. They
are very toxic since they do not get filtered through the
digestive process or pass through the liver."

"These proteins are foreign to the body, and are in a

state of decomposition. They are composed of animal
cells, and therefore contain animal genetic material. It is
possible for the genes in these cells to be picked up by
the live, attenuated viruses used in vaccines. These
viruses then implant a foreign alien genetic material
from animal tissue cultures into the human genetic
system. Undigested proteins in the blood are one of the
causes of allergies....These undigested proteins can
attack the myelin sheath that protects the nerves, and
result in neurological problems."

James goes on to comment on the last category of

vaccine ingredients, which are stabilizers, neutralizers,
carrying agents, and preservatives. "Many people feed
their children healthy foods. They would never think of
giving their children formaldehyde, mercury, or
aluminum phosphate to eat. Formaldehyde, for
instance, is used to embalm corpses, and is a known
carcinogen. These are preservatives and carrying
agents that are injected directly into the bloodstream
without buffering by the digestive process, or censoring
by the liver."

Using the smallpox vaccine as an example, James then

describes how vaccines are manufactured.

"Although [smallpox] is no longer a required

vaccination, it is still being used for research on AIDS
and the new genetically engineered recombinant
vaccines. Mendelson’s newsletter describes the
following process: ‘A young calf has his belly shaved.
Many slashes are made in the skin. A prior batch of
smallpox vaccine is dropped into the slashes and
allowed to fester over a period of days. During this
period of time, the calf stands in a head stall so that he
can’t lick his belly. The calf is led out of the stock to a
table where he is strapped down. His belly scabs and
pus are scraped off and ground into a powder. The
powder is the next batch of smallpox vaccine. Besides
dried pus and scabs in the smallpox vaccine, incidental
viruses, which the calf was carrying, can be contained
in these scabs and pus.’"

More specifically, Barbara Loe Fisher outlines the

production processes of the most common vaccines in
her book, The Consumer’s Guide to Childhood
Vaccines, as follows:

"DPT VACCINE: DPT vaccine is an inactivated bacterial

vaccine. To produce the pertussis vaccine portion of
the DPT vaccine, whole B pertussis bacteria are
grown... harvested, inactivated through heat and
chemical treatments and suspended in a solution
containing such chemicals as potassium phosphate,
sodium chloride and thimerosal (mercury), which is
used as a preservative. Aluminum is added as an
adjuvant. The pertussis vaccine is then combined with
the DT vaccine."

"DT VACCINE: The diphtheria and tetanus toxoid are

detoxified by use of formaldehyde and diluted with a
solution containing such chemicals as sodium
phosphate, glycine and thimerosal as a preservative.
Aluminum is added as an adjuvant."

"DTaP VACCINE: Unlike the DPT vaccine, the purified

acellular or DTaP vaccine does not contain the whole B
pertussis bacteria. DTaP vaccine is made by separating
out and removing many of the toxins in the whole B
pertussis bacteria and only using a few components of
the bacteria in the vaccine. These remaining
components, including pertussis toxin, may be
detoxified by using formaldehyde. Thimerosal is usually
added as a preservative and aluminum added as an
adjuvant. The acellular pertussis vaccine is then
combined with the DT vaccine."

"MMR VACCINE: MMR vaccine used in the U.S. is a

live virus vaccine. It contains (1) a weakened (partially
inactivated) live measles virus...grown in cell cultures of
chick embryo; (2) a weakened live strain of mumps
virus grown in cell cultures of chick embryo; and (3) a
weakened Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated
rubella virus grown in human diploid cell (W-38) culture
originating from the tissues of a fetus aborted in 1964
after the mother was infected with rubella. There is no
preservative. MMR vaccine contains the antibiotic
neomycin. Sorbitol and hydrolyzed gelatin are added as
stabilizers. The live virus measles vaccine, mumps
vaccine and rubella vaccine are also available as single
vaccines but most often doctors give these vaccines as
the MMR vaccine unless single antigens are specifically

