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2, 2010

**Ultra Fast Computing Using Photonic Crystal Based Logic Gates
**

X.Susan Christina Dept. of ECE Mookambigai College of Engg. Trichy- 622 502, India. fab_jesu@yahoo.co.in A.P.Kapilan Dept. of ECE P. Elizabeth Caroline Dept. of ECE JJ College of Engg &Tech, Trichy –620 009,India. becaroline05@yahoo.com

**Chettinad College of Engg & Tech
**

Karur,. 639114. India. apkabilan@yahoo.co.in

Abstract— A Novel design of all-optical fundamental NAND and XNOR logic gates based on two dimensional photonic crystals has been presented in this paper. In a photonic crystal self collimated beams are partially transmitted and partially reflected with a phase lag at line defect in Γ-X direction. By employing a appropriate phase shifter, the reflected and transmitted input beams are interfered constructively or destructively to obtain the required logic outputs. The operation of the logic gates is simulated using two dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Keywords-optical computing; logic gated; photonic crystal; self collimated beam; FDTD

Photonic Crystals (PC) are produced by artificially imparting periodic change of the refractive index of a structure which has a band gap that prevents propagation of certain frequency range of light. But the propagation of light inside the PC can be controlled by different propagation mechanisms such as negative refraction, super prism and self collimated beam propagation. When non linear effect is applied to the photonic crystal it requires high intensity incident light for its propagation and the balance between diffraction and focusing easily collapses due to the absorption. In self-collimating effect, the collimated light beam insensitive to the divergence of the incident beam without applying a nonlinear effect [11]. In this paper we propose NAND and XNOR gates realization. The paper is organized as follows, In Section II, photonic crystal theory is described. In Section III, structural and numerical analysis is explained. Section IV presents the proposed scheme of logic gates. Results and related discussions are presented in section V. Finally, conclusions are summarized in section VI. II. PHOTONIC CRYSTAL THEORY

I.

INTRODUCTION

The demand for bandwidth in worldwide networks continues to increase due to growing internet usage and high bandwidth applications. Optical computing is one of promising technique to meet all the necessary requirements such as high speed, high speed, supporting high data rate and ultra fast performance [1,2]. All optical logic gates are the key element in next generation optical computing and in networking to perform optical signal processing such as binary addition, header reorganization, parity checking, optical bit pattern recognition addressing, demultiplexing, regenerating and switching. In order to realize the gates, various configurations have been reported that utilize the nonlinear properties of the optics. All-optical gates reported in the literature [3-8] could be achieved with a semiconductor laser amplifier loop mirror (SLALOM), a semiconductor optical amplifier- (SOA-) based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI), a SOA based ultra fast nonlinear interferometer (UNI), cross-polarization modulation, and four-wave mixing (FWM) in SOAs, SOA with Optical filter, Periodically Poled Lithium Noibate (PPLN) waveguide . These schemes suffered from certain fundamental limitations such as spontaneous emission noise, power consumption and size. In recent years, optical waveguide element employing photonic crystals have been received lot of attention because of their dimension, low loss structure of less than 2 dB/cm [9] and high speed with data rate of 120 GB/s [10]. Normally

Photonic crystals (PC) are composed of periodic dielectric materials. In PC, for some frequency ranges the light waves are not propagating through the structure such frequency range is called forbidden gap photons. The doping of impurity or creating defects will allow a perfect control of light propagation and radiation. Introducing line defects in PC results in a photonic crystal waveguide. Line defects can be formed in photonic crystal either by reducing the radii of PC rods or by eliminating them partially. When the self-collimated beam is incident at the line defect the beam is splitted [12, 13]. It is evident that there is a phase difference between the transmitted and the reflected beams. If the rod radii of the line defect are smaller than that of the host rod radii, the reflected wave lag the transmitting wave by π/2 else the phase difference is - π/2 [14]. If another self- collimated beam with appropriate phase is launched, the reflected and transmitted beams may interfere constructively or destructively. This phenomenon is used to realize logic gates functions.

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III.

STRUCTURAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010

IV.

