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2, 2010

**Comparative Performance of Information Hiding in Vector Quantized Codebooks using LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG
**

Dr. H. B. Kekre

Senior Professor, MPSTME, NMIMS University, Vile-parle(W), Mumbai-56, India. hbkekre@yahoo.com

Archana Athawale

Ph.D. Scholar, MPSTME, NMIMS University, Vileparle(W), Mumbai-56 Assistant Professor, TSEC, Bandra(W), Mumbai-50, India.

Tanuja K. Sarode

Ph.D. Scholar, MPSTME, NMIMS University, Vileparle(W), Mumbai-56 Assistant Professor, TSEC, Bandra(W), Mumbai-50, India.

Kalpana Sagvekar

Lecturer, Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues COE, Bandra(W), Mumbai-50, India kalpanasagvekar@gmail.c om

Abstract - In traditional VQ - data hiding schemes secret data is hidden inside index based cover image resulting in limited embedding capacity. To improve the embedding capacity as well as to have minimum distortion to carrier media, we have proposed one novel method of hiding secret data into the codebook. In this paper we have used four different algorithms Linde Buzo and Gray (LBG), Kekre’s Proportionate Error (KPE), Kekre’s Median Codebook Generation algorithm (KMCG) and Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation Algorithm (KFCG) to prepare codebooks. It is observed that KFCG gives minimum distortion. Keywords - Reversible (lossless) data hiding, VQ, LBG, KPE, KMCG, KFCG.

appear on the picture to catch malicious attackers‟ attention. Thereupon, the security of the secret information is ensured against detection. As for the payload capacity limit, it evaluates the power of a data-hiding scheme by checking how big the maximum amount of the secret information is that can be hidden in the cover media. Generally speaking, the larger the payload size is, the worse the stego-image visual quality will be. That is to say, in the world of data hiding, how to strike this balance and settle on an ideal robustness-capacity tradeoff is maybe the core problem to solve. The existing schemes of data hiding can roughly be classified into the following three categories: Spatial domain data hiding [2],[3],[4]: Data hiding of this type directly adjust image pixels in the spatial domain for data embedding. This technique is simple to implement, offering a relatively high hiding capacity. The quality of the stego image can be easily controlled. Therefore, data hiding of this type has become a well known method for image steganography. Frequency domain data hiding [5],[6]: In this method images are first transformed into frequency domain, and then data is embedded by modifying the transformed coefficients. Compressed domain data hiding [7],[8]: Data hiding is obtained by modifying the coefficients of the compressed code of a cover image. Since most images transmitted over Internet are in compressed format, embedding secret data into the compressed domain would provoke little suspicion. Due to the restricted bandwidth of networks, we cannot keep up with the growing sizes of various multimedia files. Many popular image compression algorithms have been proposed to respond this problem, such as VQ [15], side match VQ (SMVQ) [16], JPEG [17], JPEG2000 [18], and so on. One of the most commonly studied image compression techniques is Vector Quantization (VQ) [19], which is an attractive choice

I.

INTRODUCTION

Due to the digitalization of all kinds of data and the amazing development of network communication, information security over the Internet has become more and more important. The Internet is basically a giant open channel with security problems like modifications and interceptions occurring at any time in any place. Under such circumstances, quite some different approaches have been proposed in an attempt to make private communication secure. Researchers have developed schemes where the secret message is protected by getting transformed into the form of a stack of seemingly meaningless data, which only the authorized user can retransform back to its original form by way of some secret information. However, the appearance of a stack of seemingly meaningless data could be an irresistible attraction to an attacker with a desire to recover the original message. Another approach, called steganography, hides the secret message in some cover material with a common appearance to avoid suspicion. The data-hiding efficacy can be judged according to two criteria: (1) visual quality (2) payload capacity limit. The term “visual quality” here refers to the quality of the stego-image. That is to say, only a limited number of distortions within limited areas are allowed in the stego-image so that no obvious traces of modification