LIVE ORAL POLIO VACCINE (OPV): The live oral polio

vaccine in the U.S. is a mixture of three types of
attenuated (weakened or partially inactivated)
polioviruses which have been grown in African green
monkey kidney cell culture. The cells are then grown in
a medium consisting of a salt solution containing amino
acids, antibiotics and calf serum. After cell growth, the
medium is removed and replaced with a medium
containing the virus but no calf serum. The vaccine
contains sorbitol and the antibiotics streptomycin and


poliovirus vaccine used in the U.S. is a sterile
suspension of three types of poliovirus grown in
cultures of VERO cells, a continuous line of African
green monkey kidney cells. The viruses are
concentrated, purified and made noninfectious by
inactivation with formaldehyde. IPV vaccine contains
phenoxyethanol and formaldehyde as preservatives and
the antibiotics neomycin, streptomycin and polymyxin.
An IPV vaccine using human diploid cell cultures, rather
than monkey kidney cell cultures, is used in some other


Haemophilus influenza type B vaccine used in the U.S
today is a polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. It does
not contain all the HiB bacteria, just the organism’s
capsular polysaccharide. The vaccine is a sterile
solution of a conjugate of oligosaccharides of the
capsular antigen of Haemophilus influenza type B and
diphtheria protein dissolved in sodium chloride."

"HEPATITIS B VACCINE: The first hepatitis B virus

vaccines developed in the 1970s were made using virus
isolated from the blood of human chronic hepatitis B
carriers. A plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine was
licensed by the U.S. in 1981 and used in high-risk
populations in the 1980s until a genetically engineered,
recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was developed. Today,
hepatitis B recombinant vaccine used in the U.S. is
derived from hepatitis B surface antigens produced in
yeast cells. A portion of the hepatitis B virus gene is
cloned into the yeast (a common baker’s yeast) and the
vaccine is produced from cultures of this recombinant
yeast strain. The vaccine is treated with formaldehyde
and contains 95 percent hepatitis B virus surface
antigen, 4 percent yeast protein, aluminum hydroxide
and thimerosal added as a preservative."


Chickenpox vaccine is made from the Oka/Merck strain
of live attenuated (weakened) varicella virus. The virus
was initially obtained from a child with natural varicella,
introduced into human embryonic lung cell cultures,
adapted to and propagated in embryonic guinea pig
cell cultures and finally propagated in human diploid
cell cultures. The vaccine contains sucrose, phosphate,
glutamate and processed gelatin as stabilizers."

Noting the fact that vaccines include a host of

undisputed toxins, such as thimerosal, aluminum
phosphate, and formaldehyde, Alan Phillps reminds us
that many of the ill effects caused by vaccines existed
at nowhere near today’s levels 30 years ago. He cites
autism, ADD, hyperactivity, dyslexia, and a host of
allergies as examples. In his book What Every Parent
Should Know About Childhood Immunization, Jamie
Murphy seconds the views of Phillips, and pulls even
fewer punches.
"What sane person would consider using a hazardous
waste, carcinogenic in rats, used in the manufacture of
inks, dyes, explosives, wrinkle-proof fabrics, home
insulation, and as a major constituent of embalming
fluid, and inject it into the delicate body of an infant?
What could formaldehyde, aluminum, phenol, mercury,
or any number of other deadly chemical substances
used in vaccines possibly have to do with preventing
disease in children? The fact that they are needed at all
in the vaccine formula argues that the product is toxic,
unstable and unreliable with or without their presence."

The Threat of Thimerosal. On July 9, 1999, the

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a
statement urging removal of the mercury-containing
preservative thimerosal from vaccines. The reason
behind this strong recommendation is a growing
concern about the risk of exposing the developing
brains of infants to mercury. While the precaution is
certainly welcomed, we should ask why such a
dangerous, known neurotoxin was allowed into
vaccines in the first place. Mercury exposure has been
associated with nerve cell degeneration, adverse
behavioral effects and impaired brain development. It
has also been linked to degenerative chronic conditions
such as Alzheimer’s disease. The developing fetal
nervous system is the most sensitive to its toxic effects,
and prenatal exposure to high doses of mercury has
been shown to cause mental retardation and cerebral

And yet the CDC is currently recommending the

mercury-containing influenza vaccine to all pregnant
women (see section on influenza vaccine). Furthermore,
until vaccine manufacturers comply with the AAP
recommendations, vaccines containing thimerosal will
still be given to infants, children, and adults. Other
mercury-containing vaccines include the hepatitis B,
pertussis, diptheria, tetanus, and Haemophilus
influenzae B vaccines.

The AAP acknowledged that with the growing number

of vaccines mandated for children the cumulative level
of mercury exceeds that deemed safe by current
guidelines. In addition, the hepatitis B, hepatitis A,
polio, pertussis, diptheria, and tetanus vaccines contain
formaldehyde--a highly carcinogenic material used to
embalm corpses--while the hepatitis B, hepatitis A,
pertussis, diptheria, and tetanus vaccines contain

Can we be surprised that a growing number of children

are manifesting cognitive disturbances such as autism
and attention deficit disorder?