PROPOSED SCHEME OF LOGIC GATES

To realize the operation of the all optical logic gates, a 2D square lattice PC composed of silicon dielectric rods in air is considered. The size of the PC is 6.4 x 6.4 μm. The refractive index of the silicon rod is 3.5. The radius and the dielectric constant of rods are ‘r’ =0.35a and ‘ε’ = 12.0 respectively [12], where ‘a’ is the lattice constant and its value is 0.365 µm. The line defect is formed by reducing the silicon rod radii = 0.274a of 15 rods aligned in the Γ-X direction. Self collimation phenomena occurs when lights of frequencies around f = 0.194 c/a [12] where ‘c’ is the speed of light in free space propagate along the direction of Γ-M. Fig 1 shows the schematic diagram of the Photonic crystal. In this structure there are four faces, two of them are consider as input and remaining two are as output.

A. Schematic of XNOR Gate Logic gates function can be realized by introducing a certain phase difference between the input beams. To realize XNOR gate along with two input beams, the third reference input beam is also incident on the PC. The inputs I1 and I2 are launched at the input face 1 and the third reference beam is applied to the input face 2. The optical phase shifter is connected at the reference input to obtain appropriate phase shift. The phase difference between the inputs I1 and I2 are zero i.e. φ1- φ2= 0 and the phase difference between inputs and the reference input φ1- φ3 is set as π/2. The XNOR output is taken from the output face 2.

Figure 3. Schematic of XNOR gate.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of photonic crystal.

B. Schematic of NAND Gate The gate NAND can be realized by applying the input beams I1 and I2 on input face 1 and the reference beam is launched at input face 2. The inputs powers consider in this case are half of the reference input power. The phase difference between the inputs I1 and I2 is zero i.e. φ1- φ2= 0 and the phase difference between inputs and the reference input φ1- φ3 set as π/2. The NAND output is taken from the output face 2.

To analysis photonic crystal, FDTD with perfectly matched layer boundary condition method is used in this paper. It solves Maxwell's equations by first discretizing the equations via central differences in time and space and then numerically solving these equations. Since the whole calculation region is divided into very small uniform cells, the accuracy of this technique can be improved. Photonic wave guides are very small due to the frequency of light. It is both expensive and complicated to construct these. Therefore FDTD simulation is a great interest to analysis. Fig. 2 depicts the band diagram of the PC using FDTD simulation.

Figure 4. Schematic of NAND gate.

V.

Figure 2. Band diagram of photonic crystal.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

In the XNOR gate when two input beams and the reference input with the phase difference π/2 are introduced, the output light will be at the face O2. If only one input with reference input is applied, there is no output at the face O2. Table 1 gives

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the functions of the XNOR gate and Fig. 5 shows the field distributions of TE mode for various input combinations.

TABLE I. Signal Descriptions Input signal (I1) Input signal (I2) Control signal (I3) Output O2 FUNCTIONS OF XNOR GATE XNOR for φ1- φ2= 0 & φ1- φ3= π/2 and the input powers I1=I2= I3 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010

various input combinations are shown in Fig. 6 and Table 2 gives the functions of the NAND gate.

TABLE II. Signal Descriptions Input signal (I1) Input signal (I2) Control signal (I3) Output O2 FUNCTIONS OF NAND GATE NAND gate for φ1- φ2 =0 & φ1- φ3 =π/2 and the input powers I1/2=I2/2= I3 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0

Figure 5a) Simulated field distribution when both inputs are high.

Figure 6a) Simulated field distribution when both inputs are high.

Figure 5b) Simulated field distribution when one of the input is high.

Figure 6b) Simulated field distribution when one of the input is high.

VI.

CONCLUSION

Figure 5c) Simulated field distribution when both inputs are low.

In the NAND gate when two input beams whose powers are half of the reference input power is introduced, no output signal is from the face O2. If only one input with reference input or only reference input is applied, there is an output signal in the face O2. The TE mode field distributions for

The design of novel all-optical logic gates consisting of phase shifter and photonic crystal with a line defect in the Γ-X direction is proposed. The self-collimated optical beams are applied at a line defect of the photonic crystal that are partially transmitted and reflected with a phase lag. If the intensities of the input beams are chosen in appropriate proportions and opposite phase difference between the input signals, the overlapping of transmitted and reflected beams interfere either constructively or destructively giving a logic output. Based on these phenomena the XNOR and NAND gates functions are realized. The steady state field distributions at different input states are obtained by FDTD simulation. The results indicate that photonic crystals are potential candidature for optical digital integrated circuits which are used for optical computing.