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because of its simplicity and cost-effective implementation. Indeed, a variety of VQ techniques have been successfully applied in real applications such as speech and image coding [20], [22], VQ has faster encode/decode time along with simpler framework compared to JPEG/JPEG2000. Vector Quantization requires limited information during decoding and works best in applications in which the decoder has only limited information [21]. There are two approaches for hiding data into VQ compressed domain; either hides the covert data into index based cover image or in codebook. In this paper we have proposed a method of hiding data into codebook which is not been explored. In section II we present codebook design algorithms. Section III explains proposed search algorithm followed by Section IV in which results and evaluation is given. Section V gives conclusion. II. VQ COMPRESSION TECHNIQUE

decides the error ratio. Hereafter the procedure is same as that of LBG. While adding proportionate error a safe guard is also introduced so that neither v1 nor v2 go beyond the training vector space. This removes the disadvantage of the LBG. Both LBG and KPE requires 2M number of Euclidean distance computations and 2M number of comparisons where M is the total number of training vectors in every iteration to generate clusters. c. Kekre’s Median Codebook Generation Algorithm (KMCG) [13] In this algorithm image is divided in to blocks and blocks are converted to the vectors of size k. The Fig. 2 below represents matrix T of size M x k consisting of M number of image training vectors of dimension k. Each row of the matrix is the image training vector of dimension k.

x1,2 .... x1,k x2,2 .... x2,k . . . . . . . . xM,1 xM,2 .... xM,k x1,1 x2,1

Vector Quantization (VQ) [9-14] is an efficient technique for data compression [31-34] and is very popular in a variety of research fields such as data hiding techniques [7,8], image segmentation [23-26], speech data compression [27], content based image retrieval CBIR [28, 29] and face recognition [30]. A. a. Codebook Generation Algorithms Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) Algorithm [9], [10]

T

Fig. 2. Training Vectors The training vectors are sorted with respect to the first member of all the vectors i.e. with respect to the first column of the matrix T and the entire matrix is considered as one single cluster. The median of the matrix T is chosen (codevector) and is put into the codebook, and the size of the codebook is set to one. The matrix is then divided into two equal parts and the each of the part is then again sorted with respect to the second member of all the training vectors i.e. with respect to the second column of the matrix T and we obtain two clusters both consisting of equal number of training vectors. The median of both the parts is the picked up and written to the codebook, now the size of the codebook is increased to two consisting of two codevectors and again each part is further divided to half. Each of the above four parts obtained are sorted with respect to the third column of the matrix T and four clusters are obtained and accordingly four codevectors are obtained. The above process is repeated till we obtain the codebook of desired size. Here quick sort algorithm is used and from the results it is observed that this algorithm takes least time to generate codebook, since Euclidean distance computation is not required. d. Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation (KFCG) Algorithm

In this algorithm centroid is calculated as the first codevector for the training set. In Fig. 1 two vectors v1 & v2 are generated by using constant error addition to the codevector. Euclidean distances of all the training vectors are computed with vectors v1 & v2 and two clusters are formed based on nearest of v1 or v2. This procedure is repeated for every cluster. The drawback of this algorithm is that the cluster elongation is –45o to horizontal axis in two dimensional cases. Resulting in inefficient clustering.

Fig.1 LBG for 2 dimensional case b. Proportionate Error Algorithm (KPE) [11], [12]

Here proportionate error is added to the centroid to generate two vectors v1 & v2. Magnitude of elements of the centroid

In [14], KFCG algorithm for image data compression is proposed. This algorithm reduces the time for codebook generation. It does not use Euclidian distance for codebook generation. In this algorithm image is divided in to blocks and blocks are converted to the vectors of size k. Initially we have one cluster with the entire training vectors and the codevector C1 which is centroid.

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In the first iteration of the algorithm, the clusters are formed by comparing first element of training vector with first element of code vector C1. The vector Xi is grouped into the cluster 1 if xi1< c11 otherwise vector Xi is grouped into cluster 2 as shown in Figure. 3a. where codevector dimension space is 2. In second iteration, the cluster 1 is split into two by comparing second element xi2 of vector Xi belonging to cluster 1 with that of the second element of the codevector which is centroid of cluster 1. Cluster 2 is split into two by comparing the second element xi2 of vector Xi belonging to cluster 2 with that of the second element of the codevector which is centroid of cluster 2, as shown in Figure. 3b. This procedure is repeated till the codebook size is reached to the size specified by user. It is observed that this algorithm gives less error as compared to LBG and requires least time to generate codebook as compared to other algorithms, as it does not require computation of Euclidian distance.