Vaccine Failures
A look back through history reveals very different
stories about vaccines from the ones told today. In fact,
medical literature documents increases in the
conditions they are designed to prevent, as well as side
effects of all degrees of seriousness, including death.
Thus the statement that we hear so often from the
medical establishment, that vaccines are safe and
effective, is a gross distortion. , , , , , , , , ,

According to Phillips, "The medical literature has a

surprising number of studies documenting vaccine
failure. Measles, mumps, smallpox, polio, and HiB
outbreaks have all occurred in vaccinated populations.
In 1989, the CDC reported: Among school-aged
children, [measles] outbreaks have occurred in schools
with vaccination levels of greater than 98 percent. They
have occurred in all parts of the country, including areas
that had not reported measles for years. The CDC even
reported a measles outbreak in a documented 100-
percent-vaccinated population. A study examining this
phenomenonconcluded, ‘The apparent paradox is that
as measles immunization rates rise to high levels in a
population, measles becomes a disease of immunized
persons.’...These studies suggest that the goal of
complete immunization is actually counterproductive, a
notion underscored by instances in which epidemics
followed complete immunization of entire countries.
Japan experienced yearly increases in smallpox
following the introduction of compulsory vaccines in
1872. By 1892, there were 29,979 deaths, and all had
been vaccinated. Early in this century, the Philippines
experienced their worst smallpox epidemic ever after 8
million people received 24.5 million vaccine doses; the
death rate quadrupled as a result. In 1989, the country
of Oman experienced a widespread polio outbreak six
months after achieving complete vaccination. In the
U.S. in 1986, 90 percent of 1300 pertussis cases in
Kansas were ‘adequately vaccinated.’ Seventy-two
percent of pertussis cases in the 1993 Chicago
outbreak were fullyup to date with their
vaccinations.", , , , , , , , , ,

In addition to vaccines not doing what they were meant

to do, another type of vaccine failure is the side effect.
Vaccine manufacturers do try to minimize side effect
occurrence by listing, in the product literature, the
conditions that contraindicate a vaccine’s use. But
there are a lot of contraindications, and doctors aren’t
always aware of them. Scheibner has documented just
a few of the specific contraindications listed by vaccine
manufacturers in their product inserts:

"For DPT Vaccine: ‘Hypersensitivity to any component

of the vaccine, including thimerosal, a mercury
derivative, is a contraindication’… ‘Routine
immunization [with DPT] should be deferred during an
outbreak of poliomyelitis…’ ‘The occurrence of any type
of neurological symptoms or signs, including one or
more convulsions (seizures) following administration of
this product is a contraindication to further use. Use of
this product is also contraindicated if the child has a
personal history of seizures. The presence of any
evolving or changing disorder affecting the central
nervous system is a contraindication to administration
of DTP regardless of whether the suspected
neurological disorder is associated with occurrence of
seizure activity of any type.’"

"For DTaP Vaccine: ‘Influenza virus vaccine should not

be given within three days of the administration of [the

"For MMR Vaccine: ‘Due caution should be employed

in administration of MMR to persons with a history of
cerebral injury, individual or family histories of
convulsions, or any other condition in which stress due
to fever should be avoided.’

"For OPV Vaccine: ‘Immunization should be deferred

during the course of any febrile illness or acute
infection. In addition, immunization should be deferred
in the presence of persistent vomiting or diarrhea, or
suspected gastroenteritis infection’… ‘Prior to
administration of the vaccine, the attending physician
should warn or specifically direct personnel acting
under their authority to convey the warnings to
the...parent, guardian or other responsible person of the
possibility of vaccine-associated paralysis, particularly
to the recipient, family members and other close
personal contact… The responsible adult should be
informed of precautions to be taken such as hand-
washing after diaper changes.’"

"For HiB Vaccine: ‘Hypersensitivity to any component

of the vaccine, including diphtheria toxoid or thimerosal
in the multidose presentation, is a contraindication.’"

"For Varicella Zoster Vaccine: ‘Pregnancy should be

avoided for three months following vaccination.’…
‘Vaccine recipients should avoid use of salicylates
[aspirin] for 6 weeks after vaccination with [the vaccine]

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