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REFERENCES

[1]

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010

J.M. Martinez,J.Herrera, F.Ramos and J. Marti, “ All-Optical Address Recognition Scheme for Label-Swapping Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 18, no.1, pp. 151-153,2006. [2] T.Fujiswa and M. Koshiba, “Finite-Element Modelling of non linear Mach-Zehnder interferometers based on photonic crystal wave guides for All-Optical signal Processing,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, no. 1pp. 617-623, 2006. [3] A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, and R. J. Manning, “All optical full adder with Bit-differential delay,” Opt.Commun., vol.156, pp.22-26, 1998. [4] A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, and R. J. Manning, “All optical parity checker with bit-differential delay,”Opt. Commun., vol.162, pp.37-43, 1999. [5] H. Avramopoulos, “Optical TDM devices and their applications,” Optical Fiber Communication, vol. 54, 2001. [6] H. Soto, C. A. Díaz, J. Topomondzo, D. Erasme, L. Schares and G. Guekos, “All-Optical AND gate implementation using cross polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,vol. 14, pp.498-500, 2002. [7] D. Nesset, M. C. Tatham, and D. Cotter, “All Optical gate operating 10 Gbits/s signals at the same wavelength using four-wave mixing in a semiconductor laser amplifier”, Electronics Letters, vol.31, no. 31, pp.896-897, 1995. [8] J.Wang, J.Sun and Q.Sun “PPLN based Flexible Optical Logic AND gate,” IEEE Photon Tech Lett. vol. 20, pp. 211-213, 2008. [9] E. Kuromochi, M. Notomi, S.Hughes et al, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of the line defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev.B, vol.72, 161318(R), 2005. [10] Parisa Andalip and Nosratollah Granpayeh, “All-Optical ultra-compact photonic crystal AND based on nonlinear ring resonators,” Journal of Opticla Society of America B, vol.26, no.1,pp. 10-16, 2009. [11] H.Kosaka, T.Kawashima, A.Tomita, M.Notomi, T.Tamamura, T.sato and S.Kawakami, “Self-collimatin phenomena in photonic crystal’, Appl.Phys.Lett.,vol.74, pp.1212-1214, 1999. [12] X. Yu and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters for self-collimated beams in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, 3pp. 251-3253, 2003.

[13] S.G.Lee, S.S.Oh, J.E.Kim, H.Y.Park and C.S.Kee, “Line-defectinduced bending and splitting of self-collimated beams in twodimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 87, 181106-3, 2005. [14] D. D. Zhao, J. Zhang, P. Yao, X. Jiang, and X. Chen,“ Photonic crystal Mach - Zehnder interferometer based on self-collimation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.90, 231114-1, 2007. AUTHORS PROFILE X. Susan Christina pursuing her Doctorate in Optical Computing at Anna University, Trichy, India. She has 13 years of teaching experience. She has been working as a Professor and Head of the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering at Anna University, Trichy. Her research interests in the area of digital signal processing, optical signal processing and optical computing. She has published fifteen papers in National, International conferences proceedings and Journals. She is a life member of ISTE. Dr. A.P. Kabilan has a Doctorate in Microwave Engineering from Patrice Lumumba University, Moscow, Russia and has 25 years of experience in teaching and research. He is a dynamic academician with 26 international publications and eight national ones. He worked as a Professor and Head of the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering at Anna University, Coimbatore for the past ten years. At present, he is the Principal of Chettinadu College of Engineering and Technology, Karur, and Tamil Nadu India. He is an active member of IEEE and a life member of ISTE. He has a strong background in microwave, optical and antenna engineering. P. Elizabeth Caroline is pursuing her Doctorate in Optical Signal Processing at Anna University, India. She has 16 years of teaching experience. She has been working as a Professor and Head of the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering at Anna University, Trichy. She has a strong background in signal processing and optical computing. She has presented papers in international IEEE conferences and national conferences. She is an active member of IEEE and a life member of ISTE.

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