A. Embedding Procedure Divide the image into 2×2 block of pixels window Generate initial cluster of training set using the rows of 12 values per pixel window

Apply codebook generation algorithm LBG/KPE/KFCG/KMCG on initial cluster to obtain codebook of size 2048 codevectors

Embed every bit of each pixel in the LSB‟s of (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, variable bit method) each element of codevector belonging to CB

Modified CB

Generate Index based cover image

3(a). First Iteration

B. Extraction & Recovery Procedure Modified CB Index based cover image

3(b) Second Iteration Fig. 3. KFCG algorithm for 2-D case III. PROPOSED APPROACH

Extract secret data from LSB of every element of CB

Reconstruct the original image by replacing each index by corresponding codevector

C. Variable Bit Hiding Algorithm For variable bit hiding Kekre‟s algorithm [2] is used. 1. If the value of codebook vector element is in the range 240≤gi≤255 then we embed 4 bits of secret data into the 4 LSB‟s codebook vector element. This can be done by observing the 4 most significant bits (MSB‟s). If they are all 1‟s then the remaining 4 LSB‟s can be used for embedding data. If the value of codebook vector element is in the range 224≤gi≤239 then we embed 3 bits of secret data. . This

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In this approach, we are hiding the secret data into codebook generated using various codebook generation algorithm such as LBG[10][11], KPE[12][13], KMCG[14], KFCG[15]. There are various ways of hiding: 1bit, 2 bits, 3 bits, 4 bits & variable bits hiding.

2.

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3.

4.

can be done by observing the 3 most significant bits (MSB‟s). If they are all 1‟s then the remaining 3 LSB‟s can be used for embedding data. If the value of codebook vector element is in the range 192≤gi≤223 then we embed 2 bits of secret data. . This can be done by observing the 2 most significant bits (MSB‟s). If they are all 1‟s then the remaining 2 LSB‟s can be used for embedding data. If the value of codebook vector element is in the range 0≤gi≤191 we embed 1 bit of secret data. IV. RESULTS & EVALUATIONS

**5 (a) Original Cover image Fern.bmp
**

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

5 (b) Secret Message

5 (c) Reconstructed image using KFCG for Variable bits Method

In our proposed approach, we have generated codebook using LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG for 24 bit color image of size 256×256 shown in Fig. 4 & 5. Codebook is of size 2048×12 (i.e. 2048 code vectors each contains 12 bytes - 4 pairs of RGB). We have hidden 32×32 gray image. Fig. 4. to Fig. 8. Shows the results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits using codebook obtained from LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG on the various cover images Bird, Fern, Puppy, Cat and Temple hiding same secrete image for fair comparison respectively. Fig. 9. Shows the plot of Hiding Capacity versus average MSE for various hiding methods 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG VQ Codebooks respectively.

MSE

KPE

KPE

KPE

KPE

KMCG

KMCG

KMCG

KMCG

KPE

KPE

KMCG

KMCG

LBG

LBG

LBG

LBG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

LBG

1 bit

2 bits

3 bits Hiding Capacity

4 bits

variable bits

5 (d) plot of Hiding Capacity versus MSE Fig. 5. Results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on the cover image Fern shown in Fig.5(a) and secrete image shown in Fig. 5(b).

**6 (a) Original Cover image Puppy.bmp
**

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

6 (b) Secret Message

6 (c) Reconstructed image using KFCG for Variable bits Method

KMCG

KMCG

KMCG

KMCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

1 bit 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

2 bits

3 bits Hiding Capacity

4 bits

variable bits

MSE

6 (d) plot of Hiding Capacity versus MSE Fig. 6. Results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on the cover image Puppy shown in Fig.6(a) and secrete image shown in Fig. 6(b).

KPE KPE KPE KPE KMCG KMCG KMCG KMCG KPE KMCG LBG LBG LBG LBG KFCG KFCG KFCG KFCG LBG KFCG

1 bit

2 bits

3 bits Hiding Capacity

4 bits

variable bits

4 (d) plot of Hiding Capacity versus MSE Fig. 4. Results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on the cover image bird and secrete image shown in Fig. 4(b). 7 (a) Original Cover image Cat.bmp 7 (b) Secret Message 7 (c) Reconstructed image using KFCG for Variable bits Method

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KFCG

4 (a) Original Cover image Birds.bmp

KPE

KPE

KPE

LBG

LBG

LBG

LBG

KPE

LBG

4 (b) Secret Message

4 (c) Reconstructed image using KFCG for Variable bits Method

MSE

KFCG

**(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010
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60 50 40 30 20 10 0

60 50

Avg. MSE

KPE KPE KPE KPE KPE

MSE

40 30 20 10 0

KPE

KPE

KPE

KPE

LBG

LBG

LBG

LBG

KMCG

KMCG

KMCG

KMCG

LBG

KMCG

LBG

LBG

LBG

LBG

KMCG

KMCG

KMCG

KMCG

LBG

KPE

KMCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

1 bit

2 bits

3 bits Hiding Capacity

4 bits

variable bits

1 bit

2 bits

3 bits Hiding Capacity

4 bits

variable bits

7 (d) plot of Hiding Capacity versus MSE Fig. 7. Results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on the cover image Cat shown in Fig.7(a) and secrete image shown in Fig. 7(b).

Plot of Hiding Capacity versus Avg. MSE Fig. 9. Plot of Hiding Capacity versus average MSE for various hiding methods 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG VQ Codebooks respectively.

**8 (a) Original Cover image Temple.bmp
**

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

8 (b) Secret Message

8 (c) Reconstructed image using KFCG for Variable bits Method

It is observed from Fig. 4 to Fig. 9. that KFCG codebook gives less MSE in all the data hiding methods 1bit, 2bits, 3bits, 4bits and varible bits as compared to LBG, KPE, and KMCG codebook. Further it is observed that varible bit method using KFCG gives the best performance.

Table 1. Shows the hiding Capacity in bits using 1 bit, 2 bits, 3 bits 4 bits, and variable bits method on LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG codebook of size 2048.

MSE

KPE

KPE

KPE

KPE

LBG

LBG

LBG

LBG

KMCG

KMCG

KMCG

KMCG

LBG

KPE

KMCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

KFCG

1 bit

2 bits

3 bits Hiding Capacity

4 bits

variable bits

8 (d) plot of Hiding Capacity versus MSE Fig. 8. Results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on the cover image Temple shown in Fig.8(a) and secrete image shown in Fig. 8(b). TABLE I. HIDING CAPACITY IN BITS USING 1 BIT, 2 BITS, 3 BITS, 4 BITS, AND VARIABLE BITS METHOD ON LBG, KPE, KMCG AND KFCG CODEBOOK OF SIZE 2048 Hiding Capacity in bits Cover Variable bits Images 1 bit 2 bits 3 bits 4 bits LBG KPE KMCG KFCG 28488 27202 26881 27751 Birds 27561 23891 27646 27965 Fern 24576 49152 73728 98304 39181 38899 39962 38362 Puppy 38076 37891 36364 33940 Cat 26595 26207 25545 26034 Temple

From table I it is observed that variable bits give high hiding capacity as compared to 1 bit, 2 bits, 3 bits and 4 bits embedding methods. V. CONCLUSION using MSE as a parameter. It has been observed that KFCG with variable bits for hiding information gives the best performance giving mse equivalent to 2.2 bits per byte of codevectors. In addition KMCG has very low computational complexity.

In this proposed approach the information is hidden in a vector quantized codebook by using 1,2,3,4 LSBs of the codevectors. Further a variable bit embedding is also considered which gives better embedding capacity coupled with low distortion. For preparing codebooks four different algorithms namely LBG, KPE, KMCG, KFCG are considered & their performance is considered

KFCG

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KFCG

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Kekre, Archana Athawale and Pallavi N.Halarnkar, “Performance Evaluation Of Pixel Value Differencing And Kekre‟s Modified Algorithm For Information Hiding In Images”, ACM International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication and Control (ICAC3).2009 (Uploaded on ACM Portal: http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1523103.1523172). [5] S.D. Lin and C.F. Chen, A Robust DCT-based Watermarking for Copyright Protection, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electron, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 415-421, 2000. [6] Y.T. Wu and F.Y. Shih, Genetic algorithm based methodology for breaking the steganalytic systems, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. Part B, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 24-31, 2006. [7] C. C. Chang, and C. Y. Lin, Reversible Steganography for VQcompressed Images Using Side Matching and Relocation, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 493-501, 2006. [8] C. C. Chang, Y. C. Chou and C. Y. Lin, Reversible Data Hiding in the VQ-Compressed Domain, IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, vol. E90-D no. 9, pp. 1422-1429, 2007. [9] Y. Linde, A. Buzo, and R. M. Gray, “An algorithm for vector quantizer design,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM- 28, no. 1, pp. 84-95, 1980. [10] A. Gersho, R.M. Gray.: „Vector Quantization and Signal Compressio‟, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 1991. [11] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “New Fast Improved Codebook generation Algorithm for Color Images using Vector Quantization,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol.1, No.1, pp. 67-77, September 2008. [12] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “An Efficient Fast Algorithm to Generate Codebook for Vector Quantization,” First International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, ICETET-2008, held at Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, India, 16-18 July 2008, Avaliable at online IEEE Xplore. [13] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “Fast Codebook Generation Algorithm for Color Images using Vector Quantization,” International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp: 7-12, Jan 2009. [14] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “New Fast Improved Codebook Generation Algorithm for Color Images using Vector Quantization”, International Journal of Engg. & Tech., Vol.1, No.1, pp. 67-77, 2008. [15] R. M. Gray, “Vector quantization,” IEEE Acoust., Speech, Signal Process., vol. 1, pp. 4–29, 1984. [16] T. Kim, “Side match and overlap match vector quantizers for images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 170–185, Apr. 1992. [17] W. B. Pennebaker and J. L. Mitchell, The JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard. New York: Reinhold, 1993. [18] D. S. Taubman and M. W. Marcellin, JPEG2000: Image Compression Fundamentals Standards and Practice. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 2002. [19] A. Gersho and R. M. Gray, Vector Quantization and Signal Compression. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1992. [20] Z. N. Li and M. S. Drew, Fundamentals of Multimedia. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Oct. 2003. [21] N. M. Nasrabadi and R. King, “Image coding using vector quantization: A review,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 957–971, Aug. 1988. [22] C. H. LEE, L. H. CHEN, “Fast Codeword Search Algorithm for Vector Quantization”, IEE Proceedings Image Signal Processing Vol 141, No. 3 June 1994. [23] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul, ”Color Image Segmentation using Kekre‟s Fast Codebook Generation Algorithm Based on Energy Ordering Concept”, ACM International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication and Control (ICAC3-2009), pp.: 357-362, 23-24 Jan 2009, Fr. Conceicao Rodrigous College of Engg., Mumbai. Available on ACM portal. [24] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul, “Color Image Segmentation using Kekre‟s Algorithm for Vector Quantization”, International Journal of Computer Science (IJCS), Vol. 3, No. 4, pp.: 287-292, Fall 2008. Available: http://www.waset.org/ijcs. [25] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul, “Color Image Segmentation using Vector Quantization Techniques Based on Energy Ordering Concept” International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies (IJCSCT) Volume 1, Issue 2, pp: 164-171, January 2009. [26] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul, “Color Image Segmentation Using Vector Quantization Techniques”, Advances in Engineering Science Sect. C (3), pp.: 35-42, July-September 2008. [27] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “Speech Data Compression using Vector Quantization”, WASET International Journal of Computer and Information Science and Engineering (IJCISE), vol. 2, No. 4, pp.: 251-254, Fall 2008. available: http://www.waset.org/ijcise. [28] H. B. Kekre, Ms. Tanuja K. Sarode, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Image Retrieval using Color-Texture Features from DCT on VQ Codevectors obtained by Kekre‟s Fast Codebook Generation”, ICGST-International Journal on Graphics, Vision and Image Processing (GVIP), Volume 9, Issue 5, pp.: 1-8, September 2009. Available online at http://www.icgst.com/gvip/Volume9/Issue5/P1150921752.html. [29] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja Sarode, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Color-Texture Feature based Image Retrieval using DCT applied on Kekre‟s Median Codebook”, International Journal on Imaging (IJI), Volume 2, Number A09, Autumn 2009,pp. 55-65. Available online at www.ceser.res.in/iji.html (ISSN: 0974-0627). [30] H. B. Kekre, Kamal Shah, Tanuja K. Sarode, Sudeep D. Thepade, ”Performance Comparison of Vector Quantization Technique – KFCG with LBG, Existing Transforms and PCA for Face Recognition”, International Journal of Information Retrieval (IJIR), Vol. 02, Issue 1, pp.: 64-71, 2009. [31] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “2-level Vector Quantization Method for Codebook Design using Kekre‟s Median Codebook Generation Algorithm”, Advances in Computational Sciences and Technology (ACST), ISSN 0973-6107, Volume 2 Number 2, 2009, pp. 167–178. Available online at. http://www.ripublication.com/Volume/acstv2n2.htm. [32] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “Multilevel Vector Quantization Method for Codebook Generation”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Industrial Applications (IJERIA), Volume 2, No. V, 2009, ISSN 0974-1518, pp.: 217-235. Available online at. http://www.ascentjournals.com/ijeria_contents_Vol2No5.htm. [33] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode “Vector Quantized Codebook Optimization using K-Means”, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE) Vol.1, No. 3, 2009, pp.: 283-290, Available online at: http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/abstracted.php?level=4&id_is sue=839392. [34] H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “Bi-level Vector Quantization Method for Codebook Generation”, Second International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technlogy, at

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G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur on 16-18 December 2009, this paper will be uploaded online at IEEE Xplore. of ISTE and also a member of International Association of Engineers (IAENG). Her area of interest is Image Processing, Signal Processing and Computer Graphics. She has about 30 papers in National /International Conferences/Journals to her credit. Tanuja K. Sarode has Received Bsc.(Mathematics) from Mumbai University in 1996, Bsc.Tech.(Computer Technology) from Mumbai University in 1999, M.E. (Computer Engineering) from Mumbai University in 2004, currently Pursuing Ph.D. from Mukesh Patel School of Technology, Management and Engineering, SVKM‟s NMIMS University, Vile-Parle (W), Mumbai, INDIA. She has more than 10 years of experience in teaching. Currently working as Assistant Professor in Dept. of Computer Engineering at Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Mumbai. She is life member of IETE, member International Association of Engineers (IAENG) and International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT), Singapore. Her areas of interest are Image Processing, Signal Processing and Computer Graphics. She has 60 papers in National /International Conferences/journal to her credit. Kalpana R. Sagvekar has received B.E.(Computer) degree from Mumbai University with first class in 2001. Currently Perusing M.E. in Computer Engineering from University of Mumbai. She has more than 08 years of experience in teaching. Currently working as Lecturer in Computer Engineering at Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues College of Engineering, Bandra(w), Mumbai. Her areas of interest are Image Processing, Data Structure, Analysis of Algorithms, and Theoretical Computer Science. She has about 2 papers in National /International Conferences/Journals to her credit.

AUTHORS PROFILE Dr. H. B. Kekre has received B.E. (Hons.) in Telecomm. Engineering. from Jabalpur University in 1958, M.Tech (Industrial Electronics) from IIT Bombay in 1960, M.S.Engg. (Electrical Engg.) from University of Ottawa in 1965 and Ph.D. (System Identification) from IIT Bombay in 1970 He has worked as Faculty of Electrical Engg. and then HOD Computer Science and Engg. at IIT Bombay. For 13 years he was working as a professor and head in the Department of Computer Engg. at Thadomal Shahani Engineering. College, Mumbai. Now he is Senior Professor at MPSTME, SVKM‟s NMIMS University. He has guided 17 Ph.Ds, more than 100 M.E./M.Tech and several B.E./ B.Tech projects. His areas of interest are Digital Signal processing, Image Processing and Computer Networking. He has more than 250 papers in National / International Conferences and Journals to his credit. He was Senior Member of IEEE. Presently He is Fellow of IETE and Life Member of ISTE Recently six students working under his guidance have received best paper awards. Currently 10 research scholars are pursuing Ph.D. program under his guidance. Ms. Archana A. Athawale has Received B.E.(Computer Engineering) degree from Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, Shivaji University in 1996, M.E.(Computer Engineering) degree from V.J.T.I., Mumbai University in 1999, currently pursuing Ph.D. from NMIMS University, Mumbai. She has more than 10 years of experience in teaching. Presently working as - an Assistant Professor in Department of Computer Engineering at Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Mumbai. She is a Life member

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by ijcsis

In traditional VQ - data hiding schemes secret data is hidden inside index based cover image resulting in limited embedding capacity. To improve the embedding capacity as well as to have minimum di...

In traditional VQ - data hiding schemes secret data is hidden inside index based cover image resulting in limited embedding capacity. To improve the embedding capacity as well as to have minimum distortion to carrier media, we have proposed one novel method of hiding secret data into the codebook. In this paper we have used four different algorithms Linde Buzo and Gray (LBG), Kekre’s Proportionate Error (KPE), Kekre’s Median Codebook Generation algorithm (KMCG) and Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation Algorithm (KFCG) to prepare codebooks. It is observed that KFCG gives minimum distortion.